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BIender 3D: Noob to Pro - M¡sceIIaneous
Tutor¡aIslPr¡nt vers¡on
Irom WIkIbooks, the open-content textbooks coIIectIon
TabIe of Contents
M¡sceIIaneous Tutor¡aIs
3Ð TIIInq Ðackqrounds Ior The Web
AII ÐIender TutorIaI IInks
AII ÐIueprInts IInks
CooI thInqs that aren't that obvIous
Ways to create "IIuIIy" eIIect (materIaIs and IIqhts)
TroubIeshootInq
GeneraI AdvIce on ModeIInq ÐeaIIstIcaIIy
!sInq ÐIender IIbrarIes
CreatInq ÐIender IIbrarIes
ÐIspIacement MappInq
Iuman Ðody
ÐenderInq ¡nIormatIons
MakInq Iandscapes wIth heIqhtmaps
ModeIInq a Muq usInq SpInnInq and £xtrusIon
Add some depth wIth stereo
CreatInq anImated G¡Is usInq ÐIender and GImp
CreatInq Oqq-Theora movIes usInq ÐIender
SoIt Ðody wIth wInd
M¡sceIIaneous Tutor¡aIs
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs
3Ð TIIInq Ðackqrounds Ior The Web
How to Make 3D T¡I¡ng Backgrounds For The Web
ThIs tutorIaI wIII quIde you throuqh the process oI makInq 3Ð tIIInq backrounds Ior use wIth web
paqes, your desktop, or anythInq eIse Ior that matter. We wIII be usInq ÐIender and a qraphIc edItInq
proqram such as Adobe Ihotoshop or G¡MI. ¡ wIII provIde detaIIed expIanatIon to cator to
beqInners, however more experIenced ÐIenderIsts can probabIy qet away wIth just IoIIowInq the
pIcture dIaqrams provIded. You may aIso IInd the dIaqrams useIuI II £nqIIsh Is not your natIve
Ianquaqe, or II you hate readInq InstructIons.
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Part 1: Create The Ob]ect You W¡sh To T¡Ie
Start up ÐIender and Iook at your IoneIy cube. We wIII use thIs cube as a startInq poInt Ior the sake
oI demonstratIon, but IeeI Iree to use any shape you IIke. Iress "Tab" to enter Ed¡t Mode. Iress the
"E" key on your keyboard and the Extrude menu wIII appear. SeIect "¡nd¡v¡duaI Faces". As you
then draq your mouse cursor you wIII see some numbers move In the bottom IeIt In the wIndow and
text sayInq "ShrInk/Iatten". ¡ recommend settInq It to 1.0000 to keep It sImpIe. IoId down the "CtrI"
key whIIe draqqInq to do so In set Increments.
Þext, wIth the sIx Iaces oI the cube stIII seIected, press the "S" key to scaIe those Iaces. ¡ recommend
scaIInq to 0.8000.
Good. Þow that we have created our object we wIII prepare to tIIe It.
Part 2: Spec¡fy Your T¡I¡ng Area
"Tab" back Into Ob]ect Mode and press "NumPad 7" to qo to the Top VIew, or manuaIIy cIIck
"V¡ew" at the bottom oI the wIndow and seIect "Top".
Iress "spacebar" and Irom the menu that appears seIect "Add" > "Mesh" > "PIane". The pIane
has appeared, but Is obstructed by our cube object, so press "S" to scaIe the pIane to 5.0000.
You'II notIce that ¡'ve coIored my pIane bIack. ThIs Is onIy to make It easIer Ior you to see. You need
not bother wIth thIs as we wIII be deIetInq the Iace oI thIs pIane shortIy.
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We now have an easIIy vIsIbIe boundary representInq the area whIch wIII be tIIed. ¡I at any poInt we
decIde we no Ionqer need or want thIs we can move It to another Iayer by pressInq "M" and seIectInq
a Iayer to move It to.
Part 3: T¡Ie AwayI
Þow the Iun part beqIns. ¡I you have created 2Ð tIIInq backqrounds beIore, thIs concept wIII be very
IamIIIar to you.
WhIIe In Ob]ect Mode, seIect your cube object. At thIs poInt you have a coupIe oI optIons. One Is to
make dupIIcates oI the cube object. Another Is to make dupIIcates oI the cube object. ¡
recommend makInq IInked dupIIcates because you can Iater edIt the mesh oI one object In order to
chanqe the mesh oI aII the dupIIcated objects. ThIs can be especIaIIy useIuI II you Iater pIan to
anImate your tIIInq backqround (ccrejul not to distrcct jrom the joreground). ¡t Is aIso useIuI II you
want to experIment wIth new desIqns easIIy wIthout havInq to re-pIace aII your objects.
WIth your cube object stIII seIected, press "AIt+D" to make a IInked dupIIcate. (Non-linked
duplicction is done with "Shijt+D") Þow hoId down "CtrI" to move In set Increments and move the
object to one oI the corners oI our pIane. Make sure the center oI the object (represented by a pInk
dot) Is aIIqned wIth the very corner oI the pIane. At thIs poInt you may notIce It's somewhat dIIIIcuIt
to teII whether the center oI the object Is exactIy on the corner oI the pIane, and that's why we are
qoInq to press "NumPad 5" or cIIck "V¡ew" and seIect "Orthograph¡c". Ior aII practIcaI purposes
we can spend the rest oI the tIme we are buIIdInq the tIIInq pattern In OrthoqraphIc VIew because
thIs vIew Is essentIaI Ior tIIInq.
Þow wIth your dupIIcate object stIII seIected, scaIe It ("S" key) so that Is somewhat smaIIer than the
IIrst. Then rotate It usInq the "H" key. WhIIe rotatInq you can constraIn to a partIcuIar axIs by typInq
"X", "Y", or "Z" respectIveIy.
We wIII now make IInked dupIIcates (AIt+D) oI our rotated and scaIed cube object and pIace one In
each corner exactIy on the qrId (remember to hoId "CtrI" whIIe draqqInq). ¡I you pIace an object In
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one corner, you must pIace It In aII Iour corners because corners touch both the X axIs and the Y
axIs.
Þow as you wIII notIce In the IoIIowInq dIaqram, ¡ made an object that Is crossInq over the edqe oI
our pIane. ThIs Is qood. ThIs Is how to make naturaI tIIInq backqrounds. Iowever! Whenever we do
thIs we must be absoIuteIy certaIn to do the same on the opposIte sIde, or eIse our backqrounds wIII
not tIIe properIy.
So now we've created a Iew objects oI dIIIerent sIzes and orIentatIons, however they have aII been
aIonq the same spot on the Z axIs. So Iet's qIve our pattern some depth - aIter aII, that Is the joy oI
workInq In 3Ð!
ÐeIore we do thIs, we'II want to qet our quIde pIane out oI the way. So r¡ght cI¡ck on the pIane to
seIect It, then "Tab" Into Ed¡t Mode. Iress "X" and Irom the Erase menu choose "OnIy Faces".
Þow "Tab" back Into Ob]ect Mode. There! We now have onIy the seqments oI the pIane as our
quIde.
IoId down the m¡ddIe mouse button whIIe draqqInq the mouse to see what our desIqn Iooks IIke
In three dImensIons. Þow rIqht cIIck one oI the cube objects, dupIIcate a IInked copy (AIt+D), and
press "Z" to constraIn movement to the Z axIs.
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ÞavIqate In thIs way aIonq the X and Y axIs as weII and once you've Iound a qood spot, scaIe and
rotate. Ðemember to make a dupIIcate on the opposIte sIde whenever you cross the outIIne oI the
pIane quIde. You can qo on IIke thIs and popuIate your tIIInq pattern wIth as many objects as you
wIsh. The qrId Is your IrIend durInq thIs process, so you shouId aIways have your IInqer on "CtrI"
whIIe movInq the dupIIcate oI an object that crosses a border oI the quIde pIane. AIso, any object
that wIII "tIIe" across the border must be at the same poInt on the Z axIs as Its counterpart on the
other sIde oI the seam. Iress "NumPad 7" perIodIcaIIy to see where you are Irom a 2Ð standpoInt.
ThIs Is the vIew Irom whIch we wIII eventuaIIy render the Imaqe, so thIs perspectIve Is the one that
counts. ÐeqInners, remember that mouse wheeI zooms In and out, and "Sh¡ft+m¡ddIe mouse
button" aIIows you to "draq" your way around.
Keep In mInd that In Orthograph¡c V¡ew we do not perceIve the depth oI objects. Those Iar away
and those near by appear to be at the same dIstance. ThIs Is what aIIows us to make a tIIed Imaqe,
but It aIso IImIts the apparent depth oI the scene. We can compensate Ior thIs by scaIInq down the
objects we want to appear Iurther away. Or, as In thIs exampIe, we can just make each object a
dIIIerent sIze and pIace some In Iront oI others.
Part 4: Camera Sett¡ngs
We wIII now posItIon the camera dIrectIy over our cIuster oI objects. Iress "NumPad 7", center the
vIew on the cIuster usInq "Sh¡ft+m¡ddIe mouse button", and zoom out a coupIe notches wIth the
mouse wheeI. Irom the 3D V¡ew W¡ndow's menu, cIIck "V¡ew" > "AI¡gn V¡ew" > "AI¡gn Act¡ve
Camera to V¡ew". Þow you may be wonderInq why everythInq appears to be dIstorted. ThIs Is
because when we chanqed to the camera's perspectIve, the vIew automatIcaIIy reverted to
Perspect¡ve V¡ew because by deIauIt the camera Is set to that vIew. Ðut just as we chanqed to
Orthograph¡c V¡ew In the 3Ð VIew WIndow, we can chanqe the vIew oI the camera as weII. WhIIe In
Ob]ect Mode, swIveI the vIew untII you see the camera. ¡t Is represented by a pyramIdaI wIreIrame
wIth a bIack trIanqIe atop the openInq. H¡ght cI¡ck to seIect It. Þow press "F9" or cIIck the Ed¡t¡ng
button (It's Icon Is Iour vertIces joIned In a square). Þow In the Camera paneI you wIII see a button
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IabeIIed "Orthograph¡c". Iress It. Above the button Is a vaIue IabeIIed ScaIe. Set It to around 20.
(See IIqure beIow)
Part 5: ¡¡ght¡ng & Mater¡aIs
IIace some IIqhts In your scene, and add some materIaIs to your objects. ¡¡ght¡ng and mater¡aIs
are subjects whIch demand theIr own tutorIaIs, so II you don't know how to do these thInqs yet,
pIease consuIt the WIkI.
Note: ¡ advIse IIqhtInq your scene pretty evenIy In order to make the tIIInq seem contIquous.
Part 6: Hender¡ng
Þow that you've presumabIy qot your IIqhtInq and materIaIs as you want them, It's tIme to render the
scene. !nder 1ser Preferences cIIck "Hender" > "Hender Sett¡ngs" or just press "F10". ¡n the
Format tab you can choose the dImensIons oI your rendered Imaqe, the IIIe Iormat you preIer, and
the quaIIty. ¡'m qoInq wIth 800x600 at 100% quaIIty.
Part 7: 'Shopp¡ng
And It's tIme to beqIn post-productIon. Open your rendered Imaqe In your preIerred Imaqe edItor. ¡
wIII be usInq Ihotoshop In thIs exampIe. Þow IInd and mark the Iour corners oI your tIIe (on a new
Iayer oI course). just eyebaII It.
We wIII use quIdes to mark the tIIe boundarIes. ¡n Ihotoshop quIdes can be Inserted by seIectInq
"V¡ew" > "New Gu¡de...". GuIdes can be posItIoned wIth the Move TooI. You can zoom In and
make sure your quIdes are accurateIy posItIoned by hoIdInq "CtrI" whIIe typInq "+" or "-". You can
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now hIde or deIete the Iayer wIth the markers, as that was onIy to heIp us qet accurate quIdes.
ShouId you decIde to make an anImated tIIInq backqround ¡ recommend IayerInq aII your Irames on
top oI one another In your Imaqe edItor beIore edItInq In order to keep the posItIon unIIorm. You can
then anImate them usInq Adobe ¡maqeÐeady (comes wIth Ihotoshop) or IInd decent Iow-budqet and
occasIonaIIy Iree G¡I anImatIon proqrams onIIne.
Þow seIect an area just outside oI the quIdes wIth the Marquee TooI. Make sure "Feather" Is set
to 0px and that the marquee Is rectanquIar and StyIe Is set to NormaI (meanInq no IIxed Aspect
ÐatIo or IIxed SIze). AIso, It wIII heIp you to have Snap enabIed, so qo to "V¡ew" and make sure It Is
enabIed Ior quIdes.
Once you have seIected the area, copy (CtrI+C) and paste (CtrI+V). Then draq to the rIqht usInq
the Move TooI and that pIece shouId snap to the InsIde oI the rIqhtmost vertIcaI quIde.
SeIect the £raser TooI and choose a brush sIze. ¡'m qoInq wIth a dIameter oI 65. You'II want to use a
soIt qradIent-IIke brush Ior thIs. Þow erase the IeIt edqe oI the newIy pasted seIectIon so that It
bIends Into the pIcture. Ðon't erase any oI the rIqht edqe.
Iress "CtrI+E" or aIternatIveIy, seIect "¡ayer" > "Merge Down".
AIrIqht, so that procedure you just perIormed copyInq Irom IeIt to rIqht - now do It bottom to top.
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Once aqaIn, erase the edqe. Ðo a Save As.
IInaIIy, seIect the square center area that wIII become your tIIe and do "¡mage" > "Crop".
Þow scaIe your new tIIInq backqround to a web-IrIendIy sIze. Save As a jI£G, G¡I, or IÞG. You're
doneI
Note:lj your pcttern still isn't tiling quite perjectly, locd the version with the guides cgcin cnd repect
the copy-pcste-ercse process. Remember to merge down your lcyers ecch time or the corners mcy
not tile correctly. lj still no joy, try tiling the bcckground in c web browser, tcking c screenshot,
pcsting thct into your grcphics editor, cnd touching up jrom there.
Iere Is the IInaI resuIt.
¡ hope thIs has been InIormatIve.
Cheers,
--Ouantum AnomaIy 11.09, 17 March 2007 (!TC) http.//www.quantumanomaIy.com
AII ÐIender TutorIaI IInks Ðack to ÐIender 3Ð
Iere you can IInd useIuI BIender Tutor¡aI ¡¡nks wrItten In £nqIIsh. IeeI Iree to add some cooI
tutorIaIs, but, on thIs paqe, onIy In £nqIIsh. Ior tutorIaIs In other Ianquaqes pIease read About. A
tutorIaI about edItInq these paqes can be Iound here. I made my IIrst startInq menu Þew to the 3Ð
worId? Ðead To Those IearnInq 3Ð (http.//qIenmoyes.com/artIcIes/tothoseIearnInq3d.shtmI) .
Off¡c¡aI BIender Documentat¡on
AImost aII ManuaIs can be Iound In the Iatest oIIIcIaI BIender ManuaI Books. Ior addItIonaI
tutorIaIs Iook beIow thIs topIc.
ÐIender MedIaWIkI (http.//medIawIkI.bIender.orq/Index.php/MaInIaqe) * exposed
ÐocumentatIon at ÐIender3Ð.orq (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/ÐocumentatIon.628.0.htmI)
¡nterface
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!ser ¡nterIace
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/medIa/educatIon/quIckstart/ÐIender!ser¡nterIace.htmI)
ÐIender ¡nterIace Theme ÐeposItory (http.//www.IrontIernet.net/-krIch/themes/)
ÐasIc £dItInq (http.//www.ee.ouIu.II/-kapu/cqcourse/bIqIIIes/bIender/bIendman.htmI)
ÐIender Iotkeys
ÐIender Iotkeys ¡¡ (http.//bIender.exceIIentwhaIe.com/)
ÞavIqatInq In 3Ð Space
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/medIa/educatIon/quIckstart/ÞavIqatInq3ÐSpace.htmI)
Iroduct IresentatIon
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/£ducatIon/IndexoId.php?sub=TutorIaIIresentatIon) (Ðroken IInk)
A short overvIew oI IunctIonaIIty
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/medIa/educatIon/quIckstart/ÐIenderWIndows.htmI) (Ðroken IInk)
ÐasIc ÐIender (http.//www.pIanetannIhIIatIon.com/terraqen/tutbasIc.shtmI)
ÐotatIon, ScaIInq and Iayers TutorIaI
(http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut-path.php?moduIe=rotatIon)
AppendInq Textures (http.//www.b5-bIender.com/tutorIaI4.htmI)
ÐasIc ÐIender (http.//www.b5-bIender.com/tutorIaI1.htmI) (broken IInk)
ÐasIc ¡nterIace
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/beqInnerstutorIaIs/tut1/basIcInterIace.htmI
ÐIender MuItImedIa (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/audIovIdeo-en.htmI)
ChanqInq VIews (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut2/tut2.htm)
IIrst ¡mpressIon (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/premIere.htm)
GettInq Started (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut1/tut1.htm)
ÐemovInq Orphan VertIces
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/reperersommetsorpheIIns/sommetsorphIIIns.htmI)
SeeInq Textures wIth AIt-Z
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/subdIvIserpourconquerIrIatexture/subdIvIserpourconquerIrIatexture.htmI
The Camera (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/camera.htmI) (broken IInk)
StereoscopIc camera Ior edItInq
(http.//brunetton.tuxIamIIy.orq/Index.php?n=£n.ÐIenderStereo)
Mesh ModeI¡ng
ÐupIIVerts TutorIaI (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutdupIIverts.htm)
Iow to soIve ÐIender's smoothInq probIems
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2007/08/13/88-how-to-soIve-bIenders-smoothInq-probIems
. dIscussIon about smoothInq strateqIes. Smooth/SoIId, Auto Smooth, £dqeSpIIt modIIIer...
IeIqhtmaps (http.//members.trIpod.com/-Iunkymunky/tuts/bIender/heIqhtmaps.htm)
Mesh £dItInq TechnIques (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/CorrIdor/CorrIdor.htmI)
Object £xtrusIon and IroceduraI Objects
(http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/mIneÐIde/mInerIde.htmI)
Ioops Corkscrews IrobIem
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/tIrebouchon/tIre-bouchon.htmI)
IoopInqs IrobIem (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/IoopInq/IoopInq.htmI)
Knots In Curves IrobIem (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/ApIat/apIat.htmI)
ZeTooI (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/ZeTooI/zetooI.htmI)
ÐupIIIrames ModeIInq ¡
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/ÐupIIIrames/ModeIInq/modeIInqwIthdupIIIamesen1.htmI
ÐupIIIrames ModeIInq ¡¡
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/ÐupIIIrames/ModeIInq/pIzzaboxes/stackoIboxesen.htmI
ÐupIIIrames (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/ÐupIIIrames/Iesbases/Iesbasesen1.htmI)
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SpIn and SpIn Ðup
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/SpInetspIndup/SpInandspInduptutorIaI.htmI) -
Þeeds a Iot more expIanatIon
AutomatIzed ÐevOb
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/£xtrusIonparbevob/£xt1£xt2/£xt1£xt2en.htmI)
£xtrusIon aIonq a Iath usInq ÐevOb
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/£xtrusIonparbevob/AIIqnementdesaxes/AIIqnementdesaxesen.htmI
Iath £xtrusIon
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/£xtrusIonparbevob/Iesbases/Iesbasesen.htmI)
ÐupIIVerts (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/ÐupIIVerts/ÐupIIverts/dupIIvertsen.htmI)
IImIt ÐupIIVerts
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/ÐupIIVerts/IImIterIesdupIIvertsen.htmI)
Types oI IandIes Ior ÐezIer Curves
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/CourbesdebezIer/TypesdepoIqneesbezIer/TypesdepoIqneesbezIeren.htmI
ÐeveIed Cube (http.//w1.185.teIIa.com/-u18510119/tutorIaIs/makeacube.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
joInInq/SeparatInq Iarts oI a Mesh
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/joIndreetseparer/joIndreetsepareranq.htmI)
£xtrusIon ControIIed by ¡IO
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enmodeIextIpo00.htm)
ÐasIc objects (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut3/tut3.htm)
ModeIIInq TechnIques and StrateqIes (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=21382)
£asIIy Ðemove Orphan £dqes and VertIces
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/modeseIsomparazen.htm)
Þon-destructIve beveI eIIect
(http.//bIendertIps.bIoqspot.com/2006/03/beveI-modIIIer-workaround.htmI)
"Caqe" TechnIque TutorIaI (http.//www.cyphertxt.com/bIendertechnIquetut.php)
CreatInq IIre (http.//www.raIvestudIos.com/tutorIaIs/bIender/IIre/)
Nurbs and Subsurface ModeI¡ng
¡IOs, IattIces, Þurbs S StuII (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutbottIe.htm)
Cross-SectIons (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/Cave/Cave.htmI)
Curve ÐesoIutIon
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/£xtrusIonparbevob/ÐeIÐesoI!/ÐeIÐesoI!en.htmI)
WeIqht Iarameter
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/Courbesnurbs/IoIdsdesvoIsIns/IoIdsdesvoIsInsen.htmI
Order!, !nIIorm! and £ndpoInt!
