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D. G. Dorrell* and Min-Fu Hsieh** *School of Mechanical, Electrical and Mechatronic Systems, University of Technology Sydney, Australia **Department of Systems and Naval Mechatronic Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan David.Dorrell@uts.edu.au which has not been previously reported. The generator design is developed using SPEED PC-BDC and PC-FEA .
800 mm 1500 mm
Abstract- This paper describes two alternative designs of a direct-drive permanent-magnet generator for use in a novel seawave electrical generator. The basic system is briefly described and the target specification is given from the wave device. The design for a fractional-slot high-pole number brushless permanent-magnet generator and a torus generator are sized and developed using the design packages SPEED PC-BDC and PC-FEA. The designs are compared. A diode bridge model is also tested using Portunus system simulation. A design for a switched reluctance machine is also briefly investigated.
800 mm Twin generators: Twin generators - one one for each for each armature armature
300 mm 300 mm
300 mm 300 mm
With the development of new electrical generation systems which are both low-speed and variable-power, there is increasing attention is being paid to the need for direct-drive generators. Many applications are renewable energy sourced so high efficiency is required. Many permanent magnet generators suffer from low power factor  and will require controlled rectification. It is an advantage to have high power factor so that a diode bridge load can be utilized for simple and robust operation , rather than controlled rectification. The topology of these machines can vary considerably – they can be of conventional radial-flux  with slotted stator and surface/internal magnets, axial-flux machines with airgap windings , torus arrangements  or Vernier hybrid . This paper describes a comparison between two directdrive PM generators for use in a low speed electrical generator application. There is little literature the direct comparison of different generators, and this is an important aspect to the selection of a suitable machine. Hence this paper sets out to do this for two different generator topologies. A basic target specification is outlined for a target prototype sea-wave electrical generation application under development (as shown in Fig. 1). This has already been tested and the small permanent magnet generator, which was used via 10:1 belt gearing, was found to be inappropriate for this application, hence direct-drive was considered as the correct arrangement. This is a specialized application; there has been some recent literature on marine energy generator design using axial-flux air-cored machines  and linear machines . This paper represents an electromagnetic design challenge and discusses a direct machine comparison
Sea wave with cylinder marginally buoyant just below water surface
Wave propagation Cylinder rotates around this orbit (but stays upright in water)
Generator rotor turns around this axis as cylinder moves in a circular orbit in water Generator maximum stator diameter Armature structure
Fig. 1 Axial section through Bristol Cylinder device, photo of manufactured device with 10:1 step-up gearing and small generator (inside top - not a successful arrangement), and simple diagram showing operation.
A.5. PC-FEA. III.5 Hz at this speed. A fractional slot arrangement is far more practicable. The slots and stator are scaled to give appropriate slot area (211 mm2). 2.II. 1. In the section below. Using 135 mm for the core length gives a rotor diameter of D=2 T 200 1 =2 × = 0. There is much literature on designing this sort of machine as a motor though it is more limited when related to the design of the machine as a generator. 1. (a) Winding arrangement and (b) stator cross section. There are some subtle differences in requirement. The reason for doing this is to restrict the voltage drop due to armature reaction as shown in Fig. the phasor diagram. the pole number is 100. In this case low armature reaction is prerequisite for successful operation. in conjunction with PC-BDC. This represents a very timeeffective way of obtaining performance calculations since these are automatic routines within the packages used. and allowing a frequency of 12. This is shown in Fig. 2 shows the machine and winding layout (for 3 phases).  suggests that the torque per rotor volume (TRV) for a high-performance (i.5 Hz at this speed. The reason for using a low frequency is to restrict the pole number as discussed below. 3 (a). 2(b). The frequency is low because the generator may be required to operate at higher speed (above 60 rpm) and also the pole number would be prohibitively high in such a relatively small machine. The problem with this is that there is likely to be substantial cogging torque and also 300 slots is a complicated and difficult geometry to realize as already mentioned. The outer radius is only 420 mm which is much less than the cylinder void. The problems with compact generator design were discussed in .307 m (1) TRV × π Lstk 20 × 103 π × 0. A simple 3 coils-per-pole could be set which would be 3 slots per pole. The machine uses rare earth magnets. the radius of the rotor is 150 mm and the axial length is 135 mm.e. Fig. It should easily meet the performance so that it can be connected to a diode bridge rectifier (requiring low armature reactance) and give good efficiency.75 mm diameter wire. and cogging torque. tooth width (4 mm) and yoke depth (30 mm). The slot opening was set to 3 mm and the coils consist of 60 series turns and each turn is formed from two parallel stands of 0. Surface magnets are used to prevent saliency