Chapter I INTRODUCTION Permanent markers play an important role in writing and in artworks in different ways. It was designed to create various permanent writings on objects with enormous creative and practical possibilities. Aside from its use in writing, it is also used in labeling, poster creation and calligraphy. With infinite use of permanent markers, many did not know that markers have limitations. Usually, it is a problem for artists and calligraphers to supply ink for the markers they are using. Typically, the inks used in most markers are made from synthetic materials like the petroleum and chemical solvents. These kinds of materials are hazardous especially to the health of the users and to the environment as well. As been made into dyes, the Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) can be an alternative ingredient for ink instead of petroleum. The Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) is native to Southeastern Asia and found all over in the Philippine archipelago. It is a large deciduous tree which is very easily propagated from seeds or large cuttings. It is known for its ability to take high polish, which is derived from the trees and its alcoholic tincture that produces dark red color dye in wood and can be used for tanning. In today’s modern world, almost every product has been commercialized and people sought for products that are more natural and cheaper instead. The creation of ink with alternative ingredient to be commercialized is a demand for the artists, calligraphers as well as for the people. The researcher thinks that Narra has great potentials in having an alternative permanent marker ink due to its strong tanning color. The researcher decided to test its effectiveness as an ingredient for permanent marker ink.


STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM This study attempted to determine the effectiveness of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract as an ingredient for permanent marker ink. Specifically, it aimed to answer the following questions: 1. Is the Narra ink effective (refers to quality) in terms of the following: a) Absorption b) Stick Consistency c) Color 2. What is the acceptability of the Narra ink in terms of: a. Color b. Odor c. Absorption d. Rate of Evaporation 3. Is there a significant difference between the Narra ink and the standard ink in terms of Color, Odor, Absorption and Rate of Evaporation?

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY This study is significant to the following: USERS. This study would be very beneficial to the users of permanent markers. This study provides many advantages to them, such as they would have a more natural and cheaper way of having an ink for their markers. AGRICULTURE. This study provides farmers and planters an additional source of income. Also, this will increase the number of Narra trees grown in the Philippines.


ENVIRONMENT. This study will help to replenish the Narra trees that have been cut down. OTHER RESEARCHERS. This will help other researchers as that it will serve as additional information and will add factual concepts for their review of related literature.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATION The study aimed to test the effectiveness of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) bark extract to produce a permanent marker ink. This study limits its coverage on the discussion of permanent marker ink production, chemical testing of the sample ink, plantation of Narra tree and the impact of the permanent marker ink in the environment. The study focused on testing its effectiveness in terms absorption, stick consistency and color; including its acceptability in terms of color, odor, absorption and rate of evaporation. Out of five hundred students (excluding the fourth year students) of Naga City Science High School, thirty of them were chosen as respondents to test the acceptability of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract as an ingredient for permanent marker ink. This study was conducted at Naga City Science High School for the school year 2011-2012.

CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK Figure 1 shows the relationship of the independent and dependent variables of the study. The independent variables, Narra ink and standard ink, were compared to determine its effect on the dependent variables and the effect on them. The dependent variables are the indicators that will show the effectiveness of the ink and its quality.


and c) the significant difference of the Narra ink and standard ink based on standardized tests and statistical treatment. the researchers tested the following: a) effectiveness of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract as an ingredient for permanent marker ink.In order to show the relationship between variables. b) the acceptability of the Narra ink. 4 .

1 Research Paradigm 5 .Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) Bark Extract as a Permanent Marker Ink Narra Ink Standard ink Effectiveness:  Absorption  Stick Consistency  Color Acceptability (in terms of):  Color  Odor  Absorption  Rate of Evaporation Quality Ink Fig.

This refers to how the ink. Glycerin/Glycerol. it is the compound responsible for the black coloration of the ink and is a disinfectant. It refers to the ingredient responsible for the increase in rate of extraction of the tanning in the pigment. In the study. Benzalkonium Chloride. It is how strong the scent of the ink as rated by the respondents. 6 . Effective. The rate of how fast the ink dries up as rated by the respondents. It is the consistency of the ink to stick in the paper as rated by the respondents. It is the source of extract as the main ingredient of a permanent marker ink. It is the ability of the ink to uptake into the fibers of the paper as rated by the respondents. Narra bark. Odor. Ferrous Sulfate. Stick Consistency. it is an additive that prevents the Narra bark ink from solidifying.DEFINITION OF TERMS The following terms are defined operationally: Absorption. Rate of Evaporation. In the study.