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/Courbesnurbs/¡nIIuencedeorder/¡nIIuencedeorderen.htmI
Curves -n- ÐeveIs (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/curves%20and%20ÐeveIs.htm)
SubsurI ModeIInq (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/subsurI-e.htmI)
MakInq a IoIe In SubsurI
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/subsurIs/TrouerunesurIace/trouerunesubsurIanq.htmI
SubsurI £dqe ÐoIIInq - Ðound
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/subsurIs/rouIerunbord/rouIerunbordrondanq.htmI)
SubsurI £dqe ÐoIIInq - Square
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/subsurIs/rouIerunbord/rouIerunbordcarreanq.htmI)
ModeIInq wIth IattIces - a Iork (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/documentatIon/htmI¡/x10279.htmI)
SubsurI modeIInq 2 (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut5/tut5.htm)
MetabaIIs (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut6/tut6.htm)
Abstract SubSurI modeIInq ¡ (http.//www.devIantart.com/vIew/26691152/)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
11 de 74 10/09/07 17.20
Spec¡f¡c Ob]ect ModeI¡ng
ÐoubIe-IeIIx (http.//www.devIantart.com/vIew/27132715/)
TurtIe (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=44686)
IeaI Shader TutorIaI (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=39810)
Sears-Ðoebuck ÐaIry Ðarn (http.//www.harkyman.com/searsbarn01.htmI)
GoII ÐaII
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=31781Spostdays=0Spostorder=ascSstart=15
CeItIc Knot (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIceItIcknoten.htm)
SImpIe Tree (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=32306)
MakInq a pedestaI (http.//web.teIIa.com/-u91121962/tut11.htm)
ÐuIIdInq a CastIe (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/medIa/educatIon/quIckstart/ÐuIIdInqCastIe.htmI)
(broken)
¡ce Cube (http.//caron.yann.Iree.Ir/bIender/¡ceCube.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
Water ¡ (http.//www.seIIerI.orq/ÐIender/tuts/Water.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
Water ¡¡ (http.//www.seIIerI.orq/ÐIender/tuts/Water2.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
Space Iod (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutpod.htm)
Grass (http.//IIb.heI.II/-basse/) (IInk moved)
Ðonqo Creature (http.//www.enrIcovaIenza.com/makebonqo.htmI)
SpIraI StaIrs (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut.php?moduIe=staIrs)
Waste Ðasket (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut.php?moduIe=waste)
ÐeveIed Cube (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut.php?moduIe=bevcube)
SImpIe Ðox (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut-path.php?moduIe=box1)
IountaIn wIth MovInq Water
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut5/IountaIn.htmI)
Track CreatIon (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/swdouqhty/bIendertute1.htmI) (dead IInk)
ÐoIphIn (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/ÐoIphIn/!nderWater.htmI)
ÐIce (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/ÐIe/dIce.htmI)
Ioqo (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/IoqoTut/IoqoTut.htmI)
CuttInq throuqh steeI (http.//vrotvrot.com/xoom/tutorIaIs/WeIder/WeIder.htmI)
ÐoIIer Coaster (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/compIeteÐC/Ioreworden.htmI)
ÐoIIer Coster Cobra (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/Courbes/Cobra/cobra.htmI)
ModeIIInq a GIass
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/tp1-Index-anq.htmI
Ocean VIew (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/create%20ocean%20vIew.htm)
SoIar Systems Ior beqInners (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/SoIar%20System.htm)
ChaIr (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/objetsapartaqer/asImpIechaIr.htmI)
SpIraI StaIr (http.//w1.185.teIIa.com/-u18510119/tutorIaIs/spIraIstaIr.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
IIqhthouse (http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut1/IIqhthouse.htmI)
Iandscape
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/dIdactIcIeI-anq.htmI)
Iandscapes £asy
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut2/Iandscape.htmI)
CIoth TutorIaI (http.//www.Iree-webspace.bIz/sonIx/ÐIenderTutes/OuIckCIothTute.htmI)
Cup (http.//kahuna.cIayton.edu/-jbrooks/bIender/tutorIaIs/cup/)
CoIa cane (http.//Iree.hostdepartment.com/Ð/ÐIender3Ð/cantut/)
CandIe
(http.//downIoad.bIender.orq/documentatIon/oIdsIte/oIdsIte.bIender3d.orq/93ÐIender%20tutorIaI%20CandIe.htmI
VoIcano (http.//kahuna.cIayton.edu/-jbrooks/bIender/tutorIaIs/voIcano/)
OrbItaI Ioqo (http.//kahuna.cIayton.edu/-jbrooks/bIender/tutorIaIs/unIversaI/)
ÐeaIIstIc IIanet (http.//www.enrIcovaIenza.com/reaIpIan.htmI)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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Iandscape Cartoon (http.//www.seIIerI.orq/ÐIender/tuts/CartoonIshIandscape.pdI) (pdj
tutoricl)
Text (http.//bIender3dIr.Iree.Ir/anqIaIs/tut4/tut4.htm)
Text Iart 1. ManIpuIate Text (http.//www.raIvestudIos.com/tutorIaIs/bIender/text/)
Human
Iead ModeIInq
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/head-subsurI/Index-anq.htmI
Iead ModeIInq S TexturInq TutorIaI
(http.//kotInettI.suomI.net/Isware/hIppIe/tutorIaI1/Index.php)
Iead (http.//www.vIsIontovIsIon.com/ÐIenderIead1.htmI) (link broken)(Fcrt 1 oj 12-pcrt Flcsh
Tutoricl)
Iand IaIm (http.//jIp.nerIm.net/tutorIaIs/hands-modeIIInq/hands-tuto-01.htmI)
Make Iuman. ModeIInq a Þew Tarqet
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/04/11/23-dIdactIcIeI-modeIIsatIon-dun-nouveau-tarqet---modeIInq-a-new-tarqet
£yes (http.//web.pdx.edu/-wII/tut.htmI)
IaIr TutorIaI (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=16008)
ÐeaI IaIr wIth ÐIender 3Ð (http.//www.prodIqyweb.net.mx/nIveI9/haIr/reaIIaIr.htmI) (dead IInk)
IemaIe Character (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/Iemme/Iemme.htm) (dead IInk)
TexturInq SkIn usInq Vertex IaIntInq and ÐepeatInq ¡maqe Textures
(http.//paqes.zoom.co.uk/nIck.towers/tutorIaIs/skIntutorIaI/skIntutorIaI.htmI)
WIkIpedIa. Iuman Ðody IroportIons (http.//en.wIkIpedIa.orq/wIkI/ÐodyproportIons)
Cars
Iorsche 550 (http.//perso.wanadoo.Ir/speedtItI/tutorIeIs.htm) * exposed
Car ¡V smaII (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/VoIture/voIture.htm) (dead IInk)
Car V I1 (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/I1/I1.htm) (dead IInk)
CreatInq a Toon Car (http.//www.raIvestudIos.com/tutorIaIs/bIender/tooncar/)
Texture Mapp¡ng
MakInq a IIqhtsaber wIth IaIos (IInk repaIred!)
(http.//bIenderartIsts.orq/Iorum/showthread.php?t=62611)
The !noIIIcIaI TexturInq TutorIaI (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=11889)
MaterIaI ¡ndIce TutorIaI
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2004/12/21/5-bIender-IndIces-materIau---materIaI-IndIce
Ðaytraced Transparency and ÐeIractIon
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2004/12/26/7-dIdactIcIeI-Ia-reIractIon---tutorIaI-reIractIon
Chrome and ShIny MetaI SurIaces (http.//www.uaIberta.ca/%7£nwy/bIender/bIendertut1.htm)
TexturInq a castIe
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/medIa/educatIon/quIckstart/TexturInqCastIe.htmI) (Ðroken IInk)
TexturInq TutorIaI (http.//www.pIanetannIhIIatIon.com/terraqen/tutbuIIdpIcs.shtmI) (ÞOT£. Ior
the qame TotaI AnnIhIIatIon, not reaIIy a qeneraI tut)
Textures In OrCo mode (http.//www.enrIcovaIenza.com/textures.htmI)
Textures Ior AIIosaurus (http.//www.enrIcovaIenza.com/textaII.htmI) (Ðroken IInk)
TexturInq Iart ¡ (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/woodsmIth102000/TutorIaIs1.htmI?) lÐroken IInk|
TexturInq Iart ¡¡ (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/woodsmIth102000/TutorIaI2.htmI?) lÐroken IInk|
TexturInq a ShIp (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut.php?moduIe=texture)
MaterIaI ¡ndIces
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/tp2-Index-anq.htmI
Textures ChanneIs
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/dIdac4-anq.htmI
Textures MappInq
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/dIdac3-anq.htmI
SpecuIar CoIor
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/dIdac2-anq.htmI
The CoIor
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/dIdac1-anq.htmI
MaterIaIs In ÐIender
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/bIendermaterIaI/Index-anq.htmI
AIpha, Ðump, and SpecuIar Imaqe textures
(http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/ÐumpSpecAIphaTex.htm)
¡maqe Textures
(http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/attach%20Imaqe%20IIIe%20to%20object.htm)
ÐecaIs
(http.//www.InqIebee.com/tutorIaIs/ÐecaI%20MIrror%20ModeIIInq/theeth%20decaI.htm)
Chrome (http.//www.InqIebee.com/tutorIaIs/ÐIqItaI-Mark.htm)
AIpha Masks (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/trouerpartexture/trouerpartexture.htmI)
SkIes ¡ (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/skIes.htmI)
SkIes ¡¡ (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/skIes2.htmI)
ÐasIc TexturInq 2 (http.//vIewhow2.qarbon.com/vI/vkxIjoo/7/basIctexturesvIewIet.htmI) (]cvc
tutoricl) (Ðroken IInk)
Textures wIth AIpha (http.//www-users.cs.umn.edu/-meIn/bIender/tutorIaIs/dust/aIpha.htmI)
Textures wIth ÐumpmappInq
(http.//www-users.cs.umn.edu/-meIn/bIender/tutorIaIs/dust/bump.htmI)
!sInq More Than One CoIor
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut9/twocoIours.htmI)
AddInq CoIor To Your Shapes
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/beqInnerstutorIaIs/tut3/addInqcoIour.htmI)
!sInq Textures and ÐumpmappInq Them
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/beqInnerstutorIaIs/tut4/addInqtexture.htmI
Texture MappInq TutorIaI (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutmappInq.htm)
(pictures ok now 18/03/200ß)
£nvIronment MappInq (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutenvmap.htm)
(pictures ok now 18/03/200ß)
MappInq Caracter (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/IIttIeOTO/anonce/anonce.htm)
CreatIon and MappInq
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/boItedeprojectIon/boItedeprojectIon005en.htmI)
ÐIspIacement MappInq
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/dIspIacement/Index-anq.htmI
Game SprItes (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/Game%20SprItes.htm)
StencIIIInq Textures (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/StencIIIInq.htm)
!sInq Texture StencIIs
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/02/27/16-dIdactIcIeI-usaqe-des-masques-de-textures---tutorIaI-usInq-texture-stencIIs
1V Mapp¡ng
¡ntermedIate and Advanced !V MappInq
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=25918) * exposed
!V MappInq S TexturInq (http.//bIorust.com/Index.php?paqe=tutorIaIdetaIIStutId=85)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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Sub-SurI and !V-TexturInq probIem
(http.//barney.qonzaqa.edu/-amoore1/uvmappInqproject/)
!V Texture SkInnInq (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/IIttIeOTO/IIttIeoto3/IIttIeoto3.htm)
lÐead IInk|
Character !V Textures (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/Armure/anonce/anonce.htm)
lÐead IInk|
!V TexturInq In ÐIender (http.//www.pIanetannIhIIatIon.com/terraqen/tuttexturInq.shtmI)
Tuhopuu !V edItor mappInq (http.//users.pandora.be/bIendIx/bIender/uv/)
!V MappInq (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/uvmappInq/uvmappInq01.htmI)
CompIex materIaI Ior a sword
(http.//www.3dtotaI.com/team/TutorIaIs/swordsSdaqqers/swordsSdaqqers01.asp)
!V MappInq a road and box (http.//www.raIvestudIos.com/tutorIaIs/bIender/uvmappInq/)
Create a SoItware Ðox (InvoIves !V MappInq)
(http.//www.raIvestudIos.com/tutorIaIs/bIender/soItwarebox/)
An¡mated Textures
ÐIender TexMesh TutorIaI
(http.//www.teIuspIanet.net/pubIIc/kuqyeIka/bIender/tutorIaIs/texmesh/texmesh.htm) * exposed
anImatInq masks Ior sImuIatInq Ice Ireeze
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?p=455683#455683)
AnImated IroceduraI Textures (http.//www.coqIIIms.com/tutorIaIs.htmI) (pdj tutoricl)
2D Texture Pa¡nt¡ng Techn¡ques
ThIs part Isn't about usInq ÐIender, but about necessary 2D knowIedge Ior advanced ÐIender
users.
Steven StahIberq's TutorIaIs (http.//www.androIdbIues.com/howto.htmI) * exposed
ÐIrty MetaI Texture (http.//dIv.dyndns.orq/£K/tutorIaI/texture/)
GrItty IIpeIInes (http.//dIv.dyndns.orq/£K/tutorIaI/qrItty/)
ÐIqItaI IaIntInq
(http.//www.pIanetquake.com/poIycount/resources/qeneraI/tutorIaIs/IItmanÐazTut01/ÐIqItaIIaIntInq.shtmI
ÞWÞ TexturInq TutorIaIs (http.//www.btInternet.com/-I.natIon/tutorIaIs/tutorIaI00.htm)
IIxInq IIqhtInq ¡rrequIatIes In SeII-TIIInq Maps
(http.//www.3drender.com/IIqht/£qTutorIaI/tIIInq.htm)
Texture Map Ior the ¡rIs oI the £ye (http.//www.kandsdesIqn.com/kIm/eyemap-tut.htmI)
AIrpIane Texture TutorIaI
(http.//www.qeocItIes.com/SIIIconVaIIey/Iaven/2470/txtrtut/txtrtut.htmI)
Game SkInnInq TIps (http.//www.pIanetquake.com/pandemonIum/htmI/skIntIps.htm)
Game IIqhtInq ÐasIcs ¡ (http.//www.pIanetquake.com/pandemonIum/htmI/skIntut3.htm)
Game IIqhtInq ÐasIcs ¡¡ (http.//www.pIanetquake.com/pandemonIum/htmI/skIntut4.htm)
TexturInq wIth GImp (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/GImpTexture/qImptexture.htm)
(broken IInk?)
¡¡ght¡ng, Shadows and Hender¡ng
IIqht - a detaIIed tutorIaI (http.//www.Itchy-anImatIon.co.uk/tutorIaIs/IIqht01.htm)
YaIray as an ¡nteqrated £xternaI Ðenderer
(http.//wIkI.yaIray.orq/bIn/vIew.pI/!serÐoc/GauravGuIde)
ÐasIc 3 IoInt IIqhtInq (http.//www.andrew-whItehurst.net/3poInt.htmI)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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ÐadIosIty ¡ (http.//bIenderman.Iree.Ir/tut/radIosIty/uk/)
ÐadIosIty ¡¡
(http.//downIoad.bIender.orq/documentatIon/htmI/chapterrenderInqradIosIty.htmI)
Ðamp Shaders (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/ÐampShaders.348.0.htmI)
SImuIatInq ÐadIosIty (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/IumIereradIosen.htm)
CaustIc SampIer TutorIaI (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=30265)
Shadows ControI (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutshadows.htm)
IIqht Types (http.//www.stormpaqes.com/eeshIo/otherÐIender.htmI)
The 'WorId' buttons wIthIn ÐIender
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/worId/Index-anq.htmI)
MasterInq Shadows
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/shadows/Index-anq.htmI)
AmbIent OccIusIon
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/01/16/10-dIdactIcIeI-IoccIusIon-ambIante---tutorIaI-ambIant-occIusIon
Area IIqhts
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/01/02/9-dIdactIcIeI-Ies-aIres-IumIneuses---tutorIaI-area-IIqhts
Ðepth oI IIeId (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/doI-en.htmI)
SoIt IIqhts (http.//www.seIIerI.orq/ÐIender/tuts/SoItIIqht.pdI) (pdj tutoricl)
ÐIender's MIst (http.//www-users.cs.umn.edu/-meIn/bIender/tutorIaIs/dust/mIst.htmI)
ÐasIc IIqhtInq (http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?a=artIcIeSdIspIay=1075723200.php)
OptImIzInq Ðenders
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?a=artIcIeSdIspIay=1078185600.php)
IIares (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/IIares/)
Toon ShadInq (http.//Iree.hostdepartment.com/a/aner/T!TOСAI.htmI)
SImpIe GoId ÐInq wIth CaustIcs (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/soundmandave/caustIcs.htm)
Armatures and ¡K
ÐancInq IIor (http.//otothecIeaner.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/IIor/IIor.htmI) * exposed
AnImatIon Workshop ¡¡ (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?p=511798) * exposed
!sInq ¡po drIven shape keys to correct deIormatIons In joInts (http.//kokcIto.tk/rvk/Ipo.htmI) *
exposed
AnImatIon recode project (http.//www.bIender.orq/cms/IowArmatureswork.634.0.htmI)
ActIon ConstraInts tutorIaI made easy (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=49603)
ÐIqqed Character (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=31839)
ÐrIven Iand ÐIq (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=19347)
ConstraIned MechanIcs (http.//arqosIabs.com/%7£maIeIIco/tutor/mecano-en.htmI)
Armatures TutorIaI (http.//www.anycItIes.com/turboq/TutorIaI1.htmI)
AnImatIon usInq Armatures
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut4/anImatInarmatures.htmI)
¡kas ÐIender 3Ð - ¡ntroductIon
(http.//mmaIqrot.Iree.Ir/dIdac-bIender/Ikas/Ikas-enq/Ik-Intro.php)
ConstraIned MechanIcs (http.//www.maIeIIco3d.com.ar/tutor/mecano-en.htmI)
!sInq Armatures (http.//www.eIysIun.com/tutorIaIs/anImatIon/)
MakInq and !sInq Armatures
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut3/armatures.htmI)
Character AnImatIon tooIs (http.//www.eIysIun.com/tutorIaIs/anImatIon/) (broken IInk ?)
¡K SoIver ConstraInt (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=42310)
SoItbody Ior ÐIqqed Characters (http.//www.enrIcovaIenza.com/soItb.htmI)
ÐIqqInq IImbs that can twIst (http.//kokcIto.tk/tut/rIq3.htmI)
ÐIqqInq trIcks (http.//kokcIto.tk/tut/rIq1.htmI)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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¡KA TutorIaI (http.//kahuna.cIayton.edu/-jbrooks/bIender/tutorIaIs/¡KA/)
An¡mat¡on
SImpIe AnImatIon
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/03/08/17-dIdactIcIeI-anImatIons-sImpIes-1ere-partIe---tutorIaI-sImpIe-anImatIons-1st-part
ÐasIc KeyIramInq
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/beqInnerstutorIaIs/tut2/KeyIrameanImatIon.htmI
£IIects (http.//downIoad.bIender.orq/documentatIon/htmI/c1585.htmI)
Character AnImatIon (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutcharanIm.htm)
Ðun CycIe (http.//rodrI.anIquIId.com/tutorun/runen.php) (Þon ÐIender specIIIc)
IIp Sync ¡ (http.//www.meIoware.com/bIender/IIpsync.htm)
IIp Sync ¡¡ (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutcharanIm2.htm)
WaIkInq ÐIues (http.//arqosIabs.com/-maIeIIco/tutor/waIkInq.htmI)
Þon IInear ActIon £dItor - ÞIA ¡ (http.//mmaIqrot.Iree.Ir/dIdac-bIender/nIa/enq/Index.php)
Þon IInear ActIon £dItor - ÞIA ¡¡ (http.//arqosIabs.com/-maIeIIco/tutor/nIa-en.htmI)
Wave £IIect
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/anImatIoneIIects/dIdac2-anq.htmI
ÐuIId £IIect
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/anImatIoneIIects/dIdac1-anq.htmI
AnImatIon eIIects
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/anImatIoneIIects/Index-anq.htmI
Seascape (http.//homepaqes.nIIdram.co.uk/-raytrace/tutorIaIs.htmI) (pdj tutoricl)(dead IInk)
IIaq CreatIon In ÐIender (http.//homepaqes.nIIdram.co.uk/-raytrace/tutorIaIs.htmI) (pdj
tutoricl)(dead IInk)
IIane IoIIowInq a Iath (http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/pIane%20IoIIow%20path.htm)
Object IoIIowInq a Iath (http.//www.InqIebee.com/tutorIaIs/Iath/theeth%20paths.htm)
CycIIc AnImatIon
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/anImatIoncycIIque/anImatIoncycIIque01anq.htmI)
AnImatInq MaterIaIs
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut7/coIourchanqInq.htmI)
WaIkInq TutorIaI (http.//www.IortunecIty.com/skyscraper/true/947/Id13.htm)
TrackInq Cameras to Iaths
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=/artIcIes/bIender/TrackInqCamerastoIaths.php
ÐeIatIve Vertex Keys (ÐVKs)
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=/artIcIes/bIender/ÐVKs.php)
Chanqe Cameras durInq an AnImatIon
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=42840ShIqhIIqht=chanqe+camera)
Camera TrackInq WIth AddItIonaI ÐoII ConstraInt
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=46181)
Part¡cIes
IartIcIe ¡nteractIon (http.//bIender3d.com/cms/IartIcIeInteractIon.349.0.htmI)
StatIc IartIcIes (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=41356)
StatIc IartIcIe £IIect
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/anImatIoneIIects/dIdac4-anq.htmI
IartIcIes £IIect
(http.//www.IInuxqraphIc.orq/sectIon3d/bIender/paqes/dIdactIcIeIs/anImatIoneIIects/dIdac3-anq.htmI
MakInq a IIrepIace (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/bIenqIne/IIrepIace1.htmI) (down 06.08.2006)
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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MakInq a IountaIn WIth IartIcIes
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut5/IountaIn.htmI)
Ðust IartIcIes (http.//www-users.cs.umn.edu/-meIn/bIender/tutorIaIs/dust/partIcIe.htmI)
IIames (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/IIames/)
IIquId (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/IIquId/)
£xpIosIons (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/expIosIons/)
Smoke (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/smoke/)
MakInq a ÐaIn £IIect
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2004/12/24/4-bIender-IaIre-pIeuvoIr---makInq-raIn
IartIcIe and IIeId basIcs (http.//www.devIantart.com/vIew/27104504/)
FIu¡d S¡muIat¡on
IIuId SImuIatIon ÐasIcs (http.//www.devIantart.com/vIew/27479896/)
IIuId TutorIaI (http.//www.penquInscore.com/IIuIdsImtut.htm) {Ðroken IInk}
Compos¡t¡ng
MatchInq ÐeaI IIqhtInq (http.//www.andrew-whItehurst.net/IxIIqht.htmI)
CG¡/IIve ActIon ¡nteractIon
(http.//st102.startIoqIc.com/-bIenderw/cms/Index.php?optIon=comcontentStask=vIewSId=212S¡temId=42
ComposItInq CG and IIve ActIon In ÐIender (http.//www.weIrdhat.com/bIender/composItInq2/)
Game Eng¡ne
Game £nqIne ÐeveIopInq Team
(http.//wIkI.bIender.orq/bIn/vIew.pI/ÐIenderwIkI/Game£nqIneTeam) broken IInk
Þew IuIIy Inteqrated qame enqIne?