and minimize Xq. The total axial length for the machine is 270 mm and often the core length of a machine is about half the total length. DESIGN OF SLOTTED RADIAL-FLUX MACHINE In this section the machine is sized using basic sizing techniques and geometric parameters. thermal design packages.135 (a) Winding arrangement (b) Radial crosssection Fig. was used to construct a 2-D model of the machine and obtain a set of solutions for various problems such as back-EMF under no load. 2(a) shows the coil arrangement. and the frequency of 12. especially if a diode bridge is used rather than a controlled rectifier. if the target speed is 15 rpm. The slot number should be a multiple of 3 for a 3-phase winding. so cogging torque does not exist and it should operate well when connected to a diode bridge rectifier so these are omitted for this machine. with rare-earth magnets) brushless permanent-magnet machine should be between 20 and 45 kNm/m3. A convenient number for 100 poles is 90 slots with two coil-sides per slot. As discussed above. a simple diagram of the location of the generators in the semi-submerged cylinder is shown in Fig. This gives 30 coils per phase and each coil has a one tooth pitch. It can also be combined with other packages (for instance. This will also simplify the rotor structure of the rotor. Since this is a prototype permanent magnet machine then the low end of the range is taken. There is an alignment every 9 slots (or 10 poles) so that the coils can be grouped in 3 coils per grouping. a sizing exercise is carried out for the slotted machine. then a pole number of 100 is obtained. Fig. a convenient slot number for 100 poles is 90 slots with two coil-sides per slot. current/flux-linkage loops for torque calculation under load. cogging torque and diode bridge operation is addressed. Hence. If the target speed is 15 rpm (with a 200 Nm load). After this. The gross slot fill is 0. The use of fractional slot stator topology is necessary to reduce prohibitive cogging torque. The machine is 3-phase. Surface magnets are used to prevent saliency and minimize Xq. The size is calculated to fill the generator voids in Fig. Further work would be to investigate the use of an interior permanent magnet rotor for this sort of generator. The Torus machine is slotless and has low armature reaction.. as illustrated in ). The periodicity of this arrangement is 9 slots (10 poles). This will improve the power factor. . Sizing As stated earlier. SYSTEM SPECIFICATION AND SLOTTED MACHINE OUTLINE The generator is aimed at being used in a novel Bristol cylinder device as described in . The slot number should be a multiple of 3 for a 3-phase winding.
5. (a) Phasor diagram with current on the -q-axis and (b) One solution for FEA model showing 10 pole (pitch of periodicity). If they are too thick then this is quite wasteful in magnet material. The thickness of the magnet can be crucial. The machine is current-fed and the current phasor is on the –q axis. Phasor Diagram The phase winding back-EMF has a good sinusoidal waveform with 3rd harmonic (which does not affect the operation). solid – PC-BDC). B. The air-gap has four regular layers and the shape of these do not change during the rotation .1 T. This shows that the machine is not heavily fluxed and the frequency is low so that it will have low iron losses and lower TRV. Finite Element Analysis and I-Psi Diagram The current/flux-linkage loop (I-Psi diagram) is used to cross-check the torque. The area enclosed in the loop represents the work done and hence the torque can be obtained. C. RIq Eq=68 V IqXq Vt=56 V Vq Vd Iq Fig. When the machine is attached to a diode bridge rectifier the performance will be degraded. At 228 Nm (generating) the current is only 1. The derived current/flux-linkage loop is shown in Fig.the distance between the nodes round the central air-gap boundary is equal to the step angle between steps. D. This is done by stepping round one rotor pitch using small steps and obtaining the torque when the stator windings are unexcited. the torque can be calculated in a straightforward manner. The phasor diagram is shown in Fig. 3. Good correlation is illustrated showing the validity of the analytical magnetic circuits in PC-BDC even with a design with many poles and a fractional slot number. These loops are calculated both in PC-BDC (solid line – torque = 222 Nm) and PC-FEA (dotted line – torque = 254 Nm). The area enclosed is the work done and therefore. I-Psi loop for one phase (dotted – PC-FEA. this is because the current will not be in phase with the back-EMF and not sinusoidal. 3(b) for this segment. The current and rotor rotation are cycled round together and the flux linkage measured at each step. The other . if the speed is doubled to 30 rpm (25 Hz operation) and the torque is maintained. The thickness was set to 3 mm with a pitch-per-pole of 150 electrical degrees. This gives a winding current density of 2 A/mm2. the efficiency increases to about 85 %)..This represents a winding that can be realized though tightly packed. 