Reality is the Truth impervious to perception yet precisely due to perception

Truth is that which would be observed by God whether or not He exists or whether or not one believes He exists IDEAL Simply Reality Sanely Dealt With ORBIT ROP

Outside Routine Box Intellectual Trigger Reverse Osmosis Psychosis

PS Pragmatics Semantics Pandora’s Box Ajar

Psychotic
Pagan spirit yahoos consecrated heist opulent tradition incinerate coherence http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Humpty_dumpty Humpty Dumpty sat on a wall, Humpty Dumpty had a great fall. All the king's horses and all the king's men Couldn't put Humpty together again.[1] Humpty appears in Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass (1872), where he discusses semantics and pragmatics with Alice. “I don’t know what you mean by ‘glory,’ ” Alice said. Humpty Dumpty smiled contemptuously. “Of course you don’t—till I tell you. I meant ‘there’s a nice knock-down argument for you!’ ” “But ‘glory’ doesn’t mean ‘a nice knock-down argument’,” Alice objected. “When I use a word,” Humpty Dumpty said, in rather a scornful tone, “it means just what I choose it to mean—neither more nor less.” “The question is,” said Alice, “whether you can make words mean so many different things.” “The question is,” said Humpty Dumpty, “which is to be master that’s all.” Alice was too much puzzled to say anything, so after a minute Humpty Dumpty began again. “They’ve a temper, some of them—particularly verbs, they’re the proudest—adjectives you can do anything with, but not verbs—however, I can manage the whole lot! Impenetrability! That’s what I say!”[15] This passage was used in Britain by Lord Atkin and in his dissenting judgement in the seminal case Liversidge v. Anderson (1942), where he protested about the distortion of a statute by the majority of the House of Lords.[16] It also became a popular citation in United States legal opinions, appearing in 250 judicial decisions in the Westlaw database as of April 19, 2008, including two Supreme Court cases (TVA v. Hill and Zschernig v. Miller).[17]

Asses to Asses

Birth, Taxes, Chariot to freedom Pandora’s Box a Jar

Put a cork in it http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pandora%27s_box 1

Pandora's box is an artifact in Greek mythology, taken from the myth of Pandora's creation in Hesiod's Works and Days.[1] The "box" was actually a large jar (πίθος pithos)[2] given to Pandora (Πανδώρα) ("all-gifted", "all-giving"),[3] which contained all the evils of the world. Today, the phrase "to open Pandora's box" means to perform an action that may seem small or innocuous, but that turns out to have severe and far-reaching consequences. Contents [hide] 1 In mythology 2 Etymology of "The Box" 3 Notes 4 References [edit]In mythology In classical Greek mythology, Pandora was the first woman on Earth. Zeus ordered Hephaestus, the god of craftsmanship, to create her, so he did—using water and earth.[4] The gods endowed her with many gifts: Athena clothed her, Aphrodite gave her beauty, and Hermes gave her speech.[5] When Prometheus stole fire from heaven, Zeus took vengeance by presenting Pandora to Epimetheus, Prometheus' brother. With her, Pandora was given a beautiful container – with instructions not to open it under any circumstance. Impelled by her curiosity (given to her by the gods), Pandora opened it, and all evil contained therein escaped and spread over the earth. She hastened to close the container, but the whole contents had escaped, except for one thing that lay at the bottom – the Spirit of Hope named Elpis. Pandora, deeply saddened by what she had done, feared that she would have to face Zeus' wrath, since she had failed her duty; however, Zeus did not punish Pandora, because he had known that this would happen. [edit]Etymology of "The Box"

A pithos from Crete, ca. 675 BC. Louvre

2

An Attic pyxis, 440–430 BC. British Museum The original Greek word was '[[pi sometimes as large as a small person (Diogenes of Sinopewas said to have once slept in one). It was used for storage of wine, oil, grain or other provisions, or, ritually, as a container for a human body for burying.[6][7] In the case of Pandora, this jar may have been made of clay for use as storage as in the usual sense, or of bronze metal as an unbreakable prison.[8] The mistranslation of pithos is usually attributed to the 16th century humanist Erasmus of Rotterdam who translated Hesiod's tale of Pandora into Latin. Erasmus rendered pithos as the Greek pyxis, meaning "box".[9] The phrase has endured ever since. This misconception was further reinforced by Dante Gabriel Rossetti's painting Pandora.[10]
Old Money Evolves Nefariously OMEN http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Monarchy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aristocracy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anarchy http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dictatorship http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Democracy AMEN Pagan God PG Parental Guidance

"Pandora's box"

http://www.youtube.com/watch?NR=1&feature=endscreen&v=X5L_x6RHE4s Empire of the City Vatican, London, DC AMEN Satanic God ZEUS Zionist Evolved Universal Sanctimonious PRICK I FIBIB Political Religious Intellectual Charlatan Kleptocracy inciting Fickle Inherent Bias Ignorant Bliss DEMOCRACY Deity Elite Money Ordinance Criteria Responsible Accounting Currency Yield VOTE Venomous Optimism Tranquil Enslavement Human peasants inept to provide Pagan life they deserve thank God priceless as collateral 3

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zeus In the ancient Greek religion, Zeus (Ancient Greek: Ζεύς, Zeús; Modern Greek: Δίας, Días) is the "Father of Gods and men" (πατὴρ ὴνδρὴν τε θεὴν τε, patḕr andrōn te theōn te)[3] who rules the Olympians of Mount Olympus as a father rules the family. He is the god of sky and thunder in Greek mythology. His Roman counterpart is Jupiter, Hindu counterpart is Indra and Etruscan counterpart is Tinia. Zeus is the child of Cronus and Rhea, and the youngest of his siblings. In most traditions he is married to Hera, although, at the oracle of Dodona, his consort is Dione: according to the Iliad, he is the father of Aphrodite by Dione.[2] He is known for his erotic escapades. These resulted in many godly and heroic offspring, including Athena, Apollo and Artemis, Hermes, Persephone (by Demeter),Dionysus, Perseus, Heracles , Helen of Troy, Minos, and the Muses (by Mnemosyne); by Hera, he is usually said to have fatheredAres, Hebe and Hephaestus.[4] As Walter Burkert points out in his book, Greek Religion, "Even the gods who are not his natural children address him as Father, and all the gods rise in his presence."[5] For the Greeks, he was the King of the Gods, who oversaw the universe. As Pausanias observed, "That Zeus is king in heaven is a saying common to all men".[6] In Hesiod's Theogony Zeus assigns the various gods their roles. In theHomeric Hymns he is referred to as the chieftain of the gods. His symbols are the thunderbolt, eagle, bull, and oak. In addition to his Indo-European inheritance, the classical "cloud-gatherer" also derives certain iconographic traits from the cultures of the Ancient Near East, such as the scepter. Zeus is frequently depicted by Greek artists in one of two poses: standing, striding forward, with a thunderbolt leveled in his raised right hand, or seated in majesty. Contents [hide] 1 Name 2 Zeus in myth 2.1 Birth 2.2 Infancy 2.3 King of the gods 2.4 Zeus and Hera 2.5 Consorts and children 2.5.1 Divine offspring 2.5.2 Semi-divine/mortal offspring 3 Roles and epithets 4 Cults of Zeus 4.1 Panhellenic cults 4.1.1 Zeus Velchanos 4.1.2 Zeus Lykaios 4.1.3 Additional cults of Zeus 4.2 Non-panhellenic cults 4.3 Oracles of Zeus 4.3.1 The Oracle at Dodona 4.3.2 The Oracle at Siwa 5 Zeus and foreign gods 6 Zeus in philosophy 7 In modern culture 8 Miscellany on Zeus 9 Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology 4

[7] The god is known under this name in the Rigveda (Vedic Sanskrit Dyaus/Dyaus Pita). and in its many derivatives. since he had learned from Gaia and Uranus that he was destined to 5 . It is inflected as follows: vocative: Ζεὴ / Zeû. deriving from the Proto-IndoEuropean vocative *dyeu-ph2tēr[8]). "sky. The god's name in the nominative is Ζεύς Zeús /zdeús/. deriving from the root *dyeu. Demeter. fromIuppiter. Birth Cronus sired several children by Rhea: Hestia. ̯ also called *Dyeus ph2tēr("Sky Father"). accusative: Δία / Día. dative: Διί / Dií. Latin (compare Jupiter. 1 .[10] Zeus in myth Zeus. the Proto-Indo-European god of the daytime sky. god").[7] Zeus is the only deity in the Olympic pantheon whose name has such a transparent Indo-European etymology. and Poseidon.100 by unknown. Hades. but swallowed them all as soon as they were born. genitive:Διός / Diós.("to shine".10 Argive genealogy in Greek mythology 11 See also 12 References 13 Further reading 14 External links Name The Chariot of Zeus. The name Zeus is the Greek continuation of *Diēus. at the Getty Villa. Hera. A. heaven.[9] The earliest attested forms of the name are the Mycenaean Greek di-we and di-wo.D. written in Linear b syllabic script. from an 1879 Stories from the Greek Tragedians by Alfred Church.

the Cyclopes gave him thunder and the thunderbolt. He was raised by Melissa. one of the titans that fought against Zeus.be overcome by his own son as he had overthrown his own father—an oracle that Rhea was to hear and avert. Roman period Marnas[11] was the chief divinity of Gaza (Istanbul Archaeology Museum). could not be claimed. Then Zeus released the brothers of Cronus. Poseidon and Hades. the Omphalos) then his siblings in reverse order of swallowing. she hid him by dangling him on a rope from a tree so he was suspended between earth. King of the gods Colossal seated Marnas from Gaza portrayed in the style of Zeus. When Zeus was about to be born. He was raised by a shepherd family under the promise that their sheep would be saved from wolves. Infancy Rhea hid Zeus in a cave on Mount Ida in Crete. 6 . shouted and clashed their spears against their shields so that Cronus would not hear the baby's cry (see cornucopia). After the battle with the Titans. Together. According to varying versions of the story: He was then raised by Gaia. invisible to his father. Zeus forced Cronus to disgorge first the stone (which was set down at Pytho under the glens of Parnassus to be a sign to mortal men. the heavens and the sea. As a token of their appreciation. by drawing lots: Zeus got the sky and air. was punished by having to hold up the sky. handing Cronus a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes. so that Cronus would get his retribution for his acts against Uranus and his own children. Poseidon the waters. In gratitude. or Zeus cut Cronus' stomach open. He was raised by a goat named Amalthea. In some versions. Rhea gave birth to Zeus in Crete. the Hecatonchiresand the Cyclopes. in the combat called the Titanomachy. she was left to all three. Metis gave Cronus an emetic to force him to disgorge the babies. Rhea sought Gaia to devise a plan to save him. or lightning. The defeated Titans were then cast into a shadowy underworld region known as Tartarus. and Hades the world of the dead (the underworld). while a company of Kouretes— soldiers. who nursed him with goat's-milk and honey. He was raised by a nymph named Adamanthea. which he promptly swallowed. killing their guard. Gaia. After reaching manhood. sea and sky and thus. Hecatonchires and Cyclopes overthrew Cronus and the other Titans. The ancient Earth. Zeus and his brothers and sisters. or smaller gods— danced. along with the Gigantes. each according to their capabilities. which had previously been hidden by Gaia. Zeus shared the world with his elder brothers. the Gigantes. which explains why Poseidon was the "earth-shaker" (the god of earthquakes) and Hades claimed the humans that died (see also Penthus). Campe. He was raised by a nymph named Cynosura. Zeus placed her among the stars. from their dungeon in Tartarus. Since Cronus ruled over the Earth. Atlas.

but left Echidna and her children alive. Europa and Leda (for more details. the monsters Typhon and Echidna. Oceanid Acragas Persephone Demeter Callisto Arcas Zagreus Calyce Aethlius (possibly) Dione or Thalassa Aphrodite Callirhoe (daughter of Achelous) no known offspring Ersa Eos Carae Carme Britomartis Eris Limos Cassiopeia Atymnius Charites/Graces2 Solymus Chaldene Eurynome/Eurydome/ Aglaea Milye Eurymedusa/Euanthe Euphrosyne Danaë Perseus Thalia Dia Pirithous Orion Gaia Elara Tityos Manes Dardanus Ares3 Electra Iasion Eileithyia Harmonia Eris Hera Hebe3 Europa Minos Hephaestus3 Rhadamanthus Angelos Sarpedon Alagonia Leto Apollo 7 . Zeus and Hera Main article: Hera Zeus was brother and consort of Hera. He vanquished Typhon and trapped him under Mount Etna. Soon after taking the throne as king of the gods. Among mortals were Semele. Hebe and Hephaestus. Zeus had to fight some of Gaia's other children. By Hera. For a time. Io. Zeus sired Ares. she cursed Echo to repeat the words of others. a nymph named Echo had the job of distracting Hera from his affairs by talking incessantly. see below) and with the young Ganymede (although he was mortal Zeus granted him eternal youth and immortality). Many myths render Hera as jealous of his amorous conquests and a consistent enemy of Zeus' mistresses and their children by him. Consorts and children Divine offspring Semi-divine/mortal offspring Mother Children Mother Children Aeacus Aegina Aega Aegipan[12] Damocrateia[13] Alcmene Heracles Moirai/Fates1 Amphion Antiope Atropos Zethus Ananke or Themis Clotho Anaxithea Olenus Lachesis Asterope.Gaia resented the way Zeus had treated the Titans. Demeter. Olympian mythography even credits him with unions with Leto. Dione and Maia. The conquests of Zeus among nymphs and the mythic mortal progenitors of Hellenic dynasties are famous. and when Hera discovered the deception. though some accounts say that Hera produced these offspring alone. because they were her children. Some also include Eileithyia and Eris as their daughters.

