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Art of Counter Poin 00 Kitsu of t

Art of Counter Poin 00 Kitsu of t

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C. H.












appearance of a new book on Counterpoint, when there are already in existence numerous treatises on the subject, may




demand some justification.

All books on Counterpoint

must of necessity bear a certain resemblance to each other. Any difference must be sought in the point of view, in the

prominence given

to various

phases of the subject, and

in the treatment of detail, rather

than in the statement of general

truths or in novelty of arrangement.
outlines of Counterpoint offer


history and the broad

scope for originality, and in

these matters the present



be found not unlike



chief points of difference are




of the rules of Scholastic Counterpoint

from the practice of Palestrina, whose works exhibit the Art of
Counterpoint in
textbooks, the
fact that


rather than from a study of


discrepancies between which are due to the

theory has been built upon theory, often mingled with

personal prejudice, so that the original basis of the earlier
treatises has

been forgotten or perhaps ignored.

harmonic resource



by little, and melodic idiom



result is a

system of Counterpoint which has

connexion with the past and none with the present, con-

taining a code of arbitrary rules



many important


do not represent the technique of any period of musical


pretend that such a system has a certain disciplinary value

and therefore these matters have been discussed at analysis of the problems raised tions is some length. The true province of contrapuntal study the attainment of the art of pure vocal part-writing. The application of Counterpoint to that the chapter modern part-writing. to say about this most interesting part of the and the student who has mastered the rules of uncomis bined Counterpoint expected to write combinations of the different Species without much more assistance. the importance of accent and rhythm. such as the proper use of unessential notes. . The prominence given to details commonly ignored or inadequately treated. It is hoped decoration will be useful to on Counterpoint as a means of advanced students of Harmony. a discipline which forbids the student to write what correct both from a relative and an absolute point of view illogical is and useless. over.vi PREFACE Moreis is implies a low view of the purpose of contrapuntal study. but sufficient has been said to enable the student to grasp the principles involved and to deal intelligently with (d) any difficulties that are likely to arise. An exhaustive by the various possible combinawell-nigh impossible. Textbooks have little usually subject. and is to (b) seems obvious that the best means of attaining it study the practice of the time. The difficulties which an intelligent student encounters are mostly matters of detail. and the principles of criticism regarding consecutives. The treatment of Combined Counterpoint. and is it claimed that these have been more fully and consistently treated than in (c) any book already in use. its This art reached zenith under the horizontal system of the Polyphonic it Period. Experience shows that the special difficulties of Combined Counterpoint require ample explanation and illustration.

The Music of Prout The Art of Music. also Dr. Pearce Counterpoint. .. Keeton for the use of a Cantus Firmus set by him at Durham University. C. the Seventeenth Century. and ii. . Musical Form. ... KITSON.... The examples from Messrs.Mus. My especial thanks are due to Mr. Prout .. Hidden Consecutives. Ouseley Rockstro Macfarren Bridge Saunders Grove . G.. invaluable help in Oxford.. Cambridge. occasionally the excerpts thank the Syndics of the University Press. Palestrina are usually given according to . Counterpoint. and for ungrudgingly devoting a great deal of his time to all sorts of matters connected with the publication of the volume. for many suggestions. Oxon. for their permission to print Canti Firmi set at the I have to Cambridge examinations for degrees in music. Stocks. G. ... Cadence. .. vol. . Harmony.. B. . iii. Gradus ad Parnassum. .. .PREFACE The tion of this vii following authorities have been consulted in the prepara- book : Fux Albrechtsberger Cherubini. .. i Wooldridge Parry .. &c... for compiling an index. vols. . for his revising the proof sheets.. Polyphonic Period. The . ... Counterpoint.. . Examples Strict in Strict Counterpoint.. Musica Ficta. Gladstone Jadassohn Richter . . of St. Breitkopf and Hartel's edition are transposed for convenience. Dictionary. H. ... Articles on Counterpoint (new edition)... . Edward's School. The Oxford 9History of Mustc. The Oxford History of Music. .


a judicious selection of consonances. 2. That of adding a part to a given part. or Fixed Song. that out of sheer despair.F. however.CHAPTER THE sions : I PRELIMINARIES history of the art of Music falls into three first main divi- A. in the process of time. That of forcing totally different melodies to be set one against the other. and so helped them to form. The latter method was probably due to the fact that men found the task of adding three or more parts to a Cantus Firmus (C. served the of bringing before men's minds the effect of various purpose harmonic intervals. so overwhelming. or lack of the power of concentration. the expression of the emotions in terms of formulated sound. siderations to chance.). In the period. B. There were two lines of procedure 1. . they selected a course which left such conSuch a system. called in Scholastic Counterpoint the Cantus Firmus. The next : in the possibilities stage is that in which men began to experiment of combined sound. represented chiefly by the music of the ancient Greeks. consisted of a succession of single utterances called Melody. the Greeks there were signs of advance combined sound. They perceived that the voices of men and children might be used to sing the same melody together at the distance of an octave this they called It is true that among in the direction of . so as to produce euphonious combinations.




But no progress could be made towards Polyor the independent conception of parts, until men had phony, found out other consonances. The Musica Enchiriadis of Odo,
and the commentary upon it, called Scholia Enchiriadis, inaugurated this principle, as distinguished from the old Greek It no Antiphony, which was technically called Magadizing. doubt had its origin in the fact that when several men were singing the same melody together, some found it too high, others too low and the distance of an octave usually caused For reasons which need not difficulties at the other extreme. be here detailed, the intervals of the fourth and fifth were the first to be selected as consonances

In the earliest attempts, men made their voices move in fourths or fifths in strict parallels. Sometimes, for technical reasons, the added part held the same note for a time, until it could proceed in parallel movement with the original part. The fixed part was called the Principalis, and the added

This system was known as Diaphony or Odo's work belongs to the first half of the tenth century. The next work of which we know, dealing with the art of Diaphony, is the Micrologus of Guido d' Arezzo, written
part the Organalis.


in the first half of the eleventh century.

Here we see a


which admitted of sounds that had formerly been held as discordant; and also the use of oblique motion as a means of variety, as opposed to its adoption from technical
sort of Diaphony,

reasons, in the older Diaphony. Then, after the death of Guido



came a new

which the use of contrary motion and the interOrganum, change of concord with discord became characteristic features.
Finally, the constant use of combinations in which the Organalis was contrasted with the Principalis, not only in melodic curve, but also in time value, led to the formation oi a system of musical standard of measure, called Discant or

Cantus Mensurabilis.


Discant in


turn merged into Counter-

these periods a process of elimination in During point. reference to the selection of consonances resulted in the
survival of the


pleased the ear best. octave

is, those harmonic These were the third,



which and

was discarded owing to experiments in three parts ; be explained later. The Polyphonic Period may be said to close with the death In him is seen the perfection of the of Palestrina (1594).
this will


method; and the technique of Counterpoint, as exhibited


Certain modifications his works, is the subject of this treatise. are of course necessary, in order to accommodate the system





work of Palestrina

has, as one of


chief charac-

One of these was the frequent simplicity of means. use of simultaneous movement in all the parts for extended





the opening of his Stabat Mater





vertically, that

Harmonic Period was the

as blocks of harmony. And so the third or natural evolution of the second.

may be


to begin



dawn of

the seventeenth

century, and found its first culmination in J. S. Bach. In the Polyphonic Period, the resultant harmony But in much of the accident of the part writing.

was the work of

Palestrina, the effect is very often that the whole is based on a simple harmonic structure; this was of course due to the

awakening harmonic
the fitness of things.


and natural judgement



Under modern

conditions, the horizontal



entirely built

up from a preconceived harmonic







Das Wohltemperirte


J. S.


Harmonic Sub-structure.














Each of these accents




be called a Chordal centre.

At first men were so much engaged with this vertical aspect of things, that they entirely ignored any questions dealing with the intrinsic merit of the individual parts.



for instruments,


of music, and the necessity of writing at the outset to turn men's minds away

from contrapuntal methods.

They had

to give their attention

to the formation of melodies, in

which rhythm was a characteristic feature and they had also to supply simple accompaniments to such melodies. Moreover polyphonic methods, which were entirely choral, were unsuited to a true instrumental style, and so the whole trend of things led to the enlargement of harmonic resource, and the formation of melody built upon such a substructure.

who adapted

All this progress was summed up in J. S. Bach, the principles of Harmony to Polyphony, and

thus struck a just balance between the two. It was only in the ordinary course of things, that when the art of Polyphony had come to maturity, theorists should devise a concise means of The salient cataloguing its technique.
feature of Counterpoint

the independent conception of the

parts, not only in


melodic curve, but also in time value ; so that that Zacconi in his Prattica da Musica, it was only natural at Venice in 1596, should devise a means of considerpublished

He used ing complex movement under well defined heads. a C.F. consisting of notes of uniform length; to this a part had to be added in notes of the same time value, or in certain
such as two notes to one, four to these various ways of adding a part to a ; given C.F. are called Species or Orders, and Fux analysed the technique under five headings, called the Five Species of
classified contrasted values,

one, and so forth

This was not by any means an exhaustive Counterpoint. of the technique of the art ; Zacconi wrote examples analysis But the classification as of Species which have not survived.

by Fux has been maintained

to the present day,



adequate for its purpose. There are then three chief questions

in reference to this



are the various sorts oi complex



from the independent conception of the parts? 2. What are the rules of vertical combination under these
separate conditions ? 3. What considerations
parts ?
It will

regulate the melodic idiom of the

thus be seen that Scholastic Counterpoint

a study

of the technique of Polyphony under classified heads, just as Harmony is the study of the grammar of modern composition. And it will be shown how the latter was the natural evolution of
the former, and how our rules for harmonic progression are framed on what the writers of the Polyphonic Period found out

by experiment, or judged by natural instinct, to be the best ; and as we learn the principles of Counterpoint from the practice of the time, we shall see unfolded by degrees practically the whole of the diatonic fundamentals of modern harmony. It is presupposed that the student has a knowledge of the elements of Harmony, including the use of fundamental discords, and the principles of modulation to nearly related keys. It is therefore unnecessary to define such terms as Perfect Inter-



Tonic, Key, and so forth. Opinion is divided as to the order in which Harmony and Counterpoint should be taught. As the former was the result of the latter, the proper course But there are grave reasons against would seem obvious.

The a chronological study of Counterpoint and Harmony. of the ecclesiastical modes, under which the music of system

to the use of the

Polyphonic Period was written, has of course given place modern major and minor modes. The modern system demands a treatment of unessential notes quite different from that which obtained under the old regime. A great deal of the crudity of students' work is due to the fact that they use
these unessential notes mechanically this becomes such a habit of mind, that its pernicious influence on practical composition is

often very difficult to eradicate.

horizontally and vertically ; the latter forms the dominant thirteenth of the key of C major,

The following diagram The scale of C major is

will give

an idea of what




the complete series of diatonic dominant discords



not merely an unessential note ; it is felt to be the seventh of the dominant of C, and it must be treated as such.



the second




student will also be


better able to understand the

treatment of prepared discords, and also their historic position,

grasp their modern classification. is recommended as the course of study (a) Harmony, up to the chord of the dominant seventh and simple modulation.








First to

Third Species.









The two

Fourth and Fifth Species. Two parts. subjects may then be studied concurrently.

which have to be discussed. in Grove on Musica Ficta) by the use of cadences in related modes. of course. whereas a prohibition of such a use would cause the harmony to be crude. of a modulation. but of modulation has the support of the majority of theorists. of some modern theorists do not recommend it. fact that Palestrina . and it will be dis- No one has a right either to cussed fully as occasion demands. paradoxical the foundation of good contrapuntal though it may seem. was quite alien to the modal system. The matter is one which requires the exercise of cautious discretion. three. diversity of opinion exists as to the use of modulation There is no inherent harm in it. three or four notes to one note. forbid or to impose modulation as essential . effect . especially when writing in the minor mode. his technique A great course . chiefly that the student may devote as as possible to the melodic interest of his parts. we may also choice of progressions. men found out a principle of contrast. and those progressions which the writers of the Polyphonic Period felt by instinct to be the best. This however is hardly its province. knew nothing of chords as we view them was not that of writing two. and their movements were limited by questions of consonance and dissonance. is perceive and utilize by our experience of their adoption and It is important to grasp the classification in modern harmony. as they consider Counterpoint a means of learning the diatonic resources of one key. smooth harmony. which gives to modern ears the impression Such an idea. Some theorists say that the harmonic resources of Counterpoint are restricted to the use of common chords and their first inversions. under the conditions of Musica Ficta (see Art. introduction of an occasional accidental will often enable him to make a progression smooth in effect.PRELIMINARIES 9 The student must work from the point of view of the sixteenth century. but two. much attention But the use of . and the use in strict Counterpoint. however. or four notes to one as representing one harmony. Artistic sense should help the student to decide The for himself whether a modulation is desirable or not. at the same time it is advisable that he allow his knowledge of harmonic conditions to influence his Clear.

fifth. The bass (C) is a point d'orgue (pedal point). and classification of intervals. We have also shown that when only two parts were tried. and makes it possible for him to confuse contrapuntal with harmonic analysis. Aeterna Chrish Munera. flat) a concord The fifth in after preparation resolves on to the treble moves with it. forming a sixth. as we moderns term the combinations. the tenor being regarded as the real bass. A modern would analyse the following passage according the figuring : to This is an extract from Palestrina's Mass. But when three parts were sung. the third. settled ? have shown that experiments in combined sound must have led to the formation of laws. it was found that the fourth would not combine with the fifth. common chord and But the student may ask by what process was the use of the its first inversion. without an adequate explanation of its real significance. In the tenor the seventh (B (A). sixth and octave all ranked as concords. because A he has in this technique the origin of all our rules for the treatment of six-fours and fundamental discords.io THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Harmony in reference to these essential the terminology of combinations. puts the student at once in the wrong attitude of mind. the most satisfactory interval except the octave : We . student trained on historic principles will never in practical work use six-fours and essential discords crudely. fourth.

the earliest example of its kind extant (1360). We have pointed out that in Palestrina this is a marked feature. though music was written as a combination of individual parts. The effect of some of his music is that it is as clearly founded on a simple succession of chords as any modern music. ' ' Musical Form. As time went on. The following numbers of the table quoted shows how common from Dr. (c) The fourth displays the reason for its rejection in failing to do what the third does so well. is formed on principles requiring regularity of accent and system in cadence (Prout. (b) Combinations which mately formed the foundation for the art of Counterpoint. In a piece of four-part Counterpoint by Dufay. Theoretically. and he stands on the highest point to which art considered horizontally could rise. His success lay in his recognition of such principles . offends the ear by the use of this discord must make amends by passing to a concord. the harmonic result of which was a matter of secondary importance. Duple Time ^ -. Davies' article on Counterpoint in Grove. Triple time ^ w -. 2. . while the other parts stand still.PRELIMINARIES The fourth is first classified n work by Marchetto as a discord in a He explains that the part which of Padua (thirteenth century). All modern music. comes to be said that in strict Counterpoint only chords and their first inversions are available IT-g (a) All the -gr(0 ulti- available concords. there is a frequent use of what we term the common chord and its first inversion. The Iambus. complicated modern musical texture can be reduced to two forms of progression : The most 1. 7). like modern poetry. the greatest composers were feeling towards pure harmonic effect. and next to the fifth in excellence. p. mediaeval musicians were guided ' by the ratios of the vibrational the fourth came it limiting sounds '. The Anapaest.

This was accompanied as follows C. or should the first two notes occur on a weak accent followed by a strong one. so as to make This end is gained by the idiomatic one's thoughts intelligible. relation of weak to strong.F. they regarded the progression of the last note but one of the Principalis one step downward to the Final as the salient feature of the Perfect Cadence or Clausula Vera. called the cadence. of two harmonies. And in triple time.F. should the first note occur on a strong accent. partly on the way in which we can group the harmony. w C. During the period that men paid the greatest attention to the melodic side of the art. as to whether we regard the grouping of feet as divisible into bars or parts of bars. and it depends partly on the nature of the Counterpoint. so in music. It is of the highest importance that . in the use. should the first note be accented it forms the second half of an incomplete foot or motive.12 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT In duple time. it is necessary to have some means of punctuation.F. the motive is incomplete. As in literature. Now the rhythmic principle of all Scholastic Counterpoint is that of duple or triple time . The distinction will be drawn as occasion demands. : C. at the end of a phrase or sentence.

so far as technique is concerned. both in choice It is of course true that all of harmony and melodic curve. in notes of uniform length serves as the link between the old art and the new . but the use in Scholastic Counterpoint of a C. the music of the Polyphonic Period was unrhythmic. and a due appreciation of this will greatly help. it not only to study the methods of the sixteenth century. .PRELIMINARIES the sense of 13 rhythm in chordal progression should never be lost.F. that is. but also to use them as a training in the decoration of a preconceived harmonic enables men structure.

. 1. As Scholastic Counterpoint is concerned with the art of vocal part writing. certain limitations in reference to melodic progression are obviously essential. 2. the melody return immediately some note within such interval Though the the use of such intervals is sixteenth century.F. judiciously varied by the use of disjunct intervals. A part should not proceed by any augmented Modern if or diminished interval.F.CHAPTER COUNTERPOINT IN II TWO PARTS FIRST SPECIES. so that the two parts move The C. is to write it in notes of the same time value. may be either the higher or the simultaneously. part should not proceed A by any compound between interval. is that of conjunct movement. 3. An excessive use of either is inartistic. later it was put in the tenor. theorists allow the leap of a diminished fifth to or fourth. Formerly it was always in the bass. The governing principle of melody. occasional employment. most modern by the contrary to the practice ol theorists allow their interval of a seventh. and eventually it found its way to the top but there is now no restriction as to its position. lower part. either directly or with nor one note . THE first way of adding a part to a C. in all Species.

The following is unjustifiable : Fux. ut te - cum lu - ge - am. in his Stabat Mater. . Here in the bass : we have the leap of a seventh. i - son. is following passage from the Kyrie of Palestrina's Mass. Ie - i son.COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS Rare. worthy of consideration : Ie - i - son. Bad. m Bad. such a melodic progression be used. The Iste Confessor. e lei son. Bad. Palestrina writes : Sift Fac. with one note it between but the phrasing makes entirely unobjectionable Again. e - lei son. care should be taken that the leap of the seventh is followed by some note within the If interval.

The leap of a third followed by that of a sixth (or vice versa) is inelegant progression in reference to Palestrina's technique in extenso ' : Professor Wooldridge's remarks on the principles of melodic may be quoted The governing is Palestrina*s melody principle. The example quoted below . i rTTzidzzi lei - . Tone . vii. 6. a rare exception PALESTRINA. The following is interesting as being analogous to the previous Iste Confessor : example quoted from the Kyrie. 5.-Jj. } _ 1 __|_ f=f et f=f 1 ex sixth - al - ta - vit. i son. Ky is ri e.i6 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 4. The leap of a major should be avoided in First Species Counterpoint. Magnificat. r^L n^pziz All bad. technically speaking. of of course that of conjunct movement. The leap of an octave should be preceded and followed by notes within that interval. _^. . Iste Confessor.

and the general beauty and expressive qualities of the contrapuntal melody. where the leap first occurs in the tenor or subject here he seems.) w 3 r. of course. 376. Yet though Palestrina's method finally settles the questions respecting conjunct movement. p. by frequent allusion. but there is in his application of it a certain final elegance. and most frequently in the bass or lowest part. and also by occasional disjunct intervals.' (Oxford History of Music. exceptions to may be found even in his own work. representing the ideal in but ' such matters. IN TWO PARTS however. which had been aimed was now for the first time attained. be deduced from the methods ' of Palestrina's predecessors since 1450.COUNTERPOINT this. ii. in the bass. and his rules in the Kyrie of the Mass Aeterna Christi Munera. also showing (at A) how it might have been brought within the rule. until we are quite remarkably so : reconciled to it. and afterwards accepting it and (at B) repeating it again and again. and especially as regards the continuance of the melody in the direction of a leap. forcibly to draw our attention to the unusual figure. but immediately returning by gradual! motion towards the point of departure. which are permitted upon the condition of not continuing in the! direction of the leap. from its occurPalesrence in the given subject or from some other necessity. is beautifully varied by the constantly changing value of the notes. vol. 5 . trina's conduct in such circumstances is often interesting. is so to speak thrust upon him. at generally hitherto. a movement which sometimes. This rule may also.

It following are the principles of Harmonic Progression has been indicated that experiments led men to catalogue : way harmonic intervals as concordant and discordant in the following the octave (or unison) and fifth are termed Perfect Con: cords The major and minor third. =m objection I22ZZ If. whether arising from repetition of or want of variety of range. The repetition of a note in the bass (at the same pitch) is is liable to cause a halting effect . the repetition occurs between bars forming the end of one phrase and the beginning of another. 10. unless forming the arpeggio of a chord limited by the extreme interval of the octave. The leading note may never leap an octave.i8 7. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 8. formula. More than two leaps in the same direction are inelegant. the leap of an octave of course entirely free from this objection Poor. Good. there is no valid The i. Melodic monotony. however. should be carefully avoided 9. and major and minor sixth are termed Imperfect Concords .

