Engineering Design & The Design Process

Engineering Design
What is Design…… ? As many definitions as many there are designs because process of design is such a common human experience As per Webster‟s Dictionary

“To fashion after a plan”
Is this definition complete…?
If Yes…..What is missing in it….?

“the essential fact that to design is to create something that has never been”


a playwright and other creative members practice design by this definition Professional practice of Engineering is concerned with Design Then what is the …Formal Definition of Design. or first knowledge of something We can discover what has already existed but has not been known before “Design should not be confused with Discovery” Design is the product of “Planning and Work” Invention: “Design may or may not involve invention as some are truly inventive but most are not” 2 . a composer. artist.? “Design establishes and defines solutions to and pertinent structures for problems not solved before or new solutions to and which have previously been solved in a different way” Conclusion : Essence of Engineering is „DESIGN‟ Engineering Design Ability to Design is both a Science and an Art Science Art Discovery : is learned through techniques and methods used : is best learned by doing design : is getting the first sight of. sculptor.02.2011 Engineering Design Engineering Designer.18..

2011 Engineering Design What is a Good Design…… ? “Good design requires both Analysis and Synthesis” To understand performance/behavior of parts in service using appropriate discipline of science/engineering and computational tools Usually involves simplification of real world problems through models Analysis Decomposing problem into manageable parts Synthesis Identification of Design Elements that will comprise Product Its decomposition into parts Combination of part solutions into a total workable system Engineering Design What is a Real World Problem that you intend to design…? Rarely neat and defined May need many engineering (fluid. most efficient. What is Final Design…… ? Is it the best. solid mechanics etc) and non-engineering discipline (economics. finance. law etc) Input data may be best but out of the scope of the individual Constraints may be time. societal. money. Only time will tell….. environmental or energy regulations etc.02.18.!!!!! Rarely known the correct answer One is hopeful that “His Design will Work” 3 .

intelligent generation and evaluation of specifications for artificats whose form and function achieve stated ojectives and satisfy specified constraints.2011 Engineering Design “Engineering Design extends beyond the boundaries of Science” As Design Engineer during professional career you may have the opportunity To create dozens of designs Have satisfaction of seeing them become working reality Conclusion As Scientist during professional career you may have the opportunity To make one creative addition to human knowledge in your whole life and many never do so Can discover a new star but can not make one Have to ask an Engineer to do it for him Engineering Design It is the systematic.18.s = evaluation benchmarks) 4 .02. geometry Function : the artifact is supposed to do Specification : precise description (fabrication spec.s= set of plans for making the designed artificat) (design spec. Artifacts : human made objects Form : shape.

02. 5 . thoughtful development and testing of characteristics of new objects that have a particular configuration or perform some desired functions that meets our aims without violating any specified limitations. information.18. • Think about the word. or a system. a process.2011 What is design? Design is a process in which information is added to an artifact. and its root word inform • What does it mean to inform someone or something? • What do we do when we injection mold plastic. or form a piece of sheet metal? • Where does the information come from? • What other information is involved in the process? Engineering Design Engineering Design is the organized.

support.2011 Engineering Design Design Problems are a) Open-ended Because of having several acceptable solutions b) Illstructured Because their solutions can not normally be found by applying mathematical formulas or algorithms in a routine or structured way The Design Process Designers concerned with the product’s life cycle (purchase. Designers and manufacturing specialits work together. and maintenance). CONCURRENT ENGINEERING 6 . It demands teamwork. use. so that they are collectively and concurrently designing an artifact.02.18.

2011 The Design Process There are a lot of questions in simple design problem : How is it to be used ? How much should it cost ? Is there a market for it ? Will it be made of steel. aluminum ? What is thje design load? Is the design economically feasible ? Is there a more efficient design ? And so on . The Design Process Asking questions to elaborate the meaning of a client’s statement is part of the design process..02. 7 . There are not any equations to define the meaning of safe or marketability.18.. They can not be answered by applying usual mathematical models.

02. cost) Establishing user requirements Identifying constraints Establishing functions Establishing design specifications Generating design alternatives Modeling / Analysing the design Testing & elavuating the design (test model) Refining & optimizing the design (optimize features) Documenting the completed design (fabrication specs) Customers Problem identification Preliminary ideas Modify the problem & its constraints Refinement process No Analysis & decision processes Criteria Satisfied ? Implementation Yes 8 .2011 The Design Process Asking questions for solving them : Clarifying the objectives (color.18.

02.2011 An Idea Sketch • • • • • Tools: Pencil and paper Computer work-sheet: Rhinocerus … The Design Process Idea generation Feasibility study Product Yes Preliminary feasible? design No Final design Prototype Process planning Design & Manufacturing Specifications Manufacturing 9 .18.