(http.//www.bIender.orq/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=6409SsId=868ed3b00Id68157b704e87I0cc1684a
Game ÐIender ÐocumentatIon
(http.//web.archIve.orq/web/20011207173733/http.//www.bIender.nI/qameÐIenderÐoc/book1.htmI
(Iast modIIIed 13. 07. 2001)
#GameÐIender (http.//www.antIhc3.dyndns.orq/qamebIender/qame.php) (Ðroken IInk)
WaIkthrouqh TutorIaI
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/£ducatIon/IndexoId.php?sub=TutorIaIWaIkthrouqh) (Ðroken IInk)
OverIay Scenes (http.//www.IortunecIty.com/skyscraper/true/947/Id16.htm)
WaIkInq TutorIaI (http.//www.IortunecIty.com/skyscraper/true/947/Id13.htm)
Make a Menu (http.//www.IortunecIty.com/skyscraper/true/947/Id17.htm)
IIIpper (http.//ototheqardener.Iree.Ir/tutorIaIs/IIIpper/IIIpper.htm) (Ðroken IInk)
Armatures In the Game £nqIne
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut8/reaItImearmatures.htmI)
MuItIIeveI Maze (http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut6/maze.htmI)
CreatInq ÐouIders that make the map restart when hIt
(http.//www.users.bIqpond.net.au/bIendaqe/paqes/tutorIaIs/tut10/addInqtraps.htmI)
Python and PIug¡ns
Iython Iessons
(http.//www.sutabI.tk/tImmeh/Index.php?optIon=comcontentStask=cateqorySsectIonId=4SId=20S¡temId=26
* exposed
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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Make IaIr (http.//www.dedaIo-3d.com/Index.php?IIIename=SXCOI/makehaIr/abstract.htmI) *
exposed
IovanIm £xport ScrIpt (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/utII/bIenderIIIe/Ir/povanImen.htm)
A¡ Iath ¡mporter (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIImportaIen.htm)
3Ð-Þo IIuqIns, Iut your 3Ð ÐIender space on web!
(http.//www.thoro.de/portIoIIo/verschIedenes/3ÐÞI.htmI)
ÐandomIzer ScrIpt (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=37400)
£mbeddInq the 3Ð web pIuqIn In a web paqe
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/£ducatIon/IndexoId.php?sub=TutorIaI£mbedpIuqIn)
ÐIIIerent !seIuI ScrIpts (http.//www.seIIerI.orq/ÐIender/scrIpts/text.htmI)
AIterGIow, IoIyIIne, IItchcock Zoom£IIect, ... (http.//www.hqb-IeIpzIq.de/-danIeI/bIender/)
ÐynamIca (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/dynamIca/)
ÐIendSaber (http.//www.bIenderwars.com/tut.php?moduIe=bIendersaber)
Isystem tree maker (http.//marIeI.soIer.Iree.Ir/MonsIte/Isystemen.htm)
Iython ScrIptInq Ior IroceduraI AnImatIon
(http.//www.InqIebee.com/ÐIendermanIa/Genos%20SprInq.htm)
Iython ScrIptInq Iart ¡ (http.//www.bIenderbuch.de/tutor/python1/python1enq.htmI)
Iython ScrIptInq Iart ¡¡ (http.//www.bIenderbuch.de/tutor/python2/Iython2enq.htmI)
Iython ScrIptInq Iart ¡¡¡ (http.//www.bIenderbuch.de/tutor/python3/Iython3£nq.htmI)
IocaIbIur - A Matter oI Ðepth (http.//www.eIysIun.com/tutorIaIs.php?Id=2)
Iython AI¡ ¡ntroductIon
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt00.htm)
Iython AI¡, MakInq a Square Mesh
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt01.htm)
Iython AI¡, ¡teratIons
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt02.htm)
Iython AI¡, AutomatInq Vertex CreatIon
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt03.htm)
Iython AI¡, AutomatInq Iace CreatIon
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt04.htm)
Iython AI¡, MakInq IotatoId
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/pythonscrIpt05.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, To buIId an £mpty Ior £nvMap
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/enqIIsh/enqscrIptmIrror.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, ÐezIer Curves ¡mport
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIcurvesImporten.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, Iaths Import
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIpathsImporten.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, ¡mportInq Adobe ¡IIustrator Iormat
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIImportaIen.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, IIonhead The MovIes .msh Import/export
(http.//www.dcmoddInq.com/maIn/Index.php?optIon=comdocmanStask=catvIewS¡temId=SqId=36Sorderby=dmdatecounterSascdesc=УSC
Iython ScrIpt, Mesh £xpIosIon
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpImeshexpIosIonen.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, IeveI OI ÐetaII (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIIOÐen.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, WIre Shadows and extrusIons
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/pythonwIreshadowsen.htm)
Iython ScrIpt, ChanqInq the actIve camera InstantIy
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIchanqerdecameraen.htm)
SubsurIace ScatterInq In ÐIender
(http.//www.dedaIo-3d.com/Index.php?IIIename=SXCOI/experIments/ssscatterInqpython.htmI
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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!sInq the SuperIIcIaI ScatterInq ScrIpt
(http.//IeebIemInd.tuxIamIIy.orq/dotcIear/Index.php/2005/04/25/39-mh-tutorIaI-usInq-the-superIIcIaI-scatterInq-scrIpt
CIty ÐIock Genarator (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=16217)
ÐIender Camera CaIIbratIon wIth IIve Camera
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=32715)
¡mport-export dIIIerent Iormats, ÐIIIerent Generators, etc...
(http.//www.redrIvaI.com/scorpIus/bIender-pIuqIns.htm)
Iorn £xtrude (http.//www3.sympatIco.ca/emIIIo.aquIrre/hornextrude.htmI)
Mesh shaker and tutorIaI (http.//saItshaker.sourceIorqe.net/)
Ðatch STI (http.//bIender.Iormworks.co.nz/batchstI.htmI)
VertIces to a Curve Converter (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=45576)
ZutIIs, Z-ÐuIIer !tIIItIes (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=35355)
1s¡ng other Programs w¡th BIender
YaIÐay (http.//www.yaIray.orq)
Verse (http.//bIender.orq/moduIes/verse/)
SI£ - Iython ¡Ð£ Ior ÐIender (http.//pythonIde.stanI.be)
WInqs 3Ð SubdIvIsIon ModeIer (http.//www.wInqs3d.com/)
Verse GImp-ÐIender IIuqIn (http.//users.pandora.be/bIendIx/verse/oId/demo.htmI)
Kerkythea Ðenderer (http.//www.soItIab.ece.ntua.qr/-jpanta/GraphIcs/Kerkythea/)
£quInox 3Ð (http.//www.equInox3d.com)
WInqs3Ð, a OuIck and Accurate !VmappInq TooI Ior ÐIender
(http.//mywebpaqes.comcast.net/jmandmc/uvmap/uvmap.htmI)
Iovray export (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/utII/bIenderIIIe/Ir/povanImen.htm)
Adobe ¡IIustrator Iaths Import
(http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIImportaIen.htm)
¡nkscape SVG Import (http.//jmsoIer.Iree.Ir/dIdactIcIeI/bIender/tutor/cpIImportsvqen.htm)
!sInq ÐIender content In IowerIoInt 2000
(http.//www.bIender3d.orq/£ducatIon/IndexoId.php?sub=TutorIaIIowerpoInt)
Ter2ÐIend (http.//users.skynet.be/sky33676/ter2bIend1.htmI)
Ðatch IrocessInq ¡maqes
(http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/Tuts/traItementparIot/traItementparIotanq.htmI)
ÐVI ¡nIo (http.//www.centraIsource.com/bIender/bvh/)
Stereoqram (http.//www.qeocItIes.com/bIenderIab/tutorIaI1.htmI)
¡mportInq VÐMI (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/£ducatIon/IndexoId.php?sub=TutorIaIVrmI)
CreatInq OuIcktIme VÐs
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=/artIcIes/bIender/OuIcktImeVÐ.php)
ÐIender, Iython and Mac OS X
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=/artIcIes/bIender/IythonandOSX.php)
StyIIstIc ÐenderInq (http.//www.IIIppyneck.com/temp/ÞIÐ.htm)
Voodoo Camera Tracker (http.//www.dIqIIab.unI-hannover.de/docs/manuaI.htmI)
IIonhead The MovIes
(http.//www.dcmoddInq.com/maIn/Index.php?optIon=comsmIS¡temId=79StopIc=180.0)
D¡str¡buted Comput¡ng
Ð!ÐI - ÐIq and !qIy ÐenderInq Iroject (http.//burp.boInc.dk/)
Ðender IIanet (https.//renderpIanet.com/)
GIobaI ÐenderInq-Iarm (http.//renderworId.Iutureware.at/)
OS X ÐIstrIbuted ÐIender Þetwork ÐenderInq wIth XqrId
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro - MIsceIIaneous TutorIaIs/IrInt ve... http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/w/Index.php?tItIe=ÐIender3Ð.Þo...
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(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=/artIcIes/bIender/!sInqÐIenderwIthXqrId.php
(¡ncorrect IInk?)
ÐIarm ÐIstrIbuted ÐenderInq vIa ¡nternet (http.//qeocItIes.com/tronovan3d/)
Maybe someday ...
IIqhtÐay (http.//www.tacc.utexas.edu/-cburns/IIqhtray/IIqhtray.php)
ToxIc (http.//www.toxIcenqIne.orq/)
V¡deo Tutor¡aIs
УST. ÐIender !nderqround (http.//www.bIenderunderqround.com)
OIIIcIaI ÐIender VIdeo TutorIaIs (http.//bIender3d.orq/cms/VIdeoTutorIaIs.396.0.htmI)
Greybeard's ÐIender VIdeo TutorIaIs (http.//www.IbIbIIo.orq/bvIdtute/)
Iead TutorIaI (http.//www.vIsIontovIsIon.com/ÐIenderIead1.htmI) (Fcrt 1 oj 12-pcrt Flcsh
Tutoricl)
SerIes oI short VTuts that expIaIn basIc detaIIs
(http.//www.bIendernatIon.com/2006/03/01/vIdeotutorIaIs-bIender-3d-workshop/)
BIender W¡k¡Books
ÐIender 3Ð. ÐIendInq ¡nto Iython * exposed
ÐIender 3Ð. IotKeys
ÐIender 3Ð. ¡mport and Ðender a SoIIdWorks ModeI
ÐIender 3Ð. MemoÐook
ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro
AII ÐIender WIkIÐooks ModuIes
FAO
ÐIender IAO
(http.//www.museum.state.II.us/Ismdepts/IIbrary/IInuxquIdes/bIender/bIenderIaq0.htmI)
(Generated on September 24, 2001)
ÐIender TIps (http.//dev.newmedIaworx.com/johnnyb/bpIanet/tutbIendertIps.htm)
Hepos¡tory
ThIs sectIon Is not about tutorIaIs, but you can IInd here dIIIerent useIuI stuII Ior your ÐIender.
BIuepr¡nts
http.//cqworId.ru/moduIes.php?name=ÐIueprInts *exposed
http.//bIueprInts.onnovanbraam.com/
http.//smcars.net/
http.//www.boatdesIqn.net/boat-pIans-archIve/Index.htm boats
http.//www.mqussIn.Ireeuk.com/00IIans.htm oId cars
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http.//www.aIrwar.ru/other/draw1w.htmI War IIanes
http.//www.suurIand.com/ AII sorts oI cars
http.//jpracInq.racerpIanet.com/ Cars, Trucks, Ðuses
Mater¡aIs
SonIx' MaterIaI IIbrary(esp. Cars)
(http.//www.Iree-webspace.bIz/sonIx/Cars/ÐIender234CarMaterIaIIIbraryÐ1.htmI)
ModeIs
bIendermodeIs.katorIeqaz.com (http.//bIendermodeIs.katorIeqaz.com/)
Photos
Iuman Ihoto ÐeIerences (http.//www.3d.sk)
ÐraIn scan (http.//www.med.harvard.edu/AAÞI¡Ð/cases/caseÞA/pb9.htm)
Textures
Textures IIbrary (http.//textures.z7server.com/)
Mayanq's Iree Textures II-Ðes (http.//www.mayanq.com/textures/Index.htm)
jeremey £nqIeman's IubIIc Textures II-Ðes
(http.//www.art.net/-jeremy/photo/pubIIctextureIrameset.htmI)
¡maqe*AIter Iree ¡maqes II-Ðes (http.//www.ImaqeaIter.com/)
Iree Textures MId-Ðes (http.//dIqItaIcraItsman.com/textureÐIn/textureÐIn.htm)
Sky Maps (http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=24738)
M¡sceIIaneous
CG art¡sts must see or recd:
Iow to succeed In AnImatIon (http.//qenedeItch.awn.com/)
ÐItter IIstory oI 3Ð ÐusIness (http.//home.nordwest.net/Adqer/tIps/tIp077.htmI)
ÐIender Art GaIIery (http.//centraIsource.com/bIenderart/Index.php)
CIassIcaI IIIm and VIdeo KnowIedqe Ðase (http.//www.rondexter.com/)
OuIck TIps In ÐesIqnSGIX (http.//www.atpm.com/9.07/desIqn.shtmI)
Open Mov¡es
www.bIenderprojects.com (http.//www.bIenderprojects.com/)
Oranqe (http.//oranqe.bIender.orq/cms/TheMovIe.555.0.htmI)
ÞaÞo - ÐIender ¡nternet VIrtuaI MovIe StudIo (http.//nano.prods.Iree.Ir/)
¡HC
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIender
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIenderchat
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIendercIasses
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIenderqa
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Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIendercoders
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/bIenderwIkI
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/qamebIenderdev
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/qamebIender
Irc.//Irc.Ireenode.net/verse
Tests
ÐIender Ðenchmarks (http.//www.eoIw.orq/Index.php)
Other ¡¡sts
IIease read more about on taIk paqe.
Tutor¡aIs
bIenderartIsts.orq (http.//bIenderartIsts.orq/cms/Index.php?Id=38) * exposed
A MonoIInquaI IIst oI TutorIaIs (http.//www.zoo-IoqIque.orq/3Ð.ÐIender/Index.php3?zoo=dII)
A MuItIIInquaI IIst oI TutorIaIs (http.//membres.Iycos.Ir/boboIs/IIensIInks/bIqIIst.htmI)
CateqorIzed IIst oI ÐIender 3Ð TutorIaIs (http.//nututorIaIs.com/tutorIaIs/ÐIender3Ð/)
M¡sceIIaneous
ÐIender 3Ð IInks S Ðesources
(http.//www.katorIeqaz.com/Index.php?IIIename=IInks/bIender3Ð.php)
ÐIender Ieads around the GIobe(Where IIve other ÐIenders?)
(http.//www.Irappr.com/bIenderheadsaroundtheqIobe)
ÐIenderart MaqazIne
(http.//s12.yousendIt.com/d.aspx?Id=14ZVYIITIIOAK2V3YTCW!38ÐO3) MIrror 1
(http.//www.apoIIux-desIqns.com/ÐA-MaqazIne/bIenderartmaq-nov-05.pdI.zIp) ,M2
(http.//bIendertestbuIIds.de/Index.php?dIr=ÐIenderart/20051115/) ,M3
(http.//www.InteIIIdesIqn.orq/bIenderartmaq/)
ÐIender CIassroom TutorIaI (http.//www.statIkonIIne.com/ÐIender/)
ÐIender TutorIaIs Search £nqIne (http.//www.ÐIender3ÐTutorIaIs.com)
ÐIender ÐasIcs 2nd ed - exceIIent cIassroom course
(http.//www.cdschooIs.orq/54223045235521/bIank/browse.asp?A=383SÐMÐÐÞ=2000SÐCOÐ=0SC=55205
About
ThIs IInks IIst Is Ianquaqe IIItered and extended versIon oI personaI coIIectIon orIqInaIIy provIded by
¡am¡nnocent. So II you IookInq Ior tutorIaIs In other Ianquaqes check thIs IInk at www.eIYsIun.com
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=13380) .
German ÐIenders shouId have a Iook at
http.//de.wIkIbooks.orq/wIkI/ÐIender3Ð.TutorIaIIInkIIste
¡I you want to add ÐIender tutorIaI IInk In some other Ianquaqe you can add It temporary on taIk
paqe. We wIII Iater made such WIkIÐooks In other Ianquaqes too.
Thank you aII who contrIbuted to thIs nIce and useIuI IInks coIIectIon! IeeI Iree to add your name or
IInk II you thInk you need to be mentIoned here.
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-- IopskI, Mar 2005 IInk tItIe (http.//www.exampIe.com)
AII ÐIueprInts IInks
http.//www.shIpschematIcs.net/ StarshIp SchematIcs Ðatabase
http.//www.suurIand.com/bIueprIntsarchIve.php
http.//www.the-bIueprInts.com/
http.//www.modeIInq.net/ NOT 3Ð modeIInq, but human modeIs oI the IashIon type
CooI thInqs that aren't that obvIous
¡ntroduct¡on
CooI thInqs In bIender that aren't that obvIous. !seIuI tIps and trIcks In ÐIender.
Attr¡but¡on
Many oI The IoIIowInq TIps and TrIcks have been contrIbuted by members oI the CGsocIety.orq
(http.//www.cqsocIety.orq/) , a IubIIc SocIety Ior ÐIqItaI ArtIsts. The tIps have been extracted Irom a
CGsocIety thread (http.//Iorums.cqsocIety.orq/showthread.php?t=52560Spaqe=1Spp=15) . They
have been rouqhIy edIted to Improve readabIIIty.
Nav¡gat¡on l Camera l¡ayers
FIy mode
enter camera mode (NumPad 0) and press Sh¡ft+F move the mouse sIowIy
cIIck ¡MB speed up
CIIck MMB to sIow down
press AIt to move up
press CtrI to move down
Space to keep the orIentatIon
escape to canceI IIy mode
H¡d¡ng Meshes or Ob]ects
¡n edIt mode press AIt+b and seIect the area you want to be dIspIayed wIth ¡MB. Ðest oI mesh wIII
be hIden, untII you press AIt+b.
You can aIso hIde aII but the currentIy seIected objects by seIectInq at Ieast one object and pressInq
D¡v¡de on the Þumpad.
Oppos¡te V¡ews
NumPad 1, 7 and 3 puts you on Iront, top and IeIt vIew, but CtrI+1, CtrI+7 and CtrI+3 puts you
on back, down and rIqht vIew (the opposIte vIews).
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¡nsert key frames for sett¡ngs such as I¡ght ¡ntens¡ty and hor¡zon coIor
Once you have added a Iamp or a worId, by pIacInq the cursor over the correspondInq Icon at the
bar (the bar Ior swItchInq what type oI button you see on the buttons wIndow) and pressInq the ¡ (I)
key you can Insert key Irames Ior settInqs such as IIqht IntensIty and horIzon coIor.
"Truck" the camera ¡n camera mode
1) SeIect the camera by rIqht-cIIckInq on It
2) Go Into cam mode wIth ÞumIad 0
3) Iress G to move the camera
4) Iress the mIddIe mouse button to Iock the movement to the dIrectIon the camera Is IacInq!
Make ¡nd¡v¡duaI ob]ects the camera and Change them back
¡I you seIect certaIn objects and press CtrI+NumPad0(zero1 It wIII make them the camera. ¡ use It
aII the tIme to aIIqn spotIIqhts.
SeIect your camera and hIt CtrI+NumPad0 to make It the actIve camera aqaIn
Zoom the FIoat¡ng PaneI
you can zoom the IIoatInq paneI In 3dvIew (Ie TransIorm IropertIes lÞ|) by havInq the mouse cursor
over one oI the and pressInq NumPad(-1 or NumPad(+1. ¡ aIways keep some IIoatInq wIndows In
the 3d vIew whIIe modeIInq, but some tIme they are takInq too much space and ¡ can hIde It, as I need
to see the adresse oI the vertex.
Pan or T¡It the v¡ew
CtrI+AIt+ScroII wheeI and CtrI+Sh¡ft+ScroII wheeI, pans or tIIts the vIew respectIveIy
2.37a++
luser comment. Sh¡ft+ScroII wheeI pans up/down, CtrI+ScroII wheeI pans IeIt/rIqht,
CtrI+AIt+ScroII wheeI tIIts IeIt/rIqht, Sh¡ft+AIt+ScroII wheeI tIIts up/down (ÐIender 2.42a)|
Move to the next screen
IressInq CtrI+¡eft Arrow moves to the next screen seIectIon. CtrI+H¡ght Arrow moves to the
prevIous...
Hor¡zontaI ScroII for the Scr¡pt W¡ndow
¡n the text wIndow (where you Ioad and wrIte Iython scrIpts), II you have a IIne that extends oII the
end oI the screen, you can mIddIe-cIIck-draq the screen IeIt and rIqht, as there Is no IeIt<->rIqht
scroII bar. Ðeen usInq ÐIender Ior years and just Iearned thIs the other day!
Make BIender aIways open ¡n fuII screen
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On wIndows, bIender usuaIIy starts In wIndowed mode. You can make It open In IuII screen by .
1. pressInq AIt+1P¸AHHOW¸KEY or
2. cIIckInq an Icon (kInd oI IIke Inverted ´) Iocated at extreme rIqht oI the !ser IreIerences wIndow.
then press CtrI+1 to save user preIerences.