It has been shown that in three parts the interval of a perfect fourth might occur between two upper parts. First. Sixth.COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS The second. that either of the other two. C 2 . Good In all cases the lowest part must be concordant with each of let the others. is entirely alien to the principles of the Polyphonic Period. seventh and their compounds are discords In two-part Counterpoint in the First Species only concords are allowed. Now any idea of a chord. The same is true of the diminished fifth but the diminished fourth is not permissible as an essential harmony under any circumstances . fourth. not duplicating major scale will be taken -& Third. as such. Now a third part and using a separate sound. it is impossible for a combination of two sounds not to imply substructure. the us experiment with the concords available. and it to modern minds some harmonic would be unwise to ignore the light which the modern system has thrown on such matters. Fifth. by adding is. Octave. At the same time.

s VI. Fifth. and so 3^S% I b. to say that the only we term So that the = {jk g .I.. Octave. e. it is true harmonies that can be derived from the .20 II. Sixth. to indicate the seven triads : =%j\ tr: g -S-"" . III. The result of this may be stated as follows : The Roman numerals will be used e. ^ & VII.g. II.= fc-gi= . first 'b* written after a numeral indicates what inversion of the triad. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Third.g. IV. 22ZECI2Z 1 . BE v. forth (key of C major)..

that is.COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS first 21 major scale are the diatonic triads with their with the exception of VII. the Ionian mode. raising it a semitone. and we should write either from the one stand- point or the other. they are harmonics the relative major. . by the principles of Musica Ficta. Any is fusion of the two systems. early contrapuntists derive their harmony from this. The Applying the same principles of combination as seen in deriving harmonies from the major scale. fez^zi. sounds of this combination form a diminished scale. The Aeolian Mode. for the highest and lowest a discord. inversions. and not to the minor mode. i. : fifth. impossible. raising the seventh in the cadence. Next take the minor Of these there are three forms A. If The Harmonic Minor Scale. we compare any major scale with its relative harmonic minor n shall see that the one point which differentiates the minor from the major mode. is the chromatic alteration of the seventh of the we former. so far as the formation of harmonies is concerned. e. it will at once be seen that among others we get : that is. with one or two exceptions. proper to from the modern point of view. B.

At the same parent. effect from a modern standpoint is that are in the key of the relative major. from the standpoint of our tonal system is out of place. In (2) is character- seen a case in point (C). the Aeolian mode. Here there is no effect of con- fused or changed tonality. z= can only imply .F. it is possible to use some of the interfering with the harmony of this mode without istics of modern tonality.'s according to the old system C. for the minor key is a very different In (i) the mental from A to B we thing from its harmony. Any such treatment therefore.F.22 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Now let us add a part to three C. in the matter of derived time.

IN TWO PARTS and under modern conditions it has been catalogued as a chrowithout necessarily producing is. I. the bass in modern times as chromatic. V b. it is I. moves down by step from the tonic to the submediant. C major. that modulation. and a modulation be made to that key Modern A minor. hard to condemn : . But if (3) be allowed.g: which has been catalogued When See (3).COUNTERPOINT matic triad. it can be used In (3) D is another case of an implied chord (ft) :. theorists say that in any other case the minor seventh should be regarded as the fifth of the relative major. the minor seventh may bear a first inversion.

besides being perfectly legitimate from the old . standpoint. The cases mentioned above. by the use of triads on the supertonic and subdominant. C. and the effect is quite good. This will produce among others the following combinations : (a) (b) (c) and (c) would be regarded by a modern as the implied harmonization of the Dorian sixth. which should always be in the minds of present day students. do not obliterate the characteristics of the present tonal system. should be pointed out that it is unwise to maintain a slavish adherence to modern harmonic analysis of chordal resource. however. As regards it (a) it is unnecessary to insist on modern analysis . it cannot be said that such is out of place. Although such a rhythmic principle does not come within the a recommendation scope of the Polyphonic Period.24 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT intervals of the diminished fourth The harmonic fifth and augmented are never permissible as essential harmonies. will not be condemned by broad-minded critics. At the time of Palestrina the process which led to our modern system was not in a state of classification the use therefore ol harmonies. and yet obtain very crude effects this is largely due to a mechanical It may be thought by some is harmony : use of concords. Except in the two opening bars it is unwise to have the same harmony for a weak accent followed by a strong one. are illustrations of the legitimate application of original principles. which. 2. without reference to the implied harmonic substructure. The Melodic Minor Scale. is It a concord. that a consideration of implied out of place in two-part Counterpoint. It should be our aim to . Nevertheless it is quite possible to write technically correct Counterpoint.

however. Consecutive octaves and similar or contrary motion are forbidden.COUNTERPOINT make contrapuntal study for IN TWO PARTS 25 as useful as possible as a preparation fifths Free Counterpoint. except when the parts cross. Of the three kinds of motion. The unison is only to be used in the first and last bars. the interval of the augmented fourth should not exist between the C. 6. similar. Similar and contrary motion. The leading note should never be doubled in two parts. Not more than three consecutive thirds or sixths should be used. trary. If both parts move by step. as tending to more independent movement. Except in the Cadence no perfect concord may be apthe objectionable effect is due proached by similar motion to the exceptional prominence given to the perfect concord . and con7. These are termed exposed fifths and octaves. Exceptions to this rule will be dealt with as occasion demands. oblique. in which case the undue prevalence of parallel movement is avoided Bad. 9. 3. Good. 5. should be judiciously alternated. and its Counterpoint in successive bars . the last is preferable.F. 8. whether by 4.

or both. Here is may be introduced for the always be made to nearly related keys. provided that their use is not exaggerated so as to produce the effect of restless tonality. though any this To modern . of avoiding a False Relation was to second note forming the interval by the addition of according to the principles of Musica Ficta ears this implies a modulation to F major such idea was quite alien to the Modal System. The in order to parts should not overlap. C.F. C. If. procedure maybe adopted in a case of a case in which transient modulation sake of euphony.F.F. | '\ Modulations may emergency.F. C.F.F. ii. move by leap no bad effect results The mediaeval system alter the a flat. but they may cross freely. C. however.F.26 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT This is called the False Relation of the Tritone. 10.F. one of the parts. The first note of the Counterpoint must form a perfect concord with the C. improve the melodic flow or to avoid objectionable progression Bad. C. C. C. .

12.F.COUNTERPOINT is IN TWO PARTS . except in the following cases - i . 27 this In the last four cases. begins on the dominant the only possible variation from the tonic as a first note. the C. followed by a Because of the implied harmony a third should not be fifth in contrary motion when both parts move : conjunctly.


lib. V. VII b.F. I. Ib. lib. I. IVb. I. Ib.COUNTERPOINT IN TWO PARTS 29 II b. VII b. . I. VII b. J 1 1 I _ 1 CJ. Vb. Vb. Ib. and the use of the melodic minor scale G maj. Ib. C. V. 1 VII b. Example introducing modulation. VII b.

3 C. I b. I. fig . I. VII b. II. . V b. V b.F. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT G min._ .

F.F. The Cadence then. except in the First Species. obviously because the final of a Cadence must be on the strong accent. the Counterpoint will begin on the second minim of the bar In the last bar. r 2. to variety in we now know that the earliest attempts at Polyphony as First Species Counterpoint two It also seen that one of the first means of the parts move in notes of unequal value. III IN TWO PARTS AGAINST ONE. that. The first note of the Counterpoint must form a perfect concord with the C.. with that in the First Species c. the Counterpoint has a note of the same duration as the C. as regards the sounds employed.F. is identical. .CHAPTER SECOND SPECIES Two NOTES i. As it is the universal procedure in Poly- was make phonic writing. IT has been shown was consisted of what parts. no two parts should commence at the same instant. the simplest form of this variety was the writing of Clearly. two notes to one.

undesirable. bars may be 4. may leap to another concord.. (d) and (e) 3. g. 6 to it is 5. must form with the C. note of the Counterpoint in all the intermediate bars. provided the leap is taken in For the opposite direction to the previous conjunct movement. The second minim of all intermediate (a) Another concord : if the second minim of the bar be another concord. J J==b Inelegant. as likely to is give a false impression of tonality. a discord. preferably the latter.F.F. (a) is (b) is (c) (f) an imperfect concord. e.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT ** C. : a perfect or imperfect concord. The first is are open to no objection. and if it approached conjunctly from the first concord.5to 6. a leap in the same direction to an accented note is inelegant All good. . that between the first and last.

in this case the second minim. and the notes forming the interval should be The leap of a minor sixth may portions of the same harmony. Generally speaking. is felt to be unessential. be used in moderation. which must be approached and quitted con- junctly In the following examples : -J ^ s made on the second minim. proceed conjunctly as at (c) and (d) . The best Second Species Counterpoint is that in which conjunct movement is judiciously varied by the use of occasional leaps. and are quite a change of harmony has been inconsistent with practice. though concordant with the C. Three illustrations from Palestrina will prove this : 5 * 7& * \\ . Another concord taken by leap may proceed to a third concord by conjunct or disjunct movement. Whatever arguments theorists may adduce to prove that the above are wrong are based on a false principle.SECOND SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 33 It may. of course. the leap of the major sixth should be sparingly used. the selection depending upon the previous and succeeding movement.F.. generally (b) A discord.

His view is F to C is a concord. pared. provided. what to us is the Contrapuntal practice does not forbid mental effect of a six-four. nor even its actual use from a modern of course. as it implies the use of a second inversion. T absurd to argue that because A is no portion of the harmony of the first crotchet it cannot be quitted by leap. Aeterna Christi No fourth is present. This It is is a clear case of the use of two harmonies. r a l t Agnus Dei. Aeterna Christi Munera. Of course : y'-t . the fourth is preanalytical point of view. Another example is clearer still : Kyrie. But we have no right to suppose that Palestrina was using one chord.34 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT One theorist says the fifth of the root in the lowest part as the must never be written second note of the bar. Munera. so is C to C.

were in the middle of a problem.F. general principle. and is contrary to If the C.SECOND SPECIES A few more examples : IN TWO PARTS 35 (all taken from Palestrina's Stabat Mater\ i are added j I A 5. direction j cs is at best inelegant. the following would be better : Such a progression . Early theorists allow more than two leaps in the same ALBRECHTSBERGER.

factors of the same root I.F. consideration will only be given to true unessential notes. I b. fourth. or as we should say. When the two concords which the unessential note connects |are portions of the same harmony. Now the modern tonal system brings with it limitations in the treatment of unessential notes. thus classified : The use of unessential notes may be Case I. and their compounds. Illb. it is (b) When lower (c) When it is the same . The result is.36 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Therefore. When they are factors of different roots i I VI. Musical sense prevents one from analysing the second bar as III.. that is. (a) There are three aspects of each case. seventh. the student forms the habit of writing unessential notes in a purely mechanical way. Case II. When the second harmony note first is higher in pitch than the (see above). those that are discordant with the C. the second. and this has a pernicious influence on his attempts at modern composition. The mistake commonly made has been that of treating these notes just as if we were writing under a modal system.

and that of the root of the chord used. because the second minim (C) has the mental effect of being the minor seventh of D. bad. minim should be regarded But even in its contrain puntal light. V. with a tendency to fall . An observance of the following rule will prevent such if crudities. II b. of course. It will. I The key is C major. such notes should be common to the scale of the Tonic. it will be well to explain a flaw in detail. that as being essential. the second is. In writing true unessential notes between different positions of the same chord. such cases crude effects may be produced. Now here the triad of D minor is used. In order to make the matter perfectly clear. When the two concords which the unessential note connects are portions of the same harmony II.SECOND SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 37 Case I. and VI The above is I III. VI. and the ascending . V. the same applies to parallel cases in III. I 9J Crude. be seen that the above does not condemn such a case as : In this.

G maj. but C sharp is foreign to the scale of major. . Case II. therefore and another note chosen C C must be omitted.F. : Good. a good implied harmonic link with the next chord. The X following examples F maj. the Tonic. or a fundamental discord. In writing an unessential Hence we get a further rule note between different harmonies. whether such implied harmony be another concord. Consider the following cases : G maj. 3 Good. Poor harmony. 9J y Good. .THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT scale of D minor requires C sharp . When the two unessential note connectslare portions of different harmonies. if such note is not common to the scale of the first chord and that of the Tonic. it should be capable of analysis as forming with the C. will make this clear : Good. -fe^- i Poor harmony. C maj. Good.

Ill b. Ill b. Bad. I b. A <ri \\ min. &A=* J JL Good. Bad. Vb. e= ^** ^^ ^ \ e^> II < t^> ^i g? -* j^__g: Good. v. Nevertheless it the very outset. Good. : None of these cases are objectionable as they stand but only when the implied harmony is clearly defined. Bad. ib. nib. Good. (3) J in. (4) I I V. (3) is subject to the same criticism . Poor harmony. necessary to draw attention to the matter at because the harmonic progressions is unsatisfactory (i) belong to the key of G major rather than C major is __ Good. Bad.SECOND SPECIES G maj. The following cases deserve careful observation in. IN TWO PARTS ' 39 C maj. Good. : Good.


rWeakr r A harmonv. into the essential. following. are felt as such. remaining cases will require no further is comment J J Bad. requiring discussion as opposed to mechanical treatment. Good. J J Good. intelligent of it may be conveniently deferred till we treat of the Third The minor key presents Species. the same sort of cases. is quite that of good because the an implied | on the second minim. however. in The modern times notes salient point that comes out from all this is that that were formerly unessential have merged treated.SECOND SPECIES The is IN TWO PARTS in effect. mental impression and the roots of the two chords are different And so the following will be clearly understood : i Bad. and must be likewise Palestrina writes : Now such a case is not the ultimate origin of the essential . is In the latter case the mental effect that the resolution of the seventh The merely deferred.

But the use of the prepared seventh (3) A served to form a habit of mind which caused men to use such unessential notes as in (i) in a way that showed their judgement of the fitness of things.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT seventh . No one with any sense of harmonic propriety. both in melodic progression. would tolerate : S. to the objection that the discord is sounded against its resolution at the distance of a second. and that of the Tonic. and causes unnecessary congestion It is quite true that such things may be found in Palestrina. f U nd ^ In two and three parts. B. this will be seen when we come to treat of : prepared discords. and harmonic accompaniment. except in the case of the subdominant . the harmonic interval of It is open the second should not be quitted by similar motion. should be common to the scale of the chord used. ^The chief points to notice at present are therefore A. at any rate. If the non-essential note is felt to be a portion of the modern essential discord. Unessential notes used between different positions of the same chord. it should be treated as such. : but they are best avoided.

Good.SECOND SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 43 Good. Harmonic outline. Harmonic outline. Bad.a.F. both notes in the Second Species are not the highest or lowest two bars in the Bad. . C. 7. and the first of the next r\ J I J . Good. first minims of two consecutive bars xJ- i (b) between the second minim of one bar. some good modern har- monic link with the next chord Bad. Good. if They are allowed between the second minims of each bar. considerations.. -&- Good. Consecutives are not allowed : (a) between the . Passing notes used in connexion with the first inversions of dissonant triads do not fall under any of the above Note. An unessential note used between different chords should to the scale of the first be common chord and that of the Tonic. unless such note form with the C.

and occasionally elsewhere as the second minim in the bar. VI. Exposed consecutives are forbidden under the tions as in First Species I same condi- I Bad. IV. tritone.44 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The distance between the first minim of one bar and the second minim of the next is too great to give any effect of consecutives ! -0 J . 10.-5=3Good. first leading note must not be doubled either on the or second minim of the bar 4- The . lib. VI. When is either of the fifths is felt to be unessential no bad effect produced i V Nor can *. No note of the Counterpoint maybe immediately repeated at the 11. Good. lib. J- Good. The 9. & the first consecutives occur between and third of three harmonies -J: IV b. IV. same pitch. following does not cause a false relation of the as one of the notes forming it is felt to be unessential. 8. The unison may be used in the first and last bars.

(b) It may of course be freely used as an unessential note (c) It may be used { in modulating to the relative major -A 2= sixth of the scale (2) (a) The major may be used in the follow- ing idiom . In this Species it is well to avoid the repetition of a melodic formula for more than two successive bars .SECOND SPECIES 12. IN TWO PARTS 45 A note may not be chromatically altered in the same bar r^ 13. IV b. The Minor Key. application of the principles The chapter expounded in the previous (i) (a) may The minor be thus summarized : seventh of the scale may be used as a harmony note in proceeding from tonic to sub-mediant I. Vb. 14. In a more complicated exercise the student should use his own discretion. a sequence having at least two bars as the limit of the formula is always good.

F. note nevertheless it is that F# is an unessenforms a concord with the C.46 (b) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT In the Cadence In tial all these cases the mental effect . (3) scale The major sixth. minor sixth and major may all be used as discords seventh of the .


II. V. IV.48 C major.. Ib. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT A minor. Cantab. Vb. II. C. II. II. I. VI b. > I. lib. V. V. Ib. I. May. 1904. Ib. Ib. VI b. IV b. e* First i Mus.F. VII b. r ' " r VI. Vb. C. VI b. x. I b. Vb. Ib. Ib. II. I. . VII b. I. Bac. I. II I b. Illb. V. Vb. I. V. 1. Vb.F. IV. Vb. V. IV b. I.

V. Ib. V. IV. Ea^-P-H^Se . Vb. VI b.F. V. IV b. Vb. IN TWO PARTS 49 I. V. VI. VI. V.SECOND SPECIES C. I. m Ib. Vb. ==3 F75 Ib. IV. I. I b. I. A tt major.

F.F. the part must proceed in the same If the next step will not direction by step to the next concord. four notes are written in the Counterpoint to one in the C. After using a scalic passage.CHAPTER THIRD SPECIES IN IV TWO PARTS FOUR NOTES AGAINST ONE. The rules in First and Second Species as to the first note in the bar remain in force . Second Species. produce a concord. accented note in the same direction is inelegant to leap to an _22: Bad. 2. C. THE Counterpoint begins on the second crotchet of the bar. . Bad.F. or third and fourth crotchets are discordant with the C. 4. in the Cadence the last two notes of the Counterpoint are the leading note and tonic First Species. If the second and third. 1. it Good. 3. in the first and except and last bars. Third Species. i*E*E Good ^. Bad. the passage must be rearranged Good.

Se la face ^ F is ay pale (Kyrie). Mass. particular mention may be made of Josquin's Stabat Mater. 2 zE 2 3HE I I . leaping a third and then proceeding to it by step upwards. A Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli. became quite thus : Dufay (fourteenth century) wrote Mass. : MARTINUS LEOPOLITA. few examples may be of interest In (a) a passing note between to the other side of E. IN TWO PARTS 51 Changing Notes. Much ingenuity was exercised by the writers of the Polyphonic One Period in the matter of the various uses of unessential notes. Paschalis (Kyrie). r r G and E. and Gibbons's Hosanna. known as the use of the Nota Cambiata.THIRD SPECIES 5. characteristic. This formula is seen in nearly all the works of the period . particular idiom.

1 ^ EE3 ==^ (0 I PALESTRINA.52 (*) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT JOSQUIN DESPRILS. Mass. Benedidus^ Missa Papae Marcelli. O admirabile commercinm. ig?n =^ 1 ^ 3^ . L homme arme (Sanctus). nrffr r ^-^^B PALESTRINA.

^ THIRD SPECIES IN H PALESTRINA. KZZ g^-rp' -I BYRD. TWO PARTS 53 Jj_j__~ ^o 5w pants vivus. S ^ .

j^ m ^=- . Moiett. GIBBONS. Hosanna.54 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT WILLAERT. Ave Maria.

THIRD SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 55 In (/) and (g). John Passion. An interesting seventeenth-century example is added SCHUTZ. through constant use. . 5. the real significance of the Nota Cambiata has been forgotten. DtL/C 1 ES= II.


-fConsider the following cases



a *=*


i f^rT r






5 and 8 the leap

from a discord to another


In 3 and 6 the leap

in all these the last crotchet

from a discord to a concord. And forms a concord with the C.F.

examples of the true Nota Cambiata, for the same, e.g., the second crotchet is a discord, and leaps a third to the other side of the concord on to which it
principle in all is the
finally resolves.
(c) But in 2 and 7 the second and third crotchets are concordant with the C.F., while the last crotchet is discordant. It has been stated that these are also examples of the use of

These are

the Nota Cambiata, but in consideration of the examples that we have quoted from Palestrina in reference to the use of two

that the

in a bar in Second Species, and bearing in mind harmony may be changed on the second crotchet in





the Third Species, it seems probable that tion as the following Q J~

some such explana-

should be sought










concordant with the C.F., so is D, and so is B, that is, harmony has been changed on the second crotchet. Having

got so

the composer would feel that he was using a familiar and instinctively write the fourth crotchet as above, not idiom, For the true Nota perforce of rule, but by habit of mind. Cambiata requires the fourth crotchet to be concordant with the C.F., and support to this is given by the following example from Cherubini, who disallowed the use of the Nota Cambiata


following examples from Palestrina and others will


that in consequence of the frequency of the idiom, composers lost sight of its original use. may therefore say that if the


combination on the
the passage








PALESTRINA, Kyrie, Missa Papae

(a) Original use.

i= s



As a Melodic



1480), Je suisvenut.




Citiusvis Tom'.
















It will

be remembered that in Chapter III

(4) it



that the following

was inelegant




it ;

we have

three examples of

A, B, C.


this is

to the melodic curve of the original formula


in the majority of cases the







It is







true that



are phrased



It will

be seen that either the melodic curve of the original

For general point or the phrasing makes these justifiable. cases the rule given in Chapter III (4) holds good. It is further to be remembered that the constant changes of harmony render
the above quite satisfactory in effect any attempts of this sort with a semibreve C. F. will be found to be harmonically crude, unless the C.F. leap an octave

Iste Confessor.



the Third Species idiom, with the first crotchet both the second and third crotchets may be considered as unessential, or it might be argued that the fourth minim produced a change of harmony.

Here we have



sum panis.

the idiom




divided between what corresponds in SchoCounterpoint to the second half of one bar and the first half of the next.

