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PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PRIMARY (ESSENTIAL) HYPERTENSION

1.) Baroreceptor (major 2.) Chemoreceptor reflex activation 3.) Humoral (RAAS)
stretch receptor) activation by decrease O2 & pH

Abnormality in the
Vasomotor center Cardioregulatory center stimulation Increase blood volume
transport of Na in
activation
renal tubules
Increase venous Increase heart pumping action
Vasoconstriction return Increase peripheral
Kidney produces renin vascular resistance
Increase peripheral Increase blood Increase cardiac Increase in heart rate and
resistance volume output stroke volume Rennin catalyzes Increase
Angitensinogen BP/ HPN

Above normal increase Angiotensinogen convert Vasoconstriction Increase blood


Prolonged and sustained of blood pressure angiotensin I to II volume
increase in BP Sympathetic stimulation Inhibition of
Angiotensin II converted sodium excretion
to III H2O
Baroreceptors retention
continue to “reset” Alteration in chemoreceptor
autoregulation Angiotensin I and II
Arterial baroreceptors stimulates adrenal cortex
Chronic hypertension
become desensitized
Sodium reabsorption
Adrenal cortex
and potassium
release aldosterone
excretion