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A system has three conducting surfaces which extend from 1 to +1 in the z direction. The rst lies in the xz plane extending from y = 0 to y = 1 and is maintained at potential = 0. The second, parallel to this is at x = L and also extends from y = 0 to y = 1 and is maintained at = 0. The third surface lies between these in the xz plane and has potential (x; 0; z ) = f (x). Find the surface charge density on the face at x = 0.

Solution:

The solution for the potential in the region between conductors was found in the text to be

An sin nLx e n n=1 2ZL where An = L f (x) sin nLx u1 (x; y) = u2 = constant

1 X

y=L

The potential inside the conductors (for example where x < 0) is The surface charge density along the face x = 0 is given by (0; y) =

+ (En En )

where En are the normal components of the eld on the -(+) sides of the y axis. Using (1) and (3) in (4) we obtain = = 2 where An = L ( @u1 @x

x=0 1 X n An cos n=1 L Z L n

+ @u2 @x

f (x) sin

n x e L x L

1

x=0

)

n y=L x=0

n An e n=1 L

1 X

n y=L

L n=odd e

n y=L

We can simplify further by summing the in nite, geometric series to obtain = = 2 L sinh Ly 4 e y=L L 1 e 2 y=L

This is a two dimensional problem. Consider a square in the xy plane with corners at (0; 0), (a; 0), (a; a) and (0; a). There is no charge nor matter inside the square. The sides perpendicular to the y axis have = 0. The side at x = a has = (a constant) while the side at x = 0 has = . ~ (a) Find (x; y) for points inside the square. (b) Find E at the centre of the ~ square and evaluate the ratio of E to ( =a) at this point to four signi cant gures.

Solution:

a) The solution for the potential in the region between conductors was found in the text to be X A1 ( )e x + A2 ( )e x (5) u(x; y; z) =

2 + 2 + 2 =0

B1 ( )e y + B2 ( )e C1( )e z + C2 ( )e

y z

When we have no z dependence then = 0. If we take = i and then the solution can be written as ih i Xh u(x; y) = a1 ( )ei x + a2 ( )e i x b1 ( )e y + b2 ( )e y (9) (10)

Introduce boundary condition that u(x; 0) = 0 and we see that b1 ( )+ b2 ( ) = 0 and so the solution becomes i Xh u(x; y) = a ei x + b e i x sinh y (11) where we absorb b1 and b2 into a and b . The boundary condition u(x; a) = 0 then gives = in =a where n is an integer in the range 0 to 1. So we have

u(x; y) =

Xh

An e

n x=a + B en x=a n

sin na y

(12)

u(0; y) = u(a; y) = +

= =

X X

(An + Bn ) sin na y

An e

+ Bn en sin na y

The coe cients in (13) and (13) are found from 2 Z a sin n y dy = 2 (cos n 1)13) ( A n + Bn = a a n Z a 2 1) sin na y dy = n (cos n (14) Ane n + Bnen = +2 a For n even, both An and Bn = 0. For n odd, solving we obtain An sinh n = 4 e+n =2 cosh n2 ; An = 8 e+n =2 sinh n2 n n 4 e n =2 cosh n ; B = + 8 e n =2 sinh n Bn sinh n = + n n 2 n 2 Finally, substitute into (12)

u(x; y) = 2

n odd

Ex =

= =

X

@u @x x=y=:5a

x a n

2

sin na y

Ey = Ez =

(

1) 2

1 sinh n2

x=y=:5a

Show that the solution of Laplace's equation can be written as a sum of terms each of the form X (x) + Y (y) + Z (z ). Be sure to show how these functions, or appropriate derivatives of them, are related, if in fact they are. Find the general form of X (x) and interpret the corresponding electric eld.

Solution:

Start with Laplace's equation

r u(x; y; z) = 0

2

to obtain

For this to hold at all x; y and z each term must be constant where + +

d2 X (x) = dx2

= 0

2 Y ; d dy(y) = 2

2 Z ; d dz(z ) = 2

(18) (19)

Solving each of the equations (18) we obtain the most general solution of this type:

u(x; y; z) = P + + = 0; ; 1; ; 1; ; 1

1 2

x2 + 1 x +

2

y + 1y + 1 2 z + 1z + 2

1 2

(20)

(x + 1 ) (y + 1 ) (z + 1 ) (21) (22) (23)

Solve the two dimensional form of Laplace's equation expressed in plane polar coordinates ( ; ) by separation of variables. Thus, show that the general solution has the form:

u = A + B ln 1 X + Am

m + Bm m

+ Dm sin m )

where m is a positive integer and covers its whole possible range. (Hint: u must be single valued.)