The above
the device in


serve to

of the Nota Cambiata.

show some of the various uses has been said with great force that
result of artistic feeling,


was 'the


various uses cannot always be defended by the rules of Discant, which are arbitrary ; but they are always justifiable on aesthetic grounds.

not of intellectual calculation

No valid argument can be brought against an idiom which was very characteristic of the age, and which should be justified by its elegance alone. Here we have the origin of what we term Changing Notes. Theorists mention the following variants
of the original formula

The first two only are recommended, and they should be used with careful discretion. No examples should contain, as a rule,
more than two
illustrations of their use.



not a use of changing notes, but a change



Unessential Notes.

The remarks made on the use of unessential notes in Second Species apply equally in Third Species, for the following are
identical in outline





It will


therefore be unnecessary to repeat what has already been But the Third Species has as a special feature the use of
in a bar

one or two passing notes

between different notes of the



same harmony.

As our considerations in the Second Species covered the progression from the end of one bar to the beginning of the next, our remarks here will be mainly limited to the filling up of the distance between the first and fourth crotchets of every

The observance


prevent unmusical writing.

of the rules given in the previous chapter The chief point to bear in mind

is that, presupposing one harmony in a bar, unessential notes should be common to the scale of the chord used and that of the Tonic, unless such notes are felt to be parts of a modern essential discord, and in that case they must be treated as






In (i) the mind does not accept the second crotchet B as In (2) the third crotchet C is felt to be a change of harmony. the minor seventh with the resolution deferred. The criticism depends on (a) context, (b) mental effect of the



following cases should be noted





Ib. HI. Note the following : Bad. VII b. in.THIRD SPECIES The following is IN : TWO PARTS I 63 objectionable EEjL_J Because the mental built effect of the first bar is that it is wholly upon the triad of D minor as a n would be J ^ I I centre. i Good. . III. A few more examples may be helpful Bad. -^-J-^-J in. Note the mental effect as indicated by the : figuring. its correction i gz: J J I But the next example is good : II. & Good. 3 =* Bad. J-^LJ. Good.

J U-J I b. *U = J ** | J.64 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT J . With the subdominant as chordal centre the following are tolerated through common usage : but in more complicated situations such a procedure will require care. Ill b. at the The last is good because of the perfect concord second crotchet. Good. With trouble is the dominant as centre the only note likely to cause In ascending it may be used. if it the minor seventh. finally falls like an ornamental resolution of the seventh ft . Good.

I. IN TWO PARTS I b. : Ib.THIRD SPECIES C minor. IV. Avoid such things as y " i . Ib.

THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Consecutives.66 7. The We cases. rules as to consecutives must be limited partly by the view taken of the harmonic structure. It will be observed effect : that following produce an objectionable Fux. -V(*) But no exception can be taken to (2) : *==x=t=^se=3. partly by the relative have here to discuss the simplest complexity of the score. . those in which four notes are written the to one.

(E) Between the fourth crotchet of one bar and the next (i/). if the former be taken by leap (i^).. g. which First and Third Species only are combined. unless the of placing of all the harmony notes of each bar in the form vertical combinations produces correct harmonic progression. first See below (3 a and b). e. or bad effect does not depend entirely on the disThe rules here codified refer Modifications. In which one or both of the crotchets involved fall Castf /. will be In the following classification the use of only one harmony in each bar is presupposed. and it is also necessary that both the crotchets involved are harmony notes. of the F2 . fifths or octaves are forbidden crotchets of successive bars (see above (A) Between the first and the first of (B) Between the second crotchet of one bar the next. on an accented part of the bar.THIRD SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 67 The good to a score in tance between the consecutives. (C) Between the third crotchet of one bar and the first of the next (i e\ (D) Between the third crotchets of successive bars. Consecutive i a). the first or third crotchets. complex movement. in cases of more discussed as occasion arises. or the third crotchet of one bar and the second of the next.

68 (F) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Between the fourth crotchet of one bar and the third of the next. unless the placing of all the harmony notes of each bar in the form of vertical combinations produces correct harmonic progression. (3) 1 See (3 c). .

and third of three harmonies but in the simple combinaand Third Species it is not always easy to discrimiunless the Third Species approach the new harmony by disjunct movement Q i . if approached and quitted by step.F. though concordant with the C. third of The In Third Species It is of course obvious that consecutives cannot occur between . it may be taken as a general rule that the harmony is only changed on the first and third crotchets (although it is not wrong to change it on the second or fourth). the first tion of First nate. is not to be regarded as a harmony note. Thus 2 (d) and 2 (e) are both good.THIRD SPECIES (c) IN TWO PARTS 69 one bar and the fourth of the next. so that any fifth appearing on the second or fourth crotchets.

Bad. however. (3) the relative distance of the consecutives. has no place in Counterpoint. Good. The extremities of a melodic passage should tritone Bad. The following should be avoided as it gives on the fourth crotchet an impression of a J wrongly quitted. If the This introduces an important point. lower part forms a fourth with the higher part it must of course be treated as a discord. -ft- -& == Not good. Bad. and be approached and quitted conjunctly. . Good. not form the 9. The principle has three aspects (i) the relative prominence of the notes (2) the harmonic outline : . It is quite true to say that . a great confusion as to the use of what we term the fifth of the root in the bass.7o THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT who takes the trouble to grasp the principle involved will never be in doubt as to the good or bad effect of a passage in reference to consecutives. The same reasoning applies to the dissonant fifth. The leap of a sixth (major or minor) should be avoided in notes of such short time value as crotchets . 10. the latter is the less objectionable. Good. Such an expression. The following examples will make matters clear : Good. Good. 8. and we need only bear in mind There is the proper standpoint.

71 a diminished triad in root position may not be used one will say. Avoid disjunct movement throughout a bar. the second and third crotchets are passing notes. A D treated as discords. approached and quitted by conjunct degrees. the first crotchet consists of contrapuntal analysis is a concord. some a And Time after surely a | is being used on the last crotchet. ii.THIRD SPECIES IN TWO PARTS . surely the following is incorrect : then. or that on the fourth crotchet as an implied second inversion of the chord used at to were simply B to F and the beginning of the bar. time this difficulty has arisen in the minds of students owing to a confusion of principles. Q . The writers : The D F of the Polyphonic Period did not regard the combination on the third crotchet as a dissonant triad.

F. . The following are the usual cadences : Major Mode. often produces most satisfactory effects.F. in Combined Counterpoint. (a) Minor Mode. together with other notes. C. C.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT i s and PHI r II jrifafl^i It has been said by some that auxiliary notes should never be used on the third crotchet of the bar it is noteworthy that it is Palestrina's practice to use either a true passing note or a harmony note on the third crotchet. 15. But it is not forbidden to use auxiliary notes on the third crotchet . their use. indeed.

Cantab..THIRD SPECIES (a) IN TWO PARTS 73 and (b) are only available as the completion of the scale C. 33^ IP . rn It is r i r i if^ft+ig rr the figuring to unnecessary to add : the following examples First Mus. . 1903.F. B.F. C. May.

\ v/ Two-bar rhythm.74 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT X. A i / znr-T r i* r-^ -r s .

F. > * * A-' .THIRD SPECIES C.F. IN TWO PARTS 75 9 L- tl -* x ES V C.

under certain restrictions stated below free to leap or are termed 'suspensions'. (b) If the first minim of the bar move by ^"^ step to A S~~*^ I I I I <^^ I "J J- These are termed syncopated concords ' '. and thereby comes (a) to another implied harmony.F.F. this is relieved by its moving one again step downwards. The resolution (c) forms the preparation of The combinations ab. The second minim of every bar must of course be concordant with the C. . another concord upwards it is or downwards. ' discord resolution as it is the (b) which was (c) of the ' ' ' prepared at (a). cd. is to withhold the movement of one part while the other proceeds one step forward. a further discord ' ' (d).CHAPTER V FOURTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS SYNCOPATION. If the part that is thus arrested in its motion produce dissonance on the first half of the bar. and thus merging (*) into consonance () (0 (d) W (/) Here we have examples of syncopated discords. besides the use of passing notes. ONE of the most obvious ways of obtaining variety of effect. ef form what is concordant with the C. i.

It is true. 7T - gJ . in that the accent in the Counterpoint is displaced Fourth Species.FOURTH SPECIES 2. IN TWO PARTS is 77 as far as uncombined Counterpoint concerned. to say that Syncopation is a simple variant of First Species.

and is merely a termed Now experiment with syncopations below the C. (3) is not. Let us now take the consonances. (B) 5. (1) is now considered . though and (5) form what we know as the suspensions 6 . 4. In the last bar.F.F. 7 43 . r (4) is it and (2) are what too harsh to be available. and its Counterpoint in the consist of notes of equal value. it is case of movement from concord to concord. a suspension at all .F. bar. Consonances. and experiment formation of syncopated discords. 4 5 Some theorists allow it. the C. in all Species. 5== m (i) r we term ^i r ^i . and is . (A) Above the C. The Counterpoint begins on the second minim of the and must form a perfect concord with the C. 6 to a syncopated concord.F. service (2) (4) too harsh and congested to be of any found in Palestrina and Fux. 98. occasionally found the suspensions 2 3 . Bad. I first Good. strictly speaking.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 3.

we have here a syncopated concord. 5.g. and implies the harmony ^ or f X I 1 (b) The 7 6 may be used over any degree of the scale. e.FOURTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS Kyrie (Missa Paschalis} 79 LEOPOLITA. (c) The 4 3 is not used over the second or third degrees of the minor scale nor on the leading note in both modes. (a) The implied harmony of the suspensions is as follows The may be used above any note except the leading : 98 A note. because . There is modern point of view both E and D are also an example in Tye's Mass. Euge Bone (Agnus Dei) ?s -rdr But these are isolated examples. from a essential. and quite exceptional. This is smoother than any other 7 8 for obvious harmonic . and implies the accompaniment of the third. reasons. (3) is subject to the same criticism as (3) above. that is.

a strict adherence to these restrictions is hardly necessary. J=t^ We need smooth. just as in the previous Species. and a bar of Second Species interpolated. In Parasceve. use the augmented fourth Feria vi. if the harmony be r*ls=^- . not therefore hesitate to write it.8o it THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT fifth. He Palestrina generally uses the perfect fourth in does. But in two parts. syncopation. however. especially if it causes the Species to be broken. always implies the accompaniment of the forbidden triads would result and implied All bad.

(ft) Over a pedal. And this is of course the ultimate origin of our (d) | f. the first being syncopated 56 i resolving discord is allowed. so that they never kept the sixth stationary as the fourth proceeded to the third. where the sixth becomes the real bass note for the time being Benedictus. not the later development of its possibilities. is not what moderns term a retardation. Sicut cervus. No upward From an . absolute point of view there is no possible objection to upward resolving discords. These idiomatic uses formed in men the habit of regarding the sixth as a passing note.FOURTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 81 Gloria. but the use The of two concords. The 65 is accompanied by the third and may either imply two harmonies in a bar or one. Missa Brevis. as a means of employment To sum variety. But we are here learning the first steps in the of dissonance. Gloria. Iste Confessor. Iste Confessor.

has been pointed out that the second minim of the bar . two harmonies).F.F. the note that prepares the discord (the second minim of the bar) must be concordant with the C. a retardation 7r Good.82 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT up. i _ Ugly. on account of the harsh effect. 6. the implied harmony (a) is as follows : The 23 r (b) the 45 5 : (c) the 56 It is better not to use the diminished fifth as a suspended discord. (d) m This may not be used as the 65 (e. It Bad. g. and the discord is resolved by moving one step downwards 22: All bad. Below the C.

Avoid melodic repetition 10. in these cases a single bar of the Second Species may be interpolated J J Poor harmony. Good.FOURTH SPECIES obviously incorrect : IN TWO PARTS The 83 must always be concordant with the C. following are i 7. Melodic monotony. The minim of the bar is often felt to be a repetition of the last minim of the previous bar with a new harmony 8. l^i Exposed octaves. The False Relation of the Tritone may be found by reducing the score to First Species Two harmonies may of course be used in any bar. first 9. unless it involves melodic monotony. or unsound harmonic progression . G 2 . The syncopation should not be broken.F.

. It is a modern innovation. The Cadences C. EXAMPLES First Mus. The last Cadence given above does not belong to the period. 1/L L_ . tf If ^ it " C?T-^ ^^ ^ Rare.F. the Second Species may be employed. May. IN FOURTH SPECIES. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The unison is allowed on the second beat of the bar ^ t_<* ^^- 12. B. and may be tolerated only in circumstances of exceptional difficulty. The last note but one of the Counterpoint must always be are as follows : the leading note."^ is impossible to use syncopation in the Cadence.84 ii. 1904. 13. Cantab.

F. / IN TWO PARTS 85 _2_ m=^ H2fc C.F.FOURTH SPECIES C. C. 1 .F.


Whenever a minim on the second half of the bar is preceded by notes shorter than itself. or improvement of melodic flow. But large majority of cases the procedure mentioned obtains. Crotchets. Second Species. and therefore may be taken as a fixed idiom. true that cases may be found in Palesin the works where this principle is disregarded. Third Species. and im1. . e. The following are the devices used to form variants of the four Species (a) : The combination 3rd of two Species and 3rd and 4th 3rd (*) This analysis is in reference to melodic movement. The only exception allowed is in the penultimate bar. 2. trina's It is . together with a few variants of them.CHAPTER FIFTH SPECIES IN VI TWO PARTS FLORID COUNTERPOINT. FLORID Counterpoint may be said thetical parting to the whole artistic variety. Minims. g. it must be tied into the next bar see (a) and (b) above. to consist of the synuse of the technique of the four previous Species. Tied minims. Fourth Species. serving the purpose of more ornate texture.

e. or a change of harmony licence. should in any case be sparingly used. Why is _n any such rule necessary ? 1 The reason that such a halt as 1 1 would be purposeless. biata is extensively used. Missa Papae Marcelli. unless employed pation to introduce synco- The case above. is of course justified the nature of the melodic idiom. f^- Benedictus. quoted from Palestrina. It is Such a may be asked. g.88 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT There is. by (b) The use of ties other than those already explained. 3 Nota Cambiata. however. . is better avoided. on the second crotchet. however. and the idiom constantly takes this form fa- use. one particular case that requires passing In Palestrina's Missa Papae Marcelli the Nota Cam- notice. in which both notes tied are not minims 1 1 <^^- I _ I . not because it is a but because changing notes.

as the Counterpoint thereby loses dignity any part Good. The second and third crotchets of the bar forming internal syncopation. or half the value of the first. Good Undignified. quavers It is Two in injudicious to introduce more than one group in any bar. Both very rare : and never to be used except in six or more parts. There are in Palestrina isolated examples of the use of four . for the syncopation is introduced after its proper place. such a procedure is so it had better be discarded. and Easie Introduction (1597) gives the following as an order tied. may be introduced in place of the second or fourth crotchets. and no note shorter than a minim should be tied into the next bar. second of two tied notes must always be either of equal length with the first. but it has not survived. Aeterna Christi Munera (Palestrina) for an example (c) The use of quavers. is thereby caused to lack interest. may never be Morley in his Plaine : &c. It cannot be regarded as a variant of any Species. and must be approached and quitted conjunctly.FIFTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 89 A tied as the Counterpoint The semibreve should not be used in two-part writing. In (b) rare that two crotchets are tied together. see Kyrie.

not because they are wrong from an absolute form no part of the technique point of view.90 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT justifies quavers in succession. The rarity of such a procedure its exclusion from the regular technique of the period Gloria. involving melodic repetition. causes a halt on the second accent of the bar. Missa Papae MarcelU. (d) By the use of dots. tt^* The following uses of quavers. Their use between any two notes of one bar not practicable in two parts is A dotted minim. are bad : The following are good : A used study of Palestrina will show that quavers should be sparingly. involving the use of a single quaver are forbidden. in only two parts. but because they of the period. ornamental forms of the Fourth Species. (e) By the use of of syncopated disfollowing are ornamental resolutions cords taken from Palestrina's works The : . Dotted crotchets.

except in the First Species. thus avoiding any infringement of the B.FIFTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS Aeterna Christi Munera. . 1 (a) At (a) resolving. Missa Brevis.>u These are all (4) examples of anticipation of resolution. !i^f fSf *aT <. and may be : catalogued thus (a) (6) (c) (rf) : () andj(c) are not used in Scholastic Counterpoint for (b) and (d) can always be employed instead. and may be catalogued thus : . These are really modifications of the use of the Nota Cambiata. that. the tenor leaps to a note consonant with the bass before At (b) the alto leaps to a note dissonant with the bass before resolving. | rule. no note should be immediately repeated at the same pitch. Credo.

though permissible. will be found to be extremely rare in practice 2ZCH .THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 3 The leap or conjunct movement to a note higher in pitch than the note of resolution and the use of quavers higher in pitch than such note.

(d) Aim at ' the greatest ' amount of variety consistent with true dignity of style (Rockstro). 6. same m Poor. allowing a part to return to the of repose in two successive phrases point 8. 9.F. Avoid over-elaboration. and Fourth Species. if possible.FIFTH SPECIES IN employed first (c) . h C. But with the addition of another part forming a concord with the dissonance such a procedure is found Such a . 7. with or without ornamental resolutions F^ C. Avoid. One theorist on the in third crotchet in remarks that a passing note may only be used unmixed Third Species. rule may be good in only two parts. In two parts the First Species should only be used in the last bar. This is hardly accordance with practice.F. TWO PARTS minim of any bar 93 to the it is better to tie the second note of the next. Third. The cadences are the same as in the Second.

94 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT PALESTRINA. Aeterna Christi Mutiera. .J_^_ .

F. This is a frequent case . Again . the reason being that the imitation justifies but the student is advised to conform to the ordinary procedure. in sponds reference to melodic rhythm. r r Counterpoint is in notes of the time value of Scholastic i Palestrina commences the Kyrie of the same Mass thus T ^ that it.in Palestrina.FIFTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 95 ii. Good. an imperfect concord. Iste Confessor. The horizontal to Thus Credo. Bad. r is. the first note of the Counterpoint is a semibreve. he should begin to study Palestrina for himself. that is. Now that the student is conversant with the five orders of Counterpoint. Every bar of the score corretwo bars of Scholastic Counterpoint. There are two points of view. and forms with the C. and they must be kept quite distinct (i) : view. Bad. The ornamental resolution of a suspended discord must never cause consecutives between essential harmonies. ON A STUDY OF PALESTRINA.

to help men by keeping the parts vertically parallel. Byrd. was shown by the value of the notes. following is placed in its actual form. y 4 ^ ^ Here (2) -J- The the dotted line inserted indicates the scholastic analysis. Scholastic Analysis. There is . we here analyse not according to melodic idiom. but according to the ' species used. Bars It s came into use at the beginning of the sixteenth century. and not to mark rhythmic divisions. The In this connexion. explained upon what authority may be freely used. The works of Tallis. and Gibbons were originally published without bars . On it is the use it of two chords in a bar. horizontal system is may be stated that two chords in a bar absolutely elastic in this respect.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Kyrie Aeterna Christi Munera. vertical view. in reference to harmonic combination. and in that of the scholastic analysis. J_* l^^3E^EE^^^^eE: need hardly be pointed out that the notation used in modern editions is a convenient adaptation for modern readers. That is. the standard ' The of measurement of course constantly varying Aeterna Christi Munera. the rhythm to read the scores.

more than two harmonies in a bar are equally undesirable. &c. Some of the most beautiful harmonic effects of the period are obtained by a process of combined conjunct and contrary motion. : concords may be principle quite simple approached and quitted by leap. Prepared discords have nothing to do with the essential harmony. discords must be approached and quitted by step. The harmonic The writers of the period : knew by it instinct respect further. May.. since their music was unrhythmic. bar contains two accents. following : and w. is to they might go in this be remembered that every scholastic far how Palestrina's scores are generally so is rare. It may be asked if one involving the use of two harmonies. and would foster a style inconsistent with the spirit of contrapuntal writing. It has been said that bars of Scholastic Counterpoint contain two accents. for the fundamental principles of music remain good for all time.FIFTH SPECIES IN \ TWO PARTS harmony : 97 ' no definite rule that a change of shall or shall not take place at any particular point in the bar such a question never concerned the writers of the Polyphonic Period. and all their attention was concentrated upon the melodic elegance of is their parts. seen that the restriction to one harmony in a bar and the use ot . 1903. simple in texture that any more frequent change and this It will therefore be largely accounts for the dignity of his style. Oxon. why not two or three ? Such a latitude would permit unnecessarily disjunct movement between notes of short time value. Consider the rhythmic structure of the Third Mus. . B. change of harmony in the bar be allowed.

for the is misleading in reference bar clearly contains four strong and four weak accents.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT It will be felt that the time signature this to the accents. Counterpoint we Putting obtain section into bars of Scholastic : / fr 2 j 3 .

which. the principle does not involve that the harmony must be changed once in every bar . forms the foundation upon which all succeeding progress has been made. Haydn or Mozart. which is resolved on the first beat of the next bar.FIFTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 99 In this example a bar of First Species is made to contain a suspension. Unessential combinations may produce what are now classified as chords. because it is : true. but they do not affect the impression of harmonic rhythm. The modern German system and the English Macfarren school are not those that moulded the styles of Bach. but it does imply that it is never wrong to change it. fgv- . Any one who studies the church music of our own Wesleys must at once recognize the influences of historic Counterpoint clearly engraved on every It may page. while limiting the change of essential harmony to one variation in a bar. And one of the chief reasons why so many students seem be found utterly unable to write smooth harmonic progressions is to in the fact that they have studied a false system of Counterpoint. be added that. I twill thus be seen that the principles here expounded are not arbitrary they are founded on a practice.

