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Fluid Machinery | Centrifugal Pumps

# Fluid Machinery | Centrifugal Pumps

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Fluid Machinery | Centrifugal Pumps
Fluid Machinery | Centrifugal Pumps

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# Fluid Machinery

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CHAPTERS
Home Topics Chapter 1 : General Concepts Chapter 2 : Pelton Turbine Chapter 3 : Francis and Kaplan Turbine Chapter 4 : Centrifugal Pumps Chapter 5 : Similarity Relations and Performance Characteristics Chapter 6 : Reciprocating Pumps Chapter 7 : Hydraulic devices and Systems

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Chapter 4 : Centrifugal Pumps

Q. 1. Classify hydraulic pumps. Ans. Pumps may bi placed in one of the two general categories. (i) Dynamic pressure pumps: centrifugal pump, jet pump, propeller, and turbine. (ii) Positive, displacement pump: Piston plunger, gear, lab, vane, screw etc. Q. 2. Distinguish between the positive and nonpositive displacement pumps. Ans. Positive displacement pump: It causes a fluid to move by trapping a fixed amount of it then forcing (displacing) that trapped volume into the discharge pipe. E.g. Lobe, gear, screw, vage pump etc. Non-positive displacement pump (rotodynamic pump) - It is pump in which the dynamic motion of a fluid is increased by pump action. e.g. centrifugal, turbine, propeller etc. Q. 3. What is the principle of working of a Centrifugal Pump? Ans. It is very clear that the principle used for centrifugal pump is the centrifugal force in the form of dynamic pressure which is generated by rotary motion of one or more rotating wheels called the impellers. Q. 4. Sketch layout installation and label it. Ans. of a centrifugal pump

Q. 5. Distinguish between volute casing and vortex casing in a centrifugal pump. Ans. Volute casing—This is a spiral shaped whose area of cross-section gradually increases towards the delivery pipe. The velocity of liquid decreases as area increases along the path of flow. This arrangement converts K.E. into pressure energy. The efficiency of this casing is less than others. Larger amount of energy is lost due to formation of eddies.

Fig. Different types of casings. Vortex casing—When a circular chamber is introduced between the impeller and casing, the casing is known as vortex casing. In this case, the liquid from the impeller enters into the vortex chamber and then through the volute chamber, in this arrangement, the eddy loss is

volute chamber, in this arrangement, the eddy loss is considerably reduced and the efficiency of conversion from K.E. into pressure energy is increased as compared with volute casing. Q. 6. Explain different types of impellers used in centrifugal pump with neat sketch. Ans. (1) Closed, semi—closed and open impellers in the closed impellers the vanes are covered with side plates (shrouds) on both sides. The back shroud is mounted into shaft and front shroud is coupled to the former by the vanes. The arrangement provides a smooth passage for the liquid; wear is reduced to minimum. This ensures full capacity operation with high efficiency for a prolonged running period.

Fig. (,) Open (ii) Semi-open (iii) Enclosed Semi-open impeller has a plate only on back side. The design is adopted to industrial pump problems which required a rugged pump to handle liquids containing fibrous material such as paper pulp, sugar molasses and sewage water etc. in open impeller, no shroud or plate is provided on either side i.e., the vanes are open on both sides. Such pumps are used where the pump has a very rough duty to perform i.e. to handle abrasive liquids etc. (ii) Axial, Radial and mixed flow impellers—In the axial flow pumps, the head is developed by the propelling or lift action of the vanes on the liquid which enters the impeller axially and discharges axially

