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**9 Mar 09 Copy write, © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006 MACHINE DESIGN
**

This 8 PDH machine design course uses Excel's calculating and optimizing capabilities. Machine design includes: 1. A description of the needed machine in a written specification. 2. Feasibility studies comparing alternate designs and focused research. 3. Preliminary; sketches, scale CAD drawings, materials selection, appearance and styling. 4. Functional analysis; strength, stiffness, vibration, shock, fatigue, temperature, wear, lubrication. Customer endurance and maintenance cost estimate. 5. Producibility; machine tools, joining methods, material supply and handling, manual vs automated manufacture. 6. Cost to design and manufacture one or more models in small and large quantities. 7. Market place: present competition and life expectancy of the product. 8. Customer service system and facilities. 9. Outsource part or all; engineering, manufacturing, sales, warehousing, customer service.

Backhoe Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.chesterfieldgroup.co.uk/products/mobile.html

**Strength and Stiffness Analysis
**

The strength and stiffness analysis of the backhoe begins with a, "Free Body Diagram" of one of the members, shown above : Force F1 = Hydraulic pressure x piston area. Weight W = arm material volume x density. Force F3 = (Moments due to F1 and W) / (L1 x cos A4) Force F2 = ( (F1 cos A1) - (W sin A3) + (F3 cos A4) ) / cos A2 Moment Mmax = F1 x cos A1 x L1 Arm applied bending stress, S = K x Mmax D2 / (2 I) I = arm area moment of inertial at D2 and K = combined vibration shock factor. Safety factor, SF = Material allowable stress / Applied stress The applied stress and safety factor must be calculated at each high stress point.

**Pick and Place Robot
**

A gripper is attached at the bottom end of the vertical X direction actuator. The vertical actuator is supported by a horizontal Y direction actuator. The Y direction actuator is moved in the horizontal direction by the bottom actuator. This pick-and-place robot can be programmed to move the gripper rapidly from point to point anywhere in the X, Y, Z three dimensional zone. For more click on the, "Pwr Screw" tab at the bottom of the display. Shredder Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.traderscity.com/.../ Material to be shredded falls by gravity or is conveyed into the top inlet. A rotating disc with replicable cutters in its circumference performs the shredding. The tensile stress in a rotating disc, S = V2 x ρ / 3 lbf/in2. The disc is mounted and keyed to a shaft supported by roller bearings on each side. The shaft is directly coupled to a three phase electric motor. The coupling joining the motor and disc shafts is covered by a safety guard.

A large.mardenedwards.com/custom packaging-machin… . foundation is usually provided for absorbing dynamic shredding forces and shock loads.The replicable bearings have seals to keep the grease or oil lubricant in and the dust and grit out. Quick release access panels are provided for clearing jams and cutter replacement. steel rod reinforced concrete pad. Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.

net/machineryequipment/feed/ Select the.. Coil springs absorb shock loads on bumps and rough roads in the front suspension above.in/tucson/tucson.. The product packaging machine above is one example. .co.asp?pageName=. Automobile Independent Front Suspension Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.hyundai. These components are applied in many other mechanisms. Double acting shock absorbers dampen suspension oscillations.packaging-machin… Automated Packaging Machine The relatively high cost of labor in the United States requires automated manufacturing and assembly to be price and quality competitive in the world market. Ball joints in the linkage provide swiveling action that allows the wheel and axle assembly to pivot while moving up and down. "Gears" tab at the bottom of the Excel Worksheet for more information about spur gears.usedmills. Spur Gears Below is the image in its original context on the page: www. The lower arm pivots on a bushing and shaft assembly attached to the frame cross member.

"Gears" tab at the bottom of the Excel Worksheet for more information about worm gears.global-b2bnetwork. "C-face worm gearbox below.com/b2b/17/25/751/gear. Select the. Worm gear Above is the image in its original context on the page: www.. or more thread. The axial pitch of the worm is equal to the circular pitch of the wheel. Worm gears offer higher gear ratios in a smaller package than any other mechanism. C-face refers to the round flange used to attach a mating motor flange. A 40 to 1 ratio increases torque by a factor of 40 while reducing worm gear output shaft speed to 1/40 x input speed.Wheel and Worm Gears Typical. double.. . The worm may have a single.

shafts. etc. .network.thomasnet.com/fullstory/531589 The computerized printer above has many moving parts: linkages.. bearings.. for manipulating sheets of paper. bushings. gears. The design and analysis of the light weight plastic components of such a printer requires the same principals as do many heavy duty machines with steel and aluminum parts. Observance of functional quality control in the design stage has improved their reliability in recent years.com/b2b/17/25/751/gear. Laser Jet Printer Above is the image in its original context on the page: news. This is the end of this worksheet.

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restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK TENSION AND COMPRESSION As shown below. Enter. A x B = A*B 2x3= 2*3 =6 A/B= A/B 3/2= 3/2 = 1. London. Two machine components.M. . Automatic calculations are bold type. This is true for tension +P and compression -P. England.P = Compression Reference: Design of Machine Elements. and repeatedly. are subjected to loads P at each end. Type in values for the input data. * The design load is equal to the applied load multiplied by a combined shock and fatigue factor. Ks.5 Xn = X^n 23 = 2^3 =8 A+B= A+B 2+3= 2+3 =5 When using Excel's Goal Seek. + P = Tension . * The material strength is compared with the maximum stress due to combinations of anticipated loads. by V. moments and torsion.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. * These loads may be applied gradually. 6 July 2006 * Machine components are designed to withstand: applied direct forces. * Calculated deflections are compared with required stiffness. Faires. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed. published by: The Macmillan Company. 3. * The average applied design stress must be multiplied by a stress concentration factor K. Math Symbols Spread Sheet Method: 1. 2. 4. At the hole diameter D and the fillet radius R stress is 3 times the average value. shown above. Answer: X = will be calculated. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew. The force P is resisted by internal stress S which is not uniform. New York/Collier-Macmillan Limited. suddenly.

3 = Transverse (contraction +) (expansion -) = = = Input 22000 2.5 0.00034 lbf/in^2 in^2 in in lbf/in^2 See table above. Ks = Section area. E = Stress (tension +) (compression -).0 29. Smax = = Safety factor.Machine Component Maximum Stress Calculation Refer to the diagram above: External force.70 4.5 lbf in in in - in^2 lbf/in^2 G x 10^6 5.75 K*Ks*P / A 10286 Sa / Smax 2. SF = = Material Brass Bronze ASTM A47-52 Malleable Cast Iron Duralumin Monel Metal ASTM A-36 (Mild Steel) Nickel-Chrome Steel Input 2000 3.0 3. L = Original height.0 10. K = Combined shock and fatigue factor. X = = Poisson's Ratio. H = Section width.50 10.80 Tension ( + ) Compression ( . lbf/in^2 in For most metals in .5 or R/H > 0.5 26. P = Section Area. B = Original length. S = = Strain. L = Stress concentration factor. e = = Extension (+). ± P = Section height.00 10 3 29000000 Calculation P/A 11000 S/E 0. H = Material modulus of elasticity.0038 ((H .).5 5 3.80 6.0 Calculations H*B 1.00 11.0 28. Rp = 0.Ho) 0.00 10. A = = Maximum direct stress. Compression ( .Ho) / H) / e (H .14 E x 10^6 lbf/in^2 15.0 25.0 Use if: D/H > 0.3*e*H 0.).0 16.50 11. A = Original length.00038 L*e 0.

Length.5 k*P / A 754 Fs / G 0. k = Maximum shear stress. Sxy = = Shear strain. This is balanced by horizontal right acting top and left acting bottom shear stress vectors. v = = Input 2200 3. Belmont. External shear force. P= H= B= G= L= Section area. Section width.0079 lbf in in lbf/in^2 in in^2 lbf/in^2 in . A stress element at the top or bottom surface of the beam cannot have a vertical stress vector.500 1. Lindeburg.R.00066 e*L 0. Published by. CA. by M.250 1150000 12 Calculation H*B 4. Inc.375 1. A = A= Shear stress concentration factor. Reference: Mechanical Engineering Reference Manual (for the PE exam).Shear Stress Distribution A stress element at the center of the beam reacts to the vertical load P with a vertical up shear stress vector at the right end and down at the other. The shear stress distribution is parabolic. Professional Publications. Shear modulus. e = = Shear deflection. Section height.

There is zero shear force on a principal plane. Fs = Fs = Shear strain. G = Length.SHEAR STRESS IN ROUND SECTION BEAM Refer to the diagram above: Solid shafts: K = 1. Principal Stress Plane: The vector sum of the direct and shear stresses.0131 lbf in in lbf/in^2 in in^2 lbf/in^2 in COMPOUND STRESS Stress Element The stress element right is at the point of interest in the machine part subjected to operating: forces. +Fy = tension.33 1. and torques. Vertical.0 & d is not zero. moments. acts on the principal plane angle A degrees.00262 e*L 0. k = Shear modulus. Sxy = normal to x and y planes. +Fx = tension. Thin wall tubes: K = 2. P = Section outside diameter. Angle A may be calculated from the equation: Tan 2A = 2 x Sxy / ( Fy . e = e= Shear deflection. called the principal stress F1.d^2 )/ 4 1. D = Section inside diameter. -Fx = compression. A = A= Maximum shear stress. Shear stress: Shear stress. -Fy = compression.Fx) . see right. External shear force. v = v= Input 4000 1.500 0.5 & d = 0. d = Shear stress concentration factor.7674 k*P / A 3010 Fs / G 0.15E+06 5 Calculation π*( D^2 .000 1. Direct Stresses: Horizontal. L = Section area.

Torsion. The maximum shear stress is given by: Smax = ( F2 . Fx. PRINCIPAL STRESSES Principal stress.5 ] Max shear stress. F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.Principal Stresses: Two principal stresses. A = ( ATAN(2*Sxy / (Fy . F1 and F2 are required to balance the horizontal and vertical applied stresses. "Goal Seek" to optimize shaft diameter.[ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0. H= V= T= L= D= Input 3000 600 2000 10 2 lbf lbf in-lbf in in . Sxy = [Fn(max) . and Sxy. Diameter. & Horizontal Load H Horizontal force. shown right.Fx) ) / 2 See Math Tab below for Excel's Goal Seek.5 ] Principal stress.Fn(min)] / 2 Principal plane angle. Cantilever length.F1 ) / 2 The principal stress equations are given below. Vertical force. Use Excel's. The maximum shear stress acts at 45 degrees to the principal stresses. Power Shaft with: Torque T. F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 . Fy. Vertical Load V.