any acidic fruit juice can be used to make an invisible ink when combined with vinegar to make the ink last longer. Egyptians achieved quality red ink with poppies.Chapter II REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES The following are the literatures and studies that are related to the conduct of the study. (<http://www. (<http://google. brown or black ink. This marker pen had been one of the commonly used writing instruments for about fifty years. They have been used for centuries to create numerous colors and when mixed to other substances can be an ink. Galls and barks achieve more intense. ( Lopi. dye or paint. Also. barks and leaves extract. The rich tanning color of dogwood and alder tee also results to natural inks.) According to Helmenstine.html>. Tea leaves have been also used for centuries to make ink because of its various shades that create yellow.) Plants that contain tanning color can be reliable for making ink. galls nestled from oak trees as primary ingredient to make a black ink. green. Related Literature Long before. 7 .html>.com/make-ink-using-petals. lasting inks than most of the flower-based>. < ink is usually made from natural products such as berries.) Robbins (2010) described marker pens as pens which have their own ink source and usually has a tip made of absorbent and pressed fiber and was first created by Sidney Rosenthal in 1952. For centuries.

Ink. according to the article found in the Student’s Encyclopedia. Lindquist added that every good ink. Since the ink is natural. after drying for eight days. (Lindquist. or combined writing and copying. Likewise. clearly stated the properties of ink that would be helpful in having a good quality ink. But synthetic materials are used in addition to these natural ingredients to improve the quality of ink making.) 8 .com (2011). no mold must be seen on the solution and has no pronounced unpleasant odor.<http://www. ink was fashioned from different colored juices. it must have an intense color which does not become paler nor bleach out entirely as it is used in writing. It should flow freely and dry quickly when written in a surface and it must contain nothing that might damage either the pen or the paper.evanlindquist. filterable solution but not a suspension. however.d. should flow easily from the pen and should not spread on paper. is not removed by water or alcohol -. ink must have two basic components: the pigment coloring and the vehicle. pigment and a liquid containing oils. plant and animal extracts. Furthermore. is a combination of a coloring agent. resins and chemical solvents. Evan.html>. a liquid which allow the ink to be dispersed. In the past. In addition. The ink must be clear.n. whether writing. should have qualities that give writing that. according to such an extent that it becomes illegible.” Neumann’s and Schluttig’s definition of ink as cited in Lindquist. “The ink should make a clear permanent mark that when dry does not fade from exposure to light or run from exposure to moisture.even by treatment for days -. Old Ink.

9 . and is used to make a red dye. The bark extract can be used for tanning. Therefore.Related Study Caparas (2010) conducted a study to determine if the extract of Narra tree’s sawdust is effective as a dye. the Narra bark is capable of being an ingredient for ink making. Caparas concluded that Narra’s sawdust can be a source of natural dye which is very effective. And use to the need of making new inks. 25% of the respondents say that it can’t be a dye. The result obtained shows that 75% of the respondents said that Narra’s sawdust can be made into a dye for clothes. In accordance to the study. this study is envisioned to determine if the extract of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) bark is effective as a source of alternative inks. the Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) extract had been proven to be effective as a natural dye as what the study of Caparas (2010) showed. Tannin or tannic acid is the brown substance found in the bark and leaves of trees. There were 30 randomly selected respondents as the sample size. However. According to the observations and results obtained. Thomson (2006) stated in his article “Pterocarpus indicus (Narra)” that the heartwood of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) contains various red compounds. and it produces more dyes that are environmental-friendly. State-of-the-Art Based on the articles gathered. Lex A. <http://www.scribd.>.html>. 426.evanlindquist. Merit Students 1986. Lopi. "Marker. How Products Are "Calligraphy Idea Exchange." 2010. <http://www.encyclopedia. Paul. Dragon's Blood and Ashes.evanlindquist..d." 2010. Old Ink.html>.2011. “Pterocarpus indicus (Narra)”. <http://www. < petals. "The Production of Natural Dye Out of Narra. "Yahoo! Contributor Network. 2010. William D. Werner.End Notes Lopierre. Halsey." n.2011<http://www.html>. Helmenstine.>. <http://www.d.html>. <http://google.associatedcontent. 10 ." 1998.J. Evan. How to Make Inks Using Ph.Leaf Extracts That Can Be Used As Ink. Thomson.html>. n. Macmillan Educational Company. Anne Marie.html>. and Emanuel Friedman. <http://www. Special Profiles for Pacific Island Agro forestry (2006): 12.