*-*^C.F.100 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT iJ C.F. gSg[>9tII3 &- ^?== .

crotchet. but a change of harmony.F. fy&Hi-t f^^2=ZgZ=Zt The same.F.FIFTH SPECIES IN TWO PARTS 101 s *jH B -HNM=l B =ai (a) Not a suspension resolved on the second. to strict harmonic principles m . C. according C.

T02 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT * : Either of these versions will is correct Counterpoint . difficulty in . the student have no condemn seeing why the Macfarren school would the former version at (b).

The first minim of each succeeding with the C. the Counterpoint moves one step downward at the beginning of the bar. All discords must be approached and quitted conjunctly. thus : : Its modern equivalent is of course | with a dot added to the semibreve i=i 2. the leap of a third in the same direction. When provided that the next note proceeds to the intermediate sound. 4.CHAPTER COUNTERPOINT VII IN TRIPLE TIME SECOND SPECIES. IN a system of notation now obsolete. i. a perfect concord. a semibreve might be considered equal to three minims this value of the semibreve was termed the Greater Prolation. and must form with the C. The Counterpoint begins on the second minim of the. and was denoted by the use of a circle. bar. except when the idiom of the Nota Cambiata is employed. is quite in accordance with contrapuntal practice .F.F. bar must be in concord 3.

THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT A change of harmony in the bar is always allowable BEEzsEi .io 4 5.


106 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT ^ m t Jf :J~ m ^H~J~ J p .


. (b) V b. IV.io8 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT (a) not consecutives.F. I. IV b. VI b. C. II b. . FIFTH SPECIES. No further rules are necessary. I. VI b. IV.. unessential. VI b. I. Vb.F. (a) - m 3 . VI. a possible ending. VII b. as the notes involved are mentally C.-KM: V.

BIS (a) It is better to regard this as containing three accents in each bar. Ib.COUNTERPOINT IN TRIPLE TIME 109 v. fe 2rfcfc=: g E rt/ ~. VII b.F. . C.

And so in the system of Musica Ficta a sharp was added to the C. created by most of the modes. not only by the sixth above. In fact. was felt to be objectionable. and up to a short time ago was the universal method of concluding a movement. to make it like the Ionian cadence. and harmonic progression ceases to be mentally ambiguous. and producing a satisfactory effect of completeness. and finally to the establishment of the modern scalic system. F 7 () (*) But the effect of the minor third (a). but also by the fifth below Dorian Mode. forming the upward-tending leading note. to I. it was found well accompany the penultimate note of the C. in the treatment of the cadence.F. has become stereotyped as the perfect cadence. This progression of the bass from V.CHAPTER COUNTERPOINT IN VIII THREE PARTS i. WITH the addition of a second Counterpoint to the C. a complete triad is possible. c.F. It has been shown how men experimented with combined . Ionian Mode. Other experiments have been made by modern writers with varying success. insomuch as the Ionic cadence sounded so satisfactory. For to instance. this step in the development of polyphony led to the vertical consideration of combined parts.

the following combinations were Z2I The The fourth basis of our | was allowed between two upper parts. It 5. 6. though discretion. part-writing should be compact. 7. it should be in the first done with cautious Except in the first and last bars. the different voices should be nearly equidistant in the matter of interval . .COUNTERPOINT sounds in three parts left . and occasionally use of Fourth Species. Missa Aeterna Christi Munera. had better be omitted also. Both the perfect and augmented fourth are allowed as harmonic intervals between any two upper parts but not between the bass and any upper part . the fifth in preference to the third. if in the last bar it is necessary to omit the Wherever third. The majority of the rules of two-part Counterpoint hold good 3. would come to be catalogued after such a process as PALESTRINA. first for the extreme parts in all simple Counterpoint. the unison should be avoided on the beat of the bar. incomplete harmony is made necessary by the of melodic flow. two upper parts should as a rule be more than an octave apart. This is the scheme of common chords with their first inversions. When is not forbidden to double the major third. if a wide The gap No I ! is necessary. : IN THREE PARTS in the fourth being rejected. it should occur between the two lowest parts. the root is to be doubled in preferexigencies ence to the fifth or third. L_V ^ 2. possible the chord should be complete on the beat of the bar . the fifth 4. A J.

and (c) is found in the Stabat Mater . The following combinations are of course possible in the minor mode: 8. CONSECUTIVES.112 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT * Good. found in Palestrina's O admirabile commercium tzac (b) is found in the Kyrie of the Missa Brevis. Bad. consecutives are usually disallowed between (a) Exposed extreme parts. except at the cadence where the top part moves by step Many (a) is theorists consider all these to be bad.

Kyrie. opinion divided as to the third. Credo. is That and which still holds good. Aet.COUNTERPOINT =s? IN THREE PARTS & dt ( J E$E1 _ 3 Now it r isolated instances. It is obvious that there are many things which may not be done in Strict Counterpoint which are the reason is not perfectly good in modern harmony were ever wrong from an absolute point of view. is These are by no means quite true that cautious discretion has to be used in accepting PalesFor trina's procedure as absolute in reference to consecutives. ^/*'ssa Brevis. if allowing exposed the top part move by step . Ch. moderns would not is tolerate the first two of the follow- ing . But in modern harmony It is. Mun Credo. his procedure in this case is accepted as absolute. Ibid. inconceivable that there can be any benefit in prohibiting what was certainly a common procedure in the sixteenth century. that they that they . but . instance. and one often finds this in Palestrina. all broad-minded critics agree in consecutives between the extreme parts.

There is no point in making difficulties for the exercise. but he need not hesitate to write them if by so doing he can improve both i the melodic and harmonic progression. indeed. sphere of technique. should be sought elsewhere. This is the only valid reason for restrictions of any kind in the right. it may be replied that if we can find no means other than those which impose restrictions which are of no practical value. if the restrictions sake of intellectual have not even the saving imposed grace of historic tradition . As a general rule they should be confined to those pro- gressions in which the roots rise or fall a fourth or a fifth. Consecutives (exposed) between different positions of the same chord are entirely unobjectionable Good. all cases one of the chords should be in the root position. But Counterpoint is Counterpoint. If it is argued that exposed consecutives to both the why are forbidden between extreme parts for the purpose of discipline. and in the other. In The student should exercise his musical instinct in deciding upon the effect of progressions of this kind. And if we see a procedure common is inconceivable it allow Polyphonic and the Harmonic Periods. things of this nature bring the study of Counterpoint into ridicule. It is necessary to warn the student against an excessive use of exposed consecutives between the extreme parts. and whatever limitations are made must be in accordance with the practice of the time. and only serve to make theory and practice irreconcilable.n4 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The use of did not form a part of the technique of the period. retardations is an obvious illustration. it theorists should prohibit it in the one. . such discipline. if at all necessary. What is right must be whether it be a technical exercise or a piece of composition.

COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS Poor. The that fact that the effect of the following is it will be equally effective in no guarantee purely contrapuntal music good is : SULLIVAN. I 2 . Although Palestrina writes the following of the period is not to be considered as a part of the technique but the next examples are entirely unobjectionable because of the use of a syncopated concord in each case ^=^ "T g^zzziz. Te Deunt.

Poor. if the upper part move by step Good. (/?) by his sense of the fitness of extreme Exposed consecutives are allowed between a mean and an part. . Bad. Bad.n6 Indeed. I interpolation of a passing note does not justify exposed consecutives which would otherwise be condemned : The -^ I I i Bad. Good. The languishing effect of the above example is foreign to the style of Palestrina and his contemporaries. If the unessential note be auxiliary. which are perfectly music conceived in a modern spirit. Bad. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT in good the many of the exposed consecutives. and the student must therefore be guided in such matters things. are objectionable in more severe style of the old contrapuntal school. Bad. the effect is equally bad.

and I b. Iste Confessor. (y) the notes One modern if writer says that consecutive fifths are not allowed. in unaccompanied vocal music it is contour of each part. the principle only applies involved are essential. fifths and octaves were prohibited only between the same Thus we find the following : Credo. But under any other conditions above will have the effect of possible to follow the the . to the unison by similar motion is always bad Progression is the chords are : -SEM- (e) In the time of Palestrina consecutive parts. Now.COUNTERPOINT That is IN THREE PARTS when all 117 to say. one of them be diminished But there parts. if (8) no valid objection to them between two upper VII b.

u8 so that it THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT is advisable to discard this principle. but in the First Species that this procedure be restricted to upper parts. and the student should rely more upon his musical sense than the mechanical application of rule. Tritone. But it is . Ugly. Good. : gp: &All good. at any rate in it less than six parts. It is allowed between a mean and an extreme part by contrary motion Good. The is This is forbidden between the extreme parts by movement. parts may cross freely. better 9. : hardly wise to lay down any hard and fast rule much depends upon the context. Except the following conjunct 10.

Good. unless involving bad balance of parts or exposed consecutives. Good. In the first bar the lowest part should always have the root c. Bad. the movement of each part should be varied as much IT is be a note common as possible -&C. Never double the leading note i 3.F. Good. it should be kept in the same part. it is one of the canons of Counterpoint that.CHAPTER IX THE FIRST AND SECOND SPECIES THREE PARTS i.F. : Good. Poor. The following are the cadences . IN ONE OF one of the canons of elementary Harmony that if there to two consecutive chords.

-The following is quite correct : that is.F. the exposed diminished fifth is open to no objection.F. Examples : . C.120 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT C. C. (a) C.F.F.

F. C.COUNTERPOINT First IN THREE PARTS 121 Mus. 1903.. /"~? I ~-^.F. C. 1=^=^=1 I An example in practical form C. May.F. B. J-L ' ' v . Cantab.

C. ^J /^ C.F. the second 1.F. (a) The use of passing notes The effect of the fourth the third is : against the third is an inner part and the fourth is very harsh above . minim of the bar. Observe that the last two notes in some part are invariably the Leading Note and Tonic. 3. The unison may be used on secures a better melodic flow.F. CF.F.fg-rg- S__^4l-^=l _^=j_Z^2 C.122 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT SECOND SPECIES IN ONE OF THREE PARTS. * -" . if it 2. The cadences are as follows : C. This is the case in every Species.

. to an octave by similar motion (Macfarren. two notes next each other in alphabetical order may 4. The first note of the Counterpoint must be a perfect C. or a good passing chord ^ Note the following H-<^r e (c) : 5 ^ Poor.F. concord C.F. Harmony) proceed No i 5. i Good. Good.COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 123 2 ^t (b) Wherever possible let the second minim form with the holding notes either a modern essential discord. Incorrect.

not theory (see page 95). even if the Second Species be a mean part in Bad. F. and a part Second Species apply equally well when a third part is added. The earlier theorists allowed this : out. as it has been pointed arguments which support Palestrina's procedure have ceased to have significance under modern conditions.I2 4 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT : Theorists differ on this point tice. The leap of a fourth does not take away the objectionable effect. but. the above rule is based on prac- The rules as to consecutives between the C. 6. the ZEi .

COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 125 CF. in practical form =p ^ EBE^E or ^n S* .F. - h nnn An example C.

even though First GREATER the reduction of the score to vertical combinations of essential notes should not bear the test 7T . or fourth beats of successive bars.CHAPTER X THE THIRD SPECIES i. they may appear on the second. IN ONE OF THREE PARTS licence in reference to consecutives between the and Third Species is allowable. in that except in the case of consecutives occurring on the first beats of successive bars (one harmony in each bar being presupposed). third.

J-lJ J Ull I I ^^ C. Good.COUNTERPOINT C.F. IN THREE PARTS 127 p & J-i. . The previous recommendations in reference to passing notes should be carefully followed.F.F.F. h ligt^ J J-JlglL. U ^I-IU C.l C. Observe however 4.

writers used The early them : artistically by instinct.128 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT effect Here we have the seventh. must be treated as if they were. essential. fact is. as indeed they are mentally. of a deferred resolution of the Compare the auxiliary notes. rule in harmony textbooks for the treatment of The notes. a great many which are theoretically unessential. under the modern harmonic system. Examples 1 .

F. merely put in various times to illustrate the practical uses of Counterpoint. . They are all absolutely examples of Third Species Counterpoint. The strict these examples student will at once see that the only difference between is in the time signature.COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS i 129 = e C.

however. e. the The 7 reason is CCA ^j i 6 may be accompanied by the octave as well as by the third . It is. we have here the suspension of the root or third of a common chord. necessary to remember that the 98.. *%J j and the 4 3 by the octave as well as the fifth =^=^-ttiU I e. may be doubled except that note : which is suspended.g. Thus the following are faulty : . besides being accompanied by the third. This may be summarized as follows Any portion of the chord. THE accompaniment of the various syncopated discords has already been adequately discussed in Chapter V. the root.CHAPTER XI IN THE FOURTH AND FIFTH SPECIES THREE PARTS ONE OF i. Similarly.g. of course obvious. may be accompanied by the fifth or sixth also Root. third or fifth.


When -&-' Good. As to the accompaniment of syncopated concords. the follow- ing examples will make things clear : ^ Good. C. (Retardation. may form the Fourth Species is in the bass.F. Bad.I32 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Exposed consecutives are allowed under the conditions mentioned in First Species. 6.) Good. 4. Bad. m The best cadences are as follows C.F. ^ . the upper parts a fourth. because the second minim represents the real harmony note 5.

few examples are added point of view the fourth (c) prepares a discord but from a contrapuntal point of view the tenor A PALESTRINA. Equivalents in First Species. if it is a syncopated concord Good. The dominant and used. approaching the cadence (0 J.COUNTERPOINT C. and only in tonic are the only notes that can be thus PALESTRINA. Sometimes the lowest part contains the same note for two or more bars: it then becomes a pedal point. Bad. Aeterna Christi Hunera. Aeterna Christi Nunera. the bass again becoming essential on the third minim.F. . PEDAL POINT. and the next part above it is to be considered as the real bass. IN THREE PARTS 133 SBr The leading note may be doubled. From is A fc^ft" a modern : of suspension the real bass on the second minim.

Cherubini.134 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT CHERUBINI. CHERUBINI. but the following is an illustration of the sort of case in which it may be introduced with advantage ^ C. makes the stipulation that the first discord be prepared by a concord. and the another concord. while allowing that Palestrina uses the discord of the fourth without preparation in order that it may become its own preparation. Examples : . last discord be resolved by The use of the pedal point in Scholastic Counterpoint is rare.F.

F.F.COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 135 =^-f_ if C. S tr-r S C.F. e^^f e . _ - -f-T I C.


on the second half of the bar in uncombined Counterpoint is effective if it has been preceded by another minim. parts needed in addition to those in the introductory chapter on threeThe occasional use of an untied minim part Counterpoint. m-2-^ 4- . EXAMPLES. with rhythmic and melodic variety already given in two No further rules are must be most carefully followed. The rules 137 SPECIES IN ONE OF is unadvisable.COUNTERPOINT THE FIFTH Too regard to frequent syncopation IN THREE PARTS THREE PARTS.


as seen is not only inconsistent with practice. tive of far-reaching evil. while the modern explanation of it. constant running into the unison is only tolerable under the We conditions of the time. The it system has brought with feeling. XII IN COMBINED COUNTERPOINT more than one of the added first. The great principle to be .CHAPTER WHEN point. adoption of the modern scalic points of view which were non- existent in the sixteenth century. except as matters of artistic both in reference to choice of harmony and melodic have now to discuss in a more detailed way progression. We the question of harmonic propriety. But it must be admitted that the whole of the blame cannot be laid at the door of the Macfarren school. has been previously insisted that what is considered correct Scholastic Counterpoint should not be capable of condemnation conditions. THREE PARTS some species parts are in other than the we have what is termed Combined Counter- This is a branch of the subject that has received very inadequate treatment at the hands of theorists. The earlier writers merely gave a few examples of Combined Counterpoint with little or no comment. and in order to explain the position clearly it is necessary to consider musical decoration in It some detail. have seen that Palestrina's under harmonic We procedure in the matter of consecutives cannot be generally have also seen that the followed under modern conditions. and by so doing actually encourages a system of writing which is produc- in textbooks of the Macfarren school. but imposes unnecessary limitations. In reading the compositions of the Polyphonic Period a modern can easily see what is correct relatively or absolutely.

it is useless to teach a procedure as being correct Counterpoint. for what is good in this sphere remains so for time. theory must bring such cases into line with modern thought. a few suspensions and prepared discords. that is. no enlargement of his harmonic or melodic made. But in questions which involve relative criticism. that is. PEE . Then. The work of the early Polyphonic school may be said to consist of experiments in combinations of sounds resulting in what we term common chords and their first inversions. that is when a particular procedure may be correct under conditions which have now ceased to exist. if he choose. but bad Harmony. and root Thus in Palestrina we have theories were Missa Aeterna Christi Munera.140 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT kept in view is. but this is not Scholastic Counterpoint. we have in the work up to the resource all is time of Palestrina the foundation of diatonic Harmony. learn to write exactly as Palestrina did under the modal system . that if Counterpoint is to be a training in the art of combining melodies. came to be catalogued as chords. and combinaand non-essential notes which were pleasing in devised. tions of essential effect Discords came to be used without preparation. though the latter is based upon it. The antiquarian student may. and passing notes linking concord with concord . under the leadership of Monteverde came the enlargement of the harmonic scheme. though the range of possibilities in this direction may be indefinitely enlarged. Scholastic Counterpoint is the adaptation of the principles of Palestrina to modern conditions.

V - . This. while not lessening the means of decoration within the limits of diatonic resource. tend to restrict both melodic and harmonic progression. will be best understood by means of illustrations : This Fux.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT The process then is IN THREE PARTS 141 one of transference of notes which were regarded as non-essential to definite positions in relation to the fundamental harmony. of course. does.

the It is true that such a case as (b) ' In combinations of the Second : and Third Species. must not be taken or quitted by skip. the chief rules of the Macfarren system.e. are 1. in reference to Combined Counterpoint.142 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT In the second case quoted r the bass (D) the harmony is felt to is be a pedal wrongly quitted obscure and confused.' lowest moving part must be a good bass to the others above ' All parts moving together at the same instant (i. is corrected by a modern rule such things in a harmony exercise . The rules : following a typical student's application of these . if dissonant with a passing note of the former. which are struck together) must be in concord/ except when two moving parts are proceeding by conjunct and contrary motion . in this case they may is strike a discord. tolerate . even though it be consonant with the implied harmony/ But such a rule allows of =g which are no better than (6). all notes 2. in any case No one would position therefore is illogical. a note of the latter. ' Now The it.


make this clear . Sufficient has rule. must be in concord. been said to prove the pernicious influence of the instinctive Bach stands midway between the harmonic purity and simplicity of Palestrina. it is not true to say that all that is necessary is that all notes struck together the condition mentioned. and the calculated harmonic purity and complexity of the modern diatonic school. the harmony caused by the combination of various essential and unessential notes decorating the chordal centres is An illustration will quite a matter of indifference to him.144 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT ^= that are to be seen every These are only a few of the many examples of such crudity day in students' work. for though his chordal centres and seams are quite clear and satisfactory. S. his deficiency lies in his indifference to the harmonic effect of his decoration . The fact is. There is evidently something wrong somewhere. Judging of Bach's work from an absolute point of view. J. except under This will be dealt with in its place.

Harmony and Counterpoint are so perfectly balanced that good Counterpoint forms irreproachable Harmony. origin of the much debated chord of the augmented sixth in embryo the principle of Elgar. the tenor clashing into and reinforcing it. and good Harmony forms interesting Counterpoint. there is an absence of this confusion of harmonic and contrapuntal principle. with the seventh in the bass. and Strauss. In the modern diatonic school. harmony being a secondary consideration. so with the clearness of harmony in every detail.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS auf. will be in time catalogued as The present modern school is at the same stage of evolution in chromaticism as Bach was in the diatonic system . Elgar. binations. Dvorak. b ^- & t (a) the effect here is that we have a supertonic ninth. 145 BACH. and the regarding of 'all notes as equally related'. Bach intends the chord of E flat as the prevailing harmony. ^^ And under chords. while the resultant . and the resolution wanting. Wachet A. formed the present system it is probable that many comin the same way. the way was prepared for the adoption of the chromatic scale as the unit. finding And of course The shows shows its culmination in Wagner. The Romantic movement shows tendencies in this direction. in the best examples. The following table how the chord was formed : 3 *.

problems and possibilities of this school we are not concerned our knowledge of the evolution of the art would point to a process similar to that through which diatonic harmony has gone. and must not be supposed that the recommendations given in this treatise in reference to this point are in any way absolute. unless proceeding to another position of the same chord. . composers are finding new harmonic progressions. and the enlargement of the essential. J. and unless this is done students form a habit of mind which has disastrous effects on practical work . There is nothing in the rules of Counterpoint to forbid ^\) ^ '^ . . chordal centres themselves exhibit With the . as at present stated. As time it goes on. It will have been seen that attention must be paid to vertical considerations. require that (a) should be resolved as at (b) if the bass move downwards by any interval other than an octave (or) and that the bass note of a \ should not be quitted by leap. a process of the elimination of the unessential. The laws of harmony. and it cannot be too strongly urged that teachers should not condone in Counterpoint what they know to be bad Harmony.146 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT new progressions.


