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Journal of Research on Adolescence Volume 15 Issue 1, Pages 71 - 97 Published Online: 16 Feb 2005 Journal Compilation © 2009 Society for Research on Adolescence
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Abstract | References | Full Text: HTML, PDF (Size: 163K) | Related Articles | Citation Tracking Impact of Adolescents' Filial Self-Efficacy on Quality of Family Functioning and Satisfaction Gian Vittorio Caprara 1 , Concetta Pastorelli 1 , Camillo Regalia 2 , Eugenia Scabini 2 and Albert Bandura 3 1 University of Rome 2 Universitá Cattolica del Sacro Cuore 3 Stanford University Correspondence to Request for reprints should be sent to Gian Vittorio Caprara, Dipartimento di Psicologia, University of Rome, La Sapienza, Via dei Marsi 78, 00185 Roma, Italy. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org ABSTRACT In this prospective study, we tested a structural model in which adolescents' perceived self-efficacy to manage parental relationships affected their satisfaction with family life both directly, and indirectly, through its impact on family practices. Findings based on 380 Italian adolescents showed that perceived filial self-efficacy was linked directly and indirectly to satisfaction with family life, and that these relations held both concurrently and longitudinally. In particular, the greater adolescents perceived their self-efficacy, the more they reported open communication with their parents, the
more accepting they were of their parents' monitoring of their own activities outside the home and the less inclined they were to get into escalative discord over disagreements. Regardless of whether perceived filial self-efficacy was placed in the conceptual structure as a contributor to the quality of family interactions or as a partial product of family functioning, it consistently predicted satisfaction with family life. DIGITAL OBJECT IDENTIFIER (DOI) 10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00087.x About DOI Next: Moderating Effects of Adolescents’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Psychological Responses to Social Change Martin Pinquart University of Jena, Martin.Pinquart@rz.uni-jena.de Rainer K. Silbereisen University of Jena, Rainer.Silbereisen@rz.uni-jena.de Linda P. Juang San Francisco State University This study investigated whether self-efficacy beliefs measured before the onset of social change would moderate effects of social change on adolescents’ life satisfaction, optimism regarding their future, and educational success. Self-efficacy beliefs of 593 German adolescents were measured between 1985 and 1988 before German unification. In 1992, perceived social change due to unification and outcome variables was assessed. Higher levels of perceived negative social change and lower levels of prior self-efficacy predicted lower levels of life satisfaction and less optimism regarding one’s future after German unification in 1992. In addition, we found that higher self-efficacy buffers negative effects of unification-based change on both psychological outcome variables. However, no interaction effect between perceived social change and self-efficacy was found on the probability of attending the highest school track in 1992. Key Words: social change • German unification • coping • self-efficacy • psychological adaptation Journal of Adolescent Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 340-359 (2004) DOI: 10.1177/0743558403258851
THO05304 Effects of Year of Schooling, Gender, and Self-efficacy on High School Students Participation in Physical Activity: Social and Educational Implications Kathryn Thorpe, Martin Dowson, Andrew J. Martin,
Rhonda G. Craven, Garry E. Richards, Herbert W. Marsh, Melinda R. Williams, and Philip D. Parker SELF Research Centre, University of Western Sydney, Australia
A sedentary lifestyle adopted during childhood or adolescence can set the stage for a lifetime of physical inactivity. Moreover, physical inactivity has significant implications for students’ participation in school, social integration in school, mental alertness, classroom behaviour, and academic performance. Studies in the USA and Europe have demonstrated a significant decrease in physical activity during adolescence, particularly for girls. However, the pattern of participation in physical activity across different stages of female and male adolescent development in Australia has yet to be systematically investigated. Whilst few studies have examined the determinants or correlates of activity patterns of children and adolescents, research from the USA suggests self-efficacy is an important predictor of physical activity participation. The current research surveyed 375 high school students to investigate the effects of year of schooling, gender, and self-efficacy on adolescents’ participation in physical activity. Results of the study indicate that: (1) self-efficacy is a significant predictor of physical activity, (2) physical activity participation levels do not decline significantly as year of schooling increases, and (3) female participation in physical activity was not statistically significantly less than male participation.
Whilst no reliable data is available on the trends in physical activity for Australian children and adolescents, there is growing concerns over the decreaing levels of physical activity (Australian Government, 2005; National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2001; The National Public Health Partnership, 2002). Moreover, it is thought that the decline in physical activity is a major contributor to the increase in the estimated 1.5 million Australian children and adolescents who are overweight or obese (Australian Government, 2005; National Health and Medical Research Council, 1997; National Heart Foundation of Australia, 2001). In an attempt to increase levels of physical activity in school students, the Australian Government is currently introducing legislation into state and non-government schools. This new legislation specifies that at least two hours of physical activity each school week must be included into the curriculum for primary and junior secondary school children (Australian Government, 2005). The legislation is part of the Building a Healthy, Active Australia initiative, in which the Australian government has sought to address the link between regular physical activity and positive health, academic, and social outcomes for students (Australian Government, 2005). Considerable empirical evidence now supports the relationship between physical activity and lower
& de Moor. Pate et al. Allison. 2003). & Torsheim.) show . Heath. National Heart Foundation of Australia. Adlaf. Similarly. Engagement in physical activity may also bring about positive social benefits for children and adolescents. 1990. 1996). & Van Gyn (2003) found physical activity decreased with age in children aged 12 to 24 years. Pate. 1990. Brantley. Bouchard et al. the implementation of school policies to increase physical activity participation is appropriate. Canadian research has examined the trends in physical activity for students finding significant declines in activity for year 11 students (Irving. Sutton. Shephard. & Trost. 1995. regular physical activity has been associated with improved class grades and better performance on standardized tests (Black. Boudreaux. Carmack. policies such as these are only a small part of the solution to the increasingly sedentary lifestyles of Australian children and adolescents. 1988. Wold. 1993). 2001.. Amaral-Melendez. Martens.. For example. In terms of educational outcomes. Paglia. developing a sense of community belonging and identity. 1990). and obesity (National Heart Foundation of Australia. 1995). and decreased behavioral problems at school (Black. Ebbeck. Limited research has also found that adolescents who are regularly active are more likely to adopt other healthy lifestyle behaviours such as decreased substance abuse and superior eating habits to those that are not active (Bouchard. Haugland. Higgins. 1995. Bouchard et al. learning strategies to resolve conflicts. Dowda. Centers for Disease Control. & Goodman.. Given these important outcomes. However. Bouchard et al.risk of developing heart disease. S. Gibson-Laemel & Laemel. 2003).. increased school attendance rates (Black. Patterns of Physical Activity Limited international research has found decreases in physical activity in adolescents are associated with increasing year of schooling and age. 1999. diabetes. 1995. & McPherson. Dwyer. 2001). Gibbons. In addition. Studies from the United States (U. 1990. Stephens. some studies have found that physical activity may help to relieve the negative health outcomes of school-related stress (Brown & Siegel. and discovering how to act fairly may result from participation in physical activity (Gibbons. There is a need for research to examine the patterns of physical activity and the factors that influence activity among Australian school students so as to inform such policies and interventions and ensure participation continues outside of school. 1995. learning to respect the rights of others. 1993. & Weiss. 1990). Gaul.
Such demographic differences factors must taken into consideration when developing school or community-based programs that aim to increase physical activity participation for adolescents (Sherwood & Jeffery. Trost. Zakarian. Such findings are in line with Bandura (1977) who first hypothesised that behavioural changes were primarily mediated by selfefficacy. A number of studies have found that self-efficacy is significantly correlated with physical activity participation in children and adolescents (Reynolds et al. Dowda. Ward. Burack. and Makin. Levels of physical activity were found to be lower in Taiwanese adolescent girls than boys (Wu & Jwo. 2005). Self-efficacy Few studies have examined the determinants or correlates of activity patterns of children and adolescents. Hovell. American girls and boys were found to have similar activity levels. S. boys were significantly more active than females (Strauss et al. Dwyer. Strauss et al. Saunders. 2001. .. Of the limited research that has addressed this issue self-efficacy has been found to be one of the most consistent predictors of physical activity behaviour (Sherwood & Jeffery. Saunders et al. The opposite is also true whereby unsuccessful attempts to participate in soccer games will have a negative effect on self-efficacy (Allison et al. Rodzilsky. 1990. Further. after the age of 13. 1999). however. research has also investigated the effect of gender on physical activity participation levels.. The present study was designed to address the shortage of research examining the differences in physical activity levels for Australian high school students according to year of schooling and gender. Taiwanese adolescents were found to participate in significantly less physical activity following the transition from junior to senior high school (Wu & Jwo. & Colin. Hofstetter.. 1997. for example a soccer game. 2000). In relation to physical activity. 1999). Sallis. 2001. 2005) and year 9 and 11 males were found to be significantly more active that female students (Allison. Pate.. American research has suggested that the effects of gender may be moderated by age as up to the age of 13. 2001). 2000). 1996. 1996). & Felton. a person’s belief that he or she can successfully perform a desired behaviour. without giving up is likely to feel confident in his or her ability to successfully participate in subsequent games of soccer. Department of Health & Human Services.that participation in physical activity decreases significantly as age or year of schooling increases (Strauss. U. an individual who has been able to complete a specific activity.
see Table 1). 50% males) from two state high schools in the Greater Western Sydney Region completed the full survey. there is a need to examine the relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity in Australian school students. Given importance that the Australian government amoung others has placed upon increasing levels of physical activity in Australian school students. The majority of this research however. and for students in different years of schooling. Examine whether year of schooling. thus this research provides a means of crossculturally validating these existing findings in Australian context. 1994). Examine whether self-efficacy varies as a function of gender and school year.45. Norman. 2.18). The Present Study The present study investigated the predictive validity of self-efficacy. and a six item short form self-efficacy instrument developed by Rossi. Self-efficacy measure I am confident I can participate in physical activity or exercise when… Not at all . Benisovich. Measures The measures used for the present study consisted of eight items adapted from the Active Australia Survey (Australian Institute of Health and Welfare. and Nigg (2000. 2003). Table 1. gender. is situated in an American context with little research validating these effects cross-culturally. It is hoped that these results will provide a basis for exploring a highly important current health issue. The choice of variables examined in the study was influenced by international empirical evidence. Method Participants Data was collected as part of a larger research project exploring the determinates of physical activity participation in school students. and 3. where participants’ ranged from 11 years to 18 years of age (m = 13. school year and gender as determinants of physical activity among Australian adolescents. Examine whether mean differences exist in physical activity participation for male and female students. SD = 1. Specifically the study aimed to: 1.& Keating. and self-efficacy predicted variance in physical activity participation in high school students and determine the importance of these variables as predictor of physical activity participation. and assist educators and health care professionals in implementing interventions that aim to increase physical activity participation levels within schools. Years seven to eleven students (N = 375.
cycling. I have to exercise alone 12345 5. Norman.g. or too cold) 1 2 3 4 5 2. 2000)..confident Somewhat confident Moderately confident Very confident Completely confident 1. “I am confident I can participate in physical activity or exercise when I feel I don’t have time” and respond on a five point Likert response . how many times did you do any vigorous physical activity which made you breathe harder or puff or pant (E. Benisovich. I am under lot of stress 12345 3. I don’t have access to a place for exercise 12345 6. Self-efficacy The self-efficacy instrument consisted of six items designed to assess real-world situations challenges that an individual may need to overcome to pursue a physically active lifestyle (Rossi et al. jogging. Respondents recorded the number of occasions and amount of time they spent participating in the activities.g. competitive tennis). I feel I don’t have time 12345 4. too hot. Items were designed to capture both formal exercise and exercise based around general household chores (example item: In the last week. aerobics. It is raining or bad weather (e. I am spending time with friends 12345 Source: Rossi. for example. Participants are required to read a short declarative sentence. and Nigg (2000) Active Australia The Active Australia survey consisted of eight items assessing both the amount and frequency of physical activity participation in the past week.
year of schooling and selfefficacy predicted approximately 10% of the total variance in physical activity participation (R2 = .096) while the addition of the interactions did not reliably improve the R2. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) were conducted to identify differences in 1) physical activity participation. and all responses would be kept confidential. Procedure Teachers administered the questionnaires during Personal Development Health and Physical Education (PD/H/PE) classes. Statistical Analysis Data analysis was conducted using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS) version 11. Gender and Self-efficacy on Physical Activity Model Unstandardised Coefficients B SE Standardised Coefficients Beta t Sig. c) selfefficacy mean and year of schooling and d) self-efficacy mean.Self-efficacy emerged as the only significant predictor of physical activity participation with students higher on self-efficacy being more likely to participate in physical activity than those with lower self-efficacy scores. Gender. Informed consent was sought prior to completion of the questionnaire. Students were then informed that participation was voluntary. R2 R2 change F change .scale (1 = not at all confident and 5 = completely confident). gender. Table 2. Four interactions were also examined in this analysis: a) gender and self-efficacy mean. Initially the teachers explained the purpose of the study. Multiple regression analysis was utilized to determine the total variance explained in physical activity participation by the year of schooling. To investigate gender and year of schooling differences on mean scores for each of the six self-efficacy items. gender. a multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was performed. gender and the relevant interactions did not significantly predict physical activity participation. and 2) self-efficacy according to gender and year of schooling. Year of schooling. gender and self-efficacy. and selfefficacy on physical activity participation levels are presented in Table 2. b) gender and year of schooling. Results The results from the multiple regression analysis for the effects of year of schooling. and year of schooling. Multiple Regression of Year of Schooling.
000 2 YSC G SE YSCxG YSCxSE GxSE 7.488 -1.110 .131 4.117 -.096 7.216 .829 .926 203.890 .574 . F change 1 YSC G SE -4.452 20.001 .950 -2.062 -.Sig.905 -.128 .013 115.048 -.907 12.836 .694 22.312 -.133 -25.946 10.615 65.210 13.138 -.563 -.474 29.329 53.423 .033 -.506 .570 -2.907 .294 -.096 .626 .207 .024 -43.402 .965 3 .671 12.139 .000 .673 .709 61.097 .259 .256 .075 .091 .
212) = 1.187 38.7.505 647. p = .05. year of schooling [F (4.973 .216]. 349) = 1.151].577 -. using α = . SE = Self-efficacy An ANOVA was conducted to explore the impact of year of schooling and age on physical activity participation. The overall F tests for gender [F (1.305 .697 -.461.363 -4.881 .950. year of schooling [F (4. as measured by the adapted Active Australia Survey. 349) = 3. A two-way MANOVA was performed to examine differences in each of the six selfefficacy items .034 .852 DV: Physical activity time Note: YSC = Year of schooling.097 .085 -.899] were not significant (see Figure 1).808 .853 120. p = . p = . using α = .170 . G = Gender. 212) = .051 .981 26. 212) = 1.670 313.000 .540.744.107 -.150 . p = .140].197 10. and gender by year of schooling [F (4.463 .342 4.971 51.245 . p = .484 12.YSC G SE YSCxG YSCxSE GxSE YSCxGxSE -12.435] were not significant (see Figure 2).535 -158.243 -. 349) =.035 .187 . The overall F tests for gender [F (1. p = .807 .267. The mean self-efficacy scores for gender and year of schooling were analysed in the second ANOVA.064].016 80.915 .706 212. and gender by year of schooling [F (4.915 . 05.173 .440 -.852 .
Gender Differences in Self-Efficacy Items Dependent variable Gender Mean 95% CI Mean Difference (M-F) Sig. 019]. 322) = 1.730. or gender by year of schooling [F (24.042-3. for SE6 year 7 students reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy than year 8 and 10 students. In addition.344 . p = . η2 = .078 . 1125) = 1. SE 3 (“I feel I don’t have time”).671-3. SE1 M F 3. No statistically significant differences were found for gender [F (6. whilst year 11 students reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy than year 10 students (see Table 4. Wilks’ Lambda = . η2 = . year of schooling [F (24. Pairwise comparisons indicated no significant differences for gender across each of the dependent variables.555 2.015] on the combined dependent variables. The reader is urged to interpret these results with caution until replication can confirm the presence of these effects. The six dependent variables were the mean scores of the six selfefficacy items (SE1-SE6) whilst the independent variables were gender and year of schooling.239 . 1125) = .98.023]. η2 = .409.26. For the purposes of brevity only items SE5 and SE6 are presented in the table).94. Significant differences were found for year of schooling and the dependent variables SE5 (“I don’t have access to a place for exercise”) and SE6 (“I am spending time with friends”).299 2. p = . No interaction effects were significant.04.93. self-efficacy items SE 1 (“it is raining or bad weather”). It must be noted that these pairwise comparisons must be treated with caution as the omnibus Ftest was not significant. Table 3. and SE5 (“I don’t have access to a place for exercise”) approached significance with females reporting lower self-efficacy mean scores for all three items (see Table 3).808. Wilks’ Lambda = . p = . Wilks’ Lambda = .276.955 3. However. On inspection of the mean scores year 7 students reported significantly higher levels of self-efficacy than year 8 and 10 students for SE5.according to gender and year of schooling.