observations were gathered and utilized as a collective in making conclusions. Additionally. the Waterproof Test. same environment and same tests in order to avoid alteration and confusion of observation. This study also used another method in data gathering. 11 . Each set-up had undergone the same process. color and over-all acceptability. The experimental set-up consists of three (3) sub set-ups and the controlled set-up. Thirty respondents were asked to rate the ink in terms of absorption. the Narra extract was tested to determine its effectiveness and through experiments. This study also focused on how the Narra extract is capable of being utilized as ingredient for the permanent marker ink.Chapter III METHODOLOGY The study used the experimental method of research. All other factors or variables were kept constant or equal so that any change in the dependent variables is attributable only to the independent variable. The set-up with three (3) replications was tested with the use of a standardized test. and called the dependent variables (absorption. stick consistency and color) to determine the effect of the former upon the latter. called the experimental variable (the Narra ink) were applied upon another factor or condition. The method is a highly controlled procedure in which manipulated treatment or actions from a factor or condition.

Respondents rated the Narra ink and standard ink in terms of color. 3 means good. The respondents were identified through random sampling. Part I was composed of personal information of the respondents such as name. and rate of evaporation and absorption of ink. stick consistency. This had two parts. In order to rate the variables. The questionnaire was framed by the researcher in order to gather data in determining a) the effectiveness of Narra ink in terms of the indicators. and question-scale part. It also includes the date of observation. absorption. Instructions were given that served as guide for the respondents on how to rate the variables. Waterproof Test. 4 means very good. section and sex. odor. Part II was divided into two parts: a) the acceptability of the Narra ink and b) significant difference between the Narra ink and standard ink. color and over-all acceptability of the ink and b) the significant difference between the standard ink and Narra ink. The waterproof test was also used in the study to test the stick consistency of the ink 12 . 2 means fair and 1 means poor. the respondent’s profile.INSTRUMENTATION The study used the following method of instrumentation in data gathering: Questionnaire. the Likert’s scale was used in which 5 means exceptional.

5 10mL. 50mL and 100mL graduated cylinders Fig. 10 Double Beam Balance Fig. 11 Laboratory Gloves Fig. 8 Mortar and Pestle Fig. 20mL. 3 Test tubes on the test tube rack Fig. 4 50mL and 100mL Beakers Fig. 6 Funnels Fig.LIST OF MATERIALS Fig. 12 Bolo 13 . 2 Vials Fig. 9 Filter Paper Fig. 7 Stirring Rod Fig.

15 Narra Bark Extract Fig. 13Glycerol/ Glycerin Fig. Fig. It can be from an old grown and or a fallen tree. bolo. 16 Ferrous Sulfate GENERAL PROCEDURE A. 14 Benzalkonium Chloride Fig. It was removed with the aid of a cutting tool. GETTING THE BARK OF NARRA The first step was getting the Narra bark to be used.LIST OF INGREDIENTS Fig. 17 Getting the Narra Bark 14 .

21 Narra ink on the container 15 . 19 Narra Bark with Benzalkonium Chloride Fig. the pounded bark was placed in a container and was mixed with Benzalkonium chloride to get the extract. it was pounded using mortar and pestle.B. Next. 20 Filtering the Narra Bark Extract Fig. Fig. PREPARATION OF NARRA EXTRACT After getting the bark. The extract was then transferred to a container with a filter to remove unwanted small particles and other residue. 18 Pounding the Narra Bark Fig.

The recycled permanent marker containers were refilled with the Narra ink. It increases the rate of extraction of tannin in the pigment.C. The proportion of ingredients was based on the old recipes of ink making. It is responsible for the black color of Narra ink. PREPARATION OF THE INK Other substances known as additives such as glycerol or glycerin and ferrous sulfate were added with three different proportions.5 108 108 108 FERROUS SULFATE (mg) 1500 1500 1500 16 . The Benzalkonium chloride prevents the ink from solidifying. The formulized ink from the extract of bark of Narra was transferred into ink bottles and was left undisturbed for 24 hours before undergoing a series of tests. This helps in reducing the surface tension of the ink solution.0 2. The ferrous sulfate is a disinfectant that aids in the inhibition of growth of microorganisms in the ink in. It also prevents molds from growing in the ink. allowing the ink to soak more quickly into the paper fibers. The table below shows the proportion of ingredients that was used in making the Narra ink. The glycerol was also used because of its viscous nature and high absorbency on paper. Table 1.Proportions of Narra Ink Ingredients NARRA BENZALKONIUM GLYCEROL Sample BARK CHLORIDE (mL) (gram) (ml) A B C 100 100 100 1.25 3.