Maia Metis Mnemosyne Nemesis Persephone Selene Thalia Themis Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother Unknown mother Artemis Hermes Athena4 Muses (Original three) Aoide Melete Mneme Muses (Later nine) Calliope Clio Erato Euterpe Melpomene Polyhymnia Terpsichore Thalia Urania Helen of Troy (possibly) Zagreus Melinoe Ersa Nemean Lion Pandia Palici Astraea Nymphs of Eridanos Nemesis Horae First Generation Auxo Carpo Thallo Second Generation Dike Eirene Eunomia Third generation Pherusa Euporie Orthosie Aletheia Ate Caerus Litae Tyche Eurymedousa Euryodeia Himalia Idaea. nymph Iodame Io Isonoe Lamia Laodamia Leda Maera Niobe Othreis Pandora Phthia (daughter of Phoroneus) Plouto Podarge Protogeneia Pyrrha Semele Taygete Thyia Torrhebia Nymph African Nymph Samothracian Nymph Sithnid Unknown mother Carnus Dodon[14] Myrmidon Arcesius Kronios Spartaios Kytos Cres Thebe Epaphus Keroessa Orchomenus Akheilos Herophile Sarpedon Pollux Helen of Troy5 Locrus Argus Pelasgus Meliteus Graecus Latinus Achaeus (possibly) Tantalus Balius Xanthus Aethlius (possibly) Opus Hellen Dionysus Lacedaemon Magnes Makednos Carius Iarbas Saon (possibly) Megarus Calabrus Geraestus Taenarus 8 .

he was also the supreme cultural artifact.[19][20] Additional names and epithets for Zeus are also: 9 . presiding over the Greek Olympian pantheon. 5Helen was either the daughter of Leda or Nemesis. 3Some accounts say that Ares. Zeus Aegiduchos or Aegiochos: Zeus was the bearer of the Aegis with which he strikes terror into the impious and his enemies. ready to avenge any wrong done to a stranger. to whom Aeacus' famous temple on Aegina was dedicated. Zeus Agoraeus: Zeus watched over business at the agora and punished dishonest traders.[16][17][18] Others derive this epithet from αὴξ ("goat") and οχή and take it as an allusion to the legend of Zeus' suckling at the breast of Amalthea. Athena is said to be born parthenogenetically. Zeus Horkios: Zeus he was the keeper of oaths. 2nd century AD (British Museum)[15] Zeus played a dominant role. 4According to one version. Roles and epithets Roman marble colossal head of Zeus.Unknown mother Corinthus Unknown mother Crinacus 1The Greeks variously claimed that the Moires/Fates were the daughters of Zeus and the Titaness Themis or of primordial beings like Chaos. Though the Homeric "cloud collector" was the god of the sky and thunder like his Near-Eastern counterparts. Nyx. Zeus Panhellenios ("Zeus of all the Hellenes"). He fathered many of the heroes and was featured in many of their local cults. Hebe and Hephaestus were born parthenogenetically. in some senses. the epithets or titles applied to Zeus emphasized different aspects of his wide-ranging authority: Zeus Olympios emphasized Zeus's kingship over both the gods in addition to his specific presence at the Panhellenic festival atOlympia. Exposed liars were made to dedicate a statue to Zeus. 2The Charites/Graces were usually considered the daughters of Zeus and Eurynome but they were also said to be daughters of Dionysus and Aphrodite or of Helios and the naiad Aegle. often at the sanctuary of Olympia. Philoxenon or Hospites: Zeus was the patron of hospitality and guests. Aside from local epithets that simply designated the deity to doing something random at some particular place. he was the embodiment of Greek religious beliefs and thearchetypal Greek deity. Zeus Xenios. or Ananke.

He is connected with the Hurrian god of sky and storm Teshub. but Christian patristic writers took up the suggestion. for instance. "a small and inferior deity who took the roles of son and consort". the god of crops and harvest. from the accumulated remains of many centuries' worth of animals sacrificed there. Minoan culture contributed many essentials of ancient Greek religion: "by a hundred channels the old civilization emptied itself into the new". a band of ecstatic armed dancers. Their quadrennial festival featured the famous Games. and hymned asho megas kouros "the great youth".[25] The stories of Minos and Epimenides suggest that these caves were once used for incubatory divination by kings and priests. the Selloi. showing that Velchanios was still widely venerated in Hellenistic Crete. Most of the titles listed below. but of ash. could be found at any number of Greek temples from Asia Minor to Sicily. "farmer"). Greeks were unanimous in recognizing the birthplace of Zeus as Crete. he presided over the rigorous military-athletic training and secret rites of the Cretan paideia. Zeus Geōrgos (Ζεύς Γεωργός . the earliest oracle. there were no modes of worshipping Zeus precisely shared across the Greek world. Will Durant observed. On Crete. There was also an altar to Zeus made not of stone. Zeus was represented in art as a long-haired youth rather than a mature adult. Meilichios.[23] On other Cretan coins Velchanos is represented as an eagle and in association with a goddess celebrating a mystic marriage. 10 . Zeus Labrandos: he was worshiped at Caria. are sometimes thought to have given their name to the Hellenes. emphasizing archaic Cretan knowledge.[21] and Cretan Zeus retained his youthful Minoan features. localised in numerous mountain sites though only mentioned in a comparatively late source. and he came to be venerated in Crete as Zeus Velchanos ("boy-Zeus") often simply the Kouros. The works of Euhemerus himself have not survived. Certain modes of ritual were held in common as well: sacrificing a white animal over a raised altar. Outside of the major inter-polis sanctuaries. Broadly contemporary coins from Phaistos show the form under which he was worshiped: a youth sits among the branches of a tree. Ivory statuettes of the "Divine Boy" were unearthed near the Labyrinth at Knossos by Sir Arthur Evans. Zeus Tallaios ("solar Zeus"): the Zeus that was worshiped in Crete. In the Hellenistic period a small sanctuary dedicated to Zeus Velchanos was founded at theAghia Triada site of a longruined Minoan palace. Ida and Palaikastro. as transpired at many other sites. Zeus Velchanos With one exception. The myth of the death of Cretan Zeus.[24] Inscriptions at Gortyn and Lyttos record a Velchania festival.[28] The Hellenistic writer Euhemerus apparently proposed a theory that Zeus had actually been a great king of Crete and that posthumously his glory had slowly turned him into a deity.[22] whose Minoan name the Greeks Hellenized as Velchanos. In Crete. The dramatic setting of Plato's Laws is along the pilgrimage-route to one such site. Callimachus."earth worker". His priests.[26] With the Kouretes. Zeus Naos and Bouleus: forms of Zeus worshipped at Dodona. The local child of the Great Mother. in Athens.Zeus Meilichios ("easy-to-be-entreated"): Zeus subsumed an archaic chthonic daimon propitiated in Athens. His sacred site was Labranda and he was depicted holding a double-edged axe (labrys-labyrinth). Zeus was worshipped at a number of caves at Knossos. with a cockerel on his knees. suggests that Velchanos had been an annual vegetative spirit.[27] together with the assertion ofAntoninus Liberalis that a fire shone forth annually from the birth-cave the infant shared with a mythic swarm of bees. for instance. was in time assumed as an epithet by Zeus. Kasios: the Zeus of Mount Kasios in Syria Ithomatas: the Zeus of Mount Ithomi in Messenia Astrapios ("lightninger") Brontios ("thunderer") Cults of Zeus Panhellenic cults The major center where all Greeks converged to pay honor to their chief god was Olympia.

too had an archaic wolf-form. for emphasis as both together in one image. They also received offerings of black animal victims sacrificed into sunken pits. Athenians and Sicilians honored Zeus Meilichios ("kindly" or "honeyed") while other cities had Zeus Chthonios ("earthy"). the tallest peak in rustic Arcadia. he was worshiped in the island of Cephalonia. local cults maintained their own idiosyncratic ideas about the king of gods and men. Megalopolis. and a single morsel of human entrails would be intermingled with the animal's. there the major temple was dedicated to Zeus Lykaios. Olympian gods. worshipped in Athens at the Lykeion. As Zeus Aeneius or Zeus Aenesius. which was made memorable as the site where Aristotle walked and taught. as did chthonic deities like Persephone and Demeter. Whoever ate the human flesh was said to turn into a wolf. many Greek cities honored a local Zeus who lived underground. or Strabo. Zeus had only a formal connection[29] with the rituals and myths of this primitive rite of passage with an ancient threat of cannibalism and the possibility of a werewolf transformation for the ephebes who were the participants. or Lyceum.[32] According to Plato. [34] Other examples are listed below. where there was a statue of him. Apollo Lycaeus. removed in the fourth century to the first urbanization of Arcadia. Laurel-wreathed head of Zeus on a goldstater. allegedly. Lampsacus. There were games associated with the Lykaia.[33] a particular clan would gather on the mountain to make a sacrifice every nine years to Zeus Lykaios. and the Spartans even had a shrine to Zeus Agamemnon. With the epithet ZeusAetnaeus he was worshiped on Mount Aetna. and a local festival called the Aetnaea in his honor. and also the heroes at their tombs. where he had a temple on Mount Aenos. usually received white victims sacrificed upon raised altars. cities were not entirely sure whether the daimon to whom they sacrificed was a hero or an underground Zeus.Zeus Lykaios For more details on this topic.[30] Near the ancient ash-heap where the sacrifices took place[31] was a forbidden precinct in which. depending on whether you believe Pausanias. see Lykaia. Apollo. These deities might be represented as snakes or in human form in visual art. or.[35] 11 . In some cases. The hero Amphiaraus was honored as Zeus Amphiarausat Oropus outside of Thebes. c 360-340 BC (Cabinet des Médailles). no shadows were ever cast. The epithet Zeus Lykaios ("wolf-Zeus") is assumed by Zeus only in connection with the archaic festival of the Lykaia on the slopes ofMount Lykaion ("Wolf Mountain"). and could only regain human form if he did not eat again of human flesh until the next nine-year cycle had ended. Thus the shrine at Lebadaea in Boeotia might belong to the hero Trophonius or to Zeus Trephonius ("the nurturing"). Non-panhellenic cults In addition to the Panhellenic titles and conceptions listed above. Zeus Katachthonios ("under-the-earth") and Zeus Plousios ("wealth-bringing"). Additional cults of Zeus Although etymology indicates that Zeus was originally a sky god. by contrast.