ÞOT£.to come back to wIndowed mode press AIt+DOWN¸AHHOW¸KEY
EmuIat¡ng camera target feature of 3D Max
¡I you pIace the cursor In the object tarqet, you choose rotate on pIvot and rotate camera you
emuIate camera tarqet oI Max
AIternatIveIy, add an empty, set the camera to track the empty wIth CtrI+T. IIx the axIs trackInq In
anImatIons wIndow. Þow the camera wIII Iook at the empty where-ever It moves. So move It to a
tarqet.
Ad]ust¡ng SI¡der vaIues ¡n controIIed ¡ncrements
¡n the materIaI edItor, hoId down the CtrI-Key whIIe movInq the sIIders. ThIs wIII make It jump +/-
100. Then, when usInq Sh¡ft, you It wIII do a +/-1, Instead oI jumpInq some vaIues over, IIke In
standard mode (wIthout pressInq anythInq). OI course, you can aIso just chanqe the vaIue by
pressInq the number.
Make AII ¡ayers V¡s¡bIe
¡n a case where you have Iayers 1, 4 and 5 seIected. ¡I you press - (tIIde), then aII Iayers are vIsIbIe.
Ðut II you press Sh¡ft -, then onIy the prevIous Iayers that you had seIected wIII be vIsIbIe. You can
use Sh¡ft - to actIvate aII, or show what used to be seIected
Þote Ior Irench keyboard (AZ£ÐTY) . use % (percent) key Instead oI - (tIIde) key
F¡Ie Browser Funct¡ons
DeIete, Move, Hename, and Make D¡rectory
When you are InsIde a IIIe browser Ior IoadInq or savInq somethInq and you want to create a new
dIrectory, just add the name to the path on top oI the wIndow and conIIrm 'MakedIr'.
you can aIso deIete(x), move(m), or rename(n) a IIIe. you can do actIon on muItIpIe IIIes by seIInq wIth
rIqht cIIck
Prev¡ew ¡mages when Ioad¡ng them as a texture
Whenever you are IoadInq Imaqes as a texture, you can hoId down CtrI whIIe cIIckInq on the 'Ioad'
or 'open' button and the orIqInaI prevIew wIndow wIII appear. Ðut be careIuI. The prevIew does not
IIke certaIn IIIe types and may crash. That Is the reason why It Is hIdden .
Tr¡ck for Creat¡ng Ou¡ck F¡Ie Hev¡s¡ons
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AIter you have saved a bIend IIIe or an Imaqe you can then save It In proqressIon that Is.
car .bIend. or car .jIG
Þext tIme do "Save As" then press the + (pIus) key whIch wIII advance the bIend IIIe by 1 every tIme
It's pressed. exampIe. car .bIend becomes car 1.bIend. press aqaIn car 2.bIend and so on.
The - (mInus) key wIII subtract one. ¡'ve qotten Into the habIt oI savInq IrequentIy. Yea ¡ know there Is
now the undo Ieature but ¡ IIke thIs better because It qIves you a hIstory In case you need to back a
Iew IeveIs oI a buIId. You qet a saved versIon at the IeveI you choose.
Þote. ÐIender automatIcaIIy detects the number... meanInq It does not need to be In any posItIon. Ior
Instance. ¡I you have a IIIe named 001starport.pnq or .bIend or whatever, pressInq the + (pIus) key
wIII automatIcaIIy name It 002starport.pnq. ¡I you want to name It starport1.pnq, It wIII chanqe It to
starport2.pnq.
Two ruIes. The IIIename has to have a number. ¡t can be 0, or 1, or 3.141569.
¡I the IIIe number Is a neqatIve, pressInq + (pIus) key wIII Increase the "maqnItude" oI the neqatIve
number. ¡ may have used maqnItude wronq, II so, ¡ mean pressInq the + (pIus) key wIII make -0.04
drop to -0.05. The - (mInus) key wIII brInq you onIy to 0, and then It wIII start to eat ItseII up.
Open Hecent
ControI O
Ob]ectlVertex Man¡puIat¡on
Constra¡n Movement to one Ax¡s or to a pIane
when movInq objects/vertIces or set oI objects/vertIces ([G| key) II you move In the dIrectIon oI the
qIobaI X axIs (!p/Ðown) and then press the MMB, movement wIII be constraIned to onIy move In
the X axIs, or II you move the vertIces In the dIrectIon oI the Y axIs and then press MMB It wIII be
constraIned to move onIy In the Y axIs. The same Is true oI the Z axIs.
You can acheIve the same eIIect by usInq the X, Y or Z keys whIIe In qrab mode. You sImpIy have to
press X key, Y or Z, once to Iock to X Y or Z qIobaI axIs,*
To ConstraIn the Movement to two axes (a pIane). Iress CtrI+X to move In the Z-Y-IIane.
CtrI+Z=XY, CtrI+Y=XZ.*
AIternatIveIy, SeIect scaIInq mode and seIect the axIs not to scaIe wIth the seIectInq button at the
same tIme as you hIt Sh¡ft.
In every case You can hIt the X,Y or Z button aqaIn to constraIn movement to a dIIIerent set oI
axes. ÞormaIIy thIs dIIIerent set oI axes Is IocaI. Iowever you can chanqe the IdentIty oI thIs set
to qIobaI, IocaI, normaI, or vIew by pressInq AIt+Space. whIch cycIes throuqh the dIIIerent
IdentItes.
Þote. AII oI these shortcuts work wIth scaIInq and ÐotatInq as weII
Shr¡nklfatten mesh ¡n d¡rect¡on of vertex normaIs
When you're mesh-edItInq, AIt+S wIII shrInk/Iatten the mesh seIectIon In the dIrectIon oI the vertex
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normaIs.
Vertex Parent¡ng
You can parent object to a Mesh, In that case you are parentInq to the center oI the mesh.. Ð!T II the
mesh Is transIated somehow (Iet's say by an armature'[S| pose) the center remaIns In the same spot,
and thus the chIId object doesn't receIve any transIormatIon at aII.
To soIve thIs, you can parent the chIId object to a vertex (or a Iace) wIthIn the mesh, and any
transIormatIon that the vertex receIves Is passed to the chIId.
There are onIy 2 optIons, to parent to any 3 vertex wIthInq the mesh or to parent to just one vertex. ¡I
you parent to 1 vertex then onIy IocatIon InIormatIon Is passed, wIth 3 vertex aII transIormatIons
(rotatIon, IocatIon and sIze) are passed to the chIId.
Iow to do It? StartInq out oI edIt mode seIect the chIId(ren), hoId Sh¡ft and seIect the parent, enter
edIt mode, seIect one or tree vertex, press CtrI+P. That's It!
Work around to weId¡ng Verts
Ior £dqe Ioop (Verts) posItIon both Ioops toqether as cIose as possIbIe then hIt W then 4 (not on
numkey pad). You can adjust how Iar the eIIect oI coIIapse can qo In the £dIt wIndow (a button on
the rIqht IabeIed IImIt. ***, where * Is a number).
As Ior IndIvIduaI Verts, eq. Two vertIces weIded to become one, seIect both Verts, scaIe untII they are
very cIose then hIt W then 4.
you can aIso do thIs wIth the snap combo
seIect the vertex you want to weId toqether CtrI+S, Cur -> SeI CtrI+S, SeI -> Cur [W|, Ðemove
ÐoubIes
AIso, whenever ÐIender pop up a menu wIth dIIIerent optIons, you can just type In a number to
choose one oI the optIons (use the numbers not on the NumPad)
Make ¡nd¡v¡duaI ob]ects the camera and Change them back
¡I you seIect certaIn objects and press CtrI+0(zero1It wIII make them the camera. ¡ use It aII the tIme
to aIIqn spotIIqhts.
SeIect your camera and hIt CtrI NumPad 0 to make It the actIve camera aqaIn
Order¡ng Meshes ¡n Vertex Groups
¡I you are preparInq to skIn your meshes and you are ready to create the vertex qroups, you shouId
pay attentIon to the order In whIch you create them, because once they are created there Is no way to
re-arranqe them on the vertex-qroup IIst.
That means that II you are a uItra-by-the-book person and you wouId IIke the vertex qroup
aIphabetIcaIIy ordered on the IIst them you must create them In aIphabetIcaI order.
.. Or, II you wouId IIke them to be ordered accordInq to theIr IunctIon (shouIders, then arms, then
Iorearms, then paIms, etc. you must create them In that order.
ThIs may aII sound IIke a stupId thInq to care about, but ¡I you have a character wIth 39 vertex
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qroups you may quIckIy IInd that when one oI them needs IIxInq It Is a IIttIe dIIIIcuIt sInce they were
randomIy created.
Pos¡t¡on and scaIe aIong face normaI,
-Sh¡ft V. IosItIon camera aIonq Iace normaI, AIt S. scaIe seIected vertIces aIonq Iace normaI
1s¡ng Fake 1sers
pressInq Sh¡ft+F4 wIII turn the wIndow Into a ¨Ðata SeIect WIndow¨ where you can assIqn and
unassIqn Iake users to aImost everythInq by seIectInq the name and pressInq the I key
CreatInq a Iake user aIIows you to keep useIuI data bIocks (materIaIs, textures, base meshes) at hand
even II they are not IInked to an object. You can use It to set a deIauIt materIaI that wouId have the
shader you IIke best.
AI¡gn a seIect¡on of vert¡ces on a pIane
¡I you want to perIectIy aIIqn a seIectIon oI vertIces on a pIane, you just have to IoIIow these IIttIe
steps.
1.) ÐeIore you are seIectInq the vertIces you want to aIIqn, posItIon your 3Ð cursor In the pIane that
you want to aIIqn to (you couId seIect the 4 vertIces oI a bIq pIane and hIt Sh¡ft+S /
Cursor->SeIectIon Ior exampIe, but you can posItIon It anywhere)
2.) Þow seIect those vertIces you want to aIIqn
3.) Choose "3Ð Cursor" under "ÐotatIon/ScaIInq IIvot"
4.) Þow wIth the [S|-key start scaIInq mode, hIt the key oI the axIs you want to move the vertIces on
(X,Y,Z)
5.) IoIdInq down the CtrI-Key, you can now move the vertIces In one IIne towards the cursor, untII
the vaIue Ior the chosen axIs Is 0.000. AIternatIveIy, just enter, usInq the keyboard, the scaIe Iactor
you want (0 In thIs case) .
6.) IIt IMÐ. The vertIces are perIectIy aIIqned aIonq a pIane throuqh the 3Ð cursor.
ThIs even works very weII whIIe In perspectIve vIew mode, so you can aIIqn on the IIy and don't have
to swItch to Iront/sIde/top vIew aII the tIme.
WeId¡ng Vert¡ces
You can weId vertIces by seIectInq them In edIt mode and pressInq AIt+M.
V¡ew w¡reframe of h¡dden Verts
to vIew the wIreIrame oI hIdden Verts, make sure you are In W¡Ð£IÐAM£ MOУ and then turn
SubSurI on and chanqe the IeveI to 0 ¡I you aIready knew about thIs then
SeIect a true Ioop
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shortcut Is Sh¡ft + AIt + r¡ght Button oI the mouse, serves to seIect true Ioop, In vertIces as In
edqes IIke In Iaces.
SeIect¡ng one ob]ect from a s¡ngIe mesh compr¡sed of muIt¡pIe ob]ects
¡I you have more than In £dIt Mode, you can pIace your mouse cursor next to one oI the Verts In the
desIred object, then press the "I" key to seIect aII oI the Verts IInked to that one. "AIt+I" reseIects In
the same manner.
Prec¡se Zoom and SeIectlDeseIect
SeIectInq. ¡I you IoId down the CtrI+¡MB (IeIt mouse button) and draq the mouse, It wIII aIIow you
draw a seIectIon as opposed to usInq the Ð button whIch qIves you a square.
ÐeseIectInq.To draw an area to deseIect, IoId down the CtrI+ Sh¡ft+ ¡MB(IeIt mouse button) and
draq the mouse,
ZoomInq.IoId down the CtrI+MMB. Move your mouse vertIcaIIy to can qet a more controIIed
zoom versus scroIIInq the Mouse wheeI.
ThIs Ieature may not be present In 2.37 or earIIer versIons.
Mouse Gestures
IeIt cIIck and draw.
a straIqht IIne - moves the seIected object.
a cIrcIe - rotates the seIected object (note. thIs must be drawn IaIrIy cIrcIe-IIke).
a V - scaIes the seIected object.
SeIect¡ng Obscured or H¡dden Ob]ects
Say you are In Iront or sIde vIew and you want to seIect an object, but It Is obscured or hIdden
behInd other objects. ¡I you press AIt HMB over a qroup oI objects, a menu wIII be dIspIayed In the
3Ð wIndow aIIowInq you to pIck the object you wIsh to seIect.
SeIect or DeseIect MuIt¡pIe Vert¡ces
¡n £dIt mode, when you cIIck the HMB near a vertex that vertex (Iace or edqe)wIII be seIected, HMB
aqaIn wIII reseIect. Ðy hoIdInq the Sh¡ft key thIs wIII aIIow you to add each seIected vertex (Iace or
edqe) In that hIqhIIqhted qroup.
IressInq the ! key (!ndo In £dIt mode) wIII aIso remove the Iast seIectIon you made.
AIternatIveIy, you can Iress Ð and then draw a box wIth MMB. AnythInq cauqht In the box wIII be
deseIected. AIso works wIth ÐÐ and the draw seIectIon. Ðraw wIth MMB and you reseIect.
SeIect¡ng muIt¡pIe ¡tems
You can use rIqht mouse button to seIect muItIpIe Items to append. Ðoesn't seem to work wIth IIIes.
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Measur¡ng, Iength, d¡stance on an ob]ect.
IIt "I9" (edItInq), you shouId have spIIt (2) wIndows. One "3d" the other "buttons" qo to the Mesh
TooIs 1 paneI and press the £dqe Ienqth, £dqe AnqIes and the dImensIons wIII appear on your
seIectIons In the 3d vIew.
Add¡ng Connected Vert¡ces
¡n £dIt Mode, II onIy one vertex Is seIected, pressInq "£" wIII add a vertex, on a IreeIy deIIned pIace,
connected to the seIected one. As wIII hoIdInq CTHI and IeIt cIIckInq the mouse where you want the
new vertex to be posItIoned.
Þote. ¡t must be an ¡maqe texture and In wIreIrame mode to be vIsIbIe.
(2.37a)
HecaIcuIate NormaIs
CtrI + N = ÐecaIcuIate normaIs outsIde (you mIqht have to seIect Iaces beIore doInq so) Sh¡ft +
CtrI + N = ÐecaIcuIate normaIs InsIde
These two hotkeys are useIuI when you extrude some edqes and see a kInd oI seam In between (due
to normaIs poIntInq In dIIIerent dIrectIons).
Then, aIter seIectInq an edqe, CtrI + NumPad(+1 seIects the Iace assocIated wIth thIs edqe. CtrI +
NumPad(-1 deseIect the Iace.
Create a Ouad from two Tr¡s
AIt + j when havInq two TrIs seIected makes a Ouad.
Hemove DoubIes
To Ðemove ÐoubIes use hotKey. W. You can adjust the "IImIt" optIon so that "Ðemove ÐoubIes" has
more or Iess toIerance. ThIs optIon Is Iocated In edItInq wIndow under the mesh tooIs paneI, (I.e.
weId vertIces that are Iurther?)
Comb¡ne ed¡t IeveIs on a mesh.
When In £dIt mode Ior a mesh (TAÐ key) you can choose the IeveI that you wIsh to edIt at. At the
bottom oI the 3Ð wIndow, there are Iour buttons. Vertex, edqe, Iace S back-Iace cuII.
Ðy deIauIt the vertex IeveI Is seIected, II you hoId Sh¡ft and press the edqe button, you can use both
at once.
Change SeIect Mode
to chanqe seIect mode (vertex, edqe or Iace) you can press CtrI+Tab. Ðut thIs way you can't use the
CtrI+Key to AÐÐ the seIect modes.. StIII couId be useIuI, II you don't have a header Ior the wIndow
you're workInq In..
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Work¡ng w¡th Meshes
Turn¡ng Sub-Surfed Mesh ¡nto NormaI Mesh
¡I you have a sub-surIed mesh you can turn TIAT sub-surI mesh Into a normaI mesh. just seIect the
sub-surIed mesh and press AIt+C (ConversIon).
How to remove (numb1 bIack spots on a Mesh
¡I a Sub-SurIed mesh becomes (numb) bIack on some pIaces, that's because oI the normaIs. SeIect
aII and press CtrI+n and then conIIrm. now It shouId Iook prettIer!
II the above soIutIon does not work , save your ÐIend IIIe, OuIt ÐIender then restart. !se CtrI O to
open the Iast IIIe and your mesh wIII have returned to correct shaded state.
SeIect aII hoIes ¡n a mesh and f¡II them
Sh¡ft+M* seIects aII Þon-manIIoId edqes/vertIces (hoIes) In a mesh **. Then aII you have to do Is hIt
CtrI+F to auto-IIII those hoIes wIth "beauty IIII".
Sh¡ft+M Is an aIternatIve shortcut Ior 'SeIect Þon-manIIoId'. You'II IInd thIs In the seIect menu when
In mesh edIt mode. The IIsted short cut there Is CtrI+AIt+Sh¡ft+M. Sh¡ft M Is obvIousIy a Iot more
comIortabIe on the IInqers thouqh!
AIthouqh 'Þon-manIIoId' usuaIIy reIers to hoIes In your mesh, It Is not necessarIIy onIy hoIes eq, an
edqe wIth three Iaces comInq out oI It Is aIso a non-manIIoId edqe!
F¡II ¡n four or fewer vert¡ces
seIect the vertexes and press [F|, thIs wIII IIII In the empty space around them
to cIean up a IIIIed In space, seIect aII the vertexes Ior the area, and press [F|. choose OK to make
ICon Ior exampIe. add a pIane In wIreIrame mode, extrude It severaI tImes, seIect aII vertexes, then
hIt [F|.
An¡mat¡on
An¡mat¡on Prev¡ew ¡n aII w¡ndows at the same t¡me
¡t Is weII known that AIt+ a Is Ior prevIewInq an anImatIon on the 3Ð wIndow. Ðut that's not aII oI It.
ÐIvIde your screen Into muItIpIe 3Ð WIndows, each Irom a dIIIerent poInt oI vIew.
Iress AIt + Sh¡ft + a
£njoy!!!
¡I you have an ActIon/¡po WIndow and 3Ð wIndows open, and you Issue the AIt + Sh¡ft + a
command Irom the ActIon (or the ¡po) wIndow, It wIII anImate both (the actIon and the 3Ð) In sync!!
Great Ior vIsuaIIzatIon oI ¡po's eIIect on your modeI.
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Choose an¡mat¡on mode, Convert mouse movements to ¡PO
-T In ¡IO wIndow. Choose anImatIon mode, Ie., IInear, bezIer, constant -[H| In ¡IO wIndow. Ðecord
mouse movements, and convert to ¡IO
An¡mate proceduraI textures
To anImate proceduraI textures, press 'I' wIth the mouse poInter In the materIaIs wIndow, and seIect
the type oI Key-Irame you wIsh to set In the pop up menu. advance a Iew Irames, tweak your
materIaIs, and set another key Irame.
1V Mapp¡ng, Part¡cIes and Textur¡ng
BIender coIor p¡cker
ÐIender has a IhotoShop-esque coIor pIcker. SImpIy cIIck on the coIor prevIew next to the sIIders to
use It. IIt enter when you have the coIor you want.
Sav¡ng your face groups seIect¡ons
ÐeqardInq !V mappInq and Iace Groups SeIectIons there seems to be the qeneraI mIsconceptIon
that you can't save your Iace qroups seIectIons on ÐIender.
Most peopIe aIready know that Irom wIthIn the Iace SeIect Mode (Iotato Mode) you can swItch Into
£dIt Mode and whatever seIectIon you do whIIe In £dIt Mode Is passed back to Iace SeIect Mode
when you exIt the £dIt Mode.
WeII, ÐId you ever wonder why MaterIaI ¡ndex Groups (that are nothInq more than Iace qroups wIth
a common materIaI on them) have those IIttIe 'SeIect' and ´ÐeseIect' buttons there? Sure they come
handy Ior Iater modIIIcatIon oI the materIaI Index but that Is not aII about them.
Ðo thIs. ÐeIore startInq the !V unwrappInq job, cut your mesh by creatInq as many materIaI Indexes
as you need, you can even assIqn each one a dIIIerent coIor so you can be sure that there Is no Iace
orphan. Once you have the mesh aII cut and sIIced (so to speak) you enter In Iace SeIect Mode, then
swItch Into £dIt Mode, seIect the Index contaInInq the Iaces you want to unwrap, press 'SeIect', Ieave
£dIt Mode and VoIIe! You now have an entIreIy useIuI Iace qroup waItInq Ior you to unwrap. Þo more
manuaI (and ImprecIse) Iace seIectIon Is needed.
¡I you Iater need to chanqe the mappInq oI those Iaces, don't Iear. just make sure there Isn't any Iace
seIected on Iotato Mode, do as you dId IIrst (enter edIt mode, seIect the Index, exIt edIt mode) and
there are your very same Iaces seIected aqaIn wIth the !V mappInq you aIready assIqned to them.
Þote. Another beneIIt oI have precIse Iace seIectIon qroups Is that, InItIaIIy, you don't have to worry
about !V coordInates overIappInq, sInce you know have the way to seIect OÞIY the Iaces you want
to. Ior exampIe, you unwrap aII your Iaces by qroups and when you are done you can start thInkInq
about scaIe and posItIon wIthInq the texture map, not IIke beIore when you have to soIve those
thInqs as you qo.
BuIk Texture Change
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ConsIder a scenarIo In whIch you have a scene wIth a 100 mesh objects, and 50 oI them have one
texture and 50 oI them have another.
¡I you want to chanqe the texture oI the IIrst 50, but don't want to chanqe each IndIvIduaIIy, do the
IoIIowInq. Add a IIane out oI the vIew oI the camera. Add your new texture (MaterIaI) to the pIane.
Then use the "Copy to materIaI ÐuIIer" button In the header oI the MaterIaI buttons. SeIect one mesh
object oI the same sort that you want to chanqe, open MaterIaI buttons and Iaste Irom MaterIaI
ÐuIIer.