220 3.085 2.9 3 3.698 2.830 2.138-3.788 2.530 .3 3.198 .828 SE3 M F 2.287 2.542 .927 2.845 2.351 Figure 1.910-3.061 SE4 M F 3.576-3.042 .1 3.328 .418 3.4 7 8 9 10 11 Year of Schooling Mean Self-Efficacy Male Female SE5 M F 2. Estimated Means of Physical Activity Time per Week 0 50 100 150 200 250 7 8 9 10 11 Year of Schooling Mean Physical Activity Time Male Female Figure 2.SE2 M F 2. Estimated Self-Efficacy for Gender and Year of Schooling 2.507-3.385-2.660-3.2 3.615 2.194 .032-2.8 2.070 .540 2.7 2.
399 Yr 7-10=.000 4.021 2.387 .351-2.871 3.351-3.054 .892 2.244-2.559 3.2. SE5 7 8 9 10 11 3.703 .494 Yr 7-8=.317 2.598 3.454 3.827 2.007 .149-3.014 SE6 7 8 9 10 11 3.787 Table 4.490-3.791-3.286 1.250 2.808-2.837 .821 2.621 2.613 3. Year of Schooling Differences in Self-Efficacy Items Dependent variable Year of schooling Mean 95% CI Mean Difference Sig.888 2.057 SE6 M F 3.850 .269-3.875 3.028 .
As such. Furthermore. Allison et al. school year and selfefficacy on physical activity behaviour.. Notwithstanding this the results provide preliminary evidence of trends where by participation in physical activity declined from year 7 to 8 for males.3. 1997. Saunders et al..097 3.019 . 1997. This finding is inconsistent with findings from other studies (Allison & Adlaf. Possibly older adolescents have less time available for physical activity due to academic. 2003).988 2. Zakarian et al. students with higher self-efficacy scores reported higher levels of physical activity than those with lower self-efficacy scores..646-4..418 Yr7-10=. No significant differences for mean self-efficacy scores were found for gender or year of schooling in . the standard deviations within years were large relative to between years.348-4.189-3..002 . year of schooling and gender did not significantly predict physical activity participation. Trost et al.499 3.666 Yr 7-8=. 1994). females and males were least active in year 11 which is consistent with findings from other studies (Allison & Adlaf.719 3. the trend was then reversed for both males and females with peak participation levels in year 10. Strauss et al. Irving et al. 1997. These results provide some evidence for the cross-cultural validity of research findings concerning the relationship between self-efficacy and participation in physical activity found in previous American studies with children and adolescents (Reynolds et al. 2001.501-3. Interestingly.017 Discussion The aim of the present study was to explore the effect of gender.208-3. social. Whilst the first ANOVA revealed there were no significant differences in time spent in physical activity per week for year of schooling and gender. 1990.007 . Interestingly.871 Yr11-10=1.. Results indicated that self-efficacy was the only significant predictor of physical activity participation. or other commitments such as getting a driver’s licence or working part-time. 1996. 1999) whereby age and gender did emerge as significant predictors of physical activity participation for adolescents. and from year 7 to Grade 9 for females.
the second ANOVA. are more important than in the middle years of high school. these trends must be treated with caution until they can be replicated in larger samples via planned comparisons. physical activities that are socially orientated. As such these findings suggest that gender and self-efficacy interact in some environmental and temporal circumstances to influence participation. Since self-efficacy has been . Implications for Education and Research The findings of the present study have important implications for school and community-based interventions designed to increase physical activity participation in adolescents. or gender by year of schooling on the combined self-efficacy dependent variables. the reader is urged to take into consideration that the trends discussed above. whilst year 11 students had significantly higher scores on the same item than year 10 students. Females mean scores declined from year 7 to 8 then remained relatively constant to year 11. Females reported lower scores for all three items. fell below female mean scores at year 10. as opposed to activities that can be carried out alone. increased at year 9. Perhaps in the early and late years of high school. Male and female mean scores were very similar at year 7. year of schooling. and when there are no appropriate facilities. Although significant differences were not found for gender across the dependent variables. However. and SE5 (“I don’t have access to a place for exercise”) were approaching significance. declined slightly at year 8. In addition. in relation to year of school and gender. SE3 (“I feel I don’t have time”). Thus. significant differences were found for year of schooling and the dependent variables SE5 (“I don’t have access to a place for exercise”) and SE6 (“I am spending time with friends”). Year 7 students had significantly scores on item SE5 than year 8 and 10 students suggesting that year 7 students are more confident to be physically active even when there is no specific facility available. the items SE1 (“It is raining or bad weather”). once again some interesting trends emerged. However. and then peaked at year 11. when they feel there is not enough time. Males however. Again. are drawn from analysis where the omnibus F-test was not significant. This perhaps implies that males are more confident to be active than females in rainy weather. The MANOVA revealed no statistically significant differences for gender. year 7 students had significantly higher scores on item SE6 than year 8 and 10 students.
Associate Professor Rhonda Craven is Deputy Director of the SELF Research Centre – ranked 7th in the world in educational psychology. His primary research interests are in student motivation and self-concept and their application to teaching and learning processes. . App. This study has highlighted the need for further research regarding the patterns and determinants of physical activity participation for adolescents. mental and spiritual functioning and well-being. Given the importance of self-efficacy and its seemingly independence from gender and year of schooling attention needs to be directed towards providing students with learning opportunities that assist them develop strategies to overcome barriers to physical activity such as lack of time or bad weather. App. particularly in relation to gender and year of schooling where possible trends need to be explored. Furthermore. though this remains an avenue for future research. studies that examine other determinants of physical activity for adolescents. (OT Honours) from the University of Western Sydney. Garry E. About the Authors Kathryn Thorpe is a PhD candidate at the SELF Research Centre. Andrew Martin is Postdoctoral Research Fellow at the SELF Research Centre. it should be considered that physical activity self-efficacy may change as a function of various demographic and situational characteristic. His primary research interest is in motivation and its applications to physical. Richards is the Research Programs Coordinator of the SELF Research Centre. additional studies are needed to examine whether the findings of the present investigation are invariant for other populations of Australian adolescents. Martin Dowson is Post-doctoral Research Fellow at the SELF Research Centre. Dr. She has a B. University of Western Sydney. Sc. (Human Movement) from the University of Wollongong and a B. Dr.found to be a significant predictor of physical activity participation in this study and previous studies. Finally. is Associate-Professor in the School of Education and Early Childhood Studies. . for example social support. University of Western Sydney. As an Educational Psychologist her research focuses on large-scale quantitative research studies in educational settings. are needed as is research that aims to develop and test interventions that aim at increasing physical activity self-efficacy in Australian adolescents. programs should ensure that opportunities to increase or enhance self-efficacy be provided. Further. Her current research focus is the psychological determinants of physical activity. Sc.
R. & Armstrong. K. Professor Hebert Marsh is Director of the SELF Research Centre. Brown. 7. Australian Institute of Health and Welfare.com Phone: 612 9772 6202 Fax: 612 9772 6423 References Allison. Biddle.His research interests are in the areas of self-concept (particularly physical self-concept). Aerobic fitness and leisure physical activity as moderators of the stress-illness relation. human development.healthyactive. L. (1988). 26(1). S. 34(3). J. E. . 21(3). Exercise as a buffer of life stress: A prospective study of adolescent health. Melinda R.au/docs/active_school_curriculum. Dwyer. J. 251-257. K. (2003). Bouchard. 177-180. 191-215. 325-331. R. Annals of Behavioral Medicine. 17.. Champaign.. J. Age and gender differences in physical inactivity among Ontario teenagers.. A. S. Boudreaux. 12-24. (1990). Canadian Journal of Public Health.. (1977). Carmack. Exercise. His primary research interests are in selfconcept.. Retrieved April 29. Health Education & Behavior.. R. Williams is an Honours student at the SELF Research Centre. D. C. Contact details Kathryn Thorpe. Amaral-Melendez. Psychological Review. Self-efficacy and participation in vigorous physical activity by high school students.. P. Sutton. Just do it. Children’s physical activity: An exploratory study of psychological correlates. 341-353. Bandura. Australian Government. IL: Human Kinetics. T. The Active Australia Survey: A guide and manual for implementation and reporting. from http://www.gov.pdf. J. M. fitness and health: A consensus of current knowledge. J. Social Science & Medicine. D. Canberra: Author. Black.. Executive Educator. PhD Candidate SELF Research Centre University of Western Sydney Locked Bag 1797 Penrith South DC NSW 1797 Email: kthorpe@mail2world. outdoor and experiential education and sports. 88. (1992).. Health Psychology. & McPherson. N. Stephens. & de Moor. & Siegel.. Brantley. (1997).. & Adlaf. B. 84. (1999). Active school curriculum. psychometrics. Allison.. S. E. (2005). 2005. J. & Makin. 33-36.. Self-efficacy: Towards a unifying theory of behavioral change. C. C. (1999). J. M. M. (1995). Her honours research formed the basis of this investigation. Shephard. and student evaluation.
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Whitney. and (c) perceived parent support accounted for 29% to 43% of the total unique variance in vocational selfefficacy for all Holland theme careers. Hinkelman. Perceived support from fathers was found to be related to the education plans and career expectations of Mexican American high school girls (McWhirter. Young (1994) described parents as the primary providers of encouragement for their adolescents to reach vocational goals through both the modeling of career-related. Guidance and counseling are integral parts of each school's total educational program. recommended that professional school counselors attempt to establish student competencies around several broad areas that include career planning and occupational exploration. Middle school students who develop competency in career planning and exploration gain confidence in such career development tasks as understanding the relationship between learning and work. and encourage classroom instruction and student achievement. N. and Social careers. and understanding the process of career planning (Lapan. Holland. and valuing of these occupations (Lapan. O'Brien. disability/health status. These various correlates of the career development of adolescents have been modeled in a newer theory of career development.Holland (J. Hackett. 1994. Fouad. Investigative. For example. 2000). ethnicity) directly predict career interests and the career choice process of young persons by either providing or limiting access to vocational preparation and . facilitate. The role of parents and the role of professional school counselors go hand in hand in the career development of young adolescents. efficacy.. Richards. 1969) themes. 1969) themes was a significant predictor of their interests in. & Bandalos. & Hackett. L ent..g. established in consultation with leading career development experts. Gysbers. understanding how to gain the information necessary to seek and obtain various jobs. & Smith. Cole.. SCCT (Lent et al. D. and outcome expectancies among undergraduate college students (Ferry. & J. M. Cole. Jackson. School guidance programs have an underlying purpose to assist students in making informed education and career decisions and to provide the resources and materials to ensure that this process unfolds in a systematic and comprehensive manner (KosteckBunch. L. Parental encouragement was found to have significant direct effects on learning experiences (grades in mathematics and science). 1999). goal-directed behavior and by actively providing career-related learning experiences. race. Dukstein. 1998). 2000). 2000). gender. social cognitive career theory (SCCT." shaping their children's perceptions of the appropriateness of occupational-related decisions. & Pike. & Turner. 1994. R. Research has demonstrated some of the positive effects of parent support on adolescent and young adult career development. Multon. & Kamatuka. positive impact on a child's career development process. proximal factors (e. The National Career Development Guidelines (Kobylarz. Tomlinson. Brown. Eccles (1994) theorized that parents are "expectancy socializers" who greatly influence their children's self-perceptions of being academically and vocationally competent. (b) gender and career gender-typing predicted interests in Realistic. vocational self-efficacy for. 1996). Whitney. According to this theory. 1997. 2000) provides a model for understanding how the perceived support of parents and the confidence gained through student participation in comprehensive guidance programs interact to support the career development of adolescents. 1999). rural adolescents' perceptions of parent support for pursuing occupations that represent certain Holland (Holland. Adams. Astin (1984) stated that parents act as "value socializers. The role of parental influence and support outside the school setting has also been hypothesized to have a significant. & Richards. S. which is designed to support.
Eighty-four of the students were Caucasian Americans. 1999. Brown. and 2 were Native Americans.. We used a SCCT framework to examine the relative indirect contribution of perceived parent support (a distal environmental factor) to career self-efficacy as a mediator of career interests. the level of occupational interests (Bores-Rangel. Gender and the gendertyping of careers are related to career interest patterns (Lapan. & Ware. Szendre. 60 girls. Teresa. the relative direct contributions of career selfefficacy and career planning /exploration efficacy to the career interests of middle school adolescents. Africa. 3 were Hispanic Americans. young adolescents need both the support of their parents and involvement in a comprehensive school-based guidance program that develops confidence around such career-related competencies as career planning and occupational exploration. The foreign national students were first-generation Americans from Asia. perceived parent support. which then mediate the formation of interests. and professional school counselors) exert a moderating effect through learning experiences on the young person's career-related self-efficacy and outcome expectations. Church. and the confidence to pursue careerrelated tasks (Ahrens & O'Brien.and eighth-grade students who were distributed approximately equally between the two grades (79 boys. 1969) themes. the relative direct contributions of two proximal factors (gender and the gender-typing of careers) to middle school adolescents' career interests. and.72 years).. teachers. 2000). To date. and career-related goals. however.71 years. 18 were foreign nationals. Specifically. . and (c) perceived parent support would directly predict middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland themes. the relative direct contribution of the distal environmental factor. and perceptions of parent support on the career interests of middle school adolescents. career planning/exploration efficacy. & Reeves.62 years. to all students throughout the school year. & Szendre. Rosebrook. Distal factors (e.. including career planning and exploration activities. Both schools were in middle-class neighborhoods. as a test of SCCT theory. (b) perceived parent support would significantly and differentially predict middle school adolescents' career self-efficacy across Holland themes. comprehensive guidance. The participants were from a midsized midwestern community. as well as career self-efficacy and career planning/exploration efficacy would significantly and differentially predict middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland (Holland et al. mean age = 12. & Hinkelman. 1996) among adolescents and young adultPurpose of the Study The literature suggests that in order to participate in a more intentional and self-directed way in their own career development process. SD = . Participants were recruited by one teacher from each school by asking for volunteers from each teacher's career development classes. Turner.g.55 years. Participants Participants were 139 seventh. career self-efficacy (t he confidence to perform career specific tasks) and career planning/exploration efficacy are related to and predictive of the range of occupations considered (O'Brien et al. the environmental supports provided by parents. little attention has been given to examining the combined effects of career self-efficacy.employment opportunities. mean age 12. All participants attended one of two middle schools that offered. 1987). to the career interests of young adolescents. we hypothesized that (a) the proximal supports of gender and career gender-typing. Adams. Church. 1992). 21 were African Americans. SD = . Rotberg. 1990. and the Middle East who were born outside the United States. career-related intentions. 12 were Asian Americans.
77 for girls. their perceived gender-typing of the occupation on a 5-point Likert-type scale (0 = mostly men. These 90 occupations were presented sequentially to the participants.91 for boys. For the perceived parent support scales.70 to . Realistic Career Efficacy). As reported in Table 1. 7 = high confidence). . Social [helping professions]. perceived parent support for pursing particular occupations. Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Scale.85 for boys. 1992).g. and the level of perceived parent support for careers in that category (e. and . Multon.70 to . Realistic Interest)." The CPEE is scored on a 7-point Likert-type scale (1 = low confidence. Realistic Gender-Typing). For the career self-efficacy scales. their efficacy expectations on a dichotomous scale (0 = I do not have confidence I could do this type of job. 4 = mostly women).76 for the total sample.73 for boys. .. 1969) occupational theme (Realistic [trades].g.77 to .. 1 = I have confidence I could do this type of job).79 to . These variables." and "I understand how to prepare for careers in which I may be interested. Higher scores indicate greater confidence. the participants rated their interest level on a 3-point Likert-type scale (1 = low interest. internal consistency estimates ranged from . Occupational interests. internal consistency estimates ranged from . Reliabilities for the gender-typing scales were not calculated because of the lack of variability among the participants' ratings.82 to . Internal consistency estimates for the CPEE were .78 to . Lapan & Turner.Measures Mapping vocational challenges..87 for girls. 1997). Career planning and occupational exploration efficacy was measured using the Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Scale (CPEE) from the Missouri Comprehensive Guidance Survey (MCGS. . Investigative [mathematics and science]. The MVC is a computerized self-report assessment instrument that consists of the titles of 90 occupations.g. internal consistency estimates ranged from .84 for the total sample. 3 = high interest).. and their perceptions of parent support on a dichotomous scale (0 = My parents would not support ort me in pursuing this occupation.. Lapan. For each Holland (Holland et al. and Conventional [data-oriented business professions]). As each of the occupations was presented. which are reported in Table 1.g. . and . 1969) theme category. career self-efficacy (confidence to perform career-related tasks) for the occupations in that category (e. Realistic Parent Support). These variables were interest level in the occupations in that Holland category (e.. 77 for boys. Enterprising [person-oriented business professions]. were constructed by raking the mean of the 15 ratings for each scale item within each of the Holland occupational categories.70 to .76 for the total sample.83 to . The CPEE is a 10-item measure of confidence for successfully engaging in one's own exploration and planning for suitable or potentially congruent careers. career self-efficacy expectations (the confidence to perform career specific tasks). 15 for each Holland (Holland et al. Sample items from this scale are "I know how to explore careers in which I may be interested.82 to . and . . the gender-typing of the careers in that category (e. 1 = My parents would support me in pursuing this occupation). Gysbers.89 for the total sample. we constructed four variables by taking the mean scale scores for each participant. and career gender-typing were measured using Mapping Vocational Challenges (MVC.84 for girls. For the career interests scales. one variable was constructed for the CPEE by taking the mean of participants' ratings for all scale items. & Lukin. Artistic. . and .82 for girls.