4. There is a trade-off here where the operating frequency is low to limit the pole number. This routine steps around the rotor and measures the cogging torque using a variety of methods. This is obtained by rotating the rotor and current vector together in the FEA.e. 4. then there would be a small increase in iron loss but the copper loss is about the same. this is for machines operating at maybe 100 Hz supply frequency. This is very low. Hence low-loss windings are essential for efficient operation in low-frequency high polenumber machines. it is necessary to do this to maintain a good efficiency (70 %) although the power density will be at the lower end of the TRV range. If they are too thin then there will be high armature reactance and poor regulation. The magnets are a rare-earth type with a Br of 1.s] Current [A] Fig. While brushless permanent-magnet motors are known to operate at efficiencies well in excess of 90 %. Flux linkage [V. Fig. The calculation is also prone to errors due to poor meshing. as is the case here. Low IqXq will help the diode bridge and this is investigated later. The generated power is therefore doubled for the same current (i. particularly when there is not an integral number of slots-per-pole. If the loop is long and thin then the machine is operating poorly however this example shows good conversion. The model spanned 10 poles and a flux plot is shown in Fig. Cogging torque requires fine detail of the machine magnetic circuit to calculate an accurate model. Cogging torque characteristic over rotor cycle. 5 shows the cogging torque calculation from the virtual work method.77 Arms (with an induced back-EMF of 68 V). however. 3(a). This is the method used to obtain torque in a switched reluctance machine but it can be applied to any machine in general. Cogging torque is very susceptible to numerical error so it is important to use these different methods to see if the calculation is valid. Fig. Cogging Torque The cogging torque is also examined using PC-FEA. For instance. and obtaining a number of simulations at set positions. with a knowledge of the rotor speed. The torque has little ripple (with a mean of 228 Nm).
Portunus model used for simulations.6 = 261. The load resistor can be adjusted to vary the output power and 30 Ω is used here. The efficiency is about 70 %.77 − 3 × 1. The chopper output should be stabilized by connection to a DC link and a battery/inverter combination of some sort. This was carried out to investigate the performance of the machine when attached to a diode bridge rectifier rather than a controlled rectifier where the current is kept on the –q-axis (i. This is necessary because of the limited number of turns that can be .77 2 × 10. This is to attempt to maintain good flux linkage with the rotor.7 mm air-gap. the DC voltage of the output stage of the diode bridge can be controlled using a chopper.methods correlated with this. Therefore to design this machine the maximum diameter Diode bridge with load resistor available should be used. the negative axis). and would minimize the instrumentation needed for the generator which is advantageous in a simple system. It is formed from a toroidal stator core with air-gap windings wound around it.COMPARISON WITH AN ALTERNATIVE TOPOLOGY Generator In this section a comparison is made an alternative topology.. using a diode bridge means that the current is no longer locked on the –q axis and the simulation waveforms under these conditions are shown in Fig. and friction and windage. 6. The current is on the –q axis so that the there is unity power factor between Eq and the current. This neglects iron loss. Stator 75 Phase Voltage Terminal Voltage Load resistor Load power power (/10) (÷10) × One magnet Rotor back iron Fig. the cogging torque of about 2. Air behind stator One phase coil Fig.e. For a commercial system. is found to be about 220 W. The backEMF waveform is approximated as a sine-wave (the 3rd harmonic is zero order and does not generate current in a starconnected machine). THE TORUS GENERATOR . This is a somewhat more straightforward system than using a fully-controlled rectifier with position feedback to maintain – q-axis control. if further refinement is required then harmonic voltage sources can be put into the circuit. Diode Bridge Operation The system was simulated using Portunus (which is a circuit and power electronics simulation package). It is well known that there can be additional eddy-current losses in air-gap windings so parallel strands of thin wire may be required. phase resistance and phase inductance can be extracted from PC-BDC and used in a system simulation of the machine in operation with a diode bridge. It was decided to use 760 mm for (30 Ω) and smoothing capacitor the outer diameter of the machine and the same magnet material. 7. The disadvantage to this arrangement is that the coupling with the winding is reduced and the available winding area is limited. IV. = 12. The thickness of the winding layer was limited to 1. Because the Torus arrangement has limited end-winding (since the coils are wound around the toroidally-laminated stator core) it is possible to increase the axial length (up to 170 mm).5 Hz Fig. Rph is the phase resistance. 6.8 Nm peak to peak. 7. This fits in with the results in  which suggested that the output power reduction is about 20 % when moving from -q-axis current control to diode bridge rectification with a generator of reasonably low armature reactance. However. E. The circuit is shown in Fig.4 mm with a low 0. Waveforms with diode bridge rectifier load. The back-EMF.3 W where the variable relationship are shown in the phasor diagram. There are several circuit simulators available and here Portunus is used. Radial-flux Torus design showing one pole pair (stator at top showing 0 100 ms -75 Line current (×10) Phase Current (*10) 200 ms Voltage freq. The Torus arrangement has the advantage of low armature reactance and can be either radial flux or axial flux . The pole number was increased to 120 poles since there is no cogging torque and an integral number of coilsper-pole-per-phase was used (120). The output power The rotor diameter was set to 735 mm so that the machine is more of a ring in structure which requires careful mounting within the frame. The simulation in the previous sections has an output power which is obtained from Pout = 3Eq I q − 3I q2 R ph (2) = 3 × 68 ×1. 8.
