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CU TO V NGUYN L HOT NG CA BM LY TM

09:07 ng bi: Bo dng c kh Mc bi vit: Bm ly tm - Centrifugal Pump 1. Cu to ca bm ly tm: Xt s kt cu ca mt bm ly tm n gin trn hnh sau y, ta thy bm ly tm gm c cc b phn ch yu sau : Bnh cng tc: kt cu c 3 dng chnh l cnh m hon ton, m mt phn v cnh kn. Bnh cng tc c lp trn trc ca bm cng vi cc chi tit khc c nh vi trc to nn phn quay ca bm gi l Rto. Bnh cng tc c c bng gang hoc thp theo phng php c chnh xc. Cc b mt cnh dn v a bnh cng tc yu cu c nhn tng i cao (tam gic 3 n 6) gim tn tht. Bnh cng tc v Rto ca bm u phi c cn bng tnh v cn bng ng khi lm vic bnh cng tc khng c xt vo thn bm. Trc bm: thng c ch to bng thp hp kim v c lp vi bnh cng tc thng qua mi ghp then. B phn dn hng vo. Hai b phn ny thuc thn bm thng B phn dn hng ra (bung xon c) c bng gang c hnh dng tng i phc tp. ng ht. Hai loi ng ny c th lm bng gang c, tn hn hoc cao su. ng y.

Hnh 1: Cc b phn ca bm ly tm

Mt s dng ca bnh cng tc ca bm ly tm thng c s dng

Hnh 2: Cc dng bnh cng tc

2. Nguyn l hot ng ca bm ly tm : Trc khi bm lm vic, cn phi lm cho thn bm (trong c bnh cng tc) v ng ht c in y cht lng, thng gi l mi bm . Khi bm lm vic, bnh cng tc quay, cc phn t cht lng trong bnh cng tc di nh hng ca lc ly tm b vng t trong ra ngoi, chuyn ng theo cc mng dn v i vo ng y vi p sut cao hn, l qu trnh y ca bm. ng thi, li vo ca bnh cng tc to nn vng c chn khng v di tc dng ca p sut trong b cha ln hn p sut li vo ca bm, cht lng b ht lin tc b y vo bm theo ng ht, l qu trnh ht ca bm. Qu trnh ht v y ca bm l qu trnh lin tc, to nn dng chy lin tc qua bm. B phn dn hng ra (thng c dng xon c nn cn gi l bung xon c) dn cht lng t bnh cng tc ra ng y c iu ha, n nh v cn c tc dng bin mt phn ng nng ca dng chy thnh p nng cn thit.

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Cc bi lin quan
Hin tng Surge my nn v cch kim sot
13:36 ng bi: Bo dng c kh Mc bi vit: My nn ly tm Cc my nn -tuabin, hoc ly tm hoc hng trc, l tri tim ca nhiu qu trnh cng ngh. Thng thng, cc my nn l quan trng i vi hot ng ca cc nh my, nhng vn him khi chng c lp t thm mt my d phng. Vn xung ng "Surging" l mt mi e da ln cho cc my nn v qu trnh cng ngh. Ngn nga Surge l mt iu quan trng trong qu trnh kim sot cng ngh khi m surging c th cho tng chi ph do ngng my v gy ph hy v c kh cho cc my nn. Mt h thng kim sot anti-Surge hiu qu l rt quan trng cho mi turbocompressor.

Surging l g
Nhiu ngi cho rng, surging l tng t hin tng xm thc my bm ly tm, nhng thc ra khng phi l vy. Surging c nh ngha nh l s t dao ng ca p sut ca x v tc dng, bao gm mt s o ngc dng. Mi my nn ly tm hoc hng trc c mt s kt hp ca cc c tnh p sut cc i v dng ti thiu. Ngoi im ny, surging s xy ra. Trong thi gian surging, mt dng o ngc thng km theo mt s mt p. Surging c minh ha hay nht bng cch quan st s chuyn ng ca my nn ti thi im hot ng trn ng cong c tnh nh c hin th trong Hnh 1.

Hnh 1: ng cong c tnh ca my nn (im gch t l im vn hnh gy ra Surging)

S pht trin ca chu k Surge


Xem xt mt h thng my nn nh c hin th trong Hnh 2. p sut ca x c k hiu Pd v p dng ra bn l PV.

Figure 2: Example Compressor SystemHnh

2: V d h thng Compressor

By gi, tham kho Hnh 3, gi s rng h thng hot ng n nh ti ti im D. Nu cc nhu cu v kh gim, im vn hnh s c chuyn hng v im A, im Surging. Nu ti gim , im vn hnh my nn s vt qua im A. Ngoi im A, my nn s mt kh nng tng p sut ca ra nh vy m Pd s tr nn thp hn PV. y l dng chy ngc c quan st trong thi gian surging. Cc im vn hnh sau s chuyn n im B.

Figure Hnh

3: th cc im vn hnh 3: Graph of Operating Points

im B khng phi l mt im vn hnh n nh. Khi c dng chy ngc xy ra, p x s gim. iu ny gy cho im vn hnh di chuyn t im B n im C. Ti im C, tc dng chy l khng to nn p lc cn thit tr v im A. V vy, im vn hnh s di chuyn n im D, ni tc dng chy vt qu ti yu cu v p sut hnh thnh cho n khi n im A. iu ny hon thnh mt chu k Surg. Cc chu k tip theo c bt u li vi mt dng chy ngc khc v qu trnh lp cho n khi mt ngoi lc ph v cc chu k Surge.

HU QU CA SURGING
Hu qu ca Surging c th bao gm: 1. Cc dao ng nhanh v p sut v dng gy ra qu trnh cng ngh khng n nh 2. Tng nhit bn trong cc my nn 3. Lm ngng my nn 4. Ph hy v c kh Ph hy v c kh:

* Bc mang ti trong giai on u tin ca surging. Mt bn ti c t trn rotor tc ng vung gc vi trc. *Bc chn mang ti do c ti v khi khng ti. * Seal c s c xt * Cc b phn ng v tnh c th chm nhau khi bc chn b qu ti.
KIM SOT Anti-Surge
Cch duy nht ngn nga surging l tun hon Recycle hay tho x blow down mt phn ca dng my nn gi n xa khi gii hn Surging. Tht khng may, dng kh b sung ny li nh hng n vn hiu qu kinh t. V vy, vic kim sot h thng phi c kh nng xc nh mt cch chnh xc cc im hot ng ca my nn nh l im cung cp dng Recycle y , nhng khng qu nhiu.

Mt ng gii hn Surge (Surge Limit Line SLL) l ng kt ni cc im Surge khc nhau cc tc khc nhau. Ci t im kim sot anti-surge c th hin trn biu my nn trong Hnh 4 l mt ng m chy song song

vi ng gii hn Surge SLL. ng ny c gi l ng kim sot Surge (SCL). B kim sot s c th tnh ton lch t cc im vn hnh n SCL.

Figure 4: Compressor Operating MapHnh

4: Biu hot ng ca my nn

Gii hn Surge my nn khng c nh i vi bt k bin c o nh t l nn hoc mt p khi qua lu tc k. Thay vo , n l mt hm phc tp trong s ph thuc vo cc thnh phn kh, tc quay, nhit v p sut ca ht. Mt vng lp ng kim sot PI s khng th ngn chn Surge trong thi gian nhiu lon ln hoc nhanh. V vy, mt s kim sot nh vy s khng th stop Surge. Thay vo , cch kim sot n gin s l chu k m v ng ca van tun hon Recycle p ng li chu k Surge lin tip. kim sot mt PI tc ng mt cch nhanh chng, gi tr "b" cn phi cao. iu ny s cho kt qu gim vng vn hnh ca my nn xung khi van Recycle c ng li. Do , mt vng lp kim sot m c s dng kt hp cng vi mt vng lp ng kim sot anti-Surge. Tng th cu hnh c hin th trong Hnh 5. Mt ng ngt tun hon Recycle Trip Line (RTL) s c s dng gia cc SLL v SCL. S nhiu lon chm v nh c qun l bi vng lp kim sot ng m gi cho im vn hnh ca my nn tin n bn phi ca ng RTL. i vi nhiu lon ln v nhanh, cim vn hnh ca my nn s tip cn ti ng RTL. Ti thi im ny, vng lp kim sot m s c bt u. iu ny s thm mt bc thay i l mt chc nng ca im vn hnh my nn vo lc ny s tin ti RTL. Theo cch ny, m van nhanh chng s dng Surging. B chuyn i khuch i cng c s dng trong kim sot chng Surge. Khi cc im vn hnh di chuyn nhanh hng ti ng SCL, b khuych i ny s di chuyn SCL hng v im vn hnh.

Figure 5: Compressor Anti-SurHnh

5: S kim sot Anti-surge ge Control Scheme

Yu cu i vi van chng Surge (Anti-Surge Valve)


1. Van phi ln ngn chn surging di mi iu kin hot ng. Tuy nhin, mt van qu ln s lm cho lm vic km.

2. Tc hnh trnh - tc hnh trnh p ng nhanh l rt quan trng. Thi gian chy ht hnh trnh van c ngh nh sau Close to Open Time Open to Close Time 1 second <> 2 seconds <> 3 seconds <>

Size 1" to 4" 6" to 12" 16" and up

3. m bo cung cp y kh nn cho van hot ng tt. 4. Tubing chy nn c ti thiu thi gian tr. <!--[if !supportLineBreakNewLine]-->5. Mt my nn tng p lng kh nn yu cu m bo p ng nhanh chng v cn bng nhau thi gian m v ng van. 6. Van s m hon ton khi b li

5 phng php bo tr quan trng trong cng nghip

16:14 ng bi: Bo dng c kh Mc bi vit: Qun l bo tr Bo tr v cc phng php ca n c tm quan trng c bit trong cng nghip. Trong bi ny, chng ta s i tm hiu hu ht cc phng php quan trng bao gm: bo tr phc hi, bo tr phng nga, bo tr c hi, bo tr da trn tnh trng v bo tr d on. Bo tr phc hi: Phng php bo dng ny cng c t tn bo tr cha chy (fire-fighting maintenance) hay bo dng da trn h hng (failure based maintenance or breakdown maintenance). Khi phng php bo tr phc hi c p dng, bo tr khng c thc hin cho n khi xy ra s h hng. y c coi l mt phng php kh thi trong trng hp li nhun ln. Tuy nhin, ging nh cha chy, loi bo tr ny thng xuyn gy ra thit hi nghim trng cho thit b phng tin, con ngi v mi trng. Hn na, vi s cnh tranh ton cu v mc li nhun nh buc cc nh qun l bo tr phi p dng phng php bo dng hiu qu v ng tin cy hn. Bo tr phng nga: phng php ny da trn c im tin cy cc thnh phn ca thit b. D liu c th dng phn tch cch thc h hng ca cc thnh phn my v cho php cc k s bo tr xc nh mt chng trnh bo dng nh k cho n. Cc chnh sch bo tr phng nga c gng xc nh mt lot cc cng vic kim tra, thay th hoc sa i cc thnh phn ca my vi mt tn sut thc hin da trn tn sut h hng. Ni cch khc, bo tr phng nga duy tr c hiu qu ca vic khc phc cc vn lin quan n vic mi mn ca cc thnh phn my. Mt iu hin nhin rng, sau khi kim tra, khng phi lc no cng cn thit thay th cc thnh phn. duy tr hot ng phng nga, mt h thng h tr ra quyt nh l cn thit v thng rt kh xc nh khong thi gian gia hai ln bo tr hiu qu nht v thiu cc d liu lch s. Trong nhiu trng hp khi cc phng php bo dng c s dng, hu ht cc my c duy tr ng k tui th c ch. Tuy nhin, phng php ny thng dn n bo tr khng cn thit, thm ch lm h hng my nu bo tr khng ng. Bo dng C hi: c thc hin cng mt thi gian nhm thay th hay kim tra cc thnh phn khc nhau trn cng mt my hoc nh my. Loi bo tr c th ton b nh my phi shutdown ti thi gian nh thc hin cc cng vic bo tr lin quan cng mt lc. Bo tr c hi thng tin hnh theo cch m tit kim chi ph khi m t nht hai cng vic bo tr c thc hin cng mt lc. gim tng chi ph bo tr v mt sn xut. Phng php bo tr ny i hi phi c s phi hp v h tr b phn sn xut. Bo tr da trn tnh trng: quyt nh bo tr c thc hin ty thuc vo d liu o c t mt h thng cm bin. Ngy nay, mt s k thut gim st chng hn nh gim st rung ng, phn tch cht bi trn v kim tra siu m. Cc cc thng s d liu thit b c theo di c th cho cc k s bit tnh trng my, cho php cc nhn vin bo tr thc hin bo dng cn thit trc khi s h hng xy ra. Phng php ny thng c p dng cho cc my quay v my tnh tin, v d: tua bin, my bm ly tm v my nn. Tuy nhin, s hn ch cht lng v trong thu thp d liu lm gim hiu qu v chnh xc ca phng php bo tr da trn tnh trng. Bo tr d on: Khng ging nh chnh sch bo tr da trn tnh trng, bo dng d on thu thp cc d liu, thng s quan trng cn c kim sot phn tch nhm tm ra mt khuynh hng thay i c th. iu ny lm cho n c th d on khi lng gi tr kim sot t hoc vt qu gi tr ngng. Cc nhn vin bo tr sau s c th ln k hoch khi no (ty thuc vo iu kin vn hnh), cc thnh phn cn thay th hoc sa cha.