Zeus Ammon was especially favored at Sparta. female priestesses calledpeleiades ("doves") had replaced the male priests. The Oracle at Dodona The cult of Zeus at Dodona in Epirus. When the Odyssey was composed (circa 750 BC). Zeus in philosophy In Neoplatonism. who lay on the ground and observed the rustling of the leaves and branches. Specifically within Plotinus' work the Enneads[40] and the Platonic Theology of Proclus. divination was done there by barefoot priests called Selloi. The Oracle at Siwa The oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis in the Western Desert of Egypt did not lie within the bounds of the Greek world beforeAlexander's day. but it already loomed large in the Greek mind during the archaic era: Herodotus mentions consultations with Zeus Ammon in his account of the Persian War. a few oracular sites were dedicated to Zeus.[39] Some modern comparative mythologists align him with the Hindu Indra. or various goddesses like Themis. In modern culture 12 . and perhaps the original occupant of the oracle. along with Dionysus.[36] By the time Herodotus wrote about Dodona. the figure arose in the Hellenistic imagination of a Libyan Sibyl. Lord of Heaven). The Seleucid ruler Antiochus IV Epiphanes erected a statue of Zeus Olympios in the Judean Temple in Jerusalem. where a temple to him existed by the time of the Peloponnesian War. but the goddess Dione — whose name is a feminine form of "Zeus".[37] After Alexander made a trek into the desert to consult the oracle at Siwa. Zeus and foreign gods Zeus was identified with the Roman god Jupiter and associated in the syncretic classical imagination (see interpretatio graeca) with various other deities. where there is evidence of religious activity from the second millennium BC onward. such as the EgyptianAmmon and the Etruscan Tinia. Zeus' relation to the gods familiar from mythology is taught as the Demiurge or Divine Mind. 1st century AD (Museo Barracco. centered on a sacred oak. Rome). Her status as a titanesssuggests to some that she may have been a more powerful pre-Hellenic deity. the heroes. absorbed the role of the chief Phrygian god Sabazios in the syncretic deity known in Rome as Sabazius.Oracles of Zeus Roman cast terracotta of ram-hornedJupiter Ammon. He. Although most oracle sites were usually dedicated to Apollo.[38] Hellenizing Jews referred to this statue as Baal Shamen (in English. Zeus' consort at Dodona was not Hera.

symbol of strength. Zeus and Heracles were very close and in one story. where a tribe of earth-born Giants threatened Olympus and the Oracle at Delphi decreed that only the combined efforts of a lone god and mortal could stop the creature.[43] His sacred bird was the Golden Eagle. At the marriage of Zeus and Hera. Zeus condemned Prometheus to having his liver eaten by a giant eagle for giving the Flames of Olympus to the mortals. Heracles was often described as his favorite. (October 2009) Zeus is sometimes depicted as a middle-aged man with strong muscular arms. Cratos and Bia were Zeus' retinue. Zelus. with Hera. Like him. Nike. Editing help is available. Olive trees were also sacred to him. the form he took when raping Europa. God of War II. a nymph named Chelone refused to attend. turned King Haemus and Queen Rhodope into mountains (the Balkan mountains. or Stara Planina. Of all the children Zeus spawned. Zeus chose Heracles to fight by his side. and justice. Zeus. They proceeded to defeat the monsters. Zeus punished Hera by having her hung upside down from the sky when she attempted to drown Heracles in a storm. which he kept by his side at all times. His favourite tree was the oak. You can help by converting this article to prose. Zeus turned Periphas into an eagle after his death. Professor of Classics at Cambridge University. Heracles was often called by various gods and people as "the favorite son of Zeus". ifappropriate. His facial hair can be a full beard and mustache to just stubble. along with the 2012 sequel Wrath of the Titans.Depictions of Zeus as a bull. has criticised this for its apparent celebration of rape. the first known film adaption to feature Zeus Niall MacGinnis in Jason and the Argonauts and Angus MacFadyen in the 2000 remake Laurence Olivier in the original Clash of the Titans. respectively) for their vanity. Zeus killed Salmoneus with a thunderbolt for attempting to impersonate him. Zeus condemned Tantalus to eternal torture in Tartarus for trying to trick the gods into eating the flesh of his butchered son Pelops. Anthony Quinn in the 1990s TV series Hercules: The Legendary Journeys Rip Torn in the Disney animated feature Hercules Corey Burton in Hercules. are found on the Greek 2-euro coin and on the United Kingdom identity card for visa holders. Zeus sank the Telchines beneath the sea.[41] Zeus has been portrayed by various actors: Axel Ringvall in Jupiter på jorden. Zeus transformed her into a tortoise (chelone in Greek). Mary Beard. courage. Athena has at times been called his favorite daughter[42] and adviser. and God of War III Sean Bean in the film adaption of the Percy Jackson & the Olympians book The Lightning Thief Miscellany on Zeus This article is in a list format that may be better presented using prose. Indeed. Zeus blinded the seer Phineus and sent the Harpies to plague him as punishment for revealing the secrets of the gods. Zeus condemned Ixion to be tied to a fiery wheel for eternity as punishment for attempting to violate Hera. Zeus rewarded Tiresias with a life three times the norm as reward for ruling in his favour when he and Hera contested which of the sexes gained the most pleasure from the act of love. and Liam Neeson in the 2010 remake. the eagle was a symbol of strength. riding around in a bronze chariot and loudly imitating thunder. as a reward for being righteous and just. 13 . Zeus turned Pandareus to stone for stealing the golden dog which had guarded him as an infant in the holy Dictaeon Cave of Crete. and Rhodope mountains.

Zeus threw him off the top of Mount Olympus because of his repulsive appearance.When Hera gave birth to Hephaestus. Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Genealogy of the Olympians in Greek mythology Uranus Gaia Oceanus Hyperion Coeus Crius Iapetus Mnemosyne Cronus Rhea Tethys Theia Phoebe Themis Zeus Hera Hestia Demeter Hades Poseidon Ares Hephaestus Hebe Eileithyia Enyo Eris Metis Maia Leto Semele Aphrodite Athena Hermes Apollo Artemis Dionysus Argive genealogy in Greek mythology Argive genealogy in Greek mythology 14 .

Inach us Melia 15 .

ad Callim. ^ a b "American Heritage Dictionary: Zeus". William. 13 ^ Spanh. 375. book 1. According to Plato (Symposium 180e). ca. 321. book V) has Aphrodite as daughter of Zeus and Dione. 1686.Johannes Hahn: Gewalt und religiöser Konflikt. with a reference to Acestodorus ^ The bust below the base of the neck is eighteenth century. ^ Hamilton. middle 2nd century CE. "Aegiduchos". in Jov. which is roughly worked at back and must have occupied a niche. thus making her Uranus' daughter. hymn. Tivoliand donated to the British Museum by John Thomas Barber Beaumont in 1836. Formerly in the 'Allée Royale'. 1. Mythology (1998 ed. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 533 ^ Pausanias. but Homer (Iliad. The head. Isthmian Odes iv. Theogony 542 and other sources. &c. Olympian Ode 9.). the two were entirely separate entities: Aphrodite Ourania and Aphrodite Pandemos. ^ Palaeolexicon. The Holy Land and the Bible ^ Hyginus. 467. Dōdōne. s. ISBN 0-674-36280-2. 202.503. p. 1913. 49 ^ Schmitz. by Pierre Granier.See also Greek mythology portal Hellenismos portal Achaean Federation Agetor Deception of Zeus Hetairideia . In Smith. 99 ^ Hyginus. was found at Hadrian's Villa. A Catalogue of Sculpture in the Department of Greek and Roman Antiquities. 157. Greek Religion. BM 1516. (British Museum. ^ Burkert (1985). ii. 2. New York: Robert Appleton Company. p. ^ Hesiod.2. 24. Boston. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. Iliad i. (Tapis Vert) in theGardens of Versailles. New York: Back Bay Books.. who added the upraised right arm brandishing the thunderbolt. Fabulae 155 ^ Scholia on Pindar. 107 ^ Stephanus of Byzantium. v. 1904).Thessalian Festival to Zeus Jupiter (mythology) Temple of Zeus USS Zeus (ARB-4) References ^ The sculpture was presented to Louis XIV as Aesculapius but restored as Zeus. p. ^ Pindar. now conserved in the Louvre Museum (official on-line catalog) ^ a b There are two major conflicting stories for Aphrodite's origins: Hesiod (Theogony) claims that she was "born" from the foam of the sea after Cronos castrated Uranus. Leonhard (1867).ISBN 978-0316-34114-1. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary: Jupiter". Word study tool of ancient languages ^ "Gaza". Poetical Astronomy ii. Marble. ^ Homer. ^ Iliad. Catholic Encyclopedia. Retrieved 2006-07-03. 26 16 . Edith (1942).

1964. Farnell. The Memoirs of Zeus. ii. 1916.10.William. p. The Religious Thought of the Greeks. retrieved 20/11/2011 ^ Hamilton.18. The Greek Myths. 1964. (1960 edition) Mitford. (Louisville. Humphrey Hare) Farnell. Aliki (1994). Minoans: Life in Bronze-Age Crete. God of the Dark Sky (earthquakes. Arthur Bernard."When under the name of Zeus we are considering the Demiurge we must leave out all notions of stage and progress. Walter Burkert. tr. The Greek Gods and Goddesses of Olympus. The Origins of Greek Religion (de Gruyter) 1973:15. (1977) 1985. 30. vi. (Harmondsworth: Penguin) 1968:204. ISBN 08196-0156-X Volume 3: Zeus. ^ Pausanias 8. The History of Greece. Chapter II. 90. Clarendon 1896–1909. clouds. figs 397. ^ "This annually reborn god of vegetation also experienced the other parts of the vegetation cycle: holy marriage and annual death when he was thought to disappear from the earth" (Dietrich 1973:15). ^ In Fourth Tractate 'Problems of the Soul' The Demiurge is identified as Zeus.ii. Zeus Cambridge University Press. by Peter Bing (University of California) 1983. Nyctimus or ArcasZeus overturned the table and struck the house of Lyceus with a thunderbolt. Biblo-Moser. especially section III. dew. Daniel. 1964. God of the Dark Sky (Thunder and Lightning). 297 ^ Odyssey 14. New York. June 1. his patronage at the Lykaia can have been little more than a formula. and recognize one unchanging and timeless life. ^ Rodney Castleden. Still the standard reference. 398." ^ A Point of View: The euro's strange stories. 29. 17 . (3 volume set). Edith (1969). ^ Dietrich 1973. ^ Modern archaeologists have found no trace of human remains among the sacrificial detritus. meteorites) Druon. ^ Brandenberg. Religion of the Early Greeks Moore. ^ Republic 565d-e ^ Schol. according to a scholium on Apollonius of Rhodes' Argonautika. I. Cults of the Greek States 5 vols. Minoan-Mycenaean Religion. and Its Survival in Greek Religion 1950:551 and notes. noting Martin P. Further reading Burkert. p. Walter. 162 ^ Hesiod. "The Gods". Robert. ^ A. ^ 2 Maccabees 6:2 ^ David Syme Russel. ^ A morphological connection to lyke "brightness" may be merely fortuitous. Oxford. BBC. (1914–1925). 1981) 191. 1784. New York: Simon & Schuster) 1939:23.1. God of the Bright Sky. Clifford H. ^ In the founding myth of Lycaon's banquet for the gods that included the flesh of a human sacrifice. ad Pind. p. Graves. Lewis Richard. Greek Religion.38.B. perhaps one of his sons. The Life of Greece (The Story of Civilization Part II. "Lykaia and Lykaion". Lewis Richard. v. Maurice. Biblo-Moser. Bibilo & Tannen: 1964. Nilsson. Kentucky: Westminster John Knox Press. mentions that there is no classical reference to the death of Zeus (noted by Dietrich 1973:16 note 78). Penguin Books Ltd. Greek Hero Cults and Ideas of Immortality. ^ "Professor Stylianos Alexiou reminds us that there were other divine boys who survived from the religion of the pre-Hellenic period — Linos. Ol. (tr. Ploutos and Dionysos — so not all the young male deities we see depicted in Minoan works of art are necessarily Velchanos" (Castleden 1990:125 ^ Richard Wyatt Hutchinson.1 (Harvard University Press) Cook. ISBN 0-8196-0148-9 (reprint) Volume 2: Zeus.^ Durant. ISBN 0-451-62702-4.. Cook. "The Minoan belief-system" (Routledge) 1990:125 ^ Pointed out by Bernard Clive Dietrich. Homo Necans. 1914. Charles Scribner's and Sons. Mythology. Zeus: A Study in Ancient Religion. wind. 1921. rain. Prehistoric Crete. Cf. June 1. Volume 1: Zeus.326-7 ^ Pausanias 3.