synchronous generator or switched reluctance generator. The number a steps is given by S = mN r (3) where m is the number of phases and Nr is the rotor pole number.9 Power Factor 0.9 Rotor Diameter [mm] 300 735 Efficiency [%] 69. The switched reluctance machine appears a realist option amongst the established commercial machine designs. TABLE I COMPARISON OF MACHINE DESIGNS (AT FULL LOAD AND 15 RPM) Parameter Slotted Machine Torus Machine Outer Diameter [mm] 420 760 Core Axial length [mm] 135 170 Copper [Kg] 12. it may be that as the cylinder rotates and there is a mixed sea state. Unsuccessful switched reluctance machine design – frequency too low for effective operation even with 60 stator poles and 40 rotor poles.6 Load current (set) [A] 1. Therefore the power electronic converter illustrated in Fig. Even with the increase in poles it is still difficult to get sufficient flux linkage and hence back-EMF. . these decouple the flux rotational speed from rotor speed. The DC link capacitor needs to be able to Rectifier/inverter Fixed frequency combination inverter (c) Controlled rectification/inversion on generator with DC link energy storage Fig. If three phases are used and a 60 stator pole 40 rotor pole arrangement is adopted then the switching frequency at 15 rpm is still only 10 Hz. 9 (a). Doubly-fed induction generators (as commonly used in wind turbines) are a possibility. the issues with low frequency due to low speed operation will also exist for the synchronous generator and induction generator (assuming the generation is at low slip for efficient generation). 10 shows the geometry of a 60/40 switched reluctance machine using the same geometry at the slotted permanent magnet motor and this is not a successful design due to this reason.3 68. for this application. V.5 store sufficient energy to supply the motoring mode energy over a short period (which should be less than one rotation).7 – rectangular conductors may be used. However. high stator and rotor pole number are still required. However. there may be a requirement for the generators to go into motor mode in order to keep the cylinder in synchronism with the main sea wave frequency.87 1 Copper losses [W] 99 162. a doublewound machine with slip rings and with high pole number appears to be a complicated structure to realize for this application. Fig. However. 9.5 Magnet [Kg] 2. 9 (c) will be required. Power flow PM Machine + DC link Fixed 3-phase supply Variable frequency Diode Fixed frequency and voltage generator bridge inverter (a) Most simple arrangement with diode bridge and inverter Power flow IM Machine + DC link Fixed 3-phase supply Controlled Fixed frequency rectifier inverter (b) Controlled rectification with DC link energy storage Power flow PM / IM Machine + Link Fixed 3-phase supply Table I shows that the issue with the limited area for the winding leads to the requirement for more magnet material while there is additional copper losses in the winding because it runs with a higher current density. In addition. simple diode rectification cannot be used for induction type generation since the excitation has to be supplied form the supply.4 6.77 Torque [Nm] 228 231 Back-EMF [V] 68. with so many poles. the pole pitch is quite low so it will probably be difficult to control the switching accurately via a shaft encoder. Possible converter arrangements with induction type generators. DISCUSSION ON ALTERNATIVE ARRANGEMENTS The alternatives to a permanent magnet generator arrangement are the induction generator. Fig. 9 (b) shows the required converter topology for an induction generator. Fig. 8 shows an open-circuit 2D finite element analysis of the machine while Table I shows a comparison of the designs. leading to the same issues of excessive current required to overcome limited induced EMF. 10.used so every effort should be made to improve the fluxlinkage.9 55. However. This illustrates that this is a more complicated rectifier requirement for the permanent magnet generator shown in Fig.3 7. With further design it would probably be possible to obtain better performance by optimizing the magnet thickness and winding window to obtain the optimum back-EMF and copper loss for best efficiency.77 1. It is straightforward to wind the machine so the slot fill was increased to 0. In addition. Fig. This illustrates that the slotted machine is easier to design for a given specification because of the flexibility of the winding area available.