16. as the velocity increases efficiency also increases Q. What do you understand by characteristic curves of single stage centrifugal pump? . How is the minimum starting speed of a centrifugal pump computed? Ans. Liquid is trapped between the impeller vanes. 14. The air is removed and that portion is filled with the liquid to be pumped. N Where = Manometric efficiency = whirl velocity = diameters Q. There is usually a sligh slippage of the fluid with respect to the blade rotation. If ) is called as slip.When > 90° the speed is slow = 90° the speed is medium <90 0 the speed is high We know that efficiency depends upon the velocity. 15. Q. So there is no assurance that the actual fluid will follow the blade shape and leave the impeller in a radial direction. The filling of suction pipe. 17. impeller casing and delivery pipe upto delivery valve by the liquid from outside source before starting the pump is known as priming. is reduced to then ( Slip factor Q. The expression is given by: Starting speed. What compressor? is ‘slip factor’ of centrifugal Ans. What is priming of centrifugal pump? Ans.

For plotting curves of manometric head versus speed. However when the pump is run at conditions different from design conditions. 1. A centrifugal pump works under its maximum efficiency conditions. Performance characteristics of a pump fall into following categories. discharges or powers. . 1. heads. power and discharge with respect to speed as shown in figure (a). Constant efficiency or muschel curves 4. tests are usually conducted.curves of single stage centrifugal pump? Ans. Constant head and constant discharge curves. Therefore to predict the behavior of the pump under varying conditions of speeds. it performs differently. So characteristic curves of centrifugal pumps are defined as those curves which are plotted from the results of a number of tests on the centrifugal pump. Main characteristic curves—The main characteristic curves of a centrifugal pump consist of a variation of head (Hm). Operating characteristic curves 3. Main characteristic curves 2.

For plotting curves of manometric head versus speed.e. the points are obtained and protected. Q. manometric head (Hm) is kept constant and for plotting the curves between power and speed the manometric head and discharge are kept constant. depict the performance of a pump over its entire range Constant efficiency curves of a pump of operation. Data for plotting these curves is obtained from main characteristic curves i. Points corresponding to one efficiency. 2. Operating characteristic curves-The curves plotted from the results of a number of tests on a pump while running at its design speed are referred as characteristic curves. discharge is kept constant. As shown in figure (b) for particular efficiency a horizontal line is drawn which intersects the curves for different pump speeds on the Q plot. power and head with respect to discharge. Q curve for corresponding speeds. Like wise for another value of efficiency. These are plotted for only one speed. Vs. are . For plotting curves of discharge versus speed. From the points of intersection the corresponding discharge valves are obtained. (b) shows the operating characteristic curves of a pump. Constant efficiency curves or Muschel curves—The constant curves are also called the ISO-efficiency curves. This information is thus transferred to H Vs. Fig. Q and H Vs. The curves indicate the rotation between efficiency.

Assuming the flow velocity to be constant.work input .protected. are smoothly joined to get a constant efficiency curve. of the impeller for points 1 and 2 Energy at inlet = energy at outlet . Constant head and constant discharge curves-The performance of a variable speed pump for which the speed constantly varies can be determined by these curves. 18. Curves of a centrifugal pump Q. A cure for best performance is obtained when peak points to various ISO — efficiency curves are joined. B and C are constants. 4. Ans. prove that manometric head of a centrifugal pump running at speed N and having discharge Q can be expressed as Where A. Points corresponding to one efficiency. Applying Bernoull’s equation between inlet and outlet edges respectively. Fig. Constant efficiency curves help to locate the regions where the pump would operate with maximum efficiency.

And . Neglecting gravitational effects. and assuming radial entry of water As derived above. (1) (2) Invoking the trigonometrical relationship.work input Pressure rise From the outlet velocity vector. any friction losses.Energy at inlet = energy at outlet . and simplifying Assuming radial entry of fluid.

19. Show that the pressure rise in the impeller of a centrifugal pump where friction and other losses in the pump are neglected is given by Provided flow is radial at inlet. We have Given And So [ w=pg] Hence proved.20. b = Also So Hence proved Q. Set up the following relation for increase in pressure head across the impeller of a centrifugal pump. velocity of flow is constant through-out and outlet angle of impeller vane is 45°. Q. No.Presuming that velocity of flow remains constant Where a (1 + k). . Solution. Refer to Q.