classical art Theoi Project. With Osiris. Amun-Ra in this period (16th to 11th centuries BC) held the position of transcendental.Nilsson. He was attested since the Old Kingdom together with his spouse Amaunet. Smith.2 Levant 5.1 Nubia and Libya 5. Amun-Ra is the most widely recorded of the Egyptian gods.3 Greece 6 References 7 Sources 8 External links 18 Amen .1 Identification with Min and Ra 3. 1870.1 Theban High Priests of Amun 4. expressed in his fusion with the Sun god. Amun-Ra retained chief importance in the Egyptian pantheon throughout the New Kingdom (with the exception of the "Atenist heresy" under Akhenaten). 21st century BC). Zeus stories of Zeus in myth Theoi Project. Amun acquired national importance. Cult Of Zeus cult and statues Photo: Pagans Honor Zeus at Ancient Athens Temple from National Geographic http://en.com. Greek Popular Religion.. Psyche: The Cult of Souls and Belief in Immortality among the Greeks. Ra. Martin P. With the 11th dynasty (ca. 1940.wikipedia. he was the champion of the poor or troubled and central to personal piety.[3] As the chief deity of the Egyptian Empire. Amun-Ra also came to be worshipped outside of Egypt. Contents [hide] 1 Early history 2 Temple at Karnak 3 New Kingdom 3. as Amun-Ra. he rose to the position of patron deity of Thebes by replacing Monthu. Greek ὴμμων Ammon. Ancientlibrary. 1925. Martin P. Dictionary: "Zeus" Ancientlibrary. Nilsson. and as Zeus Ammon came to be identified with Zeus in Ancient Greece.[3] His position as King of Gods developed to the point of virtual monotheism where other gods became manifestations of him.2 Decline 5 Iron Age and Classical Antiquity 5. William. 1949.com External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Zeus Greek Mythology Link. in Ancient Libya and Nubia. ὴμμων Hammon) was a local deity of Thebes. self-created[2] creator deity"par excellence".org/wiki/Zeus_Ammon#Greece Amun (also Amon. Rohde.3 Theology 4 Third Intermediate Period 4. Dictionary of Greek and Roman Biography and Mythology. stories..2 Atenist heresy 3.[1] After the rebellion of Thebes against the Hyksos and with the rule of Ahmose I. William Smith. . Erwin. Zeus summary. History of Greek Religion.

though most building was undertaken under Seti I and Ramesses II. This was constructed of sandstone. which is largely a copy of the more famous Israel Stela found in the West Bank funerary complex of Merenptah. Construction of the Hypostyle Hall may have also began during the 18th dynasty. [edit]Temple at Karnak Main articles: Precinct of Amun-Re. with a chapel to Amun flanked by those of Mut and Khonsu. his spouse was Mut. meaning "hidden". Thebes. became the most important city in Egypt. In Thebes. Karnak. As the patron of Thebes. and History of the Karnak Temple complex The history of Amun as the patron god of Thebes begins in the 20th century BC. Amun as father. Merenptah commemorated his victories over the Sea Peoples on the walls of the Cachette Court. The city of Thebes does not appear to have been of great significance before the 11th dynasty.[7] Merenptah's son Seti II added 2 small obelisks in front of the Second Pylon.[4] Amun and Amaunet formed one quarter of the ancient Ogdoadof Hermopolis. Next to this inscription is the Victory Stela. the capital of a new dynasty. Major construction work in the Precinct of Amun-Re took place during the 18th dynasty when Thebes became the capital of the unified Ancient Egypt. the victor's city of origin. and a triple bark-shrine to the north of the processional avenue in the same area. hence Amun's later function as a wind deity. Mut as mother and the Moon god Khonsu formed a divine family or "Theban Triad". and the name Amun (written imn. pronounced Amana in ancient Egyptian [5]). [edit]New Kingdom Bas-relief depicting Amun as pharaoh Further information: High Priests of Amun [edit]Identification with Min and Ra When the army of the founder of the Eighteenth dynasty expelled the Hyksos rulers from Egypt.[6] Amun rose to the position of tutelary deity of Thebes after the end of the First Intermediate Period. the start of the processional route to the Luxor Temple. The last major change to the Precinct of Amun-Re's layout was the addition of the first pylon and the massive enclosure walls that surrounded the whole Precinct. 19 . under the 11th dynasty. This Great Inscription (which has now lost about a third of its content) shows the king's campaigns and eventual return with booty and prisoners.[edit]Early history Amun and Amaunet are mentioned in the Old Egyptian pyramid texts. representing the primordial concept or element of air or invisibility (corresponding to Shu in the Ennead). with the construction of the Precinct of Amun-Re atKarnak under Senusret I. both constructed by Nectanebo I.

Since he upheld Ma'at (truth.. Since rams were considered a symbol of virility.[9] in which form he was found depicted on the walls ofKarnak. Amun thus became associated with the ram arising from the aged appearance of the Kush ram deity. and so started to absorb the identity of Min. This association with virility led to Amun-Min gaining the epithet Kamutef. and with a scourge. Subsequently. His breath comes back to us in mercy. when I call to you in my distress You come and rescue me..[3] By aiding those who traveled in his name. as Min was. It shall not happen again. and they lavished much of their wealth and captured spoil on the construction of temples dedicated to Amun."[8] Amun-Min as Amun-Ra ka-Mut-ef from the temple at Deir el Medina.The local patron deity of Thebes. 20 . Arkamani. none remains. upholding the rights of justice for the poor. when Egypt conquered Kush. and goodness). they identified the chief deity of the Kushites as Amun. Votive stelae from the artisans' village at Deir el-Medina record: "[Amun] who comes at the voice of the poor in distress. meaning Bull of his mother. the Lord of the silent.[3] those who prayed to Amun were required first to demonstrate that they were worthy by confessing their sins. His wrath passes in a moment. You are Amun. Amanitore. Amun. The Lord of Thebes spends not a whole day in anger. brought him to be seen as a champion of the less fortunate. This Kush deity was depicted asram-headed. Amun also became thought of as a fertility deity. The pharaohs of that new dynasty attributed all their successful enterprises to Amun. the Lord is disposed to forgive. attested in numerous personal names such as Tanwetamani. Amanishakheto. The victory accomplished by pharaohs who worshipped Amun against the "foreign rulers". who comes at the voice of the poor. May your ka be kind. who gives breath to him who is wretched. The later (Meroitic period) name of Nubian Amun was Amani. Natakamani. justice. ithyphallic.Though the servant was disposed to do evil. becoming Amun-Min. may you forgive. contemporary to the Old Kingdom of Egypt. he became the Protector of the road. A solar deity in the form of a ram can be traced to the pre-literate Kerma culture in Nubia. more specifically a woolly ram with curved horns. therefore became nationally important.

He moved his capital away from Thebes. father of the gods. who now found themselves without any of their former power. the Aten. The religion of Egypt was inexorably tied to the leadership of the country. creator of the staff of life. creator of all animals. and based his religious practices upon the deity. with Amun becoming Amun-Ra. both literally and symbolically. but this abrupt change was very unpopular with the priests of Amun. As the cult of Amun grew in importance. The pharaoh was the highest priest in 21 . in depiction typical of the New Kingdom. He defaced the symbols of many of the old deities. Re-Horakhty was in turn identified with Amun. the sun god Ra. the pharaoh being the leader of both. a deity whose power was manifested in the sun disk. In the Hymn to Amun-Ra he is described as "Lord of truth. the fusion of Ra andHorus. maker of men. This identification led to another merger of identities. Amun became identified with the chief deity who was worshipped in other areas during that period.Amun-Ra in hieroglyphs Re-Horakhty ("Ra (who is the) Horus of the two Horizons"). the pharaoh Akhenaten (also known as Amenhotep IV) disliked the power of the temple of Amun and advanced the worship of the Aten. Lord of things that are."[10] [edit]Atenist heresy During the latter part of the eighteenth dynasty.

who comes at the cry of the poor and distressed. Amun. and you hear the sound of it... greatly wearying himself as their maker. to great and small.... Amun became successively identified with all other Egyptian deities. so that Amun-Ra had the main characteristic of a solar god. then they sleep in the manner of death . The storm becomes a sweet breeze for he who invokes His name. to the point of virtual monotheism (which was then attacked by means of the "counter-monotheism" of Atenism). his body is Ptah. and the next lower level of religious leaders were important advisers to the pharaoh. Every land chatters at his rising every day. their refuge and the making of their living."[11] When Akhenaten died. to birds in heaven. repeat him to him who does not know him and to him who knows him. The introduction of Atenism under Akhenaton constructed a "monotheist" worship of Aten in direct competition with that of Amun. As Amun-Re he was petitioned for mercy by those who believed suffering had come about as a result of their own or others wrongdoing.the temple of the capital. but do not know where it comes from and where it is going. and Re are regarded as a trinity who are distinct gods but with unity in plurality. The fashioner of that which the soil produces. The specific problem is: unstructured "various" section.. whom none equals. The Lord of Thebes does not spend an entire day angry."[John 3:8][16] A Leiden hymn to Amun describes how he calms stormy seas for the troubled sailor: "The tempest moves aside for the sailor who remembers the name of Amon. He also adopted the aspect of the ram from the Nubian solar god. He who hides his name as Amun.. the priests of Amun-Ra reasserted themselves.Though it may be that the servant is normal in doing wrong. he appears to the face as Re. in particular the Hymn to the Aten: "When thou crossest the sky.. [edit]Theology This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. Ptah.. yet the Lord is normal in being merciful. As for his anger – in the completion of a moment there is no remnant. all faces behold thee..valiant herdsman.Beware of him! Repeat him to son and daughter.. besides numerous other titles and aspects.."[17] [edit]Third Intermediate Period 22 .The sole Lord. Tutankhaten."[14] This unity in plurality is expressed in one text: "All gods are three: Amun. many being administrators of the bureaucracy that ran the country.. a patient craftsmen. "the living image of Amun"."[15] The hidden aspect of Amun and his likely association with the wind caused Henri Frankfort to draw parallels with a passage from the Gospel of John: "The wind blows where it wishes. Amon-Re "who hears the prayer. .[13] "The three gods are one yet the Egyptian elsewhere insists on the separate identity of each of the three. but when thou departest. Please helpimprove this section if you can. in order to praise him. and the capital was returned to Thebes. driving his cattle. Primarily. Praises of Amun on stelae are strikingly similar in language to those later used. whose name meant "the living image of Aten"—and who later would become a pharaoh—to change his name to Tutankhamun. Worship of Aten ceased and worship of Amun-Ra was restored. Thanks to Him the single man becomes stronger than a crowd. all of his religious and governmental changes were undone.. thou are hidden from their faces . Amon is more effective than millions for he who places Him in his heart. Re and Ptah. Put in chronological context. The priests of Amun even persuaded his young son. who reaches the end of the lands every day.. relate him to fishes in the deep. (October 2012) In the New Kingdom. a mother of profit to gods and men. When thou settest in the western mountain... the god of wind Amun came to be identified with the solar god Ra and the god of fertility and creation Min. The return to the previous capital and its patron deity was accomplished so swiftly that it seemed this almost monotheistic cult and its governmental reforms had never existed..As thy Ka endures! thou wilt be merciful!"[12] In the Leiden hymns. as one who sees them that tread thereon . His name was struck from Egyptian records. creator god and fertility god. relate him to generations of generations who have not yet come into being.