5 ] F2 = -6919 lbf/in^2 Max shear stress at B.7854 π*D^4 / 32 1.5 ] -185 lbf/in^2 [Fn(max) .Properties at section A-B π= Area. A = A= Section moment of inertia. "V". Fy = Torsional shear stress. Sxy = Sxy = Calculation 3. Fd = Fd = Bending stress. Fx = Fx = Direct stress due to. I = I= Polar moment of inertia.[ ((Fx-Fy)/2)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0.142 π*D^4 / 64 0. Sxy = = AT POINT "B" Horizontal direct stress. Fx = Fx = Direct stress due to. Sxy(max) = [Fn(max) .1416 π*D^2 / 4 3. F2 = (Fx+Fy)/2 . F1 = (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0. Fb = Fb = Combined direct and bending.5708 H/A 955 M*c / I 7639 H/A + M*c / I 8594 0 T*(D / 2) / J 1273 in^2 in^4 in^4 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 (Fx+Fy)/2 + [ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0. F2 = F2 = Max shear stress at point A.Fn(min)] / 2 4482 lbf/in^2 H/A 955 -M*c / I -7639 H/A + M*c / I -6684 0 T*D / (2*J) 1273 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 Max normal stress at B. "V". Fd = Fd = Bending stress.Fn(min)] / 2 3577 lbf/in^2 . Fy = Torsional shear stress.5 ] 8779 lbf/in^2 (Fx+Fy)/2 .5 ] F1 = 234 lbf/in^2 Min normal stress at B. Sxy = Sxy = Max normal stress at point A. Fb = Fb = Combined direct and bending.[ ((Fx-Fy)/2)^2 + Sxy^2 )^0. F1 = F1 = Min normal stress at point A. J = J= AT POINT "A" Horizontal direct stress.

Curved Beam-Rectangular Section Outside radius. Rna = 0.018 Inside fiber bending stress.250 Rna H / Ln(Ro / Ri) 7. M = Section height.024 M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) 950 M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ri) 1013 in in in in-lbf in in in^2 in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 Curved Beams-Circular Section Curved Beam-Section diameter.Rna = 0.500 2.5)^2 = 7.500 Section radius of neutral axis.Rna 0.000 1. Si = = Outside fiber bending stress.25*(Ro^0.Ri 1.726 Ri + H/2 .5 + Ri^0.500 7.500 500 Calculation Ro . Ro = Inside radius. Ri = Section width. So = = Input 8. Rna = = e= = Inside fiber bending stress. H = = Section area. Si = M*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) = 1626 Outside fiber bending stress.732 e= Ri + D/2 . D = Ro . So = M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro) = 1406 in in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 . B = Applied moment.Ri = 1. A = Section neutral axis radius = Radius of neutral axis.

Curved Beam-2 Circular Section Outside radius.5)^2 4.500 3.5 in in in^4 in .000 in 175 in-lbf Calculation Ro . Fo = = Input 6. Rna = Rna = e= e= Inside fiber bending stress.949 in Ri + D/2 .Rna 0. Si = = Outside fiber bending stress. Ri = Applied moment. H = Section moment of inertia. D = D= Section radius of neutral axis. M = Curved Beam-Section diameter.375 H/2 1.25*(Ro^0. C1 = C2 = = Input 1.051 in (P*(Rna+e))*(Rna-Ri) / (A*e*Ri) 1309 lbf/in^2 M*(Ro-Rna) / (A*e*Ro) 193 lbf/in^2 Rectangular Section Properties Breadth.Ri 2 in 0.000 in 4. B = Height.000 Calculation B*H^3 / 12 3.5 + Ri^0. Ixx = = Center of area. Ro = Inside radius.

500 Calculation A*Yn A*Yn^2 198. MMAX at B = Fixed ends.5 18 46.000 in P= L= a= b= Cantilever.5 6 Hn 2 7 3 ΣA = Calculation A 18 10.63 27.5 Yn 11 6.I and C Sections Input 1 2 3 Bn 9 1. MMAX.88 13.000 6. C1 = ΣA*Yn/ΣA = 6.50 Σ = 293.25 443.00 2178. . Ixx = ΣA*Yn^2 + ΣIcg = 2724.306 in C2 = Y1 + H1/2 = 12.5 1 2 3 Yn 11.5 1.50 in^4 Center of area.500 1.00 40.25 2662.13 Icg 6. at C = Input 2200 6 2 Calculation L-a 4 P*L 13200 P * a * b^2 / L^2 1956 P*a*b/L 2933 lbf in in in-lbs in-lbs in-lbs Ref: AISC Manual of Steel Construction.38 Calculation Section modulus. at C ( a < b ) = Pinned ends.50 62. MMAX.00 68.00 42.

Enter value of applied moment MMAX from above: Bending shock & fatigue factor.500 Calculations A*Yn A*Yn^2 9.00 10.38 32. Ixx = Bending shock & fatigue factor.13 Σ= 40. MMAX = Larger of: C1 and C2 = C = Section moment of inertia.50 10.47 Section modulus.00 4.00 6 10.5 62 in in^4 .00 1. Ycg = = Section modulus.16 13.50 46.50 18.000 ΣIcg 62 B1 / 2 1.78 Icg 121. Kb = Bending stress will be calculated.500 1.5 Yn 1.97 54.5 6 ΣA = Calculation A Yn 18.25 in^4 Center of area.00 177. Kb = Max moment stress.121 in Symmetrical H Section Properties Input Bn Hn 1 2 9 2 7 1.C1 = 1.50 18. C1 = ΣA*Yn/ΣA = 0.50 Calculation Kb*M*C / I 50987 Data in-lbf in in^4 - lb/in^2 Input 1 2 3 Bn 2 7 3 Hn 9 1. Ixx = = Center of area.879 in C2 = B1 .000 Calculation A Icg 18. Applied moment from above.50 3.00 14 46.66 1.00 1.50 1.5 3 3 6 ΣA = Center of gravity. Ixx = ΣA*h^2 + ΣIcg = 224. C1 = C2 = = B1 / 2 1.50 43 18.000 3.00 4.88 46. Sm = = 3 Input 13200 12.

MMAX. Enter values for applied moment at a beam section given: C. Y = Pinned ends deflection at C. at C = Input 1800 12 3 Calculation L-a 9 P*L 21600 P * a * b^2 / L^2 3038 P*a*b/L 4050 lbf in in in-lbs in-lbs in-lbs Ref: AISC Manual of Steel Construction.750 4. MMAX. Ixx = Bending shock & fatigue factor. MMAX = Larger of: C1 and C2 = C = Section moment of inertia. Y = Fixed ends deflection at C.Enter value of applied moment MMAX from above: P= L= a= b= = Cantilever. Applied moment from above. L = Beam load from above. MMAX at B = = Fixed ends.000053 P*a^2 * b^2 / (3*E*I*L) 0. Kb = Shaft material elastic modulus. Sm = = Cantilever deflection at A. at C ( a < b ) = = Pinned ends. Ixx and Ycg. P = Max moment stress.466 1. E = Beam length from above. Y = Input 13200 1. Bending stress will be calculated.000281 in-lbf in in^4 lb/in^2 in lbf lb/in^2 in in in This is the end of this worksheet .0080 P*a^3 * b^3 / (3*E*I*L^3) 0.5 29000000 Calculation 12 1800 Kb*M*C / I 7759 P*L^3 / (3*E*I) 0.

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Type in values for the input data. D^3 = (16/π*Ss)*[ (KbMb)^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0.d^4) / 64 for solid shafts for hollow shafts for solid shafts for hollow shafts The ASME Code equation for shafts subjected to: torsion. d = inside diameter Kb = combined shock & fatigue bending factor Kt = combined shock & fatigue torsion factor . Automatic calculations are bold type.d^4) / 32 Shaft bending stress: Moment of area: Sb = M*R / I I = π*D^4 / 64 I = π*(D^4 . 6 July 2006 Rev: 26Sep09 Spread Sheet Method: 1. D^3 = (16/π*Ss(1-K^4))*[ ( (KbMb + (α*Fα*D*(1+K^2)/8 ]^2 + (Kt*T)^2 ]^0. 3. Answer: X = will be calculated. ASME Code states that for shaft made of a specified ASTM steel: Ss(allowable) = 30% of Sy but not over 18% of Sult for shafts without keyways. Enter. shock. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew. DESIGN OF POWER TRANSMISSION SHAFTING The objective is to calculate the shaft size having the strength and rigidity required to transmit an applied torque. Shaft design includes the determination of shaft diameter having the strength and rigidity to transmit motor or engine power under various operating conditions. axial load.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write.5 K = D/d D = Shaft outside diameter. Shafts are usually round and may be solid or hollow. Shaft torsional shear stress: Ss = T*R / J Polar moment of area: J = π*D^4 / 32 J = π*(D^4 . bending. 2. and fatigue is: Shaft diameter cubed. The strength in torsion.5 Shaft diameter cubed with no axial load. of shafts made of ductile materials are usually calculated on the basis of the maximum shear theory. 4. These values are to be reduced by 25% if the shafts have keyways.

Say. 1. Sau = Allowable stress based on Sy.5 = Shaft radius of gyration Power Transmission Shaft Design Calculations Input shaft data for your problem below and Excel will calculate the answers. N = Shaft vertical load.α = column factor = 1 / (1 . Kt = 3.0 for gradually applied load Kb = 2. see the Math Tools tab below. V = Shaft length. & Ss: Sa = Power transmitted by shaft.5 for suddenly applied load & minor shock Kb = 3. L = Kb = lbf/in^2 hp rpm lbf in .5. HP = Shaft speed.0044*(L/k)^2 for L/k < 115 L = Shaft length A = Shaft section area For rotating shafts: Kb = 1. Kt = 1. ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress Su = Sy = Allowable stress based on Su. Excel' "Goal Seek" may be used to optimize the design of shafts. Say = Allowable shear stress based on Su.0.0.0 for suddenly applied load & heavy shock k = (I/A)^0. Kt = 1.0. ASME Code Shaft Diameter Lowest of Sau.5 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 2. Ss = Input 58000 36000 Calculate 18% * Su 10440 30% * Sy 10800 75% * Sau 7830 Input 7830 10 300 0 10 1.

