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Iain D. Boyd Dept. Aerospace Eng. University of Michigan Ann Arbor, MI Graham V. Candler Dept. Aerospace Eng. & Mech. University of Minnesota Minneapolis, MN

Hypersonic Educational Initiative

**1. Hypersonic Gas Dynamics
**

1.1 Introduction and Examples Outline (1)

1. Hypersonic Gas Dynamics (1.5 hours) 1.1 Introduction and Examples 1.2 Post-shock conditions: perfect gas vs. equilibrium gas Iteration approach for post-shock conditions Examples 1.3 Reacting gas effects: Finite-rate reactions – nonequilibrium vs. equilibrium Ionization Radiation 1.4 Transport phenomena

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Outline (2)

2. Hypersonic Aerodynamics: Pressure (1.0 hours) 2.1 Exact and approximate equilibrium gas solutions: Stagnation points Cones and wedges 2.2 Mach number independence 2.3 Newtonian and Modified Newtonian aerodynamics 2.4 Examples

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Outline (3)

3. Hypersonic Aerothermodynamics: Heat Transfer (1.0 hours) 3.1 Introduction: role of aerodynamic heating hypersonic boundary layers 3.2 Boundary layer equations, Lees-Dorodnitsyn transformation 3.3 Flat plate / wedge / cone solutions 3.4 Stagnation point solution 3.5 Transition to turbulence 3.6 Wall catalysis 3.7 Examples

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Outline (4)

4. Viscous Interactions (1.0 hours) 4.1 Leading edge interactions 4.2 Effect on high-altitude L/D; scaling for vehicles 4.3 Shock-BL interactions, shock-shock interactions 5. Thermal Protection Systems (1.0 hours) 5.1 Passive: re-radiative cooling, equilibrium wall boundary condition role of wall temperature, material properties examples 5.2 Ablative Surface ablators Pyrolyzing ablators

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Outline (5)

6. Aerothermodynamics of Hypersonic Vehicles (1.0 hours) Ballistic entry Lifting capsule re-entry: Apollo High-lift re-entry: Shuttle Aerocapture / Aerobraking Airbreathing scramjets

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**What is Hypersonic Flow?
**

• Working definition of hypersonic flow: M = (U / a) >> 1 • Hypersonic aerothermodynamic phenomena: – strong shock waves with high temperature – not calorifically perfect (variable γ) – chemical reactions – significant surface heat flux – several different types of vehicles: • missiles, space planes, capsules, air-breathers

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Hypersonic Examples: I. Missiles

• • • •

Mission: high-speed delivery of explosives Aerodynamics: slender body with blunt nose Propulsion: rockets, ramjets Examples: AMRV, SCUD, Patriot, Hy-Fly

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Hypersonic Examples: II. Space Planes

• • • •

Mission: orbital re-entry Aerodynamics: gliders with thermal protection Propulsion: none (except small control thrusters) Examples: Space Shuttle, Buran, Hermes

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Hypersonic Examples: III. Air-breathing Systems

• • • •

Missions: launch, cruise, orbital re-entry Aerodynamics: slender with integrated engines Propulsion: ram/scram-jets, rockets, turbojets Examples: X-15, NASP, X-43, X-51

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Hypersonic Examples: IV. Planetary Entry

• • • •

Missions: EDL, aero-braking, aero-capture Aerodynamics: very blunt, thick heat shield Propulsion: none (sometimes RCS) Examples: Apollo, MSL, CEV (Orion)

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**Hypersonic Vehicle Historical Overview
**

• Flight vehicles: – WAC Corporal missile (1949, M~8) – Vostok I (1961, M~25) – X-15 (1963-1967, M~7) – Space Shuttle (1981-???, M~25) – HyShot (2002, M~8) – X43 (2004, M>7) – Hy-CAUSE (2007) Recent programs without flight: – NASP, Hermes, AFE, AOTV (1990) – VentureStar-X33 (2000)