. Centrifugal pump consists of two or more impellers. Explain mixed flow centrifugal pumps. 3.Multistage centrifugal pump for high discharge or impellers in parallel. and 2 refer to inlet and outlet Solution.Where u is peripheral velocity. the pump is called a multistage centrifugal pump. 1. The subscripts 1 parameters. Ans. The Euller equation for theoretical head generated by centrifugal impeller By Bernoulli’s equation between (suffix 1) and outer (suffix 2) edge of the impeller. 21. H= Hence =H- = increase in piezometric head (hence proved) Q. Multistage centrifugal pump for high heads or impellers in series. is the relative velocity.Impellers in series—For developing a high head a number of impellers are mounted in series or on the same shaft as shown in figure below. y is datum height and P is pressure. 2. There are two types of arrangements.

= = 3. Each of the pumps lifts the water from a common pump and discharges water to a common pipe to which the delivery pipes of each pump is connected. (ii) Impellers in parallel—For obtaining high discharge the pumps can be connected in parallel. Pumps in parallel. Total discharge =nQ 1. Each of the pump is working against the same head. Fig. of impellers in series. Total head developed= n × Where n = no. Total external Head= 4. Monometric. Torque = = Energy Transfer.Fig. . So at outlet of 2nd impeller pressure of water will be more. 2. Two-stage pumps with impellers in series. The water from suction pipe enters the 1st impellers at inlet and discharged at outlet with increased pressure. The water then from 1st impeller taken to inlet of the 2nd impeller with the help of connecting pipe. NPSH (Net Positive Suction Head) = 6. = = 5. Head. Suction Head. Delivery Head.

Vane angle at inlet 2. Manometric efficiency.9 watt = 31 .62 = (Take p = 1000 kg/ ) Power = 31612. The velocity of flow through the impeller is constant and equal to 2. A centrifugal pump is required to lift water against total head of 40 m at the rate of 50. Solution: Given N = 1000 r. Problem 2.liters per second. works against a total head of 40 m.6.p.612 KW Ans.m. Find the power of the pump.5 m/s. = 0.m.. determine. A centrifugal pump having outer diameter equal to two times the inner diameter and running at 1000 r. Q= 50 = Overall eff. Work done by impeller on water per second 3. We know that = 62% = 0. Solution: Given Head. if the overall efficiency is 62%. If the outer diameter of the impeller is 50 mm and width at the outlet is 50 mm. . Torque = = Energy Transfer.62 liters/second Overall efficiency. 1. Problem 1.p. The vanes are set back at an angel of 40° at outlet. H=40 m Discharge.

05 x From inlet velocity triangle.191 48’ (2) Work done by impeller on water per second .50 m Inner dia.09 m/s = =26.25 m width at outlet = 50 mm = 0.191 = = 0. =40 m = 2.18 m/s Discharge is given by.05 m =13.Head.50 x 0. tan = 0.5m/s = 40° Velocity of flow. = =0. Vane angle at outlet. Q 2. = 500 mm = 0. of impeller.5 (1)Vane angle at inlet = x 0.

18- = = =2.832 Flow velocity at impeller outlet . = 45. Problem 3.979 = 23.979 = 26. The pump runs at 1450 rpm and delivers 0. Solution: Peripheral velocity of impeller at outlet. we have 26. A centrifugal pump impeller has diameter of 60 cm and width of 6 cm at the outlet.8 against a head of 80 m.53 m/s Total quantity of water flowing through the impeller (Q+q) =0.But from outlet velocity triangle.2 m/s Substituting this value of in equation We get the work done by impeller as x 23.18 — 2.9 Nm/s Ans. The leakage loss after the impeller is 4% of discharge.18 = 119227.8 =0. the power required and the overall efficiency of the pump.8+0. Determine the blade angle at outlet. the external mechanical loss is 10 kW and hydraulic efficiency is 80%.2 X 26.04x0.