Only two variables significantly predicted interests in Enterprising and Conventional occupations. 1969) themes. These instruments were completed in classroom settings in which there were approximately 20 to 25 students. and career planning exploration efficacy accounted for 12% of the total variance. Second.05/(c) (number of comparisons) to control for Type II experiment-wise error (Ferguson & Takane. participants engaged in a variety of career planning and exploration activities. career self-efficacy for the careers in that category. career gender-typing. working conditions. work activities. Next. Gender. First. As shown in Table 3. four variables together significantly predicted interests in Realistic. with each adding significant unique variance to the prediction equation. but his results were excluded from the subsequent statistical analyses. participants completed the MVC career asse ssment instrument. demographic information (age. and career planning/exploration efficacy would significantly and differentially predict middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland (Holland et al. Post hoc analyses using paired-samples t tests with alpha set to .. and career planning/exploration efficacy were the independent variables. and career planning! exploration efficacy. Investigative. Hypothesis 1 was partially supported. gender. career self-efficacy. Table 2 reports the correlation matrix of the variables for each equation. the participants completed the MVC and the CPEE scale of the MCGS. career self-efficacy. six multiple regression analyses were conducted. and occupational outlooks for specific careers. For conventional interests. place of residence.Procedure During the fall semester of the school year. and 23% of the total variance in Social interests. To test this hypothesis. ethnicity) was collected from participants. educational requirements. such as exploring labor market access. and career planning/exploration efficacy accounted for 25% of the total variance in Realistic interests. one for each Holland theme. and career planning/exploration efficacy accounted for 19% of the total variance. Gender. Participants then completed the MCGS. One adolescent with an identified reading problem received teacher assistance in completing the MVC and the CPEE Scale. the gendertyping of careers in that category. Three variables significantly predicted interests in Artistic occupations: gender. The participants completed two separate career interest inventories and participated in a 1-day job shadowing activity at a local business or factory. which took approximately 15 minutes. which took approximately 25 to 30 minutes. with the interest level for occupations categorized by each Holland theme as the dependent variables. Finally. The testing was done in a series of five steps. salary levels. which accounted for 18% of the total variance in Artistic interests. participants viewed an online tutorial and received 10 minutes of pretest verbal instruction and practice in computerized test taking. During the first 2 weeks of the following spring semester. participants were offered the opportunity to discuss their experiences with the assessment process and what they learned about themselves. career gender-typing. For enterprising interests. 30% of the total variance in Investigative interests. career self-efficacy. Results Hypothesis 1 stated that gender. and Social occupations. career self-efficacy. 1989) indicated that participants gender-typed Realistic and Investigative careers as employing significantly more men than Artistic (t . career self-efficacy.
56.001).17. six linear regressions were run with the efficacy level for occupations in each Holland theme category as the dependent variables and perceived parent support for occupations in that Holland theme category as the independent variables. 1969) themes.. 35%. 1969) theme career categories. In addition. p > . Means and standard deviations for the interest variables are also found in Table 1. p < .15.001). Post hoc analyses using independent samples t tests with alpha set to .93.001).24..001. career self-efficacy. p < .001. t -10. 1989) also indicated that boys had greater interests than girls in Realistic (t = 3.66. and the career interests of middle . Hypothesis 2 stated that perceived parent support would significantly and differentially predict adolescents' career self-efficacy across Holland (Holland et al. and Artistic.87. p < . As reported in Table 3.22.001. 31%. To test this hypothesis. participants gender-typed Social and Conventional careers as employing significantly more women than Realistic (t = 19. or Conventional careers (t = -15.05. p < .05. p < . 001). Table 1 reports the means and standard deviations for each variable used in these analyses. Social (t = -19. p < . t = -12. t = -9.17. p < .123).34. the independent variables were perceived parent support for each of the Holland (Holland et al. t = -16.001). multiple regressions were conducted.8.05/ (c) (number of comparisons) to control for Type II experiment-wise error (Ferguson & Takane. Investigative (t = 16.71. 41%. Parent support for pursuing Holland theme occupations accounted for the following unique variance in career self-efficacy for each category: Investigative. p < .97. Table 2 reports the correlation matrix of the variables used in these equations. Conventional t = -. Social t = -1. gender and career gender-typing. Artistic t = -1.= -2.003) and Investigative careers (t = 3. Enterprising t = -1. Participants gender-typed Artistic and Enterprising careers as employing approximately the same number of men and women (t = -1.26. Table 2 reports the correlation matrix of the variables used in these equations. Hypothesis 3 was not supported.001).73. Realistic.001..83. 1969) themes. 43%.93. career planning/exploration efficacy.29.05.65.001.001). 29%.39.05.08. p < . Social.92. Hypothesis 3 stated that perceived parent support would directly predict middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland themes. p < . p > . p < . p > .001).17. Girls had greater interests than boys in Artistic (F = 4.26. Discussion This study examined the relationships among perceived parent support. p > . Perceived parent support did not directly predict young adolescents' career interests in any of the Holland theme categories (Realistic t = -. p < . Conventional.05.05).001. t = 3. Means and standard deviations for the gendertyping variables are found in Table 1. and Artistic careers (t = 8. p < . p < .001). Enterprising. p < .37. and gender-typed Social careers as employing significantly more women tha n Enterprising careers (t = 6. 36%. p < .032) and Social careers (F= 13. p < . Investigative = -1.001. p < . and the dependent variables were interests in careers in each of the Holland themes. To test this prediction. p < .001). p > . perceived parent support significantly and differentially predicted adolescents' career self-efficacy across Holland (Holland et al. Hypothesis 2 was supported. t = 15.34. p> . Enterprising (t = -12. t = 12. p < .
1992. Finally. & Boggs. Kardash. our findings indicate that career self-efficacy. our findings indicate that the variance in Artistic. proximal factors such as values. furthermore. 36%. Enterprising interests (19%).. 1996) and suggest that young people do perceive differential gender-based access to the preparation for and pursuit of careers in fields such as engineering. suggesting that a variety of career counseling interventions may be helpful to extend the range of occupations young adolescents are considering when making initial education and occupation choices. our results suggest that the strong associations between young adolescents' perceptions of . Enterprising. although perceived parent support accounted for substantial proportions of the variance in career self-efficacy for all Holland type careers (Realistic. Artistic.. & Turner. Specifically. selfdirected educational and vocational planning (Lapan. with boys having greater interests in these careers.g. The proximal factors of gender and career gender-typing directly predicted middle school adolescents' interests in Realistic. and perceived parent support interactively predicted young adolescents' career interests for all Holland (Holland et al. and Conventional career interests may be better accounted for by other proximal or distal supports than were included in this study (e. 1999). Church et al. which has focused on the confidence to perform career specific tasks (Betz & Schifano. was accounted for by variables other than abilities and performance. This finding extends previous career self-efficacy research. The confidence to explore self in relation to the occupational world (Blustein. teaching. Investigative (30%). 1969) type careers. or Conventional careers. Shaughnessy. 36%. Moreover. 41%). 36%. Consistent with SCCT. our results indicate that the set of predictor variables under study accounted for somewhat smaller proportions of the variance in Artistic interests (17%). and career planning/exploration efficacy directly and differentially predicted middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland themes. The distal factor of perceived parent support was not directly associated with young adolescents' career interests but did directly predict their career self-efficacy. and Social careers interests. or performance might account for more of the variance). and Conventional interests (12%). Conventional. Next. 2000. with girls having greater interests in these careers. Investigative. 2002) can facilitate adolescents' vocational aspirations for careers that they may have perceived to be inaccessible. These analyses confirm the results of previous studies (Bores-Rangel et al. technical occupations. however. Taken together.. Social.. 1990. Lapan et al. and Social careers. abilities. post hoc analyses revealed that gender and gender-typing differences were accounted for by participants' perceptions that more men were employed in Realistic and Investigative careers. participants perceived that more women were employed in Social careers. 1997). results indicate that career self-efficacy. Lapan. the sciences. For Realistic. Investigative. Enterprising. Investigative. and highlights the importance of career planning and exploration in young adolescents' career development. Investigative. and Social careers but not in Artistic. and the confidence to engage in intentional.school adolescents. and Social (23%) interests. 43%. 29%. than in Realistic (25%). Approximately one fourth of the variance in Realistic. the confidence to find career-specific occupational information. our results indicate that career planning/exploration efficacy and career self-efficacy were both significantly associated with middle school adolescents' career interests across Holland themes. or counseling.. career planning/ exploration efficacy. E nterprising.
1995) can aid discussions that link adolescents' enjoyment of current activities. using a two-pronged approach. we suggest that professional school counselors assist their students in learning career planning and exploration skills.. One intervention is to use the interpretative report that is produced after individual administration of the MVC computer program. seventh-. Therefore. It is particularly noteworthy that for younger adolescents.parental support for pursuing particular types of careers and the confidence young adolescents have for performing tasks related to those careers may stand in contrast to older adolescents dependence on other environmental career supports.. For example. Second. to later occupational possibilities. young people can engage in self-exploration skills through taking. as well as those career planning/exploration skills they still want to develop. career assessment instruments that are designed specifically for middle school students. In working directly with students. can help students assess their strengths in the area of career planning/exploration. as well as affording them the opportunity to discover what types of occupational information will be important for them to explore throughout their careers. we suggest that professional school counselors can use the SCCT framework to guide their school counseling interventions. such as exploring a science museum or drawing cartoons. and it allows the counselor to ask questions such as. for example. Web sites such as the Bureau of Labor Statistics (2001) Web site "BLS Career Information: Jobs for Kids Who Like. To help increase middle school adolescents' career planning/exploration efficacy. professional school counselors should provide parents with career . they can train and assist parents in providing opportunities to increase their adolescents' task-performance-focused career self-efficacy. we recommend that they be given the opportunity to understand more thoroughly the types of careers that will be available for their children. and e ighth-grade learners. To assist parents in increasing their adolescents' career self-efficacy. and having interpreted to them. we suggest that early adolescence may be a critical time for parental involvement in the career development of their children. "Is there any career that you think would be fun that is a boy's (girl's) career?" Another intervention that could help middle school students challenge their genderstereotyping of occupations is to use video clips and informational interviews with adults who are engaged in nontraditional careers or interviews with older adolescents who are preparing for nontraditional careers. professional school counselors can provide to middle school students counseling interventions that are designed to reduce the effects of career gender-typing and increase career planning/exploration efficacy across a variety of careers. Suggestions for Practitioners On the basis of our findings. 1998). such as peer support (McWhirter et al. The Unisex ACT Interest Inventory-Revised (American College Testing. we recommend several interventions that can reduce the effects of career gender-typing. parent support accounted for as much as approximately one third to almost one half of their children's career-task related confidence. This report gives professional school counselors and middle school students a description of how young adolescents' confidence in particular occupations are affected by their perceptions of career gender-typing. The MCGS. To do this." provide career information that is suitable for sixth-. First..
30 0. such as how to listen to their adolescents' career concerns.37 0.information about specific occupations.77 1. relied on previous statewide research that found that participation in such guidance programs significantly increased efficacy in targeted competency areas. such as race/ethnicity and health/disability status influence career interests. and how to provide adolescents with individual instruction in work-related skills and values (Paa & McWhirter.31 0. including weekly columns in the school bulletin.25 0. Future research should also focus on discovering the most effective ways for parents to support young women's interests and preparation for mathematics.93 1.24 0. interact with and influence career efficacy. and on ways that other background distal factors. and technology careers. We also suggest that research focus on ways that other proximal factors.24 0. technology.25 0. We also recommend that professional school counselors hold parent training seminars to teach parents career-related communication skills.32 0.26 0.69 SD 0.24 0. Limitations of the Study This study did not assess the effectiveness of school-based comprehensive guidance programs in increasing career-related efficacy The study. and young men's interests in careers such as teaching and counseling. instead. science.90 1. how to provide adolescents with verbal feedback about career choices.33 M 1.80 1.19 0. information about highlighted careers on school listserves. This study also did not measure the magnitude of career self-efficacy or perceived parent support in the current sample of middle school adolescents.22 0. Table 1 Means and Standard Deviations for Dependent and Independent Variables for Each Holland Occupational Category R Variable Interests Boys Girls Total Career SelfEfficacy Boys Girls Total M 1. and family nights at the school career center.31 0. we suggest that outcome studies be conducted on the most effective ways that career exploration for specific careers can increase early career interests and aid in the career choice process among young adolescents.36 0.86 A 0.59 1. This career information can be presented in various ways.35 0.26 0.80 I SD 0.20 0.28 0. Finally.67 1.38 M 1. Young & Friesen. 2000.33 . such as teacher support or specialized. Suggestions for Future Research We suggest that subsequent research should focus on the interaction of different types of parent support with middle school adolescents' confidence to pursue certain career paths or to engage in certain types of career choice behavior. 1992).
54 1.26 0.27 2.26 0.24 0.32 0.01 1.26 0.28 0.28 0.62 1.27 0.26 0.30 1.31 0.60 E SD 0.24 0.29 C .35 0.18 2.69 S M 1.31 0.71 5.22 0.31 0.32 0.25 0.22 0.26 0.25 0.52 0.23 0.23 0.98 0.28 0.35 0.24 0.32 0.62 1.30 0.34 0.50 1.03 1.74 1.27 0.24 0.95 2.60 0.54 1.59 1.29 0.77 A 0.33 0.26 0.24 0.35 5.35 0.29 0.Occupational Gender-Typing Boys Girls Total Perceived Parent Support Boys Girls Total Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Boys Girls Total 1.32 0.29 0.26 0.69 0.58 1.34 0.32 0.19 2.34 0.69 0.29 0.34 M 1.19 0.34 Variable Interests Boys Girls Total Career SelfEfficacy Boys Girls Total Occupational Gender-Typing Boys Girls Total Perceived Parent Support Boys Girls Total Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Boys Girls Total SD 0.29 0.27 1.25 0.88 2.23 0.35 0.93 0.25 0.23 0.32 0.18 0.62 SD 0.33 0.29 0.38 0.22 0.85 5.33 0.35 0.24 0.24 0.28 1.24 0.21 0.
31 0.07 -VocEff .20 0.29 Note: R = Realistic. Scores on Occupational Gender-Typing Scale range from 0 to 4.29 0.21 0.08 .05 2.30 0.55 SD 0. with higher scores indicating greater efficacy.06 2.53 1.18 .24 0.25 2.27 ** -GenTyp -. C = Conventional.26 0. with 0 = no efficacy and 1 = efficacy. E = Enterprising.03 -Par . TABLE 2 Correlations of Dependent Variables and Independent Variables From Each Holland Occupational Category Variable/Interest Realistic Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Int -Gender -.16 * .10 . n = 79 boys. I = Investigative.26 0.28 0.27 ** . df = 138.68 * CPEE -.26 0. S = Social.31 0.01 -.Variable Interests Boys Girls Total Career SelfEfficacy Boys Girls Total Occupational Gender-Typing Boys Girls Total Perceived Parent Support Boys Girls Total Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Boys Girls Total M 1.03 .15 .58 1.25 0. with higher scores indicating higher interest. with 0 = no perception of parental support and = perception of parental support.25 ** -.36 0. A = Artistic.23 0. Scores on the Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Scale range from 1 to 7.05 0. with higher scores indicating more women and lower scores indicating more men. Scores on the Perceived Parent Support Scale range from 0 to 1. n = 60 girl.24 0.22 0. Scores on the Interest Scale range from 1 to 3.21 * -. Scores on the Career Self-Efficacy Scale range from 0 to 1.
11 -.28 ** -.23 ** .07 -.19 * .24 ** -- .2] .36 *** -.14 -.28 ** --.05 .08 -. df = 138.moment coefficients.07 .22 [beta] F 10.12 -- -- .15 * .10 .10 -.05 .001.13 -- .35 *** . CPEE = Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy.70 ** -.12 -.23 ** .19 * .18 * .11 -- .18 * . Correlations are Pearson product.10 -. *** p < .01 .04 -.29 ** .07 -.08 .08 .24 ** -. ** p < .73 ** -- .04 .04 .03 -- .10 .01 -- . Par = Perceived Parental Support.08 -- -.25 -.05 .16 .Par Investigative Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Par Artistic Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Par Social Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Par Enterprising Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Par Conventional Int Gender GenTyp VocEff Par --.08 .72 ** -.23 ** .15 .01 -- -- .50 [R.02 .04 .11 -.05.66 ** -.29 ** -- -.01.96 *** -2.sup.10 .15 . GenTyp = Gender-Typing.03 .22 * .86 ** t .24 ** -.04 -- Note: Int = Interests.18 * .14 .03 -- -.24 ** . * p < .65 ** -.18 * .06 -- -- .05 . VocEff = Career Self-Efficacy.10 . TABLE 3 Results of Regression Analyses Showing the Amount of Unique Variance in Interests and Career Self-Efficacy Across Holland Theme Occupational Categories Variable Realistic interests Gender R .06 .24 ** .18 * -- -.11 -.06 -.15 * .05 -- -.04 .
. n = 79 boys.20 -1.23 ** -2.81 *** 8.17 .30 .28 .10 -.90 *** 60.21 *** -2.25 -.48 *** 7.22 .21 *** 7.36 * 2.66 .78 ** 3.12 .61 * -3.94 *** 104. 138). ** p <.86 ** 3.98 *** 9.59 .Efficacy equations = (1.78 *** Note: df for Interest equations = (4.54 .36 .21 -.60 .08 *** 2.43 . 134).25 -.74 *** 9.72 ** -2.81 *** -2.18 .43 .11 .67 *** 1.35 .64 74.65 *** -4. 001.15 .98 *** 6.28 . * p <.Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Investigative Interests Gender Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Artistic interests Gender Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Social interests Gender Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Enterprising interests Gender Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Conventional interests Gender Gender-Typing Career Self-Efficacy Career Planning and Exploration Efficacy Realistic efficacy Parental Support Investigative efficacy Parental Support Artistic efficacy Parental Support Social efficacy Parental Support Enterprising efficacy Parental Support Conventional efficacy Parental Support -.38 ** 8.54 .64 .27 . df for Career Self.18 .49 * 5.01 ** -3.71 ** 9.38 -.30 -.18 *** 55.20 -. 01.41 .99 *** 14.29 .21 -.55 .09 -.55 .19 . *** p <.60 .59 .08 .98 *** 76.52 ** 3.39 2.37 .66 .59 *** -2.19 -.86 3.44 ** 1.23 .41 .31 .27 -.19 -1. n = 61 girls.16 *** -4.22 .54 .35 .58 * -1.66 *** 10.31 -.03 3.38 -4. 05.48 .45 *** 95.
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PMID: 16109001 [PubMed . Further research is needed to explore the impact of self-efficacy on the effects of prevention programs.indexed for MEDLINE] . having strong social networks. Pössel P. & Friesen. Baldus C. Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology.de BACKGROUND: Depressive disorders in adolescents are a widespread and increasing problem. The control group showed increasing depressive symptoms and a reduced social network. Lapan. University of Missouri--Columbia. Comment in: Evid Based Ment Health. Counseling and Student Personnel Psychology. A. Groen G. Horn AB. METHODS: We designed a cognitivebehavioral school-based universal primary prevention program and followed 347 eighth-grade students participating in a randomized controlled trial for three months. 178 Pillsbury Drive SE. MN 55455 (e-mail: turne047@umn. University of Tuebingen at Tuebingen. (1994). The Career Development Quarterly.. University of Minnesota. 198-207. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the prevention program had favorable effects. Sherri Turner. and Technology Initiative. 40. participants in the prevention program remained on a low level of depressive symptoms. Minneapolis.46(9):982-94. A. 195-203. The Career Development Quarterly. (1992). Correspondence concerning this article should be addressed to Sherri Turner. students low in selfefficacy benefited more from the program than high self-efficient students. The intentions of parents in influencing the career development of their children. This research was funded in part by a grant from the University of Missouri college of Education's Math. Young. Social network did not mediate the relationship between participation in the prevention program and changes in depressive symptoms. 42. 2006 May.9(2):51. Department of Educational Psychology. 139A Burton Hall. Contrary to our expectations. D. R. Prevention seems a promising and feasible approach. Department of Educational Psychology. RESULTS: In line with our hypothesis.Young. Department of Educational and Counseling Psychology. Germany. Helping adolescents with career development: The active role of parents.poessel@uni-tuebingen. Hautzinger M. J. Links Influence of general self-efficacy on the effects of a school-based universal primary prevention program of depressive symptoms in adolescents: a randomized and controlled follow-up study.edu). 2005 Sep. University of Minnesota. Richard T. Science. patrick. R. Next: 1: J Child Psychol Psychiatry.
People with high self-efficacy choose to perform more challenging tasks. including quality of decision-making and academic achievement. a strong sense of competence facilitates cognitive processes and performance in a variety of settings. Chandigarh Self-efficacy is the individuals’ assessment of their capabilities to organize and execute actions required to achieve successful levels of performance (Bandura. Significant gender differences were also found. Bandura (1977) proposes the key sources of self-efficacy as performance accomplishments. In terms of feeling a low sense of selfefficacy is associated with depression. self-efficacy influences choice of behavior. In terms of thinking. Self-efficacy makes a difference in how people feel. self. Self-efficacy pertains to optimistic beliefs about being able to cope with a variety of stressors. where female scored higher than their male counterparts. A random sample of 200 students (100 Boys & 100 Girls) studying in I. General Mental Ability Test developed by Jalota was used to have the dependent variable scores. anxiety and helplessness. 1986). and people anticipate either optimistic or pessimistic scenarios in line with their level of self. No interaction was found in self-efficacy and gender. In terms of act. Changes in self-efficacy expectations predict changes in cold pressure tolerance.related cognition is a major ingredient of motivation process in comparison to low selfefficacy people. and emotional arousal. II and III year of under-graduation was selected from different colleges of the city of Chandigarh.Next: The Role of Self-Efficacy and Gender Difference among the Adolescents Rajesh Kumar and Roshan Lal Government College. Litt (1988) finds that self-efficacy expectations affect performance beyond what would have been expected from past performance alone. Analysis of variance was applied and the F-ratio revealed significant effect of self-efficacy. Actions are preshaped in thoughts. they set for themselves higher goals and stick to them. Self-efficacy scale developed by Jerusalem and Schwarzer was used to classify subjects.efficacy. Self-efficacy levels can enhance or impede motivation. The present study examined the role of self-efficacy and gender differences among the adolescents as revealed by intelligence test. Self-efficacy affects behavior of the individual in different ways: First. think and act. vicarious experiences. People are likely to engage in tasks in which they feel competent and confident and avoid those in .
Second. 249-254. It involves understanding the specific situation in which the individual finds himself. Thus. a belief that may foster stress and narrow vision of how best to go about a problem. According to Goleman (1995.. they have little incentive to act or to persevere in the face of difficulties. facilities. processing of information. economic level. It includes assimilation of information. thought and action in an individual’s behavior. and appropriately responding to it. health. 32. Unless people believe that they can produce desired results by their actions. improved diets. and rational decision-making. self-efficacy beliefs influence individuals’ thought patterns and emotional reactions. with due regard to what is novel in the situation. etc. judicious selection of an alternative out of the multitude of alternatives presented. No. People with low self-efficacy may believe that things are tougher than they really © Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology July 2006. An efficacy expectation is the conviction that the person himself/herself can successfully produce the behavior required to generate the outcome. Flynn has reported that in the late 20th century. Environment contributes to the conditions i. The degree of intelligence is reflected by the clarity of purpose. which influences intelligence much more than heredity does. IQ . Intelligence constitutes the basic characteristic of human beings. this rise has been interpreted in terms of the environmental factors such as rising living standards. self-efficacy may help to determine how much effort people will expand on an anxiety and how long will they persevere. An outcome expectation refers to a person’s belief that a given behavior will lead to a particular outcome. It denotes having insight into the key to the whole situation or problem. 3.which they do not. 1996). IQ scores have risen substantially around the world at all age levels. Efficacy beliefs are the foundation of human agency. and to the whole situation rather than to some striking part of it. Vol. family. better educational opportunities and exposure to media. are.e. Bandura distinguishes between the two components of self-efficacy: an efficacy expectation and an outcome expectation. intelligence consists in acting in a given situation with use of past experience. Third.
The review of the literature suggested that self–efficacy may be an important personality variable affecting the use of intelligence test. Emotional intelligence constitutes three psychological dimensions such as emotional competency. B. Tools Two test materials were used to collect . Hypotheses 1) The males score higher than the females on intelligence test. which motivate an individual to recognize truthfully.efficacy group scores higher on intelligence tests than the Low selfefficacy group. Method Sample The initial sample consisted of 350 (175 male and 175 female) students from Govt. “the ability of an individual to appropriately and successfully respond to a vast variety of emotional stimuli being elicited from inner self and immediate environment. hence the present study was undertaken.Com. Sector-11. They were selected on the basis of their self-efficacy scores and gender.A. Sector-46. College for Girls. Their age 250 Self-Efficacy and Gender Difference ranged from 16-18 years.D. B.A. S. B. Sector-42. emotional maturity and emotional sensitivity.and EQ are not opposing competencies but rather separate ones and both are necessary for success in the workplace. College.A. College. 3) High income group students have better intelligence scores than the low income group students.The balance can be attributed to ‘Emotional Intelligence’ or EQ Singh (2002) defined emotional intelligence in Indian context as. B. B. Sector-32. College for Girls.C.B. interpret honestly and handle tactfully and the dynamics of human behaviour. IQ accounts for only about 20% of a person’s success in life .Sc. Govt. of Chandigarh city. Govt. The stratified random sampling technique was applied. Second and Third year of undergraduate courses viz. These students were studying in First. 2) High self. The final sample consisted of 200 (100 male and 100 female) subjects. There is a dearth of studies relating interaction effect of self-efficacy and gender on the use of intelligence test.
938. antonyms list. where it typically yielded internal consistencies between alpha= . The subjects were then administered General Mental Ability Test (GMAT) and the statistical analysis of the data were done. They are:1. first as a 20-item version and later as a reduced 10-item version (Jerusalem & Schwarzer. The scale consists of 10items and four responses / choices were provided for each item i. This scale is not only parsimonious and reliable.data. there were 50 subjects in each cell. (2) Hardly true. is calculated from the total score gathered. The subject is given ‘one’ mark for every correct response. There are 10-10 questions each related to first four areas and 20 questions each from the other three areas.91. it has also proven valid in terms of convergent and discriminate validity. Typical items are.75 and . F-values were calculated to see whether males and females as well as higher self–efficacy (HSE) and lower . then M. inference. the self-efficacy scale was administered on a group of 175 male and 175 female students. and number series. “Thanks to my resourcefulness. This is a verbal and group test of intelligence. 1992). 2.” It has been used in numerous research projects. best responses. Procedure Initially. Thus. (1) Not at all true. 200 subjects conforming to the 2x2 (self-efficacy: High and low. I know how to handle unforeseen situations. The questions of this test are related to seven different fields-synonyms list. A median split (Median=30) was used and those scoring above median were treated as high self-efficacy and those scoring below median were considered as low self-efficacy. The reliability co-efficient of this test is . and IQ is calculated by the formula IQ=MA/CA x100. analogies. sex: males and females) design were finally selected. Generalized Perceived selfefficacy scale Jerusalem and Schwarzer originally developed the German version of this scale in 1981.A. classification. (3) Almost true.e. I can usually find several solutions. and when I am confronted with a problem. Results For a 2×2 factorial design. General Mental Ability Test: There are 100 questions in this test and the total time of completing them is 20 minutes (Jalota. 1972). and (4) Very true.
76) = 9.83 57. Intelligence Mean (M) Standard Deviation (SD) High Self-Efficacy (A1) 102.735 Males (B1) 95. A significant effect of self-efficacy was also found. 76) = 16. Though the males seem to be careless and inconsistent in their studies. This could be due to the different variables controlling their behavioral pattern. This disproves the prediction that males have better intelligence than their female counterparts. Results show significant gender differences in intelligence.527 58.068 Analysis of variance revealed that significant gender differences were found in intelligence.65.136 Low Self-Efficacy (A2) 94. p< .402 Rajesh Kumar and Roshan Lal 251 High Self-Efficacy Females (A1B2) 104. Discussion The purpose of this study was to examine the function of self-efficacy and gender differences as revealed in the intelligence test.01 Table 1 show that high self-efficacy group scored higher than the low self– efficacy group. Table 1: Means and Standard Deviation for Intelligence. At this level the females scored higher than the males. generally. No significant interaction effect of self-efficacy and gender was found in intelligence. p< . females are not much exposed to the outside environment and they do not direct their feelings and devote maximum time to indoor activities and intellectual pursuits.74 54.01 (Table 2). This may be due to our social norms and family restrictions. This disproves the hypothesis that males score higher than females.174 Low Self-Efficacy Males (A2B1) 90.34. Intelligent persons can better understand how the outcomes are related to their own . F (1.288 Females (B2) 101.099 Low Self-Efficacy Females (A2B2) 98.65 51.584 High Self-Efficacy Males (A1B1) 100. That may have a negative bearing on the performance of the males in comparison to the females who. remain confined to their homes. They often share the burden of the family and remain preoccupied with different assignments. The means and standard deviations of the scores for intelligence are given in Table-1.765 53. it cannot be established that they are less intelligent than the females.552 57. females have scored higher than their male counterparts.self-efficacy (LSE) subjects differed significantly in intelligence. F (1.225 59.88 56.
It seems that intelligent children would tend to assume greater responsibility for their intellectual achievements as compared to less intelligent or dull children. and the like. Their sharper intellectual skills seem to have facilitated their understanding of the behavior outcome linkage. avoiding negative consequences. anxiety. in turn. may be related to such motivational resources . patience. guilt. would not appropriately understand the contingency between the behavior and outcomes. intelligence may be related to intrinsic motivation. Also. intelligent persons seem to show a deeper understanding of the causes of success and failure outcomes. Ellis (1965) has remarked that difference in achievement levels is due to difference in intelligence quotient and is associated with mental age. they are unsure of their capacities and performance. eventually. and this. Since. Thus. intelligence was found to predict several variables of period of adolescence including concern with intellectual competence. they tend to depend more on others for guidance. Intelligence has been found to be moderately related to IAR (Intellectual Achievement Responsibility) (Crandall. 1965) a construct related to locus of control. Kagan and Freeman (1963) found that in case of boys. but due to other reasons such as obeying rules. they shall more readily see their success and failure in an objective manner. unending efforts. the only consistent correlate of high intelligence in childhood is involvement 252 Self-Efficacy and Gender Difference in intellectual mastery during adolescence. interest. and have greater probability of displaying desirable behavioral acts and giving up undesirable ones to achieve important goals. this may form an integrated part of their motivational make-up. and they may end up doing a task not for the sake of itself. Moreover. gaining adult approval.behavior. and they perhaps. And intelligent person would understand why he/she was doing well in studies (It could be due to hard work. The less intelligent students are liable to have less sharp cognitive and analytical skills. For girls. etc). Katkovsky & Crandall. motivation. less intelligent students do not display high levels of autonomy in their behavior. Consequently.
Wassertein. the low self efficacy (LSE) and less intelligent group used reaction formation against the frustrating situations. competence. They take the stressful situations as challenging and believe in their achieving abilities thereby increase their efforts to cope with them as compared to the low self-efficacy (LSE) subjects (Bandura. Low self-efficacy (LSE) group scored less on the intelligent test and the individuals of this group may use reversal in denial or repression against the people or event. graceful. 1989).efficacy (LSE) group. Individuals of high self-efficacy (HSE) group are to experience feelings of satisfaction. On the other hand. often cannot openly express its anger or hostility for the fear of the powerful people or situations and therefore they repress their feelings. 1997. and inconsistent. Payne (2000) in a recent study also found that a relationship exists between general selfefficacy and physical aggression. 1995). Selfefficacy expectancies refer to personal action control and this “can do” – cognition mirrors a sense of control over one’s environment.as considered in the present context (Deci & Ryan. in spite of having the potentiality to face stressful situation. abusive. 1993). self-assured and able to compensate inferiority feelings. It reflects the belief of being able to control . Kloosterman. 1986. The High self-efficacy (HSE) group has the capacity to use the intellectual efforts in more creative tasks and always tries to explore new horizons of success. 1998. 2 has been proved that high self-efficacy (HSE) group scores higher on intelligence test than the low self. it lays foundation for the individual to develop a sense of basic hostility toward the people. Here. energetic. The High self-efficacy (HSE) group. showed adventurous and risk taking behavior to cope up with the stressful situation. High selfefficacy (HSE) subjects are more confident about their potentialities. and optimistic. The result of present study show that the high self-efficacy (HSE) group scored better on intelligence test than the low self-efficacy (LSE) group. do not easily loose their temperament and adjust with the environment as per the demand. aesthetic. They prove to be helpful. the hypothesis No. If the people’s attitude toward the low intelligent individual is cold. persistence and control (Baron. Podsakoff & Farh.
(1992). material behaviors. P. Assessing student motivation in high school mathematics. Emotional Intelligence: Why it can matter more than I. Child Development. (1986). A. New York: Bantan Books. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Education Research Association.: Hemisphere. E. M. Washington. 84.: Prentice Hall.D.academic achievement situations. 34. it was seen that with all the facilities available. Jerusalem. (1965). However. Katkovsky. Child Development. J.McCombs (Eds.challenging environmental demands by taking adaptive action. Goleman. D.. Self-efficacy: Thought control of action (pp 195-211). social class to behavior during adolescence. Englewood Cliffs. Self-Efficacy and perceived . they can be grouped into the high-income and low-income categories. Ellis. 80. Relation of childhood intelligence.C.. Using learner centered assessment on a large scale.J. V. Rajesh Kumar and Roshan Lal 253 Deci. In the present study no significant interaction effect of gender and self-efficacy was found. Selfefficacy as a resource factor in stress appraisal process. Kloosterman. D. & Crandall. R. (1988). (1995a) Emotional intelligence. On the basis of their family income. New York: Bantan Books. In R.C. & Freeman. & Schwarcer. M. Kagan. DC: American Psychological Association. (1963). Bandura. (1993). In N. Litt. 91-109. Schwarcer (Ed. Chicago. Psychological Review. Crandall.J. Washington. References Bandura. the high-income group students are not necessarily better in intelligence than the low-income group students who can outscore them in studies and in day-to-day life..). Psychological Abstracts.L. N. The initiation & regulation of intrinsically motivated learning and achievement. R. Educational psychology. How students learn: Reforming schools through learner centered education (pp. 36. V. 32836. (1997). A.J. 899-911.M. The subjects were also studied according to their economic parameters. 191-215. J.S.. Self-efficacy: Toward a unifying theory of behavioral change.. M. Lambert and B. (1977). Children’s beliefs in their own control of reinforcements in intellectual. D.).Q. (1998).(1996). Social foundations of thoughts and action: A social cognitive theory. New Delhi: Affiliated East-West Press. Baron. R. (1965). W. & Ryan. 211-240). Goleman.
897898-A. San diego H.M. What middle scholars say about their schoolwork? Educational Leadership. Chandigarh Roshan Lal. 61. Podsakoff. and physical aggression.I. J. (1989). C. 53. 54.control: Cognitive mediators of pain tolerance. Singh. Naeen Tariq National Institute of Psychology Editor & Quid-I-Azam University Director NIP Islamabad – Pakistan Next: EJ690186 . Government College. fear of powerlessness. For further details please contact: Dr. New Delhi: Response Books. (2000). P. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes. 2006 Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research (PJPR) Invites original contributions based on empirical research from “third world” countries for publication in PJPR. Click here to learn about other options.. 149-160. 44. Dissertation Abstracts International. 41-43. Sternberg. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1985). P.B. Sector-46. Emotional intelligence at work: A professional guide. Payne. Rajesh Kumar.(2001).More Info: Help | Publisher's Web Site . 45-67. Effects of Feedback sign and credibility on goal setting and task performance. General Self-efficacy. R. (1990). Intelligence applied. is Lecturer in the Department of Psychology. D. is presently Lecturer and Head in the Department of Psychology. Sector-46. A. 2005 Accepted: June 20. Chandigarh 254 Self-Efficacy and Gender Difference Received: October 13. & Farh.Moder Full-Text Availability Options: Help Finding Full Text ERIC does not have permission to provide full text for this record. Government College. Wasserstein.More Info: Help | Tutorial | Find in a Library Link to the nearest library that lists the selected article or book among its print or electronic holdings. J.
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report) or publication medium. However. 2455 Teller Road. abstractor initials appeared at the end of the abstract. updated only if notified by the publisher.g. Publication Date: The date the document or article was published. Note: Used from 2005 onward. CA 91320. document. Abstract: A brief narrative description of the journal article. Higher levels of perceived negative social change and lower levels of prior selfefficacy predicted lower levels of life satisfaction and less optimism regarding one's future after German unification in 1992. This study investigated whether self-efficacy beliefs measured before the onset of social change would moderate effects of social change on adolescents' life satisfaction. Pages: The total number of pages including all front-matter. optimism regarding their future. perceived social change due to unification and outcome variables was assessed.publication. we found that higher self-efficacy buffers negative effects of unification-based change on both psychological outcome variables. as provided by the publisher. In addition. and educational success. Self-efficacy beliefs of 593 German adolescents were measured between 1985 and 1988 before German unification. Thousand Oaks. Abstractor: Source of the abstract: ERIC or Author. Reference Count: Author 32 . Journal Articles. In 1992. Reports . Tel: 800-818-7243 (Toll Free).Evaluative 20 2004-05-00 Sage Publications. Fax: 800-583-2665 (Toll Free).More Info: Help Publisher: Publisher name and contact information. prior to 2005. no interaction effect between perceived social change and self-efficacy was found on the probability of attending the highest school track in 1992.. or resource. Pub Types: The type of document (e.
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John G. your last name is your password.CO. Self-Efficacy in Adolescents Who Have Siblings With or Without Disabilities Issn: 0895-8017 Journal: American Journal on Mental Retardation Volume: 107 Issue: 2 Pages: 79-90 Authors: O'Kane Grissom. Attention Subscribers: Your member ID is your user name. Article ID: 10.1352/0895-8017(2002)107<0079:SEIAWH>2.2 Abstract Fifty-four adolescents (27 with and 27 without a sibling who had a disability) were contrasted on levels of self-efficacy. Education Level: The level of education that is addressed in the document or article.International Standard Book Number (ISBN) – a unique number assigned to the document. ISSN: International Standard Serial ISSN-0743-5584 Number (ISSN) – a unique number assigned to the serial or journal. Borkowski. From 2005 forward. Audiences: N/A The author’s intended audience. N/A ating Effects of Adolescents' Self-Efficacy Beliefs on Psychological Responses to Social Change next: The article you have requested is available via subscription. Languages: The name of the primary language English in which the document was written.0. primary language is English. Adolescents completed questionnaires measuring . Maureen.
we view medical instructions as something we understand and can carry out. A strong sense of efficacy requires experience in overcoming obstacles by being persistent. and maternal attitudes toward and modeling of prosocial and empathic behavior. It plays a big role in our successfully managing a chronic illness over time and across situations. Females evidenced higher levels of self-efficacy than did males. 2007 Discussion (0) When we have self-efficacy. Failures undermine it. not that our illness is controlling us. We start to realize that we need to be in control of our own health and. at the same time. PhD February 22. Some setbacks and difficulties in our performance serve a useful purpose by teaching us that success usually requires sustained effort. If we have self-efficacy beliefs. If we only experience easy successes. After we become convinced that we have what it takes to succeed. regardless of sibling's disability status.self-efficacy. If we have self-efficacy. None of the adolescent measures differed significantly between those whose siblings did or did not have disabilities. especially if they occur before we have established a sense of efficacy. Patients who believe in their ability to control their illness look at tasks as challenges to be mastered rather than as threats to be avoided. For adolescents whose siblings had disabilities. Next: The importance of self-efficacy Tom Creer. But if we believe that we can overcome challenges and our own weaknesses. By sticking it out through tough times. think. Sources of self-efficacy You may be wondering: How do I develop self-efficacy? Albert Bandura found there were four ways to do so. We bounce back from failure to recover a sense of being able to do whatever task we did poorly. . more powerful. Self-efficacy determines how we feel. We set goals and stay committed to them. A. interpersonal competence was significantly related to self-efficacy. Selfefficacy makes us feel better about ourselves. There are too many other things to do with our lives than to surrender them to an illness. For adolescents with siblings who did not have disabilities. we are also less likely to give up if we make mistakes. We need to believe that we are controlling our illness. We may blame failures on ourselves for either not doing the things we should or not knowing how to take care of ourselves. and in control. we begin to feel a sense of our own power. interpersonal competence and maternal attitudes and modeling were significantly related to self-efficacy. we believe we can control events that affect our lives. we become stronger. that our illness does not control us. we have confidence that we can eventually succeed. we take a greater interest and are more involved in these and other activities that help us to manage our condition. Successes build a belief in your personal efficacy. peer competence. we persevere in the face of adversity and rebound from setbacks. we may come to expect quick results and be discouraged by failure. The best way of creating a sense of efficacy is through mastery experiences. and behave. When we don't give up. Process-oriented variables associated with self-efficacy were identified and could become targets for intervention efforts to influence this positive set of beliefs in adolescents.
they structure situations for themselves in ways that bring success. Processes of self-efficacy Bandura described the four psychological processes through with self-efficacy affect our daily functions. We may interpret stress reactions and tension as signs that we will perform poorly. People who have been persuaded that they lack capabilities tend to avoid challenging activities that cultivate potential and give up in the face of difficulties. is influenced by how we look at our abilities to reach these goals. We control much of our behavior by thinking beforehand about the goals we wish to pursue. Physical indicators of efficacy play an important role in how we manage our health and illnesses. By limiting activities and undermining motivation. In the long run. a lack of belief in our own capabilities keeps us from moving forward. If we see models as different from ourselves. Modeling influences do more than provide us a standard against which to judge our own capabilities. Social persuasion is a third way of strengthening our beliefs that we have what it takes to succeed. Our beliefs in our efficacy shape the types of thoughts we construct and rehearse. and pains as signs of physical weakness. Through their behavior and expressed ways of thinking. this. competent models transmit knowledge and teach us effective skills and strategies for managing our environment. Personal goal setting. the fourth way of modifying self-efficacy is to reduce stress reactions and alter negative emotional feelings. We attempt to think through most of the courses of action we take before we perform them. The effects of self-efficacy on cognitive processes take a variety of forms. Seeing people like ourselves succeed raises our beliefs that we too possess the capabilities to master similar activities. People who can verbally persuade themselves that they have the capabilities to master given activities are likely to mobilize and sustain greater effort than if they have self-doubts and dwell on personal deficiencies. our self-efficacy is less influenced by their behavior and the results it produces. People with a high sense of efficacy are likely to view arousal as a facilitator of performance. People with self-efficacy do more than look positively at the outcome of their efforts. on the other hand. whereas those with self. Cognitive Processes. we judge fatigue.B. we measure success in terms of our self-improvement rather than by triumphing over others. Mood also affects our judgments of personal efficacy in that positive moods increases self-efficacy while negative moods decreases it. We also rely partly on our gut feelings and emotional states in judging our capabilities. it promotes the development of skills and a sense of personal efficacy. It is difficult to achieve much while fighting self-doubt. Thus. in turn. A. Those who doubt their efficacy tend to visualize failures and dwell on things that can go wrong. D. The stronger our self-efficacy. are quickly shot down by if we are disappointed by the results of our efforts. watching others fail despite their high effort lowers our judgments of our own efficacy. In addition to raising beliefs in their capabilities. The greater the similarity between models and ourselves. To the extent that persuasion leads us to try to succeed. It is not the sheer intensity of emotional and physical reactions that is important but rather how we look at and interpret them. A major role of thought is to help us predict events and develop ways to control those that affect our lives. the more persuasive their successes and failures are to us. People who have a high sense of efficacy can visualize events they think will occur. Unrealistic boosts in self-efficacy. We seek models that possess the competencies to which we aspire to perform. they also avoid being placed prematurely in situations where they are likely to fail. can undermine our efforts. C. Effective skills require us to deal with processing information that may contain . The second way of creating and strengthening self-efficacy is through observing others. in turn. the higher the goals we can set for ourselves and the stronger the commitment we have to reach them. aches. these thoughts provide guides and support for their later performance. In activities involving strength and stamina. By the same token. for example. The impact of modeling on perceived self-efficacy is strongly influenced if we see the model as similar to us.doubts regard arousal as interfering with their performance. It is more difficult for us to gain beliefs of personal efficacy by social persuasion alone than it is to for us to lose it.
as well as our level of motivation. We set goals for ourselves and plan the actions required to reach them. We generate most of our motivation by thinking through how we are going to guide our actions. and to remember which tactics we have tested and how well they worked. for example. challenging goals enhance and sustain motivation. affects our motivation. performance.ambiguities and uncertainties. people who have self-doubts about their capabilities slacken their efforts or give up quickly. People act on their beliefs about what they can do. When faced with obstacles and failures. A body of evidence shows that explicit. Self-efficacy helps us to use these three factors to motivate ourselves. They seek satisfaction by fulfilling goals and are prompted to intensify their efforts if unhappy with substandard performances. and the final is goal theory. self-efficacy for goal attainment. Motivational processes. limit our goals and. we may wonder. If we think our actions will lead to a positive outcome. Through such thinking. strong perseverance C. contributes to Affective performance accomplishments. Goals operate largely through the influence they have on us rather than how they directly regulate motivation and action. and our resilience to failures. as well as on their beliefs about the likely outcomes of their performance. People form beliefs about what they can do and anticipate the likely outcomes of their actions. Bandura recognized three different ways by which we use thought to motivate ourselves. or what we think will happen if we perform a given action in a given situation. Beliefs of self-efficacy play a key role in how we regulate motivation. As a result. motivation occurs through the anticipation that a given course of behavior will produce certain outcomes. In contrast. Processes Our beliefs in our abilities to cope affect how much stress and depression we experience in threatening or difficult situations. People who believe they can control threats do not stir up disturbing thought patterns. or how we explain events to ourselves. or the goals we set for ourselves. The motivating influence of outcome expectancies is thus partly governed by self-efficacy. as a result. These include satisfying and unsatisfying reactions to our performance. we may become unable to think clearly. Attribution theory. to weight and fuse predictive factors. how much effort we expend. “Why bother?” With outcome expectations. . we will perform the actions. Motivation based on goal setting involves a comparison process. The stronger their self-efficacy. if they think they will result in failure. Those who have a strong belief in their capabilities exert greater effort when they fail to master the challenge. Self-efficacy contributes to motivation in several ways: They determine the goals we set for ourselves. how long we persist in the face of difficulties. the second is outcome expectancies. The ability to set goals for ourselves is the final mechanism of motivation. They dwell on their deficiencies in coping and view many aspects of their environment as dangerous. those who maintain a strong sense of efficacy think clearly and set challenging goals for themselves. while those who believe they can’t manage threats experience high anxiety arousal. B. we draw on our knowledge to consider options. By making their satisfaction conditional on matching their goals. the bolder people are in taking on difficult and threatening activities. When we are faced with the tasks of managing difficult environmental demands under trying circumstances and beset by doubts about our self-efficacy. and the failures and setbacks that have significant results for us. they are more apt to achieve the goals they have set. they upset themselves and impair their level of functioning. The first is attribution theory. It requires strong selfefficacy to remain on task in the face of demands. see our performance go to pieces. people give direction to their behavior and create incentives to persist in their efforts until they reach their goals. Three types of influences that we control govern motivation based on goals or personal standards. Hence. Perceived coping self-efficacy regulates avoidance behavior as well as anxiety arousal. They magnify the severity of possible threats and worry about things that rarely happen. In learning rules to help us predict and regulate our behavior. Perceived self-efficacy to control stress plays a central role in anxiety arousal. and adjustment of personal goals based on our progress. and reaction to our performance mainly through self-efficacy. to test and revise our judgments against immediate and long-term results of our actions.
creates positive attitudes. as well as anxiety. As coping efficacy increases. the time they perform the activity can be gradually extended. cushion the adverse effects of chronic stress. Feared activities are first modeled to show people how to cope with threats and eliminate their worst fears. however. We generate much of our depressive feelings by repeatedly focusing on negative thoughts. Stress has been implicated as an important contributing factor to many physical conditions. duration. but you can stop them from building a nest in your head. in particular. The inability to control stress may. in several different ways. and bring satisfaction to their lives. but our perceived inability to manage them that can be harmful. Other processes activated by self-efficacy affect the impact of coping self-efficacy on biological systems that control our health. Performing feared activities together with others further enables highly fearful people to do things they would resist doing by themselves. exposure to stressors with the ability to control them has no adverse biological effects. A weak sense of self-efficacy to exercise control over stress activates a number of biological systems involved in the regulation of the immune system. designed to test coping capabilities. Once people develop a resilient sense of efficacy. Self-directed mastery experiences. can then be arranged to strengthen and generalize the sense of coping efficacy. A second efficacy route to depression is through a low sense of social efficacy. A low sense of efficacy to control these kinds of thoughts also contributes to the occurrence. Both perceived coping self-efficacy and the ability to control thought operate together to reduce anxiety and avoidant behavior. they can withstand difficulties and adversity. and reduces fearful thoughts and nightmares. anxiety and biological stress reactions. Protective aids and the gradual presentation of the severity of threats also help to restore and develop a sense of coping efficacy. but will risk these tasks for a short period. The impairment of immune function increases susceptibility to infection. It is not stressful life conditions per se. It is not the sheer frequency of disturbing thoughts but the perceived inability to turn them off that is the major source of distress. One must create an environment so that highly fearful and incapacitated people can perform successfully despite themselves. Fearful people will refuse threatening tasks if they will have to endure stress for a long time. Guided mastery treatment of this kind can achieve widespread psychological changes in a relatively short time. A low sense of efficacy to exercise control produces depression. One route to depression. People who think they lack the social skills to develop satisfying and supportive relationships increase their likelihood of depression through social isolation. Guided mastery is a powerful way to instill a robust sense of coping efficacy in people whose functioning is seriously impaired by intense apprehension and fearful self-protective reactions. Another way of overcoming resistance is to begin with being in the presence of stressors for short periods of time. Coping tasks are then broken down into subtasks of easily mastered steps. for example. It eliminates fearful behavior. Being able to control stress appears to be a key organizing principle regarding the nature these stressors have on our health. Bandura suggests that the exercise of control over our own consciousness is summed up well in the proverb: "You cannot prevent the birds of worry and care from flying over your head." Perceived self-efficacy to control thought processes is a key factor in regulating how our thoughts produce stress and depression. contributes to the development of physical disorders. Mastery experiences are structured in ways to build coping skills and induce beliefs that one can control potential threats. After functioning is fully restored. Stress activated in the process of acquiring . impair the immune system. People who judge themselves as socially competent seek out and cultivate social relationships that provide experience to manage difficult situations. mastery aids can be withdrawn to show that coping successes stem from personal efficacy rather than from the aids. and accelerates the progression of disease. occurs by failure to reach our goals. and recurrence of depressive episodes. Social cognitive theory prescribes mastery experiences as the principal means of personality change. People who impose unrealistic standards of self-worth on themselves can drive themselves into bouts of depression. This can be achieved by using a variety of performance mastery aids.Anxiety is affected not only by perceived coping efficacy but also by your perceived efficacy to control disturbing thoughts. Biological systems are highly interdependent.
32. the more successful people are in reducing harmful health habits and including health-promoting habits into their regular lifestyle. stress aroused while gaining coping mastery over stressors can improve different components of the immune system. San Diego: Academic Press. We provide this description of self-efficacy because in our research. 1998). There is some evidence that providing people with effective means for managing stress. In V.emory/mpf/selfefficacy. (1994). Moreover. 71-81). (Reprinted in H. There are substantial evolutionary benefits to experiencing improved immune function during the development of coping capabilities vital for effective adaptation. by Dario Bacchini . pp. More importantly. New York: Academic Press.html Next: Self-Image and Perceived Self-Efficacy during Adolescence Journal article by Dario Bacchini. we have found that it is key ingredient in whether or not people learn and perform self-management skills to control a chronic illness.coping skills may have different effects than the stress we experience in aversive situations with no prospect of gaining any self-protective efficacy. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. however.des.). 2003 Journal Article Excerpt Self-image and perceived self-efficacy during adolescence. Our experience has shown that up to seven years after being in a self-management program for asthma. Fabrizia Magliulo. Perceived self-efficacy affects every phase of personal change including whether people even consider changing their health habits. Vol. Positive habits enable us to exert behavioral influence over the vitality and quality of our health. A. patients believed they were in control of their illness much more than their illness controlled them. and how well they maintain the habit changes they have achieved. may have a positive effect on immune function. The stronger their perceived self-efficacy. Their experiences far exceeded any expectations we had of the program. The above description of self-efficacy was adapted by a discussion in Bandura. If this were the case. patients thought that self-efficacy was the secret of their being able to manage their condition. 4. Encyclopedia of human behavior (Vol. There are other ways in which perceived self-efficacy serves to promote health. people would experience high vulnerability to infective agents that could quickly do them in. Encyclopedia of mental health. Lifestyle habits can enhance or impair health. Fabrizia Magliulo INTRODUCTION Recent Approaches to the Study of Adolescence . Ramachaudran (Ed.]. however. Friedman [Ed. whether they enlist the motivation and perseverance needed to succeed should they choose to do so. More writings on self-efficacy and social cognitive theory by Professor Bandura and others can be found at the following site: www. Self-efficacy. It would not be advantageous if acute stressors always impaired immune function because of their prevalence in everyday life. S.
.The research carried out in recent years on adolescence has been the scene of a profound paradigmatic change. The levels of the verbal persuasion variable were (a) persuasion designed to promote internal and stable attributions. 1964. an indication of relative well-being (Bandura. outcome judgments. and game score. Rutter et al. Author Affiliation: Editors: No editors Document Title: Therapeutic Recreation Journal Abstract: A growing body of literature points to the importance and benefits of individuals maintaining a sense of personal capability and control with respect to their recreation and leisure pursuits. Petersen. Next: Title: Effects of attribution based verbal persuasion and imagery on self-efficacy of adolescents diagnosed with major depression. Maughan-Pritchett. The imagery variable included (a) imagery of a successful experience. where adolescence is represented as a period marked by relatively invariable phases of development. generality of efficacy judgments. 1966. persistence at the task. and (c) no persuasion. and to adopt a process-oriented model (Petersen et al. (b) ambiguous persuasion designed to yield external and unstable attributions. making it the largest and most comprehensive abstracts database in its . and (c) no imagery conditions. D. An independent groups. adolescents feel it is important to maintain good relations (Lanz et al.. J. M. the "continuity" of this transitional phase is revealed especially in the relationship with the family towards which. Analysis of variance results revealed that research participants in the internal persuasion condition had significantly higher scores on the collection of dependent variables. Ruddell.. 1992. Publisher: About CAB Abstracts CAB Abstracts is a unique and informative resource covering everything from Agriculture to Entomology to Public Health. and performance of adolescent psychiatric patients playing a video game.. to paraphrase Kagan (1998). To conclude. as compared to the other persuasion groups. 1996). 1989a... 3 × 3 experimental design was used. 1999). Douvan and Adelson. Offer et al.. The concept of "adolescent crisis" has also been reconsidered not only as a risk factor but also as a protection factor since it represents an opportunity to strengthen the individual's ability to cope with future stressful situations (Rutter. Rutter and Rutter. 1992). Many "traditionally held" ideas about adolescence have been abandoned: there are now numerous empirical studies which reveal that most children go through adolescence successfully without experiencing significant traumas. generality of efficacy judgments. Research participants were 90 adolescents who were in-patients at a psychiatric hospital. where emphasis is placed on the study of interactions between individual and context. Personal Authors: Ellis. Offer and Schonert-Reichl. (b) imagery of a failure experience. 1980. G. Dependent variables were measures of self-efficacy judgments. the seductive ideas about development prove in this case to be c. In April 2006 we published our 5 millionth abstract. E. 1988. outcome judgments.. Evidence of an effect of success imagery on level of self-efficacy was also present. 1976). the rapid and profound socio cultural changes that have taken place in recent times seem to be reflected particularly vividly in adolescence and. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of attribution based verbal persuasion and guided mental imagery on self-efficacy judgments. to a greater extent than in the past. This has led researchers to abandon the stage-oriented model of study.
the current study explores the possible roles that both self-efficacy and interpersonal discussion might play in . At this time.). a fast-paced. The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion and Self-Efficacy in Knowledge. This triad of measures is often referred to as the KAP model and is frequently employed to assess the impact of health care interventions.co. Anurudra Bhanot. high production value detective show — as part of a larger HIV and AIDS. This study examines the relationship between exposure to an entertainment education (EE) program and the processes by which it produces knowledge. The main character. your institution does not subscribe to CAB Direct so you cannot access them. FRANK BBC World Service Trust University of Southern California SHEILA T. Chatterjee. next: International Journal of Communication 3 (2009).awareness multi-media campaign. Your search for ‘self efficacy impact effect and importance on adolescents’ has pulled up numerous records and resources from the CAB Abstracts database. & Gerry Power). an initial knowledge.1 million adults in India are infected with HIV (International Institute for Population Sciences & Macro International.25%) (ibid. attitudes.bhanot@bbcwst. and that the majority of cases were in younger as opposed to older individuals. namely young. Frank: lfrank@usc. Licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-commercial No Derivatives (by-nc-nd). but the target others with whom that discussion occurs are also important for predicting behavioral change. Adding self-efficacy and interpersonal discussion improve this model. Using structural equation modeling techniques. was created to appeal to the primary target audience of sexually active men between 18 and 34 years of age. Frank. and Practice Models JOYEE S.edu Sheila T. MURPHY GERRY POWER University of Southern California BBC World Service Trust This study contributes to the theoretical discussions about the influence of educationentertainment programming on consumers of the genre. Chatterjee: jchatter@usc. The analysis focused on 834 sexually active young men. Jasoos (Detective) Vijay. Sheila T. and practices model is examined. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Survey (NFHS-3). Taken together.). which tested more than 100.org Lauren B.edu Gerry Power: gerry.000 people. Murphy. attitude.uk Date submitted: 2008-11-11 608 Chatterjee.35%) than in rural areas (0. urban males (ibid. 607-634 1932-8036/20090607 Copyright © 2009 (Joyee S.org. is used. Recent studies estimate that between 2 and 3. these three parameters describe the demographic at highest risk for contracting HIV in India. Murphy: smurphy@usc. Data from the end-line evaluation of an EE program produced by the BBC World Service Trust in India. Implications for EE theory and programs are explored. the key demographic target audience for the program.edu Anurudra Bhanot: andy. the BBC World Service Trust developed an entertainment education program — Jasoos Vijay.power@bbc. In addition to these traditional measures.field. The survey also found that more men are HIV positive than women. found the prevalence to be higher in urban areas (0. CHATTERJEE University of Southern California ANURUDRA BHANOT LAUREN B. and behavioral effects. Lauren B. Bhanot. Frank. Jasoos Vijay. Not only is interpersonal discussion important. please click here. In response to the growing numbers of HIV cases in India. and how to subscribe. Attitude. 2007). To find out more about this exciting resource.° The National Family Health Joyee S. Available at http://ijoc.
exposure to EE programs has been shown to effect changes in audience members’ knowledge. & practices — to understand the process of behavioral and social change (Singhal. Wilkin et al. H1b: Exposure to JV predicts more positive HIV/AIDS-related attitudes. Older relatives and extended family members are highly respected. Rao. These studies point to the need to target health campaigns for men.changing HIV/AIDS-related behavior among sexually active young men in India. existing interpersonal social networks could prove to be an invaluable asset in outreach to young. are the ones with the power to initiate discussions and implement decisions regarding sexual matters (Ramakrishna. attitudes. In contrast. 1999. 2001. Although various researchers have proposed different existing theoretical models of the knowledge-attitude-practice relationship. particularly Sonal T. & Pant.. 2006. whether at the level of the individual. Lettenmaier. 2001. Frank. Cultural Context of HIV/AIDS in India One of the key communication challenges of HIV/AIDS-related campaigns in India is the taboo nature of the issue. Charlotte Lapsansky & Hua Wang at USC Annenberg. Yoder. 1999. social. “men's participation appears to be a promising strategy that needs to complement those [campaigns] that focus on helping women and raising their status and income in Indian society” (p. Valente. who happen to be in the age group most vulnerable to HIV/AIDS” (Bhattacharya. Bhanot. simple exposure to an EE program had little impact on knowledge and behavioral change in the target population.1 1 Knowledge. Prevalent gender norms are skewed such that (among heterosexual couples) men. & Joshi. Roth. it is worth noting that the degree. a problem further compounded by a lack of formal sex education infrastructure in schools and colleges (Verma. attitudes. Hornik. Pelto. highlighting their role as decision makers not only for their own health. Arlene Luck and the editorial staff at the International Journal of Communication. and behaviors were self-reported in the survey data. Schensul & Joshi. In general. However. and not women. Discussion on topics such as sex. & Bunch. Roth. .. attitudes. (p. We especially thank the two anonymous reviewers whose comments and insights helped enhance the paper. Singhal & Rogers. Attitude. Verma. As Bhattacharya (2004) points out. & Bunch. 112) ° The authors wish to acknowledge the support of their respective institutions and colleagues who provided valuable support through various stages of this paper. Our first set of hypotheses tests the effect of exposure to Jasoos Vijay on the HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Krishnan. and they routinely play gatekeeper roles on varying aspects of family and community life. . Schensul. Pelto.. 2007. and change overt behavior. 2005). and behavior on the issue being promoted (Papa et al. and behavior of the target population. 2004. Krishnan. 1999). At the same time. Valente and Saba (2001) found that while exposure to and interpersonal communication encouraged by a campaign significantly impacted knowledge and behavior. and scope of EE effects have varied dramatically. The purpose of EE is to contribute to the process of directed social change. Chaudhuri at BBC WST and Janel Schuh. H1c: Exposure to JV predicts increased HIV/AIDS-prevention behavior (practices). 2007). 2004). are still taboo in India. 2004. as Roth. it is plausible that. Glass. or society (Singhal & Rogers. intensity. 2004). The norm of not discussing personal sexual behavior and the inability to connect personal risk to HIV are considered two barriers to initiating open and honest discussions. premarital sexual activity begins relatively early (Joshi. Sivaram et al. particularly in the semi-urban and rural areas. 1994. Singhal & Vasanti. To change the environment surrounding HIV/AIDS issues. shift social norms. . Thus. create favorable attitudes. Nor is this “culture of silence” on discussion of sex and/or sexual health the only communication barrier. 2000. 2002). & Dibba. p. they did not impact attitudes. They “often provide both informational and instructional support concerning social norms and family relationships to the younger family members .. Valente et al. Even today in many Indian communities. attitude.. 74). 2004). and Practice Model Evaluations of EE interventions have traditionally focused on the KAP model — the link between an individual’s knowledge. . International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 609 Research on the sexual and reproductive behavior of adolescents and young adults in India indicates that unprotected. the most . Traditionally. 2004. social and religious beliefs have played a strong role in keeping public discourse on issues of sexuality at a minimum. The Knowledge. discussion with family members of sexuality-related topics is uncommon. and sexual behavior issues . For instance. Krishnan. Entertainment Education Entertainment education (EE) is the process of purposely designing and implementing a media message that both entertains and educates. Thanks also to Larry Gross. and Bunch (2001) note. Kim. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) H1a: Exposure to JV predicts increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. & Pelto. Thus. 112). Rogers et al. community. to prevent HIV/AIDS in India. given the right impetus. but also for that of their sexual partners. in order to increase audience members’ knowledge about a particular issue. there is a “culture of silence” surrounding open or direct discussions of sexual matters and sexual health (Bhattacharya. and moral underpinnings. 610 Chatterjee. Dhapola. sexuality. and Chirwa (1996) found that controlling for other variables. 2004). it is critical to break the silence. especially given the associated sexual. at-risk populations (Bhattacharya.
208). 1999). Therefore. sexually active male viewers were between 18 and 34 years old and reported having engaged in sexual intercourse. etc. and identify steps to initiate social change” (p. Hypothesized Knowledge. Similar findings on the impact of interpersonal communication have also been reported from studies on family planning campaigns in Nepal (Sharan & Valente. 50). Self-efficacy refers to an individual’s assessment of his or her own ability to perform a particular behavior (Bandura.frequently applied ordering of the KAP variables is the cognitive model (Valente. sexually active male viewers2 of Jasoos Vijay. getting tested for HIV/AIDS. 368). Prior research indicates that 2 Young. and Fishbein and Cappella’s (2006) Integrated Model of Behavioral Prediction. Boulay. and Practices Model. Heckert. This relationship has been especially relevant when considering discussion of sensitive or taboo topics. 2004). 2002. Rosenstock. In Tanzania. Figure 1. such as using condoms. (2000) also emphasized the impact that discussion can have on collective efficacy. Parades. 2001) found that exposure and interpersonal communication were associated with changes in knowledge and contraceptive use. An investigation into the role of interpersonal communication in promoting behavioral change was done by the team investigating the impact of the radio drama "Twende na Wakati" in Tanzania in the 1990s (Rogers et al. 2008. The concept of self-efficacy has been explored in EE contexts previously. Does perceived self-efficacy with respect to HIV/AIDS prevention measures influence the relationship between exposure and knowledge. Additionally. 2004). H3: HIV/AIDS-related attitudes predict increased HIV/AIDS prevention behavior. domestic violence (Usdin. and behavior? Role of Interpersonal Discussion Research from the past two decades on EE has repeatedly found that programs that spark interpersonal discussion are more likely to promote behavioral change (Papa & Singhal. Interpersonal communication was found to increase the villagers’ sense of collective efficacy and to lead to community action. The present research tests the traditional KAP model (see Figure 1 for a depiction of hypothesized paths) on young. avoiding shared needles. or to give up easily when facing adversity (Bandura & Schunk. Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior H1a H1b H1c H2 H3 International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 611 individuals with low self-efficacy who are not confident in their ability to perform a particular behavior tend to either not try to perform the behavior in question. Their analysis found that “one of the main processes through which the soap opera changed Tanzanian listeners' family planning behavior was by stimulating interpersonal communication about the subject” (p. Specifically. Bandura argues that self-efficacy is one of the most important prerequisites of behavior. Self-Efficacy Other recent models of behavioral change have incorporated additional key constructs. Karki. & Poppe. Storey. we add the following research question: RQ1. Goldstein. “Conversations about the educational content of a media program can create a socially constructed learning environment in which people evaluate previously held ideas. engage in the behavior” (p. as individuals came to believe that . 1994).. a study conducted by Valente et al. Self-efficacy may play a pivotal role in translating HIV/AIDS-relevant knowledge and attitudes into actual prevention behavior. and Becker’s (1988) Health Belief Model. 2002). A detailed case study of the impact of a radio drama Tinka Tinka Sukh on a village in India (Lutsaan) by Papa et al. attitudes. 1981). we predict: H2: HIV/AIDS-related knowledge predicts more positive attitudes toward HIV/AIDS. Studies across various cultures have found EE programming to be effective in provoking discussion and dialogue within the family — especially when related to sexual behavior (Rogers et al.. limiting one’s sex partners. exposure to a dramatic EE program increased viewers’ beliefs that they could reduce their risk of contracting HIV/AIDS (Bandura. The most common addition is Bandura’s (1977) concept of self-efficacy that has been integrated into Ajzen’s (1985) Theory of Planned Behavior. 1998). Attitudes. Shongwe. For example. investigations from two mass media campaigns on reproductive health in Bolivia (Valente & Saba. (1994) in Gambia found that a radio drama encouraged couples and families to talk about family planning. Strecher.. Singhal. Singhal & Rogers. & Karmacharya. 1999). When interpersonal discussion occurs. This theoretical model “argues that individuals first learn about a practice. it can substantially influence subsequent behavior. and family planning (Valente et al. then develop a positive attitude toward it. & Shabalala. 1999). Interpersonal village networks proved to be extremely important in circulating crucial information about contraceptives. consider options. and after passing through these stages. 1977).
and interpersonal discussion may produce effects on behavior and recommendations of behavior to others. focusing exclusively on whether or not viewers personally engage in safer sex behaviors may underestimate the true impact of the program. Bhanot. Poppe. (See Figure 2). Complete Conceptual Model. A previous investigation into the role of interpersonal communication in health behavior change examined the relationship between mass-media-generated interpersonal communication networks and an individual’s behavior-change stage (Valente. knowledge. we examine its role in impacting the behavior of sexually active. To address this issue.612 Chatterjee. Consequently. & Merritt. viewers spoke about this topic. Valente et al. but with whom and to what effect. Given the taboo and personal nature of HIV/AIDS-related discussions. In their study. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) unified efforts can solve a problem (Papa et al.g.. Did talking to one’s spouse have the most significant impact in adopting preventative measures and seeking treatment? Did cultural norms regarding taboos on discussions of sex with family members act as a barrier in bringing up these topics? In short: RQ3: Does it matter with whom the viewers discuss HIV/AIDS prevention methods? Method To address these hypotheses and research questions. Taken together. self-efficacy. a large-scale survey evaluating the impacts of Jasoos Vijay on the target population was conducted. the international non-profit charity of the British Broadcasting Corporation. we also examined the addition of one final construct — the extent to which viewers recommend HIV/AIDSprevention behaviors to their friends and relatives. In light of the findings of Valente et al. those in long term monogamous relationships). International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 613 Figure 2. attitudes. uses the creative power of media to reduce poverty and promote human rights by inspiring Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior H1a H1c H2 Self-efficacy RQ1 RQ1 Interpersonal Discussion RQ2 RQ2 RQ2 RQ2 RQ2 H4a Recommend H4b H1b . it is unclear to whom. it was hypothesized that viewers who adopted HIV-prevention behavior would then be likely to recommend those behaviors to others in their social circle. and behavior? It is important to note that not everyone in the Jasoos Vijay audience or in India more generally is personally at elevated risk of contracting HIV/AIDS (e. Based on Valente. 1996). Poppe. attitudes. Thus. In light of the evidence that interpersonal discussion can accelerate behavior change. the next set of hypotheses predicted that: H4a: Engaging in interpersonal discussion with respect to HIV/AIDS-prevention measures predicts making HIV/AIDS-prevention recommendations to others. this study investigates not only if young sexually active male viewers discussed these sensitive topics. if to anyone. and Merritt’s (1996) stages of change model. Jasoos Vijay Program The BBC World Service Trust. H4b: Engaging in HIV/AIDS-prevention behavior predicts making HIV/AIDS-prevention recommendations to others. (1996) on the differences in interpersonal networks for gaining information. the four hypotheses and two research questions yield a conceptual model of the ways in which exposure. Frank.. young male viewers of Jasoos Vijay: RQ2: Does interpersonal discussion with respect to HIV/AIDS-prevention measures influence the relationship between exposure and knowledge. 2000). found that interpersonal communication varies according to an individual’s behavior change stage.
614 Chatterjee, Bhanot, Frank, Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) people to build better lives3. From 2002 to 2007, the BBC World Service Trust produced and broadcast the entertainment education program, Jasoos Vijay, as the centerpiece of a larger, multi-format, multiplatform campaign. The purpose of the campaign was to raise awareness about HIV/AIDS and promote behavioral change in India. Funded by the British government’s Department for International Development (DFID), the campaign was implemented in partnership with India's national broadcaster Doordarshan and the National AIDS Control Organization. Jasoos (Detective) Vijay was a weekly crime drama telecast on the national TV channel on Sunday nights at primetime with a repeat telecast during the week (see video for example clips from the program). The show aired 130 episodes over the course of five years. By the end of the campaign, Jasoos Vijay was among the top 10 most watched programs on television in India. Television Audience Monitoring (TAM) People Meter data from Nielsen’s audience panel estimated that, during its final year, Jasoos Vijay reached a weekly audience of up to 15 million, and over the course of the year, it reached 70 million viewers.4 Evaluation of the Impact of the Program Jasoos Vijay was telecast in three phases. During the first phase of the program, a panel study was conducted by Sood, Shefner-Rogers, and Sengupta (2006) to evaluate the impact of the Jasoos Vijay program and other campaign components on the general population. It was conducted in three northern Indian states, and it surveyed married and unmarried men and women aged between 15 and 60 years. Data from this study demonstrated that, among the general audience, people exposed to the campaign had significantly higher awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS-related issues. Exposure to the campaign also led to discussion about condoms, STIs, and AIDS, but did not impact condom use directly (Sood et al., 2006). In a separate, cross-sectional study, and to further understand the impact of this long running campaign, the BBC World Service Trust conducted a survey at the beginning of the final phase of the project as a baseline of the public’s HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP). After the campaign concluded, an end-line survey was conducted using the same research methodology. This evaluation showed that a higher percentage of those exposed to Jasoos Vijay knew the different routes of HIV transmission and the methods of preventing HIV transmission. Exposure to the program was also related to having more positive attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS and, among men, consistent condom use with commercial sex workers. (For further information on the program and a discussion on the percentage shifts in knowledge, attitudes and practices among viewers and non-viewers, see Deshpande, Balakrishnan, Bhanot, & Dham, in press). These studies have shown a relationship between 3 See http://www.bbcworldservicetrust.org for details on the BBC World Service Trust’s current and past projects. 4 Nielsen’s TV audience panel does not cover towns with populations of less than 100,000, where the majority of the national broadcaster Doordarshan’s audiences live. Media agencies believe that TAM data under reports Doordarshan viewers, implying that the actual reach of Jasoos Vijay might have been significantly higher than the figures reported by TAM data. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 615 exposure and HIV/AIDS-related knowledge, attitudes, and/or behaviors. In contrast, the present paper focuses on whether the KAP model is adequate to capture the behavior change process, or whether its explanatory power is improved by the addition of HIV/AIDS-related self efficacy measures and discussion. Procedure A multi-stage, stratified random sampling procedure was used to select respondents from 168 towns (population below 500,000) and 535 villages (population around 5,000). The study was carried out in 17 Indian states, with each state being divided into socio-cultural regions and then further sub-divided into districts. The survey was administered in 10 languages. Respondents were matched based on gender, age, education, and location (specific town or village) from the baseline to the follow-up study. At each location, a random starting point was selected, and the households for interview were selected following the right-hand rule with a skip of three households from the first one. Each respondent who met the survey criteria was interviewed face-to-face. The data collection was carried out by an independent research agency, and quality control was ensured through an audit by a different agency. The end-line sample contained 12,050 men and women between the ages of 18 and 49 who were Doordarshan viewers (watched DD for at least two hours a week). Sample Our study focuses on the key target population of the campaign, namely sexually active males between the ages of 18 and 34 (N = 834). Our sample was distributed evenly between urban and rural men, with 49.5% and 50.5%, respectively. Within the sample, 5% had no formal schooling, 36.5% had less than a high school education, 42% had a high school degree, and 16% of the sample had a higher education degree. Measures Each of the key constructs of interest in the present analysis is described in detail below (see Appendix A for wording of survey items).
Exposure Exposure to Jasoos Vijay was measured by two items — unaided spontaneous recall of characters in the show and of messages from the show. First, respondents were asked to name all the characters they recalled from the program. Respondents were given one point for each character they identified, up to a total of four characters for a total of four possible points. The second item asked respondents what HIV/AIDS-related messages they recalled, with respondents given one point for each of the following: testing of HIV/AIDS, treatment of STIs, treatment of HIV/AIDS, use of tested blood, use of sterilized needles, use of condoms, being faithful to a partner, abstaining from sex, not visiting sex workers, routes of HIV transmission, and support of people living with HIV/AIDS. Higher numbers indicated greater exposure, and exposure could range from 0 to 15. This type of exposure measurement benefits from the ability to tap both awareness and comprehension of the show (Valente, 2002). 616 Chatterjee, Bhanot, Frank, Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Knowledge of HIV Transmission Routes and Methods of Prevention Knowledge was also measured by two items. Respondents were first asked, “How is HIV/AIDS transmitted from one person to another?” They were given one point for mentioning each of the following routes: unprotected sex; sex with multiple partners; sex with commercial sex workers; using infected blood; using infected needles/syringes; and from an infected pregnant mother to her baby. Next, respondents were asked “How can a person reduce the risk of being infected by HIV/AIDS?” Again, they were given one point for mentioning each of the following methods of preventing HIV transmission: condom use; HIV testing; using sterilized needles/syringes; tested blood; faithfulness; and abstinence. Higher numbers indicated greater HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. Attitudes Survey respondents were asked a series of questions regarding whether a male or female member of their community who was infected with HIV/AIDS should be allowed to 1) stay, 2) whether a man infected with HIV/AIDS should be allowed to continue to work as long as he could, 3) whether a child infected with HIV/AIDS should be allowed to go to school, 4) whether all pregnant women should be tested for HIV/AIDS, 5) whether it is all right to pay for sex (reverse coded), and 5) whether a responsible partner would use a condom with non-regular sex partners. These items were summed such that higher scores implied more positive HIV/AIDS-related attitudes. The Cronbach’s alpha for this scale was 0.63. Self-efficacy with Respect to HIV/AIDS-related Behaviors Self-efficacy was measured by agreement with the following statements on a 5-point Likert scale (ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree): “I can communicate freely with my spouse on matters concerning sex”; “I am confident that I can protect myself from HIV/ AIDS”; “If I think necessary, I would insist on using a condom with my partner”; “I would always use a condom to protect myself from HIV/AIDS”; “If I perceive any risk, I am confident I can myself go for HIV testing”; “If I need any treatment, I will only consult a qualified medical professional for treatment of STI’s”; “I will insist on using tested blood, whenever I need a blood transfusion for myself or my family members”; and “I will insist on using sterilized/boiled needles whenever I need to take an injection.” Items were re-scaled so that higher numbers indicated higher degrees of self-efficacy and then summed. The Cronbach’s alpha for this scale was 0.74. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 617 Practices or HIV/AIDS-related Behaviors Behavior was also a self-reported summed score based on respondents agreeing that they had engaged in each of the following eight HIV/AIDS-related behaviors: testing for HIV/AIDS, treatment of STIs by qualified personnel, treatment of HIV/AIDS by qualified personnel; use of tested blood; use of sterilized needles; consistent use of condoms; being faithful to one partner; and not visiting sex workers. Recommending HIV/AIDS-related Behaviors to Others In addition to asking respondents whether or not they had engaged in any of the above behaviors, the survey also asked whether they had recommended any of these same eight HIV/AIDSrelated behaviors to others. One point was allotted for each recommendation of each behavior. Interpersonal Discussion Respondents were also asked if they had ever discussed any of the eight HIV/AIDS-related behaviors with anyone and, if so, with whom (spouse, family, friend, other)? One point was allotted for each separate topic discussed with each individual. Analysis All of the hypotheses and the first two research questions were addressed through structural equation models. Within these models, individual hypotheses were tested with local t tests to determine whether they were statistically significant. Additionally, the global fit of the entire model was examined. The final research question was tested using multiple regression analysis. The alpha levels for all tests were set at .05 a priori. The Results Preliminary Analysis
Prior to the structural equation modeling analysis, the data were prepared using SPSS 14 and PRELIS. Specifically, variable scales were created using SPSS as described above. PRELIS was used to compute the covariance matrix for input into the LISREL software. The covariance matrix for all of the variables is shown in Table 1 (see Appendix B for a table with the correlation matrix). The LISREL analysis was conducted using a covariance matrix and maximum likelihood estimation. Primary Analysis Knowledge, attitudes, and practices The basic model parameter estimates are shown in Figure 3. The three EE pathways from exposure to knowledge, attitudes, and practices were all significant at the 0.05 level. Thus, all 618 Chatterjee, Bhanot, Frank, Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) components of the first hypothesis were supported. Likewise, the second hypothesis was supported. Knowledge of HIV transmission routes and methods of prevention significantly predicted HIV/AIDS-related attitudes. Finally, the third hypothesis was also supported. Attitudes about HIV predicted HIV/AIDSrelated behaviors. Thus, in this hypothesized knowledge, attitudes, and practices model, all of the hypotheses were supported as predicted. Indicators of the goodness-of-fit of this model and subsequent iterations are included in Table 2. With a global χ2 of 7.85 and 1 degree of freedom, the p value is less than 0.01, indicating that the model is not a very good fit to the data. Additionally, the root mean square error of estimation is over 0.05, also indicating that the model fit is not good. Thus, despite the strong support for the basic EE and KAP hypotheses, the model may benefit from modifications. Table 1. Covariance Matrix (N = 754). Exposure Discussion Knowledge Attitude Selfefficacy Behave Rec Exposure 7.27 Discussion 1.08 5.69 Knowledge 1.13 1.30 4.35 Attitude 1.32 2.75 1.59 17.89 Self-efficacy 0.75 3.01 1.29 8.06 15.86 Behavior 0.68 0.97 0.46 0.90 1.31 2.10 Recommend 1.73 5.44 1.61 1.96 1.84 2.58 27.34 Self-efficacy Figure 4 addresses RQ1 with the addition of self-efficacy to the basic KAP model. In this revised model (Model 2), attitudes significantly predict self-efficacy. In turn, self-efficacy has a significant effect on behavior. None of the other parameter estimates in the model change more than 0.03 with the addition of self-efficacy. Exposure continues to significantly predict knowledge, attitudes, and behavior, and knowledge affects attitudes. Overall, this model is a better fit with a global χ2 of 10.88 (3), p = 0.01. The χ2 to degrees of freedom ratio (3.62) is well below the acceptable guideline of 5. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 619 Figure 3. Model 1 - Parameter Estimates for Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Model. * p < .05. Table 2. Model Iterations. χ2 (df) p χ2 / df Ratio RMSEA χ2 d (df) p-value Model 1. KAP 7.85 (1) < 0.01 7.85 0.10 Model 2. Self-efficacy Added 10.88 (3) 0.01 3.62 0.06 Model 3. Path from Attitude to Behavior Deleted 11.53 (4) 0.02 2.89 0.05 0.65 (1) p > .05 Model 4. Interpersonal Discussion Added 3.20 (4) 0.53 0.80 0.00 Model 5. Path from Exposure to Attitude Deleted 5.50 (5) 0.36
13* 0.59 0.05.30 (1) p > . Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0. * p < . However. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Figure 4.01 2. the χ2 ratio. interpersonal discussion about HIV was also added to Model 4 (see Figure 6).08* Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0.09* 0.09* 0. showing that removing the pathway did not decrease model fit. Bhanot. attitudes. and behavior were included. and behavior. knowledge.13* 0.04* 620 Chatterjee. A p-value greater than . Figure 5. and the RMSEA were all improved for Model 3 compared to Model 2. attitude. Frank.16* 0. * p < . Individual t .01 0. In fact. Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0. the previous model (Model 2) is nested within it.45* Self-efficacy 0. All of the paths included in this model were statistically significant at the 0. the p value for the χ2. Model 3 . A path from exposure predicting interpersonal discussion and paths from interpersonal discussion to knowledge.05 shows that the less constrained model is not significantly worse than the more constrained model.05.1. The individual parameter estimates remained stable. The model was re-run with this pathway deleted (Model 3.05 level. self-efficacy.03 Note: The χ2 d test compares nested models.30 (9) 0. Model 2 . A χ2 difference test (χ2 d) comparing the two nested models was not statistically significant.11 1.07* International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 621 Interpersonal Discussion To address the second research question. the addition of self-efficacy to the model increases the ability to predict behavior and does not affect the relationships among exposure. see Figure 5).33* 0. Model 2 includes a non-significant pathway from attitude to behavior.33* 0.45* Self-efficacy 0.33* 0.Parameter Estimates for Model with Self-efficacy Added.05 Model 6. Overall.10 0.08* 0. Because this model includes one fewer pathway.13* 0. indicating a better overall model fit. Recommend Added 14.16* 0.Parameter Estimates for Model with Self-efficacy Added and No Path from Attitude to Behavior.16* 0.
This model is a very good fit to the data.tests of the parameter estimates were all significant and positive. Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0. knowledge.13* 0. self-efficacy. behaviors. p = 0. Instead. the extent to which people recommend HIV/AIDS-prevention behaviors to others. attitude. showing that the model was no worse without inclusion of the pathway. with χ2 of 3. includes the addition of one more construct. both parts of the fourth hypothesis are supported.13* 0.03. While the majority of the previously modeled relationships between exposure.11). This final model is a good fit for the data with the global goodness of fit test not significant (p = 0. Overall.40* Self-efficacy 0. and engaging in the behaviors themselves also increases the likelihood that they will recommend the behaviors. attitudes. direct. Figure 6. attitudes. and behavior.24* 0.06* Interpersonal Discussion 0. Table 3 shows the total. inclusion of interpersonal discussion increases the ability to predict knowledge.20 (4). The overall model fit remained quite good.07* 0. self-efficacy.15* 0. see Figure 7). Interpersonal discussion increases the likelihood that young men will recommend HIV/AIDS-related behaviors to others. Either directly or indirectly. the parameter estimates for both of these paths were statistically significant and positive. Model 4 .06* Interpersonal Discussion 0. Thus. Model 6 (see Figure 8).43* 0.20* 0.05. and indirect effects of exposure to Jasoos Vijay on each of the other variables in the model. * p < . Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Figure 7.34* 0.22* 0. exposure significantly predicts knowledge. self-efficacy. knowledge. the path from exposure directly to attitude was no longer significant in this revised model.20* 0. Frank. The non-significant path from exposure to attitude was deleted in the next model iteration (Model 5.53.Parameter Estimates for Model with Self-efficacy and Discussion Added and Path from Exposure to Attitude Deleted. Bhanot. and behavior did not qualitatively change with the addition of interpersonal discussion.13* 622 Chatterjee. and recommendations.6.34* .40* Self-efficacy 0. Model 5 . and behavior. a χ2 to degrees of freedom ratio of only 1.42* 0.Parameter Estimates for Model with Self-efficacy and Discussion Added. attitude.05.15* 0.09 0. As predicted by H4a and H4b. Both interpersonal discussion and behavior were predicted to lead to recommendations. Recommendations The final model. * p < .07* 0. and the χ2 d test was not significant. the addition of interpersonal discussion to the model does not modify the majority of the relationships among exposure. and a low RMSEA of 0.
20* *p < .15* Knowledge 0. controlling for exposure to the show.13* 0. immediate family.05.10* 0.09* Recommend . Direct..13** 0.0. -0.13** 0.13** 0. -0. interpersonal discussion about HIV/AIDSrelated topics with friends was significantly negatively correlated with discussion of those issues with all categories of family members (r of -0.16 for spouse.09** Discussion with family .13* 0. Interpersonal discussion with each of the target others was entered separately. Overall.20* 0.07* 0. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Table 3. discussion of HIV/AIDS-related issues with family members was particularly effective in creating behavioral change. Table 4 shows the beta coefficients for each regression model. Total.016 0.0.0.28.026 0. .34* 0.43* 0.09* 0. **p < .021 0.042 Adjusted R2 0. Effects of Exposure to Jasoos Vijay Direct Indirect Total Discussion 0.0. Linear Regression Beta Coefficients 123456 Exposure to Jasoos Vijay 0.0.. and other relatives all predict HIV/AIDS-prevention behaviors.13* International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 623 Interpersonal Discussion with Whom The third research question was addressed using linear regression analysis.018 0.06* Interpersonal Discussion 0. the person to whom one talks makes a difference in the effect of exposure to Jasoos Vijay and interpersonal discussion on behavior.018 0.02 0.024 0.0. immediate family.026 0.13** 0..023 0.05.03* 0. discussion with friends is also significantly predictive over and above the effects of talking with family. Figure 8.12. Individually.0.10* Self-efficacy .0.02* 0.04 ...09** Discussion with others .. discussion with one’s spouse..13** 0.016 0.07* 0.15* .20* 0.15* 0. Exposure Knowledge Attitude Behavior 0.09** . and Indirect Effects.036 *p < .13* 0.. In fact.16* Attitude ..09* Behavior 0. Interpersonal Discussion Predicting HIV/AIDS-Related Behaviors.09** ..85* 624 Chatterjee.03 R2 0.05. Thus.08* ..09** Discussion with friends .0.08* Discussion with other relatives . In the present study.0.0.24* Self-efficacy 0. Bhanot.0.81* Recommend 0. and other relatives.024 0. all of the interpersonal discussion variables were also entered into a single model. Table 4. When entered into a single model. * p < . Model 6 — Final Model.01. respectively).0.40* 0. Analysis of the correlation matrix and variance inflation factors showed that the interpersonal discussion variables with different targets were not multi-collinear..13** Discussion with spouse 0. Frank.
. or whether its explanatory power is improved by the addition of measures of HIV/AIDS-related self efficacy and interpersonal communication. The finding that interpersonal discussion was a pivotal component of encouraging viewers to adopt safer sex practices and to encourage others to do so was supported by viewer comments: 626 Chatterjee. discussion with friends was also significantly predictive of engaging in safer sex practices over and above discussion with all family members. Bhanot. In fact. having more enlightened attitudes about HIV directly predicted engaging in HIV/AIDSprevention behaviors. related to actually engaging in these behaviors. focusing exclusively on whether or not these viewers personally engaged in these safer sex behaviors may inadvertently underestimate the true impact of the program. Data from the end-line survey of a longrunning EE program in India were used to evaluate the impact on the target audience of 18 to 34-year-old sexually active men. In short. and behavior. and it partially mediated the relationships between exposure and both knowledge and behavior. Our analysis first tested components of the basic KAP model in which exposure to Jasoos Vijay predicted increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. both interpersonal discussion and engaging in safer sex behavior themselves increased the likelihood that the young sexually active men in our sample recommended HIV/AIDS-prevention behaviors to others. To a lesser extent. many viewers reported impact at the community level: “. after we started watching Jasoos Vijay . Linear regression analyses revealed a fascinating pattern of results. in addition to direct effects. As shown in Model 5. This suggests that more enlightened HIV attitudes may serve to make individuals more confident that they can successfully perform these various HIV/AIDS-related behaviors. In other words. but it does increase our ability to predict relevant knowledge. . STIs among the villagers . . the addition of interpersonal discussion strongly improved the fit of the model. Frank. The importance of interpersonal discussion is consistent with Bandura’s assertion that. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) “Family perception about HIV/ AIDS has changed . increases the likelihood that they actually do engage in these safer sex practices. the media can also influence audiences indirectly. not everyone in our sample was personally at elevated risk of contracting HIV/AIDS. consequently. Further iterations of the model that incorporated self-efficacy help to illuminate the relationship between HIV/AIDS-related attitudes and behaviors. . attitudes. and practices. the relationship between exposure and attitudes is better explained by their relationships with interpersonal communication. Consequently. change attitudes. Given the mixed results of previous campaigns in impacting attitudes. more enlightened attitudes toward HIV and engaging in HIV prevention practices or behaviors. it is particularly important to note that the effects of exposure on attitudes in this campaign all occurred through interpersonal communication. please send me booklets on HIV/AIDS . Elevated self-efficacy was. supporting Hypothesis 3. When all interpersonal discussion variables were entered into a single model. This is especially so between married couples. talking to one’s immediate and extended family also predicted behavior. should be incorporated in models of behavioral change. supporting all components of Hypothesis 1. As noted previously. Interpersonal discussion can serve to reinforce the original EE message. and this self confidence. self-efficacy fully mediates the relationship between attitudes and behaviors. in turn. Many of the sexually active male viewers in our sample — such as those in long-term monogamous relationships — may have accurately concluded that they did not need to personally engage in the eight prevention behaviors promoted in Jasoos Vijay. As predicted in Hypothesis 4. Moreover. Speaking with one’s spouse about the eight HIV prevention behaviors was significantly related to actually performing those behaviors. The improvement of the model with the addition of self-efficacy reinforces the claim by Bandura (2004) and other theorists that self-efficacy is one of the most important prerequisites of behavior and. . attitudes significantly predicted viewers’ self-efficacy with respect to performing the eight HIV-prevention methods incorporated into the Jasoos Vijay narrative. Interpersonal communication fully mediated the relationship between exposure and attitudes. p. Similarly. . . in Model 2. . exposure to Jasoos Vijay predicted increased HIV/AIDS-related knowledge. which added self-efficacy to the basic KAP model. self efficacy. knowledge of HIV transmission routes and methods of prevention significantly predicted more positive attitudes. the inclusion of self-efficacy within the model made the direct relationship between attitudes and behavior insignificant. and guide behavior. inspired by your serial we have set up a group in our village which disseminates information on HIV. To address this issue.” Moreover. AIDS.” Our final research question asked whether the interlocutor with whom one discussed the safer sex practices depicted in the Jasoos Vijay series mattered. . through a “socially mediated pathway” (2004. this suggests that viewers in our sample . supporting Hypothesis 2. More specifically. Interestingly. . we also examined the addition of one final variable — the extent to which viewers recommended these HIV/AIDS-prevention behaviors to others. people are not embarrassed of talking about HIV/ AIDS. knowledge. and behavior. the addition of interpersonal discussion to the model does not modify the majority of the relationships among exposure. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 625 Likewise. attitude.Discussion The focus of the present paper was to test whether the KAP model is adequate to capture behavior change processes. 141) in which interpersonal discussion can promote knowledge. Thus. attitudes. in turn.
However.. use of clean needles). attitudes also include tolerance toward people living with HIV/AIDS. in press without losing applicability. and environment to produce social change. who one talks to may. Our study suggests that focusing on interpersonal discussion could provide a crucial window into understanding the process of change and provide a clearer view of how EE programs interact with the individual. Further. account for the variance in behavioral outcomes. it appears that viewers were more likely to talk either to their family or to their friends about HIV prevention. The lack of a strong relationship between attitudes and behaviors in this study may have been based. this indicates the need to pay more nuanced attention not only to integrating elements that spark discussion in the audience. but also related aspects of knowledge. even when focused on individual behavior adoption and change. Morgan. and thus in influencing the decision to adopt or reject a new idea” (p. Rogers suggested. our study clearly demonstrates that more attention needs to be focused on the complex way in which interpersonal communication works. on this operationalization. impacting not only behavior. and hence. “the more we understand why people verbally engage one another. and behaviors also include getting tested for HIV/AIDS. and those who talked to their family were more likely to follow through in terms of their own safer sex behavior. 628 Chatterjee. Southwell and Yzer (2009) suggest that “conversation and campaign effects are most likely to intersect when campaign timing and context facilitates individuals’ recognition of the relevance of campaign efforts to everyday survival and maintenance of self-image” (p. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Conclusion EE programming has a history of demonstrated effects. In the past decade. attitudes. Our findings appear to be along the lines of recent work by various scholars on the role of conversations on campaign effects (see for example. condom use with spouse. 2005. in press). Southwell & Yzer. within the realm of EE research. In this study. “mass media channels are more effective in creating knowledge…. For EE campaign producers and researchers. In addition. this study is more of a conceptual exploration of the relationships between EE programs and the processes by which they produce effects than a strict evaluative work. As Southwell and Yzer (2009) note. and beliefs do not all target the same behaviors. this model can be traced back to the two-step flow formulation of Katz & Lazarsfeld (1955) as well as Rogers’ (1995) work on diffusion of innovation. as well as the roles of self-efficacy and interpersonal discussion. attitudes. with multiple behaviors being promoted. 5). the greater our ability to account for variance in campaign outcomes and in relationships between exposures and outcomes by assessing talk that occurs because of (and despite) campaign efforts” (p. Singhal. whereas interpersonal channels are more effective in forming and changing attitudes toward a new idea. the role of interpersonal discussion of the key messages has yet to be adequately explored. Frank. Swanepole. 2009. Bhanot. As a result. typically deals with social issues and behaviors which are complex and often embedded in a web of social relations. A long-running EE intervention. and practices (Sood et al. this study focused only on the end-line data. research on EE programs has repeatedly highlighted the importance of interpersonal discussion as a key mediating variable in effecting behavior change. it does not test the impact of Jasoos Vijay as well as a pre/post design would. 2009). Limitations Although previous research on Jasoos Vijay has used both baseline and end-line data to show a relationship between exposure to the program and change in knowledge. and self-efficacy. Future studies should assess all relevant constructs with respect to the same target behaviors. 2009. this also calls for future analysis and theorizing of effects to demonstrate equal sophistication and complexity (Dutta-Bergman. 36). and this study of the impact of Jasoos . That is. thus enabling further investigation of the effect of exposure on various target behaviors. the results indicate that discussion with family members and friends may play differential roles in activating the relevance of the campaign. the questions asked in the survey to assess knowledge. The decision to focus on post-only data enabled more accurate modeling of the actual relationships among knowledge. For example. Theoretically. should ideally have constructs that are matched throughout to tap into different domains of behavior (e. attitudes. Thus. In short. 2006. the data for this study were originally collected for the pre/post evaluation without plans for a theoretical structural equation model. EE programming. but also to whom the individuals talk to better account for effects on different topics and in different contexts. in part. given the strong arguments of the need for behavioral specificity in assessing determinants of behavior (Fishbein. attitude. Hoeken. Clearly. & Jansen.who tended to discuss the HIV/AIDS-prevention topics covered in Jasoos Vijay with family members did not tend to discuss these same topics with friends and vice versa. However. As a step in this direction. condom use with casual partner.. Deshpande et al.. While all three constructs include methods of prevention. and practices. in part. our analysis suggests the potential for EE programs to role model a variety of interpersonal communication scenarios in order to optimize the behavior change outcomes. 1980) and the longstanding evidence that the most effective interventions are those that are directed at changing specific behaviors (Fishbein & Yzer. 2003). Saal. operationalization and measurement of HIV/AIDS-prevention behaviors and related determinants must be explored with greater specificity. community. Focusing on interpersonal communication as a mediating variable may also enable us to theoretically explore the International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 627 complex interaction between individual-level (micro) behavioral change and community-level (meso/macro) social change.g. 4).
I will only consult qualified medical professionals for treatment of STIs. the results that we found arose from a long-running program on national television with explicit messaging on its core theme of HIV/AIDS-related issues. 121). I would always use a condom to protect myself from HIV/AIDS. Self-efficacy with respect to HIV/AIDS-related behaviors I can communicate freely with my spouse on matters concerning sex. . complexity.Vijay adds to that growing body of literature. audience. Further research is likewise necessary to verify the value of the inclusion of self-efficacy and interpersonal discussion as key components in models of behavioral change and to begin to parse out how and when these variables are most effective with other EE formats. go for HIV testing. [reverse coded] I believe that a responsible (non-regular sex) partner would always use condoms. “whereas EE interventions come in all shapes and sizes. Bhanot. I will insist on using tested blood whenever I need a blood transfusion for myself or my family members. I am confident that I can protect myself from HIV / AIDS. I would insist on using a condom with my partner. I am confident I can. Knowledge of HIV transmission routes and methods of prevention How is HIV/AIDS transmitted from one person to another? How can a person reduce the risk of being infected by HIV/AIDS? Attitude Measures If a male member in your community is infected with HIV/AIDS. However. For example. This study sheds light on EE interventions that use a serial drama format on television. If I think necessary. I think it is all right to pay for sex. should he be allowed to work as long as he can? If a child is infected with HIV/AIDS. Frank. and why questions of EE effects” (p. should it be allowed to go to school? All pregnant women should be tested for HIV/AIDS. As Singhal and Rogers (2002) point out. do you think it is all right for her to stay in the town/ village? If a man is infected with HIV/AIDS. International Journal of Communication 3 (2009) The Importance of Interpersonal Discussion 629 Appendix A Survey Items Exposure Measures Can you name any characters from Jasoos Vijay? Please tell me what all messages you have got from Jasoos Vijay. Other program formats — with differing media. and innumerable other dimensions. What is lacking is a serious attempt to step back and make sense of this burgeoning field by contextualizing and extricating the differences in EE programs and their associated effects. genre. current theoretical debates do not acknowledge the substantial variability among EE interventions. length. myself. If I need any treatment. or message complexity — may not create the same pattern of effects. future research needs to address and systematically unpack the “black box” of a blanket EE label. do you think it is all right for him to stay in the town/village? If a female member in your community is infected with HIV/AIDS. Practices or HIV/AIDS-related behaviors Please state whether you have ever done any of the following? Testing of HIV/AIDS Treatment of STIs from qualified personnel Treatment of HIV/AIDS from qualified personnel Use of tested blood Use of sterilized/boiled needles (safe handling of needles) Consistent use of condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS and STIs Being faithful to one partner Not visiting sex workers 630 Chatterjee. There now exists a wide array of EE projects that differ in terms of message. how. medium. which undoubtedly influence the answers to the what. I will insist on using sterilized/boiled needles whenever I need to take an injection. If I perceive any risk. Murphy & Power International Journal of Communication 3(2009) Interpersonal discussion Which of the following topics have you discussed? Testing of HIV/AIDS Treatment of STIs from qualified personnel Treatment of HIV/AIDS from qualified personnel Use of tested blood Use of sterilized/boiled needles (safe handling of needles) Consistent use of condoms to prevent HIV/AIDS and STIs Being faithful to one partner Not visiting sex workers Please mention with whom you have discussed these matters.
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