366 in^3 Minimum shaft diameter.5 1. D = 1.109 in Shaft Material Ultimate & Yield Stresses Su = Sy = ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress Allowable stress based on Su. Sau = Input 70000 46000 Calculate 18% * Su lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 . M = ASME Code for shaft with keyway. T = = Vertical Moment.Kt = Shaft torque. D^3 = = 1 Calculate HP * 63000 / N 2100 in-lbf V*L 0 lbf-in (16 / (π*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.

Wp = Spur gear pressure angle. Say = Allowable shear stress based on Su.5 1 Calculate HP * 63000 / N 2100 3 T / (D2 / 2) -( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1 . N = T1 / T2 = A= L1 = L2 = L3 = D1 = D2 = V-Pulley weight. HP = Shaft speed. Ss = 12600 30% * Sy 13800 75% * Sau 9450 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 Shaft Power & Geometry Lowest of Sau.T2 = T2 = = lbf T1 = = lbf Vertical Forces V2 = Fs = Ft * Tan( A ) = 191 lbf V4 = ( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )-Wp = 204 lbf V3 = ( (V4*(L2 + L3)) .Allowable stress based on Sy.V4 195 lbf Vertical Moments Mv2 = Mv3 = Horizontal Forces H2 =Ft = V1 * L1 1954 V4 * L3 2041 T / (D1 / 2) 525 lbf-in lbf-in lbf . (14 or 20 deg) B = Kb = Kt = Input 9450 20 600 3 60 10 30 10 8 18 200 20 1. Say.B) 117 B * T2 350 lbf/in^2 hp rpm deg in in in in in lbs deg - Shaft torque.(V2*L1) ) / L2 208 lbf V1 = V2 + V3 . T = = in-lbf T2 / T1 = B = T1 . & Ss: Sa = Power transmitted by V-Belt.

D^3 = (16 / (π*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0.5 3100 lbf-in Input Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb = 3351 lbf-in H4 = Calculate Shaft Diameter Calculate ASME Code for shaft with keyway.H3 + H4 272 Horizontal Moments Mh2 = H1 * L1 2722 lbf-in Mh3 = H4 * L3 2334 lbf-in Resultant Moments Mr2 = (Mv2^2 + Mh2^2)^0.936 in^3 D= 1. Say = Input 70000 46000 Calculate 18% * Su 12600 30% * Sy lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 .(T1 + T2) * Cos( A ) 233 lbf H3 = ( (H4*(L2 + L3)) + (H2*L1) ) / L2 486 H1 = H2 .5 3351 lbf-in Mr3 = (Mv3^2 + Mh3^2)^0. Sau = Allowable stress based on Sy.5 = 2.431 in Shaft Material Ultimate & Yield Stresses Su = Sy = ASME Code Shaft Allowable Stress Allowable stress based on Su.

SD1 = Center shaft diameter. N = T1 / T2 = A= L1 = L2 = L3 = D1 = D2 = V-Pulley weight.(V2*L1) ) / L2 -31 lbf V1 = Vertical Moments Mv2 = Mv3 = V2 + V3 .5 1 1. Ss = 13800 75% * Sau 9450 Input 9450 20 600 3 60 10 30 10 8 18 200 20 1.T2 = T2 = = T1 = = Vertical Forces H2 =Ft = V2 = Fs = = V4 = = V3 = lbf/in^2 hp rpm deg in in in in in lbs deg in in in in-lbf lbf lbf T / (D1 / 2) 525 lbf Ft * Tan( A ) 909 lbf ( (T1 + T2) * Sin( A ) )-Wp 204 lbf ( (V4*(L2 + L3)) . & Ss: Sa = Power transmitted by V-Belt.000 3. Say. SD3 = Shaft torque.V4 674 V1 * L1 6742 V4 * L3 2041 Input lbf lbf-in lbf-in .000 Calculate HP * 63000 / N 2100 3 T / (D2 / 2) -( T / (D2 / 2) ) / (1 . (14 or 20 deg) B = Kb = Kt = Left side shaft diameter.000 2. HP = Shaft speed. T = = T2 / T1 = B = T1 . SD2 = Right side shaft diameter.Allowable shear stress based on Su.B) 117 B * T2 350 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 Shaft Power & Geometry Lowest of Sau. Wp = Spur gear pressure angle.

5 1750 3 1.771 in Power Shaft Torque Motor Power. Td = Kt*12*33000*HP / (2*π*N) = 810 hp rpm in in psi in-lbf Drive Shaft Torque Twist Angle Shaft Design Torque from above. D = Shaft length.060 Td*D / (2*J) 8000 Td*L / (J*G) 0. a = = = Calculation π*D^4 / 32 0. D^3 = (16 / (π*Sa) ) * ( (Kb*Mb)^2 + ( Kt*T)^2 )^0. L = Shaft material shear modulus.0158 0. Kt = Shaft diameter. L = Shaft material tension modulus. Td = Shaft diameter. G = Input 1080 0. N = Torque shock & fatigue factor. J = = Shear stress due to Td.5 = 5. D = Shaft length.883 10 29000000 11500000 in-lbf in in psi psi < GOAL SEEK Section polar moment of area. G = Input 7. E = Shaft material shear modulus.Larger of: Mr2 & Mr3 = Mb = 6742 lbf-in Calculate Shaft Diameter Calculate ASME Code for shaft with keyway.90 in^4 lbf/in^2 radians degrees < GOAL SEEK . ST = = Shaft torsion deflection angle.000 5 11500000 Calculation Shaft Design Torque. HP = Shaft speed.567 in^3 D= 1.

Ft = = Input 360 2.833 T*(B/2) / J 600 in-lbf in in in^4 lb/in^2 . T = Rectangular shaft breadth. B = Section polar moment of inertia.359 T*(Do/2) / J 477 in-lbf in in in^4 lb/in^2 Torsion.125 Calculation π*(Do^4 . J = = Torsion stress. J = J= Torsion stress. Di = Section polar moment of inertia.POLAR MOMENT OF AREA AND SHEAR STRESS Torsion.563 T*(B/2) / J 560 in-lbf in in^4 lb/in^2 Torsion. Ft = = Input 1000 2. T = Round solid shaft diameter. T = Round tube shaft outside dia.000 Calculation B*H*(B^2 + H^2)/ 12 0.000 Calculation π*D^4 / 32 1. Do = Round tube shaft inside dia.Di^4) / 32 2. Ft = = Input 1000 1.250 1. B = Height. T = Square shaft breadth = height.750 Calculation B^4 / 6 1.000 2. J = = Torsion stress. J = = Torsion stress. Ft = = Input 1000 1.571 T*(D/2) / J 229 in-lbf in in^4 lb/in^2 Torsion. D = Section polar moment of inertia. H = Section polar moment of inertia.

D = Moment at x. x = Bending moment shock load factor.049 M*D / (2*I) 113049 lbf in in in-lbs in-lbs in^4 lbs/in^2 < GOAL SEEK Cantilever shaft bending deflection Shaft transverse load at free end.000 10 5 3 29000000 lbf in in in psi Calculation π*D^4 / 64 0. Km = Shaft diameter. x = Bending shock & fatigue factor. L = Deflection location. Yx = (-W*x^2/(6*E*I))*((3*L) . x = Moment at x. I = = Moment at. W = Position in shaft. E = Input 740 1. Km = Modulus of elasticity.000 Calculation W*x Km*Mx 11100 π*D^4 / 64 0. Fb = = Input 740 5 3 1. I = = Bending stress for shaft. M = = Bending stress at x: Sb = in^4 in in-lbf lbf/in^2 in < GOAL SEEK . Md = = Section moment of inertia. Y = -W*L^3 / (3*E*I) Section moment of inertia. W = Shaft diameter.049 5 Km*W*x 11100 M*(D/2) / I 113063 Cantilever bend'g deflection at x.Cantilever shaft bending moment Shaft transverse load.0541 Bending deflection at x = 0. Mx = Design moment at x. D = Shaft length.x) = -0.

750 Calculation B^4 / 12 0. Izz and Kb.1733 in Section Moment of Inertia Round solid shaft diameter. Do = Di = Section polar moment of inertia.Y= -0.049 Input 1. Fb = Kb*M*c / I Answer: Fb = 1200 lb/in^2 . Izz = Answer: Izz = Section moment of Inertia Round tube shaft diameter. c. Izz = Answer: Izz = Input 1. Bending stress will be calculated.782 in^4 BENDING STRESS Enter values for applied moment at a beam section.5 Calculation π*(Do^4 .750 1.212 in in^4 in in in^4 Section moment of Inertia Square shaft breadth = height. D = Section moment of inertia.Di^4) / 64 0.000 Calculations π*D^4 / 64 0. B = Section moment of inertia.000 in Section moment of inertia.5 in^4 Bending shock & fatigue factor. Izz = 2. Kb = 3 Calculation Max bending stress. M = 1000 in-lbf c= 1. Izz = Answer: Izz = Input 1. Input Applied moment at x.

all other keyways may be the run-out type. 1. 1. selected in accordance with ratings established by the Mechanical Power Transmission Association Standard No.1 Pulley Shafts: 1.3 Pulleys and pulley shafts shall be sized for combined torsional and bending static and fatigue stresses.4 Shaft keys shall be the square parallel type and keyways adjacent to bearings shall be round end. .TYPICAL BULK MATERIAL BELT CONVEYOR SHAFTING SPECIFICATION See PDHonline courses: M262 an M263 by the author of this course for more information. 1. 2.A. the balance on the shaft shall be expansion type.2 All shafts shall have one fixed type bearing.S.301-1965 and U. 2.2 The head pulley on the Reclaim Conveyor shall be welded 304-SS so as not to interfere with tramp metal removal by the magnet.1 Pulleys: 2.3 All pulleys shall be welded steel crown faced.

2.S.2.5 All drive pulleys shall be furnished with 1/2 inch thick vulcanized herringbone grooved lagging.1-1966. 2.A.4 All pulleys shall be crowned. This is the end of this worksheet . 2. selected in accordance with ratings established by the Mechanical Power Transmission Association Standard No. In no case shall the pulley shaft loads as listed in the rating tables of these standards be exceeded.6 Snub pulleys adjacent to drive pulleys shall have a minimum diameter of 16 inches. Standard No.3 All pulleys shall be welded steel crown faced.301-1965 and U.B105.

MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write.90 1. Clutches are used to connect rotating shafts temporarily. Rigid couplings are used for accurately aligned shafts in slow speed applications.2 0.3 0. Refer to ASME code and coupling vendor design values.4 0.20 1.30 1.5 .50 1. KEY SLOT STRESS FACTOR 2.4 0.0 Key half slot width / Slot depth (y / h) A B C D Legend A B C D h/R 0.70 1. 6 July 2006 COUPLINGS RIGID COUPLING DESIGN Couplings are used to connect rotating shafts continuously.10 1.40 1.60 1.00 0.6 0. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.2 0.80 1.00 Key Slot Stress Factor (Kk) 1.10 2.8 1.