148 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT this is not the only consideration. are omitted. the In such cases the contrapuntally unessential combinations on weak parts of the bar do not produce the mental impression of a new harmony. and if the two contrapuntally essential combinations connected are satisfactory as a harmonic progression. when the intermediate sounds. which of course must proceed by conjunct degrees. for : But both the following are unsatisfactory It may at once be said that the effect will be good if the parts concerned proceed in simultaneous and parallel movement. But when the two parts involved take two unessential notes by similar motion and then proceed by contrary motion to the next centre or when they proceed in notes of different time value after having struck two unessential notes . r I All good.

A want of attention the following crudities seen in students' composition J-J^afe f=f The following rule will form a Whenever two parts move B"^ i safeguard against such things in parallel thirds or sixths by : . and receives the following confused effects the at mind ( "} J.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 149 W s : once loses the impression of the original essential combination. which combinations of this nature are they will be dealt with under their proper to matters of this sort is the cause of headings. r There are cases satisfactory in effect in .

they should proceed in parallels till they again reach essential harmony. from its intrinsic effectiveness.15 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT conjunct degrees (the first combination being essential and the second unessential). though its presence can be explained by principles of concordance. belong rather to harmonic than For the mental impression is to strict contrapuntal conditions. first leaps a third to the other side of it in the manner of a changing note. This can be conclusively proved by a comparison with the following. The note that the centres are the chords of G and D major. But the above happens to be a case which forms a very rare exception The considerations which justify it. would hardly be written under strict Scholastic conditions. which is unsatisfactory: . E. for we have yet to justify which apparently contradicts what has been said. The fact is that G. instead of proceeding to F| direct. apart to the general rule. being unessential to the harmony of the chord of G. unless the bass be a pedal It may be thought that the above statements place us in a dilemma.

the whole question of complex movement. owing to a mechanical system of : Counterpoint. For instance.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 151 This is one of the most important questions raised by a study of Combined Counterpoint. they are actually an application of the rules of Combined Counterpoint as stated in some modern treatises : Q4 It is any pretext whatever inconceivable that any one could write such things under but. of the followThey are intended to serve as safeguards some very prevalent faults in students' work. the restriction to the use of one chord in a bar either compels such discords as the above. can scarcely be considered authoritative. Apart from any questions of historic authority. and it is necessary to insist on their being observed until the student has a grasp of harmonic effect sufficient to enable him to find out artistic exceptions such as the case quoted. and it This opens out cannot be too strongly emphasized that indifference to questions of this sort is one of the most fruitful sources of crude writing. The maintenance of the conjunct nature of the Second Species is the crucial point in such cases. students are driven to believe that crudities of this nature are some of the necessary evils of Combined Counterpoint. the Artistic instinct often revolts against following are not condemned by any formulated rules . so that the student may see the exact purport. and ing recommendations. against also the limitations from an absolute point of view. and the matter has been dealt with in detail. . or a Second Species that can only be regarded as artificial. what is merely mechaniand laws which allow of unmusical application cally accurate.

and the conjunct motion of the Second Species. of its 2. The following are the methods of securing this : (A) If the second minim of the bar be taken by leap.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT THE COMBINATION 1. Each part enters after a rest of the time value of the notes It is of course obvious that all three notes Species. OF SECOND AND THIRD SPECIES. it is often possible to make the movement to the first minim of the next bar conjunct <$. The chief difficulties of the combination lie in the mainte- nance of clear.r r . struck on the first beat of the bar must be concordant. good harmony.

the minim being a true passing the third crotchet should generally be approached and quitted by step crotchet form and all the parts must on the third or fourth some good harmonic progression to the next . &-m= " T\ ~D ' Confessor. or the dominant seventh on a pedal bass . In each case. Under what conditions may they be dissonant ? A. Note. (C) A change of harmony may be used Missa Brevis. is consonant. (a) this auxiliary note on the third crotchet of the Third Species quite correct under such conditions. (i) If the Third Species be discordant with the Second note. Ibid. In all these cases the notes struck together have been 3. Species on the third crotchet. bar . the Third Species keeps the rules relating to the use of one harmony in a bar.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT (c) IN THREE PARTS 153 (root E) (d] the dominant eleventh (root E). the dominant ninth (root G).


F. Sanctus. Missa Brevis. rrr* * SHTM/ c^ryMs. If the second crotchet IN THREE PARTS 155 minim it is consonant with the C. if the part in crotchets does may not on the fourth beat run into the same sound as that of the form with Second Species PS r tZSL All good. ^ Adoramus Te Christe. the third a discord.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT B. The following examples from Palestrina will be of interest : Credo. Missa Brevis. : ^=$E . \ I O admirabile commerciun dmirabile commercium.

and it is also found in Men were composers of the period. but with the third or root sounding beneath it The effect of this . and for this reason it is appearance is important in the history of as showing the the evolution of the art. and the first obviously trying step was to strike it bare according to ancient use. to gain some liberty for the fourth. dawn in men's minds of the harmonic or vertical aspect of things. is its better avoided but not pleasing. These are only a few of the many examples scores of Palestrina. essential fourth Under modern conditions the bare essential fourth is not considered good. there is no objection I the works of other Palestrina uses the fourth in both ways. to be found in the We find in his works a great many examples of the bare Aeterna Christi Munera. the essential fourth may be struck. . In cases of emergency. but if one of the notes forming the fourth be an unessential note. however.156 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Sicut cervus.

Equivalent I () Consecutives cannot occur with a change of harmony intervening 0^" 3 J * ^ . Consecutives cannot occur between the first (a) and third of three combinations r Good. IN THREE PARTS 157 CONSECUTIVES.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT 4.

F. i ^ 1 EXAMPLES. quite good ^ E=TT. E=PF=C Good. in treating of the t was pointed out the following was Q 6.158 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT y Ugly. C. inelegant : (j .J it is but in the bass. It Second Species that . KB - . especially in the cadence.

COMBINED COUNTERPOINT (a) IN THREE PARTS : 159 There is really no objection to the leap of a major sixth minims between factors of the same root modern vocalists find no difficulty in its execution in C. (^) The maintenance of the same melodic formula in two or more successive bars of Second Species is often quite effec- tive .F.

It has been pointed out that no two parts should enter together. It will be seen that the (c) The effect : rules as to consecutives in Combined Counterpoint follow in the main those laid down in general terms by Cherubini. But it has been thought better in this treatise to give the matter more detailed consideration.160 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Kyrie. except when they occur between the first crotchets of each bar. except several in the First Species therefore may enter on the first either Species. or Species may enter on the second minim of the second bar. -- addition of a part in Second Species gives a clear of duple time the criticism as to consecutives may be based on the Second Species principle. The Second minim of the first bar. so as to help the student to grasp the principles of criticism. The following are examples of various ways in which this may is be accomplished : . 2. Missa Brevis. one of the chief difficulties the maintenance of conjunct movement in the Second Species. As in the previous combination. 1. ^j TJ (d) equivalent to SECOND AND FOURTH SPECIES.

. forms a f quitted by leap. PREPARED DISCORDS.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS i 161 d^b ^==~E=E3 ~Jz?L U? ^zii^i^iz^rz -r <"^ I -- I The last will be explained The following examples in the next paragraph. are not recommended : T forms obscure and crude harmony. root. are the least objectionable instances of (a) 3. while the discord resolves into concordance with them. The scores of Palestrina exhibit a very elegant variation of the original use of syncopated discords. In this original use the accompanying parts remain stationary. The above. in which the har(b) monies of the two bars involved are deducible from the same such a procedure.

162 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT There are three variants of this procedure. but with the minor third is much smoother. and the resultant combination would in each case have been concordant. g. I?D " ^ . (a) in which the second minim of the Second Species moves to a different note of the same harmony dl =fl ^ i^ \ m (2) is (3) liable to be very harsh and is not recommended. e. (b) in which the second minim of the Second Species produces a change of harmony m A Observe in (3) the origin of our chord of the dominant seventh. Note that in all the above cases in (a) and (b) the first minims could have remained as semibreves while the discord resolved.

Bad. the following is the contrapuntal M2 .COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 163 Good. The following are examples of these prepared discords : U= find a difficulty in understanding these because they confuse the harmonic with the concombinations. Ignoring analysis : the discord. that is. classification of the vertical combinations we call chords is Students often entirely foreign to the horizontal system. it demands no consideration except that it move one step down- ward into consonance. It should be borne in mind that any trapuntal standpoint. and that no prepared discord bears any relation to the essential harmony.

Distinguish between the following : in the second case (b) the second minim in the bass (G) is discordant with the alto (F) and incorrectly approaches and quits this discordance by leap. by similar motion. 4. nor may any two parts approach an octave. and that various root theories have been devised is beside the question at issue. when one of them is resolving a discord : !E r . It is only our province to state the horizontal system as it is seen in the music of the period.164 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT + ' 1- 3 The fact that under the harmonic system these combinations have merged into the essential. and to show that it is still true that only common chords and their first inversions are used as the essential fundamentals of strict contrapuntal technique. The extreme parts may not approach a fifth.

The fourth may be accompanied by the sixth. the following are therefore good : J. The ninth should never be prepared by the octave : 5. if the latter proceed to the fifth as the fourth proceeds to the third BE5I? ^ .COMBINED COUNTERPOINT Palestrina avoids this as follows : IN THREE PARTS 165 In combining the Second and Fifth Species.


THIRD AND FOURTH SPECIES.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT is IN THREE PARTS 167 not to be criticized as for no exposed fifth occurs. The harmony may be changed on the third crotchet pS3=^ . to obtain the effect of a passing chord on the third or fourth crotchet y p r H -J-LJLE=g=B 2. just as in the combination of the Second and Third Species. It is sometimes possible. i.

168 4.F. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Prepared discords may be used JT~^L Note when the Third Species the C. ZE1_: leaps. it is concordant with .

With the addition of another part. Now. Credo. nor if the first were a completion of a previous syncopation Ego sum L> Credo. moving in crotchets. J m= ^~ pant's. if it is its true that the Fourth is always a variant of the First Species. Missa Brevis. and the progression is perfectly correct. h I n . m if Dei. were syncopated Agnus objectionable the first two Missa Brevis. equivalent in that Species in the present case is Palestrina did not consider consecutive fifths between the first and third of three concords. another view of syncopated concords in reference to consecutives comes into use. Examine the following : PALESTRINA. Missa Brews.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS <E2E2 169 9 KB u -tt (*) 1 But in the original form (a) no fifth actually occurs.

for example. namely. we find he had no hesitation in writing consecutives. where rhythm and harmonic substructure are salient features. do not allow of such arguments holding good. Confirms hoc Dens. fc=^ IL ~- r Fux considered between the consecutives r i the interval ot the fourth the smallest allowable ^ But modern conditions. in ordinary Second Species. the second minim of one bar and the first of the next bearing the same sound. that in the case of what are termed syncopated concords the test as to consecutives should not be exclusively limited to a reduction of the score to plain First Species. Iste Confessot. I He also wrote go sww pants. that is. Take. However. the following : . It is more often a case where the Second Species principles should supply the test.170 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Even without these syncopations. if the intervening concord proceeded in contrary motion Credo. the above examples from Palestrina distinctly point to one fact.

for the harmony is of necessity so bare and often so indefinite that the First Species test should be strictly maintained . But to illustrate Palestrina's point of view. the ear often accepts the first minim of the bar not as a note in place of the second. But it will be felt that it is really impossible to condemn such cases as the following on any logical in or aesthetic grounds : y jo--- . but as a distinctly separate The harmony note. Lauda Sion. nor is the above test always practicable more complex situations. work this test It is is not to be supposed that in plain two-part allowable. the extreme parts are equivalent to and moderns would rightly object to this in extreme parts. put this in the form of Second Species and the outline becomes fact is.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS =l 1 171 ^ PALESTRINA. H By the rules of Counterpoint. as stated.

because the harmonic outline is correct wbecause of the clear change of harmony. &> -- . Consecutive fourths are not forbidden between the upper parts. 6.I 72 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 5 The former is good. when the bass is suspended the latter.

or the leading note is syncopated it : W) 3~3- .COMBINED COUNTERPOINT However. most men agree IN THREE PARTS 173 when when that the doubling is unobjectionable occurs in the middle of a scalic or arpeggio passage.


F.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT /\ IN THREE PARTS 175 m ^ J J -1~W C. E^===J S rr *- -+- *-' f if r f r Jjcj^fLt&^i^ "" ' ^=H^ i =P =t .

It is excellent practice to take add parts /L b to it in a C. and Third and Fourth Species.F.176 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT s C.F. thus i . in Second Species.

The following illustrations of various points will however be useful : Second and Fifth Species a bar. and the seams between the chordal centres be entirely satisfac- tory 7k J 1 J W" . Third and Fifth. and Fourth and Fifth Species call for no further comment. if the harmonic sub-structure be kept clearly in view. and prepared discords (a) : the use of two harmonies in (b) Third and Fifth Species : the striking of discords will be quite good.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT This is IN THREE PARTS 177 a valuable preliminary study in the art of adding florid to a chorale. parts The combinations of Second and Fifth.

Ornamented. (ffj 7= = H 7= . thus : may be accompanied in an ornamental Plain.178 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Prepared discords fashion.


- .

.ft - .

. which ignores the effect of the particular combinations struck together in conjunction with stationary parts. Such examples are due law ot concordance with the lowest moving part. Bad. Nor should tion proceed the parts. ' The If I had but two little i Bad. or a good implied modern harmonic progression on a pedal. J--U Good. E^S H*=^ i i =^ Good. ' discussion on the excerpt from wings will explain the following.182 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Good. .:: r-T-n- g m Good. combina- r r r Bad. W rffr=f i Good. after striking an unessential in notes of different time value. to the Bad.

IE3E f^y" ^"v^. that parallel movement is good. Bad.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT IN THREE PARTS 183 unless the bass forms a satisfactory pedal. Bad. Good. Good. to avoid further reference to the subject Unresolved seventh.F. It is well to Bad. 3 f *t* ^w ^ Good. Bad. unless the harmony be from a modern point of view. or when the C. Some of the following examples are given in four parts. Good. . conjunct and repeat what has been stated previously. provided that the unessential notes are used properly. satisfactory is in an upper part.

i8 4 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT A The ' ' '+ A sounded below the seventh. p^ thirteenth should not be j :?~ Harsh. II J cJ ZE?_ J Harsh. Good.. i J eJ . J . 2 =j . Bad seam.

he should compose simple phrases of four and eight bars. it is When said that a : It is impossible to write good Counterpoint without a thorough grasp of the principles of harmonic progression. it is unfair that it should be based upon. Unless these allowed to proceed further foundations are sound. As soon as a student has learnt the use of the common chord and its inversions. rather than in a textbook on Counterpoint. It is also difficult to find any excuse for a hybrid system which consists of . the question of the spontaneity of the harmony does not matter. does not remove the bad harmonic effect which is the cause of the rule. when the rules in textbooks make such things possible. so long as the Counterpoint is technically correct. and indeed some go so far as to say that Strict Counterpoint has Many no connexion with the technique of any period. This is a question which should be dealt with in elementary harmony. the practice of the sixteenth century. simple plain chord progressions. and at the same time confused with. f it be seen that the movement of the bass from a of the spirit of the law. on E to a | on C is j| a violation may not be from the inversion of another chord. When he has learnt the use of the chord of the dominant seventh and elementary modulation. It is really deplorable that the majority of students who have been through some harmony textbook are utterly unable to write four bars of To take for granted that plain chords in any intelligible way. and he should not be till his choice of harmony is smooth and natural. with the phrases properly balanced. that is. Examples of this sort are to be seen every day and it is very difficult to undo the mischief. the approached by leap interpolation of a passing note in order to make the bass conjunct. at it is impossible to to make any progress : and any one who attempts every turn. proceed will meet with disaster theorists of the present day argue that such a system as has been propounded in this treatise is not Strict Counterpoint. with no decoration whatever.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT As the passing note (D) is IN THREE PARTS will 185 unessential. is undoubtedly the wrong view. he should write hymn-tunes. and with a due consideration of cadential effect. If this is so.

After stating that the term Strict Counter' We . has also been laid down by some that no consecutives be nearer than the inclusive distance of six crotchets. to the common sense. consecutives must never appear between any two parts on the first. Such a system as the above is non-existent the imagination of a school of theorists. such a system has only obtained the ridicule it deserves. Thus. cannot do better than quote the words ot the late W. the true significance of the terms ' common chords and their first inversions in reference 2. the writing was correct. and that so long as all notes struck together formed a part of a common chord in root position or in the first inversion. or the harmony. partly by an appeal to musical intelligence and third or fourth beats of successive bars. and its except formation is not only in hopeless collision with the arbitrary practice of any period. no matter what the Species. into line with ' to the fundamentals of contrapuntal technique has either been misunderstood or ignored. and the application of mechanical criticism to cases which are not really relevant. It is taken for granted that Strict Counterpoint has no historical or practical status but that it is merely a mechanical : contrivance for the exercise of the intellect in overcoming difficulties. 3. In attempting to bring the teaching ot the earlier treatises modern conditions. 4. at Any one who has read the various early treatises must once admit this. but is in direct violation of artistic in instinct and logical reasoning. This is a view which is absolutely inconsistent with facts.i86 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT : a set of arbitrary rules drawn up from misconceptions in the following directions 1. Rockstro in Grove. second. It has been wrongly assumed that the horizontal system implied that the lowest moving part was the real bass. It is small wonder that from time to time there are agitations for the abolition of Strict Counterpoint . These views have been exploded partly by reference to practice. It may Such teaching is due inadequacy of textbooks. S.

to account code of artistic regulations. and based unconsciously uniformly good upon a foundation firm enough to stand the test of modern mathematical analysis. musical instinct. however.COMBINED COUNTERPOINT ' IN THREE PARTS 187 point is applied to a method which forbids the direct percussion * ' of a Fundamental Dissonance. and the criticism of consecutives. By this means the student is enabled to look at harmonic resource from two distinct points of view. in their search for these. The refined taste. and he is thus taught how Counterpoint merges into and becomes It is a system which can be directly the basis of Harmony. but. could produce . Their mathematical accuracy fails. aided by a cultivated ear. Tallis. They simply wrote what they felt and because the : never err. and substituted for them the purest and most harmonious pro- gressions that Art. Palestrina and their contemporaries. the treatment of unessential notes. for example. like those of Harmony. the horizontal and the vertical.' It only remains to say that as modern conditions bring new light upon certain aspects of the art. in modern work and he student who builds up his applied . to scientific Counterpoint It discussion. when tested by the principles to ' : of Natural Science. Willaert. and promise of future security. in all essential particulars . Byrd. that which they felt was and true and logical. they were guided by no acoustic theory. as. for Counterpoint is not a Science but an Art. Their authority for this rests solely upon the praxis of the Great Masters of the Polyphonic Schools which praxis was. are found to coincide with them. But those procedures which do not involve any violation of modern methods are left intact. he goes on to say are not open. is true that its most important rules. purely empirical. and to this circumstance alone are they indebted for their unassailable position. the present treatise aims at modifying the system in so far as procedures which were instinct of true genius can relatively correct cease to have any place under modern conditions . from first to last. of Josquin Despres. and true for their universal acceptance as a . rebelled against the hideous combinations demanded by the rules of Diaphonia and Organum. . and the term Free Counterpoint The laws of Strict one which permits it.

EXAMPLES. 1900. is the one equipped to enter upon the field of chromatic resource. J S* Z2" & . B. First Mus. C. Oxon..i88 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT is decoration of diatonic who best harmony on such principles..F. Nov.


190 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT example in An which the Fourth Species is the C.F.F. ^ 3 tanzni The same in practical terms. C. illustrating the aims of Scholastic Counterpoint 5t= \M/ rn^T w w .

(\\ Q ^"^ .COMBINED COUNTERPOINT (a) IN THREE PARTS 191 The last four bars might have been arranged so as to illustrate the origin of the cadential six-four.

The addition of a fourth part of course causes one note of the chord to be doubled. THERE is little to add to what has already been said in reference to three-part writing. irreof the context. The points : following examples will serve to illustrate one or two Between bars 2 and 3 of the first example there are exposed fifths between the alto and the bass (a) These are freely allowed between any but the extreme parts. whether the higher part move by step or not. and for that reason its use requires discretion. Some . (b) The doubled leading note in the second bar of each example is entirely unobjectionable. simply because some textbook says spective the leading note must not be doubled.CHAPTER COUNTERPOINT IN XIII FOUR PARTS i. but this procedure is likely to produce a thick effect. There is no law forbidding the doubling of the major third . teachers condemn every doubled leading note.

(c) Between bars 2 and 3 of each example we see the false relation of the tritone between the extreme parts in similar motion. fifth between the bass and an upper part was to flatten the A lower note a semitone. thus itte . common way of avoiding the interval of the diminished 3. and to be a predominant feature of the cadential idiom . the opening of Palestrina's Stabat Mater 1&- Between bars 3 and 4 of each example the extreme both approach a perfect concord by similar motion chords are what we term Primary Triads.COUNTERPOINT objection. and the top part moves by step. and causes an unsatisfactory effect. its doubling encroaches upon this position. But the Compare effect is quite good. and that theorists are unnecessarily (d) parts . It has been pointed out before that such cases are common in Palestrina. severe in this respect. for instance IN FOUR PARTS in There are of course many cases which it is open to Bad. In the above cases the leading note is felt to have a fixed melodic progression.

Oxon. 3 fefcr -& Nl ^ ^ V H s . First. UNCOMBINED COUNTERPOINT. Nov... and Third Species. Second. First Mus. and may be introduced with discretion not for the purpose of shirking a difficulty. but to enhance the harmonic effect. B.194 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT . 1903. SECTION A. i. This progression has come to be regarded as quite an idiom of ecclesiastical music.

