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Management & Entrepreneurship
Unit 1 : Management
Who is a Manager?
– Someone who works with and through other people by coordinating and integrating their work activities in order to accomplish organizational goals.
• First-line Managers
– Are at the lowest level of management and manage the work of non-managerial employees.
• Middle Managers
– Manage the work of first-line managers.
• Top Managers
– Are responsible for making organizationwide decisions and establishing plans and goals that affect the entire organization.
What Is Management?
• Managerial Concerns
• “Doing things right”
– Getting the most output for the least inputs
• “Doing the right things”
– Attaining organizational goals
Effectiveness and Efficiency in Management
What Do Managers Do?
• Functional Approach
• Defining goals, establishing strategies to achieve goals, developing plans to integrate and coordinate activities.
• Arranging work to accomplish organizational goals.
• Working with and through people to accomplish goals.
• Monitoring, comparing, and correcting the
• Roles Approach
What Do Managers Do? (cont’d)
• Figurehead, leader, liaison
– Interpersonal roles
– Informational roles
• Monitor, disseminator, spokesperson
– Decisional roles
• Disturbance handler, resource allocator, negotiator
What Do Managers Do? (cont’d)
• Skills Approach
– Technical skills
• Knowledge and proficiency in a specific field
– Human skills
• The ability to work well with other people
– Conceptual skills
• The ability to think and conceptualize about abstract and complex situations concerning the organization
Skills Needed at Different Management Levels
• Using information to solve business problems • Identifying of opportunities for innovation • Recognizing problem areas and implementing solutions • Selecting critical information from masses of data • Understanding of business uses of technology
• Ability to transform ideas into words and actions • Credibility among colleagues, peers, and subordinates • Listening and asking questions • Presentation skills; spoken format • Presentation skills; written and/or graphic formats
• Contributing to corporate mission/departmental objectives • Customer focus • Multitasking: working at multiple tasks in parallel • Negotiating skills • Project management • Reviewing operations and implementing improvements
Effectiveness Skills (cont’d)
• Setting and maintaining performance standards internally and externally • Setting priorities for attention and activity • Time management
What Is An Organization?
• An Organization Defined
– A deliberate arrangement of people to accomplish some specific purpose
• Common Characteristics of Organizations
– Have a distinct purpose (goal) – Composed of people – Have a deliberate structure
Why Study Management?
• The Value of Studying Management
– The universality of management
• Good management is needed in all organizations.
– The reality of work
• Employees either manage or are managed.
– Rewards and challenges of being a manager
• Management offers challenging, exciting and creative opportunities for meaningful and fulfilling work. • Successful managers receive significant monetary rewards for their efforts.
Development of Major Management Theories
• Fredrick Winslow Taylor
– The “father” of scientific management – Published Principles of Scientific Management (1911)
• The theory of scientific management
– Using scientific methods to define the “one best way” for a job to be done: » Putting the right person on the job with the correct tools and equipment. » Having a standardized method of doing the job. » Providing an economic incentive to the worker.
Taylor’s Five Principles of Management
1. Develop a science for each element of an individual’s work, which will replace the old ruleof-thumb method. 2. Scientifically select and then train, teach, and develop the worker. 3. Heartily cooperate with the workers so as to ensure that all work is done in accordance with the principles of the science that has been developed. 4. Divide work and responsibility almost equally between management and workers. 5. Management takes over all work for which it is better fitted than the workers.
Scientific Management (cont’d)
• Frank and Lillian Gilbreth
– Focused on increasing worker productivity through the reduction of wasted motion – Developed the microchronometer to time worker motions and optimize performance
• How Do Today’s Managers Use Scientific Management?
– Use time and motion studies to increase productivity – Hire the best qualified employees – Design incentive systems based on output
General Administrative Theorists
• Henri Fayol
– Believed that the practice of management was distinct from other organizational functions – Developed fourteen principles of management that applied to all organizational situations
• Max Weber
– Developed a theory of authority based on an ideal type of organization (bureaucracy)
• Emphasized rationality, predictability,
Fayol’s 14 Principles of Management
1.Division of work. 2.Authority. 3.Discipline. 4.Unity of command. 5.Unity of direction. 6.Subordination of individual interest to the interests of the organization. 1. Remuneration. 2. Centralization. 3. Scalar chain. 4. Order. 5. Equity. 6. Stability of tenure of personnel. 7. Initiative. 8. Esprit de corps.
Weber’s Ideal Bureaucracy
• Quantitative Approach
Quantitative Approach to Management
– Also called operations research or management science – Evolved from mathematical and statistical methods developed to solve WWII military logistics and quality control problems – Focuses on improving managerial decision making by applying:
• Statistics, optimization models, information models, and computer simulations
Understanding Organizational Behavior
• Organizational Behavior (OB)
– The study of the actions of people at work; people are the most important asset of an organization
• Early OB Advocates
– Robert Owen – Hugo Munsterberg – Mary Parker Follett – Chester Barnard
The Hawthorne Studies
• A series of productivity experiments conducted at Western Electric from 1927 to 1932. • Experimental findings
– Productivity unexpectedly increased under imposed adverse working conditions. – The effect of incentive plans was less than expected.
• Research conclusion
– Social norms, group standards and attitudes more strongly influence individual output and
The Systems Approach
• System Defined
– A set of interrelated and interdependent parts arranged in a manner that produces a unified whole.
• Basic Types of Systems
– Closed systems
• Are not influenced by and do not interact with their environment (all system input and output is internal).
– Open systems
• Dynamically interact to their environments by taking in inputs and transforming them into outputs that are distributed into their environments.
The Organization as an Open System
The Contingency Approach
• Contingency Approach Defined
– Also sometimes called the situational approach. – There is no one universally applicable set of management principles (rules) by which to manage organizations. – Organizations are individually different, face different situations (contingency variables), and require different ways of managing.
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