1.38 <From above graph. Ssu = ku* Ft = 15300 lbf/in^2 Yield stress factor. Ts = = Input 2.375 in 0. Tm = = Section polar moment of inertia. Ssu or Ssy = Torque shock load factor. ky = 0.188 0. J = = Allowable shaft torque.3 Design yield shear design stress factor. Input Material ultimate tensile stress. Ft = 85000 lbf/in^2 Shaft material yield stress. y = Key slot half width / Slot depth.75 Apply to graph 0.18 Design ultimate shear stress. HP = Shaft speed.Design Stress Coupling Design Shear Stress = Design allowable average shear stress. Kt = Key slot stress factor from graph above. Calculation 12*33000*HP / (2*π*N) 12603 in-lbf π*D^4 / 32 1. y / h = Slot depth / Shaft radius. h / R = Motor Power. Shaft Torsion Shear Strength Shaft diameter. N = Allowable shaft stress from above.25 above. Fy = 45000 lbf/in^2 Calculation Ultimate tensile stress design factor. Kk = Motor shaft torque. h = Key slot half width. Input 60 hp 300 rpm 13500 lbf/in^2 3.00 1. Ssy = ky* Ft = 13500 lbf/in^2 Use the smaller design shear stress of Fsu and Fsy above.25 in Calculation 0.000 in 0. ku = 0. D = Key slot total width = H = Key slot depth.5710 in^4 Ss*J / (Kt*Kk*Ds/2) 5123 in-lbf .

Rf = Answer: Rf = Axial force. A = = Key stress factor.00 2.00 in 500 lbf 6 0. P = Number of bolts. Ds = Allowable shaft stress from above. Di = Pre-load in each bolt. Tk = = Key bearing strength. Fa = Fa = Coupling friction torque capacity. H = Key Length.125 0. Coupling Friction Torsion Strength Outer contact diameter. Tf = Answer: Tf = Input 10.000 13500 80000 Calculation H*L 1. K = Key shear strength. Ssu or Ssy = Allowable key bearing stress. n = Coupling friction radius. Tk = = Input 0.H/4)*(H/2) 40781 in in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 in^2 lbf/in^2 in-lbf in-lbf 3.75 in P*Nb 3000 lbf Fa*f*Rf*n 2853 in-lbf . Square Key Torsion Shear Strength Key Width = Height.00 in 9.625 Pk*Ds/2 11391 Sb*L*(D/2 . Pk = = Key torsion shear strength. Sb = Key shear area.2.2 1 Calculation (2/3)*(Ro^3-Ri^3)/(Ro^2-Ri^2) 4. Nb = Coefficient of friction.75 K*Fs*A 11390. L = Shaft diameter. Do = Inner contact diameter. f = Number of pairs of friction surfaces.375 3.

Hub outside diameter. L = Max tangential stress.33 Shear strength per bolt. The shaft is the inner ring.3 0. "shrink fits" are used for connecting hubs to shafts. Input Torque shock load factor. D = 0. Ks = 1. Often the computed stress is allowed to approach the yield stress because the stress decreases away from the bore. Coupling Bolts Torsion Strength Assume half of bolts are effective due differences in bolt holes and bolt diameters.500 in Calculation One bolt section area.000 4.000 8 5000 1.12 0. Dc to Di . A = π*D^2/4 A= 0.50E+07 3.Shaft Interference Fits These ridged or. sometimes in addition to keys. Do to Dc. Dc = Shaft inside diameter. Ft = Hub modulus. Pb = Fs*A / (Kt*Ks) Answer: Pb = 295 lbf Total coupling bolts torque capacity.196 in Shear stress concentration factor.4. Kt = 3 Bolt allowable shear stress. Di = Hub length.3 in in in in lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 - . μs = Input 14. Do = Shaft outside diameter. Tb = Answer: Tb = Pb*(Dc/2)*(Nb / 2) 1919 in-lbf Hub .5 in Bolt diameter. μh = Shaft Poisson's ratio.00E+07 0. Dc = 6. Shaft in Hub The hub is the outer ring. Eh = Shaft modulus. f = Hub Poisson's ratio. Fs = 6000 lbf/in^2 Number of bolts.000 0. Nb = 4 Bolt circle diameter. Es = Coefficient of friction.

00207 in Maximum axial load.33333E-08 (Do^2+Dc^2)/(Eh*(Do^2-Dc^2)) 7. Pc = Pc = C1 = C1 = C2 = C2 = C3 = C3 = C4 = C4 = Maximum diameter interference.00E-08 Pc*Dc*(C1 + C2 .00E-08 μh / Eh 2. Fa = f*π*Dc*L*Pc Fa = 51221 Maximum torque.85185E-08 μs / Es 1.See input above: Pressure at contact surface. T = f*Pc*π*Dc^2*L / 2 T= 102441 lbf in-lbf This is the end of this spread sheet. δ = δ= Calculation Ft*((Do^2-Dc^2) / (Do^2+Dc^2)) 4245 (Dc^2+Di^2)/(Es*(Dc^2-Di^2)) 3.C3 + C4) 0. .

59 1.50 1.19 1.91 1.Y/H 0.07 .30 1.25 0.4 0.25 1.8 1.6 0.0 0.2 0.35 0.62 1.32 1.40 1.77 1.41 1.28 1.00 D 1.18 1.17 1.40 A 2.01 1.60 B 1.80 C 1.37 1.10 1.

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A nut will advance two screw thread pitches per one 360 degree rotation on a double pitch screw.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. The nut is prevented from rotating by the upper and lower guide slots. etc. linear actuators. The essential components are a nut engaging the helical screw threads of a shaft. The linear travel of the lug & nut is precise and lockable. Motor Shaft Torque Motor Power. double (n=2). Lead (n*P) is the distance a nut advances each complete revolution. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew. N = Motor shaft torque. Tm = Answer: Tm = Input 30 hp 1750 rpm Calculation 12*33000*HP / (2*π*N) 1080 in-lbf . Pitch (P) is the distance from a point on one thread to the corresponding point on the next thread. HP = Shaft speed. The actuator nut below advances or retreats as the motor shaft turns clockwise or antclockwise. triple (n=3) pitch screw. 6 July 2006 POWER SCREWS Motor driven: screw jacks. Multiple pitch number (n) refers to single (n=1). and clamps are examples of power screws. A nut will advance one screw thread pitch per one 360 degree rotation on a single pitch screw. The control system of a stepper motor rotates the shaft through a series of small angles very accurately repeatedly.

5*(1/ TPI )+0. (-Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An)) is negative. Rm = Input 2000 4 3 0.Ft*Tan (Ah)/ Cos (An)) 0.0752 Answer: Ah = 4.18 0. P = W / (2*π*L*Rm*H*TPI) Answer: P = 164 lbf in threads/in in lbf/in^2 This is the end of this spread sheet. T = W*(Rm*( X / Y) + Fb*Rb) Answer: T = 161 in-lbf Force W will cause the screw to rotate (overhaul) if. Fb = Bearing mean radius.000 3 5. Tan (Ah) = n*(1/ TPI ) / (2*π*Rm) Answer: Tan (Ah) = 0. Rm = Rm = Input 3.177 (D . Rb = Load to be raised by power screw. . W = Nut length. D = Screw thread turns per inch.0749 4. Tan (An) = Answer: Tan (An) = Answer: An = Tan (At)*Cos (Ah) 0. TPI = Thread angle.29 degrees X = (Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An)) 0.412 in threads/in degrees in lbf in in Thread helix angle. TPI = Thread height.01 0. L = Screw thread turns per inch. H = Thread mean radius.86 2 0.2257 Y =(1. At = Thread multiple pitch lead number.Power Screw Torque Screw outside diameter.9887 Power screw torque. n = Thread friction coefficient.15 0 2 500 Calculation 0.0751 SCREW THREAD AVERAGE PRESSURE Load to be raised by power screw.9 Calculation Screw thread average pressure. H = Answer: H = Thread mean radius. (-Tan (Ah) + Ft/ Cos (An)) = 0. Ft = Bearing friction coefficient.31 degrees Thread normal force angle. W = Acme thread depth.H) / 2 1.

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DISC BRAKE A sectional view of a generic disc brake with calipers is illustrated right.00 1 Calculation 2*μ*F*N*Rm 140 lbf in - Braking torque. 2. F lbf acting at mean radius Rm inches provide rotation stopping torque T in-lbf.2 7. 3. 4. . F = Coefficient of friction. 6 July 2006 Spread Sheet Method: 1.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. N = Input 50 0. Automatic calculations are bold type. Calculate Brake Torque Capacity Clamping force. T = in-lbf SHOE BRAKE stopping capacity is proportional to the normal force of brake shoe against the drum and coefficient of friction. Enter. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew. Type in values for the input data. Answer: X = will be calculated. μ = Caliper mean radius. Rd = Number of calipers. Equal and opposite clamping forces.

Mn = ((Pm*w*Rd*Rs)/(Sin(Am))*(Y) Mn = 12426 in-lbf Brake cylinder force. Rs = Shoe heel angle. Pmr = Left shoe maximum shoe pressure. A2 = Shoe mean angle.Calculate Brake Torque Capacity Coefficient of friction.3892 Right shoe friction moment. Rd = Shoe mean radius.25*Sin(2*A2)) Y= 1. Tr = f*Pm*w*Rd^2*(Z) Tr = 3548 in-lbf This is the end of this work sheet. P = Answer: P = (Mn . . Am = Right shoe maximum shoe pressure. f = Brake shoe face width. Pml = C= Input 0. w = Drum internal radius.3806 Right normal forces moment.6427 Right shoe brake torque capacity.5*A2) .2 2 6 5 0 130 90 150 150 9 in in in degrees degrees degrees lbf/in^2 lbf/in^2 in Calculation X = (Rd .Mr) / C 1045 lbf Z = ((Cos(A1)-Cos(A2)) / Sin(Am) Z= 1. Mr = ((f*Pm*w*Rd)/(Sin(Am))*(X) Mr = 3020 in-lbf Y = (0.Rd*Cos(A2)) .(Rs/2)*Sin^2(A2)) X= 8.(0. A1 = Shoe angle.

A V-belt may be used in combination with a drive sheave on a motor shaft and a pulley on the driven shaft. Pulleys have a flat circumference.0390 2. 6 July 2006 Spread Sheet Method: 1. R2 = Center distance.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. Enter.0390 0. Automatic calculations are bold type. degrees . Angle B Small sheave pitch circle radius. Sheaves have a V-groove. V-BELT DRIVES V-belts are used to transmit power from motors to machinery. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.1574 Calculation (R2-R1) / C 0. R1 = Large sheave pitch circle radius. 4.77165 2. 3. 2.3622 15. Type in values for the input data. Answer: X = will be calculated. C = Sin (B) Sin (B) B B = = = = Input 1.23 in in in radn.

2*B 174.77 2. A2 = A2 = e = radn.0500 2. V = V = g = (B1 + B2)/ (2*D) 1. Belt section area.167 D2 + 2*x 5. degrees degrees degrees Sheave capacity Cs = e^(f1*A1/ Sin(A/2)) = 13. D2 = = Input 3 3600 3. distance. C = Sheave groove angle. Cp = e^(f2*A2/ Sin(90/2)) = 5.86 180 .561000648 π*(D1/12)*(N/60) 55.G. HP = Motor speed. A = Sheave to V-belt coefficient of friction. W = = V-belt velocity. D2 = Center distance. Ab = = V-belt weight per ft.5433 4. w = Tight side V-belt allowable tension. D1 = Driven sheave pitch diameter.38 Pulley capacity.7183 hp rpm in in in deg in in in lbm/in^3 lbf in in in in Angle of Wrap An Small sheave pitch radius.27 180 + 2*B 185.31496 0. N = Drive sheave pitch diameter.511811 0. x = = Driven sheave pitch diameter.2 in^2 lbm/ft ft/sec ft^2/sec .375 Ab*w*12 0.06 The smaller of Cs and Cp governs design. R2 = Sin (B) = Sin (B) = B = B = Small sheave angle of wrap. f1 = Pulley to V-belt coefficient of friction.V-Belt Drive Drive power.665243 32. A1 = A1 = Large pulley angle of wrap.35433 0.034 75 Calculation D*(B1+ 2*B2)/ 3(B1+B2) 0. R1 = Large pulley pitch radius. T1 = V-belt C.0500 0. f2 = B1 = B2 = D = V-belt weight per cubic inch.5 0.1574 40 0.73 2.724409 15.5 0.06 1.53 (R2-R1) / C 0.

Slack side belt tension. T2 = (T1-W*V^2/g)/(Csp)+ (W*V^2/g) = 58 lbf Horsepower per belt. . HPb = (T2-T1)*V / 550 = 1. Nb = HP / HPb = 1.8 belts Input Use belts This is the end of this work sheet.7 hp Number of belts.

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Diametral pitch (P) is the number of teeth per inch of pitch circle diameter.167 in Working depth.5 6 12 3. 2. WD = 2*A 0. in in in Calculation Pitch circle diameter.01745 = Radians π= 3. 3. N = Gear hub diameter = Gear hub width = Bore diameter = 14.5 or 20 N/D Input 14. BC = D*Cos(Pa*.614 in or RD = (N . .193 in Whole depth= Addendum+Dedendum.875 deg.157 / Pd 0.00 1.01745/N) 0.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. 6 July 2006 Spread Sheet Method: 1.333 in Root circle diameter.167 in Dedendum. TC = D*Sin(90*. Enter. Automatic calculations are bold type. Degrees x .614 in Base circle. B = 1. Pa = Diametral pitch. Answer: X = will be calculated. SPUR GEARS Circular pitch (CP) is the pitch circle arc length between a point on one tooth and the corresponding point on the adjacent tooth.524 in or CP = π / Pd 0.524 in Chordal thickness.333 in or OD = (N + 2) / Pd 2.01745) 1.1416 Use the above spread sheet to calculate the dimensions of gears.360 in Clearance.000 in Addendum.167 in Chordal addendum.333 in Note: Excel requires degrees to be converted to radians. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.314) / Pd 1. Type in values for the input data.157 / Pd 0.50 1.026 in Outside diameter. CP = π*D / N 0. A = 1 / Pd 0. Pd = Number of gear teeth. RD = D . OD = D + (2*A) 2. d = 2. 4. AC = A + N^2 / (4*D) 18.(2*B) 1. D = N / Pd 2. C = .2.936 in Circular pitch. Spur Gear Dimensions Pressure angle.157 / Pd 0.

Ra = GEAR TEETH STRENGTH Input 4.63 6. Pa = Pinion base circle radius = Gear addendum radius = There will be no interference if.70 1000 1. t = Moment arm length.75 in in lbf in in . Rbc < Rbc < Rbc < Addendum radius. h = Tooth load.Gear Tooth Interference Base circle radius.5 5.00 Gear Tooth Bending Stress Tooth base thickness. W = Tooth face width (into paper).50 0. Calculation Rbc Ra Ra (Rbc^2 + Rc^2*(Sin(Pa))^0.65 in 9. b = Base half thickness. Ros = OD/2 = Pressure angle. Rbc = CP/2 = Outside radius.3 in 20 deg. c = c= Input 1.00 Calculation t/2 0.

Pd = Pd = Input 100 ft/min 3. Y below: Pressure Angle 20 0.146 0.108 0.088 0.130 0. Vp = Tooth face width.138 0.13 in 1836 in-lbf 3. C = Static load.101 50 0. Gear Tooth Dynamic Load Pitch line velocity. F = F= Dynamic load.142 0.097 30 0.122 Rack 0.067 14 0.078 0. T = Circular pitch radius.119 300 0. b = Gear torque.102 0.115 100 0.Section modulus. Sb = M*c / I Sb = 1867 lbf/in^2 The stress calculated above does not include stress concentration or dynamic loading.114 0.154 .134 0.098 0.117 150 0. I = b*t^3 / 12 I= 0.28125 in^3 Tooth bending stress.124 Use the Lewis form factor.150 0.086 20 0.110 60 0.00 in 2950 4980 Calculation 2*T / R 1224 lbf ((0.113 75 0.081 18 0.090 25 0.094 0.5)) + F 1711 Lewis Equation Form Factor Y Pressure Number of Teeth Angle 14 12 0. R = CP / 2 = Deformation factor (steel gears).05*V + (b*C + F)^.075 16 0.05*V*(b*C + F)) / (0.

HP = HP = Input 5. N = 100 Calculation Gear tooth tensile stress. T = 15300 in-lbf Diametral pitch.Lewis Equation .00 in Constant. Y = 0.33 800 π*Dp*n / 12 1116 1722 840 Calculation F*V / 33000 44 in rpm ft/min lbf ft/min Note: 1.0473 in Lewis form factor.5 in Circular pitch. F = S*b*Pc*Y F= 1723 lbf Strength of Gear Teeth. b = 3.161 Number of gear teeth.0 HP = hp 33000 Worm & Wheel Gearing .Strength of Gear Teeth Strength of Gear Teeth. Pd = 5. Dp = Rotational speed.094 Calculation Allowable gear tooth load. k = 4 max Lewis form factor. V = Gear horsepower transmitted.if pitch circle diameter is known Input Allowable gear tooth tensile stress.if pitch circle diameter is not known Input Gear shaft torque. Pc = 1. V = V= Allowable gear tooth load.Lewis Equation . F = Gear Pitch Line Velocity. n = Gear Pitch Line Velocity. S = 5000 lbf/in^2 Tooth width. S = 2*T*Pd^3 / (k*π^2*Y*N) S= 6016 lbf/in^2 Gear Pitch Line Velocity Pitch circle diameter. Y = 0.

875 / 2.25 4 Calculation Lead / (π*Dw) 0. Input Worm and wheel center distance. 1. 3/8.15 radians degrees Worm Circular Pitch. 1. Dw = Cd^0.2975) = A= Lead angle. A = Answer: A = Input 2.75. A Lead = Dw = Tan(A/57.1790 Tan-1(a) 10. Pc = Dw / 3 Pc = 1.Lead Angle.25. and 2.71 in Use standard. 1. Pc AGMA Standard Circular Pitches: 1/8.143 in Worm circular pitch. Pc = 1. 3/4. 5/8. 5/16. Cd = 16 in Calculation Wheel diameter.75 in .2 Dw = 5. 1/2.

Sd = Tooth width.5 60 Calculation Dg*b* 477 lbf ft/min lbf Worm Gear Endurance Load Worm/gear design stress.094 Calculation Sd*b*Pnc*Y 580 Sd = Tooth width.0473 0.3 1. Vg = Worm Gear Dynamic Load. Y = Worm wheel pitch circle diameter.33 600 20000 in rpm lbf/in^2 Calculation Gear Pitch Line Velocity. Su = Input 5. Pnc = Lewis form factor. b = Material wear constant. Dg = Tooth width. Fw = Fw = in in - lbf . Dp = Worm Gear Endurance Load. Fe = Fe = lbf/in^2 in in lbf Worm Gear Wear Load Gear pitch diameter. F = F= lbf/in^2 in in lbf Worm Gear Dynamic Load Static load.Strength of Worm & Wheel Gears . n = Ultimate stress.5 1. So = Su / 3 So = 6667 lbf/in^2 Worm/gear design stress. B = Worm Gear Wear Load.Lewis Equation Pitch circle diameter. F = Gear Pitch Line Velocity.5 0. b = Circular pitch. Vg = π*Dp*n / 12 Vg = 837 ft/min Worm / Wheel allowable stress.094 5. b = Lewis form factor. Sd = So*1200 / (1200 + Vg) Sd = 3927 lbf/in^2 Input 3927 1.3 Calculation Sd*b*Y*π / Pnd 334 Input 5. Dp = Rotational speed. Y = Allowable gear tooth load. Fd = Fd = Input 1723 800 Calculation F*(1200+Vg) / (1200) 2872 Input 4000 1.

A = Worm gear efficiency. e = e= AGMA Worm Gear Heat Dissipation Limit Worm to wheel center distance. f = Lead angle. C = Transmission ratio.986 Input 3 25 Calculation 9.5*C^1. HPm = HPm = Input Data 0.05 in hp This is the end of this spread sheet. .7 / (R + 5) 2. R = Maximum horse power limit.2975) / (1 + f/Tan(A/57.1 12 degrees Calculation (1 .2975) 0.Worm Gear Efficiency Worm Hardened steel 250 BHN steel Hardened steel Hardened steel Cast iron Material Wear Constant Gear Cast iron Phosphor bronze Phosphor bronze Antimony bronze Phosphor bronze B 50 60 80 120 150 Coefficient of friction.f*Tan(A/57.