8= 221.Flow velocity at impeller outlet = ==7.06° Ideal head = 100 m Rotor or impeller power = w (Q + q) x 100) x = = (9810 x 0. 0. (3.546m =3.2 kW Shaft power = rotor power + mechanical losses .832 = 816.258) = 17.36 m/s Fig.258 Vane angle of impeller outlet. Velocity vector diagrams of a centrifugal impeller .

9888 = Volumetric efficiency. determine (i) Power of the pump (ii) Manometric head.8 x 0. Dia.4 x . Solution: 1. A three stage centrifugal pump has impellers 40 cm in diameter and 2 cm wide at outlet. =0.02262 Manometric efficiency.961 x 0.988 = 0.76 or 76% Problem 4. = 90% = 0.p. If the pump delivers 50 liters per second when running at 1000 r. 3. Area of flow at outlet 0. = 0.1% Now.9 x 0.02 m = 45° = 10% = 0. area by 10%.88% efficiency 0.961=96.02 = 0.2 + 10 = 826. Assume manometric efficiency as 90% and overall efficiency as 80%. =N 1000 r.40 m = 2 cm = 0. Number of stages n 2. Reduction in area at outlet 6.m. =3 =40 cm = 0.. Width at outlet. = 80% = 0.1 = 0.m.80 Speed. 4. of impeller at outlet.90 Overall efficiency.2kW Mechanical 98.9 x 0. The vane angle at out is 45° and reduce the circumferential.p. Vane angle at outlet. overall efficiency. 5.Shaft power = rotor power + mechanical losses = 816.

98m For total head generated by pump = n x =3x35.m. Peripheral . Discharge Q = 50 liters/s = 0.73 m/s 10.05 /s Velocity of flow at outlet = = Tangential velocity of impeller at outlet =2.p.98=107.94 — 2.21m/s 2.21m/s =20.21 = 20. The pump delivers water at the rate of 90 /min.94m Power outlet of the pump = = 52. =N 1000 r.Speed.21 = 18. The head raised by is 72 m and the speed is 900 rpm.90 = =35. This diameter of the impeller of a centrifugal pump is 800 mm.94 kW We have So =66.175kW Shaft power = Problem 5.94 m/s From velocity triangle at outlet 2.

8 Q =90 /min H =72m N = 900 r. The leakage loss is 2. shaft power = Rotor power + mechanical losses = w (Q + q) Hi + mechanical losses = 9810 (1.69- = 110. (Q + q) 90 + 90× /s 92.108 m of water So.by is 72 m and the speed is 900 rpm. Solution: Given: m D = 800 mm = 0.69 Total quantity of water through impeller.85 m/s Theoretical head = water Total head against shaft has to work = 37. m/s = 37.168 + 30 x . 5.m.53 Whirl component of velocity. Find the power input and the overall efficiency of the pump.3 The vanes of the impeller are curved back at 30° to the tangential direction.53) x 94.1 cot 30° =28.84 m of = 72 + 110.p.84 x = 94.5%. Leakage loss = 2. Peripheral velocity. Peripheral area of the outlet is 0. the input head is reduced by 20% kW.5% Loss in input head = 20% of theoretical head Mechanical losses = 30 kW Now.25 /min = 1..53 We know = 1.

039% Hydraulic efficiency. Discharge Solution: Outer diameter. Angle made by the absolute velocity at outlet with the direction of motion at outlet 4.53) x 94.= 9810 (1.m. = 0. 0.3%.623 = 62. and is working against a total head of 15 m.95% Overall efficiency. = 98. The pump is running at 800 r. Width at outlet. Velocity of water leaving this vane 3.92% Volumetric efficiency. N = 400 mm = 0.39 kW Mechanical efficiency.9792 = 97. Problem 6. Velocity of flow at outlet 2. The outer diameter of an impeller of a centrifugal pump is 400 mm and outlet width 50 mm.98039 1. Determine and manometric efficiency is = 0. .6495 = = 0.p.p.6495 x 0. The vanes angle at outlet is 75%.9792 = 0. 64. Speed.4 m =50 mm = 0.168 + 30 x = 1443.m.98039 x = 0.05 m = 800 r.