Nov.  M. M. A comparison with a Torus machine was put forward – this was found to be larger for the application and less efficient. 11 and this will be the focus of further work. R. The paper further discusses other options involving induction and switched reluctance machines. 1997. “Analytical Analysis of Magnetic Field and Back Electromotive Force Calculation of an Axial-Flux Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator With Coreless Stator. A. Spooner and B.160. Pow. G.J.  J. part 2. 1992. Pajooman and S. 2006. 1-3 Sept. Bumby. SPEED Laboratory. pp 446 – 456. Vol 139. pp 497 – 506. University of Glasgow. “Electrical generators for direct drive wave energy converters”. “Permanent Magnet Generators for Renewable Energy Devices with Wide Speed Range and Pulsating Power Delivery”. Vol. IEE Proc Elec. Dorrell.  D.. International Journal of Computer Applications in Technology. Spooner.  N. IEE Proc Gen. CONCLUSIONS This paper has put forward the electromagnetic design for two permanent magnet generators. “Modelling the performance of the vernier hybrid machine”. 8th EMD conference. J. pp 647 . Magna Physics Publishing. Chalmers. Miller. Martin. G. A possible conceptual arrangement is shown in Fig. Pow. pp 4333 – 4336. pp 151 .  D. 6. “Design Requirements for Brushless Permanent Magnet Generators for Use in Small Renewable Energy Systems”. . A. No.” IEEE Trans on Magn.To realize a successful generator design for this application then further work is needed and an investigation into the use of hybrid generator carried out. Kladas and J. Fit magnets here for hybrid operation? N S REFERENCES   M. “Electromagnetic design of axial flux permanent magnet machines”. No. Marcic. Baker. UK. P. M. on Ind. 6. Trans and Dist. 11. R. Taiwan. 2. pp 216 .. toroidal-stator. Vol 151. Dorrell. No 10. Vol 55. Hybrid generators are essentially reluctance machines with permanent magnet assistance. Hadziselimovic and B. Dorrell. Harris. 2009. Cambridge. permanent-magnet generator”. pp 3566 – 3574. Oxford. Mueller. T. The paper would be of benefit to machine designers who are involved in designing more novel forms of lowspeed permanent-magnet generators.  P. on Magn. Vol. Mueller and N. A. Fig. Possible hybrid generator arrangement. “`TORUS': a slotless. Mueller. J. G. March 2004. Stumberger. Vol. 44. Kimoulakis. IEE Elec. Proc. 6. 149. M. Taipei. “Combined Thermal and Electromagnetic Analysis of Permanent Magnet and Induction Machines to Aid Calculation”. G. 5-8 Nov. 44. pp 170 – 174. No. 150. J. pp 77 – 82. H. June 2008. IEEE IECON.  D.  E. No. Appl.” IEEE Trans. Abu Sharkh. L. E. Vol. “The problem of power factor in VRPM (transverse-flux) machine”. A. 11. No. Appl. July 2002. Virtic. Vol. 2007. 2008. Pisek. VI. Elect. There is little literature on the comparative characteristics of these machines. Brown an B. A. Design of Brushless permanent Magnet Motors. SPEED’s Electrical Motors. R. IEE Proc Elec Pow Appl. 2003. Hendershot and TJE Miller.E. R.221. N. Chalmers.  T. M. Tegopoulos. “Power Generation Optimization From Sea Waves by Using a Permanent Magnet Linear Generator Drive. 2. 4.654. It illustrates that low speed machines can be very difficult to design and that the efficiency is compromised because the back-EMF constant is low.. IEEE Trans. pp 1530 – 1533. No. 1994.  J. G. No. 36. Oct. 2008.  M.
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