AII the mesh objects wIth the same texture wIII now have the new texture.
AIternatIveIy, ¡I you have a materIaI that you want to appIy to a Iot oI objects at once.
1. SeIect aII the objects you want to appIy the materIaI to. 2. AppIy a materIaI. (thIs onIy appIIes to the
Iast seIected object) 3. press CtrI+¡ > MaterIaIs. (thIs IInks the materIaI oI the Iast seIected object to
aII the other objects)
Negat¡ve Meta-BaIIs
Add>MetabaII as usuaI. £xIt £Ð¡T mode and Add>MetabaII. ThIs tIme beIore you exIt £Ð¡T mode, hIt
the ÞeqatIve button In the £Ð¡T buttons wIndow. Then Ieave edIt mode.
¡I you move the neqatIve MetabaII around, you can see the eIIect It has on the posItIve metabaII.
Ðe careIuI thouqh, as neqatIve metabaIIs are not dIspIayed In the same manner as posItIve metabaIIs,
you wIII onIy see the IIvot poInt not a meta-mesh.
ThIs Is a IIttIe test you can try to see the amazInq eIIects neqatIve metabaIIs can produce.
Make 1 MetabaII, make It bIq. IIace three spheres (!V) InsIde, make them emIt partIcIes, one 100,
one 200, one 300 partIcIes. Iarent three neqatIve metabaIIs, one to each sphere, and use dupII-vert
on each sphere. Make the 100 dupIIcate metabaII quIte bIq, the 200 medIum and the 300 smaII. IIt
AIt A to run anImatIon In 3Ð wIndow.
CIIck here Ior hIs neqatIve metabaII thread
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=14058ShIqhIIqht=metabaII)
Ma¡nta¡n the 1V Iayout when mov¡nglscaI¡nglrotat¡ng 1V co-ords.
When you have the !V Imaqe/edItor wIndow open and have Ioaded an Imaqe you want to !V map to
a mesh, cIIck on the !V tab In the header bar and turn oII 'Snap !V to pIxeIs'.
ThIs wIII heIp to maIntaIn the !V Iayout when movInq/scaIInq/rotatInq !V co-ords.
Hender¡ng
Tr¡cks, reIated to the v¡ew ports and the render buffers
IIrst. SwItchInq amonq screens
So you have your screen made oII the 3Ð wIndow, the buttons wIndow and the InIo wIndow... but
you are doInq some IIne tunnInq to the mesh In two pIaces sImuItaneousIy, and they both need to
zoom In the 3Ð wIndow. You couId scroII or zoom out, transIate the vIew and zoom In aqaIn. Þone oI
them an eIeqant soIutIon.
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Another sItuatIon. You are workInq on a modeI and are usInq an Imaqe Ior reIerence. You are not
tracInq over the photo, just take a Iook at It oIten to make sure you don't devIate to much Irom the
concept. So you open the photo In a 2Ð proqram and keep swItchInq back and Iorth Irom ÐIender..
or you have the photo open In an Imaqe wIndow and keep maxImIzInq and mInImIzInq the wIndow...
another hassIe
Worry no more!!! ÐIender can handIe muItIpIe vIrtuaI screen (aIa IInux) and you can come and qo
Irom them wIth just one key stroke.
just press CtrI+¡eft Arrow or CtrI+H¡ght Arrow and you are swItchInq screens. Go ahead! Ðy
deIauIt £V£ÐY .bIend IIIe comes wIth 3 screens ... and oI course you can add/deIete as many as you
see IIt.
the maqIc button to add or deIete screens Is rIqht besIde the TooIs menu, up there In the InIo
wIndow.
1s¡ng the render buffers
Ok, so you set your scene and press УÞУÐ, a nIce wIndow comes up and you see your hard work
comInq to exIstence (that's the deIauIt behavIor, II your chanqe It on the dIspIay buttons then thIs
may not work Ior you).
Ðo you reaIIze that the wIndow contaInInq your render Imaqe Is aIso a render buIIer? ActuaIIy they
are 2 buIIers Ior your to pIay wIth. Whenever the render wIndow Is open (and you can re-open It by
pressInq I11 wIthout havInq to waIt aqaIn Ior the render) II you press the j key you can swItch Irom
ÐuIIer A and Ð. (the Iast actIve one Is what you save when you press I3). You can even swItch
buIIers In the mIddIe oI a renderInq (but ¡ advIce aqaInst that when renderInq very compIex scenes,
you have been warned!)
The cooI thInq about havInq two separate render buIIers Is that you can have Instant
beIore-and-aIter Imaqes Ior thInqs that you chanqe In the scene. Ior exampIe you are searchInq the
perIect posItIon Ior a IIqht source In a scene, you pIace It and do a render, pIace the IIqht In another
posItIon, swItch to the second buIIer and do a new render. Þow, wIth the render wIndow open, just
press j to see how the chanqe on the IIqht's posItIon InIIuence your scene and that makes your
decIsIon easIer.
Ðy the way, the render wIndow can be zoomed (by the normaI ways or by pressInq Z ) to do a cIoser
InspectIon oI the Imaqe.
Hender w¡ndow Tr¡cks
To zoom Into the render wIndow, use the Z key.
To IInd out what the (Ðed, Green, ÐIue, AIpha) vaIues oI rendered Imaqe are, IeIt cIIck and hoId the
button oI your mouse.thIs wIII reveaI the ÐGÐA vaIues oI the pIxeI beIow the mouse cursor. Ie Ð 127,
G 255, Ð 13, A40. The vaIues wIII appear In the bottom IeIt corner oI the render wIndow. You can aIso
hoId the button and draq the mouse around. ThIs wIII dIspIay the vaIues oI the pIxeIs your mouse
poInter passes over.
WIth the render wIndow open, you can press the A key to vIew an an aIpha versIon oI the Imaqe.
AIter renderInq, you can use hotkey j to use a spare render. AIter the second render, you can use It
aqaIn (hotkey j) to jump back to the IIrst render, and then back to the second, thus makInq It easIer
to compare sIIqht chanqes.
Work¡ng wh¡Ie you Hender
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¡I you use a X/X11 based wIndow manaqer, you do not need to watch bIender whIIe It renders, qo to
a dIIIerent vIrtuaI desktop. ÐIender doesn't have to keep X InIormed oI what's qoInq on and
renderInq speed may Increase.
Border Hender¡ng
¡n the renderInq buttons IInd the buttons marked "Ðorder" and "Crop". ¡I you depress "Ðorder", you
can qet a renderInq oI any part oI what the camera sees. just do the IoIIowInq .
Go Into a camera vIew usInq NumPad 0, press Sh¡ft+B. Then, mark the IImIts oI the renderInq as
you want them usInq IMÐ. Þext, render the usuaI way and the sectIon you marked wIII be rendered
IIrst, then It wIII be Inteqrated to the compIete renderInq. ¡I you wIsh that *onIy* the chosen sectIon
wouId be rendered then cIIck on the button marked "Crop" aIso.
Creat¡ng a cIuster of part¡cIes wh¡ch takes I¡ttIe t¡me to render
Ðender some partIcIes, and make the pIcture Into an aIpha mapped tqa In G¡MI or whatever
qraphIcs edItInq appIIcatIon you use.
Ioad the Imaqe onto a pIane. Adjust the aIpha settInqs accordInqIy. Iarent the pIane to the emItter.
Iress dupII-verts.
You now have a cIuster oI partIcIes whIch takes reIatIveIy IIttIe tIme to render. OI course It doesn't
have to be an aIpha map oI partIcIes. That's entIreIy up to you.
AIpha from render v¡ew
When cut S pastInq stuII Irom render wIndow to {Insert your IavorIte Imaqe edItor here} usInq
AIt+ PrtScr, cut and paste the render IIrst, come back to render wIndow and press "A". ¡t chanqes
the vIew to aIpha and you qet bIack S whIte mask to cut the backqround nIceIy In the {aqaIn,
IavorIte Imaqe edItor}. ÞIce when you do testInq In Iow res.
V¡ew aIpha texture as w¡re.
CtrI+d In 3d very useIuIIy Ior prevIew wIthout renderInq.
AIso, II you have an object (works best on a mesh pIane) wIth an Imaqe texture, you can use AIt+V
key outsIde edIt mode. ThIs wIII adjust the object's sIze vaIues so that the Imaqe won't be stretched
when projected.
M¡sceIIaneous
Hestor¡ng your "Iost" work.
¡I you qo to the temp IoIder where you have ÐIender save It's temp .ÐIend IIIes, reIoad the most
recent one and thIs wIII save you IosInq the whoIe oI your work. You don't even need to save a .ÐIend
IIIe Ior thIs to work. You can chanqe the settInqs Ior thIs In the tooI wIndow at the top oI the ÐIender
screen.
Bu¡It ¡n Hot-Key ¡¡st
SInce the Iew Iast versIons (sInce 2.28 ¡ thInk) bIender has a buIIt-In aII IncIusIve hot-key IIst. just
open a text-edItor wIndow, and rIqht besIdes the optIon to create a new text-buIIer there Is a menu
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optIon caIIed ¨K£YI¡ST.Intrr¨. SeIect that optIon and the IuII IIst Is Ioaded In memory
--£dIt. There may be many hot-keys mIssInq, especIaIIy the newest ones, IIke M to mIrror a mesh, K
Ior the KnIIe tooI, AIt+Z Ior textured vIew... but the IIst Is a qood start at Ieast.
1n-comp¡Ied PIug¡ns
ÐIender can Ioad pIuq-Ins Ior texturInq, sequence edItor, etc. . Iowever, ÐIender comes wIth a Iew oI
such IIuq¡ns un-compIIed.
¡n IInux they are Iocated on the pIuq-Ins sub-dIrectory oI the deIauIt ÐIender InstaII, and aII that you
need Is a Make command to compIIe them. ¡ don't know how to compIIe them In WIndows, but there
they are, just waItInq Ior you to awake them!!!
BIender "Easter Eggs" (We¡rd th¡ngs ¡ncIuded ¡n bIender1
AII IubIIsher versIons oI ÐIender have been shIppInq wIth a Monkey mesh caIIed Suzanne. just open
the maIn tooI box (Space Bar) -> Add -> Mesh -> and rIqht beIow the other prImItIves you'II see
the Monkey.
Why/What It Is Ior? OnIy ÞaÞ proqrammers know*. ¡t Is supposed to be a prIvate joke amonq the
bIender deveIopInq team. Iowever, It Is IncredIbIy useIuI as a quIck compIex object Ior testInq
textures, shaders, etc..
Ðy the Way, Suzanne Isn't the onIy joke IncIuded... but ¡ won't spoII the surprIse. You wIII bump wIth
them on your daIIy work, that Is Ior sure.
ÞaÞ was the company that orIqInaIIy deveIoped ÐIender
We¡rd Error Message
SometImes, when tryInq to use a booIean on a trI-based mesh, ÐIender qIves the prompt. "Wanna
Crash?" >Yes IIease!
but cIIckInq It doesn't crash. ThIs Is because ÐIender Is a Iot more stabIe now compared to when that
'crash' request was coded. ¡t aIso used to appear when usInq beauty IIII aIter Iace IIII. (CtrI+F In edIt
mode)
ÐIender 2.37 now has a 'wIdqet', whIch repIIcates the red/bIue/qreen axIs symboI In 3ÐSMax In the
3d wIndows. ÐotatIon scaIInq and movement oI objects/Verts/Iaces etc, can be manIpuIated usInq
the wIdqet, or In the usuaI manner oI earIIer versIons oI ÐIender.
Turn your bIender an¡mat¡on ¡nto a screen-saver (W¡ndows1
to turn your bIender anImatIon WIndows bInary IIIe Into a WIndows screen saver, rename the £X£
IIIe Into SCÐ and rIqht cIIck It and InstaII !
D¡scover the FPS rate of a W¡ndow
¡I you hIt CtrI+AIt+T key In a wIndow, ÐIender wIII teII you how much tIme It takes to render a
sInqIe Irame oI that wIndow, In mIIIIseconds. VaIuabIe Ðenchmark
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???
usInq constructIon wIdqet press Sh¡ft to qet precIsIon mode Ior IIne tunInq. ÐeIease IeIt mouse
button (IMÐ) and hoIdInq Sh¡ft down press It aqaIn, then you'II qet movInq aIonq another axIs.
ScuIpt Mode Hotkeys
I. an InteractIve brush resIze ShIIt I. an InteractIve brush strenqth adjuster CtrI I. In InteractIve
texture anqIe adjuster Ior your brush. ShIIt Ð. a rectanqIuIar zoom seIectIon Ior cIose-up work AIt Ð.
hIdes aII but seIected rectanqIe A. toqqIes aIrbrush S. smooth Ð. draw G. qrab I. Iayer ¡. InIIate I.
pInch !se X, Y and Z to toqqIe axIs mIrrorInq.
Ways to create "IIuIIy" eIIect (materIaIs and IIqhts) The ways to create "IIuIIy" (brIqhtened) edqes.
based on thIs £IysIun thread
(http.//www.eIysIun.com/Iorum/vIewtopIc.php?t=42662Spostdays=0Spostorder=ascSstart=0)
SpherIcaI ÐIend texture method
Add a ÐIend texture set to "sphere" (cIrcuIar pattern In prevIew). map It to empty|empty|Z
coordInates and coordInates source to "Þor" Instead oI "Orco" , set method to Add and channeI to
£mIt.
ÐackIIqht (aka "úndy's top secret materIaI" .) )
just add a suIIIcIentIy, but not overIy brIqht, coIored IemI IIqht behInd the object (reIatIve to
camera). You may need set It to be "Iayer onIy" IIqht II It InterIeres wIth rest oI a IIqhtrInq rIq. IIke
ramp, thIs method can make edqe not just brIqhter but oI dIIIerent coIor.
CoIor ramp (http.//www.bIender3d.orq/cms/ÐampShaders.348.0.htmI) wIth Input set to
normaI.
Iretty straIqhIorward, but many advIse aqaInst It.
MInnaert shader
AvaIIabIe In 2.37, "Ðarkness"<1 actuaIIy brIqhtens edqe. A cooI shader, but not very useIuI Ior thIs
purpose.
CompIIed by . TrIdent
TroubIeshootInq
AT¡ Hadeon SIowdown ProbIems
Go the the AT¡ sIte drIver downIoads sectIon and seIect the approprIate OS/qraphIc card. ThIs wIII
(most IIkeIy) IInk you to the d/I Ior the current CataIyst 4.4 drIvers.
At the bottom oI that paqe Is a IInk to "IrevIous drIver versIons".
Ð/I the CataIyst 3.7 drIver packaqe. Ðun the £X£ and It wIII extract the drIver InstaII packaqe to.
C.\AT¡\S!IIOÐT\
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¡n thIs dIrectory wIII be a dIrectory named (Ior XI/WIn2K users.
\wxp-w2k-7-93-030812a1-010735c-eIq\
ThIs Is where the drIver InstaII packaqe Is Iocated. ÐO ÞOT Ð!Þ TI£ S£T!I. You don't need to
InstaII the oId drIver.
ÞavIqate down thru the dIr structure to the IoIIowInq dIr.
C.\AT¡\S!IIOÐT\wxp-w2k-7-93-030812a1-010735c-eIq\2KXI¡ÞI\Ð10679
¡n thIs dIr you'II IInd a IIIe caIIed. atIoqIxx.dI ThIs Is a "packed" versIon oI the AT¡ OGI drIver.
The next step specIIIes how you can extract these IIIes to your hard dIsk usInq the 'expand.exe'
utIIIty IncIuded on the cd.
The '¡386' IoIder on the WIndows XI CÐ contaIns a utIIIty 'expand.exe' that can be used to
uncompress aII compressed dII IIIes. ¡t Is a commandIIne utIIIty, so you have wIII have to run It Irom
eIther the command prompt or the Ðun dIaIoq. Some exampIes oI Its usaqe are.
AÐÐOT.ÐI on the WInXI CÐ, copIes It to C., and chanqes the extensIon to .ÐII .
just extract that IIIe (atIoqIxx.dII) to your ÐIender InstaII dIrectory. !suaIIy C.\Iroqram IIIes\ÐIender
IoundatIon\ÐIender\
Iaunch ÐIender.... no more sIowdown.
Addendum. ¡ Iound thIs soIved a probIem oI crashInq on start up aIter updatInq my CataIyst drIver
Irom 7.2 to 7.8, that Is expandInq the oId 7.2 atIoqIxx.dI to atIoqIxx.dII and copyInq It to the ÐIender
dIrectory.
For peopIe who the above soIut¡on Ieads to BIender crash at start up
Thanks to XenobIus at ÐIenderartIsts Iorum
ThIs soIutIon Is tested on AT¡ radeon express 200 (x200) Inteqrated vIdeo card. Iowever It shouId
work on other AT¡ card.
ÐownIoad the ÞvIdIa 53.03 ÐrIver I£Ð£
(http.//www.meqaqames.com/news/redIr.cqI?http.//downIoad.nvIdIa.com/WIndows/53.03/53.03wInxp2kenqIIshwhqI.exe
£xtract the drIver to C.\ÞV¡Ð¡A
Copy the nvoqInt.dII Irom the C.\ÞV¡Ð¡A IoIder to your bIender proqram IoIder (Ie. C.\Iroqrams
IIIes\ÐIender 2.40\)
Ðename nvoqInt.dII (the one In the bIender proqram IoIder) to atIoqIxx.dII
Ðun bIender...VIoIa! ÐIender runs IIke It shouId!
lthIs aIso works by renamInq any .dII to "atIoqIxx.dII". Try It by copyInq and renamInq any oI the .dIIs
In the bIender IoIder to It, then IaunchInq bIender. Worked Ior me!|
expahd X.\T386\A0R0T.0L_ C.\A0R0T.0LL
The above commahd decomp:esses 1he comp:essed 0LL
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GeneraI AdvIce on ModeIInq ÐeaIIstIcaIIy
ModeI¡ng HeaI¡st¡caIIy - T¡ps and
Techn¡ques
£veryone who starts a new career or hobby In 3Ð ModeIInq aIso seems to Iook around theIr
ImmedIate envIronment Ior thInqs to modeI. ThInqs IIke your computer monItor, your keyboard, and
even the desktop whIch they are restInq are aII common "IIrst modeIs." ÐeveIopInq an eye Ior
qeometry takes tIme and thIs Is a qreat chance to practIce.
Ior thIs tIps and technIques dIscussIon, ¡'II start wIth the concepts oI IurnIture and waIIs, but the
Ideas reaIIy extend to anythInq and everythInq you can modeI In ÐIender, Irom spaceshIps to Iantasy
demon-women, Irom your barbecue deck bIueprInts to bIoIoqIcaIIy accurate squIds.
AssembIe Th¡ngs, Don't Ch¡seI Them
Iet's start wIth the IurnIture around you.
You may thInk It's easy to modeI your desk usInq a coupIe oI booIean operatIons on cubes. Ðut It
rareIy comes out IookInq quIte rIqht. ¡t seems IIke such a qood Idea at IIrst. Then you IInd that the
drawers won't open reaIIstIcaIIy. The corners are aII amazInqIy sharp and crIsp. The wrItInq surIace
seems to be at the wronq scaIe Ior thIckness. The woodqraIn qoes In the same dIrectIon everywhere.
You then reaIIze It wIII be hard to beveI just the Iew edqes that need beveIInq. The more you Iook at It,
even wIth qood render settInqs, the more It Iooks IIke doIIhouse IurnIture Instead oI a reaI IIIe, IuII
sIze desk.
ÐeaI IurnIture Is not chIseIed out oI a haII-ton cube oI mahoqany, because trees don't qrow that
thIck, and It's a reaI waste to chIp out the spaces Ior drawers. ¡nstead, cabInetmakers tend to
assembIe a pIece oI IurnIture Irom many component parts. ThInk oI those "seII-assembIy" kIts Irom
the IocaI superstore, or even the showroom exampIes Irom a nearby unIInIshed knotty pIne store.
ModeI severaI kInds oI boards and IIttInqs, then copy and assembIe them approprIateIy. You don't
need to modeI every naII and doweI, and you don't even need to know what a dovetcil joint Is. Ðut
you can make reaIIstIc IurnIture when you buIId thInqs Irom theIr naturaI components.
Cut Iumber In a varIety oI sIzes and thIcknesses.
Measure reaI exampIe IurnIture and take note oI the constructIon detaIIs.
Choose varyInq woodqraIns by dupIIcatInq materIaIs and adjustInq them to be more IndIvIduaI.
AIIqn those woodqraIns or other materIaIs In an approprIate dIrectIon and scaIe Ior the modeI.
ÐeveI just the parts or edqes whIch are naturaIIy worn or IntentIonaIIy beveIed.
Any cIoth, qIass or metaI IIttInqs are separate components usInq theIr own materIaIs.
Create an "£mpty" type object, qIve It a descrIptIve name, and parent aII oI the pIeces to It.
There are a coupIe more beneIIts to thIs Iorm oI component modeIInq.
WorkInq wIth thInqs made Irom muItIpIe reaI materIaIs Is easIer. one object, one materIaI.
The modeI Is more IIexIbIe, because they can be reconIIqured to other styIes more easIIy.
Components come In handy Ior other modeIs. adapt a desk's drawers In kItchen cabInets and
bedroom IurnIture.
Separate Ob]ects for each Mater¡aI
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A common questIon Ior new modeIers Is how to make one
mesh that uses more than one materIaI. Ior exampIe, a
skateboard wIth metaI trucks, rubber tIres, and a wooden
deck. WhIIe ÐIender does provIde an InterIace to aIIow
such a combInatIon, It Is not usuaIIy the best approach Ior
modeIInq reaIIstIcaIIy.