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142 95 Input 10 2 4 0. D = Cylinder area. P = gpm psi . fs = v / (12*t*A) = in sec in in in/min sq-in cu-in gal min gpm sq-in ft/sec Pump flow.95 Input 300 2 Output 3. v = A * x = Volume in gallons.142 x D^2 / 4 = Piston extention volume. P = Weight. RPM = GPM x 231 / d = gpm cu in / rev rpm Pump flow. d = Hydraulic motor speed. T = t / 60 = Flow rate.568 125. S = 60*x / t = Cylinder area.142 x D^2 / 4 = Pressure.196 0.033 16. D = (4*A / 3. GPM = V / T = Pipe internal area. & MOTORS One gallon = 231 cu in Pressure. GPM = Pump displacement.5 Output 300 12. V = v / 231 = Time in minutes to extend. pa = 3.68 0.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write.544 0. W = Cylinder diameter. RPM = GPM x 231 / d = gpm cu in / rev rpm Hydraulic motor flow. W = Cylinder area. pd = Piston speed. GPM = Pump pressure. t = Cylinder diameter.42 Input 20 4. P = W / A = psi Piston extends. x = Time to extend. GPM = Hydraulic motor displacement. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.20 Output 1100 Input 20 2 Output 2310 Input 20 1000 W psi lbs sq in in Weight. d = Hydaulic pipe internal diameter.32 0.142 )^0. A = W / P = Cylinder diameter. A = 3. d = Pump speed. PUMPS. 6 July 2006 HYDRAULIC CYLINDERS.142 x pd^2 / 4 = Fluid speed in pipe.5 = Input 1000 3000 Output 3. A = 3.00 1.

Pump efficiency pecent, e = Pump power, HP = 100*GPM x P / (1741 x e%) = This is the end of this spread sheet.

70.00 Output 16.4

% hp

P

**MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS
**

Copy write, © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew, 6 July 2006

**Damped Vibrations With Forcing Function
**

The inertia forces of rotating and oscillating machinery cause elastic supports to vibrate. Vibration amplitudes can be reduced by installing vibration damping mounting pads or springs.

**Simple Vibrating Systems
**

External forcing function F(t) varies with time and is externally applied to the mass M. We will assume, F(t) = Fm*Sin(ωt) Fm is the maximum applied force. M is the mass of the vibration object that is equal to W/g. Omega, ω is the angular frequency as defined below. g is the gravitational constant, 32.2 ft/sec^2. X is the displacement from the equilibrium position. C is the damping constant force per second velocity and is proportional to velocity. K is the spring stiffness force per inch. See, "Math Tools" for Vibration Forcing Function Calculations.

Undamped Vibrations

If the mass M shown above is displaced through distance x and released it will vibrate freely. Undamped vibrations are called free vibrations. Both x and g are measured in inch units. Input Weight, W = 2 lb Spring stiffness, k = 10 lb/in Calculation Gravitational Content, g = 32.2 ft/sec^2 π= 3.142 Static Deflection, x = W/k = 0.20 in Mass, M = W / (g*12) = 0.005 lbm-sec^2/in Natural Frequency, fn = (1/2*π)*(k*/M)^.5 Hz = 69.05 Hz Angular frequency, ω = 2*π*fn = 434 radn/sec

Displacement vs Time Graph

363 B*(Fd / k) 0.(fa / fn)^2) 0. g = Isolation mount combined stiffness. W = Motor Speed. (Viscous) Forced Vibrations Motor Weight.2 N 1150 f*2*π / 60 120. g = Gravitational Constant (in).2 Calculation W/k 0.610 Input 500 1750 32. Fd = Motor mount stiffness. Wi = Rotating imbalance eccentricity.4 840 500 Calculation (k*g / W)^.4 Fd / k 1. fn = = lbm rpm ft/sec^2 in/sec^2 lb/in lbm in in in Hz . fd = = Pseudo-static deflection.784 lb rpm ft/sec^2 in/sec^2 lb lb/in rad/sec cycles/min rad/sec rad/sec in in in in "Math Tools" tab. Goal Seek.5 0. x = = Amplitude magnification factor. W = Motor speed.4 20000 40 1.2 386. fn = = Disturbing force frequency. C = Static deflection of the mounts. N = Gravitational content (ft). f = = Disturbing force angular frequency. N = Gravitational Content (ft). Input 50 1150 32. k = Rotating imbalance mass.5 62. g = Gravitational content (in). B = = Vibration amplitude = Pick cell B84. d = = Undamped natural frequency.0250 (1 / 2*π)*(g / d)^.5 19.Forced Undamped Vibrations Motor weight. Damped. e = Viscous damping ratio. k = Angular natural frequency.68000 1 / ( (1 . g = Periodic disturbing force.2 386. Tools.

Ftr = (TR)*F = 4611 in in lbf Critical Damping Critical damping occurs when the vibration amplitude is stable: C = Damping Coefficient Ccrit = Critical Damping Coeff. x = (MF)*(F / k) = 0.884 Transmissibility Force.1986 Transmissibility. fa = = Out of balance force F due to rotating mass F= = N / 60 29.3 Wi*fa^2*e / g 5216 Hz Hz rad/sec rad/sec lbf Forcing frequency / Natural frequency = r = f / fn = 1.5 K= System stiffness M= Vibrating Mass .474 Amplitude magnification factor. f = = Disturbing force angular frequency. Ccrit = 2*(K*M)^.5 = 0.761 Vibration amplitude. TR = (MF)*(1 + (2*r*C)^2)^.17 2*π*f 183. MF = 1/( (1 -r^2)+ (2*Cr)^2) = 0.Disturbing force frequency.

mass displacement amplitude / base displacement amplitude. Disturbing force frequency. pulverizer.5 Answer: fn = 8. fd = 14 Calculations System natural frequency. TR = X2 / X1 The transmissibility ratio TR. fn = Hz Hz - Hz Hz Series Springs Combined Stiffness k1 = k2 = 1/k= k = Answer: k = Input 10 15 Calculation 1 / k1 + 1 / k2 (k1*k2) / (k1 + k2) 6 lbf/in lbf/in lbf/in . The isolated system must have a natural frequency less than 0. The amplitude of vibrations in machinery mountings can be reduced with resilient pads or springs called isolators.Transmissibility (TR) Transmissibility is the ratio of the force transmitted to a machine's supports due to a periodic imbalance in an.707 x the disturbing frequency. TR = 0.707 x the disturbing periodic imbalance force. motor. fn = fd / (1+(1/TR))^0. TR = 1/(1-(fd/fn)^2) TR = -1. etc. Transmissibility ratio is equal to the. Input 16. The vibration amplitude will increase if the isolated system has a natural frequency higher than 0. is the vibration amplitude reduction.1 Springs are employed as vibration isolators.0 Calculation Transmissibility. compressor.5 Disturbing force frequency. fd = Undamped natural frequency. engine.0 12.286 If mounting damper pad natural frequency is known: Input Transmissibility. pump.

I = = Input 50 1.4 Calculation D/2 0.5 21.Parallel Springs Combined Stiffness k1 = k2 = Answer: k = k = Input 12 24 Calculation k1 + k2 36 lbf/ in lbf/ in lbf/ in Critical Speed of Rotating Shaft The critical speed of a shaft is its natural frequency. Resonance occurs at the critical speed. The amplitude of any vibrating system will increase if an applied periodic force has the same or nearly same frequency. W = Shaft diameter. r = = Shaft section moment of inertia. L1 = Gravitational constant (ft). f = = (1 / 2*π)*(g / x)^. E = Bearing center distance.6 in in Hz Hz .0491 lbm in lb/sq in in in ft/sec^2 in/sec^2 in in in^4 in^4 The ball bearings act as pivoting supports Flywheel static deflection is.2 386. x = W*L1^2*(L1+L2) /3*E*I = 0. D = Steel Shaft.021 Natural frequency. L2 = Flywheel overhang.500 π*r^4 / 4 0. g = Gravitational constant (in).000 29000000 20 8 32. Flywheel mass. g = Shaft radius.

and Natural Frequency ( f ) Cantilever. L = Young's Modulus. f = f= Beam.5 214 lbf in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in lbf/in Hz lbf/in in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in Hz lbf in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in lbf/in Hz lbf/in in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in lbf/in Hz .000 Calculation W*L^3 / (3*E*I) 0. x = Answer: x = Stiffness. k = Answer: k = Natural frequency. W at Mid Span Load at Mid Span. I = Deflection. f = f= Input 600 30 29000000 4. I = Deflection.Beam Stiffness (k).287 384*E*I/(5*L^3) 69600 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0.33333 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0.5 92887 Input 400 60 29000000 3. Pinned ends. E = Moment of Inertia. L = Young's Modulus. Uniform Load w Uniform Load. E = Moment of Inertia. k = Natural frequency. x = Answer: x = Stiffness.5 1321 Input 450 4 29000000 2.000 Calculation 5*w*L^4 / (384*E*I) 0. W = Length. w = Length.000 Calculation W*L^3 / (48*E*I) 0. E = Moment of Inertia. k = Answer: k = Natural frequency. k = Answer: k = Natural frequency. L = Young's Modulus.021 48*E*I/L^3 19333.001 8*E*I/L^3 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0. Uniform Load w Uniform Load. x = Answer: x = Stiffness. W = Length.047 3*E*I/L^3 12889 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0. E = Moment of Inertia. w = Length.000 Calculation w*L^4 / (8*E*I) 0. load W at Free End Load at Free End.5 2972 Input 500 40 29000000 2. Pinned ends. x = Answer: x = Stiffness. I = Deflection. f = f= Beam. I = Deflection. Deflection (x). f = f= Cantilever. L = Young's Modulus.