The sarcophagus of a priestess of Amon-Ra. 943 BC. while the Theban High Priest Psusennes III would take the throne as king Psusennes II—the final ruler of the 21st Dynasty. founded during the New Kingdom. however. [edit]Iron Age and Classical Antiquity 23 . the High Priests of Amun at Thebes were nevertheless of such power and influence that they were effectively the rulers of Upper Egypt from 1080 to c. the overwhelming dominance of Amun over all of Egypt gradually began to decline. especially under the Nubian Twentyfifth Dynasty of Egypt. The Temple of Amun. still bore a theophoric name referring to Amun in the Nubian formAmani. the Amun priests were as powerful as Pharaoh. The Victory Stele of Piye at Gebel Barkal (8th c. By the time Herihor was proclaimed as the first ruling High Priest of Amun in 1080 BC—in the 19th Year of Ramesses XI—the Amun priesthood exercised an effective stranglehold on Egypt's economy. [edit]Decline In the 10th century.Tantamani (died 653 BC). ca. – Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History [edit]Theban High Priests of Amun Main article: Theban High Priests of Amun While not regarded as a dynasty. Jebel Barkal. his worship continued unabated. BC) now distinguishes between an "Amun of Napata" and an "Amun of Thebes". came to be the center of the religious ideology of the Kingdom of Kush.C. In Thebes. 1000 B. if not more so. One of the sons of the High Priest Pinedjem I would eventually assume the throne and rule Egypt for almost half a decade as pharaoh Psusennes I.[18] Consequently. The Amun priests owned two-thirds of all the temple lands in Egypt and 90 percent of her ships plus many other resources. the last pharaoh of the Nubian dynasty. as Amun was by now seen as a national god in Nubia.

and Pharaoh and Egypt and her gods and her kings. that had the waters round about it. probably through the medium of the Greek colony in Cyrene. and the Greeks of Cyrenaica dedicated at Delphi a chariot with a statue of Ammon.[23] consulted the oracle of Ammon in Libya from early times more than the other Greeks. said: “Behold. viii. and in the Nevi'im.[21] by the KJV rendered just as No: Jeremiah 46:25:25 The Lord of hosts. 443 BC). In Nubia. whose rampart was the sea.[22] and another at Sparta. English Standard Version: Nahum 3:8 "Art thou better than populous No. that was situate among the rivers. Pindar the poet honoured the god with a hymn. as zealously as in Ammonium. from the time of Lysander (d.[19]regulating the whole government of the country via an oracle. choosing the ruler. In Libya there remained a solitary oracle of Amun in the Libyan Desert at the oasis of Siwa. Chalcidice.32 § 1). [edit]Levant Amun is mentioned as a deity in the Hebrew Bible. in the 3rd century BC. at Meroe and Nobatia. and her wall was from the sea?" [edit]Greece Ammon had a temple and a statue.Depiction of Amun in a relief at Karnak (15th century BC) [edit]Nubia and Libya In areas outside of Egypt where the Egyptians had previously brought the cult of Amun his worship continued into Classical Antiquity. At Megalopolis the god was represented with the head of a ram (Paus. upon Pharaoh and those who trust in him. the inhabitants of which. with his priests. Such was its reputation among the Classical Greeks that Alexander the Great journeyed there after the battle of Issus and during his occupation of Egypt.[20] The worship of Ammon was introduced into Greece at an early period. at Thebes. Iarbas. the gift of Pindar (d. as Pausanias says. was also considered a son of Hammon. I am bringing punishment upon Amon of Thebes. slew them. where his name was pronounced Amane or Amani. 395 BC). the God of Israel. At Aphytis. which must have formed a connection with the great oracle of Ammon in the Oasis soon after its establishment. and directing military expeditions. texts presumably written in the 7th century BC. Ammon was worshipped. the name ‫נא אמון‬No Amown occurs twice in reference to Thebes. these religious leaders even were able to compel kings to commit suicide. where he was declared "the son of Amun" by 24 . although this tradition stopped when Arkamane. he remained a national deity. a mythological king of Libya. According to Diodorus Siculus.

p. h2g2 Eponyms. no 446. Even during this occupation. horns.ISBN 0-8014-8029-9 ^ "Before Philosophy". John A. ISBN 0-415-36116-8. and Ammon's. Retrieved 2007-11-08. 1992. Oxford Guide: The Essential Guide to Egyptian Mythology. The regions of the hippocampus in the brain are called the cornu ammonis – literally "Amun's Horns". Milton identifies Ammon with the biblical Ham (Cham) and states that the gentiles called him the Libyan Jove. Desmond and editors of the Newsweek Book Division "The Pyramids and Sphinx" 1971 pp. 184 (fn. p. ^ Michael Brennan Dick. Wilson. John A. 25 . Description of Greece ix. Thorkild Jacobsen. Amun. p. The Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses. is a genus name in the foraminifera.25 ^ "Ammonia". 60–62 ^ Blyth. ^ Budge.CO. Both these foraminiferans (shelled Protozoa) and ammonites (extinct shelled cephalopods) bear spiral shells resembling a ram's.[24] continued to be the principal local deity of Thebes. 1914. Translated by Ann E. first pub. [25] Ammonia. xlvi. Ammon. Henri Frankfort (contributor). University of Chicago Press.16 § 1 ^ Pausanias.18 § 2 ^ Jerem. p. Routledge.144-145. [edit]References ^ Warburton (2012:211). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-520-03615-8 ^ Hart. 2008. pp. Keep..A. Redford. p. 64.the oracle. Dover edition 1997.214.edu ^ "The Burden of Egypt".164 ^ Ancient Egyptian Literature: Volume II: The New Kingdom. Alexander thereafter considered himself divine. Henri Frankfort. Cornell University Press. p.13 § 3 ^ Strong's Concordance / Gesenius' Lexicon ^ Pausanias. In Paradise Lost. Thames & Hudson Ltd.UK. 75. 211. Wilson. identified by these Greeks as a form of Zeus. University of California Press. 21. 143. University of Wisconsin Press. Penguin. Eisenbrauns. 1994. made on earth: the making of the cult image in the ancient Near East. 1951. p. 80) ^ a b c d Vincent Arieh Tobin. ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7Uchicago. Jan Assmann. Born in heaven. The Romans called the ammonium chloride they collected from deposits near the Temple of Jupiter Amun in ancient Libya sal ammoniacus (salt of Amun) because of proximity to the nearby temple.edu ^ Egyptian Religion: Siegried Morenz. ISBN 029922554 ^ "Before Philosophy". ^ Egypt and the Egyptians pg. 1951 ^ "Of God and Gods". Miriam Lichtheim.175 ^ Herodotus. E. ISBN 0-486-29502-8 ^ John A. p. such as ammonia and ammonite. 4th imp 1963. p. George (2005). 123 ^ Stewert. University of Chicago Press.29 ^ Pausanias. Republished as "The Culture of Ancient Egypt". The Histories ii. Wilson. p. Archived from the original on 2 November 2007. 2003-01-11. Description of Greece iii. Christian Jacq. Berkley books. 18. "The Burden of Egypt". 1999. 1976. p300. Chronicle of the Pharaohs. Pelican. 1951. due to the horned appearance of the dark and light bands of cellular layers. Edited by Donald B. Several words derive from Amun via the Greek form. p105-106. 20. 1951 ^ The Living Wisdom of Ancient Egypt.ISBN 0-67102219-9 ^ Peter Clayton. as well as being the chemical. Description of Greece x. 2007. p. 4th imp 1963.""An Introduction to Egyptian Literature". Republished as "The Culture of Ancient Egypt". Wallis. ISBN 0-425-19096-X ^ Die Altaegyptischen Pyramidentexte nach den Papierabdrucken und Photographien des Berliner Museums (1908). BBB. ISBN 978-0-226-90152-7Uchicago. 1999 ISBN 1575060248.

Realencyclopädie. 2006) David Warburton. Adoration of the Ram: Five Hymns to Amun-Re from Hibis Temple (New Haven. Leiden Hymns to Amun (Spanish) Karnak 3D :: Detailed 3D-reconstruction of the Great Temple of Amun at Karnak. Budge.[edit]Sources Adolf Erman.com/doc/113233414/How-Do-You-Inform-the-Brainwashed-They-Are-ReptilianMinded-Zombies-Without-Getting-Hurt http://www. Handbook of Egyptian Religion (London.scribd.wikipedia. 1907) David Klotz. Marc Mateos. ca. Meyer. Amun and Karnak in Context. Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen und römischen Mythologie Pietschmann. and Religion: Hatshepsut. Atenism. Power. ed. Cambridge University Press. articles "Ammon" and "Ammoneion" in Pauly-Wissowa. Architecture. [edit]External links Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Amun Wim van den Dungen. Hugh. H. ISBN 9783643902351. 2007 Amun with features of Tutankhamun (statue. Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed. (1911). A.com/doc/71333371/Who-Would-Be-Foolish-Enough-to-Leave-a-Paper-Trail http://en. Tutankhamen: Amenism. W. Penn Museum) http://www. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm.).scribd. article "Ammon" in W. 1332–1292 BC. and Egyptian Monotheism (1923). 2012.org/wiki/Melting_pot 26 . Ed. E.

the German.[1] the melting-together metaphor was in use by the 1780s. and whose present four sons have now four wives of different nations. the Irish emigrant into an American. language. In his writing.[2][3] After 1970 the desirability of assimilation and the melting pot model was challenged by proponents of multiculturalism. ethnicities and cultures. in response to his own question. The Americans were once scattered all over Europe. Hector St. hence that strange mixture of blood." “ "…whence came all these people? They are a mixture of English. Hector St.transforms the English. then. which you will find in no other country. It is particularly used to describe the assimilation of immigrants to the USA." − J. but only in 1912 were his remarks first published. Here individuals of all nations are melted into a new race of men. Scotch. While "melting" was in common use the exact term "melting pot" came into general usage in 1908. one generation. . after the premiere of the play The Melting Pot by Israel Zangwill. whose wife was Dutch. is the American. I could point out to you a family whose grandfather was an Englishman. receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced."[8] 27 . who. but remain distinct.[4][5] who assert that cultural differences within society are valuable and should be preserved. The first use in American literature of the concept of immigrants "melting" into the receiving culture are found in the writings of J.The melting pot is a metaphor for a heterogeneous society becoming more homogeneous. proposing the alternative metaphor of the mosaic.. the metaphor of a "crucible" or "(s)melting pot" was used to describe the fusion of different nationalities. What. and the new rank he holds. virtuous community. He is an American. Emerson explicitly welcomed the racial intermixing of whites and non-whites. a single year even-. John de Crevecoeur. John de Crevecoeur. ethnicity and race) were to blend into a new. Uniform institutions. and it was connected to utopian visions of the emergence of an American "new man". Irish. the different elements "melting together" into a harmonious whole with a common culture. whose labors and posterity will one day cause great changes in the world. [citation needed] It was a metaphor for the idealized process ofimmigration and colonization by which different nationalities. the individuality of the immigrant. ideas. receives new ones from the new mode of life he has embraced. Dutch. alluding to the development of European civilization out of the medieval Dark Ages. . this new man? He is neither a European nor the descendant of a European. cultures and "races" (a term that could encompass nationality. and the new rank he holds. bring us soon to a similar complexion. Letters from an American Farmer. wrote in his private journal of America as the Utopian product of a culturally and racially mixed "smelting pot".[6][7] In the eighteenth and nineteenth century. whose son married a French woman. almost even his traits of race and religion. this new man?" that the American is one who "leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners. and Swedes. In his Letters from an American Farmer (1782) Crevecoeur writes. ” In 1845. the influence of the majority. here they are incorporated into one of the finest systems of population which has ever appeared.. "What then is the American. leaving behind him all his ancient prejudices and manners. Ralph Waldo Emerson. . the new government he obeys. French. the government he obeys. a highly controversial view during his lifetime. A magazine article in 1875 used the metaphor explicitly: "The fusing process goes on as in a blast-furnace. He becomes an American by being received in the broad lap of our great Alma Mater. Germans. fuse down in the democratic alembic like chips of brass thrown into the melting pot. It was used together with concepts of the United States as an ideal republic and a "city upon a hill" or new promised land. salad bowl or "American Kaleidoscope" – different cultures mix.

a fellow Russian immigrant who is Christian. a Russian Jew. There she lies..". However. the great Melting-Pot-Listen! Can't you hear the roaring and the bubbling? There gapes her mouth. English in neither nationality nor characteristics. your fifty languages. good folk. intermarriage between African-Americans and other ethnicities is much less common than between different white ethnicities. Thus African-Americans are fully culturally integrated into American culture and institutions. the "melting pot" process has been equated with Americanization. But then David discovers that Vera is the daughter of the Tsarist officer who directed the pogrom that forced him to flee Russia.C. Jews and Russians—into the Crucible with you all! God is making the American. arguing that the frontier had functioned as a "crucible" where "the immigrants were Americanized. when I see them at Ellis Island. unlike Shakespeare's tragedy. Yet more than a century after the abolition of slavery. The "melting pot" metaphor implies both a melting of cultures and intermarriage of ethnicities. which celebrated the statue as a symbol of the United States' democracy and its identity as an immigrant nation. cultures and ethnicities in the 1908play of the same name. set in New York City. brothers." In his 1905 travel narrative The American Scene." David foresees how the American melting pot will make the nation's immigrants transcend their old animosities and differences and will fuse them into one people: "Here shall they all unite to build the Republic of Man and the Kingdom of God. But you won't be long like that. and histories. David Quixano has a prophetic vision: "It is the Fires of God round His Crucible. Zangwill combined a romantic denouement with a utopian celebration of complete cultural intermixing. the great Melting-Pot where all the races of Europe are melting and re-forming! Here you stand. he referred to the "composite nationality" of the American people. where the immigrant protagonist declared: “ "Understand that America is God's Crucible. Reunited with Vera and watching the setting sun gilding the Statue of Liberty. as of elements in solution in a vast hot pot. A fig for your feuds and vendettas! Germans and Frenchmen. Irishmen and Englishmen. In his essay The Significance of the Frontier in American History.In 1893. D. first performed in Washington. The play was an adaptation of William Shakespeare's Romeo and Juliet. the harbor where a thousand mammoth feeders come from the ends of the world to pour in their human freight. Horrified." Zangwill thus combined the metaphor of the "crucible" or "melting pot" with a celebration of the United States as an ideal republic and a new promised land. or between white and Asian ethnicities. for these are the fires of God you've come to – these are fires of God. cultural assimilation and acculturation. betraying his belief in the possibility of transcending religious and ethnic animosities. Vera is an idealistic settlement house worker and David is a musical composer struggling to create an "American symphony" to celebrate his adopted homeland. here you stand in your fifty groups. historian Frederick Jackson Turner also used the metaphor of immigrants melting into one American culture. Together they manage to overcome the old world animosities that threaten to separate them. there is a happy ending.[11] [edit]United States In terms of immigrants to the United States.[9] The exact term "melting pot" came into general usage in the United States after it was used as a metaphor describing a fusion of nationalities. and your fifty blood hatreds and rivalries. liberated and fused into a mixed race."[10] ” [edit]Zangwill In The Melting Pot (1905). At the end of the play the lovers are reconciled. that is. Henry James refers to cultural intermixing in New York City as a "fusion. he breaks up with her. Intermarriage between 28 . think I. The prophetic words of his Jewish protagonist against the backdrop of the Statue of Liberty allude to Emma Lazarus's famous poem The New Colossus (1883). falls in love with Vera. The play's immigrant protagonist David Quixano. yet cultural assimilation or acculturation can also occur without intermarriage.

The compromises that were reached in a series of immigration laws in the 1920s established the principle that the number of new arrivals should be small. and were encouraged to become integrated in the society through educational programs. the inflow of new immigrants should match the ethnic profile of the nation as it existed at that time. In many states. has been analyzed by the emerging academic field of whiteness studies. They felt that far too many "undesirables. This discipline examines the 'social construction of whiteness' and highlights the changing ways in which whiteness has been normative to American national identity from the seventeenth to the twentieth century. but many arrived illegally. Italy and Russia. Jews. As a result two kinds of "mixture talk" developed: As the new word--miscegenation--became associated with black-white mixing.whites and non-whites. and. greatly increased the Asian American population.[12] [edit]Whiteness and the US melting pot The melting pot theory of ethnic relations. adopting American lifestyles. with full citizenship for the residents of all races. The debate surrounding the concept of the melting pot centered on how immigration impacted American society and on how immigrants should be approached. discussed all the more easily without any reference to the African-American aspect of the question. Chinese arrivals met intense hostility and new laws in the 1880s tried to exclude them. Beginning in the 1890s. and most whites opposed marriages between whites and blacks. apart from family reunification. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. large numbers of Southern and Eastern European immigrant groups such as the Italians. Ireland and Germany. formless liquid into the preexisting cultural and social molds modeled on Anglo-Protestants like Henry Ford and Woodrow Wilson. and especially African-Americans. such as Will Rogers and Jim Thorpe. Many returned to Europe but those who remained merged into the cultural melting pot.[12] Nativists wanted to severely restrict access to the melting pot. This separation of mixture talk into two discourses 29 . Charles Curtis. marriage between whites and non-whites was even prohibited by state law through antimiscegenation laws. In the early twentieth century.[13] By contrast. and was illegal in many US states (see anti-miscegenation laws) until 1967. and a new compound would emerge?". European immigration to the US became increasingly diverse and increased substantially in numbers. resulting in multiracial children. and encouraged immigration from Britain. has long been a taboo in the United States. The acquisition of Hawaii in 1898. the meaning of the recently popularized concept of the melting pot was subject to ongoing debate which centered on the issue of immigration. which sees American identity as centered upon the acculturation or assimilation and the intermarriage of white immigrant groups. Hostility forced them into "Chinatowns" or ethnic enclaves in the larger cities. in 1928. [edit]Miscegenation Intermarriage between old stock Americans and white immigrant groups was acceptable as part of the melting pot narrative. and the debate centered on the differences between these two ways of approaching immigration: "Was the idea to melt down the immigrants and then pour the resulting. Ashkenazi and Slovaks. The mixing of whites and blacks. or was the idea instead that everyone. Native Americans in the United States on reservations gained US citizenship with the Indian Citizenship Act of 1924." or in their view. was a taboo.[14] National quotas were established that discouraged immigration from Poland. for which the term "miscegenation" was coined in 1863. Mayflower descendants and Sicilians. would act chemically upon each other so that all would be changed. The country welcomes celebrities of Native American background. The melting pot was equated with either the acculturation or the total assimilation of European immigrants. a preoccupation of the years after the Civil War. where they lived a culture apart and seldom assimilated. and Poles arrived. the residual European immigrant aspect of the question of [ethnoracial mixture] came to be more than ever a thing apart. culturally inferior immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe had already arrived. and elected a vice president with significant Native American ancestry.

but although they increasingly accepted and even celebrated this acculturation. many white Americans accepted that American culture was heavily influenced by African-American culture. Whoopee!(1930). But the freedom promised immigrants to make themselves over points to the vacancy.'" He sees this racist rage as an expression of "the unresolved tension between racialism and civic egalitarianism in American life. Unlike other racially stigmatized groups.. both focused on "haole" (white people or whiteness in Hawaii) in the islands. This trend towards greater acceptance of ethnic and racial minorities was evident in popular culture in the combat films of the Second World War. Slotkin points out that ethnic and racial harmony within this platoon is predicated upon racist hatred for the Japanese enemy: "the emotion which enables the platoon to transcend racial prejudice is itself a virulent expression of racial hatred. white immigrants can put on and take off their mask of difference. most whites did not accept marriages between white Americans and AfricanAmericans. these films [Rogin discusses The Jazz Singer. and the melancholy at the core of American self-fashioning. commercializing. Israel Zangwill recognized this. However. stereotyping and mimicking of black culture played an important role in the construction of an urban popular culture in which European immigrants could express themselves as Americans. White appropriation." a cinematic and cultural convention symbolizing in the 1940s "an American community that did not yet exist. The final heat which blends the ingredients of the melting pot is rage against an enemy which is fully dehumanized as a race of 'dirty monkeys.[16] Since the successes of the American Civil Rights Movement and the enactment of the Immigration and Nationality Act of 1965."[15] Many African-American intellectuals[who?] have commented on and analyzed the paradox that white Americans long regarded many elements of African-American culture quintessentially "American. and Christianizing the ex-African. has given 'rag-time' and the sex-dances that go with it. first to white America and then to the whole white world.facilitated. intermarriage between white and non-white Americans has been increasing. Historian Richard Slotkin sees Bataan and the combat genre that sprang from it as the source of the "melting pot platoon. Old San Francisco (1927). notably in The Jazz Singer (1927). while clothing. Reflecting on American culture in an afterword to his play. writing: "However scrupulously and justifiably America avoids intermarriage with the negro. the violence. as Rohrer (2008) argues. there are two dominant discourses of racial politics.minstrel shows and later in jazz and in early Hollywood cinema." and thus presenting an implicit protest against racial segregation. gradually extending also to acceptance of marriage between whites and non-whites. historian Michael Rogin has commented: "Repudiating 1920s nativism. which contends that 'haoles' and nonlocal 30 .[15] Analyzing the "racial masquerade" that was involved in creation of a white "melting pot" culture through the stereotyping and imitation of black and other non-white cultures in the early 20th century. . the comic spirit cannot fail to note spiritual miscegenation which. starting with Bataan (1943). the idea of the melting pot has become more racially inclusive in the United States. There is also a competing discourse of discrimination against nonlocals. In 2000. the deception. and was in turn reinforced by. which allowed for a massive increase in immigration from Latin America and Asia.. the process Matthew Frye Jacobson has detailed whereby European immigrant groups became less ambiguously white and more definitely "not black"[12] By the early 20th century."." while at the same time treating African Americans as second-class citizens. the rate of blackwhite marriage was greater than the rate of Jewish-Gentile marriage (between Jewish Americans and other whites) in 1940. The taboo on marriage between whites and African Americans also appears to be fading. through such traditions as blackface. King of Jazz (1930)] celebrate the melting pot."[15] Since the Second World War. This film celebrated solidarity and cooperation between Americans of all races and ethnicities through the depiction of a multiracial American unit at a time when the armed forces were still racially segregated. [edit]Hawaii In Hawaii. The first is the discourse of racial harmony representing Hawaii as an idyllic racial paradise with no conflict or inequality.

[20][21] [edit]Melting pot. also fanned feelings of xenophobia. The war and the Russian Revolution. The reemergence of Olympic melting pot discourse was driven especially by the unprecedented success of African Americans.people of color are disrespected and treated unfairly in Hawaii. meaning cultural assimilation. becoming an important aspect of national self-image. stemmed not from simple athletic prowess but from the superiority of the civilization that spawned them. national anthem with a "Black Power" salute that symbolized rejection of assimilation. stressing that the success of U.[18] The international aspect of the games allowed the United States to define its pluralistic self-image against the monolithic traditions of other nations. these discourses work to reinforce one another and are historically linked. the 2002 Winter Games in Salt Lake City strongly revived the melting pot image. The First World War heightened tensions between Anglo-American and German-Americans.toward a new way of thinking about racial politics in Hawaii that breaks free of the not racist/racist dyad.S.[19] The 2002 Winter Olympics was also a showcase of American religious freedom and cultural tolerance of the history of Utah's large majority population of Mormons. American athletes served as cultural ambassadors of American exceptionalism. Opposition to the 31 .S.[17] [edit]Olympics Throughout the history of the modern Olympic Games. The diversity of American athletes in the Olympic Games in the early 20th centuries was an important avenue for the country to redefine a national culture amid a massive influx of immigrants. As negative referents for each other. two black American athletes with gold and bronze medals saluted the U. entering at one end in costumes designating their nationality and emerging at the other end in identical suits and waving American flags. the concept of the melting pot was equated by Nativists with complete cultural assimilation towards an Anglo-American norm ("Angloconformity") on the part of immigrants. such as Milton Gordon and Henry Pratt Fairchild believed in the cultural superiority of white Anglo-Americans to non-whites and the new immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe. especially in the high-profile track-and-field events. cultural pluralism. Rohrer proposes that the question of racial politics be reframed toward consideration of the processes of racialization themselves . the theme of the United States as a melting pot has been employed to explain American athletic success. The concept of cultural pluralism first emerged in the 1910s and 1920s among intellectual circles out of the debates in the United States over how to approach issues of immigration and national identity. During and immediately after the First World War. In Henry Ford's Ford English School (established in 1914). athletes. In the1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico City. and Native Americans in events traditionally associated with Europeans and white North Americans such as speed skating and the bobsled. Journalists and other American analysts of the Olympics framed their comments with patriotic nationalism. as well representation of Muslim Americans and other religious groups in the US Olympic team. The newly popularized concept of the melting pot was frequently equated with "Americanization". not all "old stock" Americans believed that immigrants could be assimilated.[22][23] However. multiculturalism The concept of multiculturalism was preceded by the concept of cultural pluralism. by many "old stock" Americans. returning to a bedrock form of American nationalism and patriotism. and immigrants who opposed such assimilation were accused of disloyalty to the United States. the graduation ceremony for immigrant employees involved symbolically stepping off an immigrant ship and passing through the melting pot.Asian Americans. as well as American Indians (represented by Jim Thorpe in 1912) and blacks (represented by Jesse Owens in 1932). Anglo-conformity. Following the September 11. which was first developed in the 1910s and 1920s. and became widely popular during the 1940s. Supporters of Anglo-Saxonism and 100 percent Americanism. and perceived acculturation and intermarriage with Southern and Eastern European immigrants as a threat to Anglo-Americans. 2001 terrorist attacks. which caused a "Red Scare" in the US. Mexican Americans. promoting the melting pot ideology and the image of America as a progressive nation based on middle-class culture.