02.18.2011 The Design Process (3-stages) Descriptive = linear = Synthesis Client Statement Conceptual design Several competing concepts Look for different concept schemes to achieve the client’s objectives Analyses Preliminary design Final choise from among them Detailed design Final Design The Conceptual Design Conceptual design Is design feasible ? yes no Is there an unkown or vague component  no Build/model/ simulate/prototype Will concept work? yes Add detail research discard design no yes Acceptable concept Discard concept 10 .

2011 The Conceptual Design DO NOT MARRY YOUR FIRST DESIGN IDEA !! No sufficient data to desicard any concepts.18. The Design Process (5-stages) Extended = linear = Client Statement Problem Definition Conceptual design Preliminary design Detailed design Design Communication Fabrication specs & documentation Final Design 11 .02.

2011 The Design Process (5-stages) Prescriptive Client Statement #5 establish design specs #6 generate alternatives #7 model / analyze design #8 test & evaluate design Problem Definition Conceptual design Preliminary design Detailed design Design Communication #1 clarify objectives #2 establish user reqir.s #3 identify contraints #4 establish functions #9 refine & optimize design Fabrication specs & documentation #10 document design Final Design The Design Process (5-stages) Prescriptive with Feedback Verification Client Statement Problem Definition Conceptual design Preliminary design Detailed design Design Communication Validation Product Final Design 12 .18.02.

Planning for manufacture 5. Planning for retirement of product 13 .18. The Design Process Problem identification (market analyst-design brief) Specifications Concepts Layouts Drawings Conceptual design (Product designer) Embodiment design (Design Analyst) (Development & Research Engineer) Detail design Manufacture (Process Planner and Production Engineer) Product Morphology of Design . Embodiment design 3.(Seven phases of design) 1. Conceptual design 2. Refering to such tools as disciplinespecific CADD systems.2011 The Design Process Computer based models are used widely in all engineering disciplines and they become even more important as a design project moves into detailed design. Planning for distribution 6.02. Planning for use 7. Detail design 4.

2011 Design Process Define Problem Problem statement Bench marking PDS.18. Modeling & sizing of parts Parametric Design Robust design Tolerances Final dims. & mnfg. DFM Detail Design Detailed drawings & Specifications Preliminary / Embodiment design Design For X DFA DFM DFD DFI DFM DFML DFP DFQ DFR DFR DFR DFS DFS DFS DFT DFE DFESD DFEMC Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design Design For Assembly For Manufacturability For Disassembly For Install ability For Maintainability For Material Logistics For Portability (Software) For Quality For Redesign For Reliability For Reuse For Safety For Simplicity For Speed For Test For Environment For Electrostatic Discharge For Electro-Magnetic Compatibility 14 .02. QFD Project planning Gather Information Internet. Patents Trade Literature Concept Generation Brainstorming Functional decomposition Morphological chart Evaluation of Concepts Pugh concept Selection Decision matrices Conceptual design Product Architecture Arrangement of physical elements to carry out function Configuration Design Prelim. Selection of matls.

• A successful design must satisfy requirements functionality. DFM Guidelines Minimizing total number of parts Standardize components Use common parts across product lines Design parts to be multifunctional Design parts for ease of fabrication Avoid too tight tolerances Avoid secondary operations Utilize the special characteristics of processes Assembly process consist of two parts • Handling -Manual -Automated . as it involves cross-functional teams. with the goals of reducing manufacturing costs and improving product quality are termed as DFM.18.02.2011 Design For X A growing emphasis on Concurrent Engineering. appearance. Associated with this for assembly is DFA.Robotic • Insertion Minimizing total number of parts Minimizing assembly surfaces DFA Guidelines Avoid separate fasteners Minimize assembly direction Maximize compliance in assembly Minimize handling in assembly 15 . and cost durability and reliability Design For Manufacture & Assembly (DFMA) Processes or procedures for integration of design and manufacture. parallel design and vendor partnering etc.

capital Percentage of product cost commited Functional design Manufacturing Cost incurred 0 Time (nonlinear) The Traditional Product Development Process Customer requirements (sales and marketing) Conceptual design (Industrial designers) Detailed design and analysis (engineering) Manufacturing Distribution and Sales Disposal (not our problem) Support and Service 16 .02. labor.2011 Design Process Consumer goods Appliances. jets. missiles. manufacture. planes Product Design Electric power generating system Petrochemical plants Building/bridge design Complex Engineering System 100 Importance of design process Market development Conceptual design Product cost commitment during phases of design process Product use 70~80% = for Design commitment 25% = for manufacture 5% = for design 95% = for material.18.

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