.CYNEWULF Across the centuries we spell thy name. and its hurtling flame. Dost sing the cross revealed by Heaven's design The Advent's hope. runic sign. the Ascent of Christ benign. Wrought deep within thy verse by For though thy soul was rapt with Thou yet couldst not forego the dream of fame. The virgin martyr's faith thou dost acclaim . . things divine. The trump of Judgment.



.CONTENTS Introduction vii vii vii xiii Elene Manuscript Author and Date Sources of the Legend Constantine and the Vision of the Cross xiv xxii Phcenix xxv xxv xxvi xxviii Manuscript Author and Date Lactantius Lactantius and the De Ave Symbol Phoenice xxxiii The Phoenix Heliopolis as a xxxviii xlv Hi Ivii Ivii The Earthly Paradise Physiologus The Physiologus in General The Old English Physiologus Manuscript Coherence of the Poems Ix Ix Ix Ixi Ixii Ixiii Ixiii Author and Date The Panther The Whale (Asp-Turtle) The Growth of the Legend The Name of the Monster The Partridge The Text Elene Phoenix of the Ixxiii Ixxxv .. i Poems 3 47 .

75 75 Panther 2. Elene Phoenix Physiologus Glossary 145 149 151 . De Ave 124 128 133 141 141 The Late Old English Version Notes on Physiologus Bibliography of the Phoenix . 3.. The Whale (Asp-Turtle) Partridge 77 80 83 85 102 Notes Notes on Elene Notes on Phoenix Supplement to Notes on Phoenix 124 Phccnice Translation of Lactantius..vi CONTENTS Physiologus 1.

The language is the written page is 9^/2 page approximates 12^4 Late 1 West Saxon. 99. Brandl. and Elene (i2i a I33 b ). p. 40). Grundriss der Germ. who suspected that it was German ('lingua Theotisca'). . pp. Festschrift fiir Lorens Morsbach. Phil. homilies and six interspersed poems. 54-5. by 6 inches. Friedrich Blume. 41). have said the early part Forster. Address of the Soul b a b to the Body (ioi b iO4 ). 7. II Codice Vercellese. of the eleventh century. 26). It found is No. in way between Turin and Milan. 2 Wiilker and others 14 (Festschrift. 21. cf. in Paul. 8 Forster. and the average size of tury. interspersed with occasional Early West Saxon 1. p. p. after the fifth homily. after the eighteenth. p. mid hence known as the Codex is was discovered in 1822 by a German jurist. Cf. p. and is certainly mentioned in a letter written by Giuseppe Bianchini (printed by Forster. and Vercellensis. Festschrift. mo. while that of the complete 3 It comprises twenty-three by 8. Leone in an inventory of the Cathedral Library compiled in 1602 (cf. who then and there copied out the poetical pieces. or Vercelli Book. with many errors. 2Q 52 ) and Fates of the b a Apostles (52 54 ). p.INTRODUCTION ELENE MANUSCRIPT The manuscript in which the Elene is the library of the Cathedral of Vercelli. 12. p. and reproduced a portion of one of the homilies. Forster. iO3 ). The manuscript belongs to the later decades of the tenth cen 2 It contains 135 written leaves. the result of his investigations in this and other Italian libraries was made known in his book Iter Italicum? the first volume of which was published in 1824. after the twenty-second. It seems to be mentioned by G. Forster... the arrangement of the latter b b being as follows: Andreas (fol. 2. Falsehood of Men (iO4 a b Dream of the Rood (iO4 io6 ). 2d ed. cxvn of Northern Italy. F.

vi. volume the library is purely hypothetical and the presence of in the hypothetical library is at least equally hypo . 10 of the University of California (1888). to which our manuscript may have belonged. 1 A by Forster 2 in 1913. but various theories have been proposed. so far as little to appears this thetical. . but it is not necessary to suppose that the West Saxon elements were introduced by the latest scribe. Bernard. and in any case resembles the language as written at Worcester in that 1 period. . Is it likely that so large and precious a volume would have been contributed to the library of a mere hospice? And is it likely that pilgrims on their way to Rome would have had time to pore over any edifying books but their breviaries ? The other theory was first broached by an unnamed writer in . The existence of Anglo-Saxon hospice reposes upon modern hearsay. That 2 of Wulker may thus be translated from his own words : As I was informed in Vercelli. by Cardinal Guala Bicchieri.viii INTRODUCTION and many Anglian forms. Cenis or the Little or Great were the passes over which English pilgrims in the Middle Ages journeyed toward Rome. Codex Vercellensls. texts was published by Wulker in 1894. pp. 33-5. and March. and supported with new considera tions. and a few traces of Kentish. vn. The manuscript perhaps originated at Worcester. and of the whole manuscript . there sprang up there in early times a hospice for Anglo-Saxon pilgrims on their journeys to and from Rome. pp. it the Quarterly Review for December. 19-21 Festschrift. and have been changed by passing through West Saxon hands. The poems were probably Anglian. and that This theory has but the recommend it. not long after revived. This is intelligible enough if one considers that Vercelli lies directly St. 1845 is to the effect that the book was presented to the church of St. pp. in Library Bulletin No. At this hospice a library of edifying books may gradually have been formed. Andrew 1219. Nothing is known as to the manner in which the manuscript reached Vercelli. 1844. I thus briefly summarized the earlier arguments: in Vercelli This theory I facsimile of the poetical Forster. on the road to Rome th'ese by Mont.

patrons of France and North Britain respectively. and especially anxious to testify his appreciation of English art. nor should we be surprised if a book once belonging to him commemorated both St. Andrew in 1219). near Ely. 39. and which he afterwards honored on his return to his native country and his native town. To the foregoing I added The facts not hitherto adduced in support of the hypothesis. of St. Cardinal Guala was in England from 1216 to 121 8. Andrew. zealous for learning and religion. and bestowed upon it relics of English him 5. and which seem to be as conclusive as circumstantial evidence can well be. Martin and St. Cf Forster. Festschrift. 6. We need not be surprised. at his immediate commemoration of that saint (by founding the monastery of St. Andrew. to establish The income from his English benefices perhaps enabled and endow the church at Vercelli. 4. 25 . IX While Andrew. are: Guala was a learned man. saints. Guala must have thought oftenest of St. Martin and St. The plan and many of the details of the church are Early English. .ELENE 1. . and perhaps gained other friends for its head. p. then. Several circumstances must have conspired to deepen the impression thus made. By evincing a special interest in the Vercelli Book. Helena) pecu1 Of Chesterton. though French. After his return to Italy he founded the collegiate church Andrew at Vercelli. especially revered by the two foreign nations in which his lot was cast. and appreciative of the good he found in foreign parts. Andrew. 1 2. particularly with reference to St. and a stake in English prosperity. One of the chief poems of the : Vercelli book is St. in England he had in his possession a priory of St. his course is attested by the renown of the monastery and the fact that it immediately attracted one of the greatest Englishmen of the Middle Ages. and he sought to perpetuate it by selecting as abbot an ecclesiastic who. p. who remained a firm friend after his departure. should have The wisdom of school. The funds for the establishment of the monas tery and the purchase of his books must have come largely from England and why not certain books also? He must have been openminded. 3. then why not of English letters? His spirit of good-will toward England was to some extent reciprocated there. Andrew. he would have been honoring another saint (St. English connections and sympathies. and the in owner of perhaps the finest private library possessed at that time Western Europe.

and that if he be supposed to have presented this book to his foundation because it contained a poem on St. or that its contents were known in a general way by tradition. but urges that Guala probably understood no English. In replying to the above arguments. If it were venerated by the Eng be a reason why a collector might be anxious to lish. one at the beginning of the fifteenth century. the manuscript belonged to 4. pp. Andrew. Vercelli manuscript. so that his book may not have lacked readers on Italian soil. Wiilker admits (Codex Vercellensis. asks Wiilker. Victor. let alone Anglo-Saxon. p. Guala's church. that would but we have seen. 23 ff. Andrew. 35 ff. . we may either assume that there were Eng lishmen living who could read it.X liarly INTRODUCTION dear to the English heart. was erected on the erected by. astery contains no mention of our manuscript. tinians The monastery was whom 1 Op. near Paris. and yet are frequently aware of the In the case of a fine book like the notable matters they contain. . cit. The matter has recently been reopened by Forster. was a notable in English chirography.. his library did contain one or more books tery. and a well-known French archaeologist has declared the architecture to be Gothic of Northern France. and for the use of. The catalogue of the books which Guala left to his mon 3. who among his countrymen was to read the manuscript? To this it may be answered: Collectors of rare and precious volumes are not always familiar with the languages in which they are written. acquire it. whether he could read it or not . was bequeathed to this monas and. vi) the possibility of this mode of transmission. though we should grant that Italians found it unreadable. pp. Finally. and perhaps in 1602. or rather monastery. monastery school at Vercelli attracted into resi dence a great Englishman (Adam de Marisco). Festschrift. that implies a good knowledge of Old English on his part. with whatever augmentations it had received. 1 who adduces the following facts as bearing upon the problem besides. In 1748. of a former church of St. that his : 1. site 2. AugusGuala brought from St. Besides.

perhaps only 1 is Forster explicitly says (p. the dominant French theology would have rendered a knowledge of Old English manuscripts the posses sion of only the occasional amateur. and that. to the cathedral library. was the prevailing tendency in the first half of the twelfth century. or even have been 1 Even able to spell out the characters in which it was written. . Other monasteries which might be thought of are Luxeuil and Fleury. to Henry. at any time after 1125. pp. The valid. 2 8 Cf. 4 Scottish Historical Review 12. as Forster himself admits. 42-3. objections raised by Forster under (i) and (2) seem To (3) it might be replied. cviii-cxix) a few sentences already used in my brief paper. 47. Hand-book pp. Festschrift. 2 With respect to that 3 quote from Earle (pp. Guala might already have presented the manuscript to his monastery. it XI was ever in the No member of the higher clergy at the time of Guala's 5. to the Land Charters. as it is nowhere conspicuous on the page. Abbot of Fulda. residence in England would probably have cared for an Old Eng lish manuscript. at least in part. might perhaps have been the means of trans mitting the Vercelli Book to Italy in the nth or I2th century. 28-9 . So Forster. Forster then suggests that. Festschrift. the English themselves could hardly understand Old English perfectly at the end of the I2th century. 'Archaic English in the Twelfth 4 Century' 'Priority of attention to Latin. in fact. Bishop of Wiirzburg between 997 and ion. to (4) that the books of the monastery may have been turned over. Hence the 'Andrea (s)' by the way) would not especially have been likely to attract their attention. with a growing neglect (5). and other Saxon Documents. and we are not sure that possession of the monastery. I will : of the mother tongue. of the manuscript (occurring 32 times. as Blume found in 1822 in the cathedral library a Gregorian sacramentary which had been lent by Erkanbald. but then came a reaction. or have been able to read it. either Fulda or Wiirzburg. since no one seems to know what became of them. 213-5.ELENE the cathedral library. 33) that the period between 1000 and 1175 the only one in which the writing and the language could have been read. both centres of British learning. p.

80.' and of 'an Anglosaxon Renaissance at the close of the twelfth cen in question 1 that it is of the thirteenth century.. * . Of his language Sir James Murray has said (ibid. 72. PP. 43).' 'a and remarks of one of the charters work time. The study has mani Renaissance of the mother tongue. Since Layamon's 'English book that St. who could read Old English at this ecclesiastics. Acad. ix of the British Museum. English Litera . 164. a real taste for the royal style of the old festly engendered language. 8 As to the transmission of English manuscripts to Vercelli by way of French or German monasteries. 348) of the 'scholastic attention to the ancient forms of the language. is much more archaic in structure.. 4 1 Cott.. parties descending the Alps by the Mont Cenis passed through Vercelli on their way to larger and more important towns. Conn. . and reviving a vernacular literature. English Writers Manual of the Writings in Middle English. The Last Months of Chaucer's Earliest Patron (Trans. C. p. Morley. of Arts and Sciences 21. is it not more likely that any such should have come direct from England by the passes that Wiilker designates? As late as the fourteenth century. 65. English Writers nth ed. La Poesie du Moyen Age 2. . 16. . 206. and who would strive to communicate their enthusiasm to others. higher tury.' 2 Evidently. Wells. 59i ) : 3.' Again he speaks (p. Morley. For examples of the influence of a dominating foreign culture in stimu lating the spirit of nationality. See my paper. The Medieval Mind 3 2.. 397-8. and a sincere passion to master the charm of it. 74 Ker.' Cf.235. 'The language. Cicero im Wandel der Jahrhunderte. g. Zielinski.' Earle . 311). 223. of which our best specimens are in a book from Consequently we observe all the tokens of a . we must agree with Skeat that he 'could read the old version of Bede intelligently' (Encyc. . 75 ff. and adds 'This brings us to the end of the twelfth or the begin : ning of the thirteenth century. 2 ture: Medieval. though forty years later than the specimen from the Chronicle [1140]. Claud. there were or lower. Bede made' is held to refer to Alfred's translation of the Ecclesiastical History. and can scarely be considered even as Early Middle English.xii INTRODUCTION and local. partial Winchester. ed. pp. then speaks of 'the genuine early forms that here and there peep out through the scholastic text' [of the charters that he cites]. 195 . 3. then. Brit. 21 1 -2. Taylor. 35. see Gaston Paris. at least. 26.

See Carleton F. Brown (following Trautmann in Anglia Beiblatt II. The date of his birth may by reasonable inference be fixed between 705 and 710. as conjec tured by Bouterwek (1857). 38.enry Bradley. Ixviii . der Altengl. in Pub. Stud. cf. p. 18. Cyne. was written by Cynewulf spell the name Cynewulf. Ixx-lxxiii. or at least an Anglian. cf. Brown. ecclesiastic. while the Christ. Cyn. The latter says (p. 225-233. in Eng. Brandl. again without completely displacing it. 15. have Cynwulf.. 7. which in turn had succeeded a still earlier . there is no place in Northumbria more likely to have been the poet's home than Lindisfarne from the time of Aidan a distinguished seat of Christian learning. and Brown (1907) cf. (1908). ed. nth ed.in such words is the earlier spelling. and the Fates of the . in Encyc: Brit. Lang. Stud. 691.belongs almost wholly to the ninth century. pp.ELENE Xlll We are evidently reduced to hypotheses and. Ixix-lxx) in favor of this view were proved untenable by Carleton F. who wrote in the second half of the 2 eighth century. All these conditions are satisfied by Bishop Cynewulf. Cook. After forty years' service. Lit. of been proposed. 240-244. 100. . 325) in 1903 (Pub. Brown. Assoc. Gesch. the evidence of the interpersed runes near the end of the like the Juliana. Christ. or possibly as late as the very beginning of the 3 ninth. view among scholars is that Cynewulf was a Northumbrian. in Eng. : : . 1 The prevailing Cyni-. Mod. 226) 'Bishop Cynewulf was appointed to the see of Lindisfarne in 740. ed. Tupper. The date could be established more exactly if the poet could 2 be identified with the Bishop of Lindisfarne who died in 783. the Elene. he resigned his office in 780. pp. Assoc. 9-20.. plausible. Mod. written during the second half of the eighth century. Christ. Cook. The Juliana and the Elene Apostles. Ixxi. and accepted by Dietrich (1865). all that have me the most olausible. 26 (1911). the Christ. p. he concludes (pp. but does not altogether crowd out the earlier Cyne-. Christ. Greater precision than this does not at present seem 1 Christ. Lang.. Trautmann (1898). ed. and obtains from about 750 A. that concerning Guala still seems to . AUTHOR AND DATE On poem. Grein (1880). 8 So H. Cook. and probably the Fates of the Apostles. Certain reasons which I advanced in 1892 (Angl. 33 (1907). In the library of this ancient monastery Cynewulf would certainly have found . 225. 308-334). Outside of York. p. 232-3) an ecclesiastic he was in all probability a Northumbrian his poems were .' After 'The poet was certainly traversing my objections. D. and died in 783.

signed his name. in seems to be Syriac in origin. Admirablement situee communiquant. A SOURCES OF THE LEGEND based upon a Latin version of a legend which. beginning of the fifth century. la fois et monde grec monde de la barbares. as the various extracts quoted below will show. avec Antioche. which he used so extensively. pp. and in Syriac. 8 For bibliographies of the various versions.Xiv INTRODUCTION possible. x-xi. d'une part. la grande Armenie. pp. . . in a word. Wotke. he would have written after 731. 2 It became pretty well diffused over Latin Christendom from about the middle of 3 the fifth century. p. in Revue Critique. Cynewulf's direct source.' See also Holthausen's second edition of the Elene. Holthausen of the Holy lists. et meme avec 1'Inde. others in Icelandic. Elle etait culture hellenique et de la puissante originalite des pays comme le confluent ou les idees de deux mondes venaient se meler et se confondre. terminus a quo for the composition of the Elene may b I2 a is accepted. Lejay. Tixeront. 7-8: 'desse period. 4. 91-2. a ete la premiere fondee de ces chretientes [de Mesopotamie] c'est de son sein que sont partis les missionnaires qui les ont evangelisees elle est 1 . 300-2. xi. 1 and which probably. Middle High German. p.' Probably at Edessa. Inventio 2 Sancta Crucis. Ryssel. though its larger outlines may have established themselves about 375 A. see Nestle. Lipsius. 4 (1895). in Byz. . besides a prose version in Old English (Morris. Zs. present evidence will not carry us. Legends Rood). and Latin. not to speak of those Greek. as Carleton F. Zs. Tixeront. Holthausen. restee le le centre des eglises de et le langue syriaque. Old Swedish. D. 319-345. The foundation of the developed story is not Syrian. 189-191. be assumed. Les Origines de l'glise d'desse. fiir Deutsche Phil. the seat of Syrian learning and literature in that Cf. which we know of Lindisfarne and of the bishop accords well with what we infer concerning Cynewulf from a study of the poems to which he has Further than this. la capitale d'Osrhoene etait bien placee pour profiter a entre oriental. avec la Perse. 342 if. Bys. This elaborated legend must have arisen about the The Elene is its fully developed form. Holder. in Wiener Studien 13. pp. in Herrig's Archiv 93. in Zs. et de 1'autre. pp. 37 (1905).. 1890. 2-4. entered Latin through the medium of Greek. if my conjecture regarding I2o6 According to this. and the "books" to which he refers in the epilogue of Elene. 2. Everything. Middle English. dont elle relevait. the writings of the Fathers. though not certainly. Die Edessenische Abgar-Sage'. 40.

begin ning in the later years of Constantine's reign. 71 ff. Paulinus of Nola. the ca. . Scnirmer. they would rob us of our faith in the resurrection and the cross. Epistle to Severus 31 (u). Nestle. should be removed and thrown as far from the spot as possible. and continuing down to about 500 A. 2 Our earliest authority 340). and a statue of Venus. . 3 This is also asserted by Rufinus. For the original texts see Holder. erected by the heathen. Eccl. 3 (Migne. pp. . . 100. Stud. [The heathen had endeavored to ulchre of Christ by covering it with . 40. pp. and favored with access to many original sources of information which are now lost. he finds extremely difficult to determine where authentic history ends. beneath the covering of earth. 581) Tor about 180 years. and embellishment and invention begin. 114. . .' one undertakes to trace the growth of the legend. face of the ground. Schiirer. D. may and he even If it well have been derived from Ireland. . pp. Once more. De Sancta Cruce. . on the site of the cross the authors of the persecution imagining that if they . Tixeront. polluted the holy places with idols. D. he directed that obliterate earth. from the time of Hadrian to the reign of Constantine. Die Kreuzeslegenden im Leabhar Breac (St. (ABOUT 335 A. Life of Constantine. He [Con gave orders that the place should be thoroughly purified. 14-29. 1886). its inclines to suppose that 'the legend made way 1 to Ireland in a Greek text. pp. This also was accomplished without delay. Cf. 10. . 101. an image of Jupiter was worshiped on the site : of the resurrection. Pair. the principal documents are quoted or summarized in order. . 3.. 26-30. and was there translated into Latin. Hist.ELENE "XV Brown has shown. stantine] He gave further orders that the materials of what was thus destroyed. from memory the sep and laying over this a stone pavement. . . 22. 163-170. the ground itself should be dug up to a considerable depth. 2 See Lipsius.' Cf. Lot. Jerome. In what follows. 45 ff. by building a gloomy shrine of life 3 less idols to the impure spirit whom they call Venus. Gall. both stone and timber. . chaps. Hist. . highly esteemed by Constantine. 260 most learned man of his age. Jewish People I 2 314-320. . Epistle to Paulinus 58.) Eusebius. appeared. 7 . Book 3. .. . But as soon as the original sur . is Eusebius of Csesarea (ca. Eusebius continues :] They prepare on this foundation a truly dreadful sepulchre of souls. . immedi1 Engl.

. The existence of this Dracilianus as deputy of the praetorian prefects otherwise attested by instructions sent to him by Constantine in the p. 4. should have remained unknown . . . INTRODUCTION and contrary to all expectation. . p. but only of the tomb. D. his TO MACARIUS : most holy passion. that is to say a church. have received in charge from us. has been built a basilica. the deputy of the for so servants. at present. D. so long ago buried beneath the ground. which I . 3). to Jerusalem (Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society). Jerusalem : VICTOR CONSTANTINUS . praetorian prefects. the emperor sent forth instructions. this is 2 to inform you that our friend Dracilianus. D. ing letter to the bishop who at that time presided over the church at diately after the transactions . Bishop Cyril of Jerusalem (347 A. 72). With regard to the erection and decoration of the walls. That the monument of long a series of years. Thus former far. on a He also dispatched the follow scale of rich and royal greatness.) Itinerary from Bordeaux 23-4. . Catech. Gr. Independent contemporary testimony to the discovery of the tomb and the erection of the church is furnished by the fol lowing : (332 A. of wondrous beauty. *A. . 326 (Ryssel. There.Xvi ately. . his About a stone's throw from thence [Golgotha] is a vault wherein body was laid. until its reappearance to his is a fact which truly surpasses all admiration. pp. monument of our have recorded. . there cross. 33. and rose again on the third day. 10 (Migne. . by the command of the Emperor Constantine. commanding that a house of prayer worthy of the worship of God should be erected near the Saviour's tomb.) 386) : Cyril of Jerusalem. is has been no mention of the discovery of the The first author to speak of the (d. and the governor of the province. Pair. MAXIMUS AUGUSTUS. * is years 325 and 326 (Lipsius. . . . 468-9). the venerable and hallowed 1 Imme Saviour's resurrection was discovered.

: 'In the days of thy father Constantine. on the railway leading to Algiers. 4 (ibid. divine grace granting the discovery of the hidden sacred places to him who sought piety aright. Audollent. The report in the 17. it. bdv dabulail. even this blessed Golgotha. 19 (ibid. 1889. 33. this Golgotha confutes me. de ter(ra) promts- . note i. 2 359 of our era. that is. was erected in the year 3-20 of the province of Mauretania. which. but of somewhat doubtful authenticity (cf. 1153 ff. 685. and on p. by M. Duchesne) 18. 417. Melanges. The holy wood to this day. which is seen among us and. This stone originally marked the place of a basilica which. according to the date near the end.ELENE XVH . Comptes-Rendus de I'Acad. Gr. there was found in October or November. 13. Analecta Bollandiana 10. D. possessed a portion of the 1 wood Still more specific is an Epistle to Constantius of May 7. near which we are now assembled. Gr. 1168) Migne. attributed to Cyril. ments of the wood of the cross. 440-468. 776-7). (Pair.). The text of the inscription follows (ligno ^j is actually Ugnu) : Memoria sa(n)cta. deny the very place which . dear to The passage runs God and of blessed memory. received of the cross is his witness. 233.' 2 Melanges d'Archeologie et d'Histoire (Ecole Franchise de Rome) 10. 441 a photographic reproduction. 688). according to the inscription. through the agency of those who have in faith has already from this place almost filled the whole world. the saving wood of the cross was found in Jeru salem. Ryssel. des Inscriptions (M. 73-4. contains an excellent study of the inscription. Lipsius. Ibid. which has from hence been distributed piecemeal to all the world. de lign(o) crucis. 1 For though I should now deny One tion of the most important testimonies is contained from the Roman province of Africa: (359 A. Pair. pp. p. which is about sixteen miles from Setif. in which. et Victorinus Miggin. 33. 3. 351. septimu(m) idus sept- (e)m(b)r(es). Ibid. 366-7. the wood of the cross confutes me.) in an inscrip Inscription at Tixter Three or four miles south of the railway station of Tixter. on account of him who was crucified on it. it. the whole world is filled with the frag He was it. shouldst thou be disposed to indeed crucified for our sins all can see refutes thee. an inscribed stone some 51 inches square. we are now assembled and further. 10.

D. nomina m(a)rt(y)rum Datiani Donatiani C(y)priani Nemes(i)ani (C)itini et Posuit BenVicto(ri)as. the deacons standing round the table. A chair is placed for the bishop in Golgotha. and. faithful and catechumens alike. pp. D. the wood of the cross and also its inscription are placed on the table. in which is the holy wood of the cross. When they have been put there. and pass on. and only 25 years after the death of Constantine. bowing their bodies down. You worship the wood of the cross . so that no one who comes may dare to do such a thing again. (ABOUT 385 A. It is thus guarded because the custom is that every one of the people. then with their eyes. touching the cross and the inscription. 76. and the deacons. the bishop. apostoli Petri et Pauli. And so all the people pass on one by one. you outline figures on your foreheads. behind the cross which stands there now. takes hold of the extremities of the holy wood with his hands.INTRODUCTION of the cross. it is opened. Jul. . the bishop sits down in the chair. Patr. the contents being taken out.. guard it. An(n}o prov(mciae) (tr)ecentivi(g)es(imo) (si)onis ub(i) fnatus et Pequarla. as well as some of the soil of the Holy Land. Bk. and paint them in front of your houses. 796-7).) Julian the Apostate. Sylvia (Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society). Then is brought a silver-gilt casket. after the reputed discovery by Helena. The dedication-festival of natus est C(h)ristus. 76. 63-4. or less. and so stole a piece of the holy wood. kiss the holy wood. quoted by Cyril of Alexandria. but no one puts forth his hand to touch it.. first with their forehead. there is placed before him a table covered with a linen cloth. Cont. bend over the table. standing round. Ibid. 6 (Migne. Gr. and so kissing the cross they pass by.) Pilgrimage of St. as he sits. p. since the cross of the Lord was found on that day [Sept. these holy churches [at Golgotha and the site of the Resurrection] is observed with the greatest honor. since it is only 33 years. (BEFORE 363 A. The stone is now in the Christian Museum of the Louvre. This date is extremely important. 13]. it is now guarded by the deacons standing round. leaning forward. And as it is said that one time a person fixed his teeth in it.

erect these two noble and beautiful monu ments of devotion. for without delay she dedicated two churches to . to weep with and with our mother in the sepulchre of the Lord? After wards. Book 3. taking a small portion of it. 1 future generations. . . and thus did she receive from her son the countenance and aid of his imperial power. the . of the Nativity is thus referred to in the Pilgrimage of Sylvia. noi. mother.. D. to kiss the wood of the cross? (BEFORE 387 A. in connection with the : churches of the Nativity and the Ascension (ABOUT 335 A.ELENE (386 A. and these also he adorned And while he thus nobly testified his with lavish magnificence. . How is this very wood. D. Thus did Helena Augusta. St. Gr. As soon. mosaic. both men and women. In the same country he discovered two other places.. adorned. Pair. 'he at the same time eternized the memory of his mother. venerable as being the localities of two sacred caves. D.) XIX Letter of Paula and Eustochium Society). . about 385 A. 14. 41-43 (Migne. 826). who had been the instrument of conferring so valuable a benefit on mankind. Life of Constantine. and setting it in gold. chaps.) Eusebius. . God whom she adored. . Gr. . struggled for by all? For many. 1 The church with ?' the assistance of his resources of his kingdom would go. . to survey this venerable land. For this empress. on which the holy body was stretched and impaled. . . That Christ is God (Migne. having resolved to discharge had hastened the duties of pious devotion to the supreme God. 48. suspend it from their necks as an ornament. as she had ren dered due reverence to the ground which the Saviour's feet had . (Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society). 50: 'And what shall I say of the decoration of that structure which Con stantine. reverence for those places. 20. D. 1104). Helena is first introduced by Eusebius. and precious marbles .) Chrysostom. p. .. p. Patr. as far as the with gold.. the pious mother of a pious emperor. (Palestine Pilgrims' Text When our will the sister day come when we shall be able . then. . she immediately bequeathed the fruit of her piety to trodden. .

. and the enemy had concealed. 475 if. She therefore casts about to find the middle cross. D. . of another a crown to be fashioned. (ABOUT 400 A. Eccl. he kneeled down and prayed thus 'O Lord. though unable to obliterate the dust. chaps. 8 (Migne. the King of the From this the truth was determined the cross of salvation Jews. Of one she commanded a bridle to She sent to her be made.) Ambrose. and God will show us which one bore is main like the 1 the Lord. . . . bridle. and which for slavish this punishment. and also the son Constantine the crown adorned with gems. to return touch the saving . Helena. . thou who hast vouchsafed to bestow salvation on mankind by the passion of thy only begotten Son on the cross. and adored the King. Pair. Constantine made use of both. 21. . by causing woman. Returning to the text of the Gospel. who lies from the gates of death. .n that city a woman of rank. 45-48 (Migne. he said: 'Bring hither all the crosses which have been found. . and in these : latter times hast inspired in the heart of thy handmaid to seek the blessed wood on which our was these three to life salvation hung. The inscription was found. suggests a clue in the fact that two thieves were crucified with the Lord.] Now it happened that there lay grievously il . and transmitted the faith to tion . and the vanity of the wicked. was made known by its title. So. up to the identi [This fication of the Saviour's cross. but could not be assigned to any one of the crosses in particular. so soon as she shall half dead.' Then. account by Ambrose. ruins. 10.). was crucified. Hist. 1400-2). and removes the approaching Golgotha. in the 7. Lat. went thither.' She therefore found the inscription.) Rufinus. but the Holy Spirit She remains undecided. Now the it into her head to demand the wood of the cross. At that time Macarius was bishop of that church. D. proceeding with the queen and the people to the house of her who was lying ill. . . Oration on the Death of Theodosius. which ruin had covered. Pair. Spirit put 43. she opens the ground. Lat.XX INTRODUCTION (395 A. there she finds three indistinguishable crosses. and found them. Yet it might have happened that the crosses had become shifted in the triumph of Christ. . . . she finds that the inscrip : : on the middle cross ran 'J esus of Nazareth. . 16. not the wood for this is the error of the heathen. wishing to revisit the holy places. him she adored who hung Then she sought the nails with which the Lord upon the wood. show plainly which of for the glory of the Lord. . the kings who followed. . When he saw that the queen and those with her lingered.

early 6th century. the secret was discovered. religion. she knows not Eventually she seeks out and consults. . i. thinking to injure the Christian had erected a temple of Jupiter on the site of the passion.' XXI had no this. where it is still preserved as a memorial.). Hist. tioning in general. God inspires Arrived at Jerusalem. but it brought the second. the request of Helena. . Thiel. He . Conciliar Decree on Canonical 8. and Apoc ryphal Books (Mansi. . i. and the fraud detected. Condi. ed. D. 61. he brought one of the three. wood Helena sent to her son. . shrine. adds a significant statement :] length.) ff. . (Migne. the 2. but also the cleverest her to make trial with the corpse of one newly dead. but. and to magnify the power of the Lord. At all erect churches in their stead. The Lord's cross raises the A church is erected. I. how only Christian men full of the Jews. [Paulinus relates that Hadrian. to 1 i63 2 ). [Sozomen reproduces. Some say that the facts were first disclosed by a Hebrew who dwelt in the East. EpistolcB Romanorum Pontificum. 460. D.ELENE wood. D.] (ABOUT 450 A. A. But when he had brought the third. and to to find the cross. 2 618 ff. (ABOUT 403 A. 2 Cf. the woman suddenly opened her having recovered her strength. Paulinus of Nola. and who derived his information from some documents which had come to him by paternal (ABOUT 496 inheritance. 73 Patr. but nothing occurred. Conciliengesch. after men At temple of Venus. ed. which preserves the cross in a secret dead. According Duchesne. Eccl. however. Liber Pontificalis. She commands to dig at the spot designated. . Citizens and soldiers join in the work. Epistle to Severus 31 (n).) Sozomen. 326 ff. and part she deposited in a silver case and left on the spot. not of learning and sanctity. Hefele. Constantine gives her authority to destroy temples and idols which had profaned the holy places. Lat. but the two crosses produce no effect. Duchesne. earlier accounts. The crosses are found. This is done. cvn. When he had said effect. she began to go eyes and sat up about the house much more blithely than before she had been taken Part of the saving ill. 1 ) (Pseudo) 1 Gelasius.

above the sun.. the account of which it might have been difficult to receive with credit. D. 20. Gr. and confirmed his. Paul Prove all things. 506) wrong.' At this sight. that he doubted within himself what the import And while he continued to ponder and reason on 1 its meaning. 1 CONSTANTINE AND THE VISION OF THE CROSS Eusebius. 21] : form of the legend. when he was honored with his acquaintance and society. he called on him with earnest prayer and supplica would reveal to him who he was. and stretch forth his right hand to help him in his present difficulties. 'Conquer by this. the cross was found James the Greater was Bishop of Jerusalem. and bearing the inscription. which hap pened to be following him on some expedition. and in his sleep See Nestle. The nth in edition of calling pedia Britannica (7. let it be with the prefatory text from St.INTRODUCTION Likewise the writing concerning the invention of our Lord's cross. . But since the victorious emperor himself long afterwards declared it to the writer of this history. Lipsius. And while he was thus praying with fervent entreaty. 28-31 (Migne. Protonike the older.). appeared to him from heaven. and his whole army also. he himself was struck with amazement. then. but when they come into the hands of Catholics. by Protonike.). 948). pp. 88-92. wife of the Emperor Claudius (41-54 A. . hold fast that which is good. D. Some Catholics read them. De Sancta 65 ff. Tix- eront. 5. had it been related by any other person. especially since the testi mony of after-times has established its truth? He said that about midday. statement by an oath. a most marvelous sign tions that he I. are new stories (novella quidem relationes sunt). Ryssel. pp. but is now con sidered by the most competent authorities to be merely an adap tation of the latter. is i ff. who could hesitate to accredit the relation. he saw with his own eyes the trophy of a cross of light in the heavens. Life of Constantine 944-5. night imperceptibly drew on Crucc. [i Thess. the Encyclo the legend of . moreover. pp. of this apparition could be. and witnessed the miracle. Pair. Accordingly. He said. regarded as earlier than the story of Helena. and the other writing concerning the invention of the head of the blessed John the Baptist. 184-191. 1-3. while St. pp. This form has by some scholars been According to another in the reign of Tiberius (14-37 A. when the sun was beginning to decline.

the shields of his soldiers. Lactantius. and he marked on their shields the letter X. bidding them represent it in gold and precious stones. . and they crossed The enemy advanced. with steady courage and a mind prepared for every event. . he sat in the midst of them. a civil war broke out between Constantine and Maxenfought. overlaid with gold. was of great length. 44 (Migne. emperor constantly made use of this against every adverse and hostile power. two letters indicating the name of Christ symbolized the Saviour's the letter P being intersected title by means of its first characters and these letters the emperor was in the by X exactly in its centre habit of wearing on his helmet at a later period. beneath the trophy of the cross. thus. On the top of the whole was fixed a crown. and fought . bore a golden half-length portrait of the pious emperor and his children on its upper part. precious stones presented an indescribable degree of beauty to the beholder. They At length Constantine. . Lot. Pair. . with a perpendicular line drawn through it and turned round at the top. which. in its full extent. . and commanded him to procure a standard in the likeness of that sign. directed in a dream to cause the heavenly sign to be delineated on . . and the troops of Maxentius prevailed.ELENE the Christ of XX111 God appeared to him with the same sign which he had seen in made all heavens. the cipher of Christ. The armies met. . Now it was made in the following manner. emperor. calling together communicated the secret to his friends the workers in gold and precious stones. Of the Manner 7. in which the Persecutors died. formed by the intertexture of gold and precious stones and on this. He did as he had been commanded. but without their the bridge. 260-2). and described to them the figure of the sign he had seen. chap. formed the figure of the cross by means of a piece trans versely laid over it. and immediately above the embroidered streamer. being also richly interlaced with gold. and so to proceed to battle. At dawn of day he arose. being Having this sign. . and to use it as a safeguard in the engagements with his enemies. From the trans verse piece which crossed the spear was suspended a kind of streamer of purple cloth. yj^. covered with a profuse embroidery of most brilliant and which. The . . and similar to it should be carried at the head of salutary sign as a safeguard commanded that others all his armies. This banner was of a square form and the upright staff. A long spear. led his whole forces to the neighborhood of Rome. and and then. his troops stood to arms. And now tius. And this representa tion I myself have had an opportunity of seeing. and Constantine was encamped them opposite to the Milvian bridge.

grew hotter. with great rejoicings. war being ended. the forces of Maxentius were He fled pressing on destructive him. and firmly maintained their [At length Maxentius went to the field. At sight The hand of the Lord prevailed. INTRODUCTION exertions of valor. towards the broken bridge. and routed. Constantine was acknowledged as emperor. his rear . . . . by the senate and people of Rome.xxiv with the utmost ground. but the multitude The he was driven headlong into the Tiber.] The bridge in of that the battle was broken down.

who was enthroned at Exeter in 1050. Guthlac. Azarias. or Exeter Book. Wanderer. that between fol. and A Father's Instruction. having been presented to it. apparently by a single hand of the early eleventh cen tury. On the other hand. Gifts of Men. E. Hell. A careful collation by Schipper was published in 1874 (Germania 19. and died in 1072. The whole manuscript must have been corrected by another hand after writing. containing the Christ.PHOENIX MANUSCRIPT on leaves 55 b -65 b of the Codex Exoniensis. Phoenix. from 8 to i3O Only one leaf is wanting in the interior . 293 of that volume is a facsimile of a part of page 77 of the manuscript. Thorpe calls the writing 'fair and rather fine. Wan derer.' and Conybeare speaks of 'the clearness and beauty of its characters. 104) in 1895. . 38. by Leofric. of the volume. Azarias. was issued by Gollancz (E. or 246 a b pages. Opposite p. With the exception of a few fragments at the end of the manuscript. The Phoenix is contained The manuscript breadth is 14 l centimetres 2 / in height It is by approximately $ by 7^ inches. the poems were all published by Thorpe in 1842. Harrowing of and Ruin. the corrections being in a paler ink. under the title Codex Exoniensis. Among the other poems of the Exeter Book are the Christ.' At present the volume proper consists of 123 leaves. among other valuable gifts. and another was made by Assmann for the Grein-Wiilker Bibliothek der Angelsachsischen Poesie. which has been in possession of Exeter Cathedral since about the middle of the eleventh century. Seafarer. then thought undecipherable. S. several leaves are missing at the beginning and end. Guthlac. The first volume of a republication of the Exeter Book. Juliana. Only the commonest abbreviations are found. Bishop of Devon and Cornwall from about 1046. the beginning of the Gifts of Men. 327-338). 37 and fol. Juliana. 18^2 in written on vellum. T.

xiii-xvi. 10. Sarrazin (1886). 613: Chr. 611-617: Chr. Gaebler (1880). Dietrich 1 adduces. in 1840. and such scholars as Sievers (1885). this ratio 9. 505 Ph. pp. subject. Wiilker (1896). which he ascribes to Cynewulf). to reject this view. many scholars. two. Ebert (1887). 56. For further donor. . : . the ascription of it to Cynewulf rests upon identities or similarities of diction. undoubted poems of Cynewulf. the plan being that formulated in my first edition of the Judith. Biilbring (1891). between the Christ and either the Elene or the Juliana. or may have Holtbuer (1884) was the first been. or general treatment with the undoubted works of Cynewulf. As the Phoenix contains no runic passage embodying the name of the author.XXVI INTRODUCTION particulars concerning the manuscript and its edition of The Christ of Cynewulf. Words and phrases were listed separately. besides certain correspondences with the Elene (and with Guthlac and Andreas. such as these between the Phoenix and the Christ: Ph. The ratio of correspondence between the Christ and the Elene was 1 . three. 1660-1661. or four poems besides the Christ. 516: Chr. Ph. 811. 726. 1634-1664. in an unpublished investigation. Ph. Sweet (1871). 142. 420: Chr. 584: Chr. the author of the Phoenix. have believed that Cynewulf was. 589. Ph. see my AUTHOR AND DATE Beginning with Kemble. dis covered (about 1892) that the verbal and phrasal correspond ence between the Christ and the Phoenix was even greater than Dr. Ten Brink (1877). Grein (1880). 367. PH. 820 Ph. being the result of dividing the Commentatio. 493: Chr. pp. Brandl Trautmann (1907). 604 Chr. or with such as are ascribed to him by practically universal consent. 50-70. Dietrich (1859). 329. Ph. Brooke (1892). 1079. . 587. according as the expression occurred in one. 628 Chr. including such as Klipstein (1849). negative conclusion. 1228. Ph. and these were divided into four main categories.085. 250-253. : Colton. and Strunk (1904) have come to a similar (1908). Arthur W. 525: Chr.

Ph. Schlotterose. can not better express already in print* my own paragraph have been congenial to Cynewulf. other hand. * 8 is sure that. holds a somewhat similar opinion: the Phoenix is later than Cynewulf. der Alteng. Colton's table agrees remarkably with that of the Juliana The and the Elene.084. In respect to the prominence of color. 106. 92). the Phoenix excels the undoubted poems but against this must be set Cynewulf's impressibility the fact that his vocabulary and imagery change to some extent with his mood and with the . p. Further.' Brandl 2 (1908) would place the author of the Phoenix among 3 in the contemporaries or immediate successors of Cynewulf and syntax they resemble each other both acknowledge style indebtedness to books (Ph. 303. it must be admitted that the resemblances of word. of brooks. trees.. 424. fragrance. Barnouw (1902) is in doubt. cf. Lit. and ends I his poem with macaronic : verses. and included Lactantius. Gcsch. flowers. Ixxxiii) : .09. but was strongly 3 influenced by him. phrase. my edition of The Christ and both make use of rhyme. Phoenix. Ph. in lines in the that of the tion that the Phoenix This result would accordingly create a presump was the work of Cynewulf. but wulf wrote it. xxii. 1 '* Juliana.PHCENIX total XXV11 number of correspondences by In the case of the Juliana . fotas. groves. it number of was . and the percentage of correspondences in thought Dr. and idea extend in varying degree through practically the whole body of Old English religious poetry. 311) not found in the acknowledged poems. The chief arguments against such a presumption lie (as Strunk has said 1 ) in 'the absence of the runic signature. Ixiv-lxv. 92. and the metrical necessity of admitting quantities and inflectional forms (as gladum. pp. p. if Cyne Lactantius The Christ of Cynewulf. on the of Cynewulf. the Phoenix was his latest work. p. in his edition of the Phoenix (p. the author of the Phoenix employs sharp antitheses. . was among the authors included in the York Library. 5 opinion than by quoting a 'The theme of the Phoenix would his reading may well have verbal parallels and similarities of are striking. and music. . the poem. and plains. gladum. according to Alcuin.

17 (1814). Die CynewulfForschung von ihren Anfdngen bis zur Gegenwart. so similar is almost persuade the critic to believe in Cynewulf's author it in tone and setting to those of the Elene* 2 and but the. Arch. 193. (Chronologische Studien zur Ags. to Cynewulf. have ascertained his fourth. so inwoven are they into the tissue of the style. 4 This is the period assigned by Carl Richter . pp. reference (pp. Literatur.XXvill INTRODUCTION From no three of his upon which he is working. 88-92. "First by Conybeare. 1908. I It cannot be said that the question is decided . 1910) to both Cynewulf and the Phcenix. and then review the evidence in favor of his authorship of the Phcenice. apparently under the influence of the Cynewulfian poetry. we can hardly say more than that the writer must have been a monk or ecclesiastic. or soon after. Christ. assuming that the Phcenix cannot be by Cynewulf. If it is not by may be made to the Introduction to the Elene where his date and personality are discussed. on stylistic grounds. or reproducing the spirit of a poem full of sublime sentiment and magnificent appeals There is therefore no a priori ground for to the imagination. is like the Andreas. Much of the sentiment is demonstrably his the correspondences in phraseology indicate the hand of a master.. and likely to have lived either within the 4 period of Cynewulf's poetic activity (about 750-800 ). Bonn. xiii-xiv). didactic speeches he is another original man than when he is telling a stirring tale. op.' 3 On the supposition that the Phcenix by Cynewulf. see Jansen. We shall therefore first give a brief account of Lactantius. LACTANTIUS It has long been recognized that the Phcenix was largely derived from the De Ave Phcenice 5 attributed to Lactantius. and a doxology like that of lines 615-629 would of . When he is paraphrasing long. itself ship. 105-8. Schlotterose. cit. believe that scholars will end by assigning the Phcenix. and in the absence of the runic testimony. undoubted poems could one. pp. 1 De Ave 744-7542 385-415- "For the history of opinion on this subject. Cynewulf.

D. his Ciceronian eloquence.PHCENIX XXIX Cselius (or perhaps Caeci- The name of Lactantius was Lucius 1 Born in lius) Firmianus Lactantius. Men. Ueber das Leben des Lactan (Sitzungsber. but on account of the lack of pupils for the city was a Greek one betook himself to authorship. is still extant. On Things Medical. two books of letters To Se-verus. Vol. two books To Asclepiades. an attendant on his lectures one book to the same On the Work of God . one book On Persecution. along with the grammarian Flavius. He modeled his style so closely on Cicero that he far su/passed Arnobius as a writer.' 3 In consequence of this devotion. he became a pupil of Arnobius. he was called by that This sketch reposes chiefly upon Brandt. 288. our chief ancient authority for tius 1 the biography of Lactantius. des : 456-460. 10. which he wrote as a young man in Africa another book con) from Africa to Nicomedia..' in the " Formation of Man. a pupil of Arnobius. 80) as Lactantius. not far from the year 260. entitled The of God. We have from him the Ban an Itinerary (Hodtzporiquet. received a call in the reign of the emperor Diocletian. two books of letters To Demetrianus. and already Jerome characterized him as 'a river of near the borders of Numidia. who death by his father. About four or five years after Diocletian's accession to the throne. who taught rhetoric with brilliant success at Sicca Veneris 2 in Proconsular Africa. At this time both Lactantius and master were heathen. der Wiener Akad. such as were not infrequent in the writings of others who lived in that province of the Roman Empire. who has criticized in several points the statements of Jerome. 58. written in hexameters . east of Constantine. In extreme old age he of Crispus Caesar. chap. directed against the heathen . 120). Gesch. one book d/ce^aXoi' . and to the end he seems more deeply imbued with their philosophy than with the teachings of Scripture. or in the neighborhood of A. an Epitome of the last-named work. his diction shows comparatively few traces of Africanisms. Philologist (Grammaticus) . Here he must have applied himself with much diligence to the study of Latin literature. Africa. in turn criticized by Seeck. His philosophical training must have been largely in the doctrines of the Stoics. whose book in verse. On the Anger seven books of Divine Institutions. the son of Constantine. and Untergangs der Antiken Welt is is i. the fine treatise. *Epist. . . Jerome's also the following {On 'Illustrious The longest statement of 'Firmianus. He taught rhetoric at known Nicomedia. four books of letters To Probus. was the tutor in Gaul was afterward put to Now Kef.

or 311 at 97 latest. Inst. since Diocletian's edict of Feb. he is extremely guarded in his allusions to the faith professed in common by himself and his correspondent. Extra Vol.. On the Work of God. Monceaux. . . Diet. His profession of Christianity may well have been the cause of his degradation from the professorial rank. the doctrines which he here professes are virtually Stoic those of monotheism and Provi dence. later than 310. This call indicates what celebrity Lactantius had already achieved. i. i. in his new capital of Nicomedia. 2 and in these the first conversions to Christianity would be almost certain to Christian. Eusebius. Now scholars are practically agreed that the Institutes *Inst. See Hastings.XXX INTRODUCTION emperor to the chair of rhetoric. he afterwards came to disprize the teaching of oratory. Opif. Deaths of the Persecutors 9. De 5. ii. he must have devoted himself to his for fifteen or eighteen years. that he was not at that time in Nicomedia. 5 The fifth book of his Divine Institutes shows. Lactantius must have remained in Bithynia for two years after the persecuting decree of Diocletian. 24. were completed not i. 8. Eccl. written about this time. or oratory. 2 Lactantius. and was devoting himself to authorship. In the first place. practice of forensic oratory. occur. which he was then adorning with public buildings. 303 expressly commanded that Christians should be deprived of their honors and dignities. 1-28. There were several communities of Jews in North Africa. while at the same time he shows that he had given 4 up other pursuits. 1-4. Bible. Cf. 3 p. In the second place. little imagining that it was so soon to be superseded by Constan tinople as the seat of the Eastern Empire. without endeavor ing to engage in the. In his Chris tian zeal. 15. Etudes Juives 44. Hist. professional work almost in the It spirit of Plato. i. 1 was probably while in Nicomedia that Lactantius became a though he would undoubtedly have had opportunities of coming in contact with Christians while still in Africa. Arrived in Nicomedia. i. in Revue des 13. 3 That he had reason to shrink from too great publicity with regard to his Christian belief is shown by his tractate. 4 ' 8. by its allusions. 20. .

* . 12. it would not be surprising if his deep interest in it had been either occasioned or strengthened by a sojourn in that country. 2 Authorities are not at one concerning this date. Eccl. I. and possibly in Trier. 20. their institutions may well have attracted the curiosity of a young and highly educated traveler. Inst. it is true. 4 Cf. too. For other references see the index to Brandt's Lactantius (Corp. he died about 340. Certain of the ancient authorities on the Phoenix were themselves Egyptians (such as Nonnus and Horapollo). Brandt. it might have been in the train of Diocle on the occasion of the latter's military expedition thither in 295 or 296. have no certain We knowledge that Lactantius ever visited Egypt. and in his reflections on the theme. 26. Kaiserzeit 2. resided in Egypt (Hecatseus. either with Diocletian. . or later in If he did tian. 1 op. and because the Egyptians had period. however. or thereabouts. is merely inferential. ii 2. Script. 2. Lactantius manifests some knowledge of Egyptian history in his undoubted works especially the Divine Institutes* this. Lot. in this respect. as the accepted Constantine's invitation to Gaul as the extreme*. much surpassing his predecessors. 5. 475. xxx) assumes that his poems on the Nile and the Phoenix were written while he was living in Egypt. 138-140. Epit. 2 for The worship of Isis flourished at Rome during this and for that reason. tutor of his son Crispus. tenaciously maintained their ancient religion in the face of innova tion. 458. 2. cit. 20. 13. p. Aegyptus. 35. der Rom. and Claudian. 5 Schiller. 3.PHCENIX XXXI Hence year it when he becomes natural to think of 308. like that of his birth. Seeck. 1 If we may attach full weight to Jerome's words.. 50 (55). Jeep (Claudii Claudiani Carmina i. 5. i. already a celebrity.. Cf. 280) under Aegyptii. des Untergangs der Antiken Welt. Gesch. though visit Egypt. and at may have best approximate. Since we must infer that Constantine the Great 5 4 spent some time in Egypt. Gesch. 36 (here he calls this worship endurable). example). but since he presents in his poem on the Phoenix an epitome of extant knowledge on the subject. his Oration to the Saints 16. 33. 36. senectute. Then. but this date. ed. 27. Cf. 10. might have been derived from books. or had Herodotus' informant.

I. the best Latin prose writer of his and with the instinct of a born teacher. p. with such legends as Felix Reparatio Tem- It is worthy of note that Eusebius (Vita Const. he seems to have the new. calls the is the only 4. or have cherished toward it an invincible aversion. 479-480. 72) Phoenix Egyptian. no doubt because he was espe The Phoenix is found on his cially addicted to the worship of the sun. ancient author who porum. He dwelt upon what was com mon to Christianity with the austerest moral creed of antiquity. too. see Scholl. between the old and Called to teach ancient literature by a heathen emperor and persecutor. known the pangs of poverty and disgrace. and Perpeiuitas (see Scholl. Vom Vogel Phonix. and Con a Phoenix. and illustrated his enforced leisure. who wrote his biography. passing his middle life in Asia. i. coins and those of his sons. This supposition is strengthened by the consideration that Constantine stood in pecu liar relations to two scholars Eusebius. to educated and courtly circles who otherwise would have remained contentedly ignorant of it. without sacrificing any conviction which 1 Seeck. 13 stantinople was founded on the occasion of the appearance of which is interesting as showing how later ages associated the . he so far gained the favor of the first Christian emperor as to be entrusted by him with the education of the heir to his throne. If not feel justified in calling him a time-server. and dying is probable) in Europe. 46) reports John of Salisbury (Policr. as a medi (as ator between the Orient and the Occident. may time. op. two. p. Born in Africa. 9). in Sitzungsberichte. 12) that . 2 likewise have been there. 2 cit. and the charms of his style. . A man of warm 3 friendships. 8. Constantine paid pecu liar attention to the symbol of the Phoenix. Eusebius was in Egypt. he served in this sense. and Lactantius. whose doctrines furnished the basis for Constantine's oration mentioned above. 8 Brandt. according to his own testimony (Eccl. yet to his equanimity. we can but have preserved we do admire the dexterity with which.XXX11 1 INTRODUCTION it 3O2. Graced with a learning which enabled him to associate on terms of intimacy with the great. and thus conciliated the most virtuous element in the society of his time. p. might have been in his company. Lactantius was a mediator between ancient culture and the new faith. Hist. recommend ing the latter by his suavity and moderation. 41. and Lactantius.

at Subiaco. Poesie. 2 (Opera.-Lat. Basel. in Miiller. the earliest being dated in 1465. . 1554. 468-70. 18. Corpus Script. 3 The estimation in which he has since been held is attested by the fact that. p. . Gesch. Jahrbb. a num ber greater than that of any other church-writer. 4 LACTANTIUS AND THE DE AVE PHCENICE.. p. Eccl.' with an obvious allusion to the name 2 Lactantius. Perhaps with Jerome's estimate in mind. 44 Teuffel. up to 1905. Bibliographies may be found in Brandt. of the Renaissance. The question of Lactantius' authorship of the De Ave Phcenice has been much debated. 7 (Opera. cit. 322). Handbuch. urged by various scholars with various These are: (i) the testimony of the manuscripts. 21). xxix. p.. 1581. and being the first book printed in Italy. chap.PHCENIX seemed XXX111 to him vital. 5 Those who answer it in the affirmative rely force. and to win the favor of a urging Christian emperor while not falling under the worst displeasure of his heathen predecessor. 397. Of these it is the last which has been most vigorously contested by the opponents. * 8 . 37. Schanz. he yet contrived to escape martyrdom while the claims of truth and virtue. p. and accordingly we men like Petrarch and Pico Petrarch 1 speaks of him as 'rolling forth in a milky torrent. note 8. (2) the attribution of the poem its the similarity of tius' to Lactantius by mediaeval writers. Gesch. pp. Bk. xxi Manitius. S 474. 2d ed. fur Prot. also Lobe. der . Schanz. upon four arguments. Bk. (3) sentiments and diction to those of Lactan undoubted prose works.. there are said to have been 112 editions of his works. Mirandola calls him the Christian Cicero. (4) the Christian character of the poem. 3 i. p. Basel. 27. 1 De Otio Religiosorum. 363. Lot.. Pico della della Mirandola. 1573. Theol. and even suggests that he may be Cicero's superior in eloquence. cf. Lot. Such a character as we have seen Lactantius to be would be sure to attract the men find that he appealed strongly to its protagonists. Litt. Studio Divince atque Humana Philosophic?. op. * * DC See above. der Christl.

in Keil. 1 L6be. p. the Parisinus of the eighth century. If. 135. chap. begins Tertium : He then [miraculum] on to an abstract of the poem. Alcuin. the third. 247-8. has: Lactantii de Ave Fcenice. P. Mus. 27. and quotes it eight times. cf. according to his will. : (Leiden University). various correspondences have been traced between the Phoenix and Lactantius' undoubted works. he appointed them a seat on earth. a grammarian of the seventh quoting from memory. Gregory of Tours (before 582). Manitius. happy region. 1 Versus 2 Secondly. 35 Thus by Dechent (Rhein. Baehrens. below.). abounding in flowers and fruits of every kind. 50 ff. Epit. *De Dubiis Nominibus. 8 5. treating of the won ders of the world. of Gregory is quoted. 15. Min. 2. names. of good and : 8 evil) to a At length.XXXIV INTRODUCTION As to the first argument. The description of Paradise accords in general with that of 8 8 Inst. 12. Corpus 27. Baehrens. xxxviii. Constantine's Oration to the Saints reposes on Lactantian doctrine. 14-593. passes but with some difference of detail. and the differences emphasized. assigns no title to the poem the next. (1880). 40. 4 century ascribes the poem list Finally. of the nineteenth century.451 p. Thirdly. Brandt. the best manuscript. 12. Quid Fortunatus vel quid Lactantius edunt. Manitius. of books in the York Library. 2 6. Gram. xxxv). Lat. the Veronensis of the ninth century. 2. 7 p. est quod de Phoenice Lactantius refert. as Pichon asserts (see p. Item Lactatii de eadem Ave. but especially by ' Lobe. 7 A few of these may be here noted: i. it is significant that the oration contains this passage (2. 3 (1881). however. s De Sanctis Eccl. as if Gregory might have been 3 Again. Lat. pp. 5) 'And immediately he transferred our newly created parents (ignorant at first. partly in the original words. Poet. befitting creatures endued with reason. and coming to the third one. Ebor. by 577. the Vossianus subjoins . 8 which would seem to refer to the Phoenix. 1552. De Cursu 8 The passage Stellarum. 5 in a to Lactantius. 250-252. 45 . after giving Gaudian's Phoenix. among Christian poets.' .

its mention of 1000 years. . but especially 23 ff. may correspond to Inst. 27. 455. we limits of classicism : he 1 is neither very deep. 27. 22. Lobe. which Inst. 7. 2. 5. 27. referring to the destruction of the earth by also . . ingenious and patient indus writer. 19. Lobe. intellectual probity. Ira 23. 21 with Ph. 64-5. In various respects the use of words.PHCENIX 2. in a literary appreciation of Lactantius as a prose . 2.. 58. 38-9. 27. and water. clearness. precision. noble gravity. also reflected in Epit. 22. 1 7. . 24. in one word. 7 Epit. 7. find a parallel in De Ira 14. nor very ff. 23. as is reported happened in the time of Deucalion. very impassioned. 19. simple and sober eloquence. Lines 57. there is therefore no intrinsic improbability of his writing such a as the Phcenix. and 6. : the conflagration of the world. 58. XXXV is Lines 64 and 109 indicate a dualistic doctrine. p. may 10. very clever. says: all 'He possesses try. equilibrium. one 8. find in him the defects. and in the same order 'All may perish. De Opif. . fire these we may add three others : Lines 11-14. 3 ff.. poem To 9. 5 72. 53 " ' We must remember that Lactantius wrote a Grammaticus. 43. or by a deluge. 3. 5 ff. I. be illustrated by Epit. * Lactance. moderation. us that Lactantius wrote poetry. 12. Line with ff. . may tells Jerome 2 3 say a philologist. 10.' either 10. like Lactantius. refer to Phaethon and Deucalion. as is said to have in the case of Phaethon. cf. the constructions. the figures of speech employed by Lactantius are like those of the Ph&nix. which make the Phoenix a priest in the sun's temple. 4 Pichon. 4. 2. 9. in praise of chastity. 9. but so does Inst. by the serious classical qualities regularity. or rather the gaps On and the other hand. 6. 4. . 66. pp. 22. The author of the Phoenix extent and minuteness of knowledge displayed by the is such as one would expect in the work of a student. 19. pp. . De Line 164. 2.

a verse followed by other Christian writers of the first centuries. . lii-liii. g. transparent. 229. 2. 14. in the midst of the grove. Milton. . pp. 2. 12). De Laude Poem.. 82. 2. because they are easily able to ensnare unwary souls by the sweetness of their discourse. . And on now this account I These are sweets which conceal poison. 7. : Fons illic placido perfundit agmine campos 2 Quattuor inde rigant partitam flumina terram. Jer. in this respect philosophers. Ezek. Thus the poem Ad Flavium Felicem (Vienna Corpus Script. 4. which. 260 . and stands for a number (cf. . Ezek. 329) cf.' Rev. .XXXVI original. 6. Lat. a collective. Lactantius himself says (Inst. 22. fruit. as to the Scriptural character of the poem : i. and which bears This corresponds to Rev. L. Pair. 2. slight difficulty is occasioned by the word fons.' INTRODUCTION Would not much of this serve to characterize the Phoenix f 5. 1-2. 59. that that vain system may not at all injure the studious so that the knowledge of literature may not only be of no injury to religion and righteousness. reposes on Gen. 22. but may even be of the greatest profit. Alcimus Mart. acquaintance with literature. 13. 47. 496) 3 The use of the number 12 in line 8 may also be due to a Biblical reminiscence. and of their poems flowing with ii. 9-11) 'Many waver. how ever. Gen. 259. i. and poets are pernicious. 10 (cf. 3 (Pair. i. 19. 7. 4. The other difficulty is is with respect to the monthly irrigation. 3. 8. I. John is A * It is evident that 'tree of life. it would seem.which militates against this con ception ? Fourthly. 46. 16. Ezek. 10. below. 47. from the fact the monthly bearing of fruit (see esp. which it waters every month. 17. Seville. 3 but this 1 Avitus. : and For especially those who have any delightful modulation. 3 3 318) has (238-9) . 4. Etymol.. 43. Ezek. orators. p. 47. Ezek. 10.' Is there anything in the Phoenix . wished to connect wisdom with religion. 21 (ibid. Ps. Eccl. 14). Lat. 3. I2). ~ Cf. 'of merely an inference. 9. 44) Isidore of (Migne. Lat. So also Pseudo-Cyprian. P. 13. 12. e. 252. Lines 25-30 describe a spring living.

The apparent introduction of chiliastic doctrine (cf. and (2) those who adduce reasons. 37 . ed. 1 3 See note on Ph. no traces of Christian influence. 23).' is apparently due to Lk. Gregory Nazianzen. 58 seem to point to sun-worship. reduce themselves to six 3 1. as evidences of Christian influence. Bernhardy. so far as they may .. Claudian. 100) points to the praise of chastity (lines 164-5). 3. parallels as 78: 155: Mk. who. 29). of whom Baehrens Ritschl) be regarded as the type. and the emphasis on voluntary death (line 93-4). and preferred by Nonnus. Adduced by Lobe.-Lat. the reference to the earth as the abode of death (line 64). 2d ed. 14. Nirschl. ed. and certain Jewish Rabbis (see Bochart. Line 93. 45- Ebert (Gesch. 3. 3. Lines 33 ff. p. 2 Those who do not distinctly favor the attribution of the Phoenix to Lactantius fall into two classes: (i) those who have no decided opinion. A Christian author would have 'improved' much further the opportunities 5. 5. Hierozoicon.PHOENIX XXXV11 Line 64 speaks of the reign of death. 32). such conceptions as those conveyed by Rom. See especially Lobe. 14. Fritzsche. 248 ff . Lit. 12. : No 2. deserve our attention. Ausonius. 46 (cf. Poet. pp. Inst. 3. It exhibits ancient author assigns the poem to Lactantius. Lat. This must refer to 2. Kotze. xxxv ) is perhaps sufficiently accounted for by the belief in a phoenix-cycle of a thousand years entertained by Martial. 810). 116: Jn. 4. 2. 3. 1 Lk. i. 2. p. 19.. i. der Christl. 'commends his spirit. 151. Baehrens. 4. 4. while that of 1000 years Ambrose. 26. 26. Gen. Min.. More remote and doubtful are such. I. Alzog. 17.. 24. . chiliastic doctrine is The argument from weak. fail to mention this poem. 50. or who assign no reasons for their rejection of it (Heumann. in discussing Lactantius. 51. above. 23. Most of the earlier Christian authorities prefer the is term of 500 years. 1 which the poem afforded him. 17 (cf. Pliny (29. 1796. These reasons.

and (3) demand no further comment than is given above. . Singularly enough.XXXV111 INTRODUCTION of Tours. I version to not overwhelming. Egypt. The ambiguity which has so perplexed scholars is nd doubt incident to the syncretism which the poem manifests. Myth. (4) is sufficiently met by the consideration that Lactan tius may have become a Christian by slow degrees. siderations. Diet. some poem Ave Phcenice. 1881. p. note 3. as Lobe points 2 out. 45. and certainly. then. according to Renouf (Book of the Dead. Cf. when the difficulties may be met as well 3 by supposing Gregory to have quoted from memory. 51. under (5). According to Lepsius. 45). The Phoenix. in describing the heror . the common heron 01 . p. 1 - Cf . our very poem. the peasants of French Guiana cal the Ardea helias the 'bird of the sun' (Littre. Spr 16. (i). fur Agypt. is a bird of the heron family. the reference may as easily be to Christ. after he arrived in Nicomedia. above. The arguments convincing. that is. s. 1.Inschr. 2 795) thinks that Ovid. and a tuft on the breast. 7) 2 Gruppe (Griech. Anc. and am perhaps during the Diocletian persecution. the Ardea garzetta. p. 51 Zs. Oiseau. . as represented upon Egyptian monuments.258). The passage from Gregory exhibits to Lactantius. and which at precisely this time was so much in vogue. if in favor of Lactantius' authorship are. or at least before Constantine had manifested his intention of favoring the Chris tians. and (6) is too involved a hypothesis. p. 104) according to Brugsch (Geog. v. as we have seen (p. the Ardea bubulcus. according to Rawlinson (Hist. 49. with the two characteristic long feathers 4 streaming from the back of the head. xxx). Manitius. hesitated at times to avow the Christian faith in an explicit manner. 8 4 Wiedemann. (2). THE PHCENIX AS A SYMBOL. followed by heronshaw. i. xxxiv. and in the light of all the con-inclined to think he published it after his con-i Christianity. Pp. 1 attributing the divergences from the De 6. it is the Ardea cinerea or purpurca (Aclteste Texte des Todtenbuches. 82). so that Gregory's rendering may repose upon a portion of Lactantius' Hodceporicon in which he might have incorporated the Phoenix of an earlier heathen author.

20) suggests a resemblance to the bird of in i paradise. ' a symbol of the stands for other things. and 'Confirmed from monumental evidence by Brugsch (Nouvelles Recherches. 3 etc. has mind this identification. 10. Gesch. but of what ? is it The bennu.PHCENIX XXXIX bennu. i. or of the flamingo (Fundgruben des Orients i. cf. the Greek Physiologus. note. Lauth). 'Die in Abh. Ovid. which flew away from the burning city of Ardea (Met. as it were. "63). Classe der Bayer. (1881). Aelian. Horapollo. 258. Aegypt. 1618). d. 573 ff.). but the legend is constructed around this conception as its core. CLASSICAL TEXTS goal of the Phoenix's solemn flight to Egypt is gener 5 or the city of the sun (Tacitus.. Cf. Phil. Scholl. Pliny ally Heliopolis. rising sun. Horapollo s Wiedemann. 3 Egyptians was evidently a symbol among the Some have said. Lenz. 104. it will be necessary to examine the evidence of the texts. and the winter in the south. Pseudo-Epiphanius. Geog. no doubt. 'near Panchaia'). as was first done by substitute i Gryphiander.-Phil. For a discussion of some of the various theories see Lauth. 'Die Phonix-Sage im Alten Aegypten' (Zs. To become convinced of this. Ebers (Egypt. 202). Vom Vogel Phonix. 348 5 See below. of the golden pheasant (Cuvier. Princess. i The phanius. 2. fiir Agypt. pp.. Inschr. but the heron. Berlin. chap. Wiedemann. Epi(who adds. p. 42. Pseudo-Epi- . Others add or 'temple of the sun' (Herodotus. 52 ff. Ovid. 45. or generally accepted theory is that the Phoenix In a secondary sense. Benecke). 1 The Egyptian name ing 'to of the Phoenix is from a root mean turn/ so that the bennu signifies. Other writers have thought of the hawk (Maspero). x The identification first made by Seyffarth (ZDMG. : Sprache 4 Phoenixperiode. Akad. 16. 57. Achilles Tatius).. Clement of Rome. . i. spending the summer in the north. Claudian. xlv-li.' . 649 ff. p. i. 2 note 4). the return 2 This is an appropriate name for the heron. Lactantius (if we emend ortus to urbem. of the planet Mercury 4 (thus Seyffarth). since ing traveler. ZDMG. 35. he is a bird of passage. 1856. 3 (1849). 14. of the lap wing (Keller). others of Venus (Brugsch.

Pliny). Apostolical Constitutions. 8 " 146 . It rejoices more than other birds in the sun (Horapollo). p. 6. pp.xl INTRODUCTION . Book of Dead. was adored. 5. Const. 92. Now on a hypocephalus in Paris a deceased person is represented as saying: 'I am in the form of the Phoenix.}. as we shall see. 4. 12. phanius) logus. we read 3 'I am that 3. 'Rameses son of Ra. . or turns to the sun's ray (Isidore of Seville >Rabanus Maurus). Marucchi. EGYPTIAN TEXTS I 1. xlviii). which issues from ha^t-benben in Heliopolis. p. the Sun-god. cit. Ph. Johannes Gazaeus). 58. De Aucupio. resembles the sun (Pseudo-Eustathius). Marcellinus 17. Lactantius. II. cit. : 1 What here follows reposes chiefly upon Wiedemann. Pseudo. bears in the left line of the northern face the words. 17-20). op. is the priest of the sun (Lactantius). The obelisk of the Porta del Popolo at Rome. which repre sents near the top an adoration of Ra by one of the kings who erected it. the very image of the sun (Achilles Tatius. Pseudo-Epiphanius. the Greek Physio- Nonnus).Jerome). Its head is crowned by a splendid cf. It is sacred to the sun (Tacitus. It is 8. Gli Obelischi Egiziani di Roma. 7. cf. 3.Jerome). It is the the sun's bird (Claudian). It is It 10. or stands toward the East and prays to the sun (Apost. Its pyre is lighted from the sun's rays (Dionysius.. Pseudo(Horapollo). Pseudo. in which. 17. 2. 'altar of the sun' (Tacitus. who filled the temple of the Phoenix with his splendors. or faces Eustathius. Claudian. 11. op. or prays to the sun (Claudian). Wiedemann. Claudian. Ammianus the Wiedemann's translation. It descended from the sun (Achilles Tatius). Clement of Rome.' 2 [ha-t-benmi] In the Book of the Dead. circle. Ra. It is a symbol of the sun (Horapollo. in Egyptian ha-[t]-benben-[t]. is 'The temple of obelisks' of the Pankhy-inscription (below.' 2. 9. 4. somewhat different in Budge. Pliny. friend of the sun (Dracontius). chap. at It dies sunrise the sunrise (Horapollo.

on each side of a central picture. 2 Similarly in chap. with the emphasis not on the night from which he emerges. of Phcenix. or. . death. and I come forth like the Bennu 2 where.' 'morning i. 4. I 1 So with 4 all propriety. seated on a standard planted on the respectively. pp. 4 the middle is occupied by a on the right is a picture of the bark of the sun Phoenix. with the legend. tion: bird The Book of the Dead. 'Glory be to tRa when he rises !' on the door of a tomb figured by Lepsius. the morning star (?) of Ra' star. 122 (Budge. too. eternity and everlastingness. has.PHCENIX Xli great Phoenix which is in Heliopolis. I unite everything which What is the meaning of this? The Phcenix signifies is there. according to Egyptian life and death . we might here say. a hawk and a Phcenix On the right. On the wooden coffin of Hetepher-t-s in the Vatican we 5. Denkmaler aus Aegypten 272*.' while on the left is a hawk.. the point where the two come together. means the rising sun. 3. religious conceptions. which is painted in red.' but Wiedemann shows (p. as we have seen under 3. Osiris represents the deceased. and everlastingness the the Osiris which is in Heliopolis . night. he 'traverses the heaven as . mountain of the sun. now as. 185). p. 'He rises each day in the morning. . in other words. is represented by the Phcenix. in Budge's transla 'I go in like the Hawk. * Those who identify the Phcenix with Venus rely on the words 'morn ing star. is the hawk. with the words. 13. 'Glory be to Ra in the underworld!' On a similar standard on the left is the Phcenix. . Wiedemann prefers to read 'morning divinity/ 3 morning sun. 93-4. the Phoenix must be the rising sun. understand Wiedemann. then.' the union of everything which is there signifies his body.' The one might say. with the legend. the star of the rising sun's bark. or. 100) that elsewhere Venus is called 'the star of the bark of Bennu-Osiris. for [the Phcenix]. or. and hence Venus is here called.' So. chap. and as the union of day and night. 'He enters into the underworld he shines. have. the legend.' Now Bennu-Osiris. . . but on the attributes of the sun 1 as it issues from darkness or death. with e. eternity signifying the day. . signifies the union of day and night.

' 2 To the foregoing may be added a few passages from the Book of the Bennu B (p. . 24. O Ra. .' : together like the beautiful hawk of gold. 77): 'I am the 'Those Chap. No. and they bowed low in paying homage unto me. 64. 'the great god Phoenix' says : am 10. Heliopolis. Now it happened that bennu was als( circle 1 The So Wiedemann . the soul of Ra. which hath the head of a Bennu bird. thou who comest into being above O Phoenix. we have 1 : 'I am brings himself into being . On the coffin of 'I the coffin of Suti-mes in the Louvre. and similarly on Tent-Amon in Berlin. 77 (p.' 7. read: 'Glory to thee. the Phoenix appears with the red sun-disk on his head.. thou creator of forms. .' Chap. . chap. other texts. are here omitted. On a monument a scarab 'the Leiden he is called 'the Phoenix. as bearing is less readily understood. and Ra entereth in day by day to hearken untc my words.. Beside this are two pictures. in Chepera [the rising sun]. like the god Chepera [the rising sun]. heaven like the Phoenix among the great order to traverse the who gods. Budge). and to utter words.' In a Louvre papyrus. I. and hence they gave it the name of bennu the returning traveler. who we gives incense to the Osiris. 2. . Budge differs. cited by Wiedemann." 8. one of Ra. and I have gathered myseli Dead (tr. I have risen. No I. ' "Hail. Book of the Dead. 132) who were dwelling in their companies have been brought unto me. at and one of the Phoenix. chap. and in saluting me with cries of joy.xlii INTRODUCTION In the 6. J and a papyrus Phoenix of Ra.' calls him 'the heart of the renewed Ra. In the Book of 'He [Osiris] comes the Dead.' ancient Egyptians conceived of the sun as describing i round the earth. 2 Some thei . 9. 29 [Phoenix]. I. 125 (p. 189) 'He hath caused me to corn* : forth like a Bennu bird. the soul of Ra. Chap. the Phoenix who begets himself. we read (Wiedemann) from Sekhem to Heliopolis to make known : to the Phoenix the things of the underworld. . issuing as sun-disk above the awto-incense. great god!' 11. In a Louvre papyrus.

' 4 Ra is self-begotten thou who didst give thyself birth. 38. p. and from the dying flames of dawn he flew new-born up the sky.. * Ibid. the new sun was born in fire. 133.PHCENIX the xliii name of a bird of this passage which regularly disappeared was declared holy to the sun. Ibid. . . and his company of -the gods follow after him.. the divine man-child. king of earth. p. The return of the sun took place in the morning. dered : . self-begotten and self-born. all the gods love his perfume arises when he approaches from Arabia. the King of heaven. p. and so likewise the bennu.' the gods rejoice when they behold : thee. 214. thou mouldest thy limbs as thou dost advance. his central mythological aspect. To him may be applied the words of the Boulak hymn to Ra 1 'Glory is his in the temple when he from the house of flames. fashioned and guided time in a night mystical and holy manner. O Ra. . * 37. 127-136. tr.. 4.. while the songs of gods and men resounded in joyful chorus to his praise. thou beautiful being. the heir Thou O 5 O . 7. and thou bringest them forth without birth-pangs in the form of Ra. of eternity. thou dost renew thyself in thy season in the form of the disk. self-begotten one. Budge. chap.' Since the Phoenix in this. . p. encompassed by the gods. * Book of the Dead. This paragraph closely follows Wiedemann. 1 2 7 Also translated in Records of the Past 2. At his birth the heaven flamed in splendor. 'Ibid. p. 'Ibid. as thou dost rise up unto the upper air. the hymns to 2 Ra (or Khepera) will Phoenix of our poem. 10. 9. and each morning rose to a spheral music. may thus be identified with the deified sun at his rising. and so the bennu became the symbol of the rising sun. and one of its manifestations. 6 Thou art crowned with the majesty of thy beauties. and so He combined itself anew. similarly pp. he is the lord of dew when he comes from Matau he draws nigh in beauty from Phoenicia. . 9. Thus yield other passages applicable to the the birds which follow and salute : him are paralleled by the gods who follow Ra 'Ra riseth in his 3 'All [horizon. From this idea was evolved the further one that the sun engen and returned. . and day into one whole.

6. As both 1 the Old and the . op. New is Christ with light 10 S. 24-5. 7. 2-5.. note). the author or authors of the Apostolical Constitutions. 9. Short Studies in Great Subjects. 243. hast made heaven and earth bright with thy rays of pure 8 light. the same figure are Commodian. Phoenix. and the Englishman. Let me snuff the air which cometh forth from thy nostrils. 54. 12. p. Cyril of 9 Other writers who employ Jerusalem. 42. 6.. i. Tertullian. Isa. 'Ibid. Sidonius. 9. yElfric. to With reference Thou Thou emerald one of the colors attributed to the Phoenix: 5 illuminest the two lands with rays of turquoise light. 10 cit. stars. moon. . 6 Ibid. 9... 16. 8 it is taken by the Christians of the illustration of the Among may be the patristic writers who employ the Phoenix in this sense named Clemens Romanus. 29. 5. Zeno. is at the same a people so keen for immortality as were the 7 In this sense Egyptians. Lk. 8. as Jehovah Testament associate God and explicitly called a sun in Ps. Bibliothek der Kirchenvater 405. 4-5. time. 3 With reference to the egg associated with the Phoenix (i. Thalhofer. now upon the cycles of vegeta tion (cf. as the symbol of the rising sun. Ennodius. : O and thou who art in thine egg 4 Ra). i Tim. W. See the citations in Thalhofer. 415. The among first centuries. 5. Matt. Ambrose. 16. who shinest from thy disk risest in thy horizon. ' 2 Ibid. 6 Ibid. and Epiphanius. and now upon the phases of the heavenly bodies (sun. p. 8. who drew for renewed life. So Ps. 5-6. Ecclus. 10. 286. 46. i. 8 Ibid. Ph. p. Dracontius. Jn.. 77. Eusebius. day and night. 78-9. a natural symbol of the resurrection. Wisd. Arabia. winter and spring). 3. 30. 7 8 8 Cf. p. p. Nonnus. 4. Froude. e. pp. 2.Xliv INTRODUCTION rising with f ragance : As The land of Punt1 is stablished [to give] the perfumes which thou 2 smallest with thy nostrils.. 34. 42.

et Occidentem illustra. i. 51-6). A Thus Dante (Purg. 4. cit. 10. 355-6. it is not surprising that the Phoenix should come to be employed as a figure of the Saviour. As fountain of all life. 30. Cf. This led some of the Chris tians of the first centuries to identify the physical sun with Christ. pp. 357-8. 23) and there were pagans who appear honestly to have believed that the sun was the god of the Christians (Tertullian. B. 104-129. or Uahabra. Christ. College D. especially Mai. (Cumont. c. and. 1 of is Sol justitue. to instance a poet five hundred years later. i.). 4. Par. the sun' (Civ. 78) with Christ. 9. whole 7. As late as the fifth century. of which nothing now remains but the ruins shown at Matarieh. 5. King of Babylon: 'He shall also break the About 586 pillars [obelisks?] of Bethshemesh. Textes et Monuments Figures Relatifs aux Mysteres de Mithra i. op. 25. and the houses of the gods of Egypt shall he burn with fire' and in 568 B. shemesh. HELIOPOLIS The name Solis ad of the Phoenix is indissolubly associated with that of is Heliopolis. i. and of quite different character. Jeremiah. 14-7) ! : Oh thou true sun ! The burning oracle of all that live. 22. it i. in the reign of Apries. Dei 19. In Jeremiah's old. Ph. 121. : . Nebuchadrezzar actually invaded Egypt.PHCENIX 84.. 16. Gotternamen. Beth . a translation into Hebrew of the Egyptian Per-Ra. Usener. see Cumont. 'house or city of the sun. among others. 126. wrote thus of being Nebuchadrezzar. 3. 12. if we may 183-5.. 105. 355).' was the city known to the Greeks as Heliopolis. rising. the modern Defneh. 1 1 . Pope Leo the Great complained that the faith 2 The motto of Rutgers As early as 242-3 A. 20 was even sometimes interpreted as 'to God. and symbol Him who bestows it. 18. that is in the land of Egypt. 2. to which reference in our urbem (rendered made by Lactantius. The 'Deo soli' of Exod. some five miles northwest of Cairo. on Chr. Apol. and my note series of modern poets continue the tradition. etc. Jn. Antiqq. 53. 2. Lk. xlv 1 and as the early Fathers identify the sun of righteousness 2 (Mai. 278). 12. c. 8. pp. Diet. On the . must have already been about 3400 years 8. then in Tahpanhes. 54. Byron (Sardanapalus 2. 26. poem by sunbeorht gesetu. Conv. ful still persisted in adoring the sun at the instant of his whole subject. cf. an error which was combated by Augustine. time I Jn.

p. 87. In the Twelfth Dynasty. fur Agypt. 2. and Fig. 41. 8 Hastings. 6 to contain a record of this founding. Zs.xlvi INTRODUCTION 1 trust the assignment of it to the time of King Menes. 46. according to the worship of Mnevis. Egypt i. the sun-god. Somewhere about 1640 in placed the period of Joseph's residence in Egypt. and a leathern (ca. 122-3. Hist. was estab Manetho. as the German translation has it. Breasted. 45" that 'Pharaoh gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti- may perhaps be phera olis. 115. Various Arabic writers of the Middle Ages mention them (cf. cf. In hieroglyphics Anu. Petrie. 2 Inscriptions of the Fourth Dynasty 3 The Fifth Dynasty (ca. see Hastings. 12 10 priest of On. 3. 827). 3100 B. Hist. Syr. Diet. 13 identifies On with Heliopolis. 11 that is. On. lished there. c. 50). Records of the Past 12.). says it is as old as the oldest inscribed monuments. Durch Gosen zum Sinai. chap. 771 cf. in an addition to the text of the passage. 51-5. 7 Ephraem the Syrian has an account of the obelisks in his Commentary 6 B Breasted. 22. n. The hymn sung professes roll. c. 7 the most beauti the Seventeenth Dynasty.). Petrie 3. Bible 4. Joseph's wife was of Heliopolis. Un. cit. or recited on this occasion included the sentence. 12 (1874). and claims divine descent from Ra. 8 See Hastings. 43 (Sept. i. 'Das Gemachte sei bleibend') ful . cit. Egypt. 23. Sesostris I (1980-1935 B. high priest (probably) of Heliop iLepsius. 41. 9 10 Cf. Ebers.) is said to have built in Heliopolis a temple to the sun. 221). Spr. 20. 2900-2750) mention it. or Mena. 807. the sacred bull. 20. 157. 'the works will last' (or.. Breasted. c. Diet. pp. 6 dating from the time of Amenhotep IV (1375-1358 B.. the founder of the First Dynasty. 493. on Jeremiah. 'He 11 . In the Second Dynasty (ca. according 4 of Heliopolis. op. c. and so in Exod. whom Ra (the Sun-god) gave'. Diet. He also erected a temple to Petrie i. .. 2 Petrie i. 144-5. 44. i. op. Pinkerton's Voyages 15. 50. for we are told in Gen. 827 ff. Pinkerton 15. starts from a high priest 2750-2625). Chron. "The Septuagint version of Jer. Annu. 196-7. 85-96. Bible 2. B. to one tradition. 326. pp. 4 Ra in Heliopolis (Petrie 2. Bible 622. p. now in Egypt. but all that has lasted 8 is one obelisk. 33 (Oper.).

which. if we 3 may believe Manetho. 'Hist. 2) according to which 'Abraham dwelt with the Egyptian priests in Heliop and it was he who introduced olis. I. Egypt 2. 16. ham. modern scientific conceptions. I. the source of all life. No one sun-worshiper or philosopher seems to have realized until within this [iQth] century the truth which was the basis of Akhenaten's worship. 2 It was at Heliopolis that human sacrifices were abolished. 'Quoted from Porphyry. 17 is the same word (Hastings 3. 10 ff. that of the radiant energy of the sun. the centre of one of the greatest religious reforms known to history. 18 cf. as Akhenaten or Ikhnaton ('the splendor of (see p. the name of Amenhotep IV known disk'). in the Eighteenth Dynasty. the Jews whom Joseph brought into Egypt were assigned to Heliopolis and Sais. Not a rag of superstition or of falsity can be found clinging to this new Epiphanius (Ancor. Praise of Constantine 13. Gesch. a reform associated with. If this were a new religion. 9. may be described in the Other ages had worshiped the human-figured sun-god Ra. 33. 7. by Eusebius. . 46-47. according to the Biblical account. Agypt. xlvi). or Amasis (1580-1557 B. 84) says of the name Heliopolis that it is 'a transla tion from the Egyptian and Hebrew On' (cf. power. 4. See also Ebers. Sayce. Ant. as an exotic.PHOENIX xlvii 1 According to an account preserved by Eusebius. of Anc. 30. 86-7). and force in the universe. pp. Eusebius also preserves a statement (9. or a hawk as his emblem. Prcep. . Josephus. 495-6. 23. But a more refined and really philo sophical worship was substituted for this by Akhenaten. on Jeremiah. See also Ephraem the Syrian. of the sun as sustaining all life by his beams.. and taught them many things astronomy and the other sciences to them. 12. Rel. was its promoter. and afterwards built a temple in Heliopolis (cf. invented to satisfy our . 9.). by King Aahmose. The Aven of Ezek. 213 ft. was in Egypt (Gen. . we could not find a flaw in the cor . rectness of this view of the energy of the solar system. Evang. Comm. .. Durch Gosen zum 4 Sinai. c. On Abstinence 2. pp. saying that the Babylonians and himself had found these things out. 55. 1 Prap.' We of course know that Abra 2 . 4 Heliopolis was. it was as a concrete solid ball.. Wiedemann. Evang. 621). and when the sun itself was represented. chap.). that the rays of the sun are the means of the sun's action. Egypt and Bab. later the sun's The nature : destined to expire with words of Petrie 5 of this reform. 397. 27).

35. 441 ff. feet. which he thinks may have been composed by the King. 59 ff. the sole lord or Adon of the universe. pp. 154. 674. among other 2 . Records of the Past 6.. and things.. Aegypten. thou alone. Life in Ancient Egypt. and to his changes in various lines. and of anthropomorphism. n. 45. Brugsch. p. One stanza runs : How many Thou With are the things which thou hast made Greatest the land by thy will. and natural grouping of plants. describes the . . stele recording the events of an A expedition undertaken by Pankhy. He then adds In this : hymn all trace of polytheism. and that in a private tomb.) gave to Heliopolis. cit. It would tax any one in our days to recount better than this the power and action of the rays of the sun. p. and flocks. c. The temple he built at Tell el One of the most interesting mentions of Heliopolis belongs to the period of the Twenty-third Dynasty. is there any indication of war during the reign. and is scrolls which he there made for Ra. Egypt i. pp. herds. . Cf Erman. Erman. Egypt 3. with as little influence as possible from convention . only once.544 cattle. life. under what is called the Ethiopian Dominion... Egypt. Breasted. lakes. Hist. Steindorff.963 serfs. its Everything on the face of the earth that walketh on Everything in the air that flieth with its wings. and treated in a manner more natural than in any other Oriental art. .. in Hilprecht's Explorations in Bible Lands. The customary glorying in war has almost disappeared . north of Heliopolis. Petrie then quotes the great hymn to the Aten. 1 Rameses III (1198-67 B. 361 ff. 3 * Records of the Past 6. animals in rapid motion. . ! peoples. or theriomorphism. Rel. 3 4 Yehudeh. and 103 Egyptian towns in the great Harris papyrus he tells of the gardens. 195. 52-70. op. 285. 2 Petrie. Hist. were specially studied. The motto 'Living in Truth' is constantly put forward as the keynote to the king's character.. 12. In art the aim was the direct study of nature. 73 ff. sculp tures.xlviii INTRODUCTION worship evolved out of the old Aten of Heliopolis. Sayce. of Anc. has entirely disappeared. I. jewels. In ethics a great change also marks this age. 92 ff. And domestic affection is held up as his ideal of the queen and children being shown with him on every occasion. or Piankhi 1 . pp.

some writers. but Eudoxus came here with 4 Plato. his teacher being Psenophis. The teacher of Plato was Sechnuphis (Clement of Alexandria.-ca. and astronomy. In the period of Plato and Eudoxus. 'was a car remained the university of Egypt. Strom. shown to us. Contra Apion For a full 2). At Heliopolis we saw large buildings. upon a large mound. into which the neighboring canal discharges itself. 69) references on the visits of famous Greeks to Egypt. For full 15. 8. still 1 rising. too.. but the barbarians concealed the greater part of them. pp. * Apion reported that Moses offered all his prayers toward the sunand in the open air. in which the priests lived. 107 ff. For the latter were distinguished for their knowledge of the heavenly were mysterious and uncommunicative. 10) adds Pythagoras. 8. bodies. and Osir. To these Plutarch (Is. while at Heliopolis (Josephus. Egypt. the yet Heliopolis home of philosophy. 6). 8 17. 183 5 Strabo. est in relation to our poem the lake or fountain in which the 1 sun-god bathes his face. that of Eudoxus. . 25 There. .PHCENIX xlix elaborate ceremonies and solemn devotion attending this mon Here we have several things of inter arch's visit to Heliopolis. is A. the offering of incense.) says 3 : Heliopolis. The residences of Plato and of Eudoxus were . Egypt 3. . see note on Ph. account of this. and the temple of the sun entered by the king with solemn priestly ceremonial. 2. and burned them with case' 6 . . fire. 162. but there are no longer either such a body of persons or such pursuits. At present the city is entirely deserted. his teacher being Oinuphis. In front of the mound are lakes. as above. 2 Strabo (ca. Egypt had been groaning more than a century under Persian rule Nebuchadrezzar and Cambyses 5 had laid waste the noble edifices of Heliopolis. Laert. as Petrie says. situated tains a temple of the sun. D.. for .. who studied philosophy and astronomy.27-9.. yet after a time were prevailed upon by courtesy to acquaint them with some of the principles of their science. 6 ff. It con . 387. 60 B. according to lived thirteen years in the society of the priests. and medicine. see Parthey's edition i. Chonuphis (D-iog. Hist. For it is said that anciently this was the principal residence of the priests. and. * of Plutarch's Isis and Osiris. . c. adoration to the rising sun. and Solon (Solon 26).

It would seem that the purest and most vital itself. and were especially numerous at Heliopolis. p. to this circumstance. Villa Mattei.). This was erected in the reign of Sesostris (Senwosri I). and Dogali. 3 There are two objects associated with Heliopolis which are of These are a tree and a peculiar interest in relation to our poem. 945) 'The pyramidions were sheathed in bright metal.1 INTRODUCTION It . of the Twelfth Dynasty (ca.. 9.. its had brooded over the whole course of Egyptian history but end was not yet. p. when now its vigor was almost spent. especially a Mesopotamian or Syrian. (68 feet high) is the oldest Europe temple-obelisk still in position. sion of the Book of the Dead Dynasties 2 (ibid. or have been most keenly appreciated by foreigners. conceptions associated with it might have been of foreign birth. 79. Nearly all the longer accounts of the Phoenix either mention the city by name or refer to it in an unmistakable manner other. 127). This authority says (19. c. Marucchi. nth ed. Etudes de Mythologie 2. five are from Heliopolis those of the Porta del Popolo. Encyc. Influential from at least the period of the Fifth Dynasty (2750-2625 B. Monte 2 The obelisk now standing at Matarieh Citorio. p. p.' . Brit. with reference to these texts. which comes into being on the tip of the trees in the : 1 Maspero. 'the gen eral testimony of their contents indicates an Asiatic home for their birth The oldest copies belong to the Fifth and Sixth place' (ibid. 155.) in laying down religious law for Egypt. 945. 1980-1935 B. Pantheon. They were dedi 8 : cated to solar deities. and. may have imbued the philosophy and science of Greece.. 1 its spirit. and of the seven genuine obelisks of the older period now in Rome.. The first historical recen (see Budge's trans. 372 ff. and so event ually have tinged the barbarism of Western Europe. Gli Obelise hi Egiziani di Roma. 82. catching and reflecting the sun's rays as if they were thrones of the sunlight. c. LXXIV). more than any and was Heliopolis indebted . XLVI). 19. The obelisks of London and New York were originally from manifests Heliopolis (Petrie 2. LXXIV) was made by the priests of Heliopolis. fountain. It is when singular that Heliopolis often emerges into prominence a foreign influence. for its European reputation in ancient times. On the Metternich stele we read 'Thou art the great Phcenix..

while Sozomen3 attaches a similar still story to a Persea tree at Hermopolis. 368. 3092. In that of the apse of SS. the Lateran. Life. This is regarded by Erman. and which afterwards opened a spring of water from its roots. For the palm-tree in the desert which. 99. feet and legs of gold. Cosmas and Damian. According to the Arabic Gospel of the Infancy. p. Santa Maria Maggiore. Principal Navigations (Glasgow. Hakluyt 5. Erman. 20-1. (Rome. p. breast. with the legend. 50. Cecilia in Trastevere. and cf. there is an adoration of a yellow tree with green leaves. Aegypten. Handbook for Travellers in Egypt (London. 348. Bible of the Ancient Egyptians. on Ph. Ephraem Syrus. chap. Syr. p. cf. pp. 6th ed. Isis and Osiris 20. and St. 272. St. at Matarieh. see note 5. 258-9. In Wilkinson's Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians 1 we find a picture of a tomb. speaks of the venerable tree in the interior of the temple of the Phoenix. and wings of red. and refreshed the Holy Family with its fruit. Geog. i. which is the oldest. Wiedemann. Bible 21. Diet. 3. now in London. or a sycamore. On the general subject. 190. see the Apocryphal Gospel of Matthew. For the fountain of the sun 107 ff. cf . .' 2 The Phcenix poised on one of the upper branches of a palm is represented at Rome in the mosaics of Saints Cosmas and Damian. *Eccl. 38. 338. Travels (London. Hastings. which afterwards becomes a palm. Travailes. an acacia. Opera 189 . Hastings. 3. Diet. 5. 168. John Evesham. Brugsch. This was properly the Persea tree. 5. above which the red disk of the sun is rising.PHCENIX H great hall in Heliopolis. 1847). 2 Inschr. as the tree described by Plutarch. during the Flight into Egypt. . 4 Travelers are 1 shown a sycamore and a spring Ed. near which is a tree surmounted by a Phcenix. Hist. 'The soul of Osiris. 1658). and the rest of the body light blue.' Cleopatra's needle. 622. 1904) 6. (London. Birch. D. Praxed. 51. with head. 1740) 2. Clarke. Religion 92. 1814) 3. 349. this was a sycamore at Matarieh. at Heliopolis. In the Louvre papyrus No. the bird is evidently a heron. E. in Hakluyt. Sandys. 'See Wilkinson. 20. 99. pp. bent over at the command of the infant Jesus.

And it shall come to pass.Hi INTRODUCTION THE EARTHLY PARADISE What may is be called the central tradition is concerning the Earthly Paradise. irrigates as the writer conceived it. Noble extremely high mountain. bird which it. it is not without representative this central tradition. and abundance 4. A A tree distinguished above the rest. Hiddekel. The height of the garden is only to be inferred from the fact that the river. and go down into the desert. And out of the ground made Lord God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight. . at the bank of the river were very many trees on the one and on the other. and the tree of knowledge of good and evil. is perhaps most familiar to us from the account in Genesis (2. the tree of life also in the midst of the garden. Gihon. and there man whom he had formed. Then said he unto me. these are sometimes added: 6. parting into four the Pison. the waters that be healed. that everything . 3. including no doubt the whole inhabited earth. A fountain of living water. Parts of the conception are developed in Ezek. and became into four heads. irksome. To 5. Absence of the ugly. Oriental and very ancient. and go side into shall the sea : which being brought forth into the sea. And a river went out of Eden to water the garden and from thence it was parted. with which we are more immediately concerned. 47. the elements of the According to Paradise are 1. Whether originally Semitic or in Aryan texts as well. of what is delightful and invigorating. reflected in the Phoenix. and Euphrates through these four vast tracts. and the good for food. and the pleasure afforded by the trees. These waters issue out toward the east country. and noxious. or one or more rivers. or stands in a peculiar relation to The Semitic tradition. sits upon the tree. Here we are explicitly told of the trees. 12: Behold. : Earthly An 2. trees. 8-10) : And the he put the Lord God planted a garden eastward in Eden. the tradition which not. often forming a grove. the river. 7-9.

22. 4. whithersoever the rivers shall come.. Havamal). thereof. 21. 10. 17) 'I will give unto him that is athirst of the fountain of the water of life freely. 22. 1 New hurtful and unpleasing. * Yet there is mention of Paradise in Rev. n. and the Jerusalem which is the Apocalyp- 2 substitute for Paradise. pp. it shall bring forth new fruit according to his months. which is a tree of life (cf. though the Bible does not expressly place it in Paradise. shall live and there shall be a very great multitude of fish. 17. W. 13 (cf. proceeding out of the throne of God and of the Lamb. whose leaf shall not fade. 1-4. There is a spring at the foot of the tree Yggdrasill of Scandinavian mythology. 1-li. neither shall the fruit thereof be con : : . In the midst of the street of it. clear as crystal. which bare twelve manner of fruits. the terms are used figura : tively . shall grow all trees for meat. This thought is resumed in Rev. and the leaf thereof for medicine. 1-67. 9 Tor with thee is the fountain of life'. Akin to the river of the water of life is the fountain. 'To him that overin the midst of the see above. Professor E. Rev. 2.23ff. .PHOENIX Hii liveth. . because these waters and everything shall for they shall be healed shall come thither And by the river upon the bank live whither the river cometh. was there the tree of life. the fountain of living waters'. 6 (cf. which paradise of God. but so also they are in the passages from Ezekiel and the river. 7 cometh will I give to eat of the tree of life. reference may be made to Rev.' in JAOS. in that 21. on this side and on that side. 3-5. : Here the water has an active principle of life and healing. Thus Ps. . 1-2: And he shewed me a pure river of water of life. 36. 26 (1905). Cf. and on either side of the river. and yielded her and the leaves of the tree were for the healing of fruit every month : the nations. which tnoveth. 13): 'They have forsaken me. 22. 'The Fountain of Youth.' : is . 2. For such trees and waters in Egyptian mythology. as have the fruit and foliage of the trees. : 14: 'The water that I shall give him shall be in him a well of water springing up into everlasting life'. sumed because their waters they issued out of the sanctuary: and the fruit thereof shall be for meat. Hopkins' learned article. 411-5. Jn. is Apocalypse referring to the As tist's to the absence of what positive delights. Jer.' 1 In all these instances.

the 4 says of Paradise : It is situated mountains. Horn. on a very high spot. 2. Tertullian. 64). Migne. 176-7. Hindu mythology Among them tree. Pair. which water the world. and the bird is the 2 Kamros. 1 some 6600 miles are the Kalamra(-ba) tree and the Jamvu(-bu) in height. or the Sin or Simurgh. kissing its feet. He then goes on to speak of Paradise as being very far from our world. if not derived from them. The trees are always covered with fruits and flowers. 2. the rivers are 'free opposed to and the Bundahish. and the paradise. upon whose summit the Ganges first flows from heaven. In the East ern Church. is the view 3 advanced by Ephraem the Syrian in the 4th century. (Pseudo-) Basil thus describes Paradise : l 2 Cf. the so-called Mohammedans Parsis consider as the original seat of the region regard as having been the terrestrial Roof of the World. Wilson. and looks down on all the highest For this reason the waters of the deluge. 30. 'Horn. 563). Gregory of Nazianzen. Vishnu Purana. 65-7. 89-91. Theophilus of Antioch. "The works of Ephraem were early translated into both Greek and Latin (they were known to both Chrysostom and Jerome). Akin to these Aryan legends. whose fruit makes one ever youthful. 1743. 47. 29. Theol. To take a 6 single example. Sacred Books of the East 23. 31. that were spread over all the world. 3. In the Avesta the Hara Berezaiti. 163. 23. This has been identified in a general way with the Pamirs in Central Asia. tr. Among those who held similar opinions 5 were (Pseudo-)Basil.000 miles high. as it were. fiir * Hist. 7. there are the harm' and the Gokard tree. Pair. 99-100. lessons from them were read after those from the Bible (cf. Uhlemann. 3. Lot. the mountain is Alburz. did not touch even its root with the tops of their billows. I 'Ephram des Syrers Ansichten von Paradies' (1832). worshiped the approach to it. Mahabharata 6. Gr. Gregory of Nyssa. . which of the Aryan race. (Zs. 5. 131-2. or twenty in number. and Cosmas Jndicopleustes. 42-3. 22-23.liv INTRODUCTION tells of the mountain Meru. and. He griffon. i on Paradise (Opera. 155 ff. and then divides into four rivers. 8 Cf.). and perhaps in the Western. 35. 173. de Paradiso (Migne. 708). somewhat over 500. and as surrounding the sea and the earth.

Gen. 91. ad eum pervenire potuerunt. 91. see the notes of Scartazzini. Mod. fecundum. doctrine of the dissemination of seeds or germs might be compared several of the passages cited above from the Avesta and the Bundahish. Verum seu seu alibi Deus noverit. des Langucs Sem. 287. altissime ibi cooperuerunt. eundemque magnum et magna fonte : . Pair. Lat. Hist. Bibel- Lexikon Schaff-Herzog. Lang. Kraus. 28. Lit. then God planted Paradise. 7. 33 (1918). For the patristic and mediaeval views of Paradise. Dante. fructuosis nemoribus opacatum. 206. Cf. far from the world of men. of wonderful beauty. pp. 8. and Longfellow. etc. 26. of Religious Knowledge. Unde nee aquae diluvii. 417. 1 Bede says that it is far This phrase is literally Dante's conception of the Earthly Paradise has much in com mon with those of the Fathers mentioned. . One Phoenix of the most important utterances in its bearing upon the is that by Bede. over which. 'Purg. 601-643). 466-479. Zockler. ed. Schenkel. 2 derived from Augustine. . 3 d. 349. // Paradiso Terrestre Dantesco.PHOENIX lv A . and Eccl. 28. its superior by nature to all created spots. 348-9. place reason of . on Purg. Theol. nos tantum locum hunc fuisse et esse terrenum dubitare non licet locum scilicet amcenissimum.. 38 ff. Lat. Patch. 43-44. see the Bible dictionaries under Paradise and Eden McClintock and Strong. For analogies with Dante's Terrestrial Paradise. and embracing a forest. . 43) : Xonnulli volunt quod in oriental! parte orbis terrarum sit locus quamvis longissimo inter jacente spatio vel oceani vel ter rarum a cunctis regionibus quas nunc humanum genus incolit secreturn. Hexameron (Migne. nor hail. Assoc. Coli. Gesch. there was no shadow. 8. A brief popular account is given by Baring-Gould. ed. * 2 Thus In Gen.. upon a lofty mountain. . I ff. and one tree which 'would be marveled at for its height by Indians in their woods. 173. 7. pp. 'Some Elements in Mediaeval Descriptions of the Otherworld' (Pub.. Plumptre. With his. a fountain from which issued limpid waters. by height. quas totam nostri orbis superficiem paradisi. Renan. nor inclemency of the seasons. 652-9. 127-9. p. Pair. also 2.207. Encyc. Jackson. where there was neither violence of winds.' 4 l removed from the knowledge of men. Encyclopaedia of Bibl. . situated. Here.. 91. as it was. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. . der Beziehungen zwischen Theologie und Nattirzvissenschaft I. 49-50. 32. 250-265.

and never a snowflake falleth. Bede. poets (Teseide. 172 ff. Roman. Ages on. have been in part indebted for their Paradises and enchanted gardens to classical writers. and over it floateth a radiant whiteness. pp. Boccaccio sance. 3 For references pp." The 1 descriptions of the Golden for this purpose. 183 ff. 545 . nor a violent tempest and rain-storm 1 Here incessantly breatheth the breeze of the soft-voiced Zephyr. Bk. 43-5.Ivi INTRODUCTION synopsis of the views of Ephraem. 512 ff. to such classical writers. Lost. 7). . and others who hold kindred opinions. Bk. Cotterill) the Middle like : From Here comes never the snow.. Der Griechische ff. Tasso (Gerusalemme Liberata. 15). see Rohde.. .3). 6.. and Milton (Par. Which winds ne'er shake nor ever a rain-storm Wetteth. may be found in Raleigh's History of the A World (1. in such passages as the following from the Odyssey (tr. 2d ed. but cloudless the aether Spreadeth above. and particularly during the Renais Chaucer (ParL Fowls 172-210). 4). 3 42 Age are likewise drawn upon 566-7. Bk.

and incidentally of plants and stones. A. 2 has one of his characters. Heliodorus. p. *Cf. An. and therefore it is solicitous to avoid encountering his eyes. xii. 7. the disorder will pass from him to itself. Croiset. The bird history. Hist.). : Charadrius cures those it who perceives at a distance are afflicted with the jaundice. cf. 100). Geschichte des Physiologus. c. 13. p. 1 not unlikely that this Christian Physiologus reposes upon earlier same pagan books of natural history. on the view of the afflicted person. 5. 5.PHYSIOLOGUS THE PHYSIOLOGUS IN GENERAL The Physiologus also known as the Bestiary is a book of popular theology and morality.' 3 Now as a similar trait it is ascribed to the Charadrius in the Physiologus. Sympos. Pliny n. Litt. as some eyes suppose. D. . 2. If any one coming towards it who labors under this distemper. 225) Nat. Plutarch (ca. setting forth the qualities of animals. an 'If you wish an example from natural Egyptian. "Similarly Aelian (ca. 17. but because it knows by instinct that. 8) here is one taken out of our sacred books. Die Aethiopische Uebersetzung des Physiologus. 796. 4 Whenever such earlier compilations may have been made. exclaim (3. has been thought that these Egyptian sacred books contained much of the matter appropriated by the Physiologus. 30. 46. Hommel. the book that we understand by the term Physiologus (the word 1 2 Lauchert. Gr. and that probably the original collection which was to constitute the basis of the later Physiologus may have been formed under such a ruler as Ptolemy Euergetes II (176-117 B. it immediately runs away and shuts its not out of an envious refusal of its assistance. 94. illustrating some of the chief doctrines of the Christian religion by means of the real or sup posed characteristics of actual or fabulous animals. or employing these is It characteristics as alluring or warning examples. his Greek romance of Theagenes and Chariclea in the writing second half of the third century. 8.

Flemish. 5 Translation into Latin by Tychsen in Physiologus Syrus. . Mann. Mann. Middle English. and cf. 1 have been put together in Greek. Das Thierbuch 46-56. which would naturally find their way (5) the Alexandrian origin of the symbolism by which the animal stories were adapted to Christian uses. One writer has said: 'With the exception of the Bible. also Rom. ichneumon. northwest of Cairo. Kingdom. 3. . Reinsch. Icelandic. op. 68 ff. 300-2. Origen. p. Texts in Mai. Roumanian. (3) the mention of the 1 and references to Alexandria . 7 (1835). cit. Cahier and Martin. crocodile. Dutch. About the beginning or middle of the century was translated into 5 and Syriac. 280-5. 1795. Syr. Nitrian desert. 126-7). 79 ff. 110-155. Servian. and 4. and Phoenix. Anglia Beiblatt 10. High German. 65. pp.Iviii INTRODUCTION clearly to 2 means Naturalist) seems Alexandria. 4. Vol. it The earliest texts of must have been though the Greek manuscripts of Ethiopic Arabic. 'Translated into Latin by Land. 6 3 at present fifth known are it late.. pp. in before 140 it B. pp. Auct. 137 ff. Vols. 4.). and Russian. pp. xxxi. Syr. later Syriac version in Land. Translated into French by Cahier. as Lauchert.. Melanges d'Archeologie. Waldensian. D. Mann. 204) says: that he heard the tale in his childhood from the lips of peasants in Hungary. and specifically of Alexandrian origin is shown by various considerations: (i) the mention of the ibis. Holbrook (Dante and the Animal 'From my friend Sandor L. and other early Fathers (Lauchert. Class. 2 It seems to be referred to by Justin Martyr (d. 278-9. Anec. 89. Anec. (2) the occurrence of fifteen of the stories in the work of the Egyptian priest. Nouveaux Melanges d'Archeologie A I. 589-596.somewhat later into Armenian and been made before The Latin translation must have 7 There are also complete or partial translations into Old 43 1. by Clement of Alexandria. ff. des Normannischen Dichters Guillaume Le Clerc. Concerning the sea-monster. there is perhaps no other book in all literature that has been more widely current in every cultivated tongue and among every class of That it is of Egyptian.' . 168 A. etc. to Indian fables. 45 p. Horapollo. c. Hommel. see Lauchert. 13-36. 3 Land. pp. Provenqal. 279-280. besides Old English. as above. Rostock. Old French (4). pp. Italian. pp. 117-138. Forsch- ungen * 5. (4) the mention of Indian products. Translation into German by Hommel. For all four trans lations. 7 Lauchert. 4 and . 8 2. 8 Mediaeval Greek. above. Landeau I learn p. Cf. 4.

56. 13. 13. thou sluggard (Prov.). 15). p. are the salt of the earth (Matt. 239 (MS. and my as Father is the husbandman (John 15. i). 32. : . The is sense of the spiritual meaning within the material fact 3 what makes Browning poets. 6). 16). .' is The kingdom of heaven 13- like to a grain of mustard seed (Matt. the unicorn. . in parable. I cast out devils (Lk.PHYSIOLOGUS 1 Hx people. Go Ye ye. Aurora Leigh. and it air. 3. 7. The mention of gory. 13). 13. and the cruel venom of asps (Deut. the good seed are the children of the king dom. 12. Melanges erunt' 8 'Nihil Scripturse sine similitudine nobis dix3. serpents. . Be ye therefore wise 10. 34). C) (with manifest allusion to Matt. Behold. with God. and they shall teach thee or speak to the earth. And 1 common bush afire . and they shall tell thee shall teach thee and the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee .' Cf. and harmless as doves (Matt. Sokoll. Cahier.' Certain it is that current notions of the pelican. to say: every and all supreme Earth's artists. 5. 6. Angelsdchsischen Physiologus. and the salamander are due to the former popularity of the Physiologus. I am the true vine. 7. 33). 8. Inwardly they are ravening wolves (Matt. or the Bible suggests metaphor. n). Bk. It is what led Mrs. The field is the world. 32). and tell that fox. natural objects how often. text of the Physiologus ends 'The Holy Scriptures have said nothing at random concerning animals and birds' the Armenian says they 'do not mention animals without some mystery. 7. (Job. or human : are employed to enforce are characterized by compari beings son with animals or plants Go to the ant. alle spiritual lessons. . 3i). is Their wine the poison of dragons. They are greedy dogs that can never have enough (Isa. 38). 1 Zum The Ethiopic : . but the tares are the children of the wicked one (Matt. crammed with heaven. the Phoenix. of the and the fowls But ask now the beasts.

a serpent. to refer specifically to the Physiologus. at least 1 made use on the assumpwriters see For echoes of the Physiologus 14. Reynard the and find pleasure and instruction Fox. in the artist's ecstasy. or his fancy ? The third hypothesis is easily disproved. attribute human is virtues and vices to animals. fast. Do these three short poems which follow the Phoenix in the Exeter Book form a brief Physiologusf Do they constitute a portion of a longer Old English poetical Physiologus. . or a cat. Old English poetry The standard form of has of only three the Panther. Of the whole. the rest of which has been lost? Or are they unrelated merely versions of three unconnected chapters which happened to strike the translator's eye. every day. Englische Studien 188-210. there at the all root of symbolism something natural and necessary. however severely allegoric we may condemn the abuses of the is method in its application to Scripture. COHERENCE OF THE POEMS the Physiologus has 49 chapters. Henceforward he would paint the globe with wings. Aesop's fables. if we add the Phoenix. the tree. called a bear. xxv. the bull. all understand the sign for the thing signified. Not one But day. Hence. even his very body as a man. corre to as many topics. and the Uncle Remus stories. And And reverence fish and fowl. a cur. Turtle}. in certain Elizabethan Lauchert. though the various translations differ sponding with respect to the number. The spiritual significance burn through The hieroglyphic of material shows. four. like the Phoenix. for which see p. the Whale (Aspand the Partridge or. feast. We take is 1 We what meant when a person We in all. are contained in the Exeter Book (95 b 98*). or working-day. THE OLD ENGLISH PHYSIOLOGUS MANUSCRIPT These three poems.Ix INTRODUCTION If a man could feel.

Hence the three poems are not versions of unconnected chapters.) points to this conclusion. of the sea. is more likely to mark the end of a series than of a single short poem. the scant page which he devotes to the subject does not afford him scope for detailed ^Dietrich (Commentatio. C. This he argues from similarity of diction. of only these three members 1 . under the second of which classes the author proceeds to speak of the Panther. Ixxxviff. 10-11. . Jour. that is. and of Cahier's MS. C. the cycle. and the evidence adduced under the head of the Partridge (pp. upon the basis of the facts adduced above. Commentatio. with a sentence tell'. Ci. under the circumstances. p.PHYSIOLOGUS tion (see p. heard in the same hortatory manner (6) the third poem ends beginning with Uton (see p. in conception believed the Physiologus to have the same author as and Juliana. Ixxxviii) that the third Ixi poem is the Partridge: for (i) the order found here Royal 2. However. the archetype of the Syriac version at Leiden. of MS. the third (4) the first poem has 'We heard 'I poem begins. so far as the first two animals are concerned (the third is missing) (2) the second and third have a backward reference in the word gen ('further') (3) the first poem. If this gap represents only a part of this single poem. refer . and Germ. of the Arabic. 241) modified this to animals of the land. and from general likenesses and treatment. Tupper. Eng. the Panther. Cynewulf. n) suggested that three orders of ani mals were represented by the three poems quadrupeds. nor . and of the 2 3 air. ring to the variety of birds and animals upon the earth. did the Old English poet treat them as unconnected. so far as we can see. while (5) the third poem ends as the second. A. which. constitute a portion of a larger poetic cycle ? answer to this depends upon the reply to the question raised by the gap in the third poem. 2 AUTHOR AND DATE Dietrich 3 the Phoenix. of the fragment found in Jerome's is that of Pitra's writings. the Ethiopia. n. . tell' (8-9). Greek MS. Do The they. of Cahier's B. has a general introduction. fishes. Guthlac. must have consisted. XII. pp. 10. . Ixxxviii) with Finit. then. and birds Ebert (Anglia 6. Phil.

The sentence serves as a mere pretext for this chapter. 1047) . : from Hosea. it is in gen eral that of Cynewulf's period.. Lit. If the Physiologus must be by some disciple or close imitator is . Brandl. 2. 1044. Richte Chronologische Studien. Trautmann. pp. the second half of the eighth 7 century. my edition of the Christ. 8 T Textkritische Untersuchungen. if the Physio it is by Cynewulf. if not by Cynewulf. it by him. pp. Wiilker. p. the The account 'young lion' of the Authorized Version representing the Hebrew. Die Cynewulf-Forschung. 8 42. Biblical passage which serves as a foundation. and likewise affirms a close relationship between. Ixv. may Barnouw 5 logus is will be ascribed to Cynewulf with some probability. 115-6. style.Ixii INTRODUCTION 1 proof. "Jansen.. THE PANTHER of the panther in the Physiologus may be typically 8 In the represented by the Greek text published by Lauchert. . The Naturalist said concerning the panther 1 Op. The prophet prophesied and said 'I am become as a panther to Ephraim' [Hos. it is prob ably one of his later productions. however. Pp. 3 Trautmann thinks that the this view. 'panther' is due to the Septuagint. etc. of the Physiologus. later than the Elene. in order prove that it must be ascribed to Cynewulf . I should associate myself on this point with Dietrich and Sokoll. (Paul. 248-9. Cf. Sokoll goes into the subject much more fully. p. p. 2d ed. Several 2 of his monograph are devoted to an examination of the pages vocabulary. 8 Pp. 206. 14]. On and Schwarz oppose Physiologus the other hand. 5. Korting. D. 21. Mann. As for the date. p. 740-780) . the diction of the Physiologus and that of the Christ. He says that almost the whole vocabulary of the Physiologus belongs also! to the Phoenix. Lefevre. Grundriss.* go no further than to assert that. 11-21. metre. Gesch. 2 cit. der Altengl. 1034. p. 101. Brandl. to. 122 (A. 122. If I did not hesitate before assigning to Cynewulf so many Old 6 English poems.. Kynewulf. * Kynewulf.

virginity. And the third day he arises from sleep. Sataluh. c.' the Church. 20. . in Lat. 57. Miiller. he is exceeding quiet and meek. i). all fragrance came to us. 8. v.PHYSIOLOGUS Ixiii that he has this natural property: He is beloved by all the animals. faith. during the voyage from the mouth In late October or Novem 325 B. did the Naturalist speak concerning the panther. Real-Encyclopadie der Classischen Wissenschaften. concord. The : *The island was and is known by a great variety of names (PaulyWissowa. v. 344). Among these are Karnina. the intellectual 13] wisdom of God. And the animals follow the fragrance of crying are the the panther's smell. both the peaceable ones that are nigh and those that are afar fold 9. s. i.. 26). Aruba. who was admiral of Alexander's ber of fleet of the Indus to the coast of Persia. Solinus Curtius (10. out with a loud voice. Pasni). 45. Arabah) and Ras Jaddi (Cape Passeenoe. 3 fuller form of the legend is thus reported by Arrian D. 2 Among the writers (54). s. peace. 8 26). cf. (6. he sailed past the island of Ashtola (Astola) or 1 Sungadeep (Sangadip). Pliny the Sun. coast of Mekran (Makran) he heard the tale preserved opposite Passenoe. is : off [Eph. Ashtola . ed. by Arrian (tea. virtue. sleeps in his den. running up to it. 'Upon thy right hand did stand Mani 17. Indica. patience. Ps. and between Ras Ormarah (Hormarah. Cyclopedia of India. Island of 21). it Selera. He is as variegated as Joseph's coat. Thus when Christ was roused on the third day and rose from the dead. and arrayed Manifold is Christ. 31 (cf. 19].) and Strabo (f ca. as the Psalmist said [Ps. but a foe of the dragon. afar off fragrance And the animals that are nigh and that From his voice there streams all hear his voice. temperance. 2 From the Ichthyophagi of the Pessani. 7). the queen. 180 A. . THE WHALE (ASP-TURTLE) THE GROWTH OF THE LEGEND There can be no doubt that the germ of that chapter of the hysiologus which is concerned with the sea-monster (or so-called whale) is to be found in a story related by Nearchus. off the coast of Baluchistan. 63 40'. since he is in divers colors. 2. Well. He When he has eaten and is filled.). chap. chap. of spices. Ashtola Geographi Greed Minores. therefore. LTrmarah. Long. are Ptolemy (6. 25 7'. compassionate- ness. clothed in vesture She is wrought with gold. D. 25 A. who mention Mela (3.

2. 4). and bore the name of Nosala. Pliny 36. and at length This she promised to do. and which calls the 'sacred island' Selera. 60. Since no one answered. 5. to land. The natives said that it was con secrated to the Sun. Nearchus then sent a thirty-oared ves sel to circumnavigate the island. According to Philostratus (Life of Apollonius of Tyana 3. and so had vanished. D. From these had descended the race of| the Ichthyophagi. disappeared not far whereupon the leaders of the expedition affirmed that they had landed on the island without being aware of the danger. this Nereid was 'a dreadful female demon. speare's (M. the On Sun grew angry with commanded her to depart. iceShake (Berni) 42. . note 3. 6. and forced his He then went ashore. manned by Egyptians. and cast him into the sea. and would not even allow them to fasten a cable to the rock. 37. Berni. he tell of an island about a hundred stadia distant from the mainland. she. 150-2) 14. 1 the Nereid. 40-42. is an island (Or/. having com passion upon the men whom she had turned into fishes. 58. 6. which the Sun granted. 64-68. where no one dwelt. but rather to sail close to the shore. which had come down to Alexander's time. Ixviii. it was said. the Nereids dwelt there. Che col suo dolce canto accheta il mare. Orl. but the position upon the dolphin's back carries us directly back to classical mythology and art (see. and thus sailors. arid that no one was willing to land there. which would snatch away many mariners. but. he was never seen again. The Nereid may be Alcina accordingly persuades Astolfo 62. mermaid on a dolphin's back Uttering such dulcet and harmonious breath That the rude sea grew civil at her song is the siren of Ariosto (6. 56). c. and rises eleven paces above the water. N. warning the crew not to land. below. would take her fill of love with any man who came. proved that the talk about the island was an idle tale. he restored them to their former state. 2. for example. and Ariosto represent as lying further out to sea than the whale which is two miles long. and call out to the steersman by name.' 1 He Cf. Another story that he heard about it was to the effect that one of this from island. i. related to the Siren which Boiardo. though her name is not mentioned. but that if any one did so through ignorance. against their will. this account. Nearchus himself rowed to the island. but afterward would turn him into a fish. or to any others whose names they knew. but at the same time solicited his love. 64. 13. Fur.) heard While Nearchus was passing the coast of the Ichthyophagi. 2. 40). p.Ixiv INTRODUCTION (BEFORE 300 B. Innam. Nearchus goes on to relate that one of his cutters.

PHYSIOLOGUS Ixv A shorter form is found in Strabo 1 : Nearchos says that he proved the falsehood of a story which was firmly believed in by the sailors in his fleet that there was an island situated in the passage which proved fatal to those who anchored on its shores. Geogr. Mela seems to imply that the heat in the island was unen He is somewhat confused regarding the geography. because the Indian seas were infested by pirates. that went on summer cruises from the coast below Goa. which in some parts is without any one to [trict the soil. on the Persian side. 448) remarks of certain Arab tribes skirting southern littoral of the Persian Gulf that 'they have been jthe addicted from time immemorial to piratical escapades. is the chief town 15. Pliny tells us (6. : though he appears to be speaking of our island (3. cf. Gr. surrounding air causes instant death . since a bark disappeared when it came to this island and was never seen again. These are so uninhabitable that the power of the.32. But as he could find no trace of the men of whom he was in search. on account of the intolerable heat. Various theories have been proposed to account for the legend 1. 2 3 translated by McCrindle. more than a hun number. so called. and between those mouths is the distill of Patalene. pp. when. Lingah. 24. 25) tells of the pirate vessels. and having anchored. For those at Socotra. selves. ICurzon (Persia 2. 726.' 3 Near j this 1 same coast. and some men who were sent in search did not dare to land upon the island. and made a circuit of the island. they took their departure. 2. p. 26) that companies of archers were carried on board the vessels plying between Arabia and the west coast of India. 13. he gave up the task and returned. But as all blamed the island for the loss of the men. Marco Polo (3. : durable. twenty or thirty vessels together. Min. 7) 'Opposite the mouths of the Indus lie the regions of the sun.' i Miiller suggests 2 that -the island was a rendezvous for pirates. Marco Polo in dred 3. as no one returned an answer. but before sailing away from it shouted and called to the crew. 91-2. disembarked with a part of his crew. who might be interested to keep their haunts to them 2. Ancient India. i. . 352. Nearchos tells us that he himself sailed to it.

of the piratical Joasmees (Jowasmis, Jewasimis, Jowasimees), who, at least previous to 1820, frequented Ashtola: 'This island

was once famous as the rendezvous of the Jowasimee pirates; and here they committed many horrid and savage murders on 2 The vessels the crews of the vessels which they captured.'
they burnt, after massacring the crew. The air of the island may have been unhealthful in anti 3.

no longer so. Thus Lord Curzon says of Gwadur, onlyi 'Gwadur was ones about a hundred miles away (Persia 2. 431) one of the most popular stations of the Telegraph Line, and was:
quity, if

regarded as the sanitarium of the Gulf ports, the temperature being very equable, and existence quite endurable even in the

summer months. From some unknown cause, however, attrib uted by some to the sea-water, which is here so strongly impreg nated with sulphuretted hydrogen that the fish are often killed
in great

numbers, a malarial fever has developed



attacks every new-comer as it was once sought.'

and the place




much shunned

As large numbers of turtles are caught upon the island 4. for the sake of their shells, it may be that the legend was invented
by those who were engaged
ble intruders at a distance

order to keep possi have been so infected* may by the abandoned carcases of the turtles which were caught only
in this pursuit, in

or the air


for the sake of their shells as to be, or seem, poisonous to those attempted to land, especially as there appears to be but one

good landing-place.

To do justice to this theory, and to gain a tolerable idea of the character of the island, it is desirable to con-i
two comparatively modern accounts.

Lieutenant G. B.


describing in 1835 a survey



1828, thus

Royal Geog. Soc. 5 (1835). 268. Mela Pliny says that in the island 'every animal instantly dies' that it is 'so uninhabitable that the power of the ambient air instantly kills those who land.' Kempthorne found no living animal there excepl


Cycl. of India. Lieut. G. B. Kempthorne, Jour.




Holdich (Gates of India, p. 160) (see opposite page). 'sea-urchins and sea-snakes abounded in such numbers as to

says thai'



process of exploration quite sufficiently exciting.' 4 Jour. Royal Geog. Soc. 5. 266-8.



Ashtola is a small desolate island, about four or five miles in circumference, situated twelve miles from the coast of Mekran. Its cliffs rise rather abruptly from the sea to the height of about three hundred feet and it is inaccessible except in one place, which is a

sandy beach, about one mile

in extent,

on the northern



quantities of turtle frequent this island for the purpose of depositing Not a vestige of any habitation now remains. their eggs. . .

party went on shore one night for the purpose of catching left the turtle, a description of which may not be uninteresting. ship at sunset, and reached the shore about dark, then hauled the boat up on the beach; and when this was done formed ourselves
. . .



two distinct parties, and dispersed to different parts along the Having reached the place where we thought it likely that the turtle would land, we lay down, keeping a sharp look out and We were thus all in making as little noise as possible. anxious expectation of the appearance of the turtle; and six bells had just gone on board that is, it was eleven o'clock, p. M. when we saw the first, to our great delight, coming on shore just oppo site us. It looked like a black rock moving slowly and steadily out of the water. We did not interrupt its progress until it had got some distance upon the beach, when a rush was made towards it, and it was immediately turned over on its back, without giving it





time either to defend itself or blind its assailants by throwing the sand with its flippers or fins, which they do with such force that it is almost dangerous to come near them. It took six stout men thus to turn the largest that was caught. We caught seven
. . .

turtle that night,

and six more the night after. The Arabs come to this island and kill immense numbers of these



not for the purpose of food, for they never partake of it, it as an unclean animal; but they traffic with the shell to China, where it is made into a kind of paste, and then into combs, ornaments, &c., in imitation of tortoiseshell. The carcases of the poor animals are thus strewed about the beach in all directions, causing a stench so great that it was scarcely bearable; in fact, we could smell it some distance off the shore. The only land-animals we could see on the island were rats, and they were swarming; they feed chiefly on the dead turtle.





1 according to Vincent, Captain Blair -had written were warned by the natives of Passenoe that it would be


dangerous to approach the island of Ashtola, as

zvas enchanted*;

The Commerce and Navigation of

the Ancients in the Indian





"McCrindle (Ancient India, p. superstitious fear by the


note i) says: 'It is still regarded of the neighbouring coast.'



This superstitious story into a rock. did not deter us; we visited the island, found plenty of excellent had the turtle, and saw the rock alluded to, which at a distance 1 The story was probably told to appearance of a ship under sail.
prevent our disturbing the turtle; the tale of Nearchus's transport.

and that a ship had been turned


has, however,


affinity to

2 According to Charles Masson, Ashtola



a goal of


dhist pilgrimage:

and pilgrims proceed no farther than Hinglatz,* to be especially praiseworthy and beneficial to extend the pious tour to Satadip, an island off the coast of Mekran, and between Hormara and Pessani. I was surprised at discovering that this celebrated island was no other than the Ashtola of our maps, the Asthilal of Arabs and Baloches, the Carnina and







Isle of

Nearchus, and the Asthse[a] of Ptolemy.

Holdich (Gates of India, p. 160) remarks: 'I have been to that island, the island of Astola, and the tales that were told to Nearkhos are told of it still. There, off the southern face of it, is the "sail rock," the
legendary relic of a lost ship.' "Cf. Odyssey 13. 154 ff2 cf. 4.3 Narrative of Various Journeys in Belochistan, etc., 4. 391-3 295, and, for Masson himself, Holdich's Gates of India, p. 345. 3 'Sacred to the goddess Nana (now identified with Siva by Hindus).
; . .

The Assyrian

or Persian goddess





was a well-established


Mesopotamia 2280 years




According to Holdich, draws the largest crowds


pilgrims (Hindu and Mussulman alike) of any in India.' The character of Nana is outlined by Jastrow (Hastings, Diet. Bible, Extra Vol., p. 541) : 'At Erech, in the extreme south, there flourished the cult of a goddess

who appears to have been conceived as a deity of a character, punishing severely those who disobey her a wargoddess rather than a mother of life but who in later texts is identified
as Nona,

with Ishtar.' Elsewhere Jastrow says (Encyc. Brit., nth ed. 14. 870-1) : 'She [Ishtar] appears under various names, among which are Nana, etc. Ishtar is celebrated and invoked as the great mother, as the mistress of lands, as clothed in splendor and power one might almost




say as the personification of life itself. But there are two aspects to this goddess of life. She brings forth, she fertilizes the fields, she clothes nature in joy and gladness, but she also withdraws her favors,


and when she does so the

fields wither, and men and animals cease to reproduce. In place of life, barrenness and death ensue. She is thus also a grim goddess, at once cruel and destructive. can, therefore,




of the later legend is thus seen to be as follows enchanted island, or the being that inhabits it, causes the disappearance or transformation of men who touch upon its

The germ


was and is the numbers and it is possible that there may be some connection between the capture of these turtles and the reputation of the island. The story enters upon a new phase with the romance of PseudoCallisthenes, or rather with the apocryphal letter of Alexander to Aristotle, which must have been already extant when the romance was compiled. 1 As the romance was composed at Alexandria about 200 A. D., 2 and as the outlines of the work are to be ascribed to the age of the Ptolemies (323-247 B. c.), it is apparent that no great interval is likely to have elapsed between the story related by Nearchus and that of the Pseudo-Callisthenes.

As a

historical fact, the island in question

resort of large turtles in great

reputed island, story is to this effect a boat, proves to be an animal, suddenly being approached by The sinks, and causes the occupants of the boat to be engulfed.


kernel of the



tale runs, translated

from the Greek3


understand that she was also invoked as a goddess of war and battles and
of the chase.'


the the

not the Nereid (p. Ixiv, above), then, so seductive and so ruth represent this Nana-Ishtar- worshiped at Hinglatz, and might not antiquity of the legend thus bear some relation to Babylonian

is hardly more than 200 miles in a straight line from Gulf, and Susa, where, according to Holdich (p. 163), Nana dwelt for 1635 years (to 645 B. c., when she was reinstated at Erech), not so far. As to the sea-route in ancient times through the




Persian Gulf,
PP- 54-571

along the coast of

ed., p. 200.





Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, 2d

So Zacher, Pseudocallisthenes, p. 102. Rohde is disposed to think that the earliest form of the romance was actually written down in the Ptolemaic era (op. cit., p. 197, note i). See also C. Miiller, PseudoCallisthenes, p.



(in Arriani


et Indica, Paris, 1846).

Ed. Miiller,

The Latin version by

Julius Valerius,


between 270 and 330 A. D. (so Kuebler in the Teubner edition of Valerius, p. vn), will be found at the foot of the page in Miiller's edi tion, as well as in the Teubner volume. The Latin, while making certain points of the Greek clearer, misses the essential thing for us by failing to identify the island with an animal.



When we had come

to the city of Prasiaka,

which seemed

to be

the metropolis of India,


discovered a fertile promontory.



set out

with a few of

my men

tained that the inhabitants subsisted on

for this promontory, we ascer fish, and had the form of

some of them, I found that they were of I made .inquiry about the region, they pointed away to an island, which was visible off at sea. This, they said, was the sepulchre of a very ancient king, and contained much consecrated gold. Hereupon the barbarians disappeared, leaving their boats, to the number of twelve, behind. My kinsman and friend, Philo, together with Hephaestion and Craterus, were unwilling that I should cross over. Philo's words




'Let me go in your stead, so that, should it turn out badly, I run the risk, and not you; while if all goes well, I will send a may boat back for you. Even should Philo perish, you would never 1 but if anything should happen to you, want for other friends Alexander, all the world would suffer.' Thereupon I allowed myself to be dissuaded. He then set off for the island, but, when an hour had elapsed, all at once the animal sank to the bottom of the sea. 2 Thus, while we were looking on, the animal disappeared, and the whole boat's crew perished miserably, to our great sorrow. But when I searched for the barbarians, they were nowhere to be founc We remained on that promontory for eight days, and there we sax the Hebdomadarion, an animal with elephants on its back.*




This story


promontory is probably Ras Ormarah, Nearchus came to the fishermen who fled

pieced together from several earlier ones. Th 4 since, after passing it at the sight of his ves


island containing the sepulchre of the ancient king,

however, was not Ashtola, but was situated at the entrance tc the Persian Gulf, the ancient name being Ogyris 5 (Organa), or 6 Oarakta, the former probably representing Ormuz, and the latter,

Kishm. Curtius relates (10. i) that those who were attracted by the rumors of gold to seek the island that contained the monu ment of this king, Erythras, were never seen again. The rest of
the tale in Pseudo-Callisthenes seems to be an echo of the ston related by Nearchus of Ashtola.


play on the


*Cf. the

word Philo. The translation is guesswork. later Hindu stories of the earth supported by an elephant on

the back of a tortoise.
Cf. Arrian, Indica, chap. 26, with Holdich, Gates of India, p. 158.

Strabo 16. 766-7; Mela 3. 8; 'Arrian, Indica, chap. 37.


6. 28.


There is an important parallel in Pseudo-Callisthenes 2. 38, 1 where we are told that Alexander, having encamped on the sea shore, embarked his soldiers, and sailed to an island not far away, where they heard, but did not see, men speaking Greek. Some of the soldiers, persuaded by a diver, leaped overboard and swam ashore, in order to explore the island; but no sooner had they landed than crabs issued from it, and dragged them back into
the water.

This frightened Alexander, so that he ordered the
of Pseudo-Callisthenes are thus reducible to this

sailors to return to land.

The legends


island, or

island or its

a sea-beast {crab) representing in some sort an destructive power, plunges the seafarer who would
next related in

land upon


into the deep.


tale is

Hebrew by Rabbah bar

bar Hana,

a Babylonian rabbi who lived between A. D. 257 and 320. One of the journeys he undertook was through the desert in which
the children of Israel wandered for forty years, and where his Arab guide pointed out to him Mount Sinai, and the place where Korah had been swallowed up by the earth. From this guide

or other Arabs he

may have

heard the fantastic


which he

afterwards recounted, and which caused his colleagues to remark, 'All Rabbahs are asses, and all bar bar Hanas fools.' 2 Since

Arabs were the

active carriers or intermediaries in the


mercial intercourse between

Egypt and India

in those times,

nothing is more natural that that they should pick up such a 4 Rabbah's version is legend in passing and repassing Ashtola.
in the

Babylonian Talmud (Baba Bathra 73b)


Miiller's ed., p. 89;


p. 139.


Jewish Encyclopedia 10. 291. 8 Schoff, Periplus of the Erythraan Sea, pp. 3



Vincent, Periplus,

PP. 37, 59, 60.

by way of the Persian Gulf 'island like one of the gardens of Paradise.' While the passengers were disporting themselves on the shore, and some had lighted the fires in their fire-pots, the master of the ship called upon them to embark speedily, 'for this apparent island upon which ye are is not really an island, but it is a great fish that hath become stationary in the midst of the sea, and the sand hath accumu lated upon it, so that it hath become like an island, and trees have

was while

sailing to the East Indies

that Sindbad,

on his

voyage, came to the


Once, while on a ship, we came to a gigantic fish at 1 to be an island, since there was sand on


we supposed

back, in

2 which grass was growing. We therefore landed, made a fire, and cooked our meal. But when the fish felt the heat, he rolled over, and we should have drowned had not the ship been near.

grown upon


since times of old.'


spoke, but too late for some,

abandoned their goods, including the fire-pots. 'The island had moved, and descended to the bottom of the sea, with all that were upon it, and the roaring sea, agitated with waves, closed over it' (Lane's translation of the Arabian Nights'). Cf. Rohde, Der Griechische Roman, 2d ed., pp. 191-6; 'De Reizen von Sindebad,' De Gids (1889) 3.












and Cahier

'habens super corium suum (Melanges d'Archeologie 3. 253, MS. B) tamquam sabulones qui sunt (B, sicut) iuxta litora (B, littore) maris.' So likewise in the Sindbad story, in Kazwini, Philipp de Thaon ('Le Les graveles sunt les sablon de mer prent, sur sun dos 1'estent.



mund'), Guillaume le Clerc (ed. 2272-3, 'Font granz pels el sablon ficher, Qui ed. Cahier, Melanges 3. 255, 'Altretel est come dos en som'), Olaus Magnus, Brunetto Latini
richeises del



2259-60; also

semble terre a lor

sablon L'eskerdes de son

vent aporte sablon et ajostent sor lui, There is no mention of sand in the Ethiopic or the two Syriac versions; the Armenian has (Cahier, Nouv. Mel. I. 129), 'He keeps to sandy places,' with which compare R. F. Burton's statement

(Tresor, ed. Chabaille, p. et i naist herbes et petiz

arbrissiaus'), etc.





'When fewer ships visited the port, the sandspit "Frenchman's Island" was covered with bay-turtle

[green turtle].'

Perhaps this trait may owe something to the islands of shrubbery which float away from estuaries into tropical seas (Dana, Manual of Geology, 4th ed., p. 156). Floating islets of matted trees are sometimes seen fifty or a hundred miles off the mouth of the Ganges (and perhaps the Indus as well; cf. Curtius 9. 8), and among the Moluccas or the
Philippines (Lyell, Principles of Geology, nth ed., 2. 364-6). According to Lyell, ships have sometimes been in imminent peril, as these islands have often been mistaken for terra, firma, when in fact they were in

Less pertinent are the ancient stories concerning the Anaphe, Thera, and Delos (for volcanic islands like Thera (Santorin), see Lyell 2. 58 ff., 67 ff.). On the disappearance of islands along the Baluchistan coast, see Jour. Royal Soc. Arts 49. 419,


islands of Rhodes,


Under date of

Sept. 12, 1913, a report

'Falcon and


Islands, of the Friendly or

Pacific, have disappeared from view. and a few white men also have disappeared.'

came from San Francisco: Tonga group, in the South With them several hundred natives

They finally reached a little island. after which the bales were put back on board. the New Year festival arrived. This will be apparent from the Greek chapter which deals with our incident. and made for the small boats. and becomes tired of its position. While this was in progress. palm-leaves. and. for at these depths there grow frightful trees and prodigious plants. He had heard a respectable sailor relate that a ship. in order to celebrate it. I asked my informant how that happened. and sustained some damage. In the Arabic stories collected of Indian Marvels. which. which is sometimes formally labeled as and sometimes not. and only saved themselves with the greatest difficulty. in order that they might continue their journey. dives. son of Amr.PHYSIOLOGUS Ixxiii Here. and set them on fire. It comes. vi). and passes whole days there deprived of sensation. . at length. we have the following version: I have also heard very curious stories about turtles. which the mind has difficulty in crediting. they threw themselves in. 'there is a number of days when the turtle rises to the surface of the water to rest from his long sojourn in the caverns of the submarine mountains. are the particulars which belong to the mediaeval form of the by Van story. sailing from India for some country or other. where they were forced to stop. When it it has regained its senses. edited and translated der Lith and Devic (Leyden. then. was driven from its course by the violence of the wind. entirely destitute of wood and water. Here is one that I have from Abu Mohammed-al-Hagan. producing such a swirl that they all narrowly escaped drowning. which will also show that such. and they remained there long enough to repair the damage. Suddenly the island shook beneath their feet.' he replied. Being near the water. to the surface of the water. p. At that instant the island sank into the waves. like a drunken man. the passengers carried ashore to the island such pieces of wood. and rags as they could find aboard ship. The cargo was unloaded. 1883-6). consisting of Book by the captains of trading vessels between 900 and 950 (Preface. not withstanding the efforts of the captain. awakened by the heat of the fire.' THE NAME OF THE MONSTER The Physiologus in that it differs from a mere account of animal-traits tags the characterization of each animal with a moral called an interpretation. being terrified beyond measure. much more wonderful than our terrestrial trees and plants. Now the island was nothing but a turtle asleep on the water. sought to escape. 'Every year.

. is combined with it. he plunges to the bottom. called asp-turtle. swarm into its mouth. but are unable to lay hold of those who are perfect in mind. and the monster drinks its them down. for honey drops from the but afterwards thou wilt find her more bitter lips of a harlot. the seamen fasten large. Moses. and sharper than a twoedged sword. Isaiah. The little fishes. and . : woman thou wilt find her more bitter than gall. by the odor. natural properties. which has two natural properties. and all fragrance issues from its 1 3 Spicilegium Solesmense Op. who for honey drops from the for a season pleases the palate but afterwards . like an island. When he is scorched. Moses. but the large and perfect it does not find approaching it. their boats to it as to an island. They build a fire on the back of the sea-monster. which has two is this. 249-251. tit. Jeremiah.' So if thou shalt depend upon the hope of the devil. he near the beast. than gall. it opens its mouth. When mouth. 352. and the whole comit Its first is this. and the whole company of the prophets. In this manner did Judith escape from Holofernes. pp. a shorter and longer. [in the Septuagint 5. Well then did Solomon say in the Proverbs: Interpretation. Pitra 1 : There is a sea-beast in the ocean. The Greek chapter is found The first is printed by in two forms. (2) The second natural property of the sea-monster: it is very Not being aware of this.from attracted mouth there streams all fragrance. Jeremiah. its is hungry. or some other fabulous sea-monster. The other is edited by Lauchert 2 in the ing Solomon teaches 'Give no heed : Proverbs. . But you will not find the big and perfect fishes coming fish was Job. and he swallows them. 'Give no heed to a worthless woman. say to a worthless lips of a harlot. and Esther from Artaxerxes. Such a perfect fish was Job. And the little fishes crowd into its mouth. Isaiah. 3-5]. and attach the anchors and the stakes. it opens mouth. and wrecks the boats. 3. (1) Its first nature When it is hungry. called asp-turtle. Thus the devil and the heretics by their fair speeches and the guile of their supposed fragrance entice the simple and unschooled in understanding.' There is a monster in the sea.Ixxiv INTRODUCTION another peculiarity of our sea-monster. For the feet of folly lead those who deal with her down to the grave with death. in order to boil somewhat for themselves. Such a perfect will plunge thee with himself down : to the hell of fire.

do-TriSo^eAwvT/. this 'turtle. then. begins his story thus.' the x^^n? of this chapter is translated into Latin. 181. does not demand to be translated is. So they disembark as on an island. Ignoring. In this manner did Judith escape from Holofernes. while the Revised Version more accurately renders 'sea-mon sters. and build a fire to boil them food. and also their anchors and their stakes. i. 'like an island. Ixxxi Quoted by Lane in his translation of the Arabian Nights. pp. it 1. 2 century. 'whale' in this place. 1 Thus ff.. Well. : beast by is very enormous. 8 North American Indians. plunges to the bottom.' 'round shield. The exacter term is must be translated either by 'shield-turtle' since the Greek aairis has two principal meanings. Susanna from the elders. the same that in Gen. And the whale.' 1 must mean 'turtle' is This designation of the fabulous : supported by various considerations an Arab writer of the latter half of the thirteenth Kazwini. intro duced. and or 'asp-turtle. i. it as testudo. translated 'whales' in the Authorized Version. let us consider what manner of sea-beast is intended by this version of the legend.' or trait. for the moment. who cannot 3. and Thecla from Thamyris. 6th ed. the seamen fasten large. The monster is very Its other natural property is as follows. O man. and 'asp. on Sindbad's First Voyage. always The folk-tales of widely separated peoples. being burned.PHYSIOLOGUS 1XXV pany of the prophets. so that the people of the ship imagine that it is an 2. Catlin heard among the Mandan Indians 3 Cf. island. The word here translated 'sea-beast' is in the original KTJ/TOS (Lat. in his account of water-animals 'The tortoise is a sea. and wrecks the boat and all that belongs to it.' XtXtoVY]. 21 in the plural. their boats to it as to an island. Not being aware of this.and land-animal. the new 'nature. therefore. any more than in the great majority of other occurrences in Greek and Latin. the second element.' The word itself. unite in giving a similar account is When of the tortoise. have borrowed from one another. 2 . he will plunge thee with himself down to the hell of fire. Esther from Artaxerxes. And if thou. did the Naturalist speak concerning the asp-turtle.' In any case. cetus). dost hang upon the false hopes of the devil. As to the sea-turtle.

5. and thrust it into the 'What is this eye? See. work 1 a 8 not well adapted for the comfort Bullen says 5 'By dint of hard pulled myself right up the sloping.' following Zulu story: catch badgers . . Ixvii) looks like a Finally. Pair. 133. and said. child. faces were white. Cicero. 1900. the eye stares. .' (p. ed. Traditions. who went home crying. saying. n. silent. you are telling lies. Venice.' They were all lost. 404. there escaped that one only. has has eyes. . 'What kind of eyes are in the rock?' He said.' reminding us that Pacuvius 3 had already characterized the tortoise as 'aspera. 64.' happened that some boys went to play on the banks of the Umtshezi on their arrival they said. 'This rock But it was a tortoise.' It happened on another day the tortoise turned over with them one little boy crossed the river at a great distance he went crying home they asked. 724. 'There is a beautiful rock. 'There is a rock which has eyes.' He said. Hal. 'What is the matter?' He said. said. .' They no eye. Brendans Meerfahrt. tortoise's eye. and Histories of the Zulus.' He was is 'No. 341-2. Upsala. that it carried the dirt on ground to and that one day they stuck a knife through the tortoise-shell. chap. A little boy said. 'There . used to dig down very deep in this back and whose It river . Cruise of the Cachalot. pp. .' The others said. Brandan* we are told 'Erat autem ilia insula petrosa sine herba.. 18. and it sank down so that the water ran over its And Callaway 1 has the back. . there are eyes. its The roughness and hardness of Thus in Pseudo-Eustathius of Antioch 2 : : In the fragment of Pseudo. De Div. .Jerome (Vallarsi's ed. 24 cf pp. mentioned. it went with them into the pool.' His father answered.' is Kempthorne's description The back of a whale I able sojourn of several people. 4 5 396. Wahlund. . who are now dead. slippery bank of : Nursery Tales. petram. and drowned all but one man.. 'Indeed. 'The rock has turned over with the other boys. Gr. 'It and took his stick.' 4.INTRODUCTION that its 'the earth was a large tortoise. that a tribe of people. p. 2.' The little boy came home. . 239-243. Migne. 219) we have: 'Ostendit se in ipso mari tam1 quam 5. 15. eyes. of Jerome. the turtle in 'black rock. Similarly Oppian. 1771. body are sometimes 'Its body resembles rough stones.' In the Voyage of St.

Camb. 5.' 1 Ixxvii Nor would the Greenland whale. in Jour. El 7 Bekri. certainly 1 Cf. 5. 17. to the effect that a com pany of travelers bound for Tirca. 500. D. which are very destructive. 10. an Arabian geographer (A. 5 In the Voyage of Francois Leguat* there is a picture. 4L 1 8 15). Nat. their shells were used as barks by the Chelonophagi. Glasgow. etc. Asiat. 80. stopped for the night at a place infested with white ants. 5 Brehms. its back sometimes sets it off in great agita and terror. 1904. 341. 4 We are told of green turtles so large that they will crawl about on land with as many as fourteen men upon their back.' The size of the turtle at its largest affords some color of plausibility to the story. 9. 3 or served as roofs over their heads. Hist. Bullen. Principal Navigations. Nat.PHYSIOLOGUS blubber. Aelian. 90. pp.. It has been remarked that a upon 2 bird alighting tion 6. 4th ed. of a tortoise-shell with ten is men seated upon it. 14. reproduced from De Bry's India Orientalis. 9. Ceylon. According to the ancients. 10. 384. Animal. Hist. Iceland. 24. 122-3. L. 20. 6 Hakluyt Soc.' well-known passage (P. thus mocks 'O silly Mariners. indeed an extremely timid beast. 28. Pliny 13. Diodorus Siculus 3. 2. Nothing is safe from them which is not deposited on heaps of stones or on poles stuck in the ground. Diodorus Siculus 10. The True State of 4. Arngrim Jonas. One of the travelers. relates a story told him by a jurisconsult whom he names. the lighting of fires. Tennant. 1582 (Hakluyt. 20. nor know the slippery Even Milton's 'scaly rind' in the upper part of the ground. i. near Timbuctoo. 1067-8). cf. 3. El Bekri. Hist. at least. from lumps of earth. 16. remain 'It is passive under such a sojourn. ' Jour. i. Camb. deposited on it two camel-loads of luggage (perhaps 2000 or 3000 pounds. Cantb. Thierleben 7. 517-9. espying what he took for a rock. Aelian 16. 10. . From the same work of De Bry quoted a statement concerning the tortoises of Mauritius at the end of the sixteenth century that readily carried two men. 359. that in digging cannot discern : 138). Denizens of the Deep. 375. Nat. 200-208) would suit the turtle rather better than the whale the direct allusion is of course to the crocodile (Job flesh Whales skin of a Whale from the . Nat. Asiatique 13. * Pliny 6. 10.

Idylls of the Sea. p. Gessner. is which across 10 inches long. but he found them several miles away by following 1 Whatever we may think of this. 9 (Hak3. mention is made of tortoises 'of such Voyage bignes. and wake up luyt Soc. 10. Bk. 2d Sen. 960. Hist. 5 to Virginia. 5. 162. 8 Of fossil or extinct species. 10. must have measured nearly 12 feet front flippers. least 1800 pounds. chap. (40.41. 17. chap. This is accepted by Bronn. and have weighed not far from 3^ tons. in India. measured along the curve of the back). there the track of the tortoise. Palaontological Memoirs I. Soc. B 8 7 8 men Hakluyt's Voyages. 3. Of existing species of (sea-) turtles. cf.. Voyage of the Beagle. Glasgow ed.Ixxviii INTRODUCTION not less than 1000). from South Dakota. Thus Leo Africanus. Cruise of the Cachalot. was estimated by Hugh Falconer. 1 three miles 2 8 from the point of departure. I5&>7. Geol. Klassen und Ordnungen des Thier-Reichs 63 408. i. Hist. 374.. to have been 12 feet 3 inches long (15 feet 9 inches. Nat. and 6 feet high. 372) thinks it can not have been more than 6 feet long. tells 10 feet the . chap. 387. 10. 17. Cycl. 118. Hist. Nat. cf. Agassiz is reported to have seen some weighing over a ton (Camb. Lieutenant Nelson. Bullen. its discoverer. of London. 333). Icones Animalium Quadrupedium. . turns 'Bekri' into 'Bikri. of India. and Brehms 7. 3 2 is no difficulty in accepting the statements of Darwin and Bullen 4 In the Fourth concerning their rides on the backs of tortoises. In the morning the goods and the rock were missing. 8. 950). 9 largest The Peabody Museum of Yale University has the skeleton of the known marine turtle (Archelon Schyros). some are known that are seven feet or more in length. in Trans. Voyage of the Beagle. 9 Later writers garble this story. 363. 4 One with a shell-length of 40 inches can carry two full-grown (Camb. 672. the shell of the Colossochelys Atlas of the Siwalik Hills. 3d ed.' has the traveler go to sleep on the rock for fear of serpents and venomous beasts. that sixteene of our strongest men were tired with carying one of them but from the sea side to our cabbins' and Dar win 6 was told by the vice-governor of the Galapagos of several tortoises so large that it required six or eight men to lift them from the ground. i. but the Camb. 8 feet in diameter. in. 7 and that weigh at . He is followed by Konrad p. 377). Nat.

. under these circumstances. 138-9. 1818. 5. The Naturalist on the River Amazon. Darwin.. Idylls of the Sea.. 3. who in vain strove to turn them before they got into deep water. The first 'nature' possibly point to the turtle. i. The pursuer approaches noiselessly from behind. of our tale. it is true. London. Cycl. Voyage of the Beagle. 4. An. following Agatharchiit is heated by the sun. pp. Hal. cf. jumps upon the animal's back. while at night they feed at the bot tom of the sea. Hist. Darwin. 2d ed. 14) but this is surpassed by Sindbad's estimate (Third Voyage) of one 20 cubits in each direction . pp. and of river-turtles whose shells would hold 205 gallons (16. Thus. ! 1 ' As above. 5 20. 060. 17). Sic. Gr. . ed. Diod. the turtle seeks to dive. 5 In the 6 7 process. the susceptibility of the turtle to its heat is empha sized... 3 Gcogr. 299-300. 2 refer to the pleasure of turtles in sleeping about midday des. has some features which remind us. in the Indian Ocean and elsewhere. 8. 20. and attempts to turn it over. 3d ed. Karamania. chap. 3. sometimes The fact that they are shot by arrows 8 might also suggest a relation to the insertion of anchor-flukes or stakes. 10. 8.. 292-4. Pliny 9. with their backs entirely out of water. pp. of India. cf. 3. ' 7 Bullen. Miiller. of India. catches it with both hands by the shell of the neck. "Oppian.' Cycl. 9. $d ed. the man- of skeletons of turtles in the Bermuda Islands measuring 9 feet by 7. The method of catching green turtles. 3d ed.PHYSIOLOGUS 7. *g. though the effect of the sun is described as different in the two cases. Francis Beaumont. Ixxiv) may also On the one hand. Ixxix Pseudo-Eustathius 1 speaks of the monster as sinking when Various writers. chap. relates: 'Some of the large turtles were so powerful as to escape with two heavy fellows lying on their backs. and secure it with a rope. and thus become a prey to fishermen. 20. so that they are unable to dive easily. 401. Bates. Min. 169-170. their shells dry up. in the sunshine on the surface of the Indian Ocean. as well as when he first catches sight of the pursuers. of the animal (see p. Aelian knows of Indian ocean-turtles 15 cubits long (16. but Aristotle 3 and Pliny 4 report in addition that. 960. 10.

! 'nature. 121 (2. Nat. there 'strong. and perhaps some other kinds. we are at a loss for an explanation. 161 Ambrose says (Hex. Pontoppidan blends the physical traits of the giant squid. of Phys. Hist. p. 147). Both writers say they are only to be found well off shore in the Atlantic Ocean. 32. and that. or to the 3 musky odor emitted by other turtles and tortoises. to the Nat. 4: 29. Pair. 5. . race. according to Agassiz. Can this imputed trait be an adaptation of that attributed to the panther? If not. 10. when they rise to the surface of the water' (Hex. 8 cf Pontoppidan. (9. or a little more (Camb. 289-290. to the whale. cf. 10. The foregoing considerations render it practically certain that. 28: 14. 6: Migne. Ir . . or lofty mountains lifting their peaks to the sky. 20. Hist. 220-1. actually measures 85 feet. 2) was 200 miles long. Gr.Ixxx swallows INTRODUCTION it ner in which its prey belongs to the whale rather than the turtle. 7. 123. p. . of the U. 156). 339. 8 Cont.' where there seems to be a clear reference in the Physiologus-account of the second . 10. Syr. Tychsen thinks that 'Brehms 2 7. 7. . 6 'They equal the greatest mountains in size. Denizens of the Deep. i islands. Bullen. according to Homer (//. 14. fantasy) of islands. odoriferous oil' glands in the may conceivably be a reference to the 2 secreted. Nat. 4. Camb. S. 8) Lacepede. 1 But when we are told that all fragrance issues eat fish readily. 32: Pair. Cf. though the green turtle. 5. Lat. even chiefly in the first 'nature. 81. Hist. Nearchus. from ' lower jaw of certain species of turtle. i. Sibbald's Rorqual. 65. the impression (<f>avrafflav. 30. Nat. from the animal's mouth. 2) knows of whales four jugera (about 2^2 acres) in and others 100 yards long. . cf. followed by Strabo and Arrian.' the author is indebted to legends which involve the turtle. 2. 163 Norway 2. n. The whale that swallowed Lucian (True Hist. and thus obtains his kraken. Nat. 7. one trait may at least be derived from the chelonian The confusion between have been facilitated the monster tortoise and the whale may 4 by the exaggerated classical accounts of the latter's size. Hist. p. tells of whales 140 or 150 feet long. cf. 29. Pliny extent. 10. cf. Hist. The longest whale known. 5. 340). i. Hercules leaped into a whale. des Cetacees. or by Basil's (and subsequently Ambrose's) com 5 6 parison of them to mountains or islands. They often create . 218) that when they float on the waves you would think them . Brehms * 29. or octopus with those of our fabulous animal.

ye have taken slumbering kraken Past. or to the turtle's having the head (lit. 'shield. Shall we translate 'shielded turtle' ('shield-turtle') or 'aspine 'turtle' ('asp-turtle')? The scholiast on the passage gives us but little help: the adjective either refers to the circu larity of the turtle's shell. . Anglia 244. while it .' might thus signify 'turtle'. Rondelet (De Piscibus Marinis. so late as the sixteenth century. if the first of the scholiast's alternatives is right. Lang. in the phrase do-TriSdeo-o-a x^Awi^. Basil (Hex. often paraphrased difficulty. this emendation which being granted.' 'shield. Ger. is responsible for the description of the sea-beast as stony. while Gessner (Nomenclator Aquatilium Animalium. scutata testudo (similarly Salvini's Italian translation of 1728).PHYSIOLOGUS the shellfish. The sixteenth-century Latin translation has face) of an asp. it remains that the shell of the turtle is not circular.' des tieres ragte wie ein aus dem meere hervor' and indeed Ebert says. This must be wrong. 3: Pair.' Krote does not mean but 'toad. which collect on the back of an old whale. 6.. p. I. since scutata could not refer to a circular shield. Universal AquatiHum Historic) classed turtles as medium-sized whales. 7. Mod. but since the Greek xeAwn. etc. because of the twofold meaning of the Greek do-TriV-'shield' and 'asp. 'whale. above. 150) apparently regards turtles and whales as of the same general class. Gr. no real parallel to the German compound would result from the addition of a word or 'shield-toad. Ixxv. would rather require clipeata. Notes 9.) is the first datable author to conjoin the two words which may be translated 'asp' and 'turtle' (Hal. is true that Ger. 29. 2 'Der riicken gleich einem schild gewolbter felsblock but. 180 A. 397). 1 For firm land of the Tennyson's early poem. Cf. Schildkrote might seem to afford some ground for a com pound like 'shield-turtle. D. already has this meaning. cf.' to element signifying Lowell's allusion (Ode France) we find ourselves on familiar ground: are mad.' Oppian (ca. The word by 1 do-TrtSoxeAwn/. and. 65. 183) would go no further than to call 2 them cetacean.' occasions some of the Greek text. The Kraken. p. but then. where the first word is an adjective. Schild 'turtle.' represents Schildkrote. Ye A Cf.

6). i). the harpy. Diodorus Siculus 2. 7. domestic cock (Aristotle. Rabanus Maurus 8. 7. admits it as a possibility. 590. 2 Oppian. Basil. aspectu 3. Auct.' but always 'asp. dragon or the whale. i). i.turtle' in Sophocles' Lexicon of Byzantine Greek. le 1. 5. 3 Pacuvius. we may note that the Armenian ver sion renders it by 'shield-turtle/ 4 though it immediately adds. aspis never means 'shield. 5 Nouv. An. Mai. 7. Nicander. Hex. In the line of Oppian cited above. 2. 5 (cf. 6 'De Aspedocalone/ and proceeds. 195. the mediaeval basilisk. just as 1 This kin both are classed among 'cruel sea-beasts' (i. truci) . Melanges 7. The compound is rendered by 'asp. 133. Aelian. Hex. Div. as quoted by Cicero. 554 ff. a species of eel. 129.Ixxxii INTRODUCTION 'aspine. i. Add the griffin (Pausanias i. acrmBoxfXwvrj. Ambrose. the centaur. 50.' Against this may be set the following considerations: 'similar to the : 'Cette fois. 21. quse a Latinis aspis testudo nominari potest. the Triton (Pausanias 9. ship seems to be confirmed by the common belief in antiquity that 2 the moray (murcena). 2. Class. Thus 5 'Aspis Chelone belua est immanis. 181). //. a Melanges 3. . Ther. 253. 826-7. to the form in the Physiologus. as we have seen. De Cahier. the progeny of the partridge and the 8. i. 51). the turtle is reported to 2. the two being thus treated as akin. 39. 2. attributes to the turtle a serpent's neck and a ferocious aspect (cervice anguina. Art of Poetry 4). couple with the eel. . ou dragon de mer. 2. 32.' Cahier's text B begins. the camelopard (Horace. 66.' it is significant that the first element is left untrans lated in Latin. De Gen. etc. 7. the chimsera (Homer. : there are these considera The scholiast.' on which Cahier remarks mot ao-ms aura conduit en outre a 1'idee d'un serpent aquatique.' In favor of the rendering tions 1. the popular notions of the mermaid (cf. Ep. 9. such as the leopard (Pliny 2. Pliny 9. couples with serpents. 'Est belua in mari quse dicitur : 1 Antiquity believed in many hybrid animals. 90. Horace. 2) 8 * . 394). Hist. i. Athenaeus. 17. 24. 6. Bearing in mind that Lat. 64. Hal. Turning from Oppian's do-TnSoeomt xeAoivr. 738 b).

Gesch. *Anec.' first element is found in a corrupt form in a Latin manuscript at 1 Leipzig as fastilon (cf. the Syrian version published by Land. or resembling serpents. . 30. 3-5. 7 812-828. is to tions incident to such association. 2 3 Ethiopic version. Lang. be accounted for by cant that the this fact. . 4 aschelone. espes . the 5 . On Female Companions. 5. 'De Ceto Magno Aspido- The helunes. 1 2 Carus.PHYSIOLOGUS aspido testudo'. and that the occurrence of do-TriSoxeAwvi. with unrelated women. 817 A. Hommel. 4. cf.' and proceeds. (817 A). vowed to virginity. der Zoologie. If the dragon . Syr. p. Hommel. * Physiologus Syrus. Thus : All the prophets compare women to venomous beasts (815 D). it is signifi women in question are frequently referred to as being venomous. p. B p. and her voice sweet' 9 'Her sweet words shall at last be more bitter to thee than gall. who dost cherish in thy bosom the mind of the asp (820 D-82I A). his text Ixxxiii C begins. 161. the Syrian version published by Tychsen. . On that supposition. Basil is discoursing on the danger which lies in the association of unmarried religious. Mod.' 10 Accordingly. 127. Aspadakloni In a tract entitled. O wily beast. there is an important occurrence of the word 7 -TTtSoxeAwiT/. 824 C. 8 he more than once quote alludes to verses 3 and 4: 'Whose words are eloquent. aspido helune. 67. 10 . He describes in eloquent terms the tempta and the blandishments to which While he does not Prov. p. Ixxiv. neither will you be harmed (820 C). In like manner the Icelandic has aspedo . Patr. 6 by Basil the 3. 'Est csetus in mare. Her mind that of dragons. and her purposes those of serpents is not harmed by living with the asp. p. 8 6 See above. the OE. fastito colon). note. "Migne. we may suppose that he had the Physiologus in mind. 100. Notes 9 (1894). as the Physiologus does. 86. 63. Great (f 379). 824 B. the unfortunate monk would be exposed. Tell me. Gr.

prior omnium natantium in oceano. 2555-6) : Qui ses oreilles clot e serre Od sa cue encontre la terre. 92. 4 For a sculptured representation of the adder pressing one ear against the ground. Auct. 104. 24. For the asp as the type of the devil. 13) in Male. p. Gr. 4.' 2 This is developed in the Latin Physiologus published 3 'Illae ne audiant vocem incantantis. and stopping her other with her tail. B). would it be natural to translate here by 'shieldturtle' P 4. et : querit \ semper ut suam caudam jungat is capiti suo. 11. her delicate aspect shall drag thee down to the gates of hell.' 4 The French et is terram. 1 tract. writing between 868 and 871. et non potest 1 There an explicit reference to the Physiologus-story Sicily (Pair. see Cahier. Basil. see the picture of 'le beau Dieu' of Amiens Cathedral treading upon the lion and the adder (Ps. with accompanying Latin text (2. ponunt capita sua by Mai In this same : ad terram. Brandan. C) ? In the light of the earlier references to the serpent. 591. p. Why dost thou prefer the feigned love of this asp-turtle to the genuine love of thy brother (824 B. Wahlund. 58. 2 817 A. 5 Ed. 'You have shut your ears like the with deaf asp. L'Art Religieux du XIII* Siecle en France. 91.Ixxxiv ' INTRODUCTION who pursues the To a rational being I speak this? policy of a crawling dragon (821 C). sed piscis. Reinsch. 61 For a miniature of the same subject. 7. in which our word occurs. . vero le unam quidem aurem suam premunt in aurem de cauda sua obturant. Melanges 2. see Pitra. aliam of Guillaume Clerc (ed. 1281 by Peter of A. 'adder'). 8 Class. whereas the love of a brother would purchase for thee the kingdom of heaven. addressing the monks. To whom do Finally. explains to his followers 5 'Insula non est ubi fuimus. and to the asp in particular. Spicilegium Solesmense 3. exclaims reference to Ps. Melanges i. 147 (also Nouv. 149-150). we come to the passage particularly in question shall at last : Her sweet words be more bitter to thee than gall. 134). Now in the passage of the Voyage of Brandan which deals with our subject. The word in the Septuagint is 'asp' (AV.

and Keresaspa cooking his food in a brazen vessel. 'De Aspide s[eu] Testudine.' From the evidence.concerning 'ilia testudo. may be taken as typical: Jeremiah the prophet says [17. and at his latter end he will be a fool. not as a whale.PHYSIOLOGUS I 1XXXV 1 It seems evident. is. leaving the partridge alone. Arch.' is a relation between the sea-beast and the asp. 4 In the Ethiopic version the Aspadakloni is the 'chief of 7. 1 See the French text on Byz. p.' 8. 5 [the i snakes. then. then. in the midst of his days his riches shall leave him. p. i In the Avesta 3 the sea-monster is a green horny dragon. 2. the Greek text of Lauchert (p. ? trying to put his tail in his 2 8 4 mouth (Percy Soc. we may suppose. sprang away. poisonous. undertook to cook his meat at noonday in an iron cauldron on swallowing men and monster's back. 6 . THE PARTRIDGE As 251) in the case of the Panther. we should translate and not 'shield-turtle/ I 'asp-turtle. called r a turtle. Pub. P. 63. him as . so is a man gaining his wealth unjustly. the latter started up. 5.' and the story goes on would seem to be no doubt monster is conceived as possessing the qualities of a ser pent which the turtle of course is often designated as an 'asp' and that where it is denominated do-inSoxeAwvi. Hommel. the heading. And when they are grown. there that the .is Srvara. translated into 6 [Latin. that at this stage there pre longitudine. 161. and stood upon his feet at once a snake and. 31. A 6. is yellow. Sacred Books of the East |. 8. each sort flies away and goes to its own. while Keresaspa fled in fear. the snake. cit. n] : 'The partridge gathers what she did not lay. \ [ miniature described by Strzygowski 2 depicts the seamonster. 295. t When Keresaspa once horses. 234. but with a serpent's body and a fish's tail brown. In Tychsen's Syriac version.' I (. The Middle English thinks of 39). 25. 27. and dashed out the boiling water. In op. 16. 5 23. with a golden head.' The Naturalist said concerning the partridge that it broods and hatches the eggs of others. At the time of noon the fiend felt the heat.

. and the pages of that manuscript may easily have been smaller. and shorter than the Whale. 7. Bibliothek i. that the latter poem was about 80 lines long (Panther. 5 this would mean. and (2^ : the loss may have been in an earlier manuscript. on the above supposition. p. 6 74. 2 8 4 B 8 but. The Partridge. If one leaf were missing. the truth being that the Panther and tho| Whale each occupy more than a leaf not page. supposing that both of the existing fragments belong to the Partridge. Eustathius (ibid. but his argument is vitiated by the fact that. then. 949). Well. 'Here the want of connexion. clearly shows that a leaf or more is wanting Thorpe was the said 2 : He . Codex Exoniensis. Jour. these two poems occupy only about a page each in the MS. then. the apostles In like 1 and the prophets. since the corresponding chapter of the Physiologus is shorter than those devoted to th^ Panther and the Whale. and that therefore the Partridge would be over twice as long as either. But it is not necessary to accept this hypothesis. and Germ. Whale.. 82. n.. and betake themselves to them. 365. 8. Lot. Zum Op. cit. Angelsachsischen PhysiologuS. to the Partridge. 53. 249. Sokoll argues that the second fragment can hardly belong. our Lord Jesus Christ and the Church. Pair. the gap may 'So Rabanus Maurus (Migne. Cf. for (i) there is no sign of such a missing leaf. first to recognize that there was a gap after 3*. note 39. then. therefore. we assume the loss of one leaf of the Exeter Book. Eng. p. Tupper.' Grein 3 thought that one leaf of the manuscript was wanting.INTRODUCTION manner does the devil get possession of the foolish in heart. 237. 9. both in sense and gram matical construction. p. did the Naturalist speak concerning the partridge. according to him. it would follow that about 65 lines of the poetry had been lost. Phil. as we have seen. if not the end of some other poem. and similarly 049) and Isidore (ibid. 89). would be longer than the Pant hery . But when they have come to full age. in. the latter part being merely the religious application of what has been related of the bird. Suppose. To the latter alternative Sokoll 4 objects that it would be odd if the gap id| another manuscript should exactly coincide with the end of a page in this one. they begin to recognize their heavenly parents. for the sake of argument. 467).

B and would have ended with the MS. Since there 2 no sign of a missing he assumes a missing quire tain about seven versified chapters sufficient to con eight leaves of the Physiologus. ostrich. turtle-dove. 109. Peebles. Mod. No. have translated all the chapters which preceded the Panther. which in Moreover. He next assumes that the fragmentary end of the Partridge is the close Now the Charadrius is a bird No. and therefore 1 not be so great as Sokoll supposes. perhaps because he had already covered the Phoenix in our longer in certain Latin B and C the Charadrius poem. if to him. 8. . the gap in the Whale. 3 sickness. is not likely to have been ignorant of of the Physiologus. and to the Gentiles.PHYSIOLOGUS IXXXVU have been due to a defect in an earlier manuscript. Greek Physiologus. n. Hence he would have dealt in succession with the par tridge. 577. as illustrating lines 5-11. Angl. 247. 4 Lauchert. All these 'men in buckram' grow out of Sokoll's assumption that the Biblical passage versified toward the end of the Partridge 1 1 * Cf. 5 of Cahier's Latin MS. and as there is no reason why important parts he should have suppressed them. he dies. shows whether he is to recover or not. Ebert. and ape4 following the order of charadrius. (supposed to stand nearest to the Old English) which. salamander. to which there is no reference in the Greek Charadrius. Phil. hart. he must. 247. be it observed. the bird takes over his So Christ turned from the Jews. Sokoll will have it that the author of the Old chapter. only three chapters out of a complete Old English 5 Physiologus have come down to us. p. according to Sokoll. 6. ff. because in Cahier's manuscripts not. since the author MS. If the from him. English Physiologus closed his version with the Charadrius. p. B stands fifth in the total Physiologus. leaf. brought to the bed man. 7. 6. B. Lauchert. pp. Sokoll quotes Jn. side of a sick bird turns Then. To substantiate his view. but cf. I. 5 Sokoll. in other words. lines 82b Cf. Sokoll's argument from this point on is is of a piece with his mistaking a leaf for a page. weasel. 3 of the of the Charadrius. is followed by only one the Phoenix. 6-7. Angl.

Ixxxviii INTRODUCTION Let us I. and will be unclean thing (6 -7 ) a Father unto you. 8. similar to that which forms the close of we have the Whale. then. is in perfect keeping with the 'improvement' of the Partridge. that Christ frequently calls his disciples a ). cf. Hence it and consequently of a series of lost chapters. to in question is Jn.' 3 it true. see. In the Greek (p. Paul. and the Latin B has the following important pas 2 sage et se : evolant 'Ubi vox Christi a parvulis f uerit audita. 4 Hist. and I will receive you (7 b -Q a ). less. 'Come a and touch not the 5-6 ). belongs more naturally to the Charadrius. .' in the character of father. Hex. follows that the figment of a is base The traits here ascribed to the partridge do not seem to have been known to Aristotle. Tennyson's 'And so thou lean on our 3. Christ and the Church are the parents. become the sons of requires God' a historical while the poem . address. quodam munere et et amore sub umbra alarum suarum In the poem. too. and since the poem concludes with a t/tow-passage. here represents 'the Lord Almighty. Aelian goes only so far as to say that they x Cf. Christo commendant. the author. fair father Christ' (Guine vere). and ye shall be my sons and daughters' b (9 -n). Melanges 8 248. Lot. B 3- 16. to n : 'But as many direct them gave he power statement. Such direct address we find in 2 Cor. 6. reconciles this fact with the general n Since this quotation. Apparently from Ambrose. is matri dat Ecclesiae nutriendos. 2 Cahier. 6. lost quire. 17. though he calls it 4 a bird of an evil and 5 cunning disposition. as is Panther 70-74. Epist. Christ out from among them b a . 14. 246-7). . n. 18: . 1071). 3 (Pair. immediately following the Whale. there seems no reason to doubt that the fragments are. the Ethiopic version says that they 'hear the name of their Father 1 Christ' . is by St. Ixxxvi). (cf. qui statim eos potissimum paterno . This. ipse suscipit. 32 (16. the beginning and end of the Partridge. . Sokoll assumes that the passage as received him. . 9. An. remembering brethren (see note on tenor of the passage.

as soon as it is strong enough. however. 6. Opp. to patristic authorities in general. p. Aristotle. Pliny 10. 20. cumque fetus adoleverint avolare ab eo. Add Ephraem Ixeut. fear 1 other birds and flowers. 13. Plinius Secundus perdicis esse naturam.PHYSIOLOGUS their eggs in the place where they brood them. Oliver G. Origen. Leemans. ousts the other eggs or nestlings. 380. 12. and deposits it in the selected nest. ed. id est. 30. 5 ii . 2. 9. and then carries one of her own eggs in her claws. 29. 4 till According to a recent authority. 2 3 Migne. 7. cites as an ing a certain History of Animals (ev ry irtpl lo-To/na). The fledgling stranger. ''Pair. i. - 2. 9. Gr. Aelian 3. furetur. 130. Oppian(P). apud principes sunt apud Graecos hanc nos. pushing out for the purpose one or two of the eggs already there. ut ova alterius perdicis. H. Lot. Bochart. A. 948. Pair. Gr. et eis incubet foveatque. et alienum parentem relinquere. until it is its own parents watch near by but not ready to fly away. Hierosoicon Horapollo. the cuckoo waits the bird she has chosen as foster- mother begins sitting. 4 Syrus. authority do not lay oW et Rabanus Maurus makes this statement. to feed it Meanwhile. Syr. etc. 2 apropos of the partridge tarn : Aiunt scriptores naturalis Aristoteles et bestiarum volucrum : quam arborum herbarumque. see note in Pair. For references 455i. about which may anti quity was 5 tolerably well informed. 8 It is natural to suppose that the traits of the partridge have been confused with those of the cuckoo. Farther Afield in Bird Life. in. quorum Theophrastus . aliena. 565. historise. . Pike.


and Schlotterose . Eccl. (II) 85-181. Cos. = Holthausen. BB. upon Gollancz. =2 Bonner Beitrage. Gr. K. 1905. 1814. I have relied upon the collation of Wiilker (properly Assmann). as follows (see the Bibliography) : = Blackburn. (VII) 518-588. = Grimm. Hart = Hart. 1899. Kal. upon jfor brackets. = Holthausen. 2 1 2 1898. = Cosijn. = Conybeare. = Grein. (capitals are my own. Br. (variants. H. 1904. Go. Gr. H. Cos. Gm. :from Brandt (Corpus Script. = Bright.THE TEXT OF THE POEMS For the readings of the Elene. Lat. 1 Con. for those of the Phoenix. Ett. = agreement of two Con. (V) 350-423. as are the divisions of poems into sections. = Cosijn. = Holthausen. i the Wiilker. 1857-8. is i The text of Lactantius !(VIII) 589-677. Wiilker. Holt. with their The manuscript-divisions of the Elene are indicated in the headings. = Kemble. Grdt. following. = Barnouw. r= Ettmuller. and so Gollancz divides. 1910. 1 2 1 2 1 2 . = Grundtvig. = Holthausen. Forst. 27). Emendations are enclosed in square common con- Punctuation and the use of expanded without notice.' (VI) 424-517. The authors quoted in the variants are Barn. tractions are i !(III) 182-264. those of the Phoenix would seem to be (I) 1-84. = Grein. Con. 1896. Physiologus. 1826. = Gollancz. = Kaluza. those by the present editor being. (IV) 265-349. with consonantal and u printed as / and v respectively.. Vol. = Forster. Conybeare. also italicized. 1865. Bl. Holt. checked by the facsimiles of the Vercelli Book.

Klaeb. = Klipstein. Tr. = Paul and Braune's Schl. Sw. 1 2 = Klaeber. 1 Z. Th. Trautmann. 2 = Zupitza. 1904 (Archiv). = Sweet. Warth. 1908. 2 s Tr. = Zupitza. Tr. 1877. = Korner. 1907. = Thorpe. Wiilker. = Klaeber. Siev. K6. Wan.TEXT OF THE POEMS Klaeb. PBB. 1899. = Trautmann in Schlotterose's = Trautmann. = Sievers. Z. Wii. Wa. ed. =i Wanley.. 1 Beitrage. . 1898. 1906. Klip. = Schlotterose.

Jmrh mennisc heo. swylce Sritig eac. 52). TV. Rieger (Zeitschrift f. CONSTANTINE AND HIS FOE PREPARE FOR WAR 5>a wges tu agangen geara hwyrftum hund ond J>reo geteled rimes. leod-. -geborga MS. 10 ahsefen. but one assumed by Th. geond middangeard to wrsece. em. wintra for worulde. 271) swylce Hetware(-an). Phil. p.. Hunas em. . 3 MS. -wearS em. in middangeard Leoht J>a wses syxte gear Constantmes caserdomes. 997) hilde gefysde. se l[of]hwata l[eo]dgeb[y]rga arf asst aet>el[i]nges weox he wses riht cyning. >rittig. Ko. 1 . . Wses rice eorlum under roderum. werj)eodum sySSan wsepen ahof wiS het[t]endum. wseron hwate weras H. 15 guSwearfd] gumena. Hine God trymede J>aet he manegum wearS mannum to hroSer. Werod samnodan ond HreSgotan. Gr. Th. 1 .. 22b Ett. lof-. waes hild boden. 29. 3 heaSurofe weras. . hetendum. Klaeb. lind-. . nb . foron fyrdhwate Wseron hwate weras. -gebyrga. haele?5as . . hwate weras waeron. xxx lind. Z. hildemecgas. 7Y. D.ELENE i. 2 12 Z. Gm. aeSelnges -g." hearde. to hereteman. . Anz. 7.-^i6 MS. em. J)aes J)e Wealdend 5 God acenned wearS. MS. 22 No break in MS.. (Angl. H. Z. Gm. J)inggemearces.S K. 1882. in rice wearS J)set he Romwara soSfsestra . n a MS. Gr. 2 H? MS. Wa. 22a MS. hwate. Klaeb. . 21 1 waeron hwate Gel. 18 MS. Th. Him wiges woma. (Gott. cyninga Wuldor. Th. 2 hearde for hwate. here>reatas Siev.. leodMS. Gm. Gr? 14 em. hroSre. mserftum ond mihtum.. on herebyrnan. 20 Huna leode Francan ond Hu[g]as. hildfruma. MS.

cyning preate gol. secgas sigerofe. 1 Th. herecombol 1 . Pasr wearS Huna cyme heht cuS ceasterwarum. Lungre scynde beadubreata msest ofer burgflocan] . hleopon hornboran. >one. eal sweot geador. waelfel. -woman. sona gegearwod J)eah hie wsepnum 50 ridon to wigge. wasteres wylm. hreowan.4 ELENE Garas Hxtan. Gm. geador. wordum ond bordum wriSene waelhlencan. Z. burg-. byrn-. hleowon. byrn-?. FyrdleoS agol waelrune ne maS hergum to hilde. clynede. eal siSmaegen. -locan. Cr. bleowon. b S4 Th. ond eal [sybj geador. to hilde. -enta. Gr. woldon Romwara hergum ahySan. herge. for a 54 Th. Pa. gearwe 25 sweotole gesamnod for folca gedryht. for. 1 Kb. 1 -cumbol . earn sang ahof urigfeSera latmm on laste. Anz. Gel. . (Gott. 35 MS. 31 MS. to guSe. H. Ett. swylce Huna cyning 35 40 awer meahte ymbsittendra abannan to beadwe b[yrn]wlgendra. 26 MS. 34 MS. siSwerod eal geador.} eal sib geador. ymb J)ses rice gej)ringan. H. 3>a wseron heardingas hofon he[o]r[w]c[u]mbol. rincas under roderum. feSan trymedon For fyrda maest eoredcestum paet on aelfylce on Danubie deareSlacende staeSe wicedon stsercedfyrhSe werodes breahtme. se casere 45 guSgelaecan ongean gramum ofstum myclum under earhfaere beran ut J)r3sce bannan to beadwe. 49 MS. Ponne rand dynede. Wseron Romware. werod Isesse haefdon to hilde Jjon[n]e Huna cining ymb campwudu wan ond rofne. 25 hreopan friccan. 30 wulf on wealde. Hrefen uppe Werod H? waes on tyhte. Siev. ::::: fyrda.

he. Ten Brink 1 1 samnodon. slaepe Pa wearS on 70 J>am casere. 58 MS. Th. wiS bingode. to cease. wyrda Wealdend. 59 MS. rices ne wende Romwara cyning for werodleste: haefde wigena to lyt. 5. Him se ar hraSe. heht be Cyning engla. h[i]e feonda gefaer fyrmest gessegon. siSSan elbeodige. J)aer sylfum aetywed he on corSre swaef. Huna ond HreSa here.ELENE 55 5 mearh moldan cafe. traed. . f. wuldres boda. duguSa Dryhten. hrorra ? 68 MS. Ten Brink (Zs.1 >e. 65 hror[r]a to hilde. sceawedfe]. sceawedon. Cyning waes afyrhted. em. egsan geaclad. Z. Msegen samnode. heardre hilde. D. Anz. Gr. swefnes woma. he em. sigerofum gesegen 75 Puhte him wlitescyne on weres hade hwit ond hiwbeorht haeleSa nathwylc bonne he aar oS6e sI5 geywed. : 80 Ne ondrasd bu Se. gesege eofurcumble bebeaht. aenlicra under swegle. 65 MS. samnodon?. . eorlas ymb aeSeling egstreame neah on neaweste JDses J>e nihtlangne fyrst. Ten Brink hie.. pser t5u wraSe findest. u to heofenum beseoh on wuldres Weard. hrora . waere beodan. . wlitig ond be naman nemde nihthelm toglad 'Constantmus. THE VISION OF THE CROSS Here wicode. rices ende Saet he on Romwara werod samnode. . 58). 2. 60 ymb paes waeteres staeS Modsorge waeg maegen unrime. wiS ofermaegene eaxlgestealna. 60 Ett. Gr. Alt. He of slaepe onbrsegd. Seah be elbeodige egesan hwopan. em.

em. ond to ? . MS. om. urigfeSra waelhreowra wig. earn sI8 beheold. 115 89 line heard handgeswing ond herga [cjring. 106 MS. 105 Heht pa on uhtan mid serdaege wreccan ond [to] wsepenpraece wigend hebban heorucumbul. Byman sungon Hrefn weorces gefeah. gring. Gm. Geseah he fraetwum beorht faele friSowebba. 3. Cyning waes py bliSra ond pe sorgleasra. purh swa him se ar ahead. 90 MS. ond beorna geprec. hliide for no hergum. 100 swa he paet beacen geseah. . wliti. Ett. geiewed wearS. ond paet halige treo him beforan ferian. tacen gewyrcan. baet him on heofonum ser ofstum myclum. 99 Before this 115 107 Th. on feonda gemang. baes He wlitifg] wuldres treo ofer wolcna hrof 90 golde ge[g]lenged. hebban. MS. em. Cristes rode. bset leoht Waes se blaca beam fsere beorhte ond leohte: on bam frecnan geletest Iat5 werod. wulf sang ahof. bocstafum awriten 'Mid bys beacne Su feond oferswISesS. Pa. Constantmus. secga aldor. THE HOLY STANDARD Heht pa onlice beorna beaggifa. IS VICTORIOUS aeSelinga hleo. has II.' waes sona gearu hreSerlocan onspeon. MS. up locade. heria hildfruma. on claenra gemang.' gewat.6 ELENE 85 sigores tacen. gelenged. Pser waes borda gebrec Hildegesa stod. ond Wa. holtes gehleSa. em. on fyrhSsefan burh pa fsegeran gesyhS. gimmas Hxtan. tireadig cyning. halgan hses. beran beacen Codes. Th. up siSode. 95 ond se ar somed.

Ett. 119 heoru-?. het[t]end heor[u]grimme. garas ofer geolorand brsecon bordhre[o]i5an. brungon praechearde. Pa. -hreSan. herafelda. em. em. Ia5ra lindwered. TH. MS. swa paet halige treo Romwara cyning heaSofremmende. Gr. purh fingra geweald stundum wraecon. feollon friSelease. luste. 141 MS. em. daroSfas] flugon. hildenaedran. Gylden grima. 1 em. Th. MS. E>a waes gesyne past sige forgeaf Constantino Cyning aelmihtig aet bam daegweorce. hetend. Sume wig fornam. Z. em. flugon on faesten 135 aefter stanclifum. sweotolum. 1884. gescyrded MS. Stopon stiShidige. Wurdon heardingas wide towrecene. . 140 1 1 darotS aesc . MS. . 124 MS. arseran heht sume unsofte on pam heresISe. bil in dufan. Heap wass gescyrded. . Huna 145 herges ham lythwon becwom eft panon. garas Hxtan on her[e]felda. gescynded. Kluge 122 MS. 125 wae^ puf hafen. HseSene [c]rungon. heora-. Gm. Gm. grungon. 1 20 on gramra gemang. I26 MS. Jjp) . Gm. hildenaedran. (Litbltt. p. em. em. On paet faege folc flana scuras. Flugon instaepes Huna 130 leode. gescyrted Z. aldor generedon sume healfcwice ymb Danubie. for sweot[u]m.. ond feore burgon stede weardedon sume drenc fornam llfes set Da 140 on lagostreame waas modigra ende. purh his rode treo. domweorSunga. segn sigeleoS galen. rice under roderum. forS onsendan.ELENE sySSan heo earhfasre asrest metton. maegen on ot5 past ehton elpeoda aefen forS fram daeges orde.

scenan. sweotole gesecggan Pa. 'J>e J)is b[lse]des Brytta. treo. J)aet gefrugnon J)a laerde waeron. pegna Create beadurof cyning burga neosan. Heht pa wigena weard pa wisestan snude to sionoSe. Gvn. 162 MS. gef eonde ]}eah hira f ea wseron 175 Saet hie for J)am casere cy^an moston hu se gasta Helm godspelles gife. MS. stenan. pa pe snyttro craeft gefrigen haefdon. J)a wisestan be J)am sigebeacne. Hio him andsware aenige ne meahton ne ful geare cuSon agifan togenes. forgeaf. sigerof cyning. f erhft him waes J>urh fulwihte leoht sefa. 548). THE MIRACLE BEING EXPLAINED. in prynesse prymme geweor^ad acenned wearS. f. purh fyrngewrito haeleSa rsedas. haeleCas. . galdrum cySan. em. Gm. CONSTANTINE CONVERTED ham eft panon Gewat pa heriga helm huSe hremig hild waes gesceaden Com pa wigena hleo wigge geweorSod. (Kynewulf. Phil. his beacen waes ond mine leode generede. 1 blaedes .8 ELENE 4. prySbo[l]d se[c]an. 165 ond me tir J>urh J>aet wlitige wigsped wi$ wraSum. Da paes fricggan ongan ofer sid weorod. Sarrazin Tr. Pa. goldes . 32. 159 MS. Z. stun (i) an? D. wsere J)ser aenig yldra o$8e gingra him to sot5e J>e secggan meahte. Ko. secan. 24) Se? stendan?. J>e me swa leoht o8ywde. -bord. tacen waere. 156 boldes.' tacna torhtost. 151 cyninga Wuldor. oSSe. p. wordum cwaedon 170 for J)am heremaegene J)aet hit Heofoncyninges ond J>aes tweo nsere. hwaet se IS 150 155 1 60 God wsere. heoldon higepancum folces aldor. Sarrazin (Zs. H? bledes. MS. K'6.

of byrgenne beorna Wuldor. Bus 190 saegdon sigerofum ^t laerde waeron. burh ba ilcan gesceaft be him geywed wearS on gesyhSe. hihst. swa [hie] se ealda feond forlaerde ligesearwum. hyhta 207 MS. CONSTANTINE ORDERS THE SEARCH FOR THE ROOD Pa leodgebyrga.ELENE Codes agen Beam ond hu on galgan wearS heardum witum. garbrist. goldwine gumena aescrof . baet hie s leode fortyhte. unslaw. D^htne to willan. hyhta nihst. MS. daeges ond nihtes burh Castes gife georne cySan. haeleSa cynnes. i. burh Iarsmit5as. 5. of deafte. Z. hyhta 579) swa hie. (Angl. 184 III. MS. wass him mwe gefea wass him frofra maest 200 heofonrices Weard. Dryhten ealra ond to heofonum astah. ond bast f orS geheold on his dagana tid. . Tr. rodora Waldend inwit. swa. 197 tacne . 185 ond him gife sealde geomre gastas. aras. sylfum sigores [to] tacne ond hu Sy briddan daege wiS beoda brsece. Wu. ond hine. Siev. ond hyht[a] [h]ihst Ongan ba Dryhtnes K. has nihst. tacen 1 . gastgerynum swa fram Silvestre bam se leodfruma fulwihte onfeng. Ko. gleawllce 195 nTSheard cyning: befolen in fyrhSe. 205 guSheard. for hergum ahangen alysde leoda 9 1 80 beam of locan deofla. soSHce. se aeSeling fand. . Da wses on saelum sinces brytta. sylfne 194 Before this line God MS. hwslr ahangen waes on Codes bocum heriges beorhtme on rode treo aefstum burh ludea cyn. Z. 1 to tacne. hyht nihst. sylfne getengde in Codes beowdom.

bordum ond ordum. swa hire weoruda helm. 235 ond pa gehlodon hildesercum. werum ond wifum wseghengestas. halig ludeum. fold-. Wendelsae wlanc manig on staeSe stodon. -watSu. em. sculon to baes hie in hynSum wldan feore waes Cristes wergSu dreogan. 1 oncnawe?. sunde getenge. eorla mengu Fearo6hengestas stae8 ymb geofenes gearwe stodon. beboden haefde. helm. H. 229 Th. fifel-. Gm. Leton ba ofer fifelwaeg famige scrlban 2 213 Before for$ Z. 220 bass sI8 fates ne 5aes wilgifan hiere sylfre suna. holm. welm. (p. Ongan ba ofstllce to flote fysan. ac waes sona gearu wif on willsIS. oncnaewe. Create. sselde ssemearas. Th.. MS. feran f[lo]dwege folca breate georne secan hwaer se wuldres beam breate wigena under hrusan hyded waere. 237 MS. 2 fifl-. idese si^faet. word gehyrwan. of er mearcpa^u. 230 MS. rod. Da 230 waes orcnaswe siSt5an I>ser waeges [w]elm set werode gesohte.ELENE 21 o ahengon. Z. Ten Brink werode? Gm. etc. raeswa. 289) he waes forS. on cnawen. 23. THE VOYAGE AND THE LANDING Elene ne wolde ssene weorSan. 115) 23 . 215 MS. lof Pa bam casere on firhSsefan. Gr: 217 MS. 6. . herga Fruman. K. assumes the loss of two hemistichs. -pa&u. his modor het bast maere treo . 225 byrnwiggendra. maegen Stundum wrsecon aef ter 68rum . ymb 215 to [he waes] for8 gemyndig ond ba. but not fruma) Pogatscher (Angl. byrnwigendum. such as faeste bewunden. folces aldor (hyrde.

->isan 2. geliden haefdon ceolas leton sae[w]aroSe s[u]nde bewrecene. secggas hilderincas baer waes hyrstum gewerede. briste on gebance. fearoSe. collenf erhSe cwen hySe Sybban 250 to hringedstefnan . sunde?. Wigan wseron siSes gef eah. Z. of er earhgeblond ySa swengas . sande. II 240 sae swinsade. brimwudu snyrgan ssemearh plegean. sunde. hlafordes gifu. 245 under s[w]ellingum. Phil. eoforcumbul. .?esion. Ne hyrde ic sift ne aer on egstreame on merestrsete. MS. 243 MS. . se 8one sI6 beheold. 254 MS. Waes seo eadhreSige Elene gemyndig. . sincgim locen gesyne 265 on bam herebreate. 242 MS. Gr. em. Z. Krapp 1 1 407) -wearotSe. 1 em. f aegrre . brecan ofer baeSweg maegen faeg[e]rre. em. Z. 268 MS. wadan waegflotan. 245 . 251 MS. grimhelm manig. 260 sISes gefysde: ymb sigecwen. caseres bodan.ELENE bord oft onfeng bronte brimbis[s]an. Paer [gesion meahte]. bliSe. Th. Wa. ofer eastwegas Daer waes on eorle eSgesyne brogden byrne senlic ond bill gecost. foron on luste fyrdrincas frome on Creca land. beodnes willan. aid yS[h]ofu. idese lasdan. heape gecoste land gesohte. em. hwone spell-. 252 MS. baet hlo Iude[a] georn on mode ofer herefeldas 270 238 lindwigendra . meahte em. Z? MS.' ludea. gumena breate hwon[n]e heo sio guScwen 255 eft gesohte. ludeas em. Th. 1 ludea?. -liof u \(Mod. Waeron aescwigan. oncrum faeste on brime bidan beorna gebinges. Gr. Th. ofer lagofaesten on Creca aet land. MS. geatolic guSscrud. . .


secga Create


hit siSSan



lytel fsec

baet Saet




to Hierusalem corSra mseste, ba ceastre mid ba aeSelan cwen. eorlas sescrofe,



Heht Sa gebeodan


burgsittendum ond wide

geond ludeas,
me6elh[e]gende, ba Se deopllcost

gumena gehwylcum,
on gemot cuman, Dryhtnes geryno




reccan cuSon.





maegen unlytel reccan cuSon
breo [busendu]
alesen to lare.

ba Se Moyses a* bser on rime waes
baera leoda

weras Ebrea
'Ic baet

Ongan ba leoflic wordum negan:
ongiten haebbe,




burg witgena wordgeryno on Codes bocum, bset ge geardagum

wyrSe waeron Dryhtne dyre

Wuldorcyninge, ond daedhwaete.


Hwaet, ge [ealle] snyttro unwislice, ba ge wergdon bane wraSe, wiSw[u]rpon, burh his wuldre[s] miht, be eow of wergSe

fram llgcwale, of haeftnede.

lysan bohte,

Ge mid horu speowdon

279 MS. -hengende; Gm. -hegende 276 Before this line MS. has IIII. . Gm. >usend Siev. (PBB. 10. 5/5) Jmsendu. 285 MS. 293* M5 snyttro; K. swicon snyttro; Ten Brink (Zs. f. D. Alt., Anz. 5. 59) ealr b H. 1 ealle. Gr. Gm. unwislice swicon ? snyttro 2Q3 MS. unwislice Gr? swiSe unwislice; Siev. (Angl. I. 579) swicoi soS unwislice;








Cos. (Tijdschrift


MS. -weorpon

Gm. -wurpon ?

144) samwislice; Z? 1 Z. -wurpon.






MS. wuldre

em. Th.

be eow eagena leoht, on baas andwlitan fram blindnesse bote, gefremede burh bset aeSele spald, edmowunga oft generede ond fram unclaenum Ge [to] deabe bone deofla gastum.
se Se of deaSe sylf deman ongunnon on wera corbre wor[n] awehte eowres cynnes. in baet serre Hf Swa ge modblinde mengan ongunnon leoht wib bystrum, lige wiS soSe, inwitbancum aefst wiS are, Eow seo wergSu forSan wroht webbedan. sceSbe5 scyldfullum ge ba sciran miht






deman ongunnon,


[in] gedw[o]lan oS bysne daeig. beostrum gebancum, snyttro gebencab Gangab nu snude, wordes [gleawe], weras wisfseste, seSelum craeftige, ba 8e eowre x, on ferhSsefan fyrmest haebben, ba me soSHce secgan cunnon, for eow[ic] forS andsware cy6an be ic him to sece.' tacna gehwylces


Eodan ba on gerumfan]
eorlas ae[g]leawe,



gehSum geomre;

egesan gebreade, [gjeorne sohton

1 311 MS. 304 MS. woruld; Z. worn. 302 MS. dea>e; Z. to dea>e. Snd gedweolan; Gm. ond gedwolan; Siev. (Angl. I. 579) in gedwolan; -Klaeb. (Angl. 29. 271) opposes Siev., citing Jul. 410; Beow. 99, 2144; MS. -)>enca)> Wa. -seca}>. After 7en.73. 313 MS. ganga}> H? seca)> ? 1 El. 'his line H. inserts ond finda]? gen f erhSgleawe men cf. Jud. 41 ; 1 b craeftige; ^27, 3733i4 MS., Edd. craeftige. 315 MS. craeftige; Z. 1 H.1 gode for the inst. with craef tig, see Crafts 98. .Z. gode ? 318 MS. 1 em. Siev. (PBB. 10. 5/5). i;ow; 320 MS. geru; Gr. gerun; other early Edd. gerum; Frucht (Metrisches, etc,, p. 74) geruman; Schwarz (Cyne;












Christ, p. 67) geryne, gerune;

H. (Anglia

Beibl. 17. 177,


not H.

H.2 ), Wa.

on gerum eodan.



-cleawe; em. Th.




em. Th.


pa wlsestan

paet hio bsere

swa tiles, HTo pa on Create [pusend] manna fundon ferhSgleawra, pa pe fyrngemynd mid ludeum gearwast cfrSon. Prungon pa on Create pair on prymme bad
in cynestole

wordgeryno oncweSan meahton, cwene swa hio him to sohte. swa trages,


caseres mseg,



golde gehyrsted.

Elene ma^elode,
'GehyraS, higegleawe,

ond for eorlum
halige rune,



word ond wisdom. Hwaet, ge witgena hu se Liffruma lare onfengon,
in cildes


cenned wurde,

mihta Wealdend.

Be bam Moyses





weard Israhela: [word] gecwaeS, acenned bi6 Cniht on degle,

mihtum msere, swa pses modor ne bi5 wsestmum geeacnod purh weres frige." Be 8am David cyning dryhtleoS agol,
frod fyrnweota,
fseder Salomones,



word gecwsep,

wigona baldor:

"Ic fr[y]mpa



he on gesyhSe wses, sigora Dryhten; mm on pa swISran, masgena Wealdend, Panon ic ne wen[de] prymmes Hyrde.
aefre to aldre

onsion mine."



hit eft

be eow

wordum maelde, weorodum, deophycggende purh Dryhtnes Cast: "Ic up ahof eaforan gingfe], ond beam cende, bam ic blsed forgeaf,
witga for
halige higefrofre;

ac hie hyrwdon [m]e,

323 MS. -geryno; H? -geryna. 326 MS. m; Cm. Jmsenda; 1 1 Gr. f rymSa ? >usend. 338 MS. >set Gr. }><et word. 345 MS. f rumj?a 1 Z. Th. wende?; Gm. wende. frymtSa. 348 MS. weno; 353 Mi 1 1 gingne; em. Z. 355 MS. }>e; em. Z.

feodon burh feondscipe, nahton forepanc[a]s, wisdomes gewitt ond pa weregan neat, drifeft ond pirsceS, pe man daga gehwam hira goddend, nales gnyrnwraecum ongitap hiera feogaS frynd pe him fodder gif[a]5; ond me Israhela aefre ne woldon





oncnawan, peah woruldstundum


feala for him wundra gefremede."


we pact gehyrdon burh halige bee eow Dryhten geaf dom unscyndne, paet Meotod, mihta sped, Moyse saegde hu ge Heofoncyninge hyran sceoldon,
lare Isestan.


paes lungre apreat,


ond ge pam ryhte wiftroten hssfdon, onscunedon bone sciran Scippend eallra, ond gedwolan fylgdon [dryhtna] Dryhten,
ofer riht Codes.


ge rape gangap,


ond findap gen pa pe fyrngewritu selest cunnen, purh snyttro crseft me andsware zieriht eower, paet
purh sidne sefan

secgan cunnen.'



mid mengo swa him


mod[e] cwanige, cwen [be] bead;


[fif hund] forbsnotter[r]a ba Se leornungcraeft alesen[ra] leodmaega, maeste haefdon, burh modgemynd Heo to salore eft on sefan snyttro.

fund[o]n ba




\IS. gifet5;

-Dances; 1 em. Z.


H. 1

360 (Angl. i. 580) -}>ancas?; Z? -J?ancas. 369 MS. ryhte 364 Before this line MS. has H. 2 soSe wiSsecen ? sotSe ond ryhte witSsecen 370 Edd.
. ;

MS. eallra Z. (but not Z.*) eowerne,|| 1 Gr. 377 MS. dryhtna dryhten. 371 MS. dryhten H. (Angl. Tr. (Kynewulf, p. 82) mode(s) cwange; lodcwanige; 3. 5/6) modcwange guman. 378 MS. bead; em. Siev. (PBB. 10. 5^).
efore Gr. end line with scippend
; ;






379 MS, f unden em. Cm.; MS.d; Th. fifhund; MS. -snottera em. Gin. -380 MS., Edd. alesen; for the metrical type (D) see Chr. 978, tobrocene iurgweallas, and Frucht, p. 6j.






lytel faec

laSode waeron,

ceastre weardas.



cwen ongan

wordum genegan
'Oft ge dyslice
f sedera

wlat of er ealle
dsed gefremedon,

werge wraecmsecggas,

naef re

f urSur

ond gewritu herwdon, ]x>nne nu


6a ge blindnesse ond ge wiSsocon
baet in

bote forsegon, soSe ond rihte


Cyning anboren,
aeSelinga Ord.

witgena word,


synwyrcende, Hie ba anmode

Wealdendes, cenned waere, ^eah ge ba ae cuSon, ge ne woldon ba, s68 oncnawan.'









ba on fyrndagum fsederas cuSon ne we [g]eare cunnon Codes earce, burh hwaet Su Sus hearde, hlaefdige, us We Saet sebylgS nyton eorre wurde. on bysse folcscere, be we gefremedon beodenbealwa [sum] wiS bee aefre.' Elene maSelade, ond for eorlum spraec ides reordode undearninga; hlude for herigum 'Ge nu hraSe ganga8, sundor asecab ba Se snyttro mid eow, mseste haebben, maegn ond modcraeft,


briste gecyftan binga gehwylc be ic him to sece.' untraglice,



Eodon ba fram
bald in

swa him

sio rice


beboden haefde; burgum geomonnode georne smeadon,
em. Th. 392 MS. waere waere. 396 MS. -swer Th. H. 1 J?eodbealwa aenig 403 MS. Beodenbealwa sum (or an) H. 2 Beodenbealwa sum.
; ; ;


em 399 MS. eare IV a. }>eodenbealw;

sohton searobancum, be hie on bam folce
hwaet sio syn waere




gefremed hsefdon




be him



baer for


an reordode

gidda gearosnot[t]or


waes ludas


wordes 420


wat geare

be 8am sigebeame beoda Waldend eallra gnyr[n]a leas, Codes agen Beam, bone [or]scyld[ne] eofota gehwylces burh hete hengon on heanne beam
baet hio wile


on Sam browode




f sederas


Nu is bearf my eel geboht f erhS staSelien, bset Saes morSres meldan ne weorSen, hwaer baet halige trio beheled wurde
bset waes brealic baet

we we



aefter wigbraece, frod fyrngewritu,


toworpen sien ond ba faederlican
biS lang ofer 6aet

lare forlet[e]n.
baet Israhela



ofer middangeard




secrseft eorla,

gif Sis

yppe biS

swa ba

baet ilce gio


sigerof saegde

yldra faeder waes Sachius nama


faeder [e] mmum, frod fyrnwiota, waes Symon haten, [be swsesum] eaferan hine of worulde wende ond baet


gecwaeS "Gif be baet gelimpe

on lifdagum
baet halige treo


Su gehyre


frode frignan,

geflitu raeran


Sam sigebeame

on bam SoScyning





MS. gnyrnra;


Z." 136) gnyrna. 423 MS. scyldu; Th. unscyldigne ? em. K. 432 MS. -leton 438 MS. faeder; jorhlytne?; Tr. orscyldne. 1 1 \em. Siev. (PBB. 10. 483). 439 MS. eaferan; em. H. ; Gr. >e hit cy?5de sylfa his eaferan.






heofonrices Weard,


bonne pu snude gecyt5, sybbe Beam, ser pec swylt nime. swses sunu, Ebrea peod, mgeg aefre ofer past
rice healdan,


duguSum wealdan;
ond hira dryhtscipe in woruld w[0]rulda
'Pa. ic

ac para



willum gefylled,
heriap ond lofiaS."

Se pone ahangnan Cyning
-feeder [e]


minum, andsware: ealdum sewitan, ageaf "Hu wolde past geweortian on woruldrice handa sendan on pone Halgan past
to feorhlege

fsederas usse
gif hie wiston ier

purh wraS


he Crist wsere,

Sunu Meotudes,

Cyning on roderum, sawla Nergend?"
ageaf andsware, reordode:

'Da me yldra frod on fyrhSe


f seder


Codes heahmsegen, ginga, naman. Se is nr5[6]a gehwam Nergendes pone sylf ne masg unasecgendllc on moldwege man aspyrigean.





Nsefre ic pa gepeahte JDC peos peod ongan secan wolde, ac ic symle mec asced para scylda, nales sceame worhte
gaste minum. baas unrihtes

him georne


andsaec fremede,
asht bisaston,

bonne uSweotan on sefan sohton



Sunu Meotudes




engla ond elda,

se^elust bearna.

"Ne meahton hi[m] swa

dea8 oSfaestan


Gm. mid yldrum deah Gr. biS gedyrsod aefre Gr? dreames H.1 deorlice biS (comparing El. 1159). 452 MS., Edd. weorulda. 454 Before this line MS. has VI; MS. fseder; em.Siev. (PBB. 10.483). 2 b Z. niS8a. Gm. beorna. 46s MS. niSa 476 MS. bearna 477 MS.








K. sawles. em. H? . nit5a Gr. bset he him ba weadsed baet h[i]e for Prymcyning ne sette to wrsece sefstum unscyldigne. seolfne geywde. he. K. 494 MS. manewearS. ac his ealdfeondum yfele. bara be wif oSSe wer beah he Stephanus stanum hehte abreotan on beorge. Swa-beah him Dryhten eft miltse gefremede. MS. Gm. K. gum em. Sanctus Paulus be naman haten . hine. leohtne geleafan. his begnum [hine]. breo niht siSSan 485 bidende waes byrgenne ond ba by briddan dseg under beosterlocan ealles leohtes Leoht lifgende aras. 501 MS. -herd. . 1 MS. baet he manegum [wearS] folca to frofre.ELENE weras wonsselige 19 swa hie wendon ser. . ond s65 sigora Frea. em. eallra brymma Prym. for lufan bseft. swa he burh feondscipe to cwale monige Cristes folces synna leasne. to deabe. beorht on blaide. J?egnum hine. Syt5San him frymSa God. baed 495 pingode brohthe[a]rd. em. 500 demde. Begnum. in Deoden engla.. on woruld cendan. siSSan waes Sigebearn Codes. Pa. on galgan his beah he sume hwile gast onsende." 503 MS. of rode ahsefen rodera Wealdend. Stephanas wses ne geald he yfel Dryhtnes stanum worpod. niS[S]a Nergend. Ponne broSor bin 490 onfeng aefter fyrste fulwihtes Pa. ond him nienig waes aelaerendra 6Ser betera 510 487 under swegles hleo sySban sefre. manegum . 496 497 MS. Sa[u]les larum feore beraeddon. 480 sarum settan. brobor bmne. Z. ond he sySSan waes 505 naman oncyrde.

soSlice. 515 bara bealudeeda bote gefremmab." mm on fyrndagum . bonne Su geearnast selust sigeleana. sewde. 10.1 selest on sef an MS.. ond modgebanc minne cunnon. El. eft geswicab. . . beah we sebylgS wiS hine gif we sona eft synna wunde. 516) fyrntreo H. . ge H. em. laSlic wite 520 Hfes Lattiow. wiS Codes Bearne. ForSan aefst ic be Isere hyse leofesta. . 'Dus mec fseder baet seald in heofonum. ]>issum leofspelle (cf. bam wses Symon nama soScwidum Nu ge geare cunnft'a^] guma g[id]dum frod. . gehSum. . 530 MS. . H.1 giddum. 530 535 unweaxenne wordum laerde. 532 MS. cunnon. Th. . 23. begn 66erne. on sef an selest 53i MS. Th. 540 1 1 b 5i8 Gr. Wa. MS. gehdum.1 f oldgraef H. b H? ge eal MS.20 ELENE "Nu $u meaht hu arfsest is gehyran. for oferbearfe ilda cyrines. 504).] eallra brymma God. ymb swa dygle wyrd. hwset eow baes on sef an selest bince to gecySanne. 522 leoSa-. leohtum ge}>oncum. ealles Wealdend. Siev. in lifes fruman. sytSban gelyfdon baet ond mm swses faeder gebrowade [bissum leofspelle. assumes gap before syS^an. haeleS mm se leofa. ond baas unrihtes ForSan ic. oft gewyrcen. 1 gidda (but H. .2 f reotreo. byslic cySan Do swa be bynce. 1 gehSum).2 >incet5. H. 534 ATS\ treo Z? Sa rode? H.' septe Him ba togenes ba gleawestan on wera breate wordum mseldon: 'Nsefre we hyrdon haeleS aenigne on bysse beode butan bee nuSa. 518* Th. septe. ne fremme. . Edd. >ince H. 10/7). 531* MS. asfre 525 grimne geagncwide. (PBB. be biS ece Hf. (Angl. 8u hospcwide. Z. gif Seos cwen usic nu ge fyrhSsefan frigneS ymb 8et [freo]treo. ne eofulssec ba3t burh leo[6]rune.

. ac hio worda gehwaes wi6ersaac fremedon ne hire andsware 570 faeste on fyrhSe past heo frignan ongan. to salore. Z. . teoden geprowade. on healfa gehwsefne]. MS. weras peahtedon sume hyder. rihte reccen. AND THE SURRENDER OF JUDAS Weoxan word cwidum. 548 MS. . _ : caseres bodan Hreopon f riccan. witga line . sume pyder. fyrhSwerige ymb fyrngewitu. 'Eow peos cwen lapap. worda 545 waerlicra se t5sere aeSelan sceal andwyrde agifan for byslicne preat on meple. guman. weoxan. MS. gehwser 1 em. slo cwen ongan weras Ebresce 560 fricggan wordum negan. has VII. hwser se s65 be Codes Bearne. cwdm begna heap pam heremeSle. geomormode leodgebyrgean. prydedon ond pohton. Th.aer hu on worulde gasthalige witga[n] sungon. 561 MS.' ii. this wrixledan 558 . HELENA'S THREAT. Is ge seono^domas snyttro. 555 modes Heo waeron gearwe. . Sunu Meotudes. (Tijdschrift Th. paet secgas. cwaedon baet hio on aldre owiht swylces 547 Before 144) em. 550 to Pa. pass hio him to sohte. Cos. pa hie latSod wseron to hof e eodon purh heard gebann cyS[a]n craeftes miht. Pa. Wisdomes ond witan beSearf. cySdon em. pset 565 Heo wseron noldon geryne cySan Jenige secgan. rihte stearce.ELENE fyrngidda frod. MS. Z. for sawla lufan. torngemSlan. joins word and cwidum.' eow raedes pearf on meSelstede. gif 21 Su frugnen sle on wera corSre. stane heardran. . snyttro. 1 I.

bsel }>aes . 582* Z. bedyrnan ba deopan mihte/ Da wurdon 585 ades ond endelif es . Th. reading. 90) hydan ]>a halgan geryno (cf. J?set 1 leasspell . 2 assumes a gap for this of . Jsaet leas sceal Z. on wenan. ond eower hra 580 lacende lig. swa Su hine wordui ende f orft 590 seriht from ord[e] for eorftan oft . . sceal J?aet . apundrad 1 awended?. to woruldgedale a[we]nd[e]d weorSan be ge hwile nu on ne magon ge 8a word geseSan unriht wrigon under womma sceatum. awended Strunk (M. se leasung sceal H. N. hemistich.22 ELENE ne ser ne sift aefre hyrdon. L. 581 MS. conjectures the loss two hemistichs after this. Gr. ond giddum gearusnottorne cenned for cneomagum. 580 1 MS. Elene mabelade. Z. bryttaft. ne magon ge ba wyrd bemlSan. bset he gencwidas gleawe haebbe. 1 lease spel H? retains MS. but transfers Th. 5<?p). : 575 gif ge bissum lease leng gefylgaft mid fsecne gefice. but conjectures (p. 187) asundrad. saegdon nine sundorwisne: cySan. ord . agefon. awundrad Gm. sceal ? J?set . eow [seo] leas[ung sceal] . ond him yrre oncwaeft 'Ic eow to softe secgan wille. ond baas in life lige ne wyrfteS. ond witgan sunu. fornimeS leas . wordcraeftes wis him gebyrde is bald on meftle. . 590 MS. leas 2 Gm. H? reads 1 582* as the second hemistich of this line. 17. be me fore standab. apundrad to end of line. and H. H. 1 so prints. em. baet eow in beorge bset beel fornimeS. . frignest. Frucht baelfyr nimeS. he is aefteles cynnes. hattost heaftowelma. ba aenne betaehton pair bam wses ludas nama hie deaSes bone hie baere cwene 'He be maag soft ge- onwreon wyrda geryno. . sceal Gr. 578 MS.

i. stearc.. 615 MS. Siev. on gesihSe bu [samod] geweorSaS. . 1 gebroht on gesihSe bu Z. 580} cyninges Cos. Ans. ond him hlaf ond stan hungre geha3fted. Ten Brink ( Zs. Alt. cwen: 'Pe synt tu gearu swa be leofre bi8 swa lif. : 615 620 608 MS. baet he bone stan nime st[ear]c ond hnesce.' ludas hire ongen bingode ne meahte he ba gehSu bebugan. 145) cyningan (= 1 . . swa deaS. 102) carena. (Tijdschrift J>ance. crsefte. J?ses to )?inge. 600 ludas to baet gisle. forlet secan gehwylcne ond bone aenne genam ond ]aa georne baed riht getsehte he be Ssere rode be ser in ond 605 legere wses lange bedyrned.. CyS ricene nu hwa?t 5u bse[ra] bing[a] Jjafian wille. hwaet.' wlsdomes gife burn ba myclan miht. hine seolfne sundor acigde. on Gm. gewende to wsedle. Edd. to geceosanne. swa bin mod for wera mengo 12. cyning-. wiS hungres hleo. . 1 gesihSe bu on gesihSe bu samod. i. D. (Angl. bonne he bega beneah?' Him ba seo eadige andwyrde ageaf Elene for eorlum undearnunga: habban wille 'Gif Su in heofonrice : oncyrran [cwealm]gem S\an. 23. H. 610 he waes on bsere cwene gewealdum 'Hu maeg bsem geweor5an be on westenne meSe ond meteleas morland trydeS. }>issa J>inga. H. 5. beteran wiShyccge. do) on gesihSe 1 bu gesette. H.ELENE 595 craef t in 23 breostum . . hlafes ne gime. f. rex. streac. CONFERENCE BETWEEN HELENA AND JUDAS Hio on sybbe agenne card. on gesihSe beorne bu Gr. Tr. (BB. he gecyt>eS be lufab. 614 MS. to Elene mabelode tireadig bam anhagan. 1 . 619 Before this line MS. MS. has VIII. H? queen} The emendation in the text posits nex for rex. H? }>xs to 610 MS. ond ba wiste witissece.

(Angl. fyr micle. he Gm. faer (Angl. Gr. 636 MS. radorcyninges beam. words). ic on geogoSe wearS gleawra gumena on siddagum sySSan acenned. . twa hund. Klaeb. swa . Radorcyninges [beam]. Tr. 647 MS. . . open ealdgewin. 29. mycle. (BB. fealo. bset ge swa monigfeald swa Troiana[s] alra tacna gehwylc burh gefeoht fremedon? I?set wses f [yr] myc[le]. Wa. bset 635 640 geteled rime. Cos. gif 1 1 634 MS. H? || opene. be ge hwile nu halig under hrusan. hyht wynne. ic ne mseg areccan. Gm. 102) ge. hogde.' him wses geomor ludas maSelade hat set heortan. ne tsehte. and Wa. findan on fyrhSe bset Elene maSelade 624 him. Is nu feal[a] siSban forSgewitenra frodra ond godra be us fore wseron. 145). me8e. feale. 1 645 MS. MS. Z. H. inserts ser geworden eowrum aegleawum. 1 hyhte swa 629 1 Z. em. 631 MS. burh morSres man mannum dyrndun. feala. hyht?. micelne? 29. mode. b MS. ond gehwseftres wa : sefa.' MS. ond on eorSan saga ricene lif. cc. 29. Z. hwurf e swa hygde swa Gr.' him on andsware: on bysse werbeode 'Hu is bset geworden on gemynd witon.1 swamode? (uniting the MS. Gm. hund] oSSe ma nu ic bset rim ne can. ond. (Tijdschrift i. Wu. 645 swa fyrn gewearS.1 taehte. ic ne can bset ic nat cnihtgeong hseleS . Gr? niode. 1 radorcyninges . two . me 625 hwser seo rod wunige. H? fior mycel. 272) >aet (fier) 1 mycle. Wa. ge. Z? hyht. Z. H: fir 646 MS. >e ser cuS wearS || Israhela folce. Tr. 272) samod (for two words}. . Wa. open. 23. 630 MS. bonne beos seSele gewyrd. (Angl. Klaeb. ge he heofonrices 630 ond rice andwearde under roderum. after ealdgewin H. bis ic bset [hyht] swa m[<zrne] anforlete g[if ] he Sa rode ne tsehte Is : 'Hu maeg wintra [tu findan gangum? swa fyrn gewearS nu worn sceacen. 629* MS. 272) hyhtwynne. Klaeb. Ge bset geare cunnon geara gongum. .24 ELENE card mid englum sigorlean in swegle. . Troiana. H.

cwseS J>set he J)set lif es bset on gehSu gesprsece ond [on] tweon swI6ost. pset haele6um to helpe. Siev. weoruda Wuldorgeofa. ond pa wintergerim on gewritu setton. 660 J)urh seniges mannes mu6 gehyrdon butan her nuSa. Codes Gastsunu. K. Pu scealt geagninga swa gewritu secgap. Him ymb 665 seo aeSele cwen . . 1 Z. haeleSu Th. Th. hseleSum. 'Wit5saecest Su to swISe ssegdest soSlice treow ond nu lytle aer be J>am sigebeame leodum J)inum. oncwasS hra8e purh halige bee ahangen waes on Calvarie Cyninges Freobearn. ond nu on lige cyrrest. under stanhleoSum. caseres mseg: Him 670 'Hwset. wisdom onwreon. 668 580) on tweon. nean . willan minne. gasta Geocend. on manrime morSorslehtes. hseleSas MS.' ludas hire ongen bingode. on calvarie. MS. Gm. calvarie . tweon.' 657 i. hlsefdige mm. geclsensian pec cwealm nime. on gewritu ond pa wiggprsece ond J)is nasfre peoda gebseru.' ludas maSelade gnornsorge waeg : 'We paes hereweorces. . Saet we hyrdon paet haeleSum cySan 675 aefter stedewange hwaer seo stow ser sie [on] Calvar[i]e. . for synnum. Wa. feores ingepanc. 676 MS. near Gm. dareSlacendra deadra gefeallen 25 650 655 under bordhagan. wende him trage hnagre. Ge pa byrgenna ond pa stowe swa some. calvare. on tweon?. gefylle. tweonde?. pset ic hie sySSan msege Criste to willan. swilt. 661 MS. neah.' ageaf andsware: soSe ond rihte haeleSu[m] cySan.ELENE hwset pier eallra wses edre gereccan. . nean myndgiap. me halig God 680 Frea mihtig. (Angl. for nydpearfe setton.

up forlete. besyled (reading MS. seofon. 715 . ond hine mid arum up gelseddon swa him seo cwen bebead. Sast gehyrde haeleSum scead. sceod.' ond me sweotollice corSre Isedan. has b VIII. scead. for cneomagum cwylmed weorSan ba leasunga. 60) scraf . 'Ic bast geswerige baet Su hungre scealt bone ahangnan God. ond 710 8aet s66 to late seolf gecneowe. Hie Sset ofstlice efnedon sona. besylced 683 MS. Alt. : 705 up forlseten. Heht ba swa cwicne scealcas ne gseldon scuf an scyldigne 695 bser he duguSa leas drygne seat). 70p MS. can H. Gm. breanyd [to] heard ic adreogan ne maeg. dogorrimum . ge me of Syssum earfeSum ic bset halige treo heanne f ram hungres gemSlan nu ic hit leng ne maeg lustum cyt5e.' ne baes wanges wiht burh eorne hyge Elene maSelode burh Sunu Meotodes. wat. Tr. Gm. of carcerne. beornes gebsero. fram bam engan hofe. vii 607 MS. Am.' sio baer Pa. Th. 5. ne leng helan be Sam beah ic ser mid dysige Hfes treo. 694 MS. burhdrifen wsere. ///) weold. 3. stiShycgende ne ba wisan cann. hio bebead hraSe bast hine man of nearwe ond of nydcleofan.. 1 . . siomode in sorgum [seofon] nihta fyrst under hearmlocan hungre gebreatod. (BB. sarum besylced meSe ond meteleas masgen wses geswi^rod 'Ic eow healsie burn heofona God 700 bset . ond bes broht to Saes baas bearl. helan for hungre. . Ond ba cleopigan ongan clommum beclungen.26 ELENE Hire ludas oncwseS ba stowe ne can. 709 Before this line MS. Is bes haeft to 6an strang. butan bu forlsete : 'Ic 685 : 690 sot) gecySe. Ten Brink (Zs. D. f. . in on bone seofe8an dseg. as besyleed).

feower. Word stunde ahof : 730 ond on Ebrisc sprsec bu Se ahst doma geweald. sit. 1 feondes laeg on f yrndagum foldan getyned f eonda.ELENE 13. samod ealle gesceaft. MS. ond hwseSre geare nyste on galgan. of er bam seSelestan engelcynne. em. . 716 ond bas word cweSap 720 1 MS. 'Dryhten Hailend. wuldres aras. ond to begnurige binre gesettest. MS. S. mundum bmum ond bu amsete ond uprador ealne ymbhwyrft ond bu sylf sitest. lange legere wunode 725 wselreste. assumes a gap. Gm. AND ITS RESULT 720 721-2 Stopon pa to psere stowe stiShycgende on pa dune up tSe Dryhten aer heofonrices Weard. leohte bewundene. Heofoncininges lof. Th. Gr. si[n]t [feower] mid syxum eac fsegere scinab. burh [feondes] searu faest leodum dyrne. iiii. ahangen waes. sigora Waldend. . . em.. stowe. 1 721 MS. halig in 740 ond heofonlic. Z. ba ymbsealde synt fi6rum. >aere stowe. conjectures }?urh searucraeft besenced Gr? }>urh f eonda searu . halig. burh bines wuldres miht ond bu geworhtest heofon ond eorSan ond holmbrasce. J>urh searu. Para. Godbearn. elnes oncyftig. Para on hade sint sindreame syx genemned. Th. hwser sio halig [e] rod hungre gehyned foldan getyned. I^u geworhtest ba. singab in wuldre hsedrum stefnum wofta wlitegaste. Wa. Z. sJes sidne f3et5m. be on flihte a 745 ba begnunge fore onsyne singallice brymme beweotigab eces Deman. be geond lyft faraS 735 ne mseg bser manna gecynd mycle msegenbrymme of eorSwegum up geferan in lichoman mid pa leohtan gedryht. 27 THE PRAYER OF JUDAS. for 744 M . gefrsetwad.

gif he in wuldre bin burh Sa beorhtan [m&gd] Beam ne waere dogorgerimum swa brymlice. 770 beowned bolian. 'Gif bin willa sie. nsefre he soSra swa wundra gefremede feala 780 no 811 of deaSe hine beoda Wealdend. 1 no. under heolstorhofu 765 in wita f Pa. baes he in ermSum sceal. Z. Th. (Angl. middang. ond bleom wrixleS halig healdan 760 Pses Su. 1 sceolon. J^inum. ne? 782 MS. Z. aweahte for weorodum. baet ricsie susle gebunden. aldordome. 1 >e. woruldrlce . )>in. MS. ond bu womfulle wealdest widan fyrhS. legene sweorde heardecg cwacap. God Dryhten. heofun ond eorSe ond tire heahengla God.28 ELENE 750 claenum stefnum bam is ceruphm nama : "Halig is se halga weoroda Wealdend. 756 MS. he. se 8e on rode wses. He sceal neorxnawang ond lifes treo . i. word aweorpan. 1 hie. 775 ond burh Marian acenned wear6 Peoden engla middangeard in cildes had. 755 pe man seraphin sigorcynn. 780 em. on swegle. . getacnod. grapum gryrefsest." Syndon tu on pam. ealra fula ful. Is Saes wuldres ful call heahmsegen. wylme nu in dracan faeSme. sio werge sceolu hreosan sceolde bser hie in orwyrd . Wealdend in engla. dreogab deaScwale He binum wiSsdc beostrum forbylmed. Z. 768 Siev. gif he bin naere Sunu synna in leas. 5<So) reads ful as sb. beofab brogdenmsel. Gr. ealre synne fruma. fah browian. Gm. MS. sceal. 775 MS. be naman hateS. sceaSan of radorum scyldwyrcende awurpe wonhydige. Pser he bin ne mseg is in witum fsest.

weroda W[yn]. Moyses on meSle. 813 MS. MS. gedo nu. swylce. t'aer araered wear5 [r]ec under radorum. under beorhhliSe swa ic be. Gm. ludas mapelode. 10. Beam Codes. baet beorhte gesceap burg paet 29 785 bin. Z: weard. walde widan ferhS ece. lange behyded. geopenie. eadig ond aegleaw. he mid bsem handum. but later (Angl. p. Ic gelyfe be ond by fsestlicor ferhS staSelige. biddan wille. beornes breostsef a . Fseder engla. gasta Scyppend. Schwarz (Cynewulfs Anteil am Christ. wen. gleaw in gepance: seolf gecnawen 'Nu ic purh soS hafu on heardum hige 810 middangeardes. upweard plegade. J>aet me. 804 803 Before this line MS. Edd. 800 Israhela Cining. Th. bset Su Haelend eart Sle $e. Hfes Fruma. (PBB. . Crist. swylce rec. 791 MS. 815 pane butan ende. gif hit sle willa biddan wille.ELENE forS beacen bin. masgena God. . 3) wyn. Nu ic be. Th. 790 [#] me paet goldhord. has X. weroda. on ba seSelan tid bam eorle ge[y]wdest ban losephes. rec astigan sel. 789 MS. baet he sle soSlice on bone ahangnan sawla Nergend. aelmihtig. of Sam wangstede wynsumne up 795 under radores ryne lyftlacende. wuldres on heofenum. * a butan ende ecra gestealda.' Da 805 of Ssere stowe steam up aras. 59) om. 13. inwrige em. 5/5) . 787 MS. hyht untweondne. bone halgan wer Swa Su gehyrdest ba Su. paet yldum wses Forlaet nu.. mihta God. gehywdest. Siev. interprets as geywdest. prymsittendum ond swa manweorcum baes Su me swa meSum burh bin wuldor [ojnwrige wyrda geryno. nu ic wat baet Su eart weoroda Willgifa. w.

mihta God. xx Gm. Gm. iii . Gr. halig under hrusan. inbryrded breostsefa. . -hyrded . gecySed ond acenned baet tiu ma ne sie mmra gylta. iii 1 em. 833 MS. reonian transposes the hemistichs. Gm. Metud. bocum his wundor ba he worhte. reongan. . 835 swa hio geardagum greote begravene. baet he on [twentigum] fotmselum feor funde behelede. em. iudea 841 MS. bier hie hie wi6 Codes Bearne swa hie no sceoldon.30 ELENE allra cyninga Erym. -greopum Gm. under neolum niSer nsesse gehydde in beostorcofan in . 847 MS. gemyndig. -greotum. 837 MS. 14 on gewritum. eod5an delfan under turfhagan. . 834 MS. baet halige treo. . Sint in 825 worpod wsere. eodon. Gm. sySSan beacen geseh He mid handum befeng wuldres wynbeam. arleasra sceolu eorSan bebeahton. peah he stangreopum he hafaS wigges lean. Stephanus. heold. 820 Laet mec. on rimtale rices bines mid haligra hlyte wunigan bser baes is in baere beorhtan byrig. cySed. bam reoni[g]an hofe he Saer [breo] mette roda setsomne. ludea [cynn] nI8 ahofun. blsed butan blinne. hige onhyrded. 824 H? Z: MS. 830 MS. ond mid weorode ahof 845 of foldgrsefe. . Asetton ba on gesyhtSe sigebeamas [pne] . 840 Pa waes modgemynd burh myclum geblissod. twentigum.' THE DISCOVERY AND IDENTIFICATION OF THE CROSS Ongan ba 830 wilfsegen sefter bam wuldres treo. geweorSod in wuldre. aeSelingas. broSor mm he wsere wiS bee. leahtra fruman larum ne hyrdon. J?ry. FeSegestas in on ba ceastre. elnes anhydig. bara be ic gefremede nalles feam srSum. -hyrted.

MS. baer menigo cwom. em. ond ba frignan ongan on hwylcum bara beama Beam Wealdendes. . Z? ac?. 1 863 MS. notes . roda breo hsefdon neovvne gefean 870 oS ba nigo^an mser^um gemeted. GV. 877 b 1 862 MS. Pa. sawl-. H. heht ba asettan life saw[o]lleasne. folc unlytel. ymb ba tid. 2 em. treo.' hire ludas 860 Ne meahte ne ful ge[a]re wiste sweotole gecyban be Sam sigebeame. he asettan heht [ac] bsere mseran byrig ond gebidan bser him gecySde Cyning selmihtig wundor for weorodum be 5am wuldres Gesseton sigerofe. H? a disyllabic. gere. raedbeahtende. ftser ludas wses gingne gastleasne. 865 on bone middel beamas mid bearhtme. Gr. on rode treo rodor eal geswearc on ba sliSan tid. on hwylcre byssa breora Peoden engla gebrowode. o5t$aet ahafen weere. sang ahofon. ser. ond gefserenne man brohton on baere beorna breate on neaweste 875 wses ba nigoSe tid Pa. Saga. on eorftan. 850 Cwen weorces gefeah on ferhSsefan. ac. hwylcre. that the metre requires 880 MS. hselefta Hyhtgifa. [<5]hangen waere: 'Hwset. we bset tacnum 855 cyftan gebrowedon. JI fore Elenan cneo.. 880 860 rihtes lie. gif Su cunne. ond up ahof wemend para roda twa MS. Edd. burh halige bee hyrdon bset twegen mid him ond he wses bridda sylf brymmes Hyrde. wemend Th. on hwylc[n]e se Hselend Sigebearn Codes. belidenes unlifgendes. miclum geblissod on modsef an . reniend.ELENE eorlas anhydige collenferhSe.

wundor pa pe worhte weoroda Dryhten to feorhnere lifes fira cynne. deophycgende.32 ELENE ofer pset faege hus. Feala me se Haelend nISa nearolicra. Tr. eatol ae[g]lseca. rihta gehwylces. (BB. ond bone soSan Sunu Wealdendes wordum heredon. faeger mid by folce. Pa sio bridde waes 885 ahafen oSSaet halig.1 seclseca. fyrhSgleaw on faeSme Hit waes dead swa aer. ingemynde. nis Saet faeger sIS. 895 DEBATE OF THE DEVIL AND JUDAS Da waes pam folce on ferhSsefan swa him a scyle. geador bu samod waes lof hafen Feeder weorSodon. aehta strudeS ? Sawla ne moton in manfremmende nu zehtum wunigan. See 877*. MS. la. He ond saw[o]l. . em. yfela gemyndig: 'Hwaet Icet5 is bis. Hra wses [o]n bide ^E'Selinges waes him uppan . 105} ahafen. pone ic aer on firenum 910 hafaS mec bereafod f eohgestreona . 23. f>is is folgap wyrdeS. rod arsered. a . Sie him wuldor ond bane a butan ende eallra gesceafta! 15. minum leng cwom Elbeodig faestne talde. breanedum bepeaht. manna. 902 MS. in NazareS 8go MS. sigebeacen s66 Rodorcyninges beam. Frucht jo). anbide. hafen. 8gob em. !5e hearma gefremede. lie leomu colodon legere faest. pe minne eft purh fyrngeflit 905 ealdne nrS. 885 se (p. he sona aras 5>3er 890 gaste gegearwod. Gr. 900 Pa baer ligesynnig astah lacende feond lyft helledeofol. ongan pa hleoSrian Lattiow. singal sacu. on .

witgan. fah ond freondleas." wi8 San 938 MS. brad ofer middangeard rsed under roderum. ha5leS hildedeor him wses Halig Cast befolen fseste/ fyrhat lufu. rihte spowan. 920 hleahtre herigean. 924 MS. 32} J>ec. ]>xt. Kluge (Litbl.ELENE afeded waes. . SySSan furbum weox symle cirde to him Ne mot senige mi Is his rice . purh ludas aer ond nu gehyned com. weallende gewitt burh wi[t]gan snyttro 940 ond pset word gecwaeS wisdomes f ul 'Ne pearft Su swa swISe. ne can. p. J?aet J>e. 935 Him Sa g'leawhydig ludas oncwseS. 945 domes 1 leasne. ond pec ponne sendeS in pa sweartestan ond pa wyrrestan witebrogan. synna gemyndig. 942 MS. em. Ic 925 burh ludas eft. se Se deadra feala synvvyrcende. ond sasce rseran. Gr. (Aanteekeningen 921 MS. hyhtf ul gewearS . wiSssecest fseste pset Su. in susla grund. geasne. bam Su hyrdest aer. wiSSan. 138) gaesne. sehte mine. p. in oft getynde. p[ec] se mihtiga Cyning : in neolnesse nySer bescufeS. Gen ic findan [c]an purh wrohtstafas wiSercyr [s]iSSan of Sam wearhtreafum ic awecce wi$ Se : oSerne cyning ond he forlaeteS se ehteS bin. . goda geasne. Gr. 1 sitSSan. Z. for 1884. Cos. MS. Gr. Gr. 33 915 of cildhade. Stud. Gr? 926 MS. sarum forsoht. is geswiSrod pa rode ne pearf Hwset. eft. op den Beowulf. se Heelend me mm Ic bam engan ham geomrum to sorge. sar niwigan morSres manfrea. wigan 2 1 witan. 20) wi5 Se.' pone ahangnan Cyning. 40. lare bine 930 ond manpeawum mmum folgap. Gr. 1 Brown (Eng. 925 . oft.

. K. bod[e]n aefter burgum in ceastra gehwae[m]. boden?. Siev. MS. .' Elene gehyrde hu 955 se feond ond se freond geflitu raerdon. on swa lytlum fsece hu he swa geleafful ond swa [o]ncy8ig aefre wurde Gode bancode. Sefa waes J>e glsedra synnig heo gehyrde Jjaes J)e J)one hellesceaj)an oferswiSe[dn]e. WORD IS BROUGHT TO CONSTANTINE. faetSmatS. bodan. para pe sI5 oS5e aer under heofenum ahafen wurde. Wuldorcyninge. em. Gm 1 faetSmiaC ? Z. boden. ond gesaelig. wundrade ymb J)ses weres snyttro. J)urh Beam Codes baes hire se willa gelamp bega gehwaeSres baes sigebeames. leohta beorhtost wiSerhycgende. 970 maere morgenspel para be Dryhtnes manigum on andan dyrnan woldon. ond pser awa scealt. suslum beprungen syS'San wunodest. un-. bodod?. be hio swa leohte oncneow. wergSu dreogan. ade onaeled. Gm. Gr. 975 selest sigebeacna funden wsere. Th. 973 MS. fsetSmeS. 960 ond \)a. paet Wite Su be gearwor anforlete Su unsnyttrum 950 ond lufan Dryhtnes. synna bryttan. gehwaere em. suggests rod . on twa Haifa. 958 MS. swa brimo fae6m[a]S. yrmtm butan ende. em. baet Cristes [rod]. one-?. . halig fyrn foldan begraefen. -swiSende. werbeode al wide laeded. H.34 ELENE worde awehte. 1 1 1 961 MS. WHO COMMANDS TO BUILD A CHURCH Da geond waes gefrege J)a in baere folcsceare. ond on fyrbaeSe pone faegran gefean. in baes weres breostum. 965 ge ast J)sere gesyht5e ge Sees geleafan wuldorfaeste gife 16. Gr. gleawnesse burhgoten. 972 MS. tireadig ond trag.

109-110) brimnesen. Gm. Z. spon-. em. 580} >aet? . Alt. Naes J>a fricgendra msest under goldhoman feorran geferedfra].ELENE ond wses ludeum gnornsorga msest. in worlde set Sam willspelle. Th. MS. 35 Da ofer eorlmsegen ricene to rade. Alt. 5. 106) brim nesen (=naesen). brim nesan. wilspella -msest Saet p[*t] sigorbeacen meted waere. . ofer heanne sio cwen behead aras fysan sceoldon Romwarena holm ond pam wiggende 985 seolfum gesecgan purh Meotodes est funden in f oldan. 1004 MS. 985 MS. J)urh J)a mseran word ferhS gefeonde. f. 5. Tr. Z. gearwian. Siev. brim nesen. Cristenum folce. 1 hsefden brim nesen. 998 MS. -nesen. 23. hlihende. -nesan. H.. . paet ser feala maela 990 behyded waes halgum to teonan. werurn wansasligum. Anz. hael abeodan beadurofre. Th. 997 995 MS. MS. brim nesen. 580}. aseten. (BB. reads swon-. meahton K. . Anz. gif hie brim nes[a]n. }>xr . 1000 MS. Dietrich. . Siev. 979 MS. Hie se casere heht eft gearwian ofstum myclum secgas ne gseldon edre gehyrdon. f. 54). Cos. i. hlaford secean. brohton 1000 hu gesundne sI8 ofer s[w]onrade mid sigecwen secgas asetefd] hsefdon on Creca land. hlih[h]ende hyge. (pp. pe him hereraeswan aras. 146) brim nesen. Ten Brink (Zs. 993 MS. 1 2 . 60) gegearwian. gad burgum Waes him frofra in geworden 995 . geferede . em. (Angl. syStJan andsware Heht he Elenan aeSelinges word. (Angl. em. Pa Sam cining'e wearS mod geblissod. pair hie hit for worulde 980 Cristenra gefean. (Tijdschrift i. wyrda laSost wendan meahton. sylfe to siSe. Ten Brink (Zs. D. Gr> >aet .. D. >e i. ne meahton. brimnesen. ofer eastwegas.

locum belucan. Hio geefnde swa. haeleftum to'helpe. His geleafa wearS em. Th. Z? . aeSelu. Z? unbrsece. to baire halgan byrig. craeftum getyde Da seo cwen bebead sundor asecean. Lifwearde leof. gemeted para pe gefrugnen 1015 foldbuende 1 020 1025 on eorSwege. anbroce . AND IS HALLOWED AS BISHOP CYRIACUS Swylce ludas onfeng aefter fyrstmearce fulwihtes basS. . helpe findap. pa pe wrsetlicost wyrcan cuSon on pam stedewange stangefogum. Swa hire gasta Weard girwan Codes tempel. pser biS a gearu wita gehwylces. siSSan winemagas westan brohton ofer lagufaesten leofspell manig. on Calvarie tempel Dryhtnes Criste to willan. JUDAS IS BAPTIZED. 17. 1030 wraSu wannhalum saece ond sorge . heo pa rode heht reord of roderum. selest sigebeama. hwaetmode. anbrsece. siSSan wunode seSelu[m] [ujnbrsece. 1029 MS. hie sona pser purh pa halgan gesceaft godcunde gife. ond gimcynnum. 1035 ond geclasnsod wearS Criste getrywe. golde beweorcean eorcnanstanum mid bam seSelestum ond pa in seolfren faet searocraeftum. besett[a]n t8er paet lifes treo. pa selestan. MS. pser sio halige rod mserost beama waes.36 ELENE 1005 ond gesundne haeleS sIS settan mosten. hire pa aras beorhhlifte Heht on 1010 eac gebeodan Constantinus past hio cirican pair pam begra rsedum getimbrede.

ond gedwolan fylde. on sacerdhad ludas bam folce 1060 burgum on innan. (but not H. unrihte %. em. em. He bset betere geceas. Meotud. Pset gecySed wearS. milde. gearolice H. assume a gap at second hemistich. Gr. mwan je stefne. ond bam wyrsan wiSsoc. on fultum. THE DISCOVERY OF THE NAILS >a mod gemynde 1065 1042 gen Elenan waes ymb ba maeran wyrd for bam naeglum be 8se? Nergendes geneahhe. 1 leahtre f orhogode. -corene. Gm. siSSan frofre Cast in baes wic gewunode bylde to bote. se 1045 gefulwad leoht gearu Se aer feala tida inbryrded breostsefa gewended to wuldre. hasfde lif ofgifen. wyrd gescr[a]f ond swa leof Code sceolde. lange f orhogode 1047 MS. 18.. MS. . siSSan Elene heht Eusebium on rsedgebeaht.ELENE fsest 37 on ferhfre. Nama beornes in burgum on wses gecyrred baet betere f or$ Haelendes. 1053 MS. 1040 wuldres wynne. . em. 2 1059 MS. ) inserts after this line }>aet }>ses landes bisceop MS. -snoterne. ]?a wses mihta Wealdend. f orS snot [t] erne. has XIII. God. . ond hine Cyriacus burh snyttro gebeaht sySSan nemde to bisceope. in worldrice weor6an 1050 Crlste gecweme. Z. weres breostum. Rome bisceop. gearu 1045 1044 Before this line MS. Gm. H. rex . gefetian haeleSa geraedum 1055 he gesette in Jerusalem baet to baere halgan byrig. he swa geleaffull Huru. burh Gastes gife to Codes temple crasftum gecoren[n]e. . deofulgildum. 1 . 1 Edd. H. 1 cyning. gescreaf 2 1 1050 H. Him wearS ece [Cyning]. bset on beet betere lif.

gasta Geocend. Glaedmod code gumena preate ond pa geornlice God hergendra. ni5a. . Gm. . Gr. w i. Wolde ic baet Su funde ba 8e in foldan gen dierne sindon. IO 75 bone seSelan beam ryhte getaehteso". [r]odera Cining[es] 1080 on ba[m] ahangen waes haeSenum folmum Codes agen Beam. hord under hrusan duguSum Pa. burh para naegla cyme.38 ELENE ond his folme swa some. but later (Angl. mec bsera nasgla gen Nerigend fira. ond gerested no reonig reoteS. 13. pact pe gecySe. . hiehSum?. em. breostum onbryrded. 5/5) wen. MS. 1086 MS. eallum eaSmedum. K. se dyrne. . ond paet word acwaeS bam bisceope. em. fet purhwodon mid pam on rode waes rodera Wealdend 1070 Be Sam frignan ongan gefsestnod. 1090 bide wigena f>rym on wuldres W[yn] Cyning aelmihtig. Th. eorla hleo. Siev. 1075 MS. 5. onwrige wuldorgifum. . bine bene onsend willan mlnne. wenne (=iwynne) Th. -tsehtesS Th. ni$[8]a Nergend. Frea mihtig. 1085 wereda Wealdend. 1090 MS. Gr. (PBB. . Cristenra cwen Cyriacus baed hire pa gina Castes mihtum paet . bald reordode: 'Pu me. bisceop paes folces. in : Sa beorhtan gesceaft. (PBB.' 1095 hyge staSolian. A mm hige sorgaS. 1087 2 Siev. Z. ymb wundorwyrd to willan gefylde. . rode rodera 1 . MS. deope bedolfen heolstre behyded. baet gehyded gen. cining . on fyrhSsefan fyrwet myngab. Halig of hiehSa. aerban me gefylle Faeder aelmihtig. Nu Su hraedlice ar selesta. cininges 1076 MS. j) wyn. hiehSa. \>a cyninges ? 2 MS. wealdend hiehSo. -tsehtest. . deogol bideS. 1 halga ongan 518) rodera . Z.

H. Z. bisceop para leoda. swylce heofonsteorran 1115 o5Se go[l]dgimmas. 1 1 Gr. 8a i5ser of heolstre. Leode gesawon hira Willgifan wundor cySan. Leode gefsegon. 1128 MS. em. i. . Jjset. burh deofles spild Hie cwsedon pus: acyrred fram Criste. (Tijdschrift 1 1 1122 MS. in. weorud ealle willhreSig. 578) siSigean. neoftan scmende nseglas of nearwe leohte lixton. geopenigean mwan on nearwe. hwser he para naegla swiftest on bam wangstede wenan borfte. Leort Sa tacen foro". gold-.ELENE Cyriacus 39 on Calvarie hygerune ne maS. Da cwom semninga sunnan beorhtra lacende lig. Faeder. purh nearusearwe. to noo hleor onhylde. 1125 Wuldor bass age onwrigen. }>an nseglan. Th. grunde getenge. god-. 1123 1107 I. soSwundor Codes. Z. on heannesse heofonrices God !' Da wses geblissod se 6e to bote gehwearf Beam Codes. in gedwolan lange. (Angl. ond baere arwyrSan MS. gold ond. mwan stefne. 1120 anmode. 1114 MS. Gastes mihtum eallum eaSmedum. peah we wiSsocun aer mid leasingum nu is in leoht cymen. 5 . Cos. 147) ewigean. He pa[m] nasglfum] onfeng burh egesan geaclod. frofre Cast. Siev. paer hie to ssegon. saegdon wuldor Code beah hie aer wseron 'Nu we seolfe geseoS sigores tacen. Code cleopode bsed him engla Weard 1105 uncufte wyrd. om. Surh fyres bleo i no up eSigean pser pa aetSelestan hseleSa gersedum hydde wseron naeglas on eorSan. eSigean. wyrda bigang. freah.

1148 Before this line MS. has XIII. 1150 MS. weorda. leohte. Th. 1160 MS. weorSode. ofer hleor goten. Heo on cneow sette leohte geleafan. Gm. weroda. nalles for torne seSele behead. THE NAILS ARE FASHIONED INTO A geornlice gastgerynum on sefan secean soSfaestnesse BIT Ongan pa 1150 weg to wuldre. paes be hio s68 gecneow andweardllce bset wses oft bodod feor ser beforan fram fruman worulde. hwset baes waere Dryhtnes 1135 gefylled. gefullaeste. to geoce . weoroda. hsefde Ciriacus swa him seo >a wifes willan. . call gefylled. baet seo cwen begeat Cining aelmihtig. Z. Huru. 1137 MS. waes wopes hring. heo. we[ro]da God Faeder on roderum. Heo gefylled waes folcum to frofre. hroSre. halig heofonlic Cast.40 ELENE 1130 cwene brohte. selost 1160 dugoSum willa. tearas f eollon 1135 ofer wira gespon wuldrfe] gefylled [hie] cwene willa. heo hie. wuldre 1 1136 MS. wuldres gefylled. W. sigora Dryhtne. hat heafodwylm. hroSer. Cos. wiildre waes gefylled. to hroSer. 1 MS. Waes se witedom purh fyrnwitan 1155 call aefter orde. Z. sioSSan freot5ode. to hwan hio pa naeglas ond deorlicost gedon meahte. ond pa wic beheold wisdomes gif e 1145 hreSer weardode. Th. Sigebearn Codes 19. beforan sungen swa hit eft gelamp ^eodcwen ongan Singa gehwylces. leohtne. be hire brungen waes gnyrna 1140 Code pancode. aeSelne innoS swa hie aelmihtig . Z. lac blissum hremig. weorud. 1 . purh Gastes gife georne secan nearwe geneahhe. willan in worulde.

Pset manigum sceall 1180 msere weorSan. ymb sige winnaS. >is. bera6 bord ond ord wit5 beorna gehwam seglsece set unoferswISed wsepen 1190 wigge. eor^cyninga on his bridels don. 1170 halige rune. supplies 1181 MS. bser hie'ymb [sigor] wi[nn]a8. sigor set gefeohte garbrsece frit5. Be Sam se witga sang : snottor searubancum sefa deop gewod. pses cyninges sceal 1 wisdomes gewitt . 1187 1184 MS. . fonan. ymb sigor winnaS. purh beodscipe. (PBB. Gr. ymbsacan willaS. later ymb sige (segen?) wigaS?. Th. willa?5. on sefan selost. Z. MS. Th. sweordgeni^lan. 1167 Gr. w. purh gleawe miht ond hine f rignan ongan f rodne on f erhtie selost puhte him pses on sefan hwaet ond his lare geceas to gelsestenne. Pu Sas nseglas hat bam 1175 seSelestan burgagendra meare to midlum. selest.ELENE 41 Heht Sa gefetigean ricene to rune. sawle sigesped ond bses Cininges bebod nu be God sealde ond snyttro crseft. H? selost on sefan. forSsnotterne 1165 pone pe rsedgepeaht georne cuSe. Siev. bonne fyrdhwate on twa healfe tohtan secab. geond middangeard bonne set ssecce mid by oferswiSan msege feonda gehwylcne. >us? >riste. em. set ssecce. 1 1 2 . em. He ah set wigge sped. ymb 1170 MS. Z. 518}. bonne beadurofe gecoste bis biS guman . Nerigend fira. he pset word gecwseft |3set "Cup 1165 pset gewyrSeft MS. cwen selestfe]. georne begange. ond sybbe gehwser. wraS wi5 wratium. 'Pset is gedafenlic He hire [priste] oncwsefi: pset Su Dryhtnes word on hyge healde. se ?>e fo[r]an IsedeS 1185 bridels ast on blancan.

em. seo cwen ongan pact hie lufan heap Dryhtnes. ond blinde. hygegeomre. Pa. 200 hire self re suna sende to lace gife unscynde. Cm. Cos. Elene for eorlum. AND RETURNS HOME Heht ba tosomne ba heo seleste mid ludeum gumena wiste. Iseran leofra bare halgan byrig. em. sincweorftunga 1 gen him Elene forgeaf ba hio wses siSes fus 220 ond ba eallum bebead on bam gumrice God hergendum. to cuman in ba ceastre. em. 1205 hsele^a cynnes. gelsston in hira lifes tid. hreofe. Z. 1 se baet wicg byr[e]8. em. bissceop-. bridels f rsetwan . heane.42 ELENE mearh under modegum bridelshringum 1195 halig nemned. limseoce. byrS. f undon bam bisceope. baet ofstlice . 1210 ond bses latteowes larum hyrdon. ond sybbe swa same freondrse[d]enne. in 6am sio halige rod eft to eSle. ece to aldre. laman. Code ' ond se h[re6]eadig. heortan gehigdum. 1196 MS. biS baet beacen midlum geweorfcod." call gelaeste aeSeiinges heht. em.. leahtorlease sylfra faeste betweonum. . healte. Th. HELENA EXHORTS THE CHRISTIANS. Pa. wigge [ge]weor?iod. 1212 MS. Cristenum beawum. 1208 H? MS. Pa. hwaet-. boca gleaw. baet hie weorSeden mode ond maegene bone mseran daeg. MS. beorna beaggifan. aet symle hselo bser bote. oft him f eorran to fsegere befaested . -raeddenne. 1215 lefe cwomon. ofer geofenes stream 20. be him Cyriacus Waes se bi[s]ceophad bude. wigge weorSod. heorudreorige. werum ond wifum. 2 1195 MS.

-wreah 1245 MS. THE RUNIC PASSAGE frod ond fus f>us ic. Siev. wordcraeftfy] wsef bragum breodude 1240 nihtes nearwe. f. -geat. em. H/maeht. H. 1 i. . Waes ba lencten agan ser sumeres cyme butan [syx] nihtum on Maias k[a]l[end]. rihtae Gr. riht 1 b rihtan ae. Gm. Gm. H. aer me lare onlag burh leohtne had gife unscynde ond on gemynd begeat. Ic waes weorcum fah. 1247 MS. i. 1 1239 MS. I24i MS. be on gemynd nime bsere deorestan 1235 rode under roderum. reordode. 1229 Imelmann (Angl. Oferwealdend Finit. aerme. bisgum bebrungen. . burh baet faefgje hus. MS. ricesta. L^oaerme. rode reht. has XV MS. vi . note Ett. (PBB. 1238 MS. 1242 MS. miht. tidum gerymde. 578). . 226) MS. -J>eaht. 1250 1228 MS. a . synnum asseled. H. six. ond wundrum laes. H. ond gebanc [hjreodode ic Nysse gearwe be Saere [rode] riht burh 8a mseran miht ser gebeaht on modes beaht me rumran Wisdom onwr[a]h. 1237 Before this line MS. K. engla ond hira dl sclred dream unhwilen. Beibl. D. Ett. . 1243 MS. bitr[e] gebunden. -seoce. Gm. -J>aeht. 1248 MS. mid Marian. mserost 1230 behliden helle duru.ELENE 1225 43 gemeted bara be of eorftan beama up aweoxe geloden under leafum. Maegencyning amaet. 21. -gaet. -craeft. gamelum to geoce.. 17. rice. Edd. torht ontynde. (Angl. . bitrum . breostlocan onwand. Ms. 1 areaht. f reoSode. maias kalendas 1235 . . rode riht I24i MS. 1 . 518) -craeftum. >eaht H. ece geopenad heofones ontyned. 1 aeht. i. . reodode. Gm. -scynde. Siev. . Sie bara manna gehwam waes. ricesSa. Wii. bancofan onband. . (Zs. earme. Leo hreodode. Phil. Gm. 1245 sorgum gewseled. ealles daegweorSunga ba se rices [t] a earme bebeahte. . faecne Rieger MS. em. riht . maias kl maius kalend. Wu. 315) faege. Ett.

and Siev. 22. bses ic lustum breac. cySan wyrda gangum.44 ELENE leoS[c]rseft onleac. willum. in worlde. Th. AND THE REWARD OF MEN'S DEEDS Swa ond eac swa some atyxlrede peos wor[]ld call gewiteS. bream forprycced. sefter aid onmedla. A wses s[e]c[g] 06 Sset cnyssed cearwelmum. aeflede. -beame . 2. pser enge rune. -liccost. gnornode 1260 iep[/>]lede gold. 1257 1252 MS. willum. D. H. geogoShades glsem. MS. . on gewritum. MS. 739) fore. peah he in medohealle h drusende. ond in eft nedcleofan semninga swige gewyrSeS nearwe geheaSrod. pe hire on wurdon tionleg nimeS. georuode. haefde wundor be Sam sigebeacne. 120. wseSeS be wolcnum. saecc. 10. 23. is gecyrred. swa ^ toglideS. gearum geogoS h wses geara . Riegjr (Zs. bi6 1270 flodas gefysde. Phil -beacne MS. 1260 leoSu-. to f gefera. Gm. him M fore modig prsegde wirum gewlenced. oft. b I277 1272 MS. gnornode." notes the metrical difficulty. sylf 1280 Sonne Dryhten 1 dom geseceS 1251 i. MS. f. 518) declares the . 1262 Tr. THE LAST JUDGMENT. leoS-? 317) hwilum. Led Ett. magmas pege. em. milpaSas meet. secg. Nu synt geardagas forS gewitene. Gr. Ett. ser ic pset Ic paes wuldres treowes 1255 ingemynd onwrigen haefde swa ic on bocum fand ymb pone beorhtan beam. seplede. > is geswiSrad. 1265 gomen. asfter fyrstmearce lifwynne geliden. Y seghwam under lyfte landes f rastwe under wolcnum winde geli[c]ost gewlta]) bonne he for hseleSum hlud astigeS. MS. nearusorge dreah. (PPB. 1275 wedende f asreS. nales sene. Isene . (BB.

awyrgede womsceaSan. torngeniSlan. 1297 Z. Hell 8). Z? wylm .. ungelice. swa smaete gold hemistich impossible. gesyllan. 1278. on widan feore SoSfseste bioS 1290 yfemest in pam ade. brosme bebehte. in fyres Ponne on preo folc anra gehwylc. 373}. (Angl. daeleS pristra geponca. Edd. hatne . MS. reading as the next full line alliteration. mane gemengde. Synfulle beo6. 1300 BiS se bridda in baes wylmes grund. swa hie adreogan magon duguS domgeorne.. H. lease leodhatan. reads.1 having swa )?eos aeSele MS. Jread Leo seledes or Gm. hie worpene beo5 daelum in helle grund. dsel. BiS bam twam Moton engla Frean geseon. eadigra gedryht. Harr. [seld]es leoma. haeleS higegeomre. >a >e (cf. Frucht (p. would also be possible (cf. as the second hemistich of 1277. modigra maegen. ond worda swa same 1285 aer wed gesprecenra. asundrod fram synnum. arleasra sceolu. sigora God. H. swa fceos woruldgesceaft . Hge befaested burh aergewyrht. eldes. gewiteS 1294 world call gewitetS Wa. . Him gemetgaj) call swa him eSost in bi6. of 8am morSorhofe 1305 ac Wuldorcyninge of "Sam heaSuwylme . ond butan earfeSum eaSe gepolian. 6am midle bread. Code no sy156an in gemynd cumaS. feng para pe gewurdon ofer sldne grund. 1295 sylfum geseftost.ELENE engla weorude. ij. 30} justifies it as an A-verse with double H. dreogaS ? j?e eledes?. in hatum wylme )>e H? hate wylme. 1 substi tutes in )>eosterlocan. eSles. 1296 Ett. in 1 eldes MS. but would involve more change. swa )>eos world call }>onan gewiteS. paes Deman mu6. . J5#) reads )?eod for swa }>eos world. call. [/>]e asodene beoi5. might be substituted for hie 1308 MS. . Edd. in gleda gripe. . hie for >e cf. in hat[um] wylm[e]. reordberendra daeda gehwylcra eallra unsnyttrfa] 45 Sceall aeghwylc Saer riht gehyran burh.

amered ond gemylted: swa biS para manna scylda gehwylcre. Him paes milde ond blI5e. deopra firena. yrfes brucap to wldan feore. eces eadwelan. f orSan hie Suna Metudes nu on wlite scmap englum gelice. . ascyred and asceaden purh pses domes fyr. bi5 engla Weard Se hie mana gehwylc forsawon. synna weorc.46 ELENE 1310 pset in wylme bi6 womma gehwylces aelc 1315 1 burh ofnes fyr call geclsensod. ond to wordum 1320 cleopodon . Wuldorcyninges Amen. moton ponne sit5pan sybbe brucan.

. ne hrimes dryre. Pxt is wynsum wong.. ne haegles hryre. onhliden hleobra wyn. ne sunnan haetu. wynnum geblissad. wealdas grene. foldan stencum aebele se Wyrhta. Daer biS oft open eadgum togeanes. fnseft. gefrugnen baette is feor heonan eastdselum on aebelast londa firum gefraege. modig. Con. heofonrices duru. ne 20 wearm weder. eadig and onsund. 2 2 other Edd. 15 MS. 15 ne forstes fnse[s]t. J?aer. wong seomaS Is baet sebele lond blostmum geblowen. 10 se pa moldan gesette. Ne maeg bser ren ne snaw. ne? 21 Schl. ne sincaldu. hleodora. Qua patet aterni maxima porta poli. se }>e J>a.PHCENIX THE PARADISE OF THE PHCENIX Haebbe ic I. Sw. 17 Tr? sunhsetu. Beorgas baer ne muntas 2 5 MS. om. ne winterscur ac se wihte gewyrdan. fnsest. 5 Nis se foldan sceat ofer middangeard mongum gefere ac he afyrred is folcagendra. 10 TV. 12 TV. . Con. se wong call. n on erasure . burh Meotudes meaht Wlitig is manfremmendum. mid bam f segrestum senile is bast Iglond.' 'fetters') Grdt. folc(-) agendra. f eorhagendra . meahtum spedig. Est locus in primo felix oriente remotus. freest (tr. Nee tamen astivos hiemisve propinquus ad Sed qua sol verno fundit ab axe diem. 'gelu. Tr? om. TV.. ne fyres blaest. folc agendra. . Br. foldagendra. ortus. rume under roderum.

ac se unsmeSes wiht. 35 40 mereflod peahte eorpan ymbhwyrft. ac pa beamas a beorhte blede.' || . oo. heah hlifiaS. 5 I Hie planities tractus diffundit apertos. Phaethonteis flagrasset. rejects. wridaS under wolcnum Is pset torhte lond sepela feld wynnum geblowen. Et cum diluvium mersisset fluctibus orbem. Ett. fealde?. on gewritum cypaS. . edwendung. Th. heah ne hlifiaS. Schl. wuduholt wynlic. Grdt. Klip. hearre ower?. set ende for edwenden ?. Hie Solis nemus est et consitus arbore multa 10 Cum Lucus. hleonaS 1 28 MS. fealdum. swa us gefreogum gleawe folde fseSmrimes. quorum juga celsa putantur. gefreogum.. Per bis sex ulnas eminet ille locus. ne dene ne dalu. Cos. om. 29 Th. (=heahre)?. Ille locus fiammis inviolatus erat. gefrugnon. Nee tumulus crescit nee cava vallis hiat. grene stondaS. ab ignibus axis. hea hlifiaS sunbearo lixeS. ne paer hleonaS oo hlaewas ne hlincas. Swa iu wsetres prym ealne middangeard. Sed nostros monies. gefraegum?. Sw.48 PHOENIX steape ne stondaS. interprets as inst. oo. which Holt. wong Grdt. Klip. herre. Ett. witgan purh wisdom pe her beorhte mid us ponne senig para beorga under heofontunglum. Deucalioneas exsuperavit aquas. ne him llg scebeS alfre to ealdre. )>on. Klip. 31 Schl. Klip. 40 Th. Smylte is se sigewong. perpetual frondis honore -virens. Waestmas ne dreosaft. Nsefre brosnia6 leaf under lyfte. pa se aepela onsund wi5 ySfare aeghwass 23 Ett. 30 twelfum herr[e]. wintres and sumeres wudu biS gelice bledum gehongen. ne dunscrafu. swa him God bibead. herra. on for 25 Con. serpon edwenden worulde geweor6e. ne stanclifu 25 swa her mid us.

ne 60 MS. ne sarwracu. yldu ne yrmSu. wynsumu of paes wuda midle. ne swar leger. wundrum faegrum 65 waeter wrsetlice [lojdwylmum wyllan onspringa6. Th. em. ne welan onsyn. Klip. bearo ealne geondfaraS 48 Ett. 55 ne wsedle gewin. -recedas.. onhliden weorpaS. winne>. Schl. ne se enga deaS. Gr. et violenta Lucius acerbus abest Et cures insomnes et egestas obsita Nee cadit ex alto turbidus umor aqua.1 15 Non hue exsangues morbi. 64 54 Grdt. sar ne wracu. foldan leccap. wedragebrec ? . winde>? waeSe>? 1 MS. Sw. ne paer waeter feallep ac pser lagustreamas. Nee scelus infandum nee opum vesana cupido Aut ira out ardens cadis amore furor: 20 pannis fames. Ett. weatacen nan. or wind wede>. hreos[0]S to foldan. Schl. non agra senectus. ne wedra gebregd hreoh under heofonum.. fold-. ne synn ne sacu. unwemme. 2 6i a TV. Nulla super compos tendit sua vellera nubes. 56 Hart sorgende for sorg ne . Gr. ne windig woken. bideS swa geblowen baeles 50 ponne deaSraeced. wedergebregd. 57 Grdt. ne sorg ne slsep. dome?. Nee mors crudelis nee metus asper adest. lyfte gebysgad f . ne wop ne wracu. 55 Ett.PHOENIX 45 gehealden stod eadig. Non ibi tempestas nee vis furit horrida venti Nee gelido terram rore Pruina tegit. sar wracu. ne se hearda forst caldum cylegicelum 60 Paer ne haegl ne hrlm cnyse5 aenigne.. hreosaS. Edd. purh ot5 est Codes: cyme. sorglic slaep. Nis pair on pam londe Ia6genr5la. ne lifes lyre. of paire moldan tyrf pa monpa gehwam brimcald brecaS.. . Dryhtnes domes. 49 hreora waega. Klip. ne lapes cyme. waedla. hselepa heolstorcofan. Ne wintergeweorp.

ne. Sw. Perspicuus. Qui semel erumpens per singula tempora mensum Hie genus arboreum procero 30 Duodecies undis inrigat omne nemus. 76 MS. halge under heofonum. On bam So grene stond[e]J). w[a]nia$ 6. 2 unhale?. dulcibus uber aquis. syndon.. (PBB. fugel februm strong. . wuniaS onhalge. Grdt. em. baer wrsetlice ac wudubeama wlite on bam treowum symle ofet[e] telgan gehladene edmwe in ealle tid. other Edd. 2. 77 MS. lond 71 Siev.50 PHCENIX Jjragum brymlice : is baet Peodnes gebod bsette twelf sijjum bset tirfaeste 70 lond geondlace lagufloda wynn. THE ATTENDANT OF THE SUN Done wudu weardaj) 85 wundrum fseger se is Fenix haten. on foldan . 2 ofete. Th. 78 MS. fealwe blostman. MS. grseswonge Haliges meahtum.. Schl. quern vivum nomine dicunt. no. ne em. ||. ofett. sed vivit morte refecta sua. E>ser se halga stenc holt on hiwe. TV. baer n[e] Sindon ba bearwas wlitigum wsestmum. sefre to ealdre fset onwended ne bi8 sermon endige se hit frod fyrngeweorc on frymbe gescop. 72 Grdt. gehrodne. lenis. holtes frsetwe. . 459) gehongne. MS. deormod drohta5 naef re him deaj) scebeS . bser se anhaga eard bihealdej). Klip. has lucos avis incolit unica Phoenix. 10. o. ne feallaS 75 J)ser bledum gehongene. symle. stonda)>. Grdt. 25 Sed fans in media [est]. Hoc nemus. || || Coj. Unica. om. 84 Half -line space between the sections. . 79 Ett. wunaj) geond wynlond. stipite surgens Non lap sura solo mitia poma gerit.. 80 Grdt.. 70 Sw. gehroden hyhtllce no gebrocen weorj)et$ beorhtast bearwa.

)-. Th. Fseder fyrngeweorc loo Tungol beob ahyded. (p. Klip. fraetwum blican. Lutea cum primum surgens Aurora rubescit. . frequently gives the plural form (so 97. -caldum . under wabeman westdaelas on. Klip. hwonne swegles tapur 94 MS. gewiten on daegred. twelf sibum hine air bass bam burnan beacnes cyme. ahydede. Paret Hoc 35 obsequitur Phoebo memoranda satelles: natura parens munus habere dedit. no hyded (p. 1 -streamum. in the case of such past participles with a plural noun. and seo decree niht bideglad bonne wabum strong won gewiteS on firgenstream wlonc fugel feprum under lyft ofer lagu Idea's georne torht tacen Codes. Ter quater e vivo gurgite libat aquam. qua totum una nemus. Se sceal psere sunnan Codes condelle. Klip. summo considit in arboris alia despicit 40 Vertice. em. bonan ybast maeg on eastwegum sift bihealdan. aet Swa 105 se aepela fugel pam sespringe wlitigfaest wunat5 Pser se tireadga bibabaft in wyllestreamas. sIS bihealdan. TV. of bam wilsuman wyllgespryngum brimcald beorgeS aet baSa gehwylcum. em. 51 90 georne bewitigan hwonne up cyme 95 sepelast tungla ofer ySmere e[a]stan lixan. Cum primum Tollitur ac Ter quater ilia pias inmergit corpus in undas. sitSne. 98. etc. Tr.PHCENIX on pam willwonge penden woruld stondep. rosea sidera luce fugat. and ongean cuman glsedum gimme. 25) gehwam. 96 Klip. no and symle swa oft sweglcondelle. . hwonne up cyme ofer sl[d]ne sse eastan glidan swegles leoma. 103 MS. estan. Sibban hine sylfne aefter sundplegan heahmod hef eS on heanne beam. 25). et ios Klip.

leo>res 1 Go. hleojres . organon-sweg 1 Gr. beorht of pses bearwes snell fareS feprum flyhte on lyfte. 115 Grdt. organan ||. BiJ) Jjaes hleoSres sweg eallum songcrseftum and wynsumra 135 swetra and wlitigra wrenca gehwylcum. wuldres Wyrhta. 126 -wraece. organan sweg 1 Grdt. woruld staj)elode. Go. 45 Atque ubi Sol pepulit fulgentis limina portce Et primi emicuit luminis aura levis. 1 128 Tr. organon Wu. geond middangeard. Grdt. Quam nee aedonia voces nee tibia possit Musica Cirrhais adsimulare modis. MS. heofon and eorj)an. onbryrded breostsefa. swinsaS and singed swegle to[g]eanes. 116 Klip. organan sweg. sweg Ett. remig. . Lond beoS gefraetwad.. senges on eorpan. Ne magon J>am breahtme byman ne hornas. geswins. . 124 MS. >onne sefre byre monnes siJ)J)an Heahcyning. MS. Ett. beorhtan reorde.52 PHCENIX 115 ofer holm[p]raece leohtes leoma.. ne hselepa stefn ne organan ne swanes fetJre. geswins ? Gr. Th. em. || . 130 wundorlicor. Incipit ilia sacri modulamina fundere cantus Et mira luccm voce ciere novam. haedre blice. 1 20 woruld gewlitegad. . sweg[h]leopres geswin. Et conversa novos Phcebi nascentis ad ortus Expectat radios et jubar exoriens. || . hyrde under heofonum. ne hearpan hlyn. Klip. organon136 Klip. hleoSres ? Gr. sealte streamas Sona swa seo sunne swa se haswa fugel hea oferhlifaS. Sed neque olor moriens imitari posse putetur 50 Nee Cyllenea fila canora lyrce. be || . swegleotSres Br. ne hleoSres 137 MS. 125 Donne biti swa fseger fugles gebseru. sippan wuldres gim ofer geofones gong grund gescmep mserost tungla. . J>am? MS. wrixleS woScraefte blissum [h]remig. em. || . beorhtran? 134 Cos. em. ... by?S. toheanes. Th. Br. beame gewiteS. Br. .

llfes and lissa. }>rist . Tune petit hunc orbem. 145 heafde onbrygdeS and briwa ascseceft bri[wa] ponces gleaw. Jmsendo. wintra gebideb. >riwa. fugla betst?. Ut reparet lapsum . Et sola arcanis 60 Qua postquam vita jam mille peregerit annos Ac se reddiderint tempora longa gravem. would be willing rene. tida gemearcaC he twelf sibum Symle dseges 3.PHCENIX ne aenig bara dreama be Dryhten gescop geomran woruld. aflyht5 haswigfeSra [G]rene eorSan foldan geblowene. oSbaet he busen[d] pisses lifes. THE FLIGHT TO THE PALM-TREE Swa gedemed is bearwes bigengafw] 150 bset he bser brucan mot and welan neotan. Atque eadem celeres etiam discriminat horas Innarrabilibus Antistes luci node dieque sonis. tuis. grene?. Ett. . Jmsende. Klip. febre flyhthwate: fugol biS geswiged. spatiis vergentibus ovum. fugel?. 143 MS. to em. regard Jmsende as sing. fugla wynn. Grdt. Adsuetum nemoris dulce cubile fugit. wonges mid willum. gearum frod. nemorumque verenda sacerdos conscia. fugla [wyn]. Ett. Th. Cumque renascendi studio loca sancta reliquit. jjusend (Bl. MS. Singed swa and swinsaS on suSrodor seo sunne oppaet ponne swiaS he sieged weorpeft . Phoebe. Ett. gef e?5 151 MS. bi6 gehefgad gomol. londes frsetwa. . 53 gumum 140 to gliwe in pas sselum geblissad. Gr. sigen for saeged. Schl.) 154 MS. wudubearwes weard. and nihtes. Postquam Phoebus equos in aperta effudit Olympi Atque orbem totum protulit usque means. >ryste. Donne 155 Klip. 142 Klip.. and hlyst gefe[h]S. mors ubi regna tenet. Ilia ter alarum repetito verb ere plaudit 55 Igniferumque caput ter venerata silet. 1 155 Grdt. em. 144 Bl.

heofun-?. bset [h]e ana is ealra beama on eorSwege uplsedendra beorhtast geblowen ne maeg him bitres wiht ac gescylded a scyldum sceSSan. otSscufetS scearplice. 173 MS. Fuglas bringaS fleogan titan ymbe aebelne . Go. MS. Br. . si8e. Br.54 PHCENIX and bonne geseceS middangeardes. Wu. aeghwylc wille 165 wesan begn and beow beodne maerum... Dirigit in Syriam Phoenices nomen celeres longceva volatus. Secretosque petit deserta per avia lucos. baet he in sc[^]ade weardatS 170 on wudubearwe weste stowe hseleba monegum. Br. cui dedit ipsa vetus. he gesecaS other Edd. i66 MS. Sicubi per saltus silva remota latet. he .. bone hataS men of baes fugles noman. other Edd. hy gesecaS. . Klip. mine gefraege. Siev. biholene and bihydde Daer he heanne beam on holtwuda wunaS and weardaS. 167 Ett. MS. heofum-. Schl. card and ebel. .. 160 side rice bser no men bugaS. wyrtum faestne under heofu[n]hrofe. wesan ||. se.. he geseceS. fenix on foldan.. 1 164 Grdt. 65 181 One-line space em. Th. wintrum gebysgad. Psr he ealdordom ofer fugla cynn.. Grdt. februm snel. onfehS foremihtig and brage mid him gebungen on beode. between the sections. fonne wabum strong westen weardaS. Gr... wille ||. 1 80 wunaS ungewyrded 156 benden woruld stondeft.. Th. phoenix ex ave Qua Graium nomen habet. 175 HafaS bam treowe forgiefen tirmeahtig Cyning Meotud moncynnes. In quam nulla nocens animans prorepere possit.. Turn 70 legit aerio sublimem vertice palmam. west gewiteS. side from Th. Grdt. siSe. Go. Ett.. Syrwara lond obbseth[e] gesec[e]t5 Him se claena bser corSra maeste.. Lubricus out serpens out avis ulla rapax. Schl. claene. Th. 177 Ett. corSre?.

ut vivat. swetest. . 199 Go. 192 MS.. and bam aebelestum eorban bledum. suban bliceS under swegle. . gehwam. gewices ? em. 55 THE BUILDING OF THE NEST ligeft. Donne wind weder biiS faeger. gehiware Grdt. Ne violent flabris aera purpureum New concreta noto nubes per mania cceli Submoveat radios solis et obsit avi. 190 ofestum mote baet he ba yldu wendan to life. 195 200 205 Tr? gewyrtes Schl. Siev. and ymbseteft utan sylf in bam leafsceade lie and febre on healfa gehwafm] halgum stencum.. somnatS and gaedraS ba swetestan and wudubleda wyrta wynsume sebelstenca gehwone. Construct inde sibi seu nidum sive sepulchrum: Nam perit. be Wuldorcyning. MS. E Ett. wyrta wynsumra ofer foldan gescop Faeder frym6a gehwaes. . burh gewittes wylm Eonne feor and neah feor[h] geong onfon. Sonne on bam telgum him neod micel Bi$ nest gearwian. . in baet treow innan torhte fraetwe. bib storma gehwylc stille stondaS. . in bam solere. to indryhtum I'aer he sylf biereS swetes[t] under swegle. hluttor heofones gim 185 beoS wolcen towegen. 191 Schl. waetra brybe weorodum lyhteS wedercondel wearm. se tamen ipsa creat. to bam eardstede. timbran onginneS. other Edd. feorg 206 MS. igehwaere. aelda cynne. swetes. Turn ventos claudit pendentibus Aeolus 75 atitris. Colligit hinc sucos et adores divite silva. in bam westenne baer se wilda fugel hus getimbreS ofer heanne beam and gewicaS bser wlitig and wynsum.PHCENIX 4. aswefed halig scineS.

Tr. tuam. Aetherioque procul de lumine concipit ignem: Flagrat et ambustum solvitur in cineres. heore-. hea}?o-.56 PHOENIX 5. -dreorig. Interea corpus genitali morte peremptum Tune inter varios animam commendat Aestuat ct flammam parturit ipse color.* -deores. J)urh on sumeres tid. Grdt. heoro-?. THE DEATH BY FIRE si|)es SiteS fus >onne swegles gim 210 sunne hatost. panacea. . fseges. Protinus instructo corpus mutabile nido 90 Vitalique toro Inicit exsequiis membra vieta heat. seleS. Ett. flaesc feorhhord. Quos out Pygmece gentes out India carpit Aut molli general terra Sabcea sinu. His addit teneras nardi pubentis aristas Et sociam myrra vim. heor[o]dreorges hus. ofer sceadu scineS. lif J)onne fyr bigei5 biS on siSe. Ponne weorSeS his woruld geondwliteS. 215 willsele stymetS wyrta wearmiaS. Th. 2 Tr. hus onhseted hador swegl. fyrngearum frod 220 laenne lichoman. Cinnamon hinc auramque procul spirantis amomi 85 Non Congerit et mixto balsama cum folio: casia mitis nee olentis vimen acanthi Nee turls lacrima guttaque pinguis abest. . quos opulentus Arabs. Depositi tanti nee timet ilia fidem. burh fyres feng fugel mid neste. 95 odores. Ore dehinc sucos membris circumque supraque inmoritura suis. bonne and ban adleg 217 MS. 80 Quos legit Assyrius. Bael biS onaeled J)onne brond |)ece6 hreoh 6nette8. and Fenix byrneS fealo lig f eormaS . bonne on swole byrnet) swetum swaeccum. and gesceapu dreogeS. heoro-.

beorhtast nesta aefter Hgbraece heaborofes hof . cleo(w)ne.. Ett. velut agrestes. which Klip. aefter bon. cleowene. banfset gebrocen. ut alsede.PHCENIX 6. Ett. sege waere?. at emenso sopitur tempore certo Seque ovi 105 oriri. of JDam weaxetS wyrm wundrum fseger. Ac teretis colligit in speciem. sumes onlice MS. hra br5 acolad. Siev. et effectum seminis instar habet. utalseded?. 236 TV. swylce he of aeg[e] Ponne on sceade weaxeS. Crescit. wridat5 on wynnum. r ike as in summer') ? Quos 100 velut in massam cineres natura coactos Conflat. and se bryne swebraft. 57 THE NEW BIRTH Hwaebre him eft cymeS aefter fyrstmearce feorh edniwe. Hinc animal primum sine membris fertur Sed fertur vermi lacteus esse color. 242 Th. Schl. S. 233 MS. accepts. synnum asundrad 226 r. 237 Br. ut alaede. Th. 240 Klip. Et Phoenix ruptis pullulat exuviis. segerum waes?. 'Sonne furbor gin |)set he biS waestmum gelic 240 ealdum earne and. 235 bset he aerest biS fseger fugeltimber. brad. other Edd. wridatS. Ett. . Grdt. cleofanne. seples gelicnes 230 Ponne of bam ade on baere ascan biS eft gemeted . -umber. eft sibban ba yslan onginnaS 225 hican togaedere. . 228 MS. geclungne bsele forgrunden. swylce earnes brid. Inde reformatur quails fuit ante figura. swylc he set frymSe wass. Th. accepts. cum filo ad saxa tenentur. aege. f>onne claene bi$ to cleo[w]ne. !egerum. 2 t alude (front aleodan. b r. februm gefrastwad. Ponne braed weorbeS eal edmwe eft acenned. scir of scylle. cleowne. Klip. wrideS. cleowanne. hof. 233* MS. Mutari tinea papilione solent. cleowenne. bus. beorht geblowen. which Klip. 'grow'). sumeres on lice (tr.

Swa se fugel weorbeS. eorban beccaS mid ofermaegne Of bam waestmum sceal wintergewsedum. eorl?. by-laes hi renes scur bier hi wraSe metaS. lie leobucraeftig. legit. asr eorla eadwel[a] eft alaedan 255 be aer clsene biS burh cornes gecynd. Klip. eadwelan. Klip. MS. (PBB. eorla. No geong. on lenctenne. baet ba waestmas beoS weceS woruldgestreon. gebyrge. 1 other Edd. bonne sunnan gliem saed onsawen. 260 mete on moldan.. geofona ful. gefeon. other Edd. feorh biS mwe. 267 Schl. nihte. 264 One-line space between tht sections. gomel flaesce sefter gearum. baet aer lig fornom. Hfes tacen. eor>e. burh agne gecynd foldan fraetwe. se dreoseS oft bi middre nih[t] bon se modga his feorh afede^. 198) om. bifongen. nectar e rores. his alitur mediis in odoribus ales. G gefeoS?. MS. 485) Schl. (p. . MS. waesmas. 248 MS. Has 115 Stellifero tenues qui cecidere polo. Grdt. eft gesecet5. wiste wynsume. Barn. Donee maturam proferat Ast ubi primava caepit florere juventa. 262 Siev. 243 MS. gefean. gefean?. 250 wintres cyme. awyrde bonne forst and snaw fodorbege gefe[a]n. Gr. fugel ^onne he of greote his geong. 10. eft acende. his. om. niht. agenne eard. 251 Th.58 PHOENIX swa mon 245 to andleofne eorSan waes[t]mas on haerfeste ham gelaedeS. under wolcnum. eorl. Th. edniwe he foddor bige5. effigiem. 265 Ponne bit5 aweaxen wyrtum in gemonge februm deal. he. on rypes timan. Non illi cibus est nostro concessus in orbe libat ccelesti no Nee cuiquam inplumem Ambrosios pascere euro subest. Schl. em. obbast fyrngesetu. em. dsel act nemne meledeawes .

eastan Iixe5. 274 Th. 270 sefter bselbrsece. Bit) him edniwe bre sunnan begn. gef raetwaS ?. Ett. 272 Schl. and bonne gebringeS eft setsomne. ba hine Jerest God on bone sebelan wong sigorfaest sette. pedibus gestans contendit Solis ad urbem Inque ara residens promit in cede sacra. accepts. Condit Mirandam Tantus avi decor sese prcestat prcebetque verendam: est. THE RETURN Donne afysed bi6 275 eft to secan. seceft on wynnum. Ante tamen proprio quidquid de corpore restat Ossaque vel cineres exwviasque suas Unguine balsameo myrraque et ture soluto 120 Quam et in formam conglobat ore pio. MS. and his cybbu eft. Evolat ad patrias jam reditura domus. on beorhstede 285 ascan toeacan . 280 Eall eadig ebellond. aebeltungla wyn. bonne swegles leoht. reading. . tantus abundat honor. He ba bsele his sylfes bser ser ban gebringeS. clam biclyppeS. bebyrgeS beaducraeftig geador ban and yslan on bam ealonde. bonne gimma 290 gladost. fsegre gefraetwed. swoles ban gebrosnad ades lafe.PHOENIX somnaS. lafe. sunbeorht gesetu. segn. >egn. 7. agenne card bonne fotum ymbfehS fyres lafe. brondes eal wylm forbylmde. feorh and feberhoma bift genlwad swa he set frymbe wses. gives aet)>omne as 288 MS. 59 searwum gegaedraS ban and yslan. ofer garsecg up. which Th. baet wselreaf and bonne wyrtum biteldeS.

wurman geblonden. Qualis inest foliis quo: fert agresie papaver. sum blacum splottum Sindon J)a searolice beseted. sum brun. Hoc caput. (p. 125 Principio color ISO est. Caudaque porrigitur fulvo distincta metallo. se fugel. fij)ru 300 and se hals grene and J)aet nebb HxeS nioj)oweard and ufeweard. Cum pandit vestes Flora rubente solo. swa glaes ob|)e gim. 305 Is ymb J)one sweoran. em. 310 sindon scancan scyllum biweaxen. beaga beorhtast br[o]gden feSrum. stearc. Th. smij)a orjjoncum J)onne in goldfate biseted weorj)et5. is fealwe fotas. fraetwum gefeged J)a wundrum fseger. neoj)an.60 8. Hoc humeri pectusque decens velamine fulget. 294 Se fugel on hiwe MS. ymb J>a breost f oran hindan grene. Aptata est rutilo capiti radiata corona . hoc cervix summaque terga nitent. 135 In cuius maculis purpura mixta rubet. Quorum de media lucida flamma micat. Alarum pennas insignit desuper iris. wrixled. geaflas scyne innan and titan. Is seo eaggebyrd stane gelicast. sum basu. Ett. and hiwe hwit hindanweard. 3OO Tr: >e for 301 Tr* 306 MS. Pingere ceu nubem desuper acta solet. credos geminos hyacinthos. 295 J)onne is se finta fsegre gedaeled. 311 MS. . Wraetlic scir is seo womb is and scyne. gladum gimme. bregden. se scyld ufan ofer J)aes fugles bsec. swylce sunnan hring. 195). se. a wrixleS. Ingentes oculi. Barn. PHCENIX THE APPEARANCE OF THE PHOENIX Is se fugel fseger bleobrygdum fag is him Jjset heafod wrsetlice wrixleS forweard hiwe. -gebrygd. Albicat insignis mixto viridante zmaragdo Et puro cornu gemmea cuspis hiat. oe? om. quali est sub sidere Cancri Mitia quod corium punica grana tegit.

gyf e8 Gr. selllcran gecynd. Sed levis ac velox. 320 his ealdne card. of pisse epeltyrf f oleum o8eawe[d]. Hue venit Aegyptus tanti ad miracula visus Et raram volucrem turba salutat ovans. 324 MS. pser hi sceawiap Scyppendes giefe swa him set fruman f^gre on pam fugle. accepts. geond middangeard. accepts. weras ofer eorban 1 312 Th. which Ett. om. Non tamen est tarda ut volucres qua corpore magno Incessus pigros per grave pondus habent. regali plena decore: Talis in aspectu se tenet usque -hominum. Effigies inter pavonis mixta figuram Cernitur et pictam Phasidis inter avem. eastan and westan. om. lacaS fiprum purh lyf t and swipe leoht. (Spr. 330 MS. faegran. 1 somna8. which Ett. 140 Phcebei referens verticis alia decus. seu fera seu sit avis. gifeS?. J>e. . ]>set. I?onne he gewiteS wongas secan. wlitig se pe him paet ead g[i]feS. 319 Schl. geweaxen. aeghwaer?. 1 MS. fsegerran?. 325 ponne somn[i]aS supan and norpan. Klip. gifet5. Gr. Crura tegunt squama fulvo distincta metallo. eoredciestum faraS feorran and nean folca prypum . Ast ungues roseo tinguit honore color. Swa se fugel fleogeS. Klip. 6 1 onlicost pean wynnum 315 pses gewritu secgaft. . and swift and wynsum.. THE RETINUE OF BIRDS . wuldre gemearcad. ne hygegselsa. ece is se ^Epeling pa pe ac he late .PHCENIX jeghwaes senile.) somniaS. Th. is snel 9. 145 150 Magnitiem terris Arabum qua gignitur ales Vix (square potest. mongum monna. gefetS. sette 330 sigora SoScyning frsetwe faeg[er]ran Donne wundriaS ofer fugla cyn. Grdt. Gr. Nis he hinderweard swa sume fuglas swar ne swongor.

mearciaS mundum hwonne 335 and gewritu[m] cypaS. gewritu Grdt. ponne se aepeling biS & on g m geardum. w. 160 Mox redit: ilia suis conditur inde locis. om. gewritum ? Th. Th. em. 342 MS. . and for cyning maeraS crseftum cypaB IsedaS mid wynnum leofne leodfruman. Fugelas cyrraS 355 from pam guSfrecan geomormode eft to earde. gehwam {against Siev. Sed postquam purl pervenit ad (Etheris auras. gehware . >eoda wlitaS. and swa pone halgan hringe beteldat). PBB. Ett. w[a]fiaS seSelne to earde. of pisse eorpan tyrf 350 anhoga him gefylgan ne maeg bonne dugu^a wyn paet v epel seceS. se. J 55 Protinus exculpunt sacrato in marmore formam Et titulo signant remque diemque novo. se and seo. gewritum Co s? on gewritum. gehwore gehwaere. 334 Schl. 332 . fsegre foldan.62 wlite PHCENIX and weestma.. on marmstane. gehwone. . drymendra gedryht. Br. Donne preatum biprungen. om. Th. dryhtum geeawe 340 fugla cynn on heal fa gehwo[n]e heapum pringaft. wildne weorpiaS. God ana wat. Fenix bip on middum flyhte on lyfte . Grdt. 336 MS. . songe lofiaS. 485). sigaft [of] sidwegum. Contrahit in ccetum sese genus omne volantum Nee prada memor est ulla nee ulla metus. MS. Alituum stipata choro volat ilia per altum Turbaque prosequitur munere Iceta pio. sefter Swa se gesseliga swylthwile his ealdcy^be eft geneosa'S. 354 Schl. oppaet se oSfleoge5 f eprum snel. se dseg and seo tid fraetwe flyhthwates. wundrum 345 hu seo wilgedryht worn sefter oSrum. . maeraS modigne meaglum reordum. wefiaS .

]?aer se wyllestreama. wuduholtum wunian 365 in wonge. gebrsedad. moncynnes Fruma 2 . and symle eac ealdre lafe. hine ad beceS burh jeledfyr. sind. urnen 373 Grdt. 364 MS. est. hu ba wisan butan Meotod ana. Schl. bonne fromlice burh briddes had eft of ascan. Ipsa sibi proles. suus est pater et suus heres. Klip. Grdt meahtiga ? 374 Tr? suggests hleowe. aefter Hgbrsece 370 feorh aefter fylle. Cos. . fieger fyrngesceap. Felix. gecynde which Schl. At fortunate 165 sortis finisque valuer em. yrfeweard him se meant [ig] a Forgeaf 356 MS. suggests aurnen. adopts. under swegles 375 Bi5 him self gehwseSer sunu and swses eft ' faeder. gebr[]dad weorSeS edgeong weseS hleo. Cui de se nasci prastitit ipse deus! Femina [seu sexu\ scu mas est sive neutrum. .] eademque nee ipsa Aeternam vitam mortis adepta bono. qua Veneris f&dera nulla colit. 372 MS. 377 MS. ne wat Jenig monna 360 cynnes. hwsebre eft cymeS. sola esi in morte voluptas: Ut possit nasci. . semper alumna sibi. wexeS ? Ett.de Forbon deaS ne bisorgaS. aweaht wrsetlice wundrum to life. wundorlice. Mors illi Venus est. em. Hf edniwe. ymb baes fugles gebyrd. 63 his bset hu wif hades be weres gecyn[d] biS. Nutrix ipsa sui. appetit ante mori. . meahtga. gebreadad. 170 Ipsa quidem. meahta . be him symle wat sare swyltcwale. obbaet wintra bi8 busend [ajurnen.PHCENIX Cyning aelmihtig. 10. bonne him weorbeS ende Hfes. Klip. in. sed non [eadem est. . meahtiga. DEATH NOT DREADED eadga mot eardes neotan. he drusen.

se him set gebead. on bas frecnan tid and him heanne gestrynab. blsed bam uplican ei5le ii. Pser him nib gescod. THE LOSS OF EDEN 395 baet se ^Elmihtiga Habbab we geascad burh his wundra sped. accepts. 400 Schl. em. 384 Grdt. weorca to leane. has a space after this line. 386 MS. heofona. Ett. ealdf eondes aef est . gelic is?. nemnaS neorxnawong. on bam mwan gefean. 380 Grdt. which Ett. Hf Swa bset ece eadigra gehwylc sylf geceoseS deaft. . sefter sarwrsece 385 bset he Dryhtnes mot geofona neotan and sibban a on sindreamum. Paer him bitter wearS byrgdon sefter sete. februm bifongen. sceates sceata?. accepts. has a space after this line. -bodene . wunian in w[u]ld[r]e burh deorcne sefter geardagum Pisses fugles gecynd bi fela gelices bam gecor [ e] num. which Klip. eades onsyn baer him nsenges wses 400 benden Eces word. 396 MS. 392 Grdt. Klaeb? wuldre. gives cescod as MS. Th. and hyra eaferum swa yrmbu sarlic symbel. bset hi bu begun unrsedum ofer est Codes.64 bset PHCENIX he swa wraetlice bset weorban sceolde eft bset ilce 380 he serbon wses. healdan woldan Halges hleoborcwide. 405 beames blede. beah hine fyr nime. . worulde. 404 MS. seppel f orboden [n] e. worhte wer and wif on bone selestan and hi ba gesette bone fira beam foldan sceat[a]. sunum and dohtrum. Klip. reading. Cristes begnum beacna^5 in burgum hu hi beorhtne gefean 390 burh Fseder fultum in healdab under heofonum. 387 Th. geofene.

and 12. and geealdad gewiteS werigmod. . 420 408 Klip. Klip. agaeled. halgum to[g]eanes. BiS him neod micel nest on bearwe. Jjurh his hidercyaie monncynnes Gefea. eft ontynde. which Klip. . and [ge]writu[m] cybaS fonne frod ofgiefeS biS. Ett. MS. bser he holtes hleo wintrum gebysgad. to ]>as idge. to ]>as idge. mangum. tobas idge haefdon Codes yrre. 4O7 . toj^as idge. Schl. p. 2 Br. . and se halga wong heolstre bihyded. om. TV. Ett. 2 torne scyldge. togeanes. togeanes?. Th. se anga Hyht. Hf aefter deabe. mengum?. bses ba byre sibban 410 gyrne onguldon ofer Eces word. . 425 424 . }>e. drohtaS sohton. and quotes Hart idsege?. geomormode yldran usse. fseste bityned J)urh feondes searo obbaet [hine] Wuldorcyning 420 wintra mengu. note 'Apparently 1 b defective'. Grdt. to >as idge ageald . 409 Ett. 415 in serdagum bset hi feor bonan burh faecne fer[/i]S. . MS.. (Reader. he feorh geong eft onfon mote burh Hges blaest. be hi bset gyfl begun Forbon hi ebles wyn ofgiefan sceoldon ba hio nearwe biswac. gewritum. 421 MS. TV. a . || . . mebra Frefrend. accepts. lareowas?. 430 in |3am bam baet heah gemeteS. to heanes Th. 407 Grdt. Gr.PHCENIX f 65 wurdon teonlice ageald aefter gylte. Th. writu. 228) graedige for idge. MS. 2 on gewritum?. Grdt. eard and ebel. Cos. agealde. Grdt. Klip. leorneras . bittre bealosorge. he getimbreS tanum and wyrtum se'Selestum eardwic niwe. burh nsedran nib. in bas deaSdene Him wearS selle Hf sorgfulran gesetu. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF THE NEST Is bon gelicast secgaft Jjses be us l[a]re[ow]as 425 w[o]rdum bisses fugles gefser. writum em. weordum .

bonne he selmessan and him Dryhten gecygS. 443 442 Schl. lond?.. hold on mode. tugon longne sI5 in hearmra hond. 1 we. hond.464-5 Th. dsedum domlicum. Klip. on fultum. earmum dseleS. Barn. weoruda waldend?. baet glaedmod g> rneS daeda gefremme. beald in breostum. Isenan lifes forft onetteS. wel. gescodon. Grdt.66 PHCENIX 435 edgeong wesan sefter fyrbaSe. om. (p. . Gr. ealdfeonda nan on ba[s] frecnan tid. hearma land. and sunbeorht gesetu. grimme flyhS yfla gehwylc. gives yldan as MS. heofona Heahcyning. . r . Grdt. 438 Schl. ]>a. he godra maist bib Dryhten scyld bam I>is sigora Waldend. 453 Schl. 201). om. mirce mandsede. HealdeS Meotudes se and gebedu seceS and his cneo biget5 460 sebele to eorban gieltas. in siba gehwane. gehyrdun baet him Dryhten weartS. facnes tacne. and is followed by Klip. pa wyrta sind. 441 MS. clsenum gehygdum. in bam halge nu Daet is se hea beam baer him wihte ne mseg wic weardiaS. earme aglsecan. Th. atre scebban. oft gescodan. anforleton foregengan. his ealdcySpu. sigora wilgiefa. he. hond. dugeba leasum. other Edd. Waeron hwasbre monge pa pe Meotude we[l] under heofonum halgum Seawum. Pair 455 Fseder. him nest wyrceS wi"8 niba gehwam daedum domlicum Dryhtnes cempa. 465 weoruda Wilgiefa. reading. wel?. for Codes egsan. pair him hettende. leahtras dwaesceb. and Ett. 450 MS. em. secan mote Swa Sa yldran usse. 440 445 450 and wuldres setl pone wlitigan wong leoflic on laste.

491 MS. Th. 495 deman mid ryhte. mid Heahcyning obbast ende cymeS Ponne deaS nimet5. mserSa tilgaS Ece. dseges and nihtes leohte geleafan Pus eadig eorl ecan dreames. Th. 477 lange.. . Donne monge beoS f yra cynnes wile Fseder engla. weorca to leane. hige weallende 480 Dryhten lufiaS. Brego engla. ba se wilda fugel somnaS under swegle side and wide to his wicstowe. mihtiga. heda)>. 483 Th. long . 496 MS. bibeahte. ^Imihtig. duguSa Dryhten. 490 08 fyres cyme. . byman stefne . heded?. eortan Grdt heortan ? . 13. heofonlican? 488 MS. . sigora SoScyning. earnaS on elne. em. pses him meorde wile BeoS him of bam 475 in baes eadge forgildan. heofona names. swa se m[^a]htiga Cyning beodeS. sendaS Grdt. be hi geheoldan halge lare hate set [h]eortan. MS. Ett. wic gestabelad wyrtum wuldres byrig. 67 470 Swa nu in bam wicum willan fremmaS mode and msegne Meotudes cempan. Klip. Klip. Isded. Klip. . eorban faetSm snude send[e]t5 ' sawlum binumene basr hi longe beoS. and in ealdor anra gehwaes. THE LAST JUDGMENT on gemot laedfed] . f oldan laine lichoman. laedad. wsepnum gebrybed. . seonob gehegan.PHCENIX wsestma blede. baer he wundrum fsest wiS mba gehwam nest gewyrceft. Leofne ceosaS ofer woruldwelan ne bi|) him wynne hyht bast hy bis laene lif long[e] gewunien. Edd. 481 MS. wiga waelgifre. Ponne seriste ealle gefremmab men on moldan. heortan. 485 dogorrimes. laedde.

. eallum?. on tihte?. wlitig wuldres Gim. 513 MS. of . gsestas hweorfaS ponne bryne stigeS heah to heofonum. preatum pringaS. agnum daedum wyrta wynsume . ontiht. astellaS Th. lig eal pigeS eorSan aihtgestreon. 5oo Tr. scome byrneS. ponne fyr briceS 505 laine londwelan. 1 sidan. sawel mid lice. 525 MS. gifre forgripeS. Tr. Th. 526 . Ponne on graedig swelgeft leoht cyme8 510 in pa openan tid and gefealic fugles tacen. ontihte. liges . Klip. WeorpeS anra gehwylc forht on fer[h]pe ponne peos woruld. . . uncysta. egeslic seled softfaest 525 ponne anra gehwylc.68 PHOENIX ofer sidne grund. Siev. aepplede gold londes fraetwe. eal up astell[e]8 Anwaldfa] ponne ban gegsedra5 of byrgen[n]um. from moldgrafum seceS Meotudes dom. 1 on tihte. 515 of his heahsetle Cyning prymlice halgum scIneS. ade onseled. lifes?. 500 eadgum geendad. mot Dser pa lichoman leahtra claene 520 gongaS glsedmode. accepts. Klip. on MS. aeled Klip. pa sepelan sind mid pam se wilda fugel .' 517 One-line space between the sections. GV. afaered. ge synnig. Ett. byrgenum em. on tyhte. 2 a em. and H[f]es gsest leomu He somod seldum pisses fseger fore Cristes cneo. Pier pa eadgan beoft seleS uncyste. Grdt. }>e for ge? 498 Gr. Th. in scyldwyrcende. sedre? 511 MS. Dryhtnes meahtum seSele hweorfab'. forht. uncystan Ett. 512 MS. 523 Schl. in pa geomran tid Wei Gode bip pam pe Hcian. Hat bi$ monegum in banfatu. . Grdt. Fyr bit5 on tihte. which Br. interprets gaest as 'guest. aefter wraechwile weorcum baet bifongen. biS se deorca deaS sawla Nergend.

Ic baes Hfes ne maeg ende gebldan. . agnum her baet him Wuldorcyning willum gewyrceS milde geweorfteS. THE TESTIMONY OF JOB baes senig Ne wene baet ic lygewordum aelda cynnes. 'Ic baet ne forhycge baet ic in mlnum neste neobed ceose. geomor gudaeda and bonne aefter deafle. hra werig . 553 Ett. haele hrawerig. meahtig aet bam maeSle senile cynnes se be his Ponne hleobriaS 540 sawla soSfaeste halge gaestas. 554 Th. on. hergai5 Cyninges brym stefn asfter stefne. and bonne aefter lige Hf eft onfehS edniwinga. wlitige gewyrtad BeoS bonne amerede monna gaestas. beorhte abywde. aefre to ealdre 545 Th. . neodbed Ett. stigaS to wuldre mid hyra weldsedum. 545 song ahebbaS. GehyraS witedom. Th. fiermga fyre byrneft. Purh Gaestes blaed 550 555 beald reordade. : in greotes faeSm. forsweleS under sunnan. burh Dryhtnes gief e swa se f ugel Fenix f eorh edniwe aefter aeriste 560 agan mote. leo$ somnige.PHCENIX 530 his sylfes nest baet hit 69 biseteS utan. lobes gieddinga. breostum onbryrded. bser seo deore scolu Leofne lofiaS. gewite hean bonan on longne sI8 lame bitolden. Cr. he baet word gecwaeS wuldre geweorSad heortan geboncum. abysde?. and he sylfa mid. which Klip. burh bryne fyres. accepts. Swa biS anra fira gehwylc 535 fljesce bifongen and edgeong. neabed. dreamas mid Dryhten. Klip. Ett. 14. hrawerig: 'neabed?. setywde. write \vo$craefte. clsene and gecorene.

-welan. in eadwela[n] sebelum stencum. Klip.70 leohtes PHCENIX and to lissa. >aet ic. 581 Cos. in. Th. ne mseg bser senig bam leodscipe leebbum hwopan. Schl. him. f ort5wearde ? 570 MS. Donne soSfsestum 590 heah ofer hrofas him 568 Grdt. breostum. . frod Dus guma ymb bset his seriste in ece Kf. fsegre gefrsetwed. on. J?aer him aenig? 582 Grdt. fiSrum for fuglas ? . me 8e bses wen nsefre forbirsteft in ic in Brego engla forSweardne gefean 570 fseste hsebbe. says that nothing is lost. in wsestmum gemwad. : wanting.space between sections. though the MS. Th. -welam (Schl. hi. weoredum wuldres byrig. swylthwile and in wuldor awecdS. 2 which Ett.. gelicaste. burh Dryhtnes miht Swa nu sefter deaSe somod 585 slbiab sawla mid lice. 591 Ett. accepts. THE JOYS OF THE BLESSED sawlum seined hselende Crist. bser h[e] siSSan forS 580 wun[a]t> wintra fela ealles edgiong. Ett. wunaS?.' on fyrndagum Codes spelboda. fugle gelicast. -welum. ealle gesomna^ sefter ligbryne. gieddade gleawmod. 585 Klip. Th. 586 MS. bser seo sobfseste Sunne HhteS in wlitig ofer 15. geardum. he?. gef rsetwede Klip. Grdt. 588 One-lint . 580 MS. ascan and yslan. wuniaS. . burn bryne beacnaS. Isedeb sibban to frean fugel on fotum sunnan togeanes. indicates a hiatus. assumes a gap after hwopan 'Here some lines are evidently . other Edd. MS. sawle alyseS. Klip. we by geornor tacen ongietan meahten tirfsest bset se torhta fugel 575 Bana lafe. he. ]?eah mm lie scyle on moldserne 565 wyrmum sefter molsnad weorban. hwepan or wepan ? Th. 5 569 Ett.) Grdt. swa-beah weoruda God willan. folgiaft fugjas scyne. has no hiatus' .

: 620 BliJ>e bletsiaS Bregu efenhleobre J)us eadge mid englum. heafelan lixaS. sunnan gelice. leohte werede ac bser lifgaft a swa se f ugel Fenix in f reobu Dryhtnes. sie. other Edd. gebredade. fasgrum frastwum. selestan. symle in sibbe ]?aer se beorhta beag. 592 Schl. 2 queries 593 Ett. wlitige in wuldre. geongra. him yfle ne mseg 595 fah feond gemah. 613 MS. ymb bset halge heahseld Codes. bam gladan ham. Phil. Hselend hergab and Heofoncyninges meahte maersiaS. swinsaS sibgedryht hfedre swega maeste. (Mod. wuldre bitolden. eadigra gehwam hlifaS ofer heafde. 610 ece and edgeong. 615 Ne bi^ him on |)am wicum wiht to sorge wroht ne webel ne gewindagas. hunger se hata ne yldo him se aebela Cyning yrmbu Pser gsesta gedryht forgifeS goda gehwylc. >one for >am? 599 Klip. 600 Ett. blicatS. Gr. soSfaestra Deodnes cynegold sellic gehwone glengeS leohte in life bser se longa gefea. Peer ece to ealdre. etude lof singaS : M . 'Sib si be. 605 JDrymme bibeahte. gewerede or beswet5ade?. Schl. 609 Klip. brogden wundrum eorcnanstanum. 623 MS. blij^am. 624 Klaeb. . sefre ne swebraS ac hy in wlite wuniat5. and snyttrucraeft. 2. . in 71 blissum hremige. Th. facne. ne se heard [a] burst. and be bone s[ie] brymsittendum geongra gyfena. . TV. . scebban. em. MS. goda gehwylces. mid Fasder engla. beorhte bliceS in Weorc anra gehwaes bam bliba[n] ham 600 fore onsyne ecan Dryhtnes. hearde. soS God.. gaestas gecorene. jgehrodene? \em. sy Siev.PHCENIX beorhte gebredade. betoldne. eces. 141) ginra MS.

Heof onas sindon Fseder aelmihtig. . heofuna Waldend. eft onwaecne[S] leomum gepungen. hwaepre his meahta sped heah ofer heofonum halig wunade. Caseres lof cyneprym cypaS. MS. bonne he of ascan in lifes lif. soSfsestra gedryht: singa[8] on swegje ']?am anum is for8 butan ende. uppe mid englum EU eart Fseder Gefreopa usic. Godbearnes meaht.' ryhtfremmende. frympa Scyppend. singad -treowe. singaS. bi6. Swa Fenix beacnaS.. 648 MS. . Grdt. Klip.72 PHCENIX 625 micel. gefylleS. se fugel swetum butan ende. which other Edd. unmjete. Th.' his fibru tu wyrtum faegrum foldwaestmum. manes amerede. strenSu 643 . ealra brymma Prym. eades ongyn. 630 and on eorSan somod. which other Edd. 5>eah he on eor6an her 640 cenned waere purh cildes had in middangeard. Cities wuldres. 625 ponne afysed MS. he by priddan daege pearllc wite. strengtSu ? . treow . faegre gefylled. . Edd. dom unbryce. us [hjelpe gefremede lif 650 Swa purh se Hlend swa and wynsumum his lices gedal. adopt. purh sefter lices 645 geong in geardum. Grdt. ece weorftmynd Naes his frymtS sefre. strengSu. 635 MS. selmihtig in heannesse. Hf eft onfeng hryre Faeder fultum. heah and halig ! msegnes stren[g]$u. onwaecned 650 MS. onwsecneS?. elpe. Grdt. Peah he deapes cwealm on rode treow[e] rasfnan sceolde. adopt. Dus reordiaS 635 in psere maeran byrig. Grdt. helpe?.

Con?.. Grdt. 668 MS. 673 MS..PHCENIX 73 16. Klip. . Wan. 676 MS. Ett. middangeardes in J)aere wlitigan byrig. Con?.. Con. EPILOGUE 655 Eset sindon ba word. brucan blaaddaga. Kal. . mserum (Schl. Th. em. Wu. Holt? meri et veri. perenni. Edd. TV. 655 Schl. 665 burh woruld worulda. meritare. Wan.. folandem . Klip. MS. 660 MS. mereri. symle in baet leohte Hf. in Jaarn upllcan rodera rice He is on ryht Cyning and msegenbrymmes. MS. mitem. Ett. secan. Grdt. almae . Ett. swa us gewritu secgaS.. merueri . and wuldres blaed. bser we motufn] maxima regna sedibus altis.. 6?5 agan eardinga a/w[e] letiti[e]. in dreama dream worda and weorca . ar and onwald. ]>xt ]?a word sindon. hleobor haligra be him to heofonum biS. Con? .. Siev. Br. >set MS. Grdt. geseon sigora Frean and him lof singan laude perenne Alleluia. . mod afysed to bam mildan Gode. and gesittan lifgan in lisse lucis et pads.. eadge mid englum.. wuldre biwunden HafaS us alyfed lucis Auctor ! baet we motun her mer[itare] 670 goddaedum begietan gaudia in celo. 674 MS. bser hi Dryhtne to gief e wynsumne Sy him lof stenc 660 in ba mserfan] gesceaft Meotude bringaS. Gr. . alma . line letiti Con. Ett.) em. 670 Wan. 677 Two.. Go.. . bland[u] m et mi[t]em sine fine... mittem perenne. laetitiae. 1 2 meruisse?. motum space follows.


Dset wrsltlic deor. firum freamairne. em. butan dracan anum. pses pe nippa bear[n]. Edd. wisfaeste weras. tid pam purh 20 he in ealle yfla is andwraS gehwylc pe he gesefnan maeg. ryhte areccan paes wide sind geond middangeard be we aepelu ne magon ne rim witan . wundrum hseleft scyne. aeghwaes senlicra. Th. 1 1 /r. hiwa gehwylces. p. baette losephes telga gehwylces bleom bregdende. cy>an. card weardian.* cy5dan. 25 para beorhtra gehwylc. Kynewulf. beard. wrsetlice gecynd.PHYSIOLOGUS i. Gr. 6 Th. worlde?. 5 geond wor[w]l[d] innan and deora foldhrerendra fugla wornas widsceope. 1 oprum Hxte swa bses deores hiw. leofap. >. ae[g]hwam freond. Edd. gecynde? 13 MS. sethwam. .. feorlondum on. 14 MS. 15 MS. 7 Tr. cy?5a8?. Gr. gsesthalge guman. worl. 28) bearm (for bosm)? 9 MS. sealtypa geswing. tunece waere Swa secga5. sefter dunscrafum.. PANTHER [jyara] Monge sindon unrimu cynn. widsceapene? 4 MS. bisne beorhtan bosm. etiles neotan. world. on gewritum cypa[#] Se is 15 bi pam anstapan. dryhta bearnum. swa waeter bibugeS brim grymetende. Gr. We wrsetlicfww] gecynd[0] 10 bi sumum hyrdon wildra secgan. duguSa estig. Is pset deor Pandher bi noman haten.

purh paes wildres muS sefter pare stefne stenc ut cymeS of pam wongstede wynsumra steam. gewelgaS 39 Th. em. Gr. 1 MS. ssfter J)am raeste seceS. slaepe gebiesga[d]. frsetwum bliceS. MS. 35 Symle. paette wraetlicra aenlicra glen wundrum and 30 seghwylc oprum. swettra and swipra swaecca gehwylcum. em. 33 MS. Swa is Dryhten God. Sweghleopor cymeS. : and leofteel nele lapes wiht ae[ng]um geaefnan his fyrngeflitan. sneome of slaepe. symle milde. froi -medum . prymme gewelga[d]. fsegerra. Ponne ellenrof faraS foldwegum folca prypum. Th. f rsetwa MS. 40 45 50 up astondeS. 56 1 duguSa gehwylcre. and wudubledum. gebiesgaS 1 . PHYSIOLOGUS beorhtra and scynra brigda gehwaes. fore saegde. >eo6-. gereordum under dunscrafum. on pone priddan dxg. butan dracan anum. fylle fsegen. dygle stowe Seer se J)eo[d]wiga Jjreonihta fsec swife^ on swe[o]fote. Edd. Gr. He is monpwaire. dreama Raedend. J)onne foddor J)igeS. 53 MS. dareSlacende eallum eaSmede oprum gesceaftum. Gr. 41 38 MS. MS. . em.. segnum. deor [^]wa some aefter paere stefne on pone stenc faraS. -medum. swefeS 48 . Gr. luf sum He hafati sundorgecynd. 1 em. gemetfaest. Th. sellicra. Ponne of ceastrum and cynestolum and of burgsalum beornpreat monig . 55 ofestum gefysde. wyrta blostmum eallum sepelicra eorpan fraetw[um]. em. HxeS. -mede porr. ef ne swa some. butan pe ic air pam attorsceapan.76 blaec. wopa wynsumast. eoredcystum.

of digle aras. and se anga Hyht ealra gesceafta Paet is aepele stenc. 1 71* Th. frecne and fer[/t]Sgrim. Peoden engla. paes pe he deaS fore us breo niht polade. uppe ge nipre. sigora Sellend. hreowum.PHYSIOLOGUS attres 77 ordfruman baet is se ealda feond 60 in stisla grand. Ett. MS. /ar follows. 65 wlitig and wynsum. sceatan. geond woruld ealle. Bugge 2 8 Cos. 9 Ett. and py priddan daege bipeahte breanydum. makes worie 'seaweed'. *ine-space iPBB. 7 12. gehySaS. and bonne gehyd[i]aS heahstefn scipu 68 66 Th.?.. fyr[ge]nstreama geflotan. swa baet wenap waegllpende paet hy on ealond sum eagum wliten. fareSlacendum. . Fastitocalon. (Dutch wier). hiw gelic bi hreofum swylce worie 10 waedes ofre. Is paes bam is noma cenned. ssewar? 13 MS. pone he gesaelde and gefetrade fyrnum teagum. 79) Fascitocalon. firgen-. oft gemeted. Klip. Sippan to bam swicce on healfa gehwone. saeryrica maest. Cos. gehydaS. stane. heapum prungon geond ealne ymbhwyrft eorpan sceat[a]. soSfaeste men.' 2. swaecce. -gneCe? 74 = Klip. Pxt waes swete stenc. Swa se snottra gecwaeS Sanctus Paulus : 70 'Monigfealde sind geond middangeard god ungnySe pe us to giefe daelet5 and to feorhnere Faeder aalmihtig. 5 Se bi6 unwillum.?. WHALE ic fitte (ASP-TURTLE) Nu wille woScraefte ymb fisca cynn wordum cypan bi bam miclan purh modgemynd. MS. fyrn-. nippa gehwylcum. Th. Th.. Ett. em. sondbeorgum ymbseald. gen hwale. Gr.

. 35 Gr. frecnes ne wenaS. gelyste. drohtiende. sippan weorpeS. 15 setla>. 592 reads. paet hi biS scinn[^w]a peaw. On pam ealonde heah fyr jelafi. selatS. pact wic weardiaS. werigfer[/^]8e. 18 Klip. s[<?]lap saemearas and ponne in paet eglond up gewitaS ceolas stondaS collenfer[/j]pe. baette flra gehwylc 40 haelepa cynnes faeste on his hringe bip f eorgbona. Swa deofla wise. hricge. 15 sundes set ende. Sonne semninga on sealtne waeg mid pa nope garsecges gaest. droht[i]ende 35 burn dyrne meaht and on teosu tyhtap wemaS on willan. MS. aeleS . reonigmode. weniaS. Wu. scip?. and ponne in deaSsele drence bifaesteS scipu mid scealcum. bewundne. Edd. cf. 30 grund geseceft. . ieled ^8^ste gel[y]ste. hwylc. 1 Th. Ponne flah of cwicsusle paet gecnawetS feond gemah. scinna. as An. 31 Th. no>hlo>e? 32 MS. paet hy wrabe secen. aet duguSe beswlca^.. this latter line. Edd. MS. Haelep beop on wynnum.. tilra daeda. wealleS? 23 Klip. 22 MS.78 to PHYSIOLOGUS bam unlonde oncyrrapum.. drohtende. Edd. 40 Cos. Ett. frofre to feondum. Cos.} reomig-?.? . Klip. bi stape faeste streame biwunden. Gr. he him burh slipen searo. oppaet hy faeste Saer pam wserlogan wic geceosab. geliste.. 25 Klip. dreorig-. but Krapp on ferende. wloncum and heanum be his willan her MS. Donne gewiciaS 20 faroftlacende. 28 Cos. (Spr. Gr. wedres on luste. Ett. 39 Cos. niper gewitep. gefeged. ]?onne gefeleS facnes crssftig him pa ferend on faeste wuniap. 25 weccaS.

ferht(-)gereaht. jp~... 49 Klip. beswicne. grimme goman. Hi bser in faraS. Ett. IzeteS hine beswican burh swetne stenc. Him lices awyrgda ongean helle ontyneS. Klip.. . He 50 hafafl obre gecynd. leasne willan. Swa se be oftost his bij) gumena gehwam : unwaerlice. Th. Klaeb. Gr.?. ed- gecynde. grundleasne wylm under mistglome. 55 and J)one agjsecan aetes lysteb.. bam 70 be leaslice wynne fremedon on unraed. 142} ferhte reht?.i Klip. 60 ut ge\vit[e]t5. obj)set se wida ceafl bi6 bonne faeringa gefylled hlemmeS togsedre ymbe ba herehube . . 58 MS. beswicen weorSab. SwimmaS sundhwate baer se sweta stenc . waeterbisa wlonc. swa se micla hwsel se JDC bisencetS saslibende eorlas and ySmearas. hat- . Ett. Th. J>aette oJDre burh J)one.. Wii. -wisa. Ponne nine on holme hunger bysgaS. unware weorude. \rary to fS. (Mod. Gr* ad-? .?. 2. wraetlicran gien. 65 lif bisceawaS on bas Isenan tid.PHYSIOLOGUS firenum fremmaS. 79 f seringa. Th.. ba be him on cleofiaS. 56 Klip. 50* Klip. wide weleras cyme's wynsum stenc of his inno>e. >aet. Phil. Sonne se mereweard muS ontynet5. Ett. bealwes bam [ajdwylme. Ett. just law". f erht5geriht a b 73 . MS. em. ssefisca cynn. goda geasne. 45 heolobhelme bibeaht. fremede. faastenne craeftig. ''""erhS-. 70 MS. 'conKlip. ofer ferh[S]gereaht Ponne ast se faecna in bam gebroht hafa^.. mid bam he helle secet5. fremedon. aefter hinsibe bast he bij) leahtrum fah se wiS Wuldorcyning.

8o PHYSIOLOGUS 75 and aer georne his gyltum gehrodene. beorhte gebrobor on bearna stsel. helle hlinduru. on bas hwilnan bset J)set we Wuldorcyning Uton a tid. larum hyrdon. >a }>e >ser ? Klip. Ett. we mid swa leofne motan to widan feore 3. . fiscas. swa ic symle to eow mid siblufan sona gecyrre burh milde mod ge beot5 me sibban talade and rimde. || || [cwide ii. lifdagum bonne he ba grimman goman bihlemmeS. ofost selast we wuldorcyninge wel gecweman? 84 Ett )>set wiSsacan._ fseger 5 10 word be gecwseS wuldres Ealdor swa hwylce tiid swa ge mid treowe to me on hyge hweorfaS. of bses hwaeles hweorf an motan. wanting. wuldres neotan! PARTRIDGE bi Hyrde ic secgan gen wundorlicne sumum fugle . torhte. utsib aefre. sibbe to him. has line-space following. f enge 80 bon ma be ba is faraSlacende. Phil 9) gewunan? . >am->e J>aer. and Germ. tireadge. 2 Holt. Nagon hwyrft ne swice. and a deoflum wiSsace 85 wordum and weorcum. wundorlicm 89 MS. J>e wses wynlic and] faeger?.] cyninga wuldre? Gr. us ofest selast )?aet we gecweman [subj. 82 Th. Forbon eallinga dryhtna Dryhtne. fseste togsedre. and ge hellfirena sweartra geswicaS. Here a line or more f: 79 Th. geseon moton. in hira gefter feorhcwale. Tupper (Jour. ba [pe] bser in cumaS. Eng.' bset : 'In . in lofe haelu secan.

firene feogan. duguSe to Dryhtne. 15 >enden us dseg seme. eardwica cyst J>aet swa sej)elne Finit. . frizes earnian. in wuldres wlite wunian motan.PHYSIOLOGUS 81 Uton we J>y geornor Code oliccan.




pp. cf. and lofgeorn. 634b . domhwcet. Breac. 6. nth ed. So An. by the army in Britain. 'By this conquer. Die Kreuzeslegenden im Leabhar : There is no reason to doubt conversion to Christianity.) of the flaming cross. . . The author has blended the events of three different years in these opening lines: (i) the war with the Franks (21). Encyc. Leoht. heo. see H. pp. The Genitive Case in Anglo-Saxon Poetry. 3. 6. namely from the Danube and Moesia and the Riphaean mountains in the north. rude tribes from the north of Europe. John D. 7. by citing arhwat. 510) 'The reign of Constantine capital at Byzantium. 23. 5. Jnnggemearces. with the legend. the modern Rumania. and determined to enlist it in the service of his empire. and Alania. b Werod. religion were not without influence upon his . 269. So 178..NOTES ON ELENE i ff. and the land of the Goths. which occurred in 306. Beoiv. and he caused his sons to receive a Christian education' (Encyc. 23. even to the summits and verges of the Alps in the south' (Schirmer. and from the Maeotic marshes..' the Great forms the most deep-reaching division in the history of Europe.' in 312. This identifies the year as as 312 A. 8. and over the river Danube in the north. 289. syxte. The .. 989). leodgebyrga. when he was about 18 years old. 'His claim to greatness rests mainly on the fact that 13. 556. . i. cf. 2b . . So 486. 82. on which occasion the standard of the cross was borne at the head of the army. Brit. 322) over the Goths (or Scythians) in Dacia. he divined the future which lay before Christianity. The year designated z is the 233d after the cross was buried.. and Germany. and the building of the new And again (ib. 31-2). For hroSer as dative. The Middle Irish version goes into detail: 'All the bar ig barous. 112-3. see 633. accord ing to the legend. rimes. Brit. 654. the sincerity of Constantine's moral precepts of the new life.' 16. Cf. Note the singular. and over the Rhine to the Elbe. Cf. . and over the river Don. since Constantine had been acclaimed emperor in 306. 69 ff. wintra. See Shipley. . waes. (3) the war culminating in Constantine's victory (April 20. Holthausen justifies lofhwata. i. 'Winters' = 'years' 148. . see (Sievers-Cook) Gram. 4. n. and Dacia. 656-63: 'His reign of fourteen years was marked by two events of first-rate importance the recognition of Christianity as the religion of the empire. otherwise unknown. (2) the original vision (cf. always hlw. riht cyning. Ph. So 203. p. idolatrous.

25. The Huns do not appear in the history of Europe till nearly half a century later. the Rumanian shore is a desolate fen-country. the vowel as elsewhere in Elene. thousand in men 36. Beow. . with a north-westerly direction. 23. Hugo. The names are coupled in Widsith 57. Cf. 2537. Exod. Angl. Athanaric first retreated to the Danube. 25*.' For a variety of translations. . 27 2g b. cf. 273). a chain of lagoons and partially drained marshes stretches inland for 45 miles. 2502. 34*. etc. The subject of trymedon is implied. HreS = 21. Cf. from the left bank of the river to the summits of the Carpathians. see 2 H. 58*. the poet seems to have the Roman legion in mind. according to Exod. nth ed.86 NOTES ON ELENE 20. 1164. 23S a . 12. 933. 2914. Germ. 31. 15) is somewhat doubtful: Grimm translates eoredcesi here as 'electa 2 legio. inclines to accept. The emendation according to 224. A little later they settled south of the Danube. . where the whole army of the Israelites (600. 's note on the passage.. 24 Cf. pp. iiob Cf. burglocan. 1187*. . herecumbol not being found. About 374 they were fighting against the Goths (not with them) under Athanaric in the general region of this battle between Constantine and the Goths.. >aet here = 'until.' Danubie. 230-2.ooo men.. The Quedlinburg Annals (Man.' and is followed for no miles by a barren plain (ib. ff. The surface is a yellow clay' (Encyc. 23 cf . miles. . 1928. all the b. Pr. leaving the Huns in possession of Rumania. . 825-6). 235 Jud. It is divided into three zones steppe. 'For 290 East of Bucharest. 37) was divided into the 12 tribes (fetfan). nth ed. 386. Rumania 'consists of a single inclined plane stretching upwards. So i25 b . b. Script. 387. to Beow. Ii2b . 34 b a Holt translates: 'Bands of picked horsemen strengthened the 35 -6 force [forces ?] of the foot-soldiers. 13. . 729. . Gen. 3. which line the water's edge. and then northward over the mountains into Transylvania. 214. Brit. Cf. Whether cyst is the same as the cyst which means 'the choicest' (cf. b ff.' A cyst comprises a Exod. is originally a compound eoh-rad = 'horse-riding..' which H. to 107. 31) say that Franks bore this name from a certain leader. pob . 12. b.' and Korner as 'ausgewahlte Reiterschar. 26b . and is a vast monotonous lowland. 37. The Hugas are coupled with the Franks and Frisians in Beow. 45 a - So Beow. and about this time pro fessed Christianity 'glorious. 826). with 50 cysta to the tribe. but cyst in general is a more vague expression. and alpine. Brit. The first begins beyond the mud-flats and reed-beds forest. in which the cavalry was normally not more than one-fifteenth of the whole.' (Encyc. The emendation according The emendation according Cf. cored . 17.

: : = Supply wesan. Encyc. 356. Latin : 'vidit poet had in mind the ecclesiastical crosses which he the beginning of the Dream of the Rood. ander the Great] comes the legend of Constantine.' 5O b -i a . Cf. . >y. b. By. The Latin basis is et fecit antecedere sibi signum crucis et veniens cum suo exercitu super barbaros coepit caedere eos proxima luce. Latin : 'vir splendidissimus. (H. 23. 796-7. Mod. no b weorces gefeah. ' 201. nob ff. fre Korner 88b -go. Brit.. Eng. i6off. 946. 264. 105.. 1983-4.. 289) 72. tufa. 53.. . Gen. Exod. . 276. So 232b >uf. xxii-xxiv. . cf. .' a. 2 ). Cf. rand. 153.' 'he breathed free again. 'cross. 245. a. the singular. oferswrSesS. he Constantine assumes that it is the king of the Huns. 23. Hence tacen. Brun. i6off. 956. b With -fel cf. et timuit vehementer. geywed. . 125. Cf. 60 ff. &c. Note the rhymes. no a So 406. 257 ff.' . 50.' 74 8s a. 1161. 93 g6 b. H. b tacen 'sign of the cross. felon in N. . etc. all still in MS. 235. gg b Cf. .. io8 b ii8b . Note the rhyme.' HreSa. tion to these there is the history of St. rode 'Et surgens impetum fecit contra barbaros. 2 notes this and other singulars for plurals : 55. Sylvester and the conversion of Constantine. 6. So 849.' The may have seen cf. In allusion to in hoc signo vinces. 69-104. . g6 a Heht >a.. 877. See Introduction. . cf. note i. a. 1388. 1199*. Saet^'so . Cf. 3024 ff. isob I074 a 99 ioo a Cf.' iO3 -4. 691. I2I b 123. 180. signum crucis ex lumine claro constitutum. 256. on . 58 contristatus est. aerdaege. The Latin has : esset innumer- abilis. 59 that.. So 105. Jud. 204 ff. Beow.' quently 86 b Holt 'he opened wide the secret places of his heart. For Lat. 2ob . 114-5.. 105-27*. D. Cf. E. An. pp. . So Beow. = : . of his tours and his In addi exploits a remarkable collection of purely Byzantine legends. 1202. nth ed. a. 'Videns autem quia multitude 56 ff. I25 a.NOTES ON ELENE It is 87 perhaps a testimony to the impression made by Constantine upon the peoples of that region that Rumanian literature still preserves his Cf. .' interprets . . 126. Gram. . . Pogatscher (Angl. like beacen.. 848: 'Next [to the history of Alex story.

2540. igg to Constantine. the spot on which it is pretended to have taken place in the church of St. 3ii b-2 a . prySbold.. for the sake of the metre. baptizavit eum. 266 a . i40 Klaeber. was believed that the first Christian emperor. . p. i42 See Jud. McKilliam. ) 'Thereupon the king came with great triumph : .. Beow.' 194. etc. 657. 993. 627. 84. . fecit eum venire ad se. : to his own city. 160. 237 a 139*.. by Eusebius. 1096. 99) would read instapes. the reading of the manuscript. 29: 'Notwith standing the fact that Constantine's baptism in Rome is well known to be legendary. him waes. ad . 574Cf.88 127. In One was credited 'it virtue of this. tires to tacne. of the nature of sermons. ff. '- .' Cf. So Beow. i49 i5i i5i a. Lat. 656. iS35 a I40 b For a defense of daroS cesc. So Chr. Sume sume. sionoSe. 215. . this was. a. prydarn. 536-7. Cf. . 23. i62 a i62 b . and that in consequence all sovereignty in the West. 217. Jud. i66-7 173. Beow. cf. Cf. a document forged between 750 and 800.. b. 195. 1654. are attributed stantine of the greatest services to the Church with which Con in the Middle Ages was represented by the spurious Donation of Constantine. is marked igg a. . So 264a i46 a. in with drawing to Constantinople.' 124*-. et : . The Latin of the legend has (H. . The Latin has 'Veniens autem Constantinus in suam civitatem' 148 2 the Middle Irish has (H. . 298 a . . Various orations. Beow. . b. i54 Cf. had bestowed on the pope all the provinces of the Western Empire. An. NOTES ON ELENE Trautmann (BB. John Lateran by an obelisk. b. So Beow. Jud. woes him. Silvestrum papam. I42 -3 i44 a. 473-490. b a. a Constantine was baptized in 337. Archiv 112. . Jul.' beacen. 'whose beacon Cf. a So An. 2oi b . was derived from pontifical concessions. a. a. 134. . Chronicle of the Popes. synodus. 668-680. Jud. 147-8. So 18. see i4i a. I 35 a Cf. See note on 8s a . So Jud. i84 Cf. 936. So ios8a ii57 a . 194. bladgifa. 607. cySan. So By. the Arian bishop iQ2 of Nicomedia. . 220^-223. 271. Cf. 131-6. even that of the emperor. . 254. 2 ) 'Mittens autem rex . Cf. Cf. a.

Brit. An. . . Helenam. 20. Helena non est moras passa. pastoribus aule Qui primus mala dona dedit ! On this the comment of Benvenuto da Imola is (Avena. i2O5 b .. : Eternum gemat ille miser. a. 233 235 b. the ideal head of all Christendom' (Encyc. 'servant of learning. 770 has orcnawe. p. 64a 2i8a 2i8b . Voigt. 'artificer of learning. Ph.. 39*. 124) for his gift. cf. 232 . lignum. Cf. 230 a stodon. ' Lorenzo Valla (ca. i. 1406-1457) was the first to assail (1440) the genuine ness of this document. . 2i4 b het. 469-470). Cayley. 'in . .' 215*." the last two lines of Petrarch's sonnet. all the greatest points of view. Ii87 a An. 442b 664*. Avena. larsrmSas. 680. but Elene went by sea.' . also exists. ut exquireret sanctum lignum crucis Domini. Not thy conversion. ideo dicit: "Ille miser Constantinus ploret et crucietur perpetualiter in abisso inferni. . 203. both religious and political. . but its falsity was not universally admitted till the end of the i8th century (cf. Dante believed in the fact of the evils Donation. 2i4 -27i cum magno exercitu. but regarded it as a source of the greatest have thus been translated by Milton: (Inf. Larsmid. Petrarch goes so far as to imprecate the pains of hell upon Constantine In his Sixth Eclogue (158-9). Foldweg a .' b The emendation seems required: the 'praise' (lof) can hardly 2i3 have been 'mindful' (gemyndig) a Cf. 843 cf. 115-7). succession. Wiederbelebung des Classischen Alterthums. Encyc. 1092. the apostle Peter (Pamphilus) speaking to Clement VI (Mitio). His lines Ah Constantine! of how much ill was cause. 22g a So Jul. 19.193). Stundum = 'time after time. 8. 3d ed. exclaims (ed. . . cf. (H.' as lareow (lar-tfeow). 2i4 b a The Latin basis is (H. 2 The Middle Irish text has hyded.. p. Note the subject. So 625*. nth 689). . P.NOTES ON ELENE 89 From Brit. : See also quia primus Constantinus dedit mala dona prelatis Ecclesie.' Rhyme. the pope was thus man of the West. but those rich domains first That the wealthy pope received of thee. qui dedit primo dotem Ecclesie. 219) 'Exclamat contra Constantinum. 2 ) 'Misit suam matrem. . 408-9.' a orcnaewe. ) 'that Christ was . . . . donee victoriae Christi invenit . : . crucified and his cross hidden by the Jews. Fontana di dolore (tr. ed. flodwege. An exceptional form in El.

immundis potius sputis injuriastis. There is no necessity for Holthausen's emendation. ). a meSelhegende would seem waes. 325^ 5i7b H. as suggested by Shipley (The Genitive Case in Anglo-Saxon. 279. 323. . cf. . referring to wordgeryno. cf. et mater ejus virum non cognovit. where the corresponding word is -ware. H26 b -7 a . So 715. So Ph. Cf. b. The Latin has: 'Eum qui per sputum oculos vestros illuminavit. NOTES ON ELENE The metre . b. 1220. Brown (Eng.' 345 ff. b. . sunde. b a 297 -8 . 16. gleawe. Stud. 10. Cf. Beow. Jul. b. 353 369. 16. One is tempted to emend to fra. 663. . So 404. 2 cites Rid. ]?aet. etc. The poet cf.90 237 247 a. 257. 84). 27. 314.. PBB. An. l6. Cf. 350. Cf. 14). Beow. and so 409 (H. 8 cf.' 252. according to Carleton F. 4o6b 1 Supply hie after pat. in PBB. 29. Chr. 1648. Chr. Cf.' 248. See Krapp's note on An. alleges the metrical necessity. 378. i. 28g 2Q5 So 996 a Cf. 1018. 339 The Latin has: Tuer . requires flfl-. 276. 312. 324. 33 8 a. to be the direct object of Heht. . 372 b. 274 b. Cf. is Essaias. and thus making -geryno depend upon wisestan. The spelling with jj most naturally explained on the ground of 40. p. Beow. 2-3. 284. 336. 2. a . : 238*. 1131. But plural subject. . 269. 236. Cf. 776. 727 b . (7. Sievers. Jer. 253. Irish influence. 32 'paer set hySe stod hringedstefna. 397-8. 375. b 250 . An. 481. 405. not likely to have ended 314 and 315 with the same word.' 302 to. b. 16. Holthausen compares 390 and So Chr. Cf. ff. and . 'by Cf. For his emendations. 446. Ps. wordgeryno. Moyses. Cf. 332. 980. For ->issan An. 304 is So So 543 a 500. So 323b . 10). 3ig 32o So 4iob cf. 849b Cf. ff. wisfcestne and wordes gleawne. Isa. Introducing a final clause. 1243 ff. b. 864. [vobis] nascetur [in secretis]. 419. 25 i a. So 344a Rather Isaiah . iiioff. but b. behead. 594. 337. 25i the ocean. 255 256 a ff. 37i a. .

2 places a period after 498*. 9. . . a. in YI live. is due to Irish influence (Engl. Jn. 91 Cf. . . D. a b b Cf. 12. So 564a him.). i. 8ii a 5ii b So Rood 78b 95 b 5ii 5o8 . non ipse autem regnabit in seculum seculi. but where tf bylgS = synna 1268. sed regnum [et gloria] eorum erit qui adorant Crucifixum .(= 'destitute of) : thus mce te. (injecerunt). but singular mortificare Immortalem.' (= Christ). a. (Cyriacus) suffered as a martyr in A. 22. S. . . So Chr. 504-5 Acts 5os 505 in a. 59) is here made contemporary with Constantine. cf. takes pe 2 as /> (=py). Stud. An. 4g8 503 b ff. = Men 2 : ^aette wer and wif . 676b . 60. ormate. 46 i 471. 46 the Wycliffite version has 'sente into him hondis'. forsegon. broSor. 'small' . a . >eodenbealwa. 'immense. Cf. Latin: Holthausen.' 426 b. cf. for Z.' 447 Cf. 58. Acts 7. .). 448-453. and note 402 403 H. him = o$$e. 'than he. So io86 a a . . 439. . 756 13. 13). and a comma a. 2. 20. But forsawon. 1318. 183) : 'If it bifall. but there are half a dozen other compounds with or. 7. 457. injecerunt. an anachronism of 300 years. 19 (mittere) Weorpan . 437. 4i8 a. b. . 3. scegon. as in Chr. 40. Brown supposes that the b b . but the plural implied : in dead (468). 513-4. comments on 489. /In. is similarly used: Mk. after Schirmer and Nestle. H. after 500*. 'putantes The Latin has 'multoties contradicebam illis. 391. 4.' Here 'and. 586 orscyldne. 14. wunde. Perhaps better peodbealwa. Rom.' 477. a. Carleton F. 1105. Acts Saules. Acts 8. 17. The Latin is: 'Jam enim amplius Hebraeorum genus regnabit. This word is not found. Cf. a. trio.NOTES ON ELENE 389. a. 7. 75i 429. sun. Not singular (H. 495 497. Jul. 10. 7. ff . 30. 1136. Here 5i7 530 the Middle English . 493. poem has (1.' Cf Fates of woruld cennaoV a So Rood 78*. 6p5 b 848 doubt miswritten for treo. 447 441. 134. Not plural (H. him. The historic Judas yfel yfele. Lk. 26. b. the fact that the martyr Stephen (Acts 7. . 423. 8. Gram. No Sachius.' sendan. Lat.

5i4 b 5i5

So Chr. 1314;
Cf. 299 b

Jul. 710.


523*. b

So 890*. So /2. 595 b 8ii b



The Latin has
See H.








. .

Cf. 418,

blasphemare eum.' and Krapp's note on An. 542, 586; Wid. 139.


Nu . ntt 'Now 53i -4 other instances given by Grein, Sprachschatz b b 53i . geare cunnon (cuSon) occurs i67
. . .



Cf. 814-5,

and the


301. b


Chr. 573 b


Beow. 2070. However, the difficulties with this reading are here too great. H. 2 ends 531 with a period, and 535 with a question-mark; while other editors end 531 with a comma, and 535 with a period. In both cases there b b a b is repetition (53i 535 ), and Holthausen, besides, has a question (532 -5 ), which does not employ the inverted order, and ignores the parallelism of






The emendation provides

a verb equally




renders unnecessary the change of bince b and the optatives in Gen. 2846, By. 215, Ps. 70. 10), and pre (cf. S4i serves the parallelism of Nil nu. For the phrase, Nu ge ... .








see 372b
Cf. 572.






4o6 6o7 not otherwise found, but





freobearn, 672.


H. 2 quotes from the old Saxon Heliand 5959-60: 'thuo bigunnun im quidi managa tinder them weron wahsan,' which would be in OE. 'Sa begunnon him cwidas manige under Sam werum weaxan.' 575- wyrtSeS. Ph. has weorded.






wyrda geryno.
for eortSan

Cf. I3i b , I36b but also I279b Cf. 6i7 a i<H7a Cf. Ps. 73. 6; 109. 18, 29. b So
, ,


a 59 1 .

= 'on




6o6-7 6o8a .

Cf. Chr. 5o6-7 a

For the emendation, and J?afian.'



b a 46s -6



sceal >inga


609-10. Expanded lines, like 667-8, 701. 610. The MS. rex is apparently miswritten


naturally be translated by







nex, which might so translated in the


Vocabularies 456.


CwealmgenWla would resemble

sweordgerii8la, El. 1181;




torngenWla, El. 568, 1306; An. 1230; cf. manlatter designate persons, while cwealmgemffla must

be abstract


'deadly enmity'), like hungres gem&lan, El. 701.

6i2 a 6i6 a


So 6o8a




off his hunger.'

Read wiS hungre
add Beow.



62 4b .

Cf. 887b

627 -8 Chr. 539;

Chr. 499-500;





Gu. 1310; An. 1709.








See Gen. 752-3.

The ge




ge of El.

965-6 must be taken into account in deciding on our interpretation; passage is difficult, at best. For heofonrices hyht, see An. 1052; for
in this



sense, Chr. 306; Jul. 170; W. 88; An. 922; Gen. 252 ff., etc. Cf. 990, 1064, 1223, 1242; Chr. 971; Jul. 731; P/t. 633, 660;

An. 227, 815; CM. 42; Gen. 950;

67, etc.


b. b.




267. b.


This form of the comparative in Beow.


cf. El.

667. 662.


Klaeber (Angl.


271) would interpret almost as


Cf. 609. Cf. 619.

seolcan; aseolce

of besylced must be derived from the strong verb (= 'torpid,' 'inert'), Cura Past. 239. 3; 289. 15; (= 'grow weak, languid'), Cura Past. 275. 20; asealcan (for aseolcari), Gen. 2167: 'ne Ijet J>u J?e J>In mod asealcan.'

676 -7 a 6g7


Cf. 447 b


The stem


72 i

724 b 726


scead. See Gram. 395. 2. So PA. 419. So An. 4i6b I497 b Cf Chr. 228b Rood iO7b
. .






Gt/te of



Ps. 95. 5; Ps. 99.



Isa. 40. 12.



The Latin has


734 b 740


Cf. Chr. 1642*; Cf. Chr. 385

'sunt currentia in aera Rood 5 b ; Ph. 596b




luce immensa.'



An. 717




The Latin has


Isa. 6. 2.



b -6.


Ezek. i. 25-8. Latin 'incessabili voce clamant.'

b -8.

Cf. Ph. 616-7, 634-5.









spelling with ph, instead of b, is a according to Carleton F. Brown

(Engl. Stud. 40. 6).
Cf. Chr. 403-5 a 408-9; Ph. 62&>-g. But see Gen. 3. 24. 755. seraphln. 757legene sweorde. Gen. 3. 24. Cf. fyrene sweorde, Gen. See Abbetmeyer, pp. 9, 17. 759-77 1 763. awurpe. Rev. 12. 9.


Isa. 6. 3.


947, 1575-


767 a 76g



Cf. Isa. 14. 12-5;
Cf. Matt. 23. 27.


20. 3.

For ful with the

b genitive, see 939


Cf. 336


Ph. 639

Gu. 1335.

78a 78s






For the emendation, see 775 a

790*, I255


Jud- 58, 254.



For the Hebrew legend, see Emerson, Mod. 787-8. Cf. Exod. 13. 19. Lang. Notes 14. 166, and the references in Holthausen's note. a 7go >urg. Unusual spelling. Cf. 289. gesceap. Hardly 'universe,' as in Jul. 273. In 183, 1032, gesceaft 'cross.' Here possibly 'Mary' cf. See also 686, 699. 783. b a The Latin has 'Fac ab eodem loco fumum suavitatis 793 -6









7g6 8oi a


Ic gelyfe.


shall believe'


= 'that


the Latin has


'ut et



The verb governs wuldres.
193, 539; 196, cf. El. 291.


same construction as wuldres W(e}aldend, Beow. 17,

in the

ego credam.' a sie, 799


183, 1752;

Dan. 13; add wuldres Cyning, Jul. 516; Wuldorcyning, Ph. The idea is derived from Ps. 24. 7-10.

8o2 a


So 894a


b -6.



ut admiratus Judas, plauderet

ambabus manibus

826 b





[Stephanus] scriptus est in Actibus



apostolorum.' b 838 -g. 'As they should [and would] not have done, had they not listened to the representations of the author of sins.' H. 2 takes fruman
as nom. plur.

= 'the

cf. 979.

leahtra fruman.

See 772 a


Jul. 347, 362.


Cf. 1210.



For the emendation cf. 445, 671, 862b The Latin has 'Scimus autem [de sanctis



ceterae duae latronum sunt qui b a 8s6 -7 . Matt. 27. 45. 88i b . >aet faege bus. See


eo crucifixi sunt.'
19; 2 Cor.
Cf. 1237.





Job So 723 a
. :


5. i.

a b The Latin has 'Imposita autem tertia, cruce Dominica, 884 -go super mortuum, statim surrexit qui mortuus fuerat juvenis.' b a Latin 'Omnes qui aderant glorificabant Dominum.' 8go -3 895. Before this line the MS. lacks XI. 85 a waes. Has the plural wundor as predicate nominative cf. I ff. cf. Ps. 143. 4. 903. manna might possibly be nom. sg. Cf. Acts 2. 24; Ps. 18. 4; 116. 3. 909. b 91 i faeger is used in a familiar modern sense. b a 'I can not now succeed with respect to any right (of my gi6 -7






Cf. 9iob rights).' b -2o a In Gen.

72, 'the devils in hell ne porftan hlude hlihhan, and gi9 in By. 47 the defeated foes hlihhan ne porftan (Klaeber, Herrig's Archiv Holt (following Grein) translates: 'I dare not despise this 113. 148). cross with scoffing laugh'; and Simons (Cynewulfs Wortschutz, p. 79)

may = herwan,

renders hleahtre by 'Hohngelachter,' and suggests (p. 78) that herigean 'mock' but cf Klaeber, loc. cit.

Cf. Jul. 323 a



pam engan ham.





were continually escaping from

and needing

to be returned thither


Jul. 321






Cf. wiSerlean, wiSertrod, and Ger. Wiederkehr. wiSercyr. siSSan. Against Brown's emendation is the wi8 8e of the next line. a 928 Julian the Apostate (331-363)'Though there was no direct persecution, he exerted much more than a moral pressure to restore the



power and


prestige of the old faith' (Encyc. Brit. 15. 548). himself being regarded as the prophet.


a sar niwigan. 94i dolorem.

See Abbetmeyer, pp. 9, 17. No doubt from Virgil






weres snyttro. Cf. 938 959 b g62 -3. Cf. Beow. 625-6: 'Code J^ancode wisfaest wordum,
967. 968.





se willa gelamp.'


To be pronounced as a monosyllable (H.2 ). Before this line the MS. lacks XII.



There Beow.



no direct Latin source for this swa wester bebugeS, and An.



swa wide swa

water bebugeS.



consideration of their desire that they might.'


menting on the parallel line, Jul. 570, 'baer he hit for worulde wendan meahte,' Strunk remarks 'J>ser is to be translated by "if," i.e., "if only!" "would that !" See my note on Chr. 1312; Soul 141 and cf. Angl. 29. 271. 993. him. Constantine. b The metrical scheme is xx |uX, if brim be counted long, as in ioo4 An. 442b 504b 5i3b 1543*, I574b etc. Cf. PBB. 10. 252.









Cf. 997 a 998b


b a The Latin has 'Cum magno autem studio collocans pretiosam iO23 -7 crucem, auro et lapidibus pretiosis faciens loculum argenteum, in ipso







frofre Cast.


14. 26.


The Latin has

'Beata autem Helena accersivit episcopum

Eusebium urbis Romae,
ecclesise Christi; mutavit b. Eusebius

ludam episcopum



autem nomen

ejus, et vocatus est Cyriacus.'

io52 Pope (310 ?) is here confused with Eusebius, the Arian bishop of Nicomedia, who baptized Constantine (Holder, Inventio
Sanctce Crucis, p. 10).

He was the I5th Bishop of 1059. Cyriacus. Properly, Quiriacus. cf. Holder, p. 16. Jerusalem (f May i, 134) The name (io6i b ), Gr. KV/HCIKOJ, is properly an 1063. ee Haelendes. adjective, 'of the Lord,' from the Greek Kuptos, used in the Bible for God

or Christ
io72 I075a.

a is not necessarily implied. wuldor-. See note on 967.


Cf. note

on 93b



So 682 a

io78 -85.
io87 -93.
b b



Sed non requiescet


imminet tristitia [animse meae]. fixoriis de hoc, donee Dominus compleat desiderium meum.' 'De hoc precare Dominum.'





no8 a


beorhtan gesceaft frofre Gast. So 1037. So I054a

= 'heaven.'




'tamquam aurum.' Latin: 'Nunc cognoscimus


quern credimus'


2 Tim.


U32 b




ii36 follow Zupitza. b ba wic. ii44


bring. See the note in my edition on Chr. 537. Understand wees before gefylled. H. 2 takes heo as the Anglian ace. sing, fern., and so does not
Cf. 1038*, H44 call aefter orde. In due succession (?).



333, etc. b.

So Met.




Holt translates

binga gehwylce, Hy. 'in every respect.'


Cf. 590; An. i483 a 12; sices fringes, Chr.


Cf. 409.



So I078a

n8i b .


objection to this





occurs again in

n83 a


u82 b -4a


'Victoria vero erit regis et


14. 20.



Cf. I50a

So Chr. Q45 a


ng6 a ng6 a





demanded, and H. would

therefore read se pone be. One is tempted to read be for se (cf. 415, 625, but blunders in case are not unexampled in the poetry, as in 966, 995 )

An. 747



']?one J>e




heofan ond eor]?an




4. 3,

on Chad


I2o6b -i2 a .


in the

Latin of the legend.

Cf. Bede, Eccl. Hist.

'Admonuit eos ut virtutem

dilectionis et pacis

ad invicem
. .


in the

quoque discipline


didicissent, et in ipso vidissent,


ab ipso quse indefessa instantia sequerentur'
; .
. .

Old English translation 'Monade he heo }>xt heo betweonan him ]>xt msegen lufan ond sibbe geornlice heolde ond ]?e hy from him geleornodon ond on J>a gesetenesse him gesegon It looks as though listen.' >set heo >a Cynewulf had here been indebted to Bede.
: .





















omnes hominum sanaret infirmitates.' So Ph. 2o8a 1226. aweoxe. For the singular with bara be, see Wulfing, Die Syntax in den Werken Alfreds des Grossen i. 416; Grimm, Andreas und Elene,
. .

a b I2i3 -8



sl<5es fus.





cf. El. 976,

but also 1288.

b -8.


Summer began on May
nonarum Maiarum.'




the date of the Invention of the Cross.

so that six days earlier would be The Latin of the legend



Grein has shown (Germania


424) that this means the

of May, referring to
75 -79, 83-93*)

Menologium 83

month The following passage (Men.

noteworthy on other accounts as well. 'Quicumque vero memoriam faciunt sanctae crucis accipiant partem cum Maria et cum Domino nostro Jesu
i22g -36.


Latin has




Latin legend ends. 1237 ff. Rhyme or assonance binds many of these hemistichs together. In certain cases the rhyme would be more perfect if the forms appeared
this point the


in the

Anglian dialect;

for Holthausen's attempts at restoration see the


88i b

'Through the mortality of my earthly tabernacle.' faege. So Beow. 1568, 1755; Gu. 1004; An. 1085. F&cne would make no



hreodode. See hridrude (hrydrode), Lk. 22. 31 (cf. Otfrid 4. 'redan iu thaz muat') Eng. riddle, 'sieve.' a a hat 'Oft mec geomor sefa gehSa gemanode, i24o . Cf. Gu. n8i-3
; :

heortan hyge gnornende nihtes nearwe' 2 nihtwaco.' H. calls nihtes an adverb.



Seafarer ^




a. a.

Cf. 601.

I242 i242

Cf 597 a





295^ 727^. seems rather

inartistic to

repeat this syllable from

the preceding line.
ed. b.

Wisdom =






The Christ of Cynewulf,

Cook, note on 239.
a firendadum fah, Chr. iooi



So Harr. Hell



= onlah,


Cf. Rieger, Zs.

Mod. Lang. Notes b So I2OI b I247

from onleon; the subject from D. Phil. I. 319; Wulker, Angl. 493 Brown, Engl. Stud. 38. 219.


504; Klaeber,

b begeat. H. would read begat, for begeat (cf. 1152) i248 Tobit 3. 22 Vulg., 'exultationem infundis.'



but see

'Now and then,' 'once and again.' So Chr. 1194*. b a Holt translates: 'Ever until that time was the man buffeted I257 -7i in the surge of sorrow, was he a weakly flaring torch (C), although he had received treasures and appled gold in the mead-hall wroth (Y) in heart he mourned; a companion to need (N), he suffered crushing grief and anxious care, although before him his horse (E) measured the miles and proudly ran, decked with gold. Hope (W) is waned, and joy through the course of years; youth is fled, and the pride of old. Once (U) was the splendor of youth (?); now after that allotted time are








glideth, or the rushing floods.

the days departed, are the pleasures of life dwindled away, as water (L) Wealth (F) is but a loan to each beneath

the heavens."
Garnett's rendering

Ay till then was the man With care-waves oppressed, a flickering pine-torch (C), Though he in the mead-hall treasures received, Apples of gold. Mourned for his bow (Y) The comrade of sorrow (N), suffered distress, His secret constrained, where before him the horse (E) Measured the mile-paths, with spirit ran Proud of his ornaments. Hope (W) is decreased,
Joy, after years, youth is departed, The ancient pride. The bison (U)

was once

The gladness

of youth. Now are the old days In course of time gone for ever,

Life-joy departed, as ocean (L) flows by, hurried along. To each one is wealth (F) Fleeting 'neath heaven.


In both of these, 'hope' (wen, for wyn) is of course wrong. Carleton F. Brown (Eng. Stud. 38. 207, 212) thus translates I257b -64a : 'Always was there strife [retaining MS. scecc] until then (i. e., the Redemption of the Cross) the hero overwhelmed with care-waves, dying,

though [reading frcah] in the mead-hall he shared treasures of appled The need-]ourneyer (i. e. one obliged to die) lamented evil (or misery), endured grievous sorrow, the anxious secret, though for him the horse coursed, measured the mile-paths, proudly ran, adorned with wires.' He adds (p. 218) 'The lines in Elene are capable of an intel ligible and consistent explanation, without reading personal allusions into them. The attempt to interpret them autobiographically, on the other

hand, involves perplexities.' For other renderings, see the Bibliography. 1258-70. For a discussion of Cynewulf's various runic passages, see my edition of the Christ, pp. 151 ff. (cf. Andreas, ed. Krapp, pp. 167 ff.;

Brown, Eng. Stud. These runes, taken



Tupper, Mod. Lang. Notes



in order, spell the

name CYNEWULF, and each

would, in general, represent a noun, or the first element of a compound noun. Each rune has a name, the name always beginning with the letter which the rune represents, and it is this name which should designate the appropriate object which the line demands. Unfortunately, though there is a late Old English poem (the Runic Poem) which presents these equivalences, we cannot always be sure that every rune represented the same object throughout the Old English period, nor in precisely what sense the object is to be regarded. The names and meanings are as follows (cf. Wyatt's convenient table in



Old English Riddles,




pine (-splinter) Name cen yr nied eh. Ph. such as ambergris (whence the name). that it held in its left hand a globe (raXcs) surmounted by a cross (Procopius. s. 'evil' (Gollancz). and of the imperial orb. water Y money. 1879. we have: 'At one time the statue had a golden apple in the hand. 25. 686b -8 a 'baet hy in winsele ofer beorsetle b a eorSan beagas begon. p. 'misery' (Gollancz) (Kemble). perhaps originally by a Theodore of Tarsus. of imperial orbs that there can be question in the Elene. in Johann Schiltberger's Bondage and Travels (Hakluyt Society.. Cf. to think of acquainted. which was occasionally called in Middle English. winsele). wealth Perhaps ur and yr occasion the greatest difficulty. De Aedificiis I. &c. aepplede gold. 2). Grein). Gollancz). Franc. Of Justinian's orb William of Boldensele (1332) says: 'Manu sinistra pomum. Hist. or by Syrian traders (cf.' The Pseudo-Mandeville. 1260. 8. Jul. civet. 79). wild M ^ h h eoh wynn ur lagu f eoh ox ocean.. so far as I can see.' It is not. b I257 secg. 'the bow' (Grimm. aepplede gold gifre forgrlpeoV From the passages in Elenc and Juliana it is clear that the 'appled gold. Gregory of Tours. . i). h to "f need horse joy bison. v. Warner. Palla) says : Aureus ille glpbus pomum vel palla. Lot. u. : however. 5O5 -7 'lig eal bigeS zehtgestreon.NOTES ON ELENE Rune 99 Meaning torch. sepplede gold'. or something like it. Grein).' or golden apples. Cen has been read as cene. referring to 'The ymage was the same orb (ed. then. quod orbem repraesentat. an apple of gold Gloss. Such being the case. were . et Infim. musk.' So. except that he seems to have referred. and formerly worn or carried in a case. Godfrey of Viterbo (quoted by Du Cange. Among the meanings proposed for ur are 'of old' (Kemble. Roxburghe Club. Thus we are told of the bronze equestrian statue of Justinian. : | : | | [ among this forbids us to think the gifts received in the banqueting-hall (medoheall. not to a historical text so much as to objects with which he was personally There remains only. : . Cynewulf. erected in 543 by his order in Constanti nople. the poet might have had in mind the 'apples of gold' of Prov. 4) wont to hold in his hand a rounde appel of gold' where the French reads 'Et soleit tenir un pomme rounde dooree en sa mayn. 'money' (Leo). 'ours' for yr. and a pomander pomander of course represents 'apple' itself was 'a ball made of perfumes. (pomander = pomme The pom- of d'ambrc). . Med. 'bold' (Kemble. also known by the same name. brought from the Orient through the agency of the Byzantines. p. early examples of the pomander-case. too.

speluncis (60). i277 b -g. 2. 195 See also Douet d'Arcq. I. Bibl. for which see New Eng. Matt. 10-12. Natalis de Wailly. 16. . . Quellen Anglo-Saxon Poets on the Judgment Day (Halle. 339-359. 1280) ville. the account of Aeolus and his winds. ed. Cf. Palgrave. 313: . Another name for it was musk-ball. Hist. antro (52). 566. furentibus (51). . and he drew a 367-8. The pomander must have been used at a much earlier date in the Orient. 304).. 356. 'pomme d'ambre' is used as a standard of fragrance (21. Table Ronde [Lancelot du Lac] The golden chain out of the pack. 2 as quoted by H. For other descriptions of the Judgment. ed. bearing presents. or is this not so? b So Gu. sonoras (53). . Cf. Lot. i). (= pomme de Anc. Louis. de I'Ecole des 2. 250). 18. and were usually perforated. 306. Ambrose. no7b iz67 b a i272 -7 Apparently imitated from Virgil. Cf. p. 27. 1863) 354. 1277^1321. through Byzantium. 36.008). D. 520. 1171. Kal. or merely as a useful article to modify bad smells. 341. 508. 980-1). Noyes and Bacon. on which 'amber' was fastened by means of gold clasps (JoinIn the Roman de la Rose (ca. see Klaeber. The Grau.. of England under Henry IV 4. For the influence of the Aeneid on Beowulf. 1 . Assoc. (Paris. There is the difficulty in Jul. . fremunt (56). 61). see Deering. cf. i286b ff. murmure i276 i277 a. And he spread the carpet before Arthur. 347. nedcleofan. 1280-6. So Gu. magno i273 the . How early these pomanders were known in the West I can not pretend to say. des Levantehandels 4. from which. Choix de Pieces Inv. nth ed. p. in Herrig's Archiv 126. Chartes (6. . 687-8 (quoted above) that applede gold seems to be equated with beagas. . Cf. 22. a. tr. too. Diet. Riddle 4. Lang. The globular cases were . (p. 3. 169) was probably not a pomander: 'And the huge red youth dismounted before Arthur. such embassies. hung from a neck-chain or attached to the girdle. Brit. on Ps.' Quite different must have been the apple of gold on a standard in a Servian ballad (Heroic Ballads of Senna. 12. Pair. Mod. 2 Pet. supplies might have been distributed to ' West (compare. and made of gold or silver' (Encyc. claustra (56). 1890) und V'erwandtschaften. 36 (Migne.. Sometimes they were attached to each corner of a pillow-case (Paulin Paris. b hlud. 797 and 801). but it is certain that the Old Man of the Mountain sent to St. apples of various sorts of crystal. 14.100 NOTES ON ELENE as a protection against infection in times of pestilence. 50-63. p. 40-48. Wylie. 46). as those of Haroun-al-Rashid to Charlemagne. between May 1250 and March 1251. and a carpet of diapered satin. in Pub. Heyd. Gesch. and there was an apple of ruddy gold at each corner thereof. Aen. 98) from Brown. 341). 3. (55). Jul. and musk. cf. . A. . Cf. Cf. Comm. Romans de la apple of gold in the Mabinogion (Temple Classics.

. . ut Hebrseis pueris. . . Transivimus per ignem et aquam. 3125.' 144. . . qui from Migne 14. . i Pet. . i294 . 39. 'Ergo omnes igne examinabimur. The subject of dailed . . So Gen. . they are not again assembled for a final separation into two congregations. 3. in consilio justorum surgent in judicio. . The wicked judicio. i2Q7 One might think of hatan wylme (inst. Lot. 1542. 118. See Zech. a. 88. . An. i. I537 b -8a 9.) is evidently required. For in the earlier Fathers also the Judgment arraignment precedes the purging fire. Elene to be explained as merely an instance of confusion or inaccuracy on the part of the poet. in as I pointed out in b my 13. Tertius superest impiorum. Mai. H. a. 3. Sermo 251 : (Pair. p. 1423. Exod. So Chr. (or inst. . ad poenam. 122. memoriam apud Deum. 185. 329) 'In the Elene the purgatorial fire. 9. i. Ruin 40. exuret. . et fidem suam etiam operibus executi sunt. 'Non venient unquam 7. The dat. Habes peccatores autem non surgunt in duos ordines. for which compare Beow. . while the other two groups pass Nor is the order of events in the directly from the fire to paradise. are precipitated thence into the abyss. : in illis rorabit ignis. Prsecipitabuntur sacrilegi in lacum ignis ardentis. 2210). a 1302^3. 1277. ministros autem impietatis ultor ignis : . qui incendio igne remanebunt fornacis ardentis objecti sunt. dicant tamen . .NOTES ON ELENE . sed : . is he understood.). p. .' 2 . . . b in hatum wylme. 98) surgere crediderunt.' i3og I3i7 . . . Beow. . Sed hi etsi per ignem sedebit conflans et purgans sicut aurum. note on Chr. : Add 'Unde videntur qui bene 950 (Brown. IOI ei Ecce venit Dominus.' i286 b . of Adam and Eve. . From Csesarius of Aries. i320 So Ps. After the three groups enter the fire. 66. 1005 cf aledleoma. Alii examinabuntur.' the Judgment precedes Brown remarks (p. . 318.

. on Pearl 693 'M. 15. also in the specific sense of land. Greece. "in O. 67. For the form of the sentence see 9. An exclusively foremihtig. 3113 (where it by no means designates kings) 4 . El. by Krapp on An. says in the above passages [including An. . note i. pp. mongum.' But cf. Is to no one. at 2800 the provinces regnum) : : . So always always : in Ph. 33*. Sweet's emendation to foldagendra is unnecessary. 6. For a i a. cf.' So. epic formula with which the poem opens is illustrated Manitius (p. Italy. 46. 2b For the conception of Paradise in general. manfremmendum. ib. applied to lands beyond the sea" (N. p. after the equivalent Hebrew. see 97. see pp. ante. miht(-)." To the insular Anglo-Saxon all foreign lands must have been "water-lands" perhaps in this poetical sense the word also carries with it the connotation of remoteness in both the Phoenix and the Andreas it is used for the Orient. 1039." "land that is . none of them islands. i ff . b. So 569. Troy 101 Thessaly is an yle (translating in Alex. The translation of Lactantius' poem. De Origine Mundi 193-5. Pn. 137 Chr. 907 Jul. 'The word. Cf. whereas folcagende occurs Jul. Sal and Sat. 1247-50. Cf. commenting on An. of India are thus designated. Probably to be taken as modifying folcagendra. I. meaht. Avitus. 316) Dracontius.NOTES ON PHOENIX i ff. Gen. Hartel. isle. a. 178. 1437. Cf. 522. Beow. see Introduction. 319*." yet the meaning "remote province or land" is common in Destr. 9. as are those of Italy and Egypt at 5110. 10. 2a For the postpositive on. nis . 2116. . Gesch. folc 186. Similar to the beginning of Lactantius' poem are Ad Flavium Felicem 193 (Cyprian. Odors are rife in this poem.. . Exod. der Christlich-Lateinischen Poesie. and is unsup 5. 347. 8.). Opera. 808 has hafu. and India. iO3 a. The elaboration of this passage makes iglanda refer to Lybia [Libya?]. yle more often means "island. 1052. lii-lvi. . iglond. stencum. Phrygia. 287. Cf. ported by any other instance of the word. E. . (but see 496). except in eel-. Gu. v. note 2) is not willing to identify Lactantius' paradise of the Phoenix with that of Genesis. Krapp. haebbe. 3." but rather in the literal sense of "waterreached by water. a. Cynewulfian word 7 El. Carmen de Deo I. : Hwaet ! ic iglanda eallra haebbe boca onbyrged. 28] is evidently not to be understood : "island. s. i. ed. . Beow. Beow. Osgood. 124-8. . . E. 2357. too. 3-4. T. D. El. Manitius.

Inst. 53-5. but a specific region ii. scilicet orienti. There is a similar rhymed passage. Gu. For its application to Paradise. n. 5. modig Mundbora. b I5 . meahtum spedig. knows the gate of heaven De Republica^) has it. 393). by negatives. 1248-51. 103 Cf. ne lices hryre. i 19. 14-21. nor any rain. El. 16 (Mk. b b geblowan. 1237-46.. i. 169) compares the Middle English Orison of Our Lady 37-8: per bloweS inne blisse blostmen hwite and reade. 799-802. The author seems to miss Lactantius' . 56.NOTES ON PHCENIX io a . Jacob exclaims after his vision (Gen. Kolbing (Eng. sep- tentrionis hibernum. 17) 'This is the gate of heaven. 5QI-6.' 2i -6 That is. it will be observed that the Phoenix receives 16. Rid. a. 114-5. Chr. a. i2 a . Winter appears again in 248-250. is familiar enough in the classics. . b a. Lk.' Not only does he make no explicit mention of he does not see that Lactantius is emphasizing the notion of in his Div. With 2o -i a cf. porta patet. in Gu. 8.' ne cyle. 28. 'No snow is there. 261). ne dreames dryre. into bone grenan weald. 588: fyres fnast. Virgil (Georg. 294-6. opened in Ezek. Matt. 9. ii Rev. Gen. summer in 209 ff. . i. see 615-654. from Lactantius' cf. 3. 21-4). 18. 134 ff. 4. above the surface of the plateau the plateau itself is higher than the top of any earthly mountain (28-32). For this music. . Originally hld>w meant a cairn or tumulus . 2. see 51 ff. : . 66. 4. occidentis autumnus est. Od. : conception i5 a. 21) 10. 1661-2: 'ne and somewhat sunnan bryne. i. See Chr. . 25 . 13*. i. Inst. Stud.' and the heavens are conceived as Acts 7. neorxnawong. Ennius (quoted in Cicero. (Lact. onsund. Not the inhabited globe. and in Homer the Hours are warders of the gates u: Mi maxima . A favorite word in the Ph.. 1. Jul. 9. 434 a . I4 -ig Considerably expanded anticipatory of 57 ff. 563 ff. Though there is no fyre's blast here. point in great measure. The general Thus Homer. wong. also 24-5. he attributes 'ver already found in line i . 397. cf. but 'east. aestatem meridianse plagae. b a . 749. new life burh liges blast.' fnaest seems more appropriate in the only other instance of its occurrence. of heaven (//. spring. is open. 26 -7. i. iob . 667 moldan. as usually in Old : English. &bele(-a). cf . nor yet great storm. 3. thus Beow. a hlaewas. 10. Lactantius' line indebted to that of soli cceli Ennius which he quotes in Div. 3. describing the joys of Paradise ne Hfes lyre. 841. For other passages with correlative ne. 612 ff. 8oi-2b being: See i8i ig 2ob -i a An anticipation of 43 b -7: observe eadig. b Adam and Eve wander i3 . 3.

16. Hist. A curious reminiscence of the heroic poetry.. 28. 3158. a. Per ham never ne mei snou ne vorst ivreden. = Metamorphoses. Met. Schlotterose understands by unsmedes rough vegetation. b 4i -6. Jud. . 1415. for Schlotterose. sigewong. lean (cf. 742. This practice is continued into Middle English: holtt wodez. 33 33 a. the same word. since the cold of winter and the hea summer were b 39 -4o 40-i the. by instance. Pearl 75 (see Osgood's note). see Introduction.). The poet be remembered that six cubits made a 8. 424 -5. but wuduholt. paedia 7. 43. Winter and summer 37 of a. 11-12. as here (and 362). There is considerable pleonasm in the compounds with wudu. cf I2i . p. In this world (so 23) a a a 32 . Virgil. 9. n. cf. twelfum. Soils nemus. Gaw. a So 78b 36 37-8. where trees lean over a rock (see the minare. Others speak of twenty cubits. Gu. b hleonaS. 3. Iv. 169). presumably having briers and brambles in mind. sunbearo. is describing a perfectly level. Ezek. weeds. = and can not be reconciled with Mod. . 31. as used for measuring: Ezek. So not only bearu (67. Troy 1350. 44). 15. and hence concludes a rather daring assumption that the Middle EnglisI: author must have been acquainted with our poem. . etc. vor J>er is eche sumer. 41. neither crag (stanclifu). McClintock and Strong. though it 2802. So 23 . imminere of Aen. . One hardly knows whether this is classical or Biblical. hlincas. Dest. cf. Thus not only do we have holt and wudu. 83-4 a 40 562 Lact. Cotterill) : Here doth the fruit of the trees ne'er perish or fail in alike perpetual. A a. Aen. 34. her. smooth plain. It will reed. 295. has changed its meaning. Lact. A closer parallel is Odyssey 7. Bis sex.104 NOTES ON PHCENIX Golf-players will recognize this word. but wudubearu (152. Ovid. ' per ne mei non valuwen. mere form of expression. 162 ff. its bearing. 3i3 .). 657. . 5. 40. nor cave (dunscrafu). 6. b b b 2Q -30. an account of the deluge in Book I oi but Lactantius no doubt had the Biblical accounl . b. Sievers renders by 'gedeiht' 'thrives.' and is followed 25 This is clearly against the sense in Beow. and holtwudu (171). Ovid has . Cf. etc. Encyclo Jer. Eng. 13-14. with i Kings 7. 72. wuduholt. Kolbing (see note on 14-21) compares Orison of Our Lady 39: . 52. 117-8 (tr. a a Cf. see Raleigh. World i. 21 . alike wanting. admitting nothing rugged (unsmedes}.

out above the deluge Lucan. a 52 .' see my note on 480 55.. ff. b . 6. i26oa Cf. Lact. Virgil. De Laude Mart. 10 ff. parallels. Hartel.28. 75 ff. Lact. 21-4. fons scaturiens medius sinu alvei prorumpentis emergit. . Assoc. I have adduced the following arguments (Mod. Swa.. 7. 322. See also Ph. 57 ff. irrigans universam superficiem terrae. pp. in the Vulgate ascendebat e terra. or being itself the river. Phars. See 614*.. Cf. 318) 44) : 'Ubi rauco : Fons placido perfundit agmine campos. qui inde dividitur : . 6. Vol. 15-20. : . . 273 ff. 5oi b ff. 8oi a 53 54 ff. ed.' He conceives the fountain as giving birth to the river. 43 47 b. . So An. and cf. pp. . Wulfstan 139. ne synn ne sacu. 318-9. a of cures insomnes. 3. which is influenced by Chr. App. I. 59 6i a a.' Cf. Cf. i66i a 56. p. Lang. Et fluvius egrediebatur de loco voluptatis ad irrigandum paradisum. This seems to require a different verb from and Tupper. 3. Notes 14. which in turn reposes upon Augustine or Csesarius of Aries. i66ob -2a . . Lactantius is no doubt thinking of Gen. Sal. 311. 23-25 . See also Hampole's Pricke of Conscience 7814^7. in the poetry. 25. ne sorgende slap. (3) the reading of the MS. Chr. It was Thorpe who first suggested the mean Against Hart's emendation. Lact. liv-lv). and the other quota tions in The Christ of Cynewulf. in The Christ of Cynewulf. Kolbing compares with Orison of our Lady 36 per tSe : nevre deaS ne com.. is always used of persons (2) sorgende sleep is not a translation 56 . Note the rhymes.. 52i b ff. 2. where the ultimate source is indicated as Homily 15 of (Pseudo?) Boniface. windig wolcen. a So Gu. Lang. 21. Chr. Ad Flavium Felicem 238-9 (op. adduced certain passages from early Christian writers to effect. illic . 22. 21 (Cyprian. in quatuor capita. Quattuor inde rigant partitam flumina terram. and -7o. (see Introduction. Met. want. . For the justification of onsyn as 'lack. 25-8. 490*.NOTES ON PHCENIX in 105 mind 4i b. ing 'desire. . 225-6) (i) sorgian. App. 2472. . 611 50-2. When. 39-40. Beow. 50-6. ne herm ne sorinesse. A en. Ovid. These are. 2. in Only one peak of Parnassus stood 5. 1661 . . Cf. is supported by various deprecation of sleep may be illustrated by Rev.. Mod. Thus Pseudo-Cyprian. Wand. cit. cf. feallep. et per intervalla circuito sinuosis flexibus labitur'. The the and I same general 5 .17362 b Schlotterose's note. 'Sed fons connecting it with Gen. p. Pub. as do other early Christian Latin poets. See 26b See 2 Pet. 222 ff. Cf.


252, 259, 260:

Hie fons perspicuo resplendens gurgite






de vertice flumen, Quattuor in largos confestim scinditur amnes.
leni fontis


'E cujus medio fons prorumpens totum quattuor nascentia flumina.' Other Biblical passages are related to Gen. 2. 6, 10, and must have been in Lactantius' mind at the same time. Such are Ezek. 47. 7, 9, 12; Rev.
Isidore of Seville, Etymol. 14. 33:
irrigat, dividiturque in


i ff.

(7. 17;

21. 6;

22. 17)







Ps. 36. 9;

Jer. 2. 13;

See also Ovid, F. 2. 250. wyllan. The identification of the fountain with the one river, 63. which afterwards becomes four, is no doubt responsible for this plural;
17. 13.


the lagustreamas of 62, and the plurals of 6s a



the other hand, 104.



in the poetry.

An. 516 has flodwylm, whereas there is no foldwylm Moreover, the flod- repeats the idea of lagu- (62, 70). Cf.
Rev. 22.

El. 215.

66 a 66 b



Cf. Ezek. 47. 12; Cf. 349*-

67. 68b . 76.




See 36b


syllable of

For metrical reasons, as Sievers observes (PBB. treowum is short. For the accusative with in, cf. 509, 517, El. 1209.
Cf. Chr. 330b

490), the


8s 86 a .

79. b.


So 232 b 307b
Cf. 266 a 347 a



first syllable is short, for metrical reasons (Sievers In ^Elfric's Grammar, ed. Zupitza, p. 70, we have, as an illustration of nouns ending in long -ix: hie Fenix, with this 'Swa hatte an fugel on Arabiscre Seode, se leofaS fif hund explanation








geara, and aefter deaSe eft arist geedcucod;

and se fugel getacnaS urne

on Sam endenextan



probably here dependent on Ovid,


2. 6.


Et vivax Phoenix, unica semper
88b -g.

See 179-181.

One must think Similarly 108, 187; also tapur, 114. of the mild, serene light of the wax candle, associated, as it would be in the minds of the Anglo-Saxon, with the altar, the music, and the services
of the church.
candles are burnt out,'

Shakespeare designates the stars as candles, as in 'Night's and 'Those gold candles fixed in heaven's air.' Milton designates the sun by the word lamp (P. L. 7. 370)

First in his east the glorious

lamp was


Regent of day.
Cf. P. L.
3. 22.

glaedum. For metrical reasons, glced is always long in 92. Perhaps we should here read gladum; cf. 303; Gram. 50, 294. gimme. Applied to the sun, literally or figuratively, also in
208, 289, 516.




93-4. b.

See 102-3, ii4b -5.
ae>elast tungla. See iO2b 2QOb
, .


So Chr.






In Chr. 507, the disciples see two angels, and, in Chr. 522, Christ





tacen Godes.

It is

in Jul. 564, an angel comes fratwum blican. not clear whether Codes is an objective or a

to God.

subjective genitive, that is, whether the sign signifies God, or belongs In favor of the former is the interpretation of 254b given below. waj>eman. Not to be confounded with the word in 99. 97.

99 ioo a


i6i b


Cf. 86*.

100. A Beowulfian word; there ='mountain-stream.' firgenstream. Here it seems to be 'ocean,' as in An. 300 (firigend-). The Goth, fairguni means 'mountain.' Construction as in 172. 105. wunaS. 106. twelf siSum. So 69, 146. The number is apparently due to a

misunderstanding of Lactantius' ter quater, or else to an effort to extend the notion of (28), 69, 146, to this case. Ter quater is used in Latin for an indefinite number, like our 'repeatedly': see, for example, Virgil, Aen. 12. 155; Ovid, Met. 4. 733; Horace, Od. i. 31. 13; Tibullus 3. 3. 26. On the other hand, by the time of Alcuin (f 804), ter quater seems to mean twelve; cf. his verses in Epist. 28 (Mon. Ale., p. 208), where he refers to the twelve bishops of Britain:


aeterna Dei, terrae sal, lumina mundi,
diei horae.

Bis sex signa poli, menses et ter quater anni,


The eagle is said to renew his youth by plunging three times into a fountain (Hopkins, 'The Fountain of Youth,' Jour. Amer. Or. Soc. 26
(1905). 38-41),




other authors, Pseudo- Jerome, Epist.

187) 'Quaeritque fontem et erigit pennas, et colligit in se calorem, et sic oculi ejus sanantur, et in fontem se ter mergit, et ita ad juventutem redit.' There are points of contact

ad Presidium (Migne, Pair. Lot.


between the mythical eagle and the Phcenix, as Professor Hopkins points out, but the precise historical relation between them is difficult to clear The familiar Biblical allusion, 'so that thy youth is renewed like up.
the eagle's,'

from Ps.

103. 5.

107 ff. such as

The Phoenix here appears

in a priestly character, in their




was sustained by the Egyptian kings


visits to

Heliopolis and similar shrines.


have the record of such a




Pankhy, or Piankhi I, whose original seat was at Napata, now Jebel Barkal, and who, being called in by the rulers of Middle and Upper Egypt to repel the invasion of Tafnekht, probably a Libyan chief, curbed In his progress northward he visited the latter's power about 728 B. c. one place after another, and among them Heliopolis. The stele on which he recorded the chief events of his reign, set up at Napata, and now in the Cairo Museum (translations in Records of the Past 2. 81 ff. Brugsch, Hist. Egypt 2. 231 ff.; Griffith, Egypt. Lit., pp. 5275 ff.; Breasted, Anc. Records of Egypt 4. 418-444; the part relating to Heliopolis also by Wiedemann, Zs. fur Aegypt. Spr. 16 (1878). 92-3), gives an account of

his visit to


First telling of his


the stele proceeds

'Then the King went to the royal headquarters [a (Rec. Past 2. 97-8) garden or park, a paradisus, with a residence] on the west of the lake

Then he purified himself in the of Horus, and offered his oblations. heart of the cool lake, washing his face in the stream of the heavenly waters in which Ra laves his face [cf. Book of the Dead, chap. 145, Budge's translation, p. 244: 'I have washed myself in the water wherein

Ra washeth himself when he leaveth the eastern part of the sky']. Then he proceeded to the sandy height in Heliopolis, making a great
the god

on that sandy height of Heliopolis before the face of Ra at his with milch-cows [Wiedemann, 'white oxen'], milk, odorous gums,

frankincense, and



delightful for scent.

'He went in procession to the temple of Ra, the great sanctuary, with solemn adoration. Then the Chief Priest offered supplications to ward off calamity from the King, performing the rite of lustration girded with the (sacred) vestments. He then purified him with incense and sprinkling, and brought to 'him garlands from the temple of obelisks [probably the temple erected by Sesostris I; see above p. xlvi]. When the garlands were brought to him, he ascended the flight of steps to the great shrine,

Ra in the temple of obelisks. 'The King himself stood, the great one alone he drew the bolt, he opened the folding doors, he saw his father Ra in the temple of obelisks, (and) the bark of Ra, and the vessel of Turn. Then he closed the doors, and set sealing-clay with the King's own signet, and enjoined the priests,
to behold


"I have set my seal; let no other king whatever enter therein." 'Then he stood, while they prostrated themselves before His Majesty, saying: "All hail for ever, indestructible Horus, lover of Heliopolis! Thou who comest as one entering into the temple of Turn, ministering to the image of father Turn Chepera, great god of Heliopolis." burnan. For this, the fountain of the sun, but at the same time 107.




the Biblical fountain of





see the Introduction, pp. xxxvi, liii. allusion to Gen. i. 14: 'let them be for signs'

Cf. tacen, 96. 112. This station

on the tree


see Introduction, pp.




See 9Ob




holmj?raece is warranted by An. 467; El. 728; Chr. 678; while 115. holmwr&ce does not occur, and would have no sense. n6 a So Gu. 631.

ng b


Cf. 93 b .

i2ob .


anticipation of Shakespeare,

M. N. D.






the eastern gate, all fiery-red,
fair blessed

Opening on Neptune with Turns into yellow gold his

beams, green streams.

121. swa. Almost 'then.' See Pn. 7. haswa. Cf. 153. This is a and to term applied to the eagle (Rid. 25. 4) to the dove (Gen. 1451) smoke (Rid. 2. 7). The appropriateness here is not evident, in view of





it is

probably reproduced merely as a traditional epithet.





fe>rum So 340a
Cf. 140*

So 163*, An. 866b



a. a.


Chr. 884a


i25 i26 a


Has no


and so


apparently a mere intensive.

Cf. El. 842 a Cf. 592 wrixleS.

i26 b .

Used again of song

in Rid. 9. 2.

129. 131.


So Chr.

Appositive with woffcrcefte.

Heahcyning. So 446, 483. Cf. Casere, 634. sweg. For the words of the Phoenix, according


sources, see Introduction, p.

(Eusebius, Prap. Evang.


The Hebrew poet Ezekiel, ca. 200 B. c. attributes to him 'a voice unparalleled'


iravrav fl\ev eKirpeireffra.rt]v)



repeated from Ezekiel by





he sings -to The singing of the Phoenix at sunrise naturally suggests that of other
to Claudian,

(Migne, Pair. Gr. 18. the sun just before his death.

the cock. It is disputed what bird is intended in 'Already the sun's bright ray is waking the songs of the birds into clearness.' Similarly, Ovid, F. 4. 165-6:
especially of

Sophocles, El. 18:


ubi transierit, caelumque rubescere primo

Cceperit, et tactae rore querentur aves.




Et matutini volucrum sub culmine cantus.

For the cock, see Ovid, F.





dederat cantum lucis prsenuntius


'The cock, they say, is sacred to the sun, and heralds 5. 25. 9: In Heliodorus i. 18 we are left undecided 'whether a approach." natural instinct induces them to salute the returning sun.' The cock Thus in the Ambrosian hymn, eventually became a Christian symbol.
'Aeterne rerum Conditor'


Praeco diei iam sonat

Noctis profundae pervigil, Nocturna lux viantibus

thus in Prudentius'

nocte noctem segregans.

morning-hymn (Cath.

1-2, 13-16,



. . .

Lucem propinquam


qua strepunt aves Stantes sub ipso culmine Paulo ante quam lux emicet,

Nostri figura est judicis. Sed vox ab alto culmine



Christi docentis preemonet,

Adesse jam lucem prope,

Ne mens

sopori serviat.

Ambrose, Hexaem.



Classics translation.




and see the notes to Cath. i in the Temple later time, Alfonso Vigliegas, translated

Alexander, Libra d'Oro, p. 448, compares the angels at the birth of Christ with the birds of dawn: 'When the sun rises in the morning, the birds sing sweetly as if saluting him and rejoicing at his coming; so



Sun of Righteousness was born

of the birds

melodiously.' 134 ff. Cf. Tennyson, The Holy Grail 113-5. For Old English musical instruments, see Padelford, Old English Musical Terms, Bonn, 1899. 1 'May be compared.' Cosijn suggests the insertion of 134. magon.

into the world, it was the duty of heaven, who are the angels, to make music, singing For the matin-hymn of the catreus, see note on 260.

be before bam, comparing Oros.

2. 6.





I36 -7






'the strain of the organ's melody.'

sweghleojres is confirmed by Pn. 42; rendering of swegle(o)&er (in his variants) as

Ph. I3i b




be noted as a curiosity. In his Sprachschatz he renders by clangoris sonitus, though he still questions whether swegleder may not be the word.






in this


music of the swan was pro which may be found in modern Cook and Tinker's Select Translations from Old English


belief that the



by Rid.


p. 72.

b It is difficult to account for the accusative, since woruld here i39 does not primarily mean 'age, period' (cf. 517). There is an Anglian form gefed (Gram. 374, note 2; 143. gefehS. cf. 373), but the h is indicated by the onfehd of 159, 533.


Lact. ter.

Perhaps the Latin


here indefinite;

see note


i44 -5

106. b









The flapping of its wings (beating of its breast) is generally associated with the lighting of its pyre, as a fanning process; thus in Epiphanius, Ancoratus 84 (Migne, Pair. Gr. 43. 174) ; Isidore of Seville,
Etymol. 12. 7. 22 (Migne, Pair. Lai. 82. 462), from whom Rabanus Maurus, Universo 8. 6 (Migne, Pair. Lai. in. 246) Pseudo-Jerome, Ep'isi. ad


(Migne, Pair. Lot. 30. 187). A better illustration of the present lines is Ovid, Met. 8. 238-9. Here the partridge Et plausit pennis, testataque gaudia cantu est.


Again (Met.


576-7), of the heron:

Congerie e media tune primum cognita praepes
Subvolat, et cineres plausis everberat

The Middle English Pearl has (93-4) For quen ]?ose bryddez her wyngez


pay songen wyth a swete


The Pearl knows


'Fenyx of Arraby' (430),


be observed




See note on


b i46 . tida. Thus the cock, according to Alain de Lille (De Planctu Natures), in a passage used by Chaucer (Nun's Priest's Tale 33-4), marks

the hours





horarum loquebatur
Alain's discrimina.


vulgaris astrologus, suae vocis horologio With Lactantius' discriminat compare




seems to be required, as

Dan. 245


Chr. 803,



Cf. so8b




Authorities differ greatly as to the
Martial, Ausonius, Claudian (Ph.),




(Fid. Res."),

Nonnus, Gregory Nazianzen, and various Rabbis.

Herodotus, Ovid, Tacitus (one account), Aelian, Seneca, Epiphanius, Pseudo-Epiphanius, Aurelius Victor, Philostratus, Ambrose (Hexaemeron), Greek Physiologus, Clement of Rome, Pseudo-Eustathius, Pseudo-Jerome, Apostolical Con
Pliny (10. 2), Solinus.

stitutions, ^Elfric.


Horapollo. 500 and more. Isidore of Seville, Rabanus Maurus.


Tacitus (one account).

Other estimates
J 54a -



be found in Hesiod, Ausonius, and Claudian. Cf. Wulf. 221. 17; 262. 6.
Cf. 219*.





Cf. 13, 36, 78.



Cf. 12*, 70 290*, 348 In other words, he reaches this world. a 157^-8*. A wilderness (cf. i6i ), inhabited by no man, mors ubi regna


tenet. b b There seems no reason why he i58 S. An anticipation of 335 ff. should pass with a retinue to the place of his burning, and our author has no authority for his statement.




Cf. cyning, 344.

159. 160.
164*. i66b

fugla cynn. So 335. Accusative of extent of time. )>rage.
Cf. 339,

According to many of the authorities, the Phoenix goes to Egypt. Others make him build his nest in the country where he has passed his life, or leave the matter undecided.

So El. 167*. b -8 a .





Possibly, as


heapum, 336. have translated elsewhere: 'Here the pure one
in sceade. Cf. on sccade, 234;

them abruptly away.'
Cf. oSfleogeS, 347.


ofer sceadu, 210. leafsceade, 205 2 Cos. thinks haleba Cf. 3 b ff. 170. b 202*. a heanne beam. So , i7i

= 'birds'

those accompanying him.




The gender

follows beama, not treowe.




to Ovid, too,



a palm (Met.



[var. ilicis]

ramis tremulseque cacumine palmse.

Isidore of Seville
Grseci phcenicem



'Hanc [palmam] 7. i) in like manner: quod diu duret, ex nomine avis illius Arabia,
Philip the Presbyter

quae multis annis vivere perhibetur.'

(f 456 A. D.),

Talma autem arbor secundum Grsecos 0o eodem dicitur. Avis quoque ilia, quam multi facile vivere autumant, <t>olv The Coptic Cf. Pliny 13. 9. 13. nihilo minus vocabulo nuncupatur.' name for Phoenix and palm-tree is said to be the same (Seyffarth, p. 63).' When, according to the Hebrew poet Ezekiel, the Phcenix is dis

Comm. on Job

29. 18, says


is at the point of his story represented by Exod. 15. 27 (cf. 'And they came to Elim, where were twelve wells of water, 9) and three score and ten palm trees and they encamped there by the waters.' On the confusion between the Phoenix and the palm, see note







on 552-69.

So Chr. ii6s a



The manuscript-reading can hardly be
72, 129,

retained, in view of

the weight of evidence in favor of he:
1714, 2658;

Ps. 71. 19;

261, 584; Beow. 421; An. 1007; Jul. 562, etc. se be ana, Gn. Ex. 173, does not militate against this reading; neither
. . .

Dan. 477; Sat.



ana God, Rid.

41. 21

Rid. 41. 90 Waldend user, se follows the gender of beama.

nor, when mec ana m<zg

closely considered, does




willsele.' Apparently original with our poet. which would involve a departure from customary usage. 2882. i). anhaga. 215. .i. Some authorities say nothing of the worm. 89. s.' 210. in Beowulf. and dea&es wylm. Beow. swetest. such are Ovid. often difficult Here is meaning seems but in 196. 194. wyrta. 24: se wielm Sees modes a (jrixura mentis). weoll of gewitie. Cf. Pseudo-Epiphanius. El. i8g b . has the same expression 'and 221. Presumably but few of them were 201. b. C. distinguish the various senses of to be 'plant'. Gn. Sax: Leechd. Isidore of Seville. 87. : does aught that is An. The first author who mentions the worm is Pliny. ig6 . is unsupported by any other example of gewyrt. 9. Pn. pp. b. to above. 199. where the adjective Wuldorcyning. 3. 46. 109. has a different vowel (748). 433*. 7 ff. 2269. and ban. 217. is Schlotterose's gewices. 193*. not the sun (as Grein. gesceap). at this time. 12. Tacitus. The names of the individual spices are not given. is8b Fates of Men 84 (without cf. 195 . Cf. So 432b . Namely. 44. sorgwylm. So 42ob 537 b Cf. 466. hador. 'wiS hatre sunnan. 'swegel biS hatost'. He can not summon up resolution enough to endure the flame. 197*. the Phrenix. 149. hus. Epiphanius. . dreogeS.NOTES ON PHOENIX b a Tupper translates i79 -8o hurt him with evils. cf. Trautmann's gewyrtes wylm endure it. flaesc swecca swetast. wil(l)-. 2i4 Cf. . 89. 23. known. 230. 228.' grievous . Cf. 223 . Dionysius (Pseudo-?) Oppian. flesh and bone. a >urh gewittes wylm. Spr. nor can he actually igi . aeples gelicnes. this whom wyrm. Grein gives nobilitas as the meaning of indryhto (also Seaf. Hy. is Cf 467b the side to and wide. 245 b For the punctuation. nest. cf. Cf. : 1247. ss8 : b. 213. 2<56b -7 a . Cosijn (PBB. 2oob . known So in England . or rather . and Guthlac. 2: v. Cf. 24. hatost.. Tupper (as on 6i ). Chr. See frymba Scyppend. 89). and see the compounds breast-. Agrees with gehwone. Either 'through perturbation of spirit' 'through excitement of mind' (culminating in resolve). without a struggle. n. Elene. the same. b . see the first three passages referred following clause). cear-. gesceap dreogeS. or For a somewhat similar phrase. 212. Ps. Beow. 346. and nobilissimus as that of indryhten {Wand. Cf. 232. 7: 209. 630. 529 1-li.' or rather 'spicy odor. 162. the sense is as plainly 'spice. 113 'nor (see on 6i a ) . 2O2 a 202 b See Introduction. cf. It wyrt in the poem. a. se wilda fugel. 189. Gu. 198. Rid. 123) adduces Cura Past. indryhtum. our author could not have consumes itself.' unless we make wyrta there depend upon cebelstenca. So 212. feor and neah. as ig2 iQ2 a. sar-. .

denique adimitur ei ortus si ei auferatur occasus. Cf. aptly expresses the half-formed condition of the incipient bird. in Old English. transformed into a young bird. Rood 234. Herodotus was the first to compare the Phoenix to an 235. b furSor gen. the experiment. suos ut repigret cursus. ut horas ac momenta producat. Pair. produce a worm. 233 as b. and to Pseudo-Eustathius of the size of a peacock. 251. scius in ipso se habere quod vivit. Lai.' made etc. Herodotus seems to be the only author besides Lactantius to use the simile of an egg. 8 (Migne. secundo plumas effert. Pseudothe night of death which every soul must pass through? Cyprian. Et remeat toto renovatque gaudia saeclo Sic cremata suo vivit de funere Foenix. 5. Against Trautmann's emendation. Vol. 372. Hartel. aege. The worm grows feathers. See note on 168. To Ezekiel he is about twice as large as an eagle. alaede.114 his authority. . There cf. which in time changes into a little bird. De eademque die 'Sol quotidie nascitur. Thus Epiphanius 'The remnants of its flesh. semper intrepidus. it salutes the priest with its wings. or to during Cf. n. Timber has.' So also Philostratus. and. the sense of material or substance of which a thing is made. The author has here coined a compound which the Germans might represent by Vogelstoff. At Pseudo-Epiphanius the end of the third day. and which . Res. fugelumber. Cf. if we regard the verb upladendra is also intransitive. Ad Flavium Felicem 130-134 (Cyprian. . intransitive. when he has and puts his parent into it.' at a sort of small a 233 . brid.. Extemploque suo volucris resurgit e busto. The third day it arrives at maturity. ad sepulcrum noctis cognatse contendit. : Add Zeno. he hollows out the egg to emend. but of the sepulchre of the parent: 'First he molds an egg of myrrh as large as he is able to carry. : . App. a 236 fugeltimber. which the sun is recreated. is no occasion In 178. on sceade. 380) qua nascitur moritur nee tamen instantis finis sorte terretur. . Several Christian authors represent the time required 236 as three days. perit umbrato venienti vespere mundo.' earnes. after about a day. P- 313) : Lux Solque cadit supero splendorifer lumine claro. . sed fidelis semper.' are told that the bird is of the size of an eagle. : . to Christ's descent into Hades. then he tries to carry it. 3. . ut saltern paulo diutius diei sui demoretur in vita.' PseudoJerome: 'Crastino die de cinere gignitur vermis. and is.' 'The next day he [the priest] finds it winged. is to be urged that umbor is not found as the last element in compounds. Then Pliny: 'We eagle: 'In outline and size he is very like an eagle. Can this be an allusion to the night. Manilius: first NOTES ON PHCENIX 'From its bones and marrow there springs worm. ed.

247 b. Tertullian. Others who employ this figure are Clemens Romanus. 37. The image drawn from the transformation of a butterfly. b. . So Met. i ad Cor. 167. 259 a- So 535 a . to equate lifes tacen with sunnan glam. It is better. hio.). Minucius Cf. 8. and the third it is restored to its former These three days of course correspond to the three which inter state. .' : . 15. Et iterum vivis flavescunt fortia granis. One might think of I Cor. . 12. 35-8. b Cf. Bab. Oct. . It is thus developed by Pseudo-Cyprian. Gesch. 12. asundrod from 242*. 242 b. 258. El. der Beziehungen zwischen Theologie und Naturwissenschaft. cf. (2) gellc ealdum earne. has hie. 84b alasdan. Onde reparatis animatur culmus aristis. Apol. 15.NOTES ON PHOENIX tertio 115 ad antiquam redit naturam. Grein (Spr. 252*. a 'Then the sun's gleam in spring 254 Thorpe translates 253b -5 and Grein translates wakens the sign of life.) makes tacen however. ignoring or repudiating that of the Phoenix. 28ob 23Q 240. Consurguntque novae vario cum fsenore messes. So always (with hy) in Ph.) trans but this can hardly be right. Rel. In the Old English we have three stages: (i) brid. 47. 1309. 6. note on 233b Grein (Dichtungen) 'durch des Kornes Keimkraft. gebredade. i. Egypt and Felix. Zockler.' vened between Christ's death and resurrection. Cf. cf. (plur.. Surely the sun. .' Greek Physiologus: "The next day upon examining the altar. Ad Autol. hi. if anything is. Dracontius i. lates as b. 18. fixis putrescunt mortua sulcis. Origen. 195. 8. - always has ging. The second day it puts forth wings. already found in the New Testament: Jn. Cf. Men.. 372. Grein (Dicht. 621 ff. Cat. is a symbol of life. Sayce. braed. mon. : So. 24.' ace. p. (3) the priest. pp. Contra Celsum 5. Cyril of Jerusalem. 8. Cf. always wan(-). El. 13. 24. 246. swylc he at frymffe wees. note on o6 a Zeichen erweckt und Weltreichtum. Anc. 8 ff Theophilus. or sunshine. The appropriateness of this is not evident. Ep. 292). Perhaps related to gebredad. So always in Ph. swa. De Resur. . 34. El. 48. is here replaced by that of seed. . 243. finds a worm in the ashes. i Cor. too. synnum. 251. 'klein. which Basil the Great had adopted (Hex. fugeltimber. El. Ad Flavium Felicem 121-5 : Semina sic Et penitus versis creduntur arida terris. 592.' hi. heo. the world's production' 'Wenn der Sonne Lichtglanz in des Lenzes Zeit des Lebens (Dicht.. while El. geong.) 252 claene.

94) is a wild honey which flows in cf. pure. Cf. a sunbeorht gesetu. Barnouw would omit his for metrical reasons . p. note. brilliant of plumage and melodious of voice. H. 12. . being impregnated in the early morning by an aerial dew. which would carry him back to line I of the Latin. according to Diodorus Siculus (19. . he tasteth at his need On such abstracted diet doth he feed.' 264. vital heat. Cf. meledeawes. 262^. and hover over the dragons drink of it. Nonnus (26. sit ting on a branch of a lofty tree. have read ortus. 3. This is properly Heliopolis in Egypt. Pliny says of honey-dew (N. swoles lafe.Il6 . but on drops Ovid says 25Q frankincense and the juices of the amomum. and questions whether it may be dew from the Indian sky. 183-214). . 275. 'all resplendent with its purple wings.' Cf. and itself resembles dew. : NOTES ON PHCENIX b of 'It lives not on corn or grass.* 112.' Claudian. is that the liquid is the sweat of the heavens. 26y b. When thirsty. purer. A from the sun. mostly at the rising of the con . 14. . he seems to have no suspicion that Egypt (see Lact. birds . limpid.' Pliny: 'No one has seen it eat. 2.' a honey found in India in the leaves of reeds. the catreus. Hence it is that at early dawn the leaves of the trees Whether it are found covered with a kind of honey-like dew. and El. as 278 Gryphiander's (1618) emendation (urbem for ortus) would suggest (see The Old English poet is likely. however. 276 b 277. clam. shot Doth nourish him. . and which they mix with water Strabo 12. 84) tells of as when first it took its downward descent. engendered from the . i. translated by Henry Vaughan: His appetite he never doth assuage With common food. 12) : . 260. which drips from the leaves. : 'This substance stellations. but cf. and their bitter venom is converted into honey itself. there are trees which. or a juice exuding from the air while purifying itself. according to him. nor doth he use to drink. In Arizantia. by its sweetness. branches him pours forth his song. Seneca (Epist. u. 272*. . to Introduction. accordingly. . But the most interesting parallel is found in . air. . note i 259. great abundance from certain trees. 151) 269. is . on some river's muddy brink. distil honey. at this matin-hymn of the catreus. 18. or whether a saliva emanating from the stars. See Gram. On these boughs sits the horion. 598-9. one would take for a nightingale. Attracted come swiftly flying in flocks. 'It passes its life without food or drink. xxxix). . also Lactantius. when it comes to us. with joyous carol saluting the dawn. Pseudo-Epiphanius subsisting on air. that From Tethys' lap. and genuine. and by his side the catreus. The ordinary food of the Nabathaeans. would that it had been. airy sweets. Of these. and come .

with wings of many colors. . if we except used of circumcision as a sign of God's covenant. Lact. 2719. 96) and beacen (1. ealonde. : . and has a brilliant golden plumage about the : neck. and the pupil of his eyes was of a 'The quince yellow. we must remember how hard it is to picture the sun in his thousand liveries at his rising and The earliest non-Egyptian account is that by Herodotus setting. girt 289. Lucretius 133-4 : King of the East altho' he seem. 64. gladost. 'the sign of the sun' Bright says 'sunnan "the sun. 1204. accordingly. 286. El. and his neck adorned with yellow feathers. as the bam seems to indicate. 288 b -go. 291 ff.) Leuchtglanz der Sonne' Go. Cf. El. xxxviiiff. departing from the MS. 488 . his : His legs were red. Cf. 33. Silver is called glad. 102-3. pp. (2) this term sufficiently corresponds to satelles. reading. the Hebrew poet: 'In size he was about twice as large as an eagle. where it is used of the cross employed to mean 'cognizance.). Rid. 2370. 'der 288a Thorpe translates: 'the sign of sun'. though there is reason enough for us so to conceive him (see Introduction. and any reference Achilles Tatius to a Christian altar would of course be meaningless. 578. This statement is an invention of the Old English poet. literally or figuratively. in outline and size he is very like an eagle. 287. . "the sign of the sun" tacen (1. 92-94." just as the sun is also called segn. is II? identifies sunbeorht gesetu with See note on 331 ff.' Against this is to be said: (i) the MS. except .NOTES ON PHCENIX an intermediate stopping-place. that is. and With song and flame and fragrance. no ground for 107 would not apply here. Gen. while the rest of the body is of a purple [crimson] color. where it is Sal. In reading any description of the Phoenix. has begn. is the only other author who states that the remains were buried. and gold is so referred to in Sal.' Gen. when is . and lines 9O-i47 b of the Old English (3) segn is used in the poetry only in . 284. Cf. He could not well introduce an allusion to a heathen altar. as standing for or designating him. the explanation of beacen and tacen suggested in the note on There is. His head resembled that of the domestic cock. 107) the same figure is merely varied in expression to suit the alliteration. and round like a seed. So only Jud. 236.' it 'standard.' Ezekiel. 3. The iglond of 9. 'The plumage of his wings is partly golden-colored and partly red . : . but b cybbu (277 ) and eadig ebellond (279*). 395 ff. sign of the sun. and Beow. Grein (Dicht.' Pliny (similarly Solinus) bird is of the size of an eagle. : . 767. who apparently sees no connection between the Latin here and at 331 ff. One is reminded of Tennyson.' Now b&re sunnan segn could not mean 'standard of the sun' the Phoenix is nowhere treated in the poem as a the sense of 'ensign. 118. 28i-2 a . for>ylmde. beorhstede.

wrixled (adopted by Gollancz). and also 121. and blazes rays. pean. Tupper says. The hues are mingled rose and azure. with long feathers intermingled of a roseate hue is adorned with a crest. which is crowned by a splendid circle. PseudoIt has a diadem on its head. and with a crest of blue. 322*. 'The Phoenix is of the size of a peacock. the very image of that orb. and resembles a rose. with reference to the bearing of this form upon Cynewulfian authorship (Pub.' Phoenix is more beautiful than the peacock. 'nature. is and his wings have sky-colored rings and. scarlet. which is azure.' with gold. but superior to him Achilles Tatius in beauty. but the Phoenix with sapphire. but differs from it Eustathius Its wings are of crimson and gold. and the head with a tuft of feathers. wrixleS. The peacock has its wings overspread with gold and silver. 26. El. and he boasts of being descended from the sun a claim which is borne out by the appearance of his head. it is like the sun on high. For stane. For fet (Jul. 41. Cf. Philostratus 'It emits rays. 317. His thighs like Tyrian More swift than winds are Flowery and rich. Their utmost borders 294. The jacinth (so Lactantius). attractive. Assoc.' fers from all other birds in its beak and the tints of its plumage.' Isidore of Seville: Tacitus 'Dif 'So-called. Swa. because he has the Phoenician [Tyrian] color. round about enrolled.Il8 the tail. . 268) : 'What then shall we say to the use of both fotas and fet in the Metrical Psalter. Thorpe's emendation.' Claudian (tr. Like the sun. 311. 1066). his plumage is bedripped with gold and purple. which may mean the sapphire. glister all with gold. the throat : : : : : : Vaughan) : A A fiery secret light there streams from both his eyes hue about his cheeks doth rise . see Schlotterose's note. piercing through the bosom of the night. It rends the darkness with a gladsome light. 20) 'Next in beauty to the peacock. For gebyrd in the sense of Trautmann's -gebyrgd. Lang. but cf. and the dis 'The Pseudo-Epiphanius position of the feathers represents the rays. 472. llxeS. distinguished by a goodly diadem of circular form.) in two riddles [32 and 33] certainly from the same hand?' and fet 312.' see 360.' 'He is about the size of a peacock. eaggebyrd. and its head is in color and beauty. 301. When. fotas. 302. and to the appearance of fote (dat. The circle is of darkBeautiful to look upon. His crest grows up into a glorious star. 299. Mod. NOTES ON PHCENIX . The poet makes no mention of Lactantius' pheasant.' and other precious stones. and shines so far That. . Given to adorn his head.' Ausonius (Ep. emerald. having the size and shape of an eagle.

958. 811-2. 16: 'swa neah waes . . So I23 b So ff. 16-7). i4o8b -9: 'ond J?a bidrifen wurde on J>as J>eostran woruld'. Cf. is recommended by Gen. . See 499a 383. 337 a 34o 342. 386 386 390 393 a. Gu. of. Cf. Cf. 953-9695 Chr. wilgedryht. 639a 372 . An.' For the retinues. cf . 364. 8o5 b a Cf. 814. b 4i5 -6. Cf. a a. 28) thinks this is derived from a common source with Gu. Construction not apparent. 393-423. 355 a. . liv-lv). 947-8. 827^. . lip b a. c). a. 'ot5J>set his dogora wses rim aurnen'. Cf. The Paradise from which they were banished was not on this earth (see Introduction. a. 409. Achilles : Tatius. Edg. 280 (18. b 4o8 . Cf.NOTES ON PHCENIX 324 -5 331 ff. Horn. So An. Gu. . cf. a . 865 may Gu. be compared with 335 b ff. 8o4b -5 a . 153. Gu. 4i2a . 1389-90. . El. first of these passages. 4i3 So Cf. Jnisend [wintra] aurnen. b -g. 435 a wesej>. PBB. a. Jul. An. Chr. Rood 135. Dan. 66 b 349 . . 347 So 475 b So 646 a . cyning. 1626: So 647*. a Cf. 859.' a Cf. 884b -5 a This is . Cf. 402 -4 b Cf. ivilgesldas. 4. Seems hopelessly corrupt. a. n: 'J?onne wesaj? Jnne handa sona geed~ neowede. So Chr. Sat. So Chr. Beow. Chr. 4ii b -2. the king of all birds. 385-6. 914. Gram? 427. 2. Gu. Statius (Silv. 390*. a. The passage relating the flight of the eagles. . Cf. 5<>9b 5i7 a Cf. pres. 2oi Cosijn's emendation. b.Abbetmeyer (p. Chr.. 398 4oo Gu. 373 2 . Gu. for all the winged things together hastened after him in fear. knows only Bl. 282. 8i9b -820. 494-505. i a . . note 10. Stil). 76-80. Of forms from this stem in the ind. 395-6 397-8 a. 791-850. Claudian (Ph. The resemblance is especially striking with the 478-488. Beow. pp. aurnen for urnen. Sat. Rood 143 . 1379-1413. 827 a 4os b. Beow. . 71 i b Cf. b. Cf. i3 cf. Chr. note on 174) 'He seemed 344. similarly Gu. 410-421. The poet Ezekiel says (cf. 450b . 4O7 a 4o8 ageald. Cf. 10. . 367 . De Cons. b. 799-8ooa Cf. 868b . Gu. 23. . 1405-6. compare the accounts of Tacitus. deorcne deaS. referred by Lactantius to Egypt. Gu.' Cf. Cos. . .. .

El. Hexaemeron 23. selle. 42o 42i So object is required for ontynde. . . 461. 216-7. and cf. Cf. feorh geong . An a. I3 -i4. 436. .120 NOTES ON PHCENIX i. etc. Chr. 238) Rabanus Maurus. Cf. 950-1. 8. 827 b 425 b Cf. Sulpicius Severus. . M. Cf. 441. Ambrose. So 555. b So 386 a longe. . 308-334. especially 331-3. Cf. b Cf. 3Ob 655b El. . 58.. b b 504 ff. 2. 7. b ff. ii b a So Pn. ealdcyS>u. note on i66ob-2 a 491-588. i Ps. . Cf. 5. For normal . Eccl. Chr. the form sceame. Cf. 435.(except 876). 18. Jul. Cf. 192*. . 1073. Chr. Chr. 5og b. Cf. 433. 15. micel. prefers myc. Chr. 465 ff. 470. Cf 2i9 ff b So Jul. ff. 245 An. gyltas. 795. reading may be adduced An. b . . Pn. 688a El. An. Cf. See 489b . 4 26 b So i62b 428 ff. A. pystre land. Cf. . See 189 ff. onfon. Cf. 45o b 450 451 a. 432 432. Cf. facentacen. 1046. b ff. I5o8b gieltas. and see the references of Cynewulf. 491.' 417. 158. L. exiles into our earth. b So 332b cf. wile Faeder. a . Faeder engla. longne lond. 1260*. 3 28. So s68b Cf. 6. 437 b 438 440. . . to other poems in The Christ So Chr. This conjecture of Grundtvig's is sufficiently supported by Gen. Pub. . 73 a b 424^5. El. 423 - . 423. a. 278. 738. 80 (Migne. . 1565. 508-45. b So 390 . . Chr. See 2 Cor. 454 46s a. 451- 475 b 48i . 42 i b. Bk. . See 351. gene&an in gramra gripe. Hist. and notes. 307. Chr. 5o6 492 . ff. 737.. See Gen. 502b sIS. Also Pn. . Pair. . So 6iob 497 Brego engla. but in favor of the MS. I570b . . b. i88ff. beginning: They were banished as But betere. 14. feorh beran in gramra gripe. . . . 18.. Eph. 502. Brown. . Lai. scome. Cf. 48. . 445. Dan. 3. 153 ff. Phil. . 4ii ff. 64b ff. Rev. Jul. 4. 469. on haft heorugrimra. Cf. 2. De Universo 8. 5. 15. El.

Cf. 626*. Anwalda. . Job was inspired by the Holy Ghost. I378 . gast-. sicut ilia. Chr. 100). I word. W. . . 1009. It remains to be seen from what Latin source the author of our poem could have gained the information which enabled him to use Job 29. these latter verses having been illustrated by the Phoenix as early as Clemens Romanus 29. the context. as found in Beow. therefore receive his testimony.. i48s So Gu. 18 and 19. 45 iff. etc. Avis quoque quam multi facile quidem vivere autumant. 610. the second hemistich. 575. 1149. with El.' a view which is supported by Rabbinical tradition. Rid. instead a b Dan. 5i6 525 tion. 552-69. 663). 4. El. in ipso post . 511.). ut ilia. Cf. which does not fit anw(e)alda (onwealda). .' palm in Greek being represented by the same (t A. . Gu. 613* Hy.. Chr. gaest. Jul. 1333. nidum sibi faciens. 513. This author is commonly said to be Bede (Grundtvig. Beow. 1088. Note the different form in El. phoinix eodem nihilominus vocabulo nuncupatur. Chr. Since the Hebrew words for Phoenix any relation to 'nest. 1272. An. at present in favor of rendering this Hebrew Hebrew word scholars in is. Potuit fortassis de eadem hoc loco dixisse. . 21 b 5i4 -5. seeing that the Vulgate gave no hint of the Phcenix. Chr. 41. 25. 777*. 199. 797*. 33i a Jul. also Ph. 53. ii2Oa cf.. cf. has \ Neither 'sand' nor 'palm' <t>olv. Chr. 18 for his purpose. 549 1157. and Gu. et sicut palma multiplicabo dies). Gu. frurh Castes gