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BASIC SOIL

MECHANICS
Prof.(Dr.) SUDHENDU SAHA
Chartered Professional Engineer
Civil Structural Geotechnical Consultant
Formerly
Professor and Head of The Dept. of Civil
Engineering,
DEAN of Research Consultancy &
Industry Institute Interaction,
Bengal Engineering and Science
University, Sibpur


SOIL IS A COMPLEX MIXTURE
OF


PARTICLES OF DIFFERENT SIZES
DIFFERENT ORIGIN
DIFFERENT MINERALS
DIFFERENT PROCESS OF FORMATION
DIFFERENT STRESS HISTORY
SOIL AS THREE PHASE SYSTEM
VOID RATIO ,
MOISTURE CONTENT,
DENSITY
PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
UNIFORMITY COEEFICIENT
EFFECTIVE SIZE
COEFFICIENT OF CURVATURE
% OF SAND SILT & CLAY
Soil Classification
based on particle sizes :

Boulder over 300 mm
Cobble 80 to 300
Gravel 4.75 to 80
Coarse Sand 2.00 to 4.75
Medium Sand 0.425 to 2.00
Fine Sand 0.075 to 0.425
Silt 0.075 to 0.002
Clays < 0.002 mm

Soil Classification according to Plasticity I ndex of clayey soils :
Plasticity Index Classified as
0 Non-Plastic
< 7 Low Plastic
7 17 Medium Plastic
> 17 Highly Plastic
when, Plasicity Index = Liquid Limit Plastic Limit
BROAD CLASSIFICATION OF SOILS

COARSE GRAINED SOILS
GW, GP, GM, GC
SW, SP, SM, SC

FINE GRAINED SOILS
ML, CL, OL
MI, CI, OI
CH, OH, Pt
SOIL INVESTIGATION
PLANNING SOIL INVESTIGATION
PROGRAMME

DEPTH & NUMBER OF BORE
HOLES
BORING & SAMPLING
FIELD TESTS OF SOILS
STANDARD PENETRATIUON
TESTS
VANE SHEAR TEST
PLATE LOAD TEST
PLANNING SOIL
EXPLORATION PROGRAM
DEPTH OF BORE HOLES
STANDARD PENETRATION
TEST



N-Value vs Angle of Internal
Friction of Soil
STATIC CONE
PENETRATION TEST
Angle of Internal Friction of Soil
Static Cone Resistance
VS
Angle of Internal Friction Of Soils
LABORATORY TESTS OF SOILS



PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION
TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS

CONSOLIDATION TEST
SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF SOILS

ATTERBERGS LIMITS

PROCTORS COMPACTION
TEST

TRIAXIAL SHEAR TESTS
TYPICAL MOHR-COULOMB FAILURE CURVE
COULOMBS EQUATION
S = C + (o - u) tan|

FAILURE CRITERIA
t > S
RELATIONSHIP OF PRICIPAL STRESSES AND
SHEAR PARAMETERS
o
1
= o
3
tan
2
(45
0
+ | / 2 ) + 2C tan (45
0
+
|/2)
TYPICAL COMPACTION CURVES
COMPACTION
CHARACTERISTICS OF FINE
GRAINED SOILS
COMPACTION CURVE FOR SANDS
DETERMINATION OF STRESSES
AT DIFFRRENT DEPTHS BELOW
FOUNDATION LEVEL
CONTACT PRESSURE DISTRIBUTION
BELOW FOUNDATION
DETERMINATION OF VERTICAL
STRESS AT ANY DEPTH BELOW
UNIFORMLY LOADED
RECTANGULAR AREA
VERTICAL STRESS AT ANY POINT
BELOW UNIFORMLY LOADED
CIRCULAR AREA
NEWMARK CHART
DETERMINATION OF STRESSES AT
DIFFERENT DEPTHS BELOW
FOUNDATION AREA OF ANY SHAPE
IMMEDIATE SETTLEMENT
4
2
1
) ( I
E
qb average S
e