0 29. t = Poisson's ratio.0 K.2 K = 10. K. K = 4.ss or Kfixed = Load per unit area.2 13. fixed Vibration Coefficients a/b Circular Stiffness Factors 1.87 K. Uniform Load w Uniform Load.6 0. simply supported edges = K. E = Moment of Inertia. L = Young's Modulus.000 Calculation w*L^4 / (384*E*I) 0. E = Plate thickness.6 22. b = From the table above. k = Answer: k = Natural frequency.0 Circular Plate.90E+07 0.3 9.000 Calculation W*L^3 / (192*E*I) 0. v = Plate short side. f = (K / 2*π)*((D*g)/(w*a^4)) Rectangular Plate.9 23. x = Answer: x = Stiffness.5 1911 Input 600 50 29000000 2. I = Deflection. I = Deflection. ss 19. L = Young's Modulus.4 11. fixed edges = K. fixed supported edges. Fixed ends.9 25.Beam. 0.2.5 10. fixed 36. f = f= Input 700 80 29000000 2. 0.0 16.6 22. k = Answer: k = Natural frequency.4 Rectangular Plate Natural Frequency (f) Modulus of elasticity. ss Rectangular Plate. Fixed Ends.8 edges. 0. a = Plate long side.168 384*E*I/(L^3) 178176 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0. f = f= Beam. Load W at Mid Span Load at Mid Span. E = Moment of Inertia. simply supported 0. w = Length.5 365 lbf in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in lbf/in Hz lbf/in in lb/sq in in^4 in in lbf/in lbf/in Hz Plate Natural Frequency (f) Rectangular plate natural frequency. x = Answer: x = Stiffness.5 0. W = Length.4 Circular Plate.7 16.032 192*E*I/L^3 21750 (1/2π)*(g / x)^0.2 50 lbf/in^2 in in in lb/in^2 Calculation .3 36 45.99. w = Input 2.

g = 386. w = Modulus of elasticity.80 D = E*t^3 / (12*(1 .5 0.3 36 4. t = Poisson's ratio. M1 and M2 must be in the same plane and 180 degrees out of phase and moments must balance: Σmi*Ri = 0 M1*R1+ M2*R2 = 0 .ν^2)) 331960 lb/in^2 lb/in^2 in in/sec^2 Simply supported edges. K.ν^2)) Answer: D = 331960 π= 3.2 Calculation 3.Answer: a / b = 0.99 10.90E+07 0.4 Rectangular Plates.4 E*t^3 / (12*(1 .938 in/sec^2 Hz Circular Plate Natural Frequency (f) Load per unit area.142 386.ss = Kfixed = π= g= D= Answer: D = Input 50 2. f = (K / 2*π)*((D*g)/(w*r^4)) Answer: f = 2. v = Plate radius.142 Gravitational acceleration. f = (K / 2*π)*((D*g)/(w*a^4)) Answer: f = 3. r = From the table above.479 Hz Hz Balancing Rotating Shafts Masses in the Same Plane For static balance: Two masses. E = Plate thickness.213 Fixed edges. f = (K / 2*π)*((D*g)/(w*r^4)) Answer: f = 1.

95031056 0 M1*R1+M2*R2-Mc*E (-M2*R2+Mc*E) / R1 73. R1 = X1 = Mass 2 C. R2 = X2 = Crank Mass. Find the masses of the two counterweights. all three masses are in the same plane.96 Mass 1 C.G. M1 & M2. E = Dynamic balance about mass M1: Mc*E*X1 = M2 = Answer: M2 = Condition for static balance: Σmi*Ri = 0= Mass required to balance Mc. When the masses are in the same plane static and dynamic balance occurs when: Σmi*Ri*Xi = 0 M2*R2*X2+ M3*R3*X3 + M4*R4*X4 = 0 The crank (Mc) is statically and dynamically balanced by two counter weights.5 Calculation M2*R2*(X1+X2) Mc*E*X1 / R2*(X1+X2) 27.G. radius. Mc = Crank Mass Eccentricity.Masses in Different Planes For static and dynamic balance there must be no unbalanced moments and couples. Input 10 16 14 30 450 2.36956522 Example only 12 18 12 36 570 3. M1 = Answer: M1 = in in in in lbm in lbm lbm . radius.

Motor speed.4 W/g 0.25 Calculation 2*π*N / 60 37.Forced.2070 2*K M*ω^2 294.3 Kt / 2 147. Fo = At resonance.25 inches. Cf = Answer: Cf = The motor periodic imbalance force. Kt = Kt = Answer: Kt = K= Answer: K = Critical value of damping factor. W = Critical damping coefficient = Friction damping coefficient = (Friction/ Critical) damping factor ratio. Y = Fo = Answer: Fo = Input 360 80 Cc Cf Cf / Cc 0.781 Fo*Sin(ω*t) Cf*ω*Y Fo / Cc*ω Cf*ω*Y 7.05 0. N = Motor+Compressor+Table Mass.2 2*(Kt*M)^. Steady State Vibration Example Calculate the two spring support stiffness (k) if the horizontal vibration amplitude is to be no more than 0. F = The motor peak imbalance force. ω = Answer: ω = g= M= Answer: M = Total spring support stiffness.5 15.61 Cc*DR 0. DR = Allowable vibration amplitude.704 386. Cc = Answer: Cc = Friction damping factor.36 rpm lbm in rad / sec in/sec^2 lbm-sec^2/in lbf / in lbf / in lbf lbf in lbf Vertical Vibration Damper Selection A metal tumbling drum driven by an electric motor-gear. Y = Motor speed. rotates at 1080 rpm causing a disturbing vibration to the floor on which it is . Estimated friction is 5% of the critical damping factor (Cc). right.

633A-100 Graphical Values . VR = Disturbing frequency.05 Isolator Selected: Go to the Barry Controls home page at: 4 Barry Controls vibration isolators http://www. Vibration Isolator Selection Select 4 vibration isolators that will provide 80% vibration reduction applied to the floor.5 (3. T = System natural frequency. Fd = Input 200 4 0.4 W/x W/K (1 / 2π)*(K*g / W)^. System weight. w = Answer: w = Transmissibility. Tmax = 10 Ref. W = Number of isolators. K = Deflection. weigh 400 lbm.mounted.181 rps lbm rpm Weight per isolator.VR 0. Fn = Answer: Fn = g= Stiffness. T = C / Ccrit = Answer: C / Ccrit = 1/ (2*C / Ccrit) 1/ (2*T) 0. and support base .barrycontrols. Fn = Fn = Fn = Solving for deflection in the above.5 3. N = Vibration reduction.80 1080 Calculation W/N 50 1 . At resonance transmissibility. T = Answer: T = Answer: Fd = Transmissibility. x = Undamped natural frequency.com/ Part No. x = Answer: x = lbm Hz ft / sec^2 Hz in Suggested max transmissibility.5 (1 / 2π)*(g / x)^. motor.20 18 (1 / (1-(Fd / Fn)^.35 386.5) Fd / (1 +(1/T))^.128)^2 / (Fn)^2 0.5 7. The loaded drum.128*(1 / x)^. "Engineered Solutions" a Barry Controls publication.

Deflection due to static load of 100 lb = Isolator frequency = 0.2 in Hz .275 7.

barrycontrols. generators. pumps..e.) Low-profile.com "Barry 633A Series Mounts are medium weight mounts normally used for vertically applied loads to prevent transmission of noise and vibration caused by rotation of imbalanced equipment (i.The "Barry Controls" information presented here may be found on the web at: www. blowers. low frequency elastomeric noise and vibration isolators for medium weight industrial equipment.." . etc.

The above graph shows a static load of 100 lbs produces a deflection of 0. . This is the end of this spread sheet.275 inches.

69.052554 Displacement vs Time Graph .

Math Tools" tab. .

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xample only .

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The above graph shows a static load of 100 lbs produces a natural frequency of 7. Fn = Input 12 0.2 Hz. The unit is mounted on a 10 Hz natural frequency isolation system. t = g= Isolator natural frequency.4 20 Calculation g sec in/ sec^2 Hz . Shock Impulse Deflection An electronic device is to be subjected to a 15g half sine shock lasting 11 milliseconds.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew. Free Fall Impact Shock A typical free fall shock test is an 11 millisecond second half sine waveform with a peak acceleration of 15 g. Shock input pulse is normally expressed in g's. 6 July 2006 Shock Loads A shock load is caused by a nearly instantaneous rise and fall of acceleration.018 386. a = Shock pulse time. Determine the maximum shock transmission Half sine shock acceleration.

TR = Ftransmitted/ Fapplied TR =Bd*(1+(2*r*C)^2)^.13 in/ sec^2 Max acceleration. . W = Number of Isolators. t = Allowable sway space.423 in Transmissibility Ratio.317 Af / Gv 20.3 g's Dynamic isolator deflection: Dd = Vmax/ (2*π*Fn) Answer: Dd = 0. Kt = Equipment Fragility g Limit.00 or vibrations will be amplified.00 1 . Tr = Answer: Tr = lbm lbm % The spring type vibration and shock isolator information shown here may be found at: http://www.003 1.4 0 0 133 133 10 Calculation W/N 3. Kh = Isolator Compression Stiffness.(If /1000) 0. Xv = Isolator Roll Stiffness. Vmax = 2*g*a*t / π Answer: Vmax = 53. Bd = Bd = D= Fo = K= 1/((1-r^2)^2+(2*C*r)^2)^. Wi = Answer: Wi = Required Isolation Factor.baldor.com Korfund division of Baldor Motor corp.com/support/product_specs/generators/Vibration_Isolators/01_Korfund_Catalog.5 D /(Fo / K) Vibration amplitude Peak disturbing force Support stiffness Isolator Selection http://www.5 Notes: Magnification factor Bd must be greater than 1. Gv = Shock Half Sine Pulse time. If = Answer: If = Required Transmissibility.baldor. G = Vmax*(2*π*Fn)/ g Answer: G = 17.3 4 50 0. N = Applied Vertical Shock Acceleration.pdf Input 13. Kv = Isolator Combined Total Stiffness. Af = lbm g sec in lbf/in lbf/in lbf/in lbf/in g Flexmount CB1260-39 " " " Load per Isolator.Half sine pulse max peak velocity. Magnification factor. Kr = Isolator Shear Stiffness.8000 Equipment Weight.

0 Required Average Spring Rate. Motor Generators. "Effective vibration control for loads up to .8 Hz Half Sine Shock Pulse Frequency. Gv = Wi *(2*π*Fn)/ g Answer: Gv = 9.8 g lb/in Hz Maximum Dynamic Travel. etc. Dt = Gv*g / (2*π*Fs)^2 Answer: Dt = 0. Fp = 1/ (2 * t) Answer: Fp = 166. Static deflections up to 1.13*(Ks / Wi) 19." "Applications include: Stationary equipment. Blowers. Fans.5 Answer: Fn = 19. Available with. Compressors.13*(Kv / Wi)^. Pumps. Fn = 3.7 Hz Shock Absorber Selection Max Vertical Shock Transmitted." Vibration Damper Selection Calculations continued Gravitational constant.9 in in/sec . Fc = Answer: Fc = 3. Ks = (2*π*Fn)^2*(W/g) Answer: Ks = 133 Combined Isolator Vertical Frequency. Vv = Answer: Vv = 2*g*Gv*t / π 36. HVAC.36". or without adjustable snubbing. g = 386 in/sec^2 Isolator Vertical Natural frequency.22 Max Half Sine Pulse Velocity.and at the direct link above.

Above: Korfund division of Baldor Motor corp. . This is the end of this spread sheet.

00 and 4. Type in values for the input data. A and B are intercescted by rows 5 through 10 forming cells. unprotect the spread sheet by selecting: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Unprotect Sheet > OK When Excel's Goal Seek is not needed. 3. restore protection with: Drop down menu: Tools > Protection > Protect Sheet > OK What if Calculations Excel will make a. 2.00 To Create the Above Table . "= (B6^2 + B7^2) ^ (1/2)".00 3. "Goal Seek" or "Solver" are not installed you will need to select drop-down menu: Tools > Add-Ins > Goal Seek Tools > Add-Ins > Solver To open select Tools. Insert the Microsoft Office CD for Add-Ins If Excel's. B10 and Goal Seek will calculate a new value (target value) for cell B7 that will change the hypotenuse to 7.00 when the other two sides are: 3. "Optimum Value" for hypotenuse is 7. © Machine Design Spreadsheet Calculations by John R Andrew.00 Calculations (ADJ^2 + OPP^2)^(1/2) 5. However the. Spread Sheet Method: 1. Goal Seek Example The hypotenuse of the right angle triangle above is calculated in the table below. The hypotenuse is found to be 5.00.MACHINE DESIGN EXCEL SPREAD SHEETS Copy write. Cell B6 contains the value 4. Cell B10 contains the formula. 4. 6 July 2006 EXCEL MATH TOOLS Useful math tools applicable to this course are given below.00. Columns.00.00. A 5 6 7 8 9 10 ADJ = OPP = HYP = = B Input 4. "Goal Seek" when the calculated formula value needs to be changed. When using Excel's Goal Seek. Select the formula cell. Automatic calculations are bold type. Answer: X = will be calculated. “what if calculation” using. Enter.

Function key f2 enables editing a cell.To Create the Above Table Type. 4. . “Input” in cell B5 as shown below. Type the. “ADJ =” in cell A6. The formula. ( ADJ^2 + OPP^2 )^(1/2) will be copied into cell B10. “Data” tab shown below. 3. =. “what if calculation” when the calculated formula value needs to be changed. 5. "Enter" to enable cell B10 to do the math calculation. Press: f2. Cell B10 below contains the calculated value 5. Home key moves the mouse pointer to the left side of the cell. 2. “4” in cell B6. 1.00. Complete the spreadsheet table below in columns A and B down to row 9. = sign and press. See cell below B10. Press keys: ctrl and C together. Enter. Select cell B9 with the mouse pointer.00 Calculations (ADJ^2 + OPP^2)^(1/2) 5. Pick cell B10.00 3.00 What if Calculations Excel will make a. home . While in Excel 2007 pick the. 1. A 5 6 7 8 9 10 ADJ = OPP = HYP = = B Input 4.

4. 7. below. “Goal Seek” illustrated below. Next pick an input number.00. “What-If Analysis” followed by. “Goal Seek” dialog box below. Excel has iteratively changed cell B7 to 5.2. To the right of the Data tab pick.00 result followed by entering the desired value. .00 in this example then pick. Goal Seek allows you to pick the formula cell with the 5. OK.74 at which point cell B10 is equal to the desired result of 10.00 in the. 5. 3. 3.

L = Material shear modulus. Kt = Shaft diameter. D = Shaft length.0765 radians a= 4.05 in-lbf Section polar moment of inertia.39 degrees . N = Torque shock & fatigue factor.006 in^4 Answer: Design Torque.Excel's Goal Seek Example Drive Shaft Design Motor Power. a = Td*L / (J*G) a= 0.500 10 11500000 hp rpm in in psi Calculation Applied motor shaft torque. G = Input 5.0 1750 3 0. Ta = 12*33000*HP / (2*π*N) = 180. St = Td*D / (2*J) = 22005 lbf/in^2 Shaft torsion deflection angle. HP = Shaft speed. Td = Kt*Ta = 540 in-lbf Shear stress for shafts. J = π*D^4 / 32 J= 0.

014 in^4 Answer: Design Torque. 20005 Step 2. Ta = 12*33000*HP / (2*π*N) = 180. HP = Shaft speed. J = π*D^4 / 32 J= 0. G = Input 5 1750 3 0. "Goal Seek" in the duplicate example below to calculate a new shaft diameter D that will reduce the above torsion stress of 22005 lbf/in^2 to 12000 lbf/in^2. St = Td*D / (2*J) = 12000 lbs/in^2 Shaft torsion deflection angle.39 to 1. Kt = Shaft diameter. Tools > Goal Seek… Step 3.612 inch diameter.500 to 0. L = Material shear modulus. Use the same spread sheet below: The shaft torsion stress St will is set at 12000 lbf/in^2 the shaft diameter D has changed from 0.612 10 11500000 hp rpm in in psi Calculation Applied motor shaft torque. Step 1.500 Step 5. Click. Answer: 0.Excel's Goal Seek Problem Use Excel's.95 degrees . keeping the same 5 hp motor.95 degrees. Pick the. "By changing cell" box and pick the shaft diameter D cell B78 initially containing. 12000 Step 4. Drive Shaft Design Motor Power. N = Torque shock & fatigue factor. Td = Kt*Ta = 540 in-lbf Shear stress for shafts.0341 radians a= 1. a = Td*L / (J*G) a= 0. D = Shaft length.612 inches and the shaft twist will change from 4.05 in*lbf Section polar moment of inertia. Select drop-down menu. 0. OK Step 6. Pick the "To value" box and type. Pick the torsion shear stress (St) cell B90.

**The Vibration Forcing Function
**

One end of a spring having stiffness K1 is connected to mass M1 on wheels and the other end is connected to a vertical wall. One end of a second spring having stiffness K2 is connected to mass M2 on wheels and the other end is connected to mass M1. A force applied to mass M1 initiates the vibration. Friction is small enough to be neglected.

Max kinetic energy, K.E. = (1/2)*M1^2* ω^2 + (1/2)*M2^2* ω^2 Max potential energy, P.E. = (1/2)*K1*X1^2 + (1/2)*K2*(X2 - X1)^2 Neglecting friction, Max K.E. = Max P.E.

-ω^2 = [K1+K2*((X2/X1) - 1)^2]/ [(M1+M2*(X2/X1)^2] 1. This equation will give the first and lowest natural frequency (ω). 2. The solution for ω is by trial and error for various values of X2/X1. Input Reference: Machine Mass, M1 = 0.1 Design by A.S. Hall, Mass, M2 = 0.1 A.R. Holowenko, H.G. K1 = 20 Laughlin, Published k2 = 20 byMcGraw-Hill. X2 / X1 = 1.6180 Calculation -ω^2 = [K1+K2*((X2/X1) - 1)^2]/ [(M1+M2*(X2/X1)^2] -ω^2 = 76.3932 ω= 8.740 radn/sec 3. Use Excel's Solver for a trial and error solution to the above forcing function example. 4. Start above solution by typing, X2 / X1 = 0 5. Use drop down menu, Tools > Solver > Set Target Cell: > B144 > Equal to Min 6. By Changing Cell > B140 > Solve > Keep Solver Solution

**Excel's, Equation "Solver"
**

Excel's Solver can solve one equation of the form: y equals a function of x, y = f(x). The function of x can be a polynomial; ( a + bx + cx2 + dx3 +…. zxn ), an exponential: ( ae nx ), a logarithmic: a(logx), trigonometric: ( aSin x + bCos x), or any other function of x.

logarithmic: a(logx), trigonometric: ( aSin x + bCos x), or any other function of x. Also Excel's Solver can solve multple simultaneous equations; linear, non-linear, or a mixture of the two. Excel iteratively adjusts one input value of x to cause one calculated formula cell value of y to equal a target value of y.

C 5 6 7 8 9 Guess X =

D Problem 1.4

Y = 2*X^5 - 3*X^2 - 5 = -0.1235

Solver Example 1. The input value of X is 1.4 and this value of X causes Y to equal -0.1235 in the spreadsheet table above. 2. Excel's Solver will adjust the input value of X, in this case1.4 in blue cell D6, by iteration (repeatedly) until the calculated value of Y in the yellow cell D9 approaches the target value of zero, ( 0 ). 3. Select the calculated answer in yellow cell, ( D9 ) below. 4. Select: Tools > Goal Seek > Target Cell [ $D$9 ] > Equal to: > Value of: > 0 > By changing cells: Select [ $D$6 ] > Add (Constraints) > Cell Reference > $D$9 = 0 > OK.

C 5 6 7 8 9 Solved X =

D Solution 1.4041

Y = 2*X^5 - 3*X^2 - 5 = 0.0004

5. The completed calculation above shows that if X = 1.4041 then Y = 0.0004 or 4 / 10,000 which is close enough to 0 for engineering purposes.

**Simultaneous Equations Using Excel's, "Solver"
**

Reference: www.dslimited.biz/excel_totorials Equations to be solved: u + v + w + x + y = 5.5 u + 2v + w - 0.5x + 2y = 22.5 2v + 2w - x - y = 30 2u - w + 0.75x + 0.5y = -11 u + 0.25v + w - x = 17.5 1. Insert the equations below into column B cells:

=E146+E147+E148+E149+E150 =E146+2*E147+E148-0.5*E149+2*E150 =2*E147+2*E148-E149-E150 =2E146-2E148-E149-E150 =E146+0.25E147+E148-E149 2. Select cells, E146 to 150 3. Click on drop down menu: Tools > Solver > 4. Delete contents of; Set Target Cell

Equations 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0

Constants 5.5 22.5 30 -11 17.5

Solution u= v= w= x= y=

5. Pick: By Changing Cells: > Select cells E146 to E150

00 0.0 -11. Equations 0.5 22.0 0.0 0.00 4.0 0.5 22.00 7.5 30 -11 17.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 This is the end of this spread sheet.5 Constants 5. .5 Solution u= v= w= x= y= Row Row Row Row Row 146 147 148 149 150 0.00 You may use the table below to solve the 5 simultaneous equations.00 1.5 22.0 0.5 30.5 30 -11 17.0 Constants 5.5 Solution u= v= w= x= y= 1.50 -8.0 17.Row Row Row Row Row 146 147 148 149 150 Equations 5.

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