PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF PRIMARY (ESSENTIAL) HYPERTENSION 1.

) Baroreceptor (major stretch receptor) activation Vasomotor center activation Vasoconstriction Increase peripheral resistance Increase venous return Increase blood volume Increase cardiac output 2.) Chemoreceptor reflex activation by decrease O2 & pH Cardioregulatory center stimulation Increase heart pumping action Kidney produces renin Increase in heart rate and stroke volume Rennin catalyzes Angitensinogen Angiotensinogen convert angiotensin I to II Sympathetic stimulation Alteration in chemoreceptor autoregulation Chronic hypertension Angiotensin II converted to III Angiotensin I and II stimulates adrenal cortex Adrenal cortex release aldosterone Sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion Vasoconstriction Inhibition of sodium excretion 3.) Humoral (RAAS) Abnormality in the transport of Na in renal tubules

Increase blood volume Increase peripheral vascular resistance Increase BP/ HPN Increase blood volume H2O retention

Prolonged and sustained increase in BP Baroreceptors continue to “reset” Arterial baroreceptors become desensitized

Above normal increase of blood pressure

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