=
CONSOLIDATION SETTLEMENT
S
c
= . E h . m
v
. Ap

0
0
0
ln
1 p
p p
C
e
h
S
c c
A +
+
=
MODES OF SHEAR FAILURE
BELOW FOOTING
ENGINEERING APPRECIATION
PERFORMANCE CRITERIA
EFFECTS OF TOTAL AND
DIFFERENTIAL SETTLEMENTS
SEISMIC RESPONSE OF SOILS
(a) In Seismic Coefficient Method : o
h
= |. I .o
0
(b) In response Spectrum Method : o
h
= |. I. F
0
Sa /g
HORIZONTAL SEISMIC
COEFFICIENT
SHEAR WAVE VELOCITY
LIQUEFACTION
FACTOR OF SAFETY AGAINST
LIQUEFACTION
F.S. = CRR / CSR
SEISMIC EFFECTS ON STRUCTURES
WITH UNEVEN LOADS
DESIGN OF SHALLOW
FOUNDATIONS
LOCATING NEW FOUNDATION
NEAR EXISTING FOUNDATION
EFFECT OF STRESS FROM ONE
FOUNDATION TO ANOTHER
SPECIAL FOUNDATIONS
TYPICAL FOUNDATIONS
FOR
OIL STORAGE TANKS
REINFORCED EARTH
FOUNDATIONS
GEOSYNTHETICS
APPLICATIONS
REINFORCEMENTS
SEPARATION
EROSION CONTROL
FILTRATION
DRAINAGE
TRANSMISSION
IMPROVEMENT OF
BEARING CAPACITY
INTERACTION OF REINFORCEMENT
WITH FAILURE WEDGES
MODES OF FAILURE
SHEAR FAILURE OF SOIL AGAINST
REINFORCEMENT
REINFORCEMENT PULLOUT
FAILURE
REINFORCEMENT TENSION
FAILURE
TYPICAL SECTION OF A
REINFORCED EARTH
RETAINING WALL
TYPICAL SECTION OF A
REINFORCED EARTH BRIDGE
ABUTMENT
DESIGN OF
MACHINE FOUNDATIONS
MODES OF VIBRATION
DESIGN CRITERIA
THEORY OF VIBRATION
DYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF
SOILS
VIBRATION ISOLATION
GROUND IMPROVEMENT
METHODS
COMPACTION
DENSIFICATION
STABILISATION
GROUTING
USE OF
GEOSYNTHETICS
PRELOADING WITH
VERTICAL DRAINS
IMPROVEMENT OF SOFT
CLAY SOILS
USE OF VERTICAL
DRAINS
FOLLOWED BY
VERTICAL DRAINS LIKE
1. SAND DRAINS
2. SAND WICKS
3. PREFABRICATED DRAINS
4. STONE COLUMNS
THEORETICAL
CONSIDERATIONS
U% = f(T)
U
r
= C
vr
.t / d
e
2

U
v
= C
v.t
/ d
e
2

U = 1 - ( 1- U
r
) (1-U
v
)
TIME FACTOR
VS
DEGREE OF
CONSOLIDATION
DESIGN AND
CONSTRUCTION OF
STONE COLUMNS
LOAD TRANSFER
MECHANISM IN PILE AND
STONE COLUMN
LOAD BEARING CAPACITY
OF STONE COLUMN
( )
|

t
N C K
q
Z K
d
P
s
u
. 4 2 1
3 4
.
0 0
2
(

+ + + =
LOAD BEARING CAPACITY OF
TREATED GROUND
( )
A
P q A A
q
safe s p
safe
+
=
SETTLEMENT ANALYSIS OF
GROUND TREATED WITH
STONE COLUMNS
PILE FOUNDATIONS

RANGE OF APPLICATIONS
TYPES OF PILES
CONSTRUCTION METHODS
EFFECTS OF INSTALLATION
NEGATIVE SKIN
FRICTION
LOAD BEARING
CAPACITY OF PILES
ULTIMATE LOAD CAPACITY
Q
u
= Q
p
+ Q
f

Q
p
= A
p
{N
c
C
p
+ P
d
N
q
+ 0.5 d N

}

Q
f
= t d E { o C l + K l P
z
tano }
BEARING CAPACITY
FACTOR N
9

PILE GROUP CAPACITY
PILE GROUP MAY AFFECT THE
SOIL STRATA AT DEPTH
INTERACTION BETWEEN PILES
IN A GROUP