For example. According to eugenist criminologist Edward A. who objected to Kallen's emphasis on the inherent value of ethnic and cultural difference. or. Nonetheless. where the term melting pot is still commonly used. This term was coined by Kallen. The concept of cultural pluralism was popularized in the 1940s by John Dewey. despite being largely disregarded by modern sociologists as an outdated and diffuse term. When more recent immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe brought their various cultures to America at the beginning of the 20th century. intellectuals on the left such as Horace Kallen. They believed that complete cultural assimilation of the immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was not a solution to the problem of immigration because intermarriage with these immigrants would endanger the racial purity of Anglo-America. and Germany. assimilated into America's preexisting culture which had its origins in Northwestern Europe. Ross. and. political correctness in the U. In the United States. they changed the American cultural landscape just very slightly.[25][26][27] Alternate models where immigrants retain their native cultures such as the 'salad bowl'[28] or the 'symphony'[25] are more often used by prominent sociologists to describe how cultures and ethnicities mix in the United States. as it is known in Canada. the term assimilation is still used to describe the ways in which immigrants and their descendants adapt. 32 . the French and British governments[29] and populace are currently debating whether Islamic cultural practices and dress conflict with their attempts to form culturally unified countries. the cultural mosaic. In the 1990s. who believed in the "racial" superiority of Americans of Northern European descent as member of the "Nordic race". The decision of whether to support a melting-pot or multicultural approach has developed into an issue of much debate within some countries. for the most part. This line of thought holds that this American national culture derived most of its traits and characteristics from early colonial settlers from Britain. some scholars have expressed the view that the most accurate explanation for modern-day United States culture and interethnic relations can be found somewhere in a fusion of some of the concepts and ideas contained in the melting pot. In response to the pressure exerted on immigrants to culturally assimilate and also as a reaction against the denigration of the culture and "race" of non-Anglo white immigrants by Nativists. and Randolph Bourne. Since the 1960s.[25][26][27] The theory of multiculturalism offers alternative analogies for ethnic interaction including salad bowl theory. and therefore demanded immigration restrictions to stop a "degeneration" of America's white racial "stock". such as by increasingly using the national language of the host society as their first language. The controversy over immigration faded away after immigration restrictions were put in place with the enactment of the Johnson-Reed Act in 1924.absorption of million of immigrants from Southern and Eastern Europe was especially strong among eugenicists such as scientists Madison Grant and Lothrop Stoddard.[24] Randolph Bourne. Ireland. [edit]Multiculturalist view Multiculturalists typically support loose immigration controls and programs such as bilingual education and affirmative action. such intermarriage (often termed "amalgamation") would lead to "race suicide". in Democracy Versus the Melting-Pot (1915). Under this theory. and Anglo-conformity models. in Trans-National America (1916). laid the foundations for the concept of cultural pluralism.S.[citation needed] However. has one of the most homogeneous cultures of any nation in the world. emphasized that each ethnic and national group has the right to maintain and preserve its cultural distinction and integrity. and that one does not need to assimilate or abandon one's heritage in order to blend in or merge into the majority Anglo-American society. which offer certain privileges to minority and/or immigrant groups. most of the research in Sociology and History has disregarded the melting pot theory for describing inter-ethnic relations in the United States and other counties. it is asserted that the U. the ideas ofcultural pluralism and multiculturalism have largely replaced the idea of assimilation. envisioned a "trans-national" and cosmopolitan America. assimilation.S.

they warn however. This reasoning relies on the assumption that immigrants can be persuaded to ultimately consider themselves a citizen of their new nation first and of their nation of birth second. (A consensus on affirmative action does not currently 33 . the use of languages other than English in a classroom setting has traditionally been discouraged. In the United States. This compromise view also supports a strong stance on immigration and a primary language in school with the option to study foreign languages. in their view. [edit]Assimilationist view Whereas multiculturalists tend to view the melting-pot theory as oppressive. in practice. the government may foster resentment towards them by the majority and.S. Although some multiculturalists admit that assimilation may result in a relatively homogeneous society. immigrants will then naturally work to reciprocate the gesture and adopt new customs. will inevitably lead to widespread poverty and other forms of disadvantage among immigrants. unity and growth that assimilationsts argue are the positive results of the melting pot theory—while simultaneously appeasing some of the multiculturalists. in turn. in their view. so that they can be properly absorbed into the whole. that where minorities are strongly urged to assimilate. [edit]A compromise between multiculturalists and assimilationists? There also exists a view that attempts to reconcile some of the differences between multiculturalists and assimilationists. and has caused immigrants to have severed ties with family abroad. By calling attention to differences between these groups and the majority. has often been forced. Decades of this policy may have contributed to the fact—lamented by multiculturalists—that more than 80 percent of Americans speak only English at home. They point to situations where institutions of the dominant culture initiate programs to assimilate or integrate minority cultures. Multiculturalists note that assimilation. Assimilationists tend to believe that their nation has reached its present state of development because it has been able to forge one national identity. it is argued. immigrants will then avoid hindering the progress. With assimilation. Through this process. they may still retain and practice all of their cultural traditions but "when push comes to shove" they will put their host nation's interests first. Some tend to favor controlled levels of immigration —enough to benefit society economically. From an employment perspective. Assimilationists also argue that the multiculturalist policy of freer immigration is unworkable in an era in which the supply of immigrants from third world countries seems limitless. but not enough to profoundly alter it. it is argued. They argue that separating citizens by ethnicity or race and providing immigrant groups "special privileges" can harm the very groups they are intended to help. forming the largest ethnic group of American citizens. they note that job markets are often tight to begin with and that expecting large amounts of newcomers to find work each year is unrealistic. when the "ingredients" are added in modest increments. give out special privileges to minorities at the expense of the majority. If this can be accomplished. With immigrants often coming from multiple points of origin. In this way. Proponents of this view propose that immigrants need not completely abandon their culture and traditions in order to reach the goal that the melting pot theory seeks. Allowing high levels of immigration. Assimilationists suggest that if a society makes a full effort to incorporate immigrants into the mainstream. citizens are of German descent. cause the immigrant group to turn inward and shun mainstream culture. with a strong sense of nationalism.Multiculturalists claim that assimilation can hurt minority cultures by stripping away their distinctive features. assimilationists view it as advantageous to both a government and its people. The melting-pot theory works best. national unity is retained. immigrants lose their original cultural (and often linguistic) identity and so do their children. there may arise groups which fiercely oppose integration. barely one million of them reported speaking German in their homes in the 2000 Census. While an estimated 60 million U. Assimilationists tend to be opposed to programs that. Immigrants who fled persecution or a country devastated by war were historically resilient to abandoning their heritage once they had settled in a new country. it may be excessively expensive to meet their needs.

Italian. and European women were taken as wives by local Indian men and vice-versa. With the churning growth of Persian. Russian. The Taliban. and some groups have chosen to remain separate from mainstream social life. [edit]Use in other regions [edit]South Asia South Asia has a long history of inter-ethnic marriage dating back to ancient history. Mongols (Mughals).Punjabis and Sindhis. are other impediments to the melting pot thesis. Spanish. Pashtun–Tajik rivalries have lingered about. the compromise allows immigrants to continue practicing and propagating their cultures from generation to generation and yet sustain and instill a love for their host country first and above all. but are much more mild. the development of a cultural melting pot is occurring. [edit]Afghanistan Afghanistan seems to be in the process of becoming a melting pot. Arab. including speakers of Dravidian. Whether this kind of delicate balance between host and native countries among immigrants can be achieved remains to be seen. including de-tribalized Pashtuns. Brazilian society has never been completely free of ethnic strife and exploitation. Austroasiatic. [edit]Brazil Brazil has long been a melting pot for a wide range of cultures. Austrian. blunting their wills for imperialistic hegemony and maintaining its strong roots and culture. German. which is likely very similar to the Kyrgyzstan Crisis. Brazilians of mainly European descent (Portuguese.) account for more than half the population. There have been rivalries between Pashtuns and Uzbeks as well. South Asia in a nut-shell appears to be a cradle of human civilization. Ethnic conflicts in Pakistan between Baloch. Ukrainian. However. Today in Afghanistan. ultimately replacing the old Pashtun identity which stood for Afghan. while the Hazara–Pashtun conflict was notable. where different Afghanistan ethnic groups are mixing together to build a new Afghan ethnicity composed of preceding ethnicities in Afghanistan today. which Pashtuns would likely take place as Kyrgyz (for having a similar nomadic culture). are adopting Dari Persian as their new native tongue. Pashtun. From colonial times Portuguese Brazilians have favoured assimilation and tolerance for other peoples. The divisiveness of the caste system in India has permeated to every facet of the society. The term Afghan was originally used to refer to the Pashtuns in the Middle Ages. and TibetoBurman languages. have spurred Anti-Pashtunism across non-Pashtun Afghans. Hungarian etc. rivaling with Tajiks and Uzbeks (of sedentary culture). However. Turkic. Polish. as this conflict was carried out by the Taliban. Greeks. despite all being Sunni Muslims. Various groups of people have been intermarrying for millennia in South Asia. These invasions however brought their own racial mixing between diverse populations and South Asia is considered an exemplary "melting pot" (and not a "salad bowl") by many geneticists for exactly this reason. which are mostly ethnically Pashtun. but later this policy changed. although people of mixed ethnic backgrounds form an increasingly larger segment. and often claimed as a Shia-Sunni conflict instead of an ethnic conflict.exist.) Proponents of this compromise claim that the difference with this view and that of the assimilationists is that while their view of the melting pot essentially strips immigrants of their culture. IndoAryan. Huns. On account of such diverse influences. Lithuanian. and intermarriage was more acceptable in Brazil than in most other European colonies. leading to the inclusion of non-Pashtuns in the state as Afghans. Despite invasions in its recent history it has succeeded in organically assimilating incoming influences. 34 . many ethnic groups. French. Persians. South Asian society has never been completely free of ethnic strife and exploitation. as customs specific to particular ethnic groups are becoming summarily perceived as national traits of Afghanistan. and the intention behind the creation of the Afghan state was originally to be aPashtun state. and some groups have chosen to remain separate from mainstream social life. Reasons for this antipathy are criticism of Tajiks (for either their non-tribal culture or cultural rivalry in Afghanistan) by Pashtuns and criticism of Taliban (mostly composed of Pashtuns) by Tajiks. Many ethnic groups in Afghanistan tolerate each other.

) made a 25%. German. Portuguese are the main European ethnic group in Brazil. mestizos (white and native American mix) constituted approximately 50% of the population. that a cultural change effected by a struggle within the Ashkenazi-East European community. who had no part in formulating it.[30]Others argue that the melting pot policy did not achieve its declared target: for example. the persons born in Israel are more similar from an economic point of view to their parents than to the rest of the population. The population is descended from three racial groups—Native Americans. and whites—that have mingled throughout the nearly 500 years of the country's history. Italian. it was asserted that extirpating the Yiddish culture had been in itself an act of oppression only compounding what was done to the Mizrahi immigrants. [edit]Colombia Colombia is a melting pot of races and ethnicities. Also. blacks (pure or predominantly of African origin) 3% percent. different ethnicities were assimilated into the Russian melting pot through the period of 35 . however. Proponents of the Melting Pot policy asserted that it applied to all newcomers to Israel equally. No official figures were available. as well as other European groups. blacks.[31] The policy is generally not practised today though as there is less need for that . [edit]Israel In the early years of the state of Israel the term melting pot (‫( )כור היתוך‬also known as "Ingathering of the Exiles" . [edit]Russia The expansion of the Grand Duchy of Moscow and later of the Russian Empire throughout 15th to 20th centuries created a unique melting pot. such as educating the younger generation (with the parents not having the final say) and (to mention an anecdotal one) encouraging and sometimes forcing the new citizens to adopt a Hebrew name. mulattoes (black-white mix) 14% and zambos (black and native American mix) 4%. the largest Arab community outside the Arab World and one of the top 10 Jewish populations. These factors as well as others contribute to the rise of pluralism as a common principle in the last years.and who gained a dominant position in the Yishuv (pre-state community) since the 1930s . people of mixed African and European ancestry) and mestizos (mestiços. and most Brazilians can trace their ancestry to an ethnic Portuguese or a mixed-race Portuguese. (See Jewish ethnic divisions) This was performed on several levels. some say that it was a necessary measure in the founding years. 20% of Israel's population is Arab.‫ )קיבוץ גלויות‬was not a description of a process. at the cost of suppressing and erasing these later immigrants' original culture. Nevertheless. Activists such as the Iraq-born Ella Shohat that an elite which developed in the early 20th Century. and Native Americans 1%. Brazil has the largest Italian diaspora. since the Colombian government dropped any references to race in the census after 1918. while others claim that it amounted to cultural oppression. that Eastern European Jews were pressured to discard their Yiddish-based culture as ruthlessly as Mizrahi Jews were pressured to give up the culture which they developed during centuries of life in Arab and Muslim countries. etc.roughly two-fifths of the total are mulattoes (mulattos. Furthermore. Today the reaction to this doctrine is ambivalent. the second largest German diaspora. specifically. and imposed it on all later arrivals. with younger people voluntarily discarding their ancestral culture and formulating a new one.the mass immigration waves at Israel's founding have declined.had formulated a new Hebrew culture. or caboclos. The Jewish population includes other minorities such as Haredi Jews. Though the majority of Russians hadSlavic ancestry. people of mixed European and Indian ancestry). Among European descendants. whites (predominantly Spanish origin. The country is also home to the largestJapanese diaspora outside Japan. but an official governmental doctrine of assimilating the Jewish immigrants that originally came from varying cultures. Critics respond. based on the values ofSocialist Zionism. but according to rough estimates in the late 1980s. is not parallel to the subsequent exporting and imposing of this new culture on others. French. out of the earlier-arrived Zionist Pioneers of the Second and Third Aliyas(immigration waves) . one fifth of current Israel's Jewish population have immigrated from former Soviet Union in the last two decades.