..COUNTERPOINT First Mus. Oxon. Nov. IN FOUR PARTS 195 C..: -. B. 1901.F. F== P=5- F=^ -^^ 1 Ill l^ i -> /f *\ <*y .

F. C. m n m (a) b I .F.196 E THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT sr> =t C.

the rules as to consecutives between First and Third Species are rightly relaxed. M (b) As the complexity of the score increases. for it does not strictly belong to the period.F. It should never be requisitioned in Combined Counter: (a) The use of the much smoother part discord on the in point. the previous and succeeding notes must be concordant. 1 . however. and the procedure must be sparingly employed. . C.COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS 197 I (0 first half of the bar makes a such a case.

198 A __ rr 9J ' THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT / .

(Bare). I Z by 5 or 2. . IN FOUR PARTS 199 J 9 8 by I or either. Below the C.COUNTERPOINT Above the C. * Z by 4 or 2. | or either. 4 3 by or either.F.F. 'J 7 by | or either.


or vary J=3=ftf-?=& C.F.COUNTERPOINT i IN FOUR PARTS 201 r m to improve (a) A bar of Second Species may be interpolated. the harmony.- . or to avoid bad disjunct movement. F=* iEE3 t*?.

202 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT SECTION B. B. Oxon. First and Third Species. 1904. Second. May. Mus. First.. VARIOUS COMBINATIONS OF SPECIES IN FOUR PARTS.F. C. Z2I ft^ E I t? SJ =F^-K- .

Mus. C. 1904. Oxon. ^^ ^ . Nov..F.COUNTERPOINT First IN FOUR PARTS Species. Oxon. and Fourth g=^3=g ^ U & t ti m ^g=d E*gEgEsgi5=Bj C. B.. Third. ^ i First Mus. May. 203 First.F. 1900.. B.

preventing any halting effect. (a) Examples of double suspensions m (6) With a florid part added w=^ . the additional part. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT s w=r=? Double Suspensions l may be used in Combined Counterpoint in four parts.F. by its florid movement.204 C.

COUNTERPOINT (c) IN FOUR PARTS 205 Prepared discords and syncopated concords with Third Species fitl .

Third. 3 C. E " ICD [/ g* rd . and Fourth Species.F. Second.206 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Suspensions and syncopated concords -A 1 - may be combined 1- i !=** =i I First.

and Fourth C. Third. Second. Oxon.. . First. 1905.COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS 207 i ^ (a) The doubled leading note is unobjectionable. Species. 5 Three leaps in the same direction are here unobjectionable. Third Mus.F. May. B.

208 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT THREE PARTS i. causing (b) passing chords . often such possible combinations have to be discarded. and the score simplified sometimes the addition of another note makes : the effect satisfactory ~ s\ [HA H" . IN FLORID COUNTERPOINT. (a) passing notes. felt Distinguish between combinations which are as harmonic obscurity .

F. and the F and G the seventh of a passing dominant seventh the effect . First Mus. It will be observed that in (b) a second is quitted similar motion by identical : . Occasional combinations of groups of quavers is may be employed. even at the expense of a doubtful theory. and of variety of rhythm. irrespective . good. therefore 3. the bass is felt to be a pedal. root and In this case. The score should be kept as simple and as clear as possible. It is surely time that broader views should prevail. B. 1903. I J m i . 4. The mental effect of both is Palestrina employs both we therefore follow practice. not theory. of questions of melodic interest. Dunelm.COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS 209 Good. Bad. J C. Movement should never be made merely for the sake of doing something nor should any possible move be made.

B. ^=E-^^3LrUL-U^=e^ .. Oxon.210 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT m An First mm example : E in which the contour of the C. ^fef=M C. Nov.F.. encourages modulations Mus.F. 1901.

P 2 . May. Oxon.COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS 211 ( -f j - I a==5 First Mus. isfc^^s =^ lOg-Tzg C. B.. 1904.F.

B.F.2i2 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT S nzrj*Tf~r~c =[ ^ -J _. Oxon. m I First Mus. ! M-r C. . fa " ..i v. 1904.. Nov.

COUNTERPOINT IN FOUR PARTS 213 ^^F ? =e 1 si m ^XiZJI-JL m .

and no single part must difficult suffer from a lack of melodic variety.^ni r r ^^ . Simplicity and clearness are the essentials of good to style. provided the end justifies the means.CHAPTER XIV COUNTERPOINT i. IN FIVE PARTS HARDLY any in necessary idioms of Counterpoint should be observed. relaxation of the rules previously given is and in any number of parts the strict There is never any need approach or to quit quavers by leap. M^A Species. movement. occasionally The following are cases : In (a) suspended discord may be sounded against its resolution. The anticipation of the third of the chord is the most objectionable of such extensions of the rule. by contrary and conjunct A But the part that anticipates the resolution should be in the nature of a scalic passage. the strict letter of the law may be ignored. five parts. Such a procedure often most useful in difficult combined The following are obviously bad j r * " . combinations. is : ^ Harsh. i Tolerable.HI i f~l . except at the interval of a second. or to use dotted crotchets.

COUNTERPOINT be heard IN FIVE PARTS 215 In other words. Students often find the following : difficult to avoid fifths in such a case as There are three ways out of this difficulty : 0K-3-4 J J d- . the progression of the suspension must not in diminution in another part. as in the above it examples.

if the value of the former of the notes forming the interval be at least a minim. Third Mus.. 1902. may be tolerated.F. Missa Brevis. 1 A^-La. trJ (6) The leap of a major sixth. s . C. Oxon. B.2i6 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Gloria.. Good. Undesirable. Five parts in First Species. Nov.

Oxon. B.F. 1904.COUNTERPOINT IN FIVE PARTS 217 Third Mus. /L b-fr . . May.. C.

All the Species combined. To So long as the bass is not combinations are possible. add a First Treble in Fifth Species. i 4? 2. a Second Treble in Fourth Species. the above C. .F. Oxon.. D. not as being final. very interesting obvious that a bass in semito write the would be well Fourth first. I/ I THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT I/ _. 1903). a Tenor in Third Species. e. but as giving a general idea of the harmonic outline. and a Bass in Second Species (Mus. conjunct).2l8 C. and adding any little sections in the other parts that seem at the time worth noting. It breves is a limitation. The chief difficulty of Combined Counterpoint is to make the Second Species adequately characteristic (i. As a preliminary study and Second Species it in is semibreves.F.

IN FIVE PARTS 219 1 () r C.COUNTERPOINT Preliminary Sketch. ^^ 1 ^ m M .F.



the problem worked out : a few comments Mus. D. rzr EEEg=3=3=Fr^HF-f r r~P"^i =F^ 3 ^^?^ .222 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT is The following are necessary. Oxon.F.. . 1903.= C.

F. a Second Treble in First Species.F. It is of course impossible to give examples of all combinations. student should consult the chapter and study the various insertion of an additional part in First Species makes the working difficult for if two harmonies are to be used in any The : at (a) the First bar. the following. is a difficult problem. . This is well to learn to write within a moderate compass. is given to the Second Treble by crossing the Variety and the First Treble is also prevented from going up to A. an Alto in Second. combinations this is allowable. any attempt at (d) The Fifth Species is simple in texture : over elaboration will lead to harmonic confusion. The on Combined Counterpoint combinations. (see below) add a First Treble in Third Species. and a Bass in Fourth Species. To the following C. in three parts. the semibreve must be common to both has been broken. Space will not allow a full dis- cussion of this problem. but because the use Species . and the Bass see (b) Here the F is concordant with the C. set in November. 168. It is quite in accordance with Palestrina's procedure. 1905. The recommendation only made to teach students to write as purely as possible. not of necessity. (c) parts.COUNTERPOINT IN FIVE PARTS y=^: 223 == -& rJ ^s= $&>- ~ % (a) 3 * JEt The in difficult is Alto and Tenor quit a second by similar motion. : p.

we should have arrived at an ugly suspension in bar 3..224 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT felt of two harmonies was to the Third Species figure. if it had started below. or else it would have been necessary to break the Species. The Bass starts above the Tenor . v *-j -" . Jj. (/ ^"" ?Tj. in order to keep up is twice used (b). The diminished fifth be desirable.

. 16 (4). _ I & m m E m (a) See p. Oxon.. Hi :. Nov.COUNTERPOINT Four of the parts in Florid IN FIVE : PARTS 225 Counterpoint Third Mus. .F. 1903. B.

226 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT m i ^ No comments are necessary : care has been taken that the harmonic seams are satisfactory. .

which merely reinforces the sound. consecutive octaves and fifths contrary motion may be used. seem to have reversed this Palestrina's procedure as seen in 8 (e) Chapter VIII in reference to consecutives produced by different parts followed.CHAPTER XV COUNTERPOINT i. AND EIGHT : PARTS following are permissible relaxations of the rules In six parts. may be (c) The doubling of the leading note at the unison. even in four parts Alma Redemptoris. THE may by In more than six parts. Palestrina used consecutive fifths by contrary motion. IN SIX. 221 and the writers of the period considered them far less objectionable than consecutive octaves. is open to no objection. SEVEN. (b) Moderns. . which rarely occur in less than six parts. decision. consecutive octaves by contrary motion (a) be used. however.

the doubling of the leading note at another pitch is quite good. the last hardly necessary to point out that if a part should rest. V. e. If the key-signature of these examples were major. V. V. It is Academic pedantry is sometimes way of common sense. the rule that matters only rules are generally supposed to be effect. no theorist would object to them. based on judgement of allowed to stand in the 2. VI. the and it is really the effect and not . note of the phrase should be placed on the first or third . III. note is accompanied in a way different from that which was the origin of this well-known rule. VI. III.228 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT In such progressions as the following. The reason is that the mind does not accept it here as demanding its cadential treatment III. It is really is note bad : For though in four parts such a progression effect is often quite is good . And this points to the reason G In such cases the leading that their effect is perfectly good. in six or eight parts. unjustifiable. g. only in such a case that the doubling of the leading and even such a case as the above is often adversely criticized more from prejudice than from judgement of effect.

4. He must form . but only to bring into prominence a ' point or to afford artistic " ' relief.COUNTERPOINT beat of the bar . obscurity of harmony . with one part distributed between two voices. t> Bad. In florid work. 5. consecutive bars in the course of a problem. In cases of difficulty. The larly careful that his student must guard against these. The phrases should always dovetail Neither All bad. is . Unless careful attention be paid to this. IN SIX OR MORE PARTS some 229 and that a part should re-enter with point of imitation. should one part stop before another enters. The maintenance of one Species unvaried for more than two bars might be open to objection as florid work. After a rest. the unison may be approached by similar motion. But the First Species may be thus used in approaching the Cadence and it may be used with discretion for two 6. and he must be particuharmonic seams are good. no two parts should enter together. the better the Counterpoint. congestion of harmony. The simpler the style. There no absolute rule that no two successive bars in any part should be in the same rhythm. The : over- elaboration of the score leads to three disastrous evils (a) (b) (c) confusion of harmony . a piece of six-part work becomes merely five-part Counterpoint. it is better that some of the parts should begin imitatively. 3. A part should never rest for the purpose of avoiding a difficulty. The leap of a minor sixth may occasionally occur in crotchets.

Domine.B. A few general remarks on Combined Counterpoint may be useful. such cases the basses of each Choir often move as follows : In PALESTRINA. Also the following motetts Sicut cervus . (b) Double Chorus (c) The Righteous Bach. In exitu Israel . Five-part - O admirabile commercium. Missa Brevis . Stabat Mater. (a) live] Harwood. : Lauda Sion . Blest pair of Sirens] Lloyd. When towards the close they sing together. XXXI). : Lectio III.T. Song of Judgement. Art thou weary?} Mendelssohn. the following Palestrina's may be studied Missa Papae Marcelli. Ego sum studied. that is. panis . I wrestle and pray . Sabbati Sancti (Tom. Modern examples of eight-part work should be following are recommended : The (a) (a) Eight-part Chorus (b) : Parry. As examples of ordinary six and eight-part work. but one should not stop before the other enters.). Lloyd. 7. - (b) Why rage fiercely the heathen. Counterpoint in eight parts may be written for two Choirs In the opening passages the of four parts each (S. work work \-Aeterna Christi Munera Four-part : . they should dovetail. 8. Egypt. . (b) Sing ye to the Wesley.A. Sitivit aninia. Iste Confessor. Inclina Be not afraid. The student is recommended to read Palestrina's Stabat Mater as an example of Counterpoint in eight parts for a double Choir. Choirs should be treated in an antiphonal manner.2 3o THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT may find it the habit of keeping in mind every part. and he useful to figure the following examples according to modern principles. (a) When Israel came out of : Lord. the harmony given to each Choir should be complete and satisfactory in itself.

. g. resource is It would be well to turn back to the preliminary studies in three parts and examine the various possibilities. ) t This will Second Treble with First Treble. say. (b) . for if the Second Species be good. it would be well (c) If the First Species be to look out for opportunities of using in the Second Species . It is insufficient that the work should be merely technically correct. with each Compare Bass Second Tenor First Tenor Alto . first thing to do is to see that the harmonic outline is smooth and natural the next thing is to ensure that perfectly the Second Species is tolerably conjunct and flowing. in a score of. six parts part above it. 7 . student should form the habit of comparing every possible e.COUNTERPOINT (a) IN SIX OR MORE PARTS 231 It is a sine qua non that the result should be a musical piece of work. (d) If not only in change of harmony. but the converse is Species is not true.5.. and in the choice of harmony. (2) 8. the Third Species can easily be made good also. enable him to be sure that his score is free from grammatical errors. but also in the use of prepared discords. The rigid use of one chord in a bar will produce very crude results it is a serious limitation. 6. it must show in addition artistic perception in the contour of the parts. The (i) 5-6. A ^ not so limited. noting specially those cases in which the Second conjunct. in the lowest part. moreover. any of the other Species are in the bass. The combination of two parts.

Summa ars celare artem.232 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT flow smoothly and spon(e) All the parts should seem to taneously. and the Counterpoint should form irreproachable harmony. D. 1903. Mus. Oxon. e* 1^FtP=pgg CF s a= ^ ^ E H ..


r .F.r_ Im 1 .234 Six parts. THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT All the Species combined m w. C.

IN SEVEN PARTS 235 s m l C. 1901.COUNTERPOINT Seven-part FloridMus. l^rrrr es ^fe ^^ ii. ^ . D.F. Oxon..

236 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT -&' -JZ: * S EJEE g & 1 S M I ~1 1 &fcZ2I .

. (1 <=- C. .F. Oxon. 1904.COUNTERPOINT IN EIGHT PARTS 237 Eight parts in the First SpeciesMus.C^ C*i . D.

for the breve is of course equivalent to two tied .238 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Eight-part Florid (alternate bar lines are omitted) _r iE ^=-rrtg^= C.F. Counterpoint. 7 Eg (a) In writing in alia cappella time a semibreve may be occaThis will be very rare in Scholastic sionally tied to a breve.

reality only IP* But it will &^ ^^. . the be seen that the case in question is in final bar being of necessity double the length of an ordinary scholastic bar.COUNTERPOINT IN EIGHT PARTS 239 ftpizpzqj^i ^3=Z - (a) ?S ^ semibreves.

1906. D. All the parts should have entered by the sixth bar. Nov. Introduce each part by some Mus..24-0 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT ' . variation of the same figure.' 2C-4 . Oxon.

COUNTERPOINT IN EIGHT PARTS 241 gsjt S 4 -t fcr Si ^ i .






'Commence the following in three Mus. D. Oxon., 1899. adding one part every two bars until they amount to eight, including the C.F. Begin with First Species, and introduce the others successively, combining them as you please, but ending
with Fifth Species in

all parts.

























Mus. D.

Ox on.,







































CHAPTER XVI THE ELEMENTARY HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE OF MODERN CONTRAPUNTAL DECORATION THE student of history knows that the end of the sixteenth century witnessed a complete change in the character and methods of musical art. The whole trend of the possibilities of the 'Nuove Musiche' It is led to the enlargement of harmonic this treatise to discuss this resource. including : all modern resource. beyond the scope of subject . It is hoped that a discussion of this will not only help the student in his choice of harmonies in Scholastic Counterpoint. Rhythm. the essential six-four. A treatise on Harmony is a book of reference. and by touching slightly upon the use of the unprepared seventh. (2) (3) The principles of harmonic and melodic form. and the student of musical theory will not learn to compose by working figured basses. but it has been thought well to deal with the material of the Polyphonic Period from a vertical standpoint. and does not pretend to do more than catalogue harmonic resource in as concise a way as possible. to cross the frontier that separates the old art from the new. . but will also afford a preliminary course in elementary composition. The present chapter aims at teaching the student how to use the simplest harmonic resource in elementary composition. Between this chapter and the next it is assumed that the student has covered the following ground (1) The principles of chord connexion. which are arranged as studies under classified heads. and dissonant triads unavailable in the Polyphonic Period.

and the student will there see in the clearest decorative work. The Uninverted Triads of It is the Major Key. S. to IV. Differentiation of style. Wesley. and Goss.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE (4) (5) 251 The means of modulation. The elementary means of modulation are also discussed. (6) The decoration of chordal centres. way the basis of all SECTION I. It is of the greatest importance that the student should obtain a firm grasp of the principles of elementary chord connexion. In his Sonatas he gives as an accompaniment to the solo instrument a figured bass. He should read the Church Music of Croft. and in so far as these principles It is apply to the formation of phrases and sentences. He will find it specially valuable to assimilate the clear smooth progressions of Corelli. I. and later that of Walmisley. (i) words the aesthetic The Primary Triads. Wesley. S. triads in succession without effect. Any combination of these is good. sion V. Boyce. IV. But the . who was the first mature composer of violin music. true that the present chapter covers some of this ground. because they come within the scope of the chapter. S. requires care the following is use of the progresthe only satisfactory arrangement : . but it aims at in showing how the principles of Counterpoint may be applied constructing such texture. The raised following chapter does not deal with the various points in considering harmonic decoration. Attwood. not possible to write more than six or seven uninverted producing a crude and artificial We shall therefore limit ourselves in this section to the formation of phrases. in other basis of diatonic harmony. and Smart. V. but only in an elementary way. But before we proceed to this we have to consider the very simplest fundamentals of harmonic progression the principles of chord connexion.

In following one secondary triad by another the only progressions that are bad are II. III. The (b) progression is tolerable if the first chord occur on a strong accent. (c) Root rising a second. except VI. to V. VI. . should only be used in the following idiom. to III. .) from the discussion.252 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT v. . Triads. IV. . to IV. V. or (ii) We omit VII. III to I. IV. the following root progressions are satisfactory. (VII. and III. I. to II. to IV. vice versa. to (b). VI. to II. The Secondary . rising a third. Nothing gives a phrase a more unsatisfactory effect than a preponderance of secondary triads. II. we should choose primary in preference to secondary triads. III. At the beginning of the first phrase of a sentence. as it is impracticable. (iii) If a primary triad be followed by a secondary triad. III. VI. (a) Root rising or falling a fourth. J. to VI. V. Root I. in the other cases it will be seen that the roots are a fourth or a fifth apart. II. Root falling a second. IV. . The (a) Root following root progressions are weak. falling a third. to III.

(a) duple time. F V. Each foot forms a motive. w -. and we shall here deal with the Perfect Cadence. have now to consider the formation of phrases from this material. The Iambus. (b) triple time. Good.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 253 m VI. iambic or anapaestic. and we shall discuss the progressions under two It has been observed aspects. A chord should not as a rule be repeated : in the relation of to -. ^-r ^ r I. The Anapaest. The first foot is two accents. a phrase : We consists of four motives. V. that all decorated work may be reduced to two forms of rhythm. form the Cadence. only The last 1234 often incomplete. V. to I. except . and two sections form a phrase that is. two motives form a section.

1? 1ST (b) when the previous strong accent has the same chord. f m (c) for characteristic effects.254 (a) at THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT the beginning of the phrase. O'rJ T^r & Examples of phrases. & When the first foot is it J ^=A incomplete. the last foot often completes the final chord over the first half of the next by maintaining foot. . thus forming the caesura. J.

HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 255 pR~? T^ Er r 1 -p~-5 -\ .


Feminine Cadence. h w--U S . because it has the effect of a displacement of accent. i Hfed i ^ ^--1t 1 I I J.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 25? not be used for the second and third accents of a bar of triple time. -t-* r ** r I 1 () r-r falls is (a) Note that the first chord of the Cadence this accented part of the bar. produces what on the termed a i i <U W r w W r W r r T r r W I w w ! i _.

Any combination of these V.258 (b) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Feminine Cadence. The two weak accents should be considered as the completion of the first foot. SECTION II. : *"j^3 I. IV. I 2 i01-2_^ I 3 i ei-g t i ^ ^g^E^^ H -J. I. Uninveried Triads of the Minor Key. Bar 4 may be regarded as containing a suspension of the complete chord V. This is almost exclusively used for purposes of harmony. Omitting those triads which are not common chords we get I. is V. V. . IV. The Harmonic Minor Scale. B *-^ IV. V. VI. VI. is best thus : good. to IV. Examples.

or VI. and III. or VI. II. (c) VII. V. VII.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 259 (a) The anticipation of the Cadence is here good. ~22I 1 IV. II. should be preceded by IV. III. III. Next. is impracticable. II. V. should be preceded and followed by I. j __C-? II. (b) III. and should generally be avoided except in a sequence. VI. (a) These should be rarely used. the different time values of the two chords removing the objectionable effect. should be used with extreme caution. III. III VI. VI. J- EEpEi S 2 . consider the triads II. and VII. V. and followed by V. V. II.