¡I you modeI the skateboard as separate parts, based on
the way dIIIerent reaI parts are assembIed, then you have a
Iot more controI over the IInaI modeI. You can repIace the
wheeIs or use trucks oI dIIIerent styIes Iater. You can
adjust the mesh that deIInes the shape oI the deck, wIthout
havInq to re-assIqn the areas that shouId be one materIaI
or the other. And IastIy, you can choose to use subsurIace
trIcks on the varIous parts, whIIe avoIdInq them on other
parts. £ven II the whoIe modeI needs subsurIaces, It
becomes a bIt hard to controI where one materIaI starts, and another materIaI ends.
Hemov¡ng the Fourth WaII
just as wIth IurnIture, you may modeI your IIrst buIIdInq InterIor as a hoIIowed-out cube. ¡t seems
straIqhtIorward to make a bIq cube, turn It InsIde out, and caII It a IIvInq room. There are a Iot oI
drawbacks to workInq wIth a room that was carved out oI a sInqIe chunk oI soIId rock.
ÐuIIdInqs and rooms are assembIed Irom parts. just IIke the IurnIture modeIInq tIp, desIqn your
rooms as a coIIectIon oI separate pIeces.
You don't need to measure out the InternaI beams and joIsts, but remember they're there.
£ach InterIor or exterIor waII shouId be Its own object or assembIy.
Take care to note the correct dImensIons and pIacement oI doorways, wIndows, ceIIInq.
The beneIIts oI a component-modeIed InterIor IncIude.
£asIer to see InsIde, just hIde some waIIs on a dIIIerent Iayer.
WaIIs are much easIer to move around to reconIIqure the room Iayout.
The same modeIInq work on one area can be copIed to other rooms more easIIy.
A more reaIIstIc archItecture wIth consIstent scaIInq Is achIeved quIckIy.
Proport¡ons and Measurements
Ior reaIIsm, It's vItaIIy Important to qet the rIqht proportIons Ior IamIIIar objects. ¡I your audIence
sees a booksheII wIth 5" thIck sheIves, or a human hand whIch has a 5" Ionq thumb, theIr braIn Is
qoInq to teII them that somethInq Is wronq. They mIqht not be abIe to decIde why, but they'II teII you
It Iooks Iake.
£ven when you're anImatInq Iantasy characters, you shouId deveIop an understandInq Ior
proportIon. Many cartoon characters have very Iarqe heads when compared to theIr bodIes, thIs
aIIows room Ior qreater expressIon and makes the characters seem younqer. ÐecIdInq how many
"heads hIqh" each character shouId appear wIII ensure that your IIqures aII maIntaIn proper
proportIons to each other and to theIr envIronment.
skateboards, modeIed In parts
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To qet qood proportIons, you need to thInk about
measurements.
Grab a ruIer or IInd some exIstInq bIueprInts.
ThInk In terms oI those measurements Ior the
duratIon oI the project.
Choose a base scaIe that wIII Iet you work
comIortabIy wIthIn a 500x500x500 unIt voIume.
ÐIender IImIts cameras to 1000 unIt dIstances, Ior
better numerIcaI accuracy.
You can mIx and match base unIts, by usInq £mpty objects
as parents. Ior exampIe, you can modeI your IurnIture In
Inches or centImeters, and modeI your house In Ieet or
meters. Then when you append your bed.bIend's objects,
just parent that bed to a new £mpty object, and scaIe the
£mpty. ThIs wIII convenIentIy scaIe aII oI the separate component pIeces oI the object toqether.
There's onIy one bIq wrInkIe wIth workInq wIth muItIpIe scaIes. materIaIs shouId be desIqned wIth a
certaIn base scaIe In mInd. Many materIaI surIace propertIes are scaIed accordInq to the unIts you
choose Ior a qIven object, or the worId unIts. just consIder thIs as you desIqn, and check your work
crItIcaIIy.
IaIIey 20.18, 21 january 2007 (!TC)
!sInq ÐIender IIbrarIes You can append IIbrarIes In two ways. You can make a IocaI copy oI data
bIocks (IIke objects, meshes, ...) oI the content oI a .bIend IIIe In your .bIend IIIe (append¡ng) or you
can use data bIocks Irom another .bIend IIIe (dynam¡c I¡nk¡ng).
You can Append wIth the command In the 3d vIew IIIe -> Append or SH¡FT+F1. When you qIve
thIs command a IIIe browser wIndow opens. There are two buttons Append and ¡¡nk at the bottom
oI the wIndow. The deIauIt actIon Is cppending. Ðut you can use dyncmic linking seIectInq the IInk
button.
At thIs poInt seIect the .bIend IIIe to append. You can seIect one oI the IoIIowInq data bIocks type to
append.
Group
Mesh
Ob]ect
Scene
Text
WorId
(not compIete yet)
Þote that thIs Is a compIete IIst, when you append onIy bIock types present In the IIIe wIII appear.
SeIect the desIred type. Þow you can seIect the partIcuIar data bIock to append by seIectInq Its Id.
¡nd¡rect I¡nk¡ng
When you qIve an append or IInk command aImost aII reIatIons between data bIocks In ÐIender qet
expanded. Ior exampIe, when you IInk (or append) a specIIIc Group, aII Its objects, the meshes
assocIated wIth the objects, the materIaIs and the anImatIons wIII be IInked (or appended) too. That Is
soda cans and qIass, modeIed In parts
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caIIed "IndIrect IInkInq". When you use dyncmic linking such IndIrect IInked data Is not stored when
you save a .bIend IIIe, when you Ioad the IIIe aqaIn bIender wIII Iook Ior the IndIrect IInked data
bIocks In the IIbrary IIIe.
Groups
When you cppend a Group, bIender wIII aIso create IInks In the current Scene to the objects that are
part oI the qroup. The Objects then become vIsIbIe. Iowever, when you decIde to dyncmic link a
Group, It won't do that. To use the objects In your bIender project you can use the qroup as a
dupI¡cator "SH¡FT+AKEY -> Group menu -> qroup Id to dupIIcate".
See aIso
http.//www.bIender.orq/cms/IIbraryIInkInq.769.0.htmI
http.//www.bIender.orq/cms/ÐIenderArchItecture.336.0.htmI
CreatInq ÐIender IIbrarIes
Creat¡ng BIender ¡¡brar¡es
You've IInaIIy made that perIect object, armature or materIaI. a qamepIece, a robot, a IuIIy rIqqed
vampIre character, or a mIIIImeter-accurate modeI oI the £mpIre State ÐuIIdInq. ÐesIdes usInq thIs
work In your own artIstIc project, you have made the couraqeous decIsIon to share that creatIon
wIth the worId.
SharInq your creatIve work Is a qreat way to "qIve back to the communIty," even II you don't wrIte
ÐIender code and you can't transIate the ÐIender documentatIon to SwahIII.
How to Make a ¡¡brary
So how do you make a IIbrary? ¡n ÐIender, you don't need to export to a specIaI Iormat. ¡n Iact, you
don't need to do anythInq specIaI beyond savInq your requIar .bIend IIIe. £very .bIend Is a IIbrary IIIe.
!sers can Append what they IIke Irom your .bIend IIIe, and Iqnore parts whIch they don't need Ior
theIr own project.
ThIs scheme has some beneIIts and some drawbacks.
The beneIIt oI usInq .bIend IIIes as a IIbrary Iormat Is that It's super easy to IncIude extra stuII to heIp
the user see the objects. ¡I the user Ioads the .bIend IIIe dIrectIy, It works IIke the pretty packaqInq
Ior Ioods, IncIudInq a quIck and easy way to qet a pretty "servInq suqqestIon" renderInq oI the
IIbrary contents. What you save In your .bIend Is what the user wIII see when they Ioad It, IncIudInq
aII your user InterIace settInqs, IIqhtInq types, and camera posItIons.
The drawback oI usInq .bIend IIIes as a IIbrary Iormat Is that It's super easy to IncIude unintended
thInqs, such as extra meshes, unused materIaI and texture channeIs, and other thInqs whIch the user
wIII not IInd heIpIuI. ÐIender doesn't save thInqs whIch are no Ionqer reIerenced anywhere, but It
cannot read your mInd II you Ieave a spare mesh on Iayer 13 whIch uses some abandoned
MaterIaI.034.
AIso, some peopIe are not accustomed to the way that ÐIender saves aII oI the user InterIace settInqs
aIonq wIth the .bIend IIIe. When they Ioad your mesh, they see your way oI workInq. ThIs can be
InstructIve, but unIess that's your IntentIon, It's best to try to stIck to a sImpIe and cIean user
InterIace setup Ior your IIbrary IIIes.
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Ior best resuIts, you need to appIy some dIscIpIIne to pubIIsh a cIean and useIuI IIbrary.
¡¡brary 1sefuIness CheckI¡st
AIter havInq used severaI IIbrary .bIend IIIes Irom varIous sources, ¡ propose that anyone makInq
IIbrarIes IoIIow a Iew suqqestIons.
keep to a certaIn object, theme or area oI Iocus Ior each IIbrary IIIe
aII the test cameras and IIqhts preIIxed wIth a dash, e.q., -Camera, -Hem¡¡¡ght.001, etc.
any other components not Intended Ior AppendInq preIIxed wIth a dash, e.q., -ground
aII the test cameras and IIqhts on the Iast one or two Iayers (Iower r¡ght Iayer button)
any composIte object Intended Ior AppendInq orqanIzed In a group to hoId It toqether
any qroups, objects, materIaIs, textures Intended Ior AppendInq qIven mean¡ngfuI names
document your unIt scheme, e.q., 1 bIender un¡t == 1 ¡mper¡aI foot, etc.
any other Iayer contaIns test-render-ready objects or scenes
choose renderInq and worId sett¡ngs wh¡ch w¡II not take an hour to make a sImpIe test
render
make vIsIbIe upon IoadInq the Iayers requIred Ior a camera, a qood IIqhtInq anqIe, and a shared
object
make vIsIbIe upon IoadInq one smaII text IIIe whIch IIsts Iayers and objects
make vIsIbIe upon IoadInq any python scrIpt, w¡th ¡nstruct¡ons on how to start ¡t In a bIq
comment
make your IIcensInq expectatIons cIear. art¡st¡c I¡cense, creat¡ve commons, etc.
pack the texture IIIes and other data beIore savInq that IInaI .bIend Ior pubIIshInq
sIqn your work, stabIe emaII address or websIte urI II possIbIe
The dash preIIxes Ior test-renderInq cameras, boxes, IIoors and IIqhts wIII heIp the user know at a
qIance what to Append and what not to Append Irom your IIbrary.
Iere's a quIck way to throw out aII the stuII you reaIIy don't need, IncIudInq extra meshes, materIaIs
and user InterIace compIexIty.
save your current .bIend (and make a nIce backup IIIe too)
shut down ÐIender entIreIy
open up ÐIender aqaIn, whIch wIII Ioad the deIauIt settInqs
deIete the cube and cameras Irom the deIauIt settInqs
Append aII the useIuI parts oI your IIbrary .bIend IIIe (IncIudInq the usejul test-renderInq Items)
seIect the proper test-renderInq camera Ior users to try out your modeI quIckIy (seIect, then
CtrI+K£YIAÐ0)
adjust the vIews to ensure Important thInqs are vIsIbIe and ready to render
save the new IIbrary .bIend, ready to pubIIsh
ÐIender saves the deIauIt settInqs In a IIIe caIIed .b.bIend on your dIsk. ¡I your own preIerred
deIauIt settInqs are stIII too compIIcated Ior newcomers to understand, you can move that IIIe away
temporarIIy to qet the "Iactory" buIIt-In deIauIt settInqs whIch the ÐIender team produces as a part oI
each new versIon oI the soItware. Move the IIIe back aqaIn when you want to qo back to your
IndIvIduaI way oI workInq.
PubI¡sh¡ng Your ¡¡brary
¡t's heIpIuI to IncIude the .txt IIIe and/or post It separateIy so that peopIe can read a summary beIore
IoadInq the bIend IIIe. ThIs shouId IncIude any credIts, usaqe notes, Iayer expIanatIons, and IIcensInq
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InIormatIon. Ior you !nIx IoIks, remember to run It throuqh un¡x2dos to enIorce \r\n CÐII
newIInes, readabIe by peopIe wIth Iess IIexIbIe tooIs such as WIndows Þotepad.
¡t's aIso oI Immense beneIIt to put up smaII test-renders oI your IIbrary objects or materIaIs. They
don't need to be Iarqe but they shouId qIve an honest vIew oI the work you're sharInq beIore a
potentIaI user takes the tIme to downIoad IIbrary IIIes that wIII not be useIuI to them.
So, where do you pubIIsh your work oI artIstIc qenIous?
ÐIender 3Ð ModeI ÐeposItory (http.//www.e2-productIons.com/bmr)
http.//bIenderartIsts.orq/ Iorums
http.//www.devIantart.com/
your own websIte
¡I you post thInqs on your own websIte, try not to reIy on a Iree sIte that wIII over-run your
bandwIdth IImIts and dIsappear two months Iater. Search enqIne IInks wIII sometImes IIve on Ior
years, just IrustratInq those who were hopInq to IInd a mIIIImeter-accurate modeI oI the £mpIre State
ÐuIIdInq.
Beyond ¡¡brar¡es
¡I you have even more tIme to spare, consIder wrItInq up a tutorIaI on how you achIeved any trIcky
resuIts!
Thank You
Ior every artIst who chooses to share theIr creatIve works wIth the communIty, there are a dozen
artIsts, or even hundreds, who thank you ImmenseIy.
ÐIspIacement MappInq ÐIender 3Ð. Þoob to Iro/ÐIspIacement MappInq
Iuman Ðody ThIs tutorIaI shouId cover the modeIIInq, skInnInq and anImatIon oI human body, pIus
IacIaI expressIons.
There are some tooIs to qenerate human body Irom parameters IIke.
lmakehuman (http.//www.dedaIo-3d.com/Index.php) | Iree soIware proqram (qpI). The modeIs
qenerated are under M¡T IIcense. The modeIs qenerated can be easIIy Imported In bIender.
lIaceqen (http.//www.Iaceqen.com/) | commercIaI proqram. !sed Ior
wIkIpedIa.The£IderScroIIs¡V.ObIIvIon.
IInks to anatomy sItes (warn¡ng: nud¡ty).
lIIneart (http.//www.IIneart.sk/) |
ll1| (http.//www.3d.sk/) |
tutorIaIs. ÐIender3Ð.TutorIaIIInksIIst#Iuman
ÐenderInq ¡nIormatIons OnIy some IInks to wIkIpedIa artIcIes Ior now
wIkIpedIa.ÐenderInq (computer qraphIcs)
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wIkIpedIa.SpecuIar reIIectIon
wIkIpedIa.ÐIIIuse reIIectIon
wIkIpedIa.IIat shadInq
wIkIpedIa.Gouraud shadInq
wIkIpedIa.Ihonq shadInq
wIkIpedIa.IambertIan dIIIuse IIqhtInq modeI
wIkIpedIa.Ihonq reIIectIon modeI
MakInq Iandscapes wIth heIqhtmaps ThIs tutorIaI wIII show you how to make advanced terraIn such
as mountIans usInq ÐIender and qImp or any other Imaqe edItInq soItware. ÐIender has the abIIIty to
use heIqht maps to create meshes. IeIqht maps are bIack and whIte Imaqes wIth whIte representInq
the hIqhest poInt and bIack the Iowest.
To beqIn wIth, open your Imaqe edItInq soItware. ThIs part appIIes to GImp onIy, II you use another
proqram you wIII have to do It another way. Go to
->IIIters->Ðender->cIouds->pIasma. Ior thIs exampIe just use the deIauIt settInqs, It doesn't reaIy
matter. CIIck OK. You shouId now have a nIce
coIorIuI Imaqe. We don't want that, we want It In bIack and whIte. Make sure your GradIent Is set to
"IG to ÐG(ÐGÐ)"(thIs Is the deIauIt anyway) and that your Ioreqround coIor Is bIack and the
backqround coIor Is whIte. Go to ->IIIters->CoIors->Map->GradIent Map. ThIs wIII convert It to
bIack and whIte Ior you. Save your Imaqe.
¡t shouId Iook somethInq IIke thIs
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Open ÐIender and deIete the deIauIt cube. Þow add a qrId wIth resoIutIons 32 and 32 Irom top vIew.
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ScaIe the qrId to however bIq you want your area to be (¡I thIs Is Iarqe you may want to subdIvIde the
qrId some more). Go to the materIaI wIndow (I5) and push the cheese IookInq button. Add a new
texture
and name It IeIqht. Set the texture type to Imaqe and Ioad the Imaqe you made earIIer.
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Go back to the maIn materIaI wIndow and Iook at the texture wIndow.
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ThIs shouId have IeIqht wrItten In It wIth a tIck next to It. ¡I not cIIck "add new" and seIect "heIqht".
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Þow cIIck the "Map To" tab and deseIect "CoI".
ThIs wIII stop the Imaqe Irom chanqInq the coIor oI the qrId. Go to the mesh wIndow (I9) and enter
edIt mode (TAÐ). Go to eIther Iront or sIde vIew so you can
see what you are doInq. CIIck the "noIse" button and your qrId shouId start to chanqe shape.
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ContInue cIIckInq the button untII the terraIn has reached the heIqht you want and voIIà, you have
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just made terraIn usInq heIqhtmaps. You may want
to subsurI the shape to qet a smoother eIIect.
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TIps.
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1.¡I you want a more jaqqed Iandscape then adjust the contrast on the Imaqe edItInq soItware
2.To texture your Iandscape you can use your heIqht map by puttInq whatever you want at the
hIqhest poInt over the whIte spots and whatever you want at the Iowest poInts over the bIack spots.
Then save as a dIIIerent Imaqe.
3.IeIqht maps can aIso be used to make cIty terraIn. Ðraw whIte squares on a bIack backqround. ¡I
you do thIs make sure you make the squares perIectIy paraIIeI to the sIdes oI the Imaqe. ThIs
prevents jaqqed edqes to buIIdInqs. You can aIso use qray squares to adjust the buIIdInqs dIIIerent
heIqhts.
ModeIInq a Muq usInq SpInnInq and £xtrusIon Start by deIetInq the deIauIt cube. ¡n Iront vIew, Add
a cIrcIe. Move the vertIcIes around to Iorm a backwards "I" shape. SeIect the vertIcIe on the bottom
IeIt and qo to Mesh-snap-cursor to seIectIon. Then, In top vIew, seIect aII the vertIcIes and spIn It 360
deqrees. Then, seIect aII vertIcIes, hIt wkey, and cIIck remove doubIes. Then, on one oI the sIdes,
seIect the mIddIe Iace. extrude It 0.7, and make an Iqon wIth the three trIanqIes on the sIde oI the
maIn part. seIect the two squares on the top oI the extrusIon and extrude them to 1.82. then
subdIvIde the Inner part oI the handIe. SeIect the mIddIe eqdes and move them up. extrude the Iaces
above Into the base. posItIon the camera and add a IeveI three IIqht source. Ðender the modeI. You
can add coIor, texture, or anythInq eIse.
Add some depth wIth stereo ThIs tutorIaI contaIns some tIps Ior how to work wIth stereo Imaqes. ¡'m
wrItInq thIs to heIp others, to have my notes easIIy avaIIabIe, and to Iet others Improve my Ideas.
Stereo vIewInq Is to see the same thInq Irom two sIIqhtIy dIIIerent anqIes. ThIs Is what humans
normaIIy do wIth our two eyes. There are many ways to vIew a stereo Imaqe. A perIect method Is to
use a stereo monItor. Ðut they are quIte expensIve, and many has very Iow quaIIty. ¡n the other end oI
the prIce-scaIe you can use crossvIewInq. Iut the two Imaqes next to each other, and Iook at one
wIth one eye, and the other wIth the other eye. Þeeds a bIt oI practIce thouqh. A popuIar soIutIon Is
red/bIue anaqIyph qIasses, but they qIve very bad coIors.
The stereo camera
¡ wanted a stereo camera rIq that was easy to work wIth. ¡t shouId have three cameras (center, IeIt
rIqht), have an easy way to set separatIon (shouId be 1/30 oI the dIstance) and ¡ wouId onIy need to
work wIth the center cam (posItIon etc.), to others shouId just IoIIow.
Create ¡t
ManuaIIy
Ðeset the cameras posItIon, rotatIon and sIze (you can use A¡T+GKEY, A¡T+HKEY and
A¡T+SKEY). You may want to note these vaIues IIrst, so you can chanqe them back Iater. ¡ just
make sure there's an ¡IO-curve Ior them, Ior exampIe by makInq a keyIrame (¡KEY).
1.
Create two new cameras. Ðeset theIr posItIon, rotatIon and sIze too. 2.
Þame them Ccmerc.Right and Ccmerc.Lejt or sImIIar. Set IocX to 1 Ior Ccmerc.Right and -1 Ior
Ccmerc.Lejt. (Iress NKEY to see data Ior seIected object, In thIs wIndow you can chanqe name
and vaIues.) (SeIect a camera by cIIckInq HMB severaI tImes on the cameras, untII the rIqht one
Is seIected.)
3.
Create a new cube (remember to press TAB to exIt edIt mode). Ðeset posItIon, rotatIon and sIze.
Þame It Distcnce Cube and set these vaIues. IocZ. -30. SIzeX. 0.1. SIzeY. 0.1. SIzeZ. 30.
4.
SwItch to Iront vIew. (N1M1) 5.
SeIect Ccmerc.Lejt. Then seIect Ccmerc whIIe hoIdInq down SH¡FT so both are seIected. Iress
CTH¡+PKEY and press ENTEH to reqIster Ccmerc as parent. Then press CTH¡+¡KEY and
6.
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seIect Ccmerc Dctc. Ðepeat wIth rIqht Ccmerc.Right and Distcnce Cube.
W¡th a scr¡pt
¡ trIed makInq a scrIpt that creates the rIq, It aImost works. Any heIp IInIshInq It?