Solution:

This is a problem in cylindrical coordinates with no z dependence. Laplace's equation in cylindrical coordinates is

@u + 1 @ 2 u + @ 2 u = 0 (24) 2 @ 2 @ @z2 Planar problems with no z dependence omit the z term. Take a solution of the form u( ; ) = R( ) ( ). Insert this into Laplace's equation, divide through by u and multiply by 2 d dR + d2 = 0 (25) Rd d d 2

r u = 1 @@

2

For this to hold at all and both terms in (25) must be constant. De ne the constant to be m2 and obtain

d Rd

dR d

= m2 ; d d = e im 7

2 2

= m2 (26)

Since u must be single valued then ( +2n ) = ( ) where n is any integer. This means that m must also be an integer in the range 0 to 1. Turning to the R equation we have

d d

For m = 0 this is

dR d

m2 = 0

(27)

+ X

d d

dR d

dR = K a constant d

P+1

(n2 m2 ) n n = 0 so that n =

m

(Cm cos m + Dm sin m )

u( ; ) = K ln +

1 X

m=0

Am

m + Bm m

A circle of radius a lies in the xy plane with its centre at the origin. The semi-circular part of the boundary for x > 0 is kept at the constant potential ; the other semi-circular part with x < 0 is kept at the constant potential ~ . (a) Find for all points within the circle. (b) Find E at the centre of the circle.

Solution:

a) This is a problem in cylindrical coordinates with no z dependence. The most general solution for the potential u is therefore

u( ; ) = K ln + constant +

1 X

m=0

Am

m + Bm m

u( = a; =2 u( = a; =2

Condition (30) leads immediately to K = 0 and Bm = 0 for all m so that u( = 0) is nite. We may also choose the constant to be zero so we have a solution

u( ; ) =

1 X

m=0

m (E cos m m

+ Fm sin m )

(31)

u( = a; cos > 0) = u( = a; ) =

1 X

m=0

(32) (33)

Em am

= =

=2 =2

cos m d

X

u( ; ) = 4

( 1)(m 1)=2

modd

cos m

~ ru

=0

^ a x

10

At a given instant, a certain system has a current density given by ~ Jf = A x3 x + y3 y + z3 z ^ ^ ^ where A is a positive constant. (a) In what units will A be measured? (b) At this instant, what is the rate of change of the charge density at the point (2; 1; 4) meter? (c) Consider the total charge Q contained within a sphere of radius a centred at the origin. At this instant, what is the rate at which Q is changing in time? Is Q increasing or decreasing?

Solution:

a) The current density (A m 2 ) is ~ J = A(x3 x + y3 y + z3 z ) ^ ^ ^ so the units for A are A m 5 . b) The equation of continuity gives

2

At the point (2,-1,4) this is 63A. c) The total charge within a sphere centred at the origin with radius a is

~ ~ r J + @ =0 @t @ = r J = 3A(x + y + z ) ~ ~ so that @t

2 2

Q = @t

V

(x; y; z )d

= =

@t Z 2 2 2 2 d 3A (x + y + z )d = 3A

Z

+1 1

d cos

r2 r2 dr

A sphere of radius a centred at the origin is made of a l.i.h. conducting material. The potential on the surface is maintained at the values given in spherical coordinates by cos where =constant. Find the free current ~ density Jf everywhere inside.

Solution:

This is a problem with a steady current in a l.i.h. conducting medium so that Laplace's equation holds for the potential u within. We rst nd the ~ ~ potential and then Jf = ( ru). We have a problem with symmetry about the z axis. r2u(x; y; z) = 0 in sherical coordinates with no dependence. The general solution is of the form

u(r; ) =

1 X

l=0

There are two regions. u1 is the potential inside the sphere and u2 is the potential outside. For this problem we only need to nd u1 . The boundary conditions are that: u1 (a; ) = u2 (a; ) = cos (34) u1 = nite everywhere (35) u2 = 0 at r ! 1 (36) (35) clearly makes all Bl = 0 and (34) makes

Therefore

Al = 0 (l 6= 1) ; A1 = a Therefore u1 (r; ) = ar = az ~ Jf =

^ a z 12

Show that when the equation

J ~ ~ w = Jf E = E 2 = f

is integrated over the total volume of a uniform conductor, the total rate of production of heat can be written as I 2 R.

Solution:

The rate of production of heat was written as

J ~ ~ w = Jf E = E 2 = f

~ ~ where for a l.i.h. conductor Jf and E are parallel. Integrating over the volume of the conductor we get W=

Z

wd

~ ~ Jf Ed

W =

V

= I 2R

13

Verify that = has te dimensions of time.

Solution:

We have (for l.i.h. materials):

~ ~ ~ ~ D = E and J = E

therefore the ratio = has the same dimensions as

~ D ~ J ~ J has units C s

1

m 2 and ~ ~ r D =

f

~ This last equation tells us that D has units C m 2 . Therefore the ratio = 2 1 2 has units (C m )/(C s m )=s.

14

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