The Melodic Minor Scale. the melody being the last three notes of the ascending melodic minor scale. This will give the following additional triads. .260 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT I II.. (0 (3) (4) (5) should be very rarely employed. its The following are the best cases of use. ":J j- <- 1 1 (3) (n\ ^' W& jyf may be conveniently considered next. because unnecessary. m ~r r is less The following good. and I. 9J It is best restricted to the case in which it is followed by V.

(b) The first chord must be a major common chord. . r I I use of these chords was common in the time of Handel and Bach. the following C major. : Thus first the following is not a modulation to D minor. originating in the Dorian Mode they should not be employed unless the major sixth occurs in the melody. and The : demands harmonization. This produces a modulation to fulfilled (a) : to the key of confirm a modulation. for the of the two chords contains the minor third. the minor seventh must be added. g must not be preceded by (5) A minor. (c) The first chord must also contain a note foreign to the scale of the previous tonic if it does not contain such note. conditions In order must be The root of the second of the two chords must be a fourth higher than that of the first.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 261 "5" -p.

It is best preceded by I. C maj. it should be preceded and followed by I. or VI. to F Of course. but diatonic in the key approached. maj. If it is desired to use the chord in question without inducing modulation. the addition of the minor seventh is not necessary. to F maj. The following is an example of modulation. or VI. IV. C maj. if an intervening chord be foreign to the key quitted. chord contains a note foreign to the scale of C major. and should not be immediately preceded or followed by V. r^n ' T^m .262 Neither for neither is THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT the following a modulation from C major to F major.

(a) in m ^^ (b) P When the minor seventh is preceded and followed by the tonic.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE *V gj 263 *==& 33 J 1 J Bad. e flr= . r=F but not recommended. i ?m The following is possible. As cases : a matter of fact this chord should only be used in two descending from the tonic to the dominant by conjunct degrees. this progression being in the highest part.

. preferred the following If G we should have ^^ -A Lastly (5). third. causing the chromatic alteration of the G.264 (4) ^= &=: g It THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT : should be preceded by I. c A _J- j This should be preceded and followed by I. and followed by VI. but not by V. or VI. IV. -fl 1 Bad. should not be preceded or followed by V. j^^E^E tz^z::i:irr]:zzg^tl : : natural had not occurred in the melody. with the major r =z-j ^ H "^ [ ?5 " : . S^tE scmiSr . ^'=3?=f ==3f=3=^==& j.

Unless these restrictions are observed. will ensue. And in all these cases these chords must be preceded and followed by I.1 1 I . - Izigzi I i i i. VI !_l .1. . derived from the harmonic minor scale. V.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE _gl L 365 -^j -g^ i . except when the use of V. IV. -g r . Examples. p=1^= common chords of the minor The characteristic mode arc IV. the melodic (3) The additional chords derived from minor scale should only be used in harmonizing the descending melodic minor scale. V. ^n^ *v^ 1 ^ e (1) I. and the major (2) The minor common chord on common chord on IV. should only be used when the major sixth of the scale occurs in the highest part. . J . xr? . IV. VI. . causing the tonality of the minor mode to be destroyed. such progressions as the following. Using I. II. causes the immediate chromatic alteration of one of the notes of the triad. or in cases in which the note thus harmonized is in the nature of an auxiliary note. and VI. V.

and the major of the scale. common chord on the second common chord on the fourth degree degree .266 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT r v II. _* ' ~L A j. - Introducing the minor of the scale. ' r Introducing and III.

^: p- ^ r : f=F .HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE I I 267 II ry- \ . with the perfect fifth.> U ij jjt^j '""1 f-*^- /a "Iffg u p=_J_dS p 5 Introducing III. B2^ r r^ p ^=^-7^^ """ ^-zji^ .^^ J C^ d /'j I ^ _ ' " ^ I - r r F- Introducing V. with the minor third.

268 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT common chord on the minor seventh of Introducing the major the scale. FM .

XI J ^H "^' .. M-^: F two consecutive phrases. r*~~\ r C. at the end of the first . '] C^ ^5 g3^.-f L 6 J 6 -^ f S ' . 1* *j 6 1* r 7 i r i' r .HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 269 A 6 ' -A A ' ' ' ' 1 .af>*uir* t .it _[/' 4r 77" Tj. If we write Each phrase should end with a Cadence phrase we can introduce the Half.n. 3 4 r J- T. Examples consisting of eight feet.' '. 2 . we form a sentence. or the Plagal Cadence. i_i 1 . the Deceptive. _3_ ' 4 *i 1 6 .

6 6 Xw .270 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT m Caesura.

3E^ .) T~ ~T zi r Completion of first foot.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE ' i 271 i.J ~~\2'-~-\3L (Caesura. 1 *rf - 1 T x .

and their first inversions are any order except IV b. Vb. good Vb. 14 (2) and the in general observations in Section I. VI. to VI. All these involve bad melodic progression in the bass or poor harmony (cf. Vb. Combinations of I. to Vb. VI.. V. __ 6006 SECTION IV. Bad. p.. to Vb. i such weak harmony as the following should be i i " gJ &> 1 & i >=F=P^3 j \\ IfJ J- .2 72 1 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT a I i 3 ____! 5 [ i 6 | 7 ft . unless the previous - has also J j J.. Good. avoided. Good. to IVb. to IV. Further. 66 ti 6 First Inversions of the Triads of the (i) Minor Mode.. It should be remembered that a bass note should not be re- peated in the relation of w to borne the same bass note. . to I b. regarding root progressions). Vb. IV..

(.to effects. Illb. (a) lib.-& (2) Consideration of lib. II II j ' r VI.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE Examples. or IV. lib. VII b. Note the following weak 3 JSSL III b. I b. V. is best preceded or followed by Ib. Illb. i 273 ^-^(^. All good. VI. I. IV. VII b. is best T preceded or followed by ~l 1 ! i I. IV. Ill b. Illb. V. . or VI. Illb. I -J J- ^.

^ tf * ^ -^g- f .274 (c) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT VII b. . is Examples introducing triads and from the harmonic minor scale. 4 ! A 6 Cadence. p^rt^pztd 61 ' 3 I ' Cadence.^=JE^ fS= Cadence. or I b. 3 4 *=* 5^T F ^ rr ry'r ry-rr-i^ F? ^--*. best preceded or followed by I. Cadence. Cadence. . " i L jjl5=^^^===E. . their first inversions derived * * 3E23E3 *E* * l ' 4 1 \- *- gstecJ =p I J J J J J <: A Cadence.

1 J Cadence. J. .HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 275 JL J. r f E T 3 4=J r Cadence. 3 \ m Ji__J L J J : r rTTT Cadence. J. Cadence.

THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT (3) The following first inversions derived from the melodic minor scale require notice. (1) (2) Should only be used when the melody demands May be used as follows : it. &=r .

IF fr3 &>- ^==g====^==^^ J .. to confine 277 themselves to them in the earlier stages EXAMPLES.^ ^ n z * fe^rrn 1 A it 6 fi 6 i^JbL^_JJ le J AA -^-s^10 ' 1 ^^^^E-E-^^^U^-^ 'I 66 80 ! .HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE recommended of their work.

Here we have It It the origin of the cadential six-four. either as a suspension. they are by far the strongest. It has been shown that the combination which moderns analyse as the chord of the six-four often occurs under strict contrapuntal conditions. and V. or as an unessential harmony on the weak accents of the bar. It is hardly necessary to say that as these uses are the foundations of modern procedure. The use of the Chord of the six-four. unless the has borne the same note (as has been previously previous stated) or unless such note be a suspension or a prepared : discord. should only be used on I. Hence we get the rule that the cadential six-four must occur on the strong accent. is obvious that the following are contrapuntally inaccurate.278 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT SECTION V. (a) Suspensions. . (i) Examples which are legitimate under strict contrapuntal conditions. This also introduces another important point repeated notes are not good in the bass in the relation of ^ to -.

#: ^ (c) JL As an unessential harmony. H!: J J i - . the lowest moving part being the contrapuntal bass for the moment. {ftfc " -A <s H Eir jgz=EiE^H Good.. Over a pedal.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 279 J 1 J. 1 Good. (b] Bad.

the contrapuntal criticism be applied to the following. IV. From an aesthetic point of view. though occurring on the strong accent. both of the following are equally satisfactory : A Formerly. it will once be seen why the effects are crude. ^ m A be (2) Examples in which the fourth is not prepared. the sixth and fourth appoggiaturas.280 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT be used on If at But what may be termed the auxiliary six-four should not II. 4- J: in (b) were often written as found? O where shall wisdom . r ^- ^ LzE r All weak. and VII. for obvious harmonic reasons. BOYCE.

HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE And Thus this of six-four. 281 course indicates the true nature of a cadential in in scanning a Feminine Cadence formed the following is this par- ticular way. ^ . the explanation of the seeming Equivalent. J A ===P===. 4 -I ! =P A g ~^=:z^-- !1 J. d II A J II h-H J A EXAMPLES. irregularity. .

282 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT lEEsF -iii._^jj_i n -F^ i-?-r< _ i m It is an essential of good style that the chords forming the Cadence should not be used in the same order immediately before the Cadence. causing harmonic redundancy. Jf F p- J .

V Roots C In using these (1) the seventh must be prepared. The other inversions follow the same rules as V. Secondary sevenths. &C.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE .1 283 "^ J I I "^J I _J =m e The second inversion 4 is best used in cases where it is capable of contrapuntal analysis. (2) the root of the next chord must be a fourth higher than the root of the secondary seventh. . with the seventh added (b) : the seventh may or may not be prepared.

. or unessential (the preparation need not be on accent). /T3 L.284 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT I ^A gJ. 2S 1 (2) Unprepared. 3 4 T 8 -- 1 J . a weak ^js^iz^pzzqz^. r I ^ (= . M^. r AV _ i ^ T^~^ ^ seventh. r EXAMPLES. \-r-j g? ^2 ipi^inzgs -2=^=f=fE^=f*=^^<^e=^^^ -J. is of course directly applied from contrapuntal The third of the first chord may remain to be the seventh ot the next. (i) The dominant Prepared. I 1_ r This technique methods.

# <=>__ F=P \ ^ ._._d_ o~ ^~ ==* JJ i r~" ^g is Note...HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE 285 r -F F 7 j r ~r >6 2- r "'LL' . *it stands in place of the root.. J d i JI t c r- nrg^ ~ J ~ g>_gj i J ^ s . in all cases where the seventh unprepared. Secondary sevenths..

or i 4 5-8 . As We a rule no sentence remains in the same key throughout. for example bars i 9 16 halves. have discussed the elementary principles of balance and proportion so far as the chordal centres themselves are concerned. which consists of two equal 8 Say. A>y Distribution. and we have now to consider the principles which govern the use of variety of tonal centre. shall employ the form invariably used in short sen- We tencesBinary.286 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT SECTION VII.

to the complementary key. C. it signifies that the This introduces the most important repeated. often with a reference to the opening with frequent modulation and sub-phrases.HARMONIC SUB-STRUCTURE The first 287 or through half establishes the key. The second bars of the half begins. The plan then is Tonic modulating to the complementary key First half. here we should have a full close in such key. In the following examples. are used to The numerals added to the letters If a letter be repeated. Resolution deferred . 4. Second half. which on the should always be on the sharp side of the tonic. indicate melodic formulae. Modulating back to the tonic. and modulates. A2 ^^^^i -^ ^- ' ' ' ^ BS.. leading gradually Nearly all the questions set in modulation should be worked on these lines. if the student wishes to write intelligible music. either directly some other key. the letters A. &c. B. All that can be said here is that formula [ is an observance of the principles of melodic form is an absolute How necessity. matter of melodic form. back to the tonic. first half. : (with occasional subsidiary modulation). these principles are applied in decorated work will be seen in the next chapter. A i. indicate sections. or at least not flat side .



A 2.









This at the end of one phrase and the beginning of the next

always good.


repetitions at the start


variety desirable towards the


consideration of the

ture of the normal sentence

Nothing is and rigid rhythm but the power of avoiding this involves a knowledge of the normal structure, and it has been our aim in this treatise to foster this sense ot balance and proportion. Students who are interested in the matter will find it worth while to study the following from this point of view

varying the rhythmic strucbeyond the scope of this work. more inartistic than the maintenance of a 'square



Ave Verum.

Church Music Society Reprints, No. by Vittoria and Pearsall).






breaketh the battle



'Forward through the glimmering darkness* (War and Peace),
Further information will be found in Prout's Musical Form,




claimed that


Scholastic Counterpoint be studied on the

indicated in this treatise, the student will have at his command a great deal of the technique of vertical decoration.


The following points must be clearly understood The C.F. ceases to be a fixed part of uniform



can be either the implied chordal centres, or a florid part based on these. In either case it must be remembered that every strong and weak accent is a chordal centre, and that we regard w v, as a bar of Counterpoint. w, or every group of accents

Time signatures are Thus the following:


no value

in helping to find the centres.

is really in g time, that is every bar contains four accents, and therefore the scholastic analysis is


time value of the centres


generally that of the


chord of the Cadences.


(3) (4)


contrapuntal idiom gives place to the free both in the melodic rhythm, and in the treatment

of unessential notes.


chordal centre

may be any modern

classified chord.

Just as in Scholastic Counterpoint it would be said that the prevailing harmony in the following bar was that of the chord of F major, though from the modern point of view we use
four distinct harmonies




the chordal centres of the following





principles of the technique of

Combined Counterpoint There must be no crude, obscure, or confused apply absolutely. harmony; and the harmonic seams must be satisfactory. The
previous chapters have explained how to avoid the various pitfalls of elaborate texture, so we proceed at once to the working of




The adding of Florid parts


a given Bass.

first take one of the simplest cases, that in which the bass In the following problem consists of notes of uniform length. (Ground Bass, Third Mus. B. Oxon., May, 1905), each bar con-



three accents.

Thus every bar

represents one bar oi

Scholastic Counterpoint. Add four parts to the following

Ground Bass.

Scholastic equivalent.




must be remembered that accented passing notes, and all We write the first two resources, may be used.

bars in terms of Scholastic Counterpoint.






The following is the example worked out. Ground Bass, Third Mus. B. Oxon., May, 1905.










+tt? 1







!__& **-r'




They should of course be acquainted

Students should read Purcell's examples of the Ground Bass. with Bach's Passacaglia in

'Envy. the matter. equivalent to one bar of Add three parts above the following bass : The question of melodic form cannot be discussed here. s^= The === ^ f following are the centres. Crucifixus. Handel. Basso Ostinato. Wood. C. One bar is given in this way. but the student will see the principle of thesis and antithesis. There is a most ingenious Six Pieces for the organ (On a Bass. In the next example each Scholastic Counterpoint. 'On Time. The letters serve to draw attention to The student is recommended to write out some examples in scholastic form. Variations on a Theme of Haydn. monarch of the skies' (Deborah).APPLIED COUNTERPOINT C minor in Stainer's 295 for the organ. eldest born of Heir (Saul). Handel. Brahms.) example The following may also be studied : Bach. Dr. Mass in B minor.* minim is Arensky. Finale. 'O Baal. or statement and response. .

. B.. out : First Mus.29 6 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT 10 11 12 13 14 15 Equivalent in Scholastic Counterpoint. C.F. Oxon. A 2. 1903. The example worked At. Nov. &c..

The melody is first given The figuring only indicates with the centres indicated in the bass.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT tr 2 97 SECTION The adding of parts to II. The given part must be reduced to chordal centres. then the synthetical process adopted. the essential harmonies.. Oxon. ClfclftTr-r-fr-r-r-j=Z=Z= . Third Mus B. building up a florid texture from the centres. a given melody. 1905. by eliminamust be ting all unessential notes. May.

298 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Each half bar represents a bar of Scholastic Counterpoint. Moderate. 1905. B. Two bars are given in the form of Scholastic Counterpoint. Note that there will be frequent changes of harmony on the second half of the bar. C. for if the chordal centres have been correctly deduced. passing chords do not in any way disturb their effect. The example worked out : Third Mus.F.. Oxon. that passing notes may be harmonized as passing chords. . May. and further.

In the next example (Third Mus.. s ^ centres are quavers.=^: -* ^ ^S j^feefr^g^a F^F~ j (H+ ^P 5ffi ^^ M5t . B. that Scholastic Counterpoint.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT 299 E fe .2i^rz>. fi.F. Nov.. each half bar represents a bar of C. 1905) the chordal is. .


. and how the principle of two chords in is a bar in Scholastic Counterpoint decorative work. also a principle of modern The for it following is a parallel case. be good practice for the student to work them out for himself. The centres are not given.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT 301 to regard each bar as one bar of Scholastic notes to one). might have been expressed thus: If the student will will see what is add this to the working of the problem he meant.F. In this case the analysis of Counterpoint (eight the centres would be It : would be possible Zj? -_g5> ^g: m h$ i $ The Scholastic C. so that the student may see clearly the connexion with will Scholastic Counterpoint. Each crotchet represents a bar of Scholastic Counterpoint. The analysis of four notes to one is again maintained here.

B. Nov.. 1904. Oxon. .302 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT tr Third Mus..

B. C.) Adagio. 33 :C* .. Oxon.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Third Mus. (Centres are Crotchets.F. May. 1906.


. add parts for ist Violin. In other words the C.F. It is at once felt that the centres are quavers. Nov.. and 'Cello.F.F.. Third Mus. we give in the first of the next example the C. To the following 2nd Violin part. In order to make this principle perfectly plain. as the systematic use of formula. in the second line.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT forgetting that 35 such modern work demands modern principles. in the third line. Viola. every crotchet corresponds to one bar of Scholastic Counterpoint. that is. the centres. is not a part that should be treated in the imitative manner of the Polyphonic Period. an evolved Scholastic C. 1905. the evolution of rhythmic phrases balancing one another. B. and so forth. line Modern . (showing the application of the contrapuntal principle). Oxon. but as a component of a piece of modern texture.




. 309 To the following 2nd Violin part add parts for ist Violin. 1905. Nov. Mus.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Problem. Oxon.. Ji A grasp of the harmonic outline may be obtained by altering : the time signature and the value of the notes thus p . Viola and 'Cello. D.

3 io THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT now give the C. 1 .F. Changing notes. in Scholastic form with the chordal We centres. Changing notes.


W In the following problem. 1904. Oxon. that is each crotchet represents one bar of Scholastic Counterpoint: it is unnecessary to go through the preliminary stages. Nov. Third Mus.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT rail... B. A A A j*r"Tirirr^jg|g . quavers are centres.

1897. (8) -i ~ 3 .F. Mus. all unessential notes omitted (counting discords higher than the seventh as unessential).APPLIED COUNTERPOINT c c Problem. Oxon. Viola.. Harmony arranged to connect smoothly with next bar. Add parts for ist and 2nd Violins. and add a plain bass. and 2nd 'Cello. with. 1 =rf= all Write the C. D.

regard each crotchet as a chordal centre and evolve five In the working. = accented passing chord. 12. the following abbreviations are = accented passing note (appoggiatura). . = unaccented passing chord. 15) the really appoggiaturas of the fifth and third of the succeeding chord. Notice that when the cadential sixth and fourth are J is used (bars 2. 4.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Now used (1) (2) (3) (4) : free parts. = deferment of change of chord until the second half of the beat.

APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Evolved from A. Part of A developed. .

T*? r * 1 ^i* ' 1* _ 1 .3 i6 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The first two bars are given in the form of Scholastic Counterpoint. 1 fecz. &c.

May.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Third Mus. 1905. Oxon.. B. .

D. Nov. Oxon.. 1904. Each Crotchet represents a bar of Counterpoint.. A2 B3+4 - . Mus.THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The Al next example offers no difficulty.

No melody ought to be conceived without due consideration of its harmonic basis. cannot exist without pre-supposed good (3) Good melody harmony. introducing the various modulations. 1903. B. D flat. and modulate to D minor. The A given bars should be reduced to chordal centres. . and vice versa. Problem. A course such as that outlined in the previous chapter will have given the student the necessary technique. working of problems in modulation. Oxon. key distribution and cadential effect. Begin as follows : Third Mus. with due attention to proportion.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Contrapuntal Analysis. and although we are only dealing here with purely harmonic progression. G flat. B flat. May. being given. yet it will be well at the outset to have an idea of the rhythm of the melody. 319 ^ SECTION IV. period consisting of the plain centres should be con- structed. This is therefore placed above the harmonic progression. balance. and back to F.. the =i opening bars Method (1) (2) of working.

as Now. therefore the cadence at the end of bar two should be a half close in the key of F.320 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT once that there are four strong accents in this bar. LT Ly m LJ L. n j first half. 254-5. thus Next. and we have see pp. we can only get to the other keys are on the flat side of F. LJ . f j-3 n j-3 j A a. It is necessary to avoid its harmonic monotony . repeating the idiom of the modulation. It is felt at Now complete the sentence. write a parallel sentence. n A crotchet is j i used here to give the cadential effect. four bars. or anticipating at the completion cadence. \ I This constitutes the end of the Since Ai and A 2 are parallel sentences. minor by the end of bar four. this must be brought out in the melodic curve. and that at bar four a full close in (a) (b) D D minor. so that the harmonic rhythm and melodic curve will be exactly balanced. A i.

three and four will also be parallel. Sequence should be employed in this section._ i^=L-^=fcrz==--j ^z^i^zq r U f U Lf LJ LJ . e. tr r tr r I CLT tr LT r II These crotchets imply cadential should be used for tail. and if the first and second phrases have been parallel.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT As. 321 IS ^ It will LJ LJ' LJ tJLJ? ^3 6 ^ 7 I are not identical Note.g. be noted that the melodic rhythms of bars two and four variety is needed. is The third phrase Bi. Bar four would have been very faulty in style thus . We B i. Bs. I I the place for frequent modulation. b. effect. but usually containing sub-phrases. fzJfrL. \. and the same chord the parts of the two motives which they dove- must also manage to get back to the Tonic in sufficient time to re-establish the key satisfactorily.

but it will be found that good composition will bear this dissection. In other words. now chordal centre. We can now employ contrapuntal methods. and the study of Combined Counterpoint will have provided the student with the necessary technique. All the previous work has been a course of training leading up to this.F. without losing its predominating effect as a centre. regarding each part of a motive as an accent in Counterpoint. in order to refer to A.322 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT B 2. which may be decorated in various ways. 6 667 The melodic rhythm of B 2 is varied. has disappeared. and it has been our province to show the principles It is underlying it.F. T" . the student must now build up his score with a mental frame for although the actual frame in the form of a C. implying one It is important to remember that the C. in semibreves . The decoration of a chordal centre will often produce various changes of harmony. ceases to be an actual note. and becomes an implied chordal centre. the principles remain. hardly necessary to point out that in actual composition such a process of analysis and synthesis is never systematically utilized.