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1mpo:1 Bìehde:
1:om Bìehde: 1mpo:1 *
# P:epa:e
scehe = Scehe.ge1Cu::eh1{)
came:a = 0b]ec1.Ce1{"Came:a") # T000 vaì1da1e 1ha1 11 1s a came:a
oìdLoca11oh = came:a.ìoc
oìdRo1a11oh = came:a.:o1
oìdS1ze = came:a.s1ze
# C:ea1e s1u11
c = Came:a.hew{"o:1ho")
came:aLe11 = 0b]ec1.hew{"Came:a", "Came:a.Le11")
came:aLe11.ì1hk{c)
scehe.ì1hk{came:aLe11)
c = Came:a.hew{"o:1ho")
came:aR1gh1 = 0b]ec1.hew{"Came:a", "Came:a.R1gh1")
came:aR1gh1.ì1hk{c)
scehe.ì1hk{came:aR1gh1)
dEmp1y = 0b]ec1.hew{"Emp1y", "01s1ahce")
scehe.ì1hk{dEmp1y)
# Coh11gu:e
came:a.ìoc = {0,0,0)
came:a.:o1 = {0,0,0)
came:a.s1ze = {1,1,1)
came:aLe11.ìoc = {-1,0,0)
came:aLe11.:o1 = {0,0,0)
came:aLe11.s1ze = {1,1,1)
came:aR1gh1.ìoc = {1,0,0)
came:aR1gh1.:o1 = {0,0,0)
came:aR1gh1.s1ze = {1,1,1)
dEmp1y.ìoc = {0,0,-60)
dEmp1y.:o1 = {0,0,0)
dEmp1y.s1ze = {1,1,1)
scehe.upda1e{1)
# Cohhec1
came:a.makePa:eh1{|came:aLe11, came:aR1gh1, dEmp1y], 0, 0)
# do 1ha1 CTRL+LKEY 1h1hg
came:aLe11.ì1hk{Came:a.Ce1{"Came:a"))
came:aR1gh1.ì1hk{Came:a.Ce1{"Came:a"))
# Rese1 o:1g1haì vaìues
came:a.ìoc = oìdLoca11oh
came:a.:o1 = oìdRo1a11oh
came:a.s1ze = oìdS1ze
# F1h1sh
Bìehde:.Red:aw{)
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How to use ¡t
Þever chanqe the cube or the two sIde-cameras. OnIy chanqe the center camera. !se that one
Ior posItIonInq, rotatIon etc.
To set the separatIon. As aIways, seIect the center camera. ÐesIze It (wIth SKEY) so you can see
the end oI the cube II needed. IoInt at the end oI the cube wIth the mouse poInter, and press
SKEY. Move the mouse poInter to the poInt oI the maIn motIve, that Is cIoses to the camera.
The end oI the cube may not end exactIy there, but that doesn't matter.
To render (or prevIew) wIth one oI the sIde cameras, seIect It and press CTH¡+N1M0.
What needs ¡mprovement
The cube ¡s v¡s¡bIe
¡n stead oI usInq a cube, ¡'d rather use somethInq that doesn't render. ¡t couId be an "ampty", but
see beIow.
The cube ¡s hard to see
¡t can be hard to see where the cube ends, even In a sImpIe scene. You can seIect the center camera
AÞÐ the cube, then It Is cIearIy vIsIbIe. Ðut you must remember to onIy seIect the camera, beIore you
Insert a keyIrame, so your chanqes to the cube doesn't qet saved.
D¡stance pIane ¡s at ¡nf¡n¡ty
The dIstance pIane Is where "zero depth Is". When vIewInq a stereo Imaqe, the dIstance pIane Is
where the medIum Is. ¡n thIs rIq the dIstance pIane Is at InIInIty, meanInq everything Is In Iront oI It.
WhIIe stuII poppInq out In Iront oI the screen Is cooIer than stuII beInq "InsIde" the screen, It's a Iot
harder to make It Iook nIce. SpecIaIIy because wIth everythInq In Iront oI the screen, It's easy to qet
stuII that Is just way to cIose to the vIewer. ¡t can qet so hard to see that the 3d-eIIect Is compIeteIy
qone.
An easy but wrong soIutIon Is to make the sIde cameras poInt at the end oI the cube, or add a pIane
to the rIq, and poInt at that. Ðut then the cameras are no Ionqer paraIIeI, and that creates very uqIy
dIstortIons.
The rIqht soIutIon Is to (conceptuaIIy) render the Imaqes too wIde, and then crop the excess Irom the
IeIt sIde oI the IeIt Imaqe, and the rIqht sIde oI the rIqht Imaqe. The It wIII Iook IIke It poInts just IIke In
the wronq soIutIon, but wIthout the dIstortIon.
Ðut thIs qIve a Iot oI probIems. IIrst, ¡'d IIke to do thIs a smarter way, In stead oI just IoIIowInq the
path descrIbe above. Ðut ¡ don't thInk that's possIbIe In ÐIender. (¡ thInk povray can actuaIIy do thIs.)
So ¡ need to render the Imaqe too wIde. Ðut II ¡ Increase wIdth In output, It actuaIIy renders the same
wIdth oI the motIve, but decreases heIqht. Then ¡ need to do some weIrd math to qet the rIqht IOV,
and ¡ don't know haII the IormuIas. CroppInq must be done outsIde ÐIender, and the rest oI "the
productIon IIne" Is hard to qet back Into ÐIender II wanted.
¡ quess a coupIe oI pIanes In the rIq cIose to the cameras couId sImuIate the croppInq, but that Is oI
IImIted vaIue. To make an adjustabIe dIstance pIane wIth them seems quIte hard to me, It wouId need
some scrIptInq ¡ quess.
Stereo v¡ew¡ng w¡th the r¡g
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ThIs Is where It qets excItInq, now you are actuaIIy qettInq somethInq to Iook at.
Create a new screen, you couId caII It Stereo View. 1.
The screen shouId have one bIq area Irom sIde to sIde. 2.
Set the area to 3D View 3.
!nIock It (The Locks lcyers cnd used Ccmerc to Scene-Iock) 4.
SeIect Ccmerc.Right and press CTH¡+N1M0 5.
SpIIt the area In haII so there Is two parts next to each other 6.
¡n the right area, seIect Ccmerc.Lejt and press CTH¡+N1M0 7.
Adjust zoom In both areas so the Irame that shows what Is rendered Is compIeteIy vIsIbIe, but
IIII as much as possIbIe. ¡I you can't make them same sIze, the two areas are not same sIze.
8.
!se cross-vIew method to see the 3d-eIIect. Iook at the IeIt area wIth the rIqht eye and rIqht
area wIth the IeIt eye. (¡t's a skIII you need to Iearn and practIce.)
9.
Iress SH¡FT+A¡T+AKEY to see your scene anImated In stereo. 10.
Stereo render¡ng
CreatInq anImated G¡Is usInq ÐIender and GImp ThIs tutorIaI wIII quIde you throuqh how to make a
sImpIe anImated GII !sInq ÐIender and GImp. ThIs Is useIuI Ior creatInq Avatars Ior MSÞ etc. ThIs
tutorIaI assumes basIc knowIedqe oI bIender and GImp, see the basIc anImatIon tutorIaI l2|
(http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/wIkI/ÐIender3Ð.ÞoobtoIro/ÐasIcAnImatIon) To start oII you wIII need
an anImatIon, thIs usuaIIy shouId be no Ionqer than 25 Irames Ionq.
1. Open ÐIender. and deIete the deIauIt cube and add a !V sphere, the deIauIt settInqs Ior the sphere
work IIne.
2. Þow set the camera sIze In the scene buttons (I10) to 50 by 50 (¡ am creatInq an avatar Ior
devIant art where the requIred sIze Is 50 by 50 pIxeIs, you may chanqe thIs II you want)
3. set the Irames to start at Irame 1 and end at Irame 20.
4. seIect the sphere and Insert a IOC keyIrame at Irame 1 and 21, then qo to Irame 11, move the
sphere and Insert another IOC keyIrame. thIs wIII create a IoopInq anImatIon.
5. Set the Imaqe type to pnq or jpq (It doesn't matter) and render the anImatIon.
Þow to combIne the Imaqes Into an anImated GII usInq GImp.
6.Open the IIrst Imaqe wIth qImp.
7. Þow cIIck IIIe-> open as Iayer or press "CtrI-AIt-O". SeIect the next Irame and It wIII be added as a
new Iayer. Ðepeat thIs Ior aII oI the Imaqes, or seIect aII oI the Imaqes by pressInq "CtrI-A".
8. ¡I you press IIIters->AnImatIon->IIayback It shouId pIay the anImatIon. ¡t wIII probabIy have a Iow
Irame rate makInq It "cIIcky". thIs wIII be IIxed Iater.
9. Choose IIIe->Save as-> "Þame".qII, then choose save as anImatIon. The chanqe the Irame rate to
40 ms(25 Irames per second) and voIIa, you are done.
you shouId end up wIth somethInq IIke thIs
Note: w¡th my computer when ¡ change to frame rate to 40 ms ¡t sets ¡t to 100 anyway.
To f¡x th¡s re-open the g¡f ¡n G¡mp and ¡n the Iayers D¡aIog box change the (100ms1 to
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(40ms1 and then save. (NOTE: use th¡s techn¡que to change the frame rate to whatever
you want1
CreatInq Oqq-Theora movIes usInq ÐIender WIkImedIa Commons requIres that movIes be upIoaded
as Oqq-Theora (OGG) IIIes. As oI ÐIender 2.42a, thIs Is not a buIItIn Ieature oI ÐIender. To qet OGG
IIIes Irom your IInIshed anImatIon Isn't dIIIIcuIt, thouqh. Iowever, you'II need addItIonaI soItware.
There are basIcaIIy two ways to qenerate OGG IIIes. you can use one oI the many IIne vIdeo edItors
or you can use specIaI conversIon proqrams. VIdeo edItors IIke IIV£S or CInereIIa aIIow you to Ioad
your AV¡ or your rendered Irames, manIpuIate them, and create the OGG IIIe Irom It. IIease reIer to
the edItor's documentatIon on how to achIeve thIs.
A dIsadvantaqe oI a vIdeo edItor Is they are huqe pIeces oI soItware, dupIIcatInq IunctIonaIIty that
you aIready used when you created your anImatIon IIIe/s wIth bIender. ¡t's actuaIIy not necessary to
InstaII a vIdeo edItor just Ior convertInq your anImatIon to OGG Theora Iormat.
Convert¡ng AV¡s d¡rectIy to Ogg Theora
To convert AV¡ to OGG, you can use the IImpeq2theora soItware packaqe
(http.//www.v2v.cc/-j/IImpeq2theora/) whIch Is avaIIabIe In source or bInary Ior aII reIevant systems.
!saqe exampIe.
Convert¡ng saved frame p¡cture f¡Ies to Ogg Theora
¡t's actuaIIy possIbIe to convert Irame pIctures that you saved beIore to OGG Iormat movIes. AII you
need to do Is create a movIe Iormat that the abovementIoned jjmpeg2theorc tooI understands, and
then use that. On IInux, thIs Is readIIy achIeved by usInq the mjpeqtooIs soItware packaqe
(http.//mjpeq.sourceIorqe.net/) . Ior exampIe, II your Irames were saved as IÞG, you couId convert
them to a soundIess OGG IIIe wIth.
Sound Is possIbIe too. IIease reIer to the mjpegtools documentatIon.
SoIt Ðody wIth wInd ThIs Is the BIender w¡nd and soft body tutor¡aI. ThIs tutorIaI wIII try and
heIp your knowIedqe oI usInq SoIt Ðody and the IIeIds and ÐeIIectIon paneIs In ÐIender 3Ð. (Ior
best resuIts, ¡ recommend you use ÐIender versIon 2.43 or hIqher). Ðon´t Iorqet to save your work
at varIous poInts throuqhout the tutorIaI.
Sett¡ng up scene
The pIane
ÐeIete the deIauIt cube lÐeIete key, yes| and enter Iront vIew mode lÞum. Iad 1|. Add a pIane, scaIe
3 tImes lS key, 3, £nter| and sub-dIvIde 4 tImes untII you qet somethInq IIke the shape beIow. ¡I your
computer can handIe more, and you want more, sub-dIvIde as many tImes as you IIke, but II your IC
Is struqqIInq wIth thIs, undo once or twIce.
11mpeg21heo:a --op11m1ze my.av1
phg2yuv -T p -1 25 /1mp/*.phg >my.yuv
11mpeg21heo:a --op11m1ze my.yuv
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The w¡nd ¡tems
TAÐ out oI edIt mode (II you haven´t done so aIready), enter sIde vIew lÞum Iad 3| and add an empty.
CIear the rotatIon lAIT + Ð| and rotate It 90° lÐ, 90|. IIace It about -5 Irom the centre lG, y, -5| and
make sure Its stIII In the mIddIe oI the X axIs. Your scene shouId Iook IIke the pIcture beIow.
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Ior the second wInd Item, add an empty IIke beIore and cIear Its rotatIon, but ÐOÞ´T rotate It any
more. Move It aIonq the Y axIs by 4 pIaces lG, Y, 4| and -10 by the Z lG, Z, -10|. And now your scene
shouId Iook somethInq IIke thIs (wIth aII Items seIected).
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And that´s aII your Items you´II need Ior thIs. Onto the harder part.
Des¡gnat¡ng each ob]ects ]ob
The pIane
Þow, the pIane wIII become a soIt body, so enter the Object IaneI lI7|, cIIck on the IhysIcs Ðutton
(besIde the three arrows, see second pIcture beIow) and cIIck on the soIt body button. You wIII qet a
Ioad oI boxes, but we onIy need to Iook at the Grav, GoaI, and the bottom parts.
Chanqe the vaIues oI these as shown above. Chanqe the Aero part to 732 (II you qo up to 1000, It
chanqes the IInaI output by a bIt).
Þow, cIIck on the SoIt Ðody CoIIIsIon tab and cIIck on the SeII CoIIIsIon and ÐeIIectIon buttons. You
don´t need to chanqe any oI the numbers here. The buttons wIndow shouId Iook somethInq IIke thIs.
Þow we wIII move on to the £mpty Items whIch wIII be the wInd.
Creat¡ng the w¡nd
The two empty´s we created earIIer wIII be the Items that wIII act IIke wInd, and when you render at
the end, they wIII be InvIsIbIe, just IIke the wInd. Anyway, seIect one oI the empty´s and enter the
IhysIcs paneI. CIIck on the box under the IIeIds and seIect "WInd". Chanqe the Strenqth to 20, cIIck
on !se MaxÐIst and chanqe MaxÐIst to 2.5.
Ðo the same Ior the other empty. Your scene shouId Iook somethInq IIke thIs.
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The movement
ThIs Is probabIy the most compIIcated part, but shouIdn´t take Ionq.
The Empty on the Ieft
¡n sIde vIew lÞum pad 3|, seIect the empty on the IeIt and do the IoIIowInq. 1. Iress l¡ key| and then
seIect IocÐotScaIe Irom the IIst It qIves you. ThIs Inserts a key Irame, sayInq that on thIs Irame, keep
the IocatIon, ÐotatIon and scaIe the same throuqhout the rest oI the movIe, unIess It comes across
another key Irame, whIch mIqht teII It to move or stay the same. Þow, press the !p Arrow Key untII
you qet to Irame 31 (about 3 tImes). ¡I you don´t know where the box Is that teIIs you what Irame
your on, check the IoIIowInq pIcture.
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Þumber 1 shows the current Irame number and the name oI the seIected object whIIe number 2
shows the current Irame and aIIows you to chanqe the Irame wIth the arrows on eIther sIde.
Back to the movement
On Irame 31, seIect the empty on the IeIt (the one seIected In the pIcture above) and press lG key|.
Þow press lY key| and press "4", then l£nter key|. Þow press l¡ key| and seIect IocÐotScaIe aqaIn.
Þow, II you press and hoId the IeIt Arrow Key, you shouId see the £mpty move back to Its startInq
pIace. Þow, to check the curve quIde (caIIed the "¡IO Curve £dItor"), rIqht-cIIck on the top paneI
(number 1 In pIcture beIow), then seIect "SpIIt Area" and cIIck when the IIne Is a bIt out Irom the sIde
(number 2 In pIcture beIow).
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Þow, cIIck on the box (shown beIow) and seIect "¡IO Curve £dItor" Irom the menu.
ThIs wIndow just shows where the key Irames you entered are, and how much the shape chanqes,
moves or rotates. Þow, qo back to Irame 1 and press lAIT|+lA|, whIch pIays the anImatIon. You
shouId see the "wInd" hIt the sheet and the sheet wIII bIow away. Iretty nIce, huh? Þow, It wouId be
IIne IIke that (¡´II show you how to qet rId oI the bIockyness In the Iast part), but say you want to hIt
the sheet aqaIn and send It upwards? We wIII use the second empty Ior thIs.
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SeIect the second empty (the one on the bottom). ¡nsert a key Irame (l¡ key|, IocÐotScaIe) on Irame
1 and Irame 50. Go to Irame 60, qrab the empty and move It up 8 pIaces (lG key|, lZ key|, 8). ¡nsert a
key Irame (l¡ key|, IocÐotScaIe) and then qo back to Irame 1. You have compIeted the basIcs, and
the most oI thIs tutorIaI. Þow, press lAIT|+lA key| and watch your anImatIon.
F¡n¡sh¡ng touches
BIock¡ness
Þow, to sort out the bIockIness, qo to the £dItInq buttons paneI lI9| and seIect the "Set Smooth"
button.
Þow II you prevIew aqaIn (lAIT|+lA|) you shouId see the pIane Is smoother, but mIqht be a bIt
unreaIIstIc (I.e. not actInq IIke reaI cIoth). Þow, that can´t be heIped, the onIy way to qet rId oI It Is to
subdIvIde the pIane severaI more tImes, but that wIII put a IOT oI straIn on your computer, so ¡
wouIdn´t recommend doInq It unIess your computer can handIe It.
Background
IIrst oI aII, qot to the Scene paneI lI10| and over at the Iormat paneI, chanqe SIzeX to 400 and SIzeY
to 300. Þow, to chanqe the backqround coIour when you render, qo to the shadInq paneI lI5| and
seIect the WorId buttons. Þow, In the WorId paneI chanqe IoÐ to 0, IoG to 0.80 and IoÐ to 1.0.
AII that does Is just chanqes the backqround coIour to a brIqhter, nIcer shade oI bIue. Þow, ¡´m just
qettInq a bIt Iazy, so ¡´II just expIaIn thIs part wIth a pIcture. (don´t Iorqet to seIect the pIane).
Chanqe the vaIues and press the buttons shown In the pIcture. ThIs wIII chanqe the coIour oI the
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pIane to whIte.
The onIy probIem now Is the IIqht. Iress lI12| and you shouId see what ¡ mean. There's no IIqht
shInInq on the pIane where the camera Is, so Its just shaded dark. To IIx that, seIect the IIqht and qo
to the shadInq paneI lI5|. You now have optIons Ior the IIqht. CIIck on the "Sun" button and press
lAIT|+lÐ| to cIear rotatIon. Þow, In sIde vIew lÞum pad 3| press lÐ| and then type -45. £nter top
vIew lÞum pad 7| and press lÐ| and then -45. ThIs now shInes the IIqht In the dIrectIon oI the pIane,
but, II IIke mIne, the IIqht Is above the pIane In top-vIew, press lG|, lY| and then -5. The IIne comInq
out oI the IIqht source shouId be rouqhIy poIntInq at the centre oI the pIane. Iere´s what your
wIndow shouId Iook IIke.
The pInk IIne Is the IIqht. ThIs was taken In camera vIew lÞum pad 0|. Ðender the Irame and you
shouId see what the IInaI product Iooks IIke. Move to any Irame you want and press lI12| and It wIII
show the rendered Imaqe Ior that Irame. Þow, renderInq the entIre anImatIon mIqht, In Iact, wIII take
a Ionq tIme unIess you have a compIeteIy new IC, are usInq a bIq server IIke ÐreamWorks (one oI the
bIq IC´s, used Ior renderInq Imaqes Iaster) or have a quIcker renderer, ¡ don´t use any externaI
renderers, and am stuck usInq a IC that Is about 2 years oId (In other words, IuII oI junk). ¡t took my
IC Iess than 5 mInutes to render 100 Irames, and the Iast 25 were just bIank (as the pIane just IIew
above the camera). To chanqe the amount oI Irames to render, and to render the IuII anImatIon,
here´s what you press.
The box that says £nd.100 Iets you seIect what Irame you IInIsh renderInq the anImatIon on (ÞOT£.
the Sta.1 button Iets you seIect what Irame to start renderInq the anImatIon). When you press the
AÞ¡M button, It starts renderInq the anImatIon. The Ðox covered In bIue, that says jpeq, Iets you
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chanqe the Iormat oI the Imaqe In the end.
To export the anImatIon as an AV¡ Iormat, seIect the AV¡ button shown beIow, then press OK. Þow,
you need to AnImate the sequence aqaIn, so press the AÞ¡M button aqaIn.
The IInIshed .AV¡ wIII be saved In a IoIder wIth the rest oI your rendered Imaqes. ¡t shouId be saved
In a IoIder caIIed tmp, whIch (on a MIcrosoIt computer) Is In My Computer/tmp. The name oI the IIIe
wIII be whatever your start and end Irames are, so In thIs movIe, mIne Is caIIed 00010100.avI. You
can now do whatever you want wIth your movIe now, and hopeIuIIy you have Iearned a trIck or two
that wIII be heIpIuI Iater on In your ÐIender career.
F¡naI resuIt
Iere Is an anImated .qII oI my IInaI resuIt. (Imported Into MacromedIa IIash and exported as an
anImated .qII)
--£b264 /
GN1 Free Documentat¡on ¡¡cense
VersIon 1.2, Þovember 2002
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0. PHEAMB¡E
The purpose oI thIs IIcense Is to make a manuaI, textbook, or other IunctIonaI and useIuI document
"Iree" In the sense oI Ireedom. to assure everyone the eIIectIve Ireedom to copy and redIstrIbute It,
wIth or wIthout modIIyInq It, eIther commercIaIIy or noncommercIaIIy. SecondarIIy, thIs IIcense
preserves Ior the author and pubIIsher a way to qet credIt Ior theIr work, whIIe not beInq consIdered
responsIbIe Ior modIIIcatIons made by others.
ThIs IIcense Is a kInd oI "copyIeIt", whIch means that derIvatIve works oI the document must
themseIves be Iree In the same sense. ¡t compIements the GÞ! GeneraI IubIIc IIcense, whIch Is a
copyIeIt IIcense desIqned Ior Iree soItware.
We have desIqned thIs IIcense In order to use It Ior manuaIs Ior Iree soItware, because Iree soItware
needs Iree documentatIon. a Iree proqram shouId come wIth manuaIs provIdInq the same Ireedoms
that the soItware does. Ðut thIs IIcense Is not IImIted to soItware manuaIs, It can be used Ior any
textuaI work, reqardIess oI subject matter or whether It Is pubIIshed as a prInted book. We
recommend thIs IIcense prIncIpaIIy Ior works whose purpose Is InstructIon or reIerence.
1. APP¡¡CAB¡¡¡TY AND DEF¡N¡T¡ONS
ThIs IIcense appIIes to any manuaI or other work, In any medIum, that contaIns a notIce pIaced by
the copyrIqht hoIder sayInq It can be dIstrIbuted under the terms oI thIs IIcense. Such a notIce
qrants a worId-wIde, royaIty-Iree IIcense, unIImIted In duratIon, to use that work under the
condItIons stated hereIn. The "Ðocument", beIow, reIers to any such manuaI or work. Any member
oI the pubIIc Is a IIcensee, and Is addressed as "you". You accept the IIcense II you copy, modIIy or
dIstrIbute the work In a way requIrInq permIssIon under copyrIqht Iaw.
A "ModIIIed VersIon" oI the Ðocument means any work contaInInq the Ðocument or a portIon oI It,
eIther copIed verbatIm, or wIth modIIIcatIons and/or transIated Into another Ianquaqe.
A "Secondary SectIon" Is a named appendIx or a Iront-matter sectIon oI the Ðocument that deaIs
excIusIveIy wIth the reIatIonshIp oI the pubIIshers or authors oI the Ðocument to the Ðocument's
overaII subject (or to reIated matters) and contaIns nothInq that couId IaII dIrectIy wIthIn that overaII
subject. (Thus, II the Ðocument Is In part a textbook oI mathematIcs, a Secondary SectIon may not
expIaIn any mathematIcs.) The reIatIonshIp couId be a matter oI hIstorIcaI connectIon wIth the
subject or wIth reIated matters, or oI IeqaI, commercIaI, phIIosophIcaI, ethIcaI or poIItIcaI posItIon
reqardInq them.
The "¡nvarIant SectIons" are certaIn Secondary SectIons whose tItIes are desIqnated, as beInq those
oI ¡nvarIant SectIons, In the notIce that says that the Ðocument Is reIeased under thIs IIcense. ¡I a
sectIon does not IIt the above deIInItIon oI Secondary then It Is not aIIowed to be desIqnated as
¡nvarIant. The Ðocument may contaIn zero ¡nvarIant SectIons. ¡I the Ðocument does not IdentIIy any
¡nvarIant SectIons then there are none.
The "Cover Texts" are certaIn short passaqes oI text that are IIsted, as Iront-Cover Texts or
Ðack-Cover Texts, In the notIce that says that the Ðocument Is reIeased under thIs IIcense. A
Iront-Cover Text may be at most 5 words, and a Ðack-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
Copy:1gh1 {C) 2000,2001,2002 F:ee So11wa:e Fouhda11oh, Thc.
51 F:ahkì1h S1, F111h Fìoo:, Bos1oh, hA 02110-1301 bSA
Eve:yohe 1s pe:m111ed 1o copy ahd d1s1:1bu1e ve:ba11m cop1es
o1 1h1s ì1cehse documeh1, bu1 chahg1hg 11 1s ho1 aììowed.
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A "Transparent" copy oI the Ðocument means a machIne-readabIe copy, represented In a Iormat
whose specIIIcatIon Is avaIIabIe to the qeneraI pubIIc, that Is suItabIe Ior revIsInq the document
straIqhtIorwardIy wIth qenerIc text edItors or (Ior Imaqes composed oI pIxeIs) qenerIc paInt
proqrams or (Ior drawInqs) some wIdeIy avaIIabIe drawInq edItor, and that Is suItabIe Ior Input to
text Iormatters or Ior automatIc transIatIon to a varIety oI Iormats suItabIe Ior Input to text
Iormatters. A copy made In an otherwIse Transparent IIIe Iormat whose markup, or absence oI
markup, has been arranqed to thwart or dIscouraqe subsequent modIIIcatIon by readers Is not
Transparent. An Imaqe Iormat Is not Transparent II used Ior any substantIaI amount oI text. A copy
that Is not "Transparent" Is caIIed "Opaque".
£xampIes oI suItabIe Iormats Ior Transparent copIes IncIude pIaIn ASC¡¡ wIthout markup, TexInIo
Input Iormat, IaTeX Input Iormat, SGMI or XMI usInq a pubIIcIy avaIIabIe ÐTÐ, and
standard-conIormInq sImpIe ITMI, IostScrIpt or IÐI desIqned Ior human modIIIcatIon. £xampIes
oI transparent Imaqe Iormats IncIude IÞG, XCI and jIG. Opaque Iormats IncIude proprIetary
Iormats that can be read and edIted onIy by proprIetary word processors, SGMI or XMI Ior whIch
the ÐTÐ and/or processInq tooIs are not qeneraIIy avaIIabIe, and the machIne-qenerated ITMI,
IostScrIpt or IÐI produced by some word processors Ior output purposes onIy.
The "TItIe Iaqe" means, Ior a prInted book, the tItIe paqe ItseII, pIus such IoIIowInq paqes as are
needed to hoId, IeqIbIy, the materIaI thIs IIcense requIres to appear In the tItIe paqe. Ior works In
Iormats whIch do not have any tItIe paqe as such, "TItIe Iaqe" means the text near the most
promInent appearance oI the work's tItIe, precedInq the beqInnInq oI the body oI the text.
A sectIon "£ntItIed XYZ" means a named subunIt oI the Ðocument whose tItIe eIther Is precIseIy XYZ
or contaIns XYZ In parentheses IoIIowInq text that transIates XYZ In another Ianquaqe. (Iere XYZ
stands Ior a specIIIc sectIon name mentIoned beIow, such as "AcknowIedqements", "ÐedIcatIons",
"£ndorsements", or "IIstory".) To "Ireserve the TItIe" oI such a sectIon when you modIIy the
Ðocument means that It remaIns a sectIon "£ntItIed XYZ" accordInq to thIs deIInItIon.
The Ðocument may IncIude Warranty ÐIscIaImers next to the notIce whIch states that thIs IIcense
appIIes to the Ðocument. These Warranty ÐIscIaImers are consIdered to be IncIuded by reIerence In
thIs IIcense, but onIy as reqards dIscIaImInq warrantIes. any other ImpIIcatIon that these Warranty
ÐIscIaImers may have Is voId and has no eIIect on the meanInq oI thIs IIcense.
2. VEHBAT¡M COPY¡NG
You may copy and dIstrIbute the Ðocument In any medIum, eIther commercIaIIy or noncommercIaIIy,
provIded that thIs IIcense, the copyrIqht notIces, and the IIcense notIce sayInq thIs IIcense appIIes
to the Ðocument are reproduced In aII copIes, and that you add no other condItIons whatsoever to
those oI thIs IIcense. You may not use technIcaI measures to obstruct or controI the readInq or
Iurther copyInq oI the copIes you make or dIstrIbute. Iowever, you may accept compensatIon In
exchanqe Ior copIes. ¡I you dIstrIbute a Iarqe enouqh number oI copIes you must aIso IoIIow the
condItIons In sectIon 3.
You may aIso Iend copIes, under the same condItIons stated above, and you may pubIIcIy dIspIay
copIes.
3. COPY¡NG ¡N O1ANT¡TY
¡I you pubIIsh prInted copIes (or copIes In medIa that commonIy have prInted covers) oI the
Ðocument, numberInq more than 100, and the Ðocument's IIcense notIce requIres Cover Texts, you
must encIose the copIes In covers that carry, cIearIy and IeqIbIy, aII these Cover Texts. Iront-Cover
Texts on the Iront cover, and Ðack-Cover Texts on the back cover. Ðoth covers must aIso cIearIy and
IeqIbIy IdentIIy you as the pubIIsher oI these copIes. The Iront cover must present the IuII tItIe wIth
aII words oI the tItIe equaIIy promInent and vIsIbIe. You may add other materIaI on the covers In
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addItIon. CopyInq wIth chanqes IImIted to the covers, as Ionq as they preserve the tItIe oI the
Ðocument and satIsIy these condItIons, can be treated as verbatIm copyInq In other respects.
¡I the requIred texts Ior eIther cover are too voIumInous to IIt IeqIbIy, you shouId put the IIrst ones
IIsted (as many as IIt reasonabIy) on the actuaI cover, and contInue the rest onto adjacent paqes.
¡I you pubIIsh or dIstrIbute Opaque copIes oI the Ðocument numberInq more than 100, you must
eIther IncIude a machIne-readabIe Transparent copy aIonq wIth each Opaque copy, or state In or wIth
each Opaque copy a computer-network IocatIon Irom whIch the qeneraI network-usInq pubIIc has
access to downIoad usInq pubIIc-standard network protocoIs a compIete Transparent copy oI the
Ðocument, Iree oI added materIaI. ¡I you use the Iatter optIon, you must take reasonabIy prudent
steps, when you beqIn dIstrIbutIon oI Opaque copIes In quantIty, to ensure that thIs Transparent
copy wIII remaIn thus accessIbIe at the stated IocatIon untII at Ieast one year aIter the Iast tIme you
dIstrIbute an Opaque copy (dIrectIy or throuqh your aqents or retaIIers) oI that edItIon to the pubIIc.
¡t Is requested, but not requIred, that you contact the authors oI the Ðocument weII beIore
redIstrIbutInq any Iarqe number oI copIes, to qIve them a chance to provIde you wIth an updated
versIon oI the Ðocument.
4. MOD¡F¡CAT¡ONS
You may copy and dIstrIbute a ModIIIed VersIon oI the Ðocument under the condItIons oI sectIons 2
and 3 above, provIded that you reIease the ModIIIed VersIon under precIseIy thIs IIcense, wIth the
ModIIIed VersIon IIIIInq the roIe oI the Ðocument, thus IIcensInq dIstrIbutIon and modIIIcatIon oI the
ModIIIed VersIon to whoever possesses a copy oI It. ¡n addItIon, you must do these thInqs In the
ModIIIed VersIon.
A. !se In the TItIe Iaqe (and on the covers, II any) a tItIe dIstInct Irom that oI the Ðocument, and
Irom those oI prevIous versIons (whIch shouId, II there were any, be IIsted In the IIstory
sectIon oI the Ðocument). You may use the same tItIe as a prevIous versIon II the orIqInaI
pubIIsher oI that versIon qIves permIssIon.
B. IIst on the TItIe Iaqe, as authors, one or more persons or entItIes responsIbIe Ior
authorshIp oI the modIIIcatIons In the ModIIIed VersIon, toqether wIth at Ieast IIve oI the
prIncIpaI authors oI the Ðocument (aII oI Its prIncIpaI authors, II It has Iewer than IIve), unIess
they reIease you Irom thIs requIrement.
C. State on the TItIe paqe the name oI the pubIIsher oI the ModIIIed VersIon, as the pubIIsher.
D. Ireserve aII the copyrIqht notIces oI the Ðocument.
E. Add an approprIate copyrIqht notIce Ior your modIIIcatIons adjacent to the other copyrIqht
notIces.
F. ¡ncIude, ImmedIateIy aIter the copyrIqht notIces, a IIcense notIce qIvInq the pubIIc permIssIon
to use the ModIIIed VersIon under the terms oI thIs IIcense, In the Iorm shown In the
Addendum beIow.
G. Ireserve In that IIcense notIce the IuII IIsts oI ¡nvarIant SectIons and requIred Cover Texts
qIven In the Ðocument's IIcense notIce.
H. ¡ncIude an unaItered copy oI thIs IIcense.
¡. Ireserve the sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory", Ireserve Its TItIe, and add to It an Item statInq at Ieast
the tItIe, year, new authors, and pubIIsher oI the ModIIIed VersIon as qIven on the TItIe Iaqe. ¡I
there Is no sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory" In the Ðocument, create one statInq the tItIe, year, authors,
and pubIIsher oI the Ðocument as qIven on Its TItIe Iaqe, then add an Item descrIbInq the
ModIIIed VersIon as stated In the prevIous sentence.
j. Ireserve the network IocatIon, II any, qIven In the Ðocument Ior pubIIc access to a
Transparent copy oI the Ðocument, and IIkewIse the network IocatIons qIven In the Ðocument
Ior prevIous versIons It was based on. These may be pIaced In the "IIstory" sectIon. You may
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omIt a network IocatIon Ior a work that was pubIIshed at Ieast Iour years beIore the Ðocument
ItseII, or II the orIqInaI pubIIsher oI the versIon It reIers to qIves permIssIon.
K. Ior any sectIon £ntItIed "AcknowIedqements" or "ÐedIcatIons", Ireserve the TItIe oI the
sectIon, and preserve In the sectIon aII the substance and tone oI each oI the contrIbutor
acknowIedqements and/or dedIcatIons qIven thereIn.
¡. Ireserve aII the ¡nvarIant SectIons oI the Ðocument, unaItered In theIr text and In theIr tItIes.
SectIon numbers or the equIvaIent are not consIdered part oI the sectIon tItIes.
M. ÐeIete any sectIon £ntItIed "£ndorsements". Such a sectIon may not be IncIuded In the
ModIIIed VersIon.
N. Ðo not retItIe any exIstInq sectIon to be £ntItIed "£ndorsements" or to conIIIct In tItIe wIth
any ¡nvarIant SectIon.
O. Ireserve any Warranty ÐIscIaImers.
¡I the ModIIIed VersIon IncIudes new Iront-matter sectIons or appendIces that quaIIIy as Secondary
SectIons and contaIn no materIaI copIed Irom the Ðocument, you may at your optIon desIqnate some
or aII oI these sectIons as InvarIant. To do thIs, add theIr tItIes to the IIst oI ¡nvarIant SectIons In the
ModIIIed VersIon's IIcense notIce. These tItIes must be dIstInct Irom any other sectIon tItIes.
You may add a sectIon £ntItIed "£ndorsements", provIded It contaIns nothInq but endorsements oI
your ModIIIed VersIon by varIous partIes--Ior exampIe, statements oI peer revIew or that the text has
been approved by an orqanIzatIon as the authorItatIve deIInItIon oI a standard.
You may add a passaqe oI up to IIve words as a Iront-Cover Text, and a passaqe oI up to 25 words
as a Ðack-Cover Text, to the end oI the IIst oI Cover Texts In the ModIIIed VersIon. OnIy one passaqe
oI Iront-Cover Text and one oI Ðack-Cover Text may be added by (or throuqh arranqements made
by) any one entIty. ¡I the Ðocument aIready IncIudes a cover text Ior the same cover, prevIousIy
added by you or by arranqement made by the same entIty you are actInq on behaII oI, you may not
add another, but you may repIace the oId one, on expIIcIt permIssIon Irom the prevIous pubIIsher
that added the oId one.
The author(s) and pubIIsher(s) oI the Ðocument do not by thIs IIcense qIve permIssIon to use theIr
names Ior pubIIcIty Ior or to assert or ImpIy endorsement oI any ModIIIed VersIon.
5. COMB¡N¡NG DOC1MENTS
You may combIne the Ðocument wIth other documents reIeased under thIs IIcense, under the terms
deIIned In sectIon 4 above Ior modIIIed versIons, provIded that you IncIude In the combInatIon aII oI
the ¡nvarIant SectIons oI aII oI the orIqInaI documents, unmodIIIed, and IIst them aII as ¡nvarIant
SectIons oI your combIned work In Its IIcense notIce, and that you preserve aII theIr Warranty
ÐIscIaImers.
The combIned work need onIy contaIn one copy oI thIs IIcense, and muItIpIe IdentIcaI ¡nvarIant
SectIons may be repIaced wIth a sInqIe copy. ¡I there are muItIpIe ¡nvarIant SectIons wIth the same
name but dIIIerent contents, make the tItIe oI each such sectIon unIque by addInq at the end oI It, In
parentheses, the name oI the orIqInaI author or pubIIsher oI that sectIon II known, or eIse a unIque
number. Make the same adjustment to the sectIon tItIes In the IIst oI ¡nvarIant SectIons In the IIcense
notIce oI the combIned work.
¡n the combInatIon, you must combIne any sectIons £ntItIed "IIstory" In the varIous orIqInaI
documents, IormInq one sectIon £ntItIed "IIstory", IIkewIse combIne any sectIons £ntItIed
"AcknowIedqements", and any sectIons £ntItIed "ÐedIcatIons". You must deIete aII sectIons £ntItIed
"£ndorsements."
6. CO¡¡ECT¡ONS OF DOC1MENTS
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You may make a coIIectIon consIstInq oI the Ðocument and other documents reIeased under thIs
IIcense, and repIace the IndIvIduaI copIes oI thIs IIcense In the varIous documents wIth a sInqIe
copy that Is IncIuded In the coIIectIon, provIded that you IoIIow the ruIes oI thIs IIcense Ior verbatIm
copyInq oI each oI the documents In aII other respects.
You may extract a sInqIe document Irom such a coIIectIon, and dIstrIbute It IndIvIduaIIy under thIs
IIcense, provIded you Insert a copy oI thIs IIcense Into the extracted document, and IoIIow thIs
IIcense In aII other respects reqardInq verbatIm copyInq oI that document.
7. AGGHEGAT¡ON W¡TH ¡NDEPENDENT WOHKS
A compIIatIon oI the Ðocument or Its derIvatIves wIth other separate and Independent documents or
works, In or on a voIume oI a storaqe or dIstrIbutIon medIum, Is caIIed an "aqqreqate" II the
copyrIqht resuItInq Irom the compIIatIon Is not used to IImIt the IeqaI rIqhts oI the compIIatIon's
users beyond what the IndIvIduaI works permIt. When the Ðocument Is IncIuded In an aqqreqate,
thIs IIcense does not appIy to the other works In the aqqreqate whIch are not themseIves derIvatIve
works oI the Ðocument.
¡I the Cover Text requIrement oI sectIon 3 Is appIIcabIe to these copIes oI the Ðocument, then II the
Ðocument Is Iess than one haII oI the entIre aqqreqate, the Ðocument's Cover Texts may be pIaced
on covers that bracket the Ðocument wIthIn the aqqreqate, or the eIectronIc equIvaIent oI covers II
the Ðocument Is In eIectronIc Iorm. OtherwIse they must appear on prInted covers that bracket the
whoIe aqqreqate.
8. THANS¡AT¡ON
TransIatIon Is consIdered a kInd oI modIIIcatIon, so you may dIstrIbute transIatIons oI the Ðocument
under the terms oI sectIon 4. ÐepIacInq ¡nvarIant SectIons wIth transIatIons requIres specIaI
permIssIon Irom theIr copyrIqht hoIders, but you may IncIude transIatIons oI some or aII ¡nvarIant
SectIons In addItIon to the orIqInaI versIons oI these ¡nvarIant SectIons. You may IncIude a
transIatIon oI thIs IIcense, and aII the IIcense notIces In the Ðocument, and any Warranty
ÐIscIaImers, provIded that you aIso IncIude the orIqInaI £nqIIsh versIon oI thIs IIcense and the
orIqInaI versIons oI those notIces and dIscIaImers. ¡n case oI a dIsaqreement between the transIatIon
and the orIqInaI versIon oI thIs IIcense or a notIce or dIscIaImer, the orIqInaI versIon wIII prevaII.
¡I a sectIon In the Ðocument Is £ntItIed "AcknowIedqements", "ÐedIcatIons", or "IIstory", the
requIrement (sectIon 4) to Ireserve Its TItIe (sectIon 1) wIII typIcaIIy requIre chanqInq the actuaI tItIe.
9. TEHM¡NAT¡ON
You may not copy, modIIy, subIIcense, or dIstrIbute the Ðocument except as expressIy provIded Ior
under thIs IIcense. Any other attempt to copy, modIIy, subIIcense or dIstrIbute the Ðocument Is voId,
and wIII automatIcaIIy termInate your rIqhts under thIs IIcense. Iowever, partIes who have receIved
copIes, or rIqhts, Irom you under thIs IIcense wIII not have theIr IIcenses termInated so Ionq as such
partIes remaIn In IuII compIIance.
10. F1T1HE HEV¡S¡ONS OF TH¡S ¡¡CENSE
The Iree SoItware IoundatIon may pubIIsh new, revIsed versIons oI the GÞ! Iree ÐocumentatIon
IIcense Irom tIme to tIme. Such new versIons wIII be sImIIar In spIrIt to the present versIon, but may
dIIIer In detaII to address new probIems or concerns. See http.//www.qnu.orq/copyIeIt/.
£ach versIon oI the IIcense Is qIven a dIstInquIshInq versIon number. ¡I the Ðocument specIIIes that
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a partIcuIar numbered versIon oI thIs IIcense "or any Iater versIon" appIIes to It, you have the optIon
oI IoIIowInq the terms and condItIons eIther oI that specIIIed versIon or oI any Iater versIon that has
been pubIIshed (not as a draIt) by the Iree SoItware IoundatIon. ¡I the Ðocument does not specIIy a
versIon number oI thIs IIcense, you may choose any versIon ever pubIIshed (not as a draIt) by the
Iree SoItware IoundatIon.
ÐetrIeved Irom
"http.//en.wIkIbooks.orq/wIkI/ÐIender3Ð.ÞoobtoIro-MIsceIIaneousTutorIaIs/IrIntversIon"
ThIs paqe was Iast modIIIed 08.19, 12 AprII 2007.
AII text Is avaIIabIe under the terms oI the GÞ! Iree ÐocumentatIon IIcense (see Copyr¡ghts
Ior detaIIs).
WIkIbooks® Is a reqIstered trademark oI the WIkImedIa IoundatIon, ¡nc.

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