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•

Some Current Hypersonic Programs

Falcon (DARPA) HyBoLT (NASA/ATK)

X51 (AFRL)

Orion (NASA)

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**Hypersonic Tales of Woe
**

• • Hypersonics produces unexpected phenomena X15 test flight with dummy scramjet installed: – unexpected shock interactions generated – burned holes in connection pylon First re-entry of Space Shuttle (STS-1): – larger than expected nose-up pitch generated – required near-maximum deflection of body flap Shock-shock interactions: – heating amplified significantly – leading edges, cowl lips, engine flow paths

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•

•

**Re-entry Trajectories
**

• Trajectory equations for Earth centered system:

˙ U" L $ U 2' T, U = # & 1# cos(" ) ) g W % gR ( γ ˙ T U D " = + sin(# ) W g W

L

D W

•

Ballistic missiles: – mission: short flight, fast impact – rocket launch, ballistic entry – no thrust or lift during entry (T=0, L=0) – fixed flight path at large angle (γ=const)

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**Re-entry Trajectories
**

• Space Shuttle: – mission: orbital return – rocket launch – equilibrium glide entry – no thrust, L/D~1, γ~0 (shallow entry) Air-breathing vehicle: – missions: cruise, orbital return – completely reusable – powered take-off and entry 1 "U 2 for engine efficiency – constant 2

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•

Flight Velocity

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Stagnation Point Heating

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Stagnation Point Temperature

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Deceleration Levels

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**1.2 Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Perfect-gas shock relations:

• Density ratio asymptotes to:

• Pressure and temperature are quadratic in M

**– Makes sense: energy is conserved
**

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Post-Shock Temperature:

Temperatures rapidly become huge!

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Variation of air internal energy with T:

10% departure from calorically perfect gas equation of state = onset of hypersonic flow

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• More fundamentally – 1D gas dynamics:

**• Plus equations of state:
**

Thermally perfect, calorically imperfect General equilibrium gas mixture

• No exact solutions

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Hypersonic limit:

Can solve for the thermodynamic state

• Note that post-shock enthalpy and pressure only depend on upstream conditions in hypersonic limit.

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Iterative solution to shock relations:

• Guess a value of ε = εi and iterate:

Use tables, NASA CEA, etc.

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Equilibrium Air

Temperature (K) Z = Compressibility

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Example: M = 12 at 30 km altitude:

Imperfect

Perfect

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Perfect-gas vs. equilibrium post-shock conditions:

Difference is due to energy storage in internal energy modes + chemistry

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**Post-Shock Conditions
**

• Post-shock pressure has weak dependence on nonideal gas effects (just through (1- ε)) • Post-shock temperature and density have strong Mach number (free-stream speed) dependence – Density ratio > (γ + 1)/(γ - 1) = 6 – Temperature decreases significantly • Concept of γ no longer has much meaning; if:

• Matlab code:

ftp://ftp.aem.umn.edu/users/candler/HEI/mollier.m

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**1.3 Reacting Gas Effects
**

• • Analysis of Earth hypersonic vehicles at U<8km/s: – 5-species air model sufficient: N2, O2, NO, N, O Reactions: – Dissociation-recombination:

N2 + M " N + N + M O2 + M " O + O + M NO + M " N + O + M N 2 + O " NO + N NO + O " O2 + N

– Zeldovich exchange:

! ! !

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! !

**Finite Rate of Reactions
**

• • For illustration, consider: – 2-species: N2, N

kf1

N2 + M " N + N + M

kf 2 kb 2

Each reaction proceeds at a finite rate:

N2 + N2 " N + N + N2 kb1 !

• •

N2 + N " N + N + N

Forward rate coefficients measured experimentally, kf (T) Backward rate coefficients from equilibrium constant: !f "Qproducts k Ke = = kb "Qreactants partition functions Q from quantum+statistical mechanics

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!

!

**Finite Rate of Reactions
**

Net rate of change in concentration of a species: – contributions from forward and backward directions d[N 2 ] = "k f 1[N 2 ][N 2 ] " k f 2 [N 2 ][N] + kb1[N][N][N 2 ] + k b 2 [N][N][N] dt • Chemical equilibrium: – final state reached instantaneously – production of each species balanced by its destruction – analytical solution for our system: •

2 "2 m QN = exp(#% d /T) 1# " $V QN 2

!

**– α=mass fraction, m=atom mass, ρ=density, V=volume, θd=dissociation temperature
**

!

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**Finite Rate of Reactions
**

• Chemical equilibrium: – O2 dissociates before N2 (has lower θd) – fewer atoms at high pressure (more recombination)

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**Finite Rate of Reactions
**

• Chemical nonequilibrium: – equilibrium end state reached only after finite time – in a flow field, this translates as finite distance

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Nonequilibrium

• Impact of chemical nonequilibrium: – chemical composition mainly affects energy of flow • exothermic reactions consume energy • catalysis: fraction of atoms reaching the vehicle surface may recombine releasing heat – scaling: • nonequilibrium flow occurs at lower density and/or smaller body length scales

#$U$ L small Re " µ$

#$ 1 large Kn " % L &$ L

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!

!

Ionization

• • Very high temperature reacting air (U>8km/s): – N2, O2, NO, N, O, N2+, O2+, NO+, N+, O+, eReactions: – dissociation-recombination: – exchange: – associative Ionization:

N2 + M " N + N + M

N 2 + O " NO + N !

+ N + N " N 2 + e#

– direct Ionization: !

N+e #N +e +e

"

+

"

"

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!

!

Ionization

• Equilibrium solution (Saha) for [N, N+, e-] system:

"2 T 5/2 =C exp(#$ i /T) 2 1# " p

!

– – – –

φ=ion mole fraction, C=constant, p=pressure, θi=ionization temperature

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Ionization

• Significance: – plasma causes communications blackout – highly catalytic ions are source of heating

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Radiation

• Another important process at high temperature: – activation-deactivation: N + e" # N * + e" – spontaneous emission: N * " N + h# – analysis is complex, no closed form expressions ! – research area, e.g. NEQAIR (NASA-ARC) • Radiative heating important at U>12km/s: ! – e.g. stagnation point heating correlation (Martin)

˙ qrad " RNU 8.5 #1.6

– also proportional to shock layer thickness – Stardust: radiation provides 10% of total heating

!

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1.4 Transport Phenomena

• Generated by gradients in flow properties: dCA – diffusion (Fick’s Law): J A = "#DAB dy DAB=diffusion coefficient – viscosity (Newtonian fluid): µ = viscosity coefficient !

du " =µ dy dT q = "# dy

– thermal conduction (Fourier’s Law): κ = thermal conductivity coefficient !

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!

Diffusion

• • • Affects continuity and energy equations Influences transport of species to surface Coefficient evaluation: 3 #mi kT – for simple gas (self diffusion) Dii = 8 " #$(1,1) ii – for gas mixture – "

(1,1) ij

are diffusion collision integrals

!

kT (mi + m j )kT 1 Dij " p mi m j #$(1,1) ij

– averaged binary coefficient D1m often used !

!

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Viscosity

• • • Affects momentum and energy equations Influences surface shear stress Coefficient evaluation: – for simple gas – various mixing rules –"

(2,2) are ij

5 "mi kT µi = 16 "#(2,2) ii

µ = µ("(1,1),"(2,2) ) ij ij

! viscosity collision integrals

!

!

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Thermal Conductivity

• • • Affects energy equations Influences surface convective heat flux Coefficient evaluation: 5 #mi kT 1 % 9 ( – for simple gas (Eucken) " i = 16 #$(2,2) M 'Cv + 4 Ru * ) ii i& – various mixing rules

!

" = " (#(1,1),#(2,2) ) ij ij

– "(2,2) are again viscosity collision integrals ij – curve fits for collision integrals from the literature !

!

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