. May. maj.. Y 2 ... and back Mus. B. Nov.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Third Mus. B. Begin as follows.. Gmin. Cmaj. Centres here are obviously quavers. Oxon.. First triple time.. 1903. Oxon. Bflat to F. 323 We now have an example in and modulate to Dmin. 1900.

Again parallel rhythms. by the flat end of the first half as the next key (B on the side of the tonic. A i. i JT3 JT: A 2. just as before. LLT ttr r- i LLT r- i nr i cij. so we get A i. and the last phrase is indivisible. Now. sentence will contain exactly the same number of Sub-phrases are used in the first half. else Ai and 2 will form four and create a very monotonous effect. JT3_J. i JT3 JT3 I JT3 J i . Feminine Cadence.324 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT (a) JT: 1 i 2 This completes the first sentence. as the given bar forms only one half of A. The second motives. A we canjDnly reach flat) is D min. But this must be made intelligible by the use of cadences (a) at and (b) . the next bar should differ rhythmically. Cadence.r- n .

fff-m H Sub-phrase i. TT agj | i >-J i || . of the problem : A 2.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT -0: 325 f r- c/rr r- irr r r r r r r r r t?3 The following is the Scholastic Analysis : & The working A i.

.) it will be seen that it is intended that the last few bars should be a recapitulation of the opening. B min.. B.. E min. each is regarded as the equivalent of one bar of Counterpoint First we draw up the chordal centres in terms of duple time. crotchet in Each crotchet represents an accent.. the centres form Counterpoint in triple time.. F maj. Nov. Hi If the course of the opening (D maj. E min..326 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Problem. Then. with the modulation turned so as to end in the Tonic. B flat maj.. major. that is. when the centres are decorated. Scholastic Counterpoint. A maj. D min. 1902.. Oxon. Begin as follows and modulate to B min. B min. m 1 . D maj. Third Mus.. Scarlatti. D FJ min. Article on Form).. B min.. after the manner of Corelli.) be compared with the ending (D maj.. D maj... Bach and Handel (see Grove.. We have here another case of Compound Counterpoint.

APPLIED COUNTERPOINT 13 14 15 327 16 P m 6 i6 tj r i Next we put this in correct terms for decoration. The working of the problem - : .

Begin as follows. maj. E D maj Ff min.328 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Cf. and modulate G min. bar i. to . .. min. D maj.. Problem. F$ and back to B min. E flat maj ....

. Oxon. A i. 1903. Mus. D.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT Schertando 329 The student may be left to analyse the working for himself. . As.

B. 1904. ft* *- Now.33 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT The (i) following are two cases deserving of attention 'Continue the following for about twelve bars/ &c. Oxon. May. it would seem that the chordal centres were crotchets . : : First Mus.. at first sight.

The fact is the centres are quavers and the first beat of the first bar counts for nothing.) The reason tence is that we have the appearance of an irregular sen- that the statement . counting by motives and not bar lines) . and the proportion is all wrong. but this produces a further difficultyfor Here we have five bars. we only get three groups of the formula. elaborate this.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT 33i But. g. so that it takes just four bars to complete the phrase (e. and the second phrase will end not in bar ten but on the first quaver of bar nine (Add a Coda. It is evident that another is wanted.

(2) Begin as follows. and back to F maj. B. demands a follows : If the given bars had been as the barring of the sentence would have been quite normal. The tions. and modulate to min. Oxon. F The important thing to note is that the rhythm of the first two bars implies the displaced accent as a characteristic feature.. B flat maj.. the dominant of F min. A G : Third Mus..33 2 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT parallel response. else the latter could not be called the dominant of the former.. A i... Nov. 1904.. . and C maj. expression 'dominant of F minor' implies two modulamin. min. as a key.

If the be given. ANALYTICAL. he cannot do more elaborate hymn work. c. Required To build up a florid score.APPLIED COUNTERPOINT 333 G min. and harmonic progression. the whole of the framework how many students are unable quite astounding to find harmonic progressions (chordal centres) in any As a rule the form is chaotic. or a compo: : nent florid part. of figure.. F min. when harmonizing a melody. 3. if the four walls of the house are out. I It is strongly urged that along with the study of Counterpoint. 2. Given The chordal centres. the modulations intelligible way. and the proper treatment of unessential notes. style. modulations. CONSTRUCTIVE. outlined. and the use to be built up. It has been seen how Counterpoint principle. are introduced in no logical way. it is useless to attempt to proceed with the interior. and the progressions themto write plain If a student cannot write plain tune progressions smoothly. the student should pursue the follow- ing course of training 1. the score should be built up. Florid : modern work should be reduced to plain chordal centres. Bb maj. and each is to be regarded as an accent in Counterpoint. In other words. work as a decorative can be applied in modern but textbooks on harmony . the chordal centres having been found. This will teach harmonic framework. the analytical process should be gone component part through first. SYNTHETICAL. then. It is The course of a problem being broadly by indicating the form. C maj. All that has to be found out is the time value of the accents. selves are appallingly crude.

But it is to be hoped that at any rate the foregoing remarks may have served to show the student the proper lines on which to direct . on Variations (Grove). they only serve that special purpose. art. Prout.). Applied Forms Decorative Principles: Parry. Musical Form (Augener) Hadow. on Concerto (ib. The student should read various classic examples. Wood. (ib. Brahms's Variations on a theme of Handel. art. such as Beethoven's Variations on Diabelli's Valse. Variations (Applied Form). (ib. art.) . on Form (Grove). twenty-five Irish Folk Songs (Boosey). Prout. . and on an original Theme Schumann's Variations for two Pianofortes.) . Art of Music. It has been impossible within the limits of a single chapter to deal at all adequately with a subject of such wide scope. the course of his investigations. Form in General: Parry. on Symphony . chapter on Folk Music prove useful (Kegan Paul) art. Sonata Form (Novello).).334 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT merely deal with the grammatical aspect of progressions. Art of Music. to The : following recommendations as study may Melodic Form: Parry. on Sonata (ib. but inasmuch as they deal with special points under classified heads. &c. Some few give so-called melodies to be harmonized. . art.

the latter procedure may be occasionally employed. . generally by diminution in part. if preceded by notes shorter than itself. should generally be tied into the next bar. (a) : A minim on the second half of the bar. The Counterpoint following from the Scholastic process in the ways : the entry of the Chorale. Tenor. that is. (b) Suspensions should generally be resolved on the third rather than the second crotchet. (c) Quavers must be approached and quitted conjunctly. in reference to melodic rhythm . Add an and Bass in Florid Counterpoint. (a) The Counterpoints begin before introducing 'points* founded on the first line. e. the minims are to be regarded as Second Species. Every semibreve is equivalent to a semibreve of Scholastic Counterpoint. the other parts must generally conform to the idioms of Florid Counterpoint. IN THE STRICT STYLE.g.CHAPTER XVIII COUNTERPOINT ON A CHORALE i. (g r This is a form of question closely linked with the Scholastic process. Alto. student is The referred to the rules of Florid Counterpoint differs for further details. varied of course in time value.

figures. Sanctus.. and so forth to the end. in reference to change of har(c) Greater latitude is allowed It may be changed three or even four times in a mony. g. Thus.F.. For Bless'd are the pure in heart. need not hardly necessary melodic curve of the points being roughly followed) and that strict imitation or ingenuity in device will never justify to point out that the imitations be strict (the crude harmony. each line of the Chorale is marked off by the use bar) a few rests are introduced of rests.. on each crotchet. is optional. Aetema Christi Muncra. (The addition of words CHORALE. in heart. e. The Counterpoints may adopt scholastic bar .336 (b) THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT When the Chorale reaches the end of the in the part that first line (double has the C.) Bless'd are the pure in Bless'd are the pure . the Counterpoints meanwhile sustaining the movement. cretion. the pure . the pure *=r-*f-t-p=*=Z=Z3X==3==3 Bless'd are the pure in heart. for imitative purposes independent such as the Nota Cambiata used in Gibbons's Hosanna. PALESTRINA. Example. Dignity will be lost It is if the change of harmony be too frequent. but the former method is the more usual. to introduce imitations based on the next allow the Counterpoints to Full closes may be used with disline.


It is infinitely better to do this than to gain a superficial knowledge of the form from a textbook. The student should analyse the Bach Choral Preludes for himself under the following headings : . Counterpoints may mental style . In work of this kind. while other parts are added in an instrumental style. the strict idioms of Scholastic Counterpoint are discarded. Bach. and the use of formulae. and Brahms. and the student entirely free as to his melodic be added in a vocal or instrurhythms. a - bode. As a combination of vocal and instrumental Counterpoint on a Chorale. Bach's two settings of Valet will ich dir is geben are excellent examples of both methods (Choral Preludes). and they may be either independent or framed on phrases of the Chorale. An example of independent modern Counterpoint woven round a Chorale may be seen in Harwood's Capriccio for the Organ. Their soul is Christ's a bode. the opening Chorus of Bach's Wachet auf is a magnificent example. The Chorale may be sung. Bach. IN THE FREE STYLE. The student should examine the Choral Preludes of Buxtehude. The limits of this treatise would be exceeded if any attempt were y made to deal at all adequately with the question of decoration. Students should acquaint themselves with the Church Cantatas and Choral Preludes of J. forming an elaborate accompaniment . 2.338 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT Christ's . . for a beautiful example of this treatment see Bach's Cantata Wachet auf. . Bless' d . S. Unprepared discords and chromaticisms are used.

with special reference to the harmonic sub-structure (ii) . . copy out sections in bars of Scholastic Counterpoint.F. two. i *~ - ? r br r * \ . independent of the C. and so forth. The student will find some figures it and would prove of immense benefit to upon the sub-structure of only one scholastic bar. Wir Christenleuf rftnr-f^ " r fi-"r . It is of course to be remembered that it is only the principles of decoration from a harmonic point of view that remain.COUNTERPOINT ON A CHORALE (i) 339 Counterpoints formed from the C. some on or three. few examples are given built A : (i) (a) Formulae built upon the basis of one scholastic bar.F. (Hi) A catalogue of the various formulae or figures should be drawn up.

wieine Freude. Jesu. Here each crotchet corresponds to one bar of Scholastic Counterpoint. (eight notes to one). .340 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT to Each crotchet corresponds point. (a) it a passing chord. but each group of two bars has the same C. meine Freude. (c) one bar of Scholastic Counter- Jesu. The following are in outline identical : iEESE (*) m * that is at we have So that the centres.F. (2) Formulae built upon the basis of two compound scholastic bars. which does not disturb is true to say that at (b) we have as at two centres (not necessarily only two chords).

Two (a) (b) points are vital : The chordal centres must be quite smooth and spontaneous. sub-structure that any progress in this direction can be made.F. (iv) The formal side of the question in all its aspects. we have here really a compound time. . It is of the highest importance that the student should go to the root of the matter and find out the preconceived harmonic basis in the mind of the composer. (3) Wo soil ichfliehen hin. eight notes to Formulae based on three scholastic bars. as he weaved his Counter- And it is only by developing this feeling for harmonic points. e. The harmonic seams must be satisfactory. 1 The foregoing will have served to show how much may be learned from a study of these Preludes alone.COUNTERPOINT ON A CHORALE but Each crotchet corresponds to a bar of Scholastic Counterpoint. one. g. All decorative work is based on such principles as have been indicated. (a) gfrrfr 7 Implied C.

It is almost superfluous to invent any Canti Fermi for the use . (c) . which should have been the original C. writing in every It is only by detail in the manner of the sixteenth century. (b) Grove. the student should proceed to a deeper study of Palestrina. the student may take as his C. The system of the ecclesiastical modes should be studied. on may be 1. Then the third volume of the Oxford History of Music should be studied. showing the gradual change from the old order to the new. and when the style has become result is not When influenced by wide reading. CONCLUSION. the student may consider himself equipped.F. then add others. but an expression of the emotions. Rockstro.F. The enlargement of harmonic resource also provides a very engaging study (see article on Harmony in Grove. in the hope that they may induce the student to obtain a deeper knowledge of the subject than a mere perusal of a textbook can provide. together with one in the First Species. 2. article on The Ecclesiastical Modes . The Rules of i and ii Counterpoint . and Dr. in conclusion. It would be excellent practice to copy out one of Palestrina's parts. and compare with the original. going to the root of matters in this way that any real grasp of the history of the evolution of music can be obtained. Harmony. (e) Prout. Composers' Counterpoint . A few words. and add parts in various Species. (d) Pearce. Having gained a knowledge of the modal system. a further study of Counterpoint added. for his first attempts at composition in a modern style.342 THE ART OF COUNTERPOINT the mastery of this technique is so complete that the merely a piece of clever craftsmanship. so far as the technique of decoration is concerned. Information on this point may be found in : (a) The Oxford History of Music. Sawyer's recent paper on Modern Harmony). vols. For variety in working scholastic problems. a part from an already solved problem in any Species other than the First.

but a few of the time-honoured C. These may be written convenient to the voice. in any clef.CANTI FERMI 343 of students. and Strauss.'s are added for the use of those students who may wish to work without the aid of a teacher. and place those who are beginners in the art on a path which is at any rate historic. the Counterpoint of Bach has enlarged the harmonic resource of the modern diatonic school. a. / / ZARLINO. ZARLINO. Dvorak. i. and which has as its goal not only an with the methods of the past. The Counterpoint of has formed the harmony of Wagner. and transposed is to a key The indication of strongly accented bars for guidance in writing uncombined Counterpoint. / / / MORLEY. / / / / / . but also a preparaacquaintance tion for the possibilities of the Harmonic School. The Counterpoint of Palestrina has formed the harmony of Bach. In the Major Mode. In this way has the unessential merged into the essential . Elgar.F. and the student may await with interest further this school developments of this nature. CANTI FERMI FOR THE USE OF STUDENTS. / 4. It is hoped that this book may help those students who have found the discrepancies between various textbooks perplexing. / / MORLKY.


/ taken thus : FRANCONIA (Mailer's Choralbuch.CANTI FERMI 15.t I I- I I -4-=\ () or / I . / / / / / f- ^ I l. 345 Fins. CHERUBINI. 16. may be 1754). C -F. For variety. hymn-tunes First Species in two parts.


" 1 i g i . 347 14.CANTI FERMI 13.


Second Species. Incomplete harmony. 31. 27. 122 Third SpeFourth Species. 177. 227. 257. 164. Exposed. Iambus. 255. 12. 70. 154. 156. no. Three parts: First Species. 167. Third Species. 72. Four parts. Three parts. parts Second Species. Four parts. tives. Sec- Two ond Species. et seq.6. 18 251 Change of Harmony. origin of. 2 35> 2 3 8 > 2 4 et se <l' 158. 224. 165 . 314. 198. 71. BACH. 87. 136. 26. 173. Modes. 117. 61. Clausula vera. 144. 96. Magadizing. 227. see Consecu- False Relation. 221. 24. Fourth Species. 119. 342. Cantus Firmus. I Consecutives (conf..) : Four Aeolian mode. 124. the ecclesiastical. Fourth Species. 29. Six parts. 290. 192. 145. 104 . 2. Anapaest. Fourth Species. 93. Three parts. 189. 179. Antiphony. 43. 3. 208.INDEX Accents. Ionian mode. Appoggiatura. 26. 132 cies. 21. . 132. 281. displaced. Three parts First Species. i. 92. 51 et seq. 215. 25. Crossing of parts. treatment of unessential notes. 168 et seq. . 118. Two parts. Florid Counterpoint. 97. parts. anticipation of. . 167. choral preludes. use of. Augmented 4. 46 Triple time. 172. Perfect. 208. Imitation. 80. in. 104. 77. 33. 229. 126. Dots. n. 228. Fifth 50. 32. 2. in. 107. 112 et seq. 126 . Dorian Sixth. 253. notes. 160. : . : . 290. 253. 120 . 131 . 225. 10. 282. 280. 66 et seq. Combined Counterpoint. 223. 259. 253. 33. Ground Bass. Third Species. Exposed Consecutives. 301. Consecutives : Two parts Leading note. Sixth. Five parts. doubling of: First Species. 292. 6. 14 et seq. 257. Concords. 157. 94. 84 Species. Harmonic Progression. Caesura. Feminine. no. 6. Third Species. 145. 19. n. 25. Cadence. 21. Second Species. Changing n. 83. Six parts. : . 254. Consonances. 192. . 44. Combined Counterpoint. 72 . parts. 153. Auxiliary notes. Chordal centre. 336. 2. 18. 157. 90. 178. 2. 197. Fourth. 44. Melodic Progression. Diaphony. n. Two Discant. et seq.. 338 et seq. 332. 44. 12. 25 . 127 .

342. 78. 153. 118. 76. of. 134. Resolution. broken. Principalis. 117. 204. 268. 16. 181. 159. Prepared discords. 34. double. 92. 12. PALESTRINA. 181. 193. 206. 229. 3. Seventh. in. anticipation deferred. 90. 76. ornamental. 206. 44. 168. 70. 2. 7. Primary triads. Pedal. 141. use 209. 133. 149. 2. 185. 324. 208. Nota Cambiata. 82. Unison. 229.35 Modulation. 335of. 178. 84. 9. Motive. 9. 163. 298. 87. Organalis. 71. construction 320 et seq. 205. 335. 253. 309. 44. 322. I problems Musica 319 et seq. leap of. n. chords of. 122. quoted. Third Species. 310. 10. 269. 336. 61 et seq. 81. 278. 340. 152. Oxford History of Music. 193. of.. 23. 33. Six-four. 9. 112. 83. 172. 162. 147. 297. Combined Counterpoint. 81. 214. Syncopation. 229. major. 216. 70. Passing notes. 321. 177. 314. 313. 321. Rests. his technique. 51 Notation. 17. Sixth. 104. 183. 95. 43. 21. Sub-phrase. 82. et seq. 221. 96. : Second Species. 253. the study of. 177. 89. 83. no. 179. 288. 191. 182. et seq. 17. Secondary triads. 252. Organum. Species. Passing chords. 178. Tie. 342. 88. 16. 261. 180. 26. internal. 41. 89. 180. 16. 79. 142. 205. 230. 76. Retardation. 107. 251. 282. 335. Suspensions. Unessential notes 89. minor. 91. 169. Syncopated Concords. Sentence. 182. 169. 33. 40. 91. 103. 252. Ficta. Phrase. Prolation. 26.. 35 Quavers. 88. 208. 331. Resolution. 70. . 93. 114. 95. 132. 25. see Resolution. 286. his treatment of consecutives. 81. 161. Ornamental resolution. 122. 2. INDEX in. 128. 26. 130. use of. 214. 148. 199. 71. 70. Tritone. 127. 94. 27. 278. elimination of.

240. First Mus. Third Mus. B. 329. 323. First Mus. First Mus. Counterpoint. but the working not given. Mus. 173. Harmony. 310. is These questions are analysed. 298. B. Counterpoint.INDEX II WORKINGS OF EXAMINATION QUESTIONS Unless otherwise stated. B. Mus. Nov. B. Harmony. 318. 1902 Nov. 246. D. the index refers to papers set at Oxford. Counterpoint (Cambridge). Counterpoint. B. 73. 209. B. 1 Mus. B. Third Mus. B. Third Mus. 237. Third Mus. First Mus. 203. B. B. B. B. 317. Nov. 235. 314. 296. Mus. 212. Nov. 188. Counterpoint. 332. 84. B. Harmony. Counterpoint. Mus. 1 Counterpoint (Durham). Counterpoint. Harmony. 222. an. Counterpoint. Harmony. Harmony. D. Third Mus. D. 327. D. Mus. 194. First Mus. Third Mus. xai. Harmony. . First Mus. Third Mus. B. 210. Counterpoint. Harmony. 325. Harmony. Harmony. B. 307. First Mus. Counterpoint. Third Mus. 1906 May. 303. Mus. 216. D. B. First Mus. 243. B. Harmony. First Mus. 1903 May. D. 174. Counterpoint. 293. Third Mus. B. D. 1901 Nov. 33O. 302. B. B. B. 1 312. 217. 300. B. First Mus. Counterpoint. D. Harmony. Counterpoint. Nov. Counterpoint. 1897 1899 1900 Nov. 202. Mus. 224. D. Third Mus. 195. 203. 232. Counterpoint. 225. 48. Counterpoint (Cambridge). First Mus. 207. 1904 May. Counterpoint. Harmony. Counterpoint. Third Mus. Mus. B. 1905 May. First Mus.


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