etc.. ——Randolph Bourne. This includes Mordvin. Well.[35] ——Eduardo-Bonilla Silva. [edit]In popular culture The melting pot remains a stock phrase in American political and cultural dialogue. Puerto Ricans. journal entry. It required adoption of Russian as a day-to-day language and Orthodox Christianity as religion of choice.--asylum of all nations. French. IIV. and Cossacks.' The discovery of diverse nationalistic feelings among our great alien population has come to most people as an intense shock. On The Colbert Report. [edit]Quotations Man is the most composite of all creatures. could not melt into the pot. The Soviet government promoted the doctrine of assimilating all peoples living in USSR into one Soviet people. and others. Groups of later." where separate cultures "co-exist" by being entirely separate and maintaining no contact or involvement (see also NIMBY). called Corinthian brass. Trans-National America. They could be used as wood to produce the fire for the pot. Mari. Yusupov. or that which earlier emerged from the Pelasgic and Etruscan barbarism. which will be as vigorous as the new Europe which came out of the smelting-pot of the Dark Ages. Poles. 18th and 19th century migrants to Russia. Race: The Power of an Illusion 36 . a new literature. etc.) suggest their Turkic origin. an alternative to the melting pot culture was posed on The Wørd called "Lunchables. Throughout the centuries of eastward expansion of Russia FinnoUgric and Turkic peoples were assimilated and included into the emerging Russian nation. ——Ralph Waldo Emerson.--the energy of Irish.. Poles. The general perception of its process and effects can be summed up in "The Great American Melting Pot" song from Schoolhouse Rock!. 116 No reverberatory effect of the great war has caused American public opinion more solicitude than the failure of the 'melting-pot.. Italians. so in this continent. Germans. but did not succeed. in Atlantic Monthly. Azeris and Turks among them) also assimilated within several generations after settling among Russians in the expanding Russian Empire. Chinese. from Europe (Germans. Chechens. and of the Polynesians. Armenians. Chuvash.[34] The lyrics espouse how the world should become one big melting pot where different races and religions are to be mixed. Vol. Assimilation was a way for ethnic minorities to advance their standing within the Russian society and state . accordingly to Marxist principle of Fraternity of peoples. Swedes. Jews. and all the European tribes. as in the old burning of the Temple at Corinth.as individuals or groups. Bulgarians. Ossetians. as evidenced by developments in most national cultures in the territory after the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991.--of the Africans.[33] In 1969 the song "Melting Pot" was released by the UK band Blue Mink and charted at #3 in the UK Singles Chart. a new state. Greeks. first published 1912 in Journals of Ralph Waldo Emerson with Annotations. but they could not be used as material to be melted into the pot. etcetera. [32] [edit]Soviet Union The Soviet people (Russian: Советский народ) was an ideological epithet for the population of the Soviet Union.expansion.) or the Caucasus (Georgians.--will construct a new race. Surnames of many of Russia's nobility (including Suvorov. The effort lasted for the entire history of the Soviet Union. 118 (July 1916). a new religion. 86-97 Blacks. by the melting and intermixture of silver and gold and other metals a new compound more precious than any. Bashkir. Kutuzov. 'churning out coffee coloured people by the score' referring to the possible pigmentation of children after such racial mixing. The Roman Catholics (as in Poland and Lithuania) generally resisted assimilation. was formed. Udmurt.Serbs. Tatar. 1845.

Bureau of the Census. The Journal of American History(Organization of American Historians) 79 (3): 1050–77. ^ p. The Multiculturalism Vs. doi:10. of Commerce. Annual Review of Sociology. Hirschman..3.2307/2080798. C. Princeton University Press.whether assimilation ought to be seen as an egalitarian or hegemonic process. U. The Evolution of New York City's Multiculturalism: Melting Pot Or Salad Bowl: Immigrants in New York from the 19th Century Until the End of the Gilded Age. 2001.doi:10. 51. (December 2003). The American Scene. 50–.. 1–. America's Melting Pot Policy Reconsidered. Richard E. Edwin R. " A New Country" The Galaxy Volume 0019 Issue 4 (April 1875) p. "Amalgamation and Hypodescent: The Question of Ethnoracial Mixture in the History of the United States". and the Civic Culture. American Literary History (Oxford: Oxford University Press) 13 (9): 469– 98. Integration Debate in Great Britain. ^ Thomas J.397). ISBN 978-0-7486-1634-3. 97–. ISBN 0-86155018-8. 276–. Archdeacon. doi:10. Retrieved 2008-07-15.. David A. . Retrieved 2008-07-15. ISBN 978-3-8370-9303-2.1093/alh/13. GRIN Verlag. ISBN 978-3-638-76647-0. ^ Lawrence H. ISBN 978-0-8195-6250-0. ISBN 978-0-495-89831-3. McDonald (1 May 2007). Retrieved 2008-07-15. "Unit Pride: Ethnic Platoons and the Myths of American Nationality". Fuchs (1990).. 37 . JSTOR 2080798. ^ Joachim Von Meien (23 November 2007). Race and Nation in the Twentieth Century. Samovar. ^ Slotkin. p. p. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Tamar Jacoby (2004). Economics and Statistics Administration.[edit]See also [edit]References Acculturation Americanization Assimilation (sociology) Cosmopolitanism Cultural pluralism Ethnic origin Hyphenated American Interculturalism Lusotropicalism Miscegenation More Irish than the Irish themselves Multiculturalism Multiculturalism in Canada Multicultural media in Canada Nation-building Nativism Racial integration The Race of the Future Transculturation ^ United States. BoD – Books on Demand. Wesleyan University Press. Bureau of the Census (1995*).469. McDaniel (1 January 2011). pp.50 See ". Richard (Fall 2001). Cengage Learning. PBS. 116 ^ As quoted in Gary Gerstle American Crucible. Reinventing The Melting Pot: The New Immigrants And What It Means To Be American. pp. Michael (December 1992). Ethnicity. 397-423 (p. Bloomington: Indiana University Press.S. ^ "Take the Quiz". 1983. 463 online ^ James. pp. "Making America Home: Racial Masquerade and Ethnic Assimilation in the Transition to Talking Pictures". pp. Edinburgh University Press. ^ Eva Kolb (March 2009). ^ a b c Hollinger. Becoming American (1984) pp 112-25 ^ Higham (1955) ^ a b c Rogin. The American Kaleidoscope: Race. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ^ Larry A. Retrieved 27 November 2012. ISBN 978-0-465-03635-6. ^ Titus Munson Coan. respectively" Jason J. American Ethnic History: Themes and Perspectives. Dept. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Destination America. Retrieved 27 November 2012. The American Historical Review (Indiana University) 108 (5): 1363–90. Intercultural Communication: A Reader. Henry (1968). Basic Books. September 2005. Porter.two viewpoints are represented by the melting-pot and Anglo-conformity models. 9.1086/529971. Retrieved 27 November 2012. Celebrating our nation's diversity: a teaching supplement for grades K-12. Retrieved 2011-05-14.

The end of empire?: the transformation of the USSR in comparative perspective (1996) p 67 ^ "The Great American Melting Pot". retrieved 5 Feb 2009 [edit]External links Look up melting pot in Wiktionary. "Islamic schools at heart of British debate on integration". Working Paper No. Gordon (1964). Olympic Spectacle and the Quest for an American National Culture.com. Jews. ^ a b Adams. African American lives (2004) p. Alan (2006-10-15). Retrieved 2008-07-15. Q. 318 ^ "Ford English School". Moynihan. Allmusic. ^ Cowell. Earlier version by Schechtman. Joyce. ^ "Immigration". Cultural Savvy. "'America's Athletic Missionaries': Political Performance. "Understanding American Culture: From Melting Pot to Salad Bowl". ^ Millet. Dyerson. eds. "Disrupting the 'Melting Pot': Racial Discourse in Hawai'i and the Naturalization of Haole." Ethnic and Racial Studies 2008 31(6): 1110-1125 ^ Henry Louis Gates and Evelyn Brooks Higginbotham. Nathan. University of Nancy. Shlomo and Schechtman. Vol. Haaretz ^ Yitzhaki. 1896-1912. Paul Reeve and Ardis E. Booth. "The Melting Pot NYC". "'The True Liberalism of Zionism': Horace Kallen. Transformation of the Mormon culture region (2003) pp 1. University of Michigan Dearborn. June 2009. A1. 32. ^ "Episode 3 The House We Live In (transcript)". J. EdnaThe "Melting Pot": A Success Story? Journal of Economic Inequality. Cambridge: MIT Press. Vol. 7. 38 . Puerto Ricans. Beyond the Melting Pot: The Negroes. i + 30 pp. ISBN 0-7872-8145-X. and the Limits of American Pluralism. Myth of the Melting Pot: America's Racial and Ethnic Divide (Washington Post): pp." American Jewish History. Jewish Nationalism. 5 ^ Mark Dyerson. Chicago. the free dictionary. Dec 2008. 2007.. International Herald Tribune. ^ Noam Pianko. Indivisible: Is It History?". 2. Retrieved 2008-07-15. Assimilation in American Life. Parshall. pp. ISBN 0262-57022-X. Retrieved 2008-07-15. Retrieved 2008-07-15. pp 299-329. Pearlie (2001). 94 Issue 4. Mormonism: A Historical Encyclopedia (2010) p. Retrieved 2008-07-15. 137-151. (1 January 1970).). IL: Kendall/Hunt Publishing Co. ^ 'Melting pot' approach in the IDF was a mistake. ^ "Biography by Dave Thompson". Daniel P. Retrieved 10 February 2009. Yorgason. Retrieved 2008-07-15. "One Nation. Race: The Power of an Illusion. New York: Oxford University Press. Jerusalem." International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(2): 185-203. Strother-Adams. Nov. Central Bureau of Statistics. No. William (1998-02-22)." International Journal of the History of Sport 2008 25(2): 204-223 ^ Ethan R. "Return to the Melting Pot: An Old American Olympic Story. Italians and Irish of New York City (2nd ed.^ Judy Rohrer. eds. Dealing with Diversity. Shlomo. ^ Karen Dawisha and Bruce Parr. School House Rock. Edna and Yitzhaki. Retrieved 2008-07-15. Automobile in American Life and Society. ^ a b Glazer. 190 ^ W. ^ a b c Milton. ISBN 0-19-500896-0.

39 .

Ma Pa Kettle Masticating Arrogant Propaganda Alternating Karma Eternal Tyrannical Tranquility Lava Equilibrium Heads in a Stew 40 .

W. Now. Smith claims the contemporary model forms alliances necessary to develop and control wealth. as peripheral nations remain impoverished providers of cheap resources for the imperial-centers-of-capital. 41 . Smith claims fewer than 500 people possess more wealth than half of the earth’s population. under modern Capitalism. while roughly the other "half" owned and controlled the means of production. during the British Enclosures.NWO Unanimously Subscribe US 1Planet I People 1 Spirit 1 Force 1 Law 1 Sense NWO My Way AYENWO AYE Agreed You’re Evil My Way Cold War Heats Up Implicit Complicit Explicit ICE Imperialist Capitalist Emperors Like other financial empires in history. as the wealth of 1/2 of 1-percent of the United States population roughly equal that of the lower 90-percent.[1] Belloc estimated that. J. "perhaps half of the whole population was proletarian".

http://www.com/doc/62297204/On-Realizing-the-Debts-Incurred-by-the-Satanic-Theirs-ShouldBe-Enough-to-Make-Even-the-Anti-Christ-Convert-to-Believing-in-God PRICK I FIBIB PEOPLETRONS 13 Planet Earth One Populous Levitation Electromagnetic Transcendental Retrospect Natural Sciences www.com 42 .peopletrons13.scribd.scribd.com/doc/106684083/Satanic-Al-Capone-Genocidal-Crime-Boss-Case-SetPrecedence-Organized-Crime-Corporation-Persons-Can-Be-Taken-Down-for-Life-Under-theAuspices-of-Tax-Evasion http://www.