Speed.80° or 19° 48’ Ans. N Head.01 the . = 800 r.45 m/s (3) Angle made by absolute velocity at outlet = 0.23 Problem 7.75 m/s 0. we have (1) (2) Velocity of water leaving the vane =12. Find the rise in pressure in the impeller of a centrifugal pump through which water is flowing at the rate of 0.m. = 75% = 0.4x0. (4) Discharge through pump is given by 0.p.36 0.75 =11.36= 19.05x4.71m/s From the outlet velocity triangle.75 Tangential velocity of impeller at outlet =16. =15m = 40° Manometric efficiency. Vane angle at outlet.

= 0.m. A centrifugal pump with 1.012 m.p.768. 1. The water enters the impeller radially at inlet and impeller vane angle at outlet. The widths of the impellers at inlet and outlet are 1. Internal dia. Given. Width at outlet 1500 r.15 m External dia.p.2 = m . Vane angle at inlet. is through the impeller. width at inlet =1. The pump is running at 1500 r.56 m/s Pressure rise Pressure rise = 28.006m. m/s Tangential velocity of impeller at outlet = =23.30 m.6 cm. Solution.internal and external diameters of. The impellers are 15 cm and 30 cm respectively. Neglect losses = 0.768m/s Velocity of flow at outlet.2 cm and 0.m. = 450 = 0. Velocity of flow at inlet. Discharge Q =10 = 0.13 m Problem 8. speed N = .

m. Problem 9.43 m/s Manometric efficiency (b) Minimum speed.5 cot 25° =0.26 m/s Also 6. Now H.p. Minimum rotational speed.56 .2. The angle which the vanes make at exit with the tangent to the impeller is 26° and radial velocity of flow is 2. = 12. N = =199.7 cm respectively.56 m/s Whirl component = 7. (iii) the actual .6 m.diameter runs at 200 r. has 7 vanes with vane angle at entry and exit equal to 16° and 30° respectively.5 cm at the inner periphery.36 r. and discharge 1880 litters/s the average lift being 6m. =6. 2 and so =6. Determine the manometric efficiency and the least speed to start pumping against a head of 6 m. (ii) the theoretical head developed. Calculate: (i) the theoretical discharge for shockless entrance. the corresponding dimensions at the outer periphery are 20 cm and 1.m.5 m/s. the inner diameter of the impeller being 0. The pump runs at 1500 rpm.p. (a) Peripheral or tangential velocity of impeller at outlet.63 or 63%.26 =12. The impeller of a centrifugal pump has a diameter of 10cm and breadth 3. Ans.

85 m/s.71 x 0.746 x (1 .09 m Power required to drive the pump.86 m The hydraulic losses are = — 0. (iii) the actual head produced.71 x0746 x 0. Solution. For the nomenclature and velocity vector diagrams. P = 18.746 The actual head produced is H =18. The peripheral speeds are =7.71 m (iii) The slip factor can be found from the relation is = = 15. (i) From the inlet velocity triangle.85 1.7 —2.85 = 11.the theoretical head developed. the losses and the power required to drive the pump. = 1/1.25m/s x 0.34 Slip factor.69 m/s For shockless entry.035 x 2.31 m/s cot 30° = 11. Neglect the effect of vane thickness and presume that the hydraulic efficiency is 85% and the overall efficiency is 75%.70 m/s.1 x 0.85) = 2.0247 (ii) 2.25 = 0.31 = 7.34 = 0. the theoretical or Euler head given by] = 18. tan 160 = 2. = 15.

