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Surface

Modeling

Surface Modeling

Surface modeling was essentially the situation

in the early 1940s.

The pressures of wartime

production, particularly

in the aircraft industry,

led to changes in the

way the geometry was

represented.

2

Surface Modeling

Lidbro [1956] describes a system

used by Saab-Scania in Sweden in

the 1950s, a developed version of

which was still in use on mainframe

computers in the 1980s, based

closely on the approach described.

The use of parametric techniques

became popular in the 1960s,

largely due to the pioneering work

of Coons [1964].

Surface Modeling

Surface modeling defines a

component with greater

mathematical integrity as it

models the surfaces to give more

definitive spatial boundaries to

the design.

It is particularly useful for

modeling objects, which can be

modeled as shells, such as car

body panels, aircraft fuselages

or fan blades.

3

Surface Modeling

Their use is widespread in

shipbuilding, automotive

manufacture and the shoe

industry, and they are rapidly

spreading into numerous small and

mediumsized companies

manufacturing forgings, castings.

Surface Modeling

Complex objects such as car or airplane body

can not be achieved utilizing wireframe

modeling.

Surface modeling are used in

calculating mass porperties

checking for interference

between mating parts

generating cross-section views

generating finite elements meshes

generating NC tool paths for

continuous path machining

4

Surface Models

• Forging, casting, turbine blades,

automobile body sheet metal parts,

aircraft, ship hull

• NC machining

• Computer-based representation of

curve and surface

• Bezier, de Casteljau

7

Surface modeling

With surface modeling and the facilities which

exist within a good surface modeling package,

the aesthetic shape and the 3D geometry are

defined in one process and can be altered or

sculpted interactively on the graphics screen.

The basis of a surface is the definition of a

curve in two dimensions in a given plane.

5

Surface modeling

As a surface model defines adequate data on a

component’s surface geometry hidden lines

and surfaces are readily and automatically

removed as required.

This gives rise to non-ambiguous visualization of

the object when viewed from any direction.

The software calculates the amount of light

reflected back to the user from different

areas on the surface and each area is color

filled with varying shades accordingly.

Surface Modeling

The second method is direct

creation of the surface with

manipulation of the surface

poles/control points.

From these initially created

surfaces, other surfaces

are constructed using

either derived methods

such as offset or angled

extensions from surfaces;

or via bridging and blending

between groups of surfaces.

6

Surface Modeling – Freeform

surfacing

used in CAD and other computer graphics

software to describe the skin of a 3D

geometric element.

do not have rigid radial dimensions, unlike

regular surfaces such as planes, cylinders

and conic surfaces.

widely used in all engineering design disciplines

from consumer goods products to ships.

Most systems today use nonuniform rational B-spline

(NURBS) mathematics to describe the surface forms;

There are other methods such as Gorden surfaces or

Coon surfaces .

Advantages of Solid and

Surface Modelling

Solid Modelling Surface Modelling

Easy to learn/use

More flexible in modelling

complex geometry

Parametric/associative

capabilities

Interactive modelling

capabilities

Quicker creation and updating

of assemblies

Quicker creation and updating

of complex components and

tooling

Excellent for creating

functional models

Excellent for creating

aesthetic or ergonomic free-

form models

7

Parametric surfaces

• Surface patches

• p (u,v)

• Boundary curves

• Iso-parametric curves

• Continuity between surface patches

surface patch and its boundaries

8

Mathematical Representation of

Surface

Major Surface Entities

Plane surface :

simplest surface

Ruled (lofted) surface :

linear surface

Rail (boundary curve)

Rail (boundary curve)

Mathematical Representation of

Surface

Major Surface Entities

Surface of revolution :

Axissymmetric surface

Tabulated cylinder:

Translation along a

Specified direction

Axis of

rotation

Planar curve

Curve Curve

Direction

9

Mathematical Representation of

Surface

Major Surface Entities

Bezier Surface :

approximation

B-spline surface:

Approximation or

interpolation

Mathematical Representation of

Surface

Major Surface Entities

Coons patch :

Surface using curves

From clossed boundaries

Fillet surface:

B-spline surface blends

two surfaces

Patch Patch

Closed

boundary

10

Mathematical Representation of

Surface

Major Surface Entities

Offset surface :

Create new ones identical

in shape but may have

different dimensions

Creating Surfaces

Complex shape generation facilitated through

various methods. These methods permit

complex surface generation through the use

of defining parent geometry.