and leftover 'halos' of ink around the letters. Samples were written in the paper and the page was left out overnight (about 9 hours) before doing the test. indicating the ink’s retention on the paper. and 1 as the lowest. The paper towels that were used to dry the papers were also examined for ink transfer. 22 Marker A (Standard ink) Fig.EVALUATION OF SAMPLES The researcher evaluated each sample to determine the difference between the Narra ink and standard ink using a waterproof test for quality inks: i. To dry. For the judging factors. indicating that the words were unreadable after test. retention of original color. Fig. The judging factors will determine the score or rating on each ink with 5 as the highest. the results will be observed carefully for clarity of stroke. 23 Marker B (Narra ink) 17 . The water test included holding the page under running water for about 30 seconds on each side of the page. the page was put between two paper towels with a lightweight box placed on top to aid in drying. Waterproof Test of Ink Both the Narra and standard ink are subjected to the same test on the same sheet of paper.

The chi-square test of homogeneity shows the significant difference between the Narra ink and the standard ink. The weighted mean tests the acceptability of the Narra ink.STATISTICAL TOOL The data gathered from the questionnaire were classified. . where RT is the total in a row. The formula to be used for the chi-square test of homogeneity is: Wherein O is the observed frequency. computed and analyzed statistically using chi-square and weighted mean to test the hypothesis of the study. tabulated. E is the expected frequency and is the p-value. To compute for E. CT is the total in a 18 . use: column and GT is the grand total.

it has a mean of 2.33 Rate of Evaporation 2. Odor has 19 . Ink Content of the Markers SAMPLE MARKER A (standard ink) MARKER B (narra ink) CONTENT 5 mL 5 mL The table 2 showed the amount of ink refilled in each marker.13 Color 2. It also showed the result of the survey from the 30 respondents.97 which is also satisfactory.Chapter IV ANALYSIS.13 (means Satisfactory) as the grade based from the questionnaire. Table 3.17 The table 3 showed the weighted mean for the acceptability of the Narra ink. Table 2. Regarding absorption. The two markers were both filled by a 5mL ink before the test was conducted. AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA This chapter contains the analysis. In terms of odor.83 Absorption 2.1.33 which is unsatisfactory. The first row is the indicators and the second one is the mean. The results show that the Narra ink has a poor rating and only the color and odor are the average factors of it. For the color. the Narra ink has a mean of 3. Weighted mean for acceptability of Narra Ink Odor 3. and interpretation of data in order to answer the objectives of the study. While the rate of evaporation that has a mean of 2. it has a mean of 2.

27 4. Table 4 showed that the weighted score for Narra ink is almost at the same level with standard ink having a difference of 0.13 4.2. One (1) point was taken off for the halo.5 4.33 2.mostly not pleasant smell. The color is pale and it has a very slow evaporation and unsatisfactory absorption which causes the paper to stay damp for several minutes.83 2. The Narra Ink had some halo. absorption and rate of evaporation of standard ink were much higher than the Narra ink having a difference ranging from 1. On the other hand. has some evident.14.5 Table 5 showed the rating score of the two inks in the conducted waterproof test.34 . It has a little change in color. and a half point for the color loss. the color. on the other hand. The standard ink. Respondents’ weighted score for the two inks Samples Marker A (with standard ink) Marker B (with Narra ink) 3. Table 5. 20 .Rating score of the two inks in the Waterproof Standardized Test NARRA INK STANDARD INK 3. The ink soaked through completely to the other side.13 2. it showed that the standard ink is better than the Narra ink. Table 4.17.30 Odor Color Absorption Rate of Evaporation 3. but the letters are still clear and dark.27 4. Therefore.17 The odor between the two inks is not significantly different.

05 level of significance Table 6 shows whether there is a significant difference between the Narra ink and standard ink.but minimal.182 and 39. The computed value for Odor. It shows that the two inks have a significant difference in terms of Color. In the first indicator. For the second indicator. 26. Absorption and Rate of Evaporation were 6. the odor.108 4 4 4 4 CV < TV CV > TV CV > TV CV > TV Remarks Not Significant Significant Significant Significant 9. Letters were still clear and the color was intact. A half point was taken off for the loss of stroke detail and minimal haloing. The tabulated value obtained from the degree of freedom of 4 is 9.882.05 level of significance. formation of halo. Color. 15.688 15. respectively.882 26. having a significant difference means that the color of the two inks is comparable to each other. It suggests that the ink has a higher score than the Narra ink. Absorption and Rate of Evaporation while no significant difference in Odor. yet the ink bled through the page slightly more after water exposure. The individual strokes were blended together and the stroke detail was lost.488* * at 0. the color. having no significant difference implies that both inks have the same odor as for the respondents.688.488 at 0.108. The excess ink washed away when left under heavy running water. Significant difference between Narra Ink and Standard Ink Computed Degree of Tabulated Relationship Indicator Value (CV) Freedom (df) Value (TV) of CV and TV Odor Color Absorption Rate of Evaporation 6. 21 .182 39. Table 6.

the absorption and rate of evaporation indicate that there is a significant difference which means that the absorption and rate of evaporation of the two inks is comparable to each other according to the respondents’ perceptions. 22 .In the third and last indicator.

5 for the stick consistency which implies that there is a loss of color and the ink marks spread evenly on the paper. Based on the results. Based on the results of the survey. is not effective in terms of color and absorption. the ink got a weighted score of 2. the ink. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION This chapter presents the summary. stick consistency and color? Summary of Findings: The Narra ink had a score of 3. therefore. In terms of absorption. conclusion and recommendation of the study. It clearly shows that the ink’s color looks to be from bright to pale-black. Conclusion: The waterproof test concludes that the Narra ink cannot be advertised as waterproof but very resistant. it showed that the Narra ink got a weighted score of 2.Chapter V SUMMARY OF FINDINGS. The study attempted to determine the effectiveness of Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) Extract as an ingredient for permanent marker ink with 30 respondents and conducted at Naga City Science High School for school year 2011-2012. Specifically. 23 . the study aimed to answer the following: 1) Is the Narra extract ink effective in terms of the absorption.93 in color.33 which means that it has low soaking ability in papers.

the absorption and rate of evaporation parameters. For the color. it has 2.2) What is the acceptability of the Narra ink in terms of color. respectively is higher than the tabulated value of 9. absorption and rate of evaporation? Summary of Findings: The odor received a weighted score of 3. 24 . Absorption and Rate of Evaporation? Summary of Findings: Findings showed that the computed value for color. However. the ink has low acceptability when it comes to rate of evaporation and absorption in paper but nearly low acceptability in terms of the color. meaning it has bright to pale-black color.13 (Unsatisfactory) weighted score respectively.882. CONCLUSION: Based on the findings. odor.13 (Satisfactory) which means that unpleasant odor is still bearable to the respondents. the ink’s odor is acceptable. showing that most of the respondents do not accept the ink in terms of these indicators. 3) Is there a significant difference between the Narra (Pterocarpus indicus) bark extract as an ink and the standard ink in terms of Color.33 and 2. 26. absorption and rate of evaporation. which is lower than of the standard ink.83 (Satisfactory) rating. Odor. received 2. which are 15.182 and 39.488 suggesting that the two inks are comparable but not in odor having a 6.108.688 computed value which is lower. Lastly.

rate of evaporation and odor. Furthermore. absorption and rate of evaporation but there is no significant difference in terms of odor. 5. It is advisable to improve the color of the Narra ink and know what ingredient can improve the absorption of the ink. 3. 25 .Conclusion: There is a significant difference between the two inks in terms of color. The researcher also suggests finding a device that will make the extraction of the Narra bark extract to be easier. The researcher advocates re-associating the difference between the two inks using other tests in order to justify the result of this study. 4. The researcher advises to conduct other parallel tests based on the components of the standard ink and the Narra ink. RECOMMENDATION: 1. having a good quality ink must be focused on before undergoing a series of test. 2. The researcher recommends finding a solution for the coagulation of ink after several days and also undergoes the additional standardized test.

" 2010. Lopi.html>.com/2008/11/waterproof-tests. Paul. Ellie. Caparas.html>. <http://www. William and Emanuel <http://www.html>.html>." "Yahoo! Contributor Network.Leaf Extracts That Can Be Used As Ink.blogspot.associatedcontent. Special Profiles for Pacific Island Agro forestry (2006): 12 . “Pterocarpus indicus (Narra)” "Marker.html>. 2010. n. “The Pen Hunter”. Nicholas. Dragon's Blood and Ashes. Ph. 26 . <http://www.html>. Lex A. Old Ink. Werner. 2011 <http://penhunter.2011. Thomson. <http://www." n. <http://google. "Calligraphy Idea Exchange. Halsey." 2010.J. Lopierre.html>.encyclopedia. 6 November 2008. Merit Students>. Macmillan Educational Company.scribd. Evan. "The Production of Natural Dye Out of Narra. Helmenstine. Anne How Products Are Made. D.2011<http://www.html>. <http://www.. 1986. <http://www.d. How to Make Inks Using petals.


13 4 2 4 4 4 5 2 5 5 5 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 3 1 2 2 1 5 3 1 2 85 2.27 5 5 4 4 4 5 5 3 3 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 3 4 3 5 5 1 4 5 2 3 128 4.27 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 4 4 2 3 4 4 4 4 5 3 3 3 3 5 2 4 4 4 5 124 4.33 1 3 2 2 2 3 1 1 2 3 1 1 2 3 3 3 2 2 3 3 2 2 2 2 2 1 4 2 3 2 65 2.17 28 .3 3 3 3 5 5 4 5 1 5 4 3 4 3 3 4 1 4 1 1 3 3 4 2 3 3 5 4 3 1 1 94 3.13 5 5 5 5 5 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3 3 5 3 5 5 5 3 3 3 4 4 2 5 4 4 5 129 4.83 1 3 2 4 2 3 1 2 2 3 1 1 1 4 4 2 2 1 2 2 2 2 1 1 2 4 5 3 3 4 70 2.APPENDIX A TALLY SHEET Computation for the Weighted Mean Scores Standard Ink Respondents Odor Color Absorption Rate of Evaporation Odor Narra Ink Color Absorption Rate of Evaporation 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 Σx 4 5 4 2 3 5 4 1 1 3 5 4 3 2 2 3 2 3 3 4 2 2 3 4 4 5 4 4 3 4 98 3.

5 5 9 VSatisfactory 8.5 7 17 Satisfactory 9.112 + 0.0 8 Total 30 30 60 Σx2 = 0.5 8 9.5 1 7 Poor 2 4.265 + 0. Odor Marker A Marker B Total Excellent 4.474 +3.237 + 0.237 + 1.572 + 2 Σx2 = 6.265 + 0.5 11 19 Unsatisfactory 3.056 + 0.5 6 3.5 10 8.APPENDIX B Computation for the Chi-Square Test of Homogeneity A.056 + 0.0 6 4.5 4 4.786 + 1 + 1 = 0.688 29 .786 + 1.53 + 0.

B.674 + 3.167 + 3.167 + 0. Color Marker A Marker B Total Excellent 11.9 = 7.674 + 0.5 18 11.348 + 0.5 5 23 VSatisfactory 5.0 5 6.0 5 10 Satisfactory 6.882 30 .8 Σx2 =15.334 + 6.0 1 5.0 7 12 Unsatisfactory 5.2 + 0.2 + 3.9 + 0.0 5 5.5 5 Total 30 30 60 Σx2 = 3.5 4 2.0 9 10 Poor 1 2.4 + 1.

833 + 3.0 Σx2 = 26.5 11 13 Poor 0 4.23 + 8.C.0 5 10 Unsatisfactory 6.5 5 15 Satisfactory 5.182 31 .143 + 0.5 2 6.286 + 1.0 1 14 VSatisfactory 7.0 8 4.0 5 5.115 + 3.115 + 4 + 4 = 10.833 + 0.0 13 7.143 + 5.666 + 6.0 8 Total 30 30 60 Σx2 = 5.5 10 7. Absorption Marker A Marker B Total Excellent 7.

5 + 8.143 + 6.5 + 1.125 + 6.0 8 14 Unsatisfactory 8.0 1 8.125 + 3 + 3 = 17 + 3.5 0 17 VSatisfactory 3.786 + 1.25 + 6 Σx2 = 39.143 + 0.5 1 7 Satisfactory 7.286 + 12.D.786 + 0. Rate of Evaporation Marker A Marker B Total Excellent 8.0 15 16 Poor 0 3.0 6 7.5 6 3.108 32 .572 + 0.0 6 Total 30 30 60 Σx2 = 8.5 17 8.0 6 3.

Antioquia Age: 17 Birth date: January 11. Camarines Sur Mother: Charito C. Bula. Antioquia Father: John H. Antioquia 33 . 1995 Email address: johnpaul_antioquia@yahoo.CURRICULUM VITAE Name: John Paul Mobile number: +639489688401 Address: Salvacion.

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