and water enters the impeller without whirl. Problem 10.33 — 25) = 8. where is the impeller diameter m. Determined (a) the impeller diameter.33 m The manometric head is losses of head in the pump.03 .m.832 kW.75 .33 =16. where m/s is the absolute velocity of water leaving the impeller.66 m/s Substituting the above value of in (i) Now from the outlet velocity triangle of Fig.68 W = 3. and (b) the vane angle at the outlet edge of the impeller Assume that 0.5 Or Or . Solution: = 33. ) .P = 3831. the loss of head in pump in meters due to fluid resistance is 0.03 =8.2. Losses in the pump = (33.33 m Thus 0. A centrifugal pump has to discharge 225 liter of water per second against a head of 25 m when the impeller rotates at a speed of 1. 24. p. t1 area of the impeller outlet surface is (1.500 r.

Ans. Given: Speed. The internal and external diameter of the impeller of a centrifugal pump which is running at 1000 rpm are 200 mm and 400mm respectively.42 m/s = [2.p.) and 30 m (abs.90 — 16.93 m/s. of suction pipe. Q Velocity of flow.186 kW (a) Vane angle of the impeller at inlet. The diameters of the suction and delivery pipes are 150 mm and 100 mm respectively and suction and delivery heads are 6m (abs.) of water respectively.04 and velocity of flow is constant and equal to 2.42)] = 0. Dia.= 0. N Internal dia.93/ (19..m.2 m = 400 mm 0. Thus And =2. = 200 mm = 0. The discharge through the pump is 0.2534 m or 253.90 m/s Problem 11.8420 = 19.4 mm.15 m .0 m/s. Discharge. If the outlet vane angle is 45° and the power required to determine: derive the pump is 16. External dia. = 16. (b) The overall efficiency of the pump and (c) Manometric efficiency of the pump. = 1000 r..04 = 150 mm = 0.4 m = 0.

15 m = 100 mm 0. Outlet vane angle. of suction pipe. Delivery head.P.) 30m (abs.47 m/s = 0. Dia.10 m = 6 m (abs.191 = 10°48’ Ans.02424 Now is given by equation as … (2) Where = 30 m = Velocity head at outlet of pump = = Pressure head at outlet of pump .186/ kW (a) Vane angle of the impeller at inlet From inlet velocity.Dia.) = 45° Power required to drive the pump.191 or . of delivery pipe. … (1) = 0. P = 16. = Power required to derive the pump and equal to P here. we have tan Where =10. Suction head. = 150 mm = 0. (b) Overall efficiency of the pump We know Where S.

we get = .9m/s And 2.6074 60. Solution. The vane angles of the impeller at inlet and outlet are 20° and 30° respectively. If as then equation (ii) becomes … (3) Now =5. Determine the work done by the impeller per unit weight of water.74%.26) = 31.26 25. The internal and external diameters of the impeller of a centrifugal pump are 200 mm and 400 mm respectively. . The pump is running at 1200 rpm.= Pressure head at inlet of pump = =6 m = Velocity head at inlet of pump = = Vertical height of outlet and inlet of pump from datum line. Problem 12. Substituting the value of in equation (i). we get = = (30+ 132) — (6 + . Ans.06 m.32— 6.26 m/s Substituting these values in equation (iii).06 = 0.02424 x 25. The water enters the impeller radially and velocity of flow is constant.

= 200 mm = 0.13 .56 x tan 20 4.915 = 17. =12.13 - = 7. a 90°.215 m/s The work done per kg per second = 44.7.2 m External diameter. = 30° =0 Water enters rodially means.13 m/s From inlet triangle.56m/s = 25. =12.915 = 25. Velocity of flow.Internal diameter.1 Nm/s .57 m/s = 4. N = 1200 rpm Vane angle at inlet.57 m/s 25. = 400 mm = 0. = 20° Vane angle at outlet.4 m Speed.56 tan = 12.

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