Parent geometry may be curves, vectors or

specification data

11

Associativity

A dependency that exists between model

entities “child” entities are dependent upon

their respective “parent geometry”

For surface construction:

– Parent geometry required for surface

creation

– Surface cannot exist without parent

geometry (cannot be deleted if associative)

Surface definition

Ability to query database for surface

information means:

• possible to determine if a point lies off, on

or on the boundary of a surface

• often referred to as a “membership test”

data may be used for functions such as

• rendering, manufacturing, surface area

determination

12

Surface Modeling

• Models 2D surfaces in 3D space

• All points on surface are defined

– useful for machining, visualization, etc.

• Surfaces have no

thickness, objects

have no volume or

solid properties

• Surfaces may be

open

Surface Modeling

Surface models define

the surface

features, as well as

the edges, of

objects.

Different types of

spline curves are

used to create

surface patches with

different modeling

characteristics.

Bezier

surface

B-Spline surface

13

Surface Modeling

Creating parts from surfaces is a multi-step

process:

• First, the wire frame curves are created and

manipulated.

• Next, these curves are used to define

surfaces and/or solid parts.

• One more step is necessary if you want to

generate a solid part from the resulting open

surface.

• This might be a shelling operation to give the

surface thickness, or stitching multiple

surfaces together to form a closed solid.

Line (Combinations of Points)

if 0 ≤ t ≤ 1 then P is somewhere on the line segment joining P

1

and P

2

.

We may utilize the following notation

P = P(t) = (1 - t) P

1

+ t P

2

We can then define a combination of

two points P

1

and P

2

to be

P = α

1

P

1

+ α

2

P

2

α

1

+ α

2

= 1 where

derive the transformation by setting α

2

= t

Let P

1

and P

2

be points in space.

P

1

P

2

P

1

+ t (P

2

- P

1

)

t (P

2

- P

1

)

P

α

2

= t

α

1

= 1- t

1

0

P

1

P

2

Linear interpolation

14

Linear Surface

We can generalize the line to define a combination of an arbitrary

number of points.

P

2

P

1

α

3

(P

3

- P

1

)

P

3

P

α

2

(P

2

- P

1

)

P = α

1

P

1

+ α

2

P

2

+ α

3

P

3

α

1

+ α

2

+ α

3

= 1

where

Illustration shows the point P generated when α

1

= α

2

= 1/4

0 ≤ α

1

, α

2

, α

3

≤ 1

α

3

= 1/2

Surface Modeling

• Extension of curve modelling

• Parametric representation:

p = p(u,v)

which is equivalent to

x = x(u,v)

y = y(u,v)

z = z(u,v)

15

Surface Patch

Tool Path

A B , C , ( )

p

00

p

11

p

01

p

10

v

u

D

1

D

0

C

1

C

0

Isoparametric

curves

Isoparametric curves can

be used for tool path

generation.

Linearly Blended Coons Patch

• Surface is defined by linearly interpolating between the boundary

curves

• Simple, but doesn’t allow adjacent patches to be joined smoothly P

1

E

0

( )

E

1

( )

, E

2

( )

,

( )

X2 Y2 , Z2 , ( ) ,

P1 u v , ( ) 1 u ÷ ( ) T v ( ) · u R v ( ) · + :=

P2 u v , ( ) 1 v ÷ ( ) Q u ( ) · v S u ( ) · + :=

P3 u v , ( ) 1 v ÷ ( ) 1 u ÷ ( ) T 0 ( ) · u R 0 ( ) · + [ ] · v 1 u ÷ ( ) T 1 ( ) · u R 1 ( ) · + [ ] · + :=

P u v , ( ) P1 u v , ( ) P2 u v , ( ) + P3 u v , ( ) ÷ :=

.

+ -

=

E

0

( )

E

1

( )

, E

2

( )

,

( )

X1 Y1 , Z1 , ( ) , E

0

( )

E

1

( )

, E

2

( )

,

( )

X3 Y3 , Z3 , ( ) , E

0

( )

E

1

( )

, E

2

( )

,

( )

P

1

(u,v) P

2

(u,v)

P

3

(u,v) P(u,v)

T(v)

R(v)

Q(u)

S(u)

16

Bicubic Patch

• Extension of cubic curve

• 16 unknown coefficients

– 16 boundary conditions

• Tangents and “twists” at

corners of patch can be

used

• Like Lagrange and

Hermite curves,

difficult to work with

¿¿

= =

=

3

0

3

0

,

) , (

i j

j i

j i

v u v u k P

Bi-cubic surfaces

• Coon’s bi-cubic surface

• 48 coefficients = 16 * 3

• Geometric boundary conditions: 4

corner points, 8 tangent vectors, 4

twist vectors

• (2.25) boundary condition matrix + same

blending function as for curves

17

Bezier surfaces

• Control polyhedron

• Tensor product surface

• p (u,v) = S S P

ij

B

i,m

(u) B

j,n

(v)

• As with Bezier curves, local changes are

not possible

• Convex hull property is useful in ray

tracing and intersection calculations

Bezier patch with 5 x 4 array of points

18

Closed Bezier patch

Bezier Surfaces

• Bezier curves can be extended to

surfaces

• Same problems as for Bezier curves:

– no local modification possible

– smooth transition between adjacent

patches difficult to achieve

C

n i ,

n!

i! n i ÷ ! ·

:= B u i , ( ) C

n i ,

u

i

· 1 u ÷ ( )

n i ÷

· :=

P u v , r , ( )

0

m

i 0

n

j

p

i j ,

( )

r

B u i , ( ) · B v j , ( ) ·

¿

=

¿

=

:=

x y , z , ( )

X Y , Z , ( ) x y , z , ( ) ,

Isoparametric curves

used for tool path

generation.

19

B-spline surfaces

• Rational parametric surfaces

• Sphere, cylinders, cones

Interpolated B-spline surface patch

B-Spline Surfaces

• As with curves, B-spline surfaces are a generalization of Bezier

surfaces

• The surface approximates a control polygon

• Open and closed surfaces can be represented

N

i k ,

u ( ) u u

i

÷

( )

N

i k 1 ÷ ,

u

i k + 1 ÷

u

i

÷

· u

i k +

u ÷

( )

N

i 1 + k 1 ÷ ,

u

i k +

u

i 1 +

÷

· + .

P u v , ( )

0

n

i 0

m

j

P

ij

N

i k ,

· u ( ) N

j l ,

· v ( )

¿

=

¿

=

0 u s u

max

s

0 v s v

max

s

20

Surfaces from Curves

• Tabulated cylinder

(extrusion)

• Ruled surface (lofting

or spined)

• Surface of revolution

• Swept surface

• Sculptured surface

Tabulated Cylinder

• Project curve along a vector

• In SolidWorks, created by extrusion

Generating

curve C

P(u,v) = C(u)+ V(v)

v

u

V(v)

C(u)

Vector V

21

Tabulated cylinder

• Defined by

projecting a shape

curve (or profile)

along a direction

vector.

• Curvature in one

direction only (along

shape curve), linear

in other direction.

Shape curve

(in bold)

vector

Ruled surfaces

• Join 2 parametric curves by straight

lines

• Direction of parameterization

• Generalized cylinder

• Bending by roller

22

Ruled surface

Ruled Surface

• Linear interpolation between two edge

curves

• Created by lofting through cross

sections

u

v

C1(u)

C2(u)

P(u,v) = (1-v) C1(u)+ v (C2(u)

Edge curve 2

Edge curve 1

Linear

interpolation

23

Ruled surface

• Linear interpolation between

two bounding geometric

elements (curves).

• Elemental division the same

for each curve.

• Bounding curves must both

be either geometrically

open (line, arc) or closed

(circle, ellipse).

• Curvature in one direction

only.

Both geometries open

(line & arc)

Both geometries closed (circle &

point *)

Mathematic Definition of

Surface of Revolution

Any point on surface is a function of two

parameters, t and u.

T describes the shape to be rotated

u represents the angle of rotation

Z

Y

X

t

u

Z

Y

X

t

u

24

Surface of Revolution

• Revolve curve

about an axis

Axis

Curve

u

v

C1(u)

P(u,v) = C1(u)+ v (C2(u) – C1(u))

C2(u)

u

Surface of revolution

Surface of revolution requires:

– a shape curve (must be continuous)

– a specified angle

– an axis defined in 3D modelspace.

• Positive rotation direction usually based

upon direction of axis vector.

25

Swept Surface

• Defining curve swept

along an arbitrary spine

curve

u

v

C1(u) Defining

curve

C2(v)

P(u,v) = C1(u)+ C2(v)

Spine

General sweep

• Shape curve (or profile) is swept

along a path defined by an

arbitrary curve.

• Compare with:

– Tabulated (path a vector)

– Surface of revolution (path a

single curve)

• Shape curve and path for General

Sweep.

• Resultant surface

26

Lofted Surface

• Defining curve swept

along an arbitrary

spine curve

Surface Pipe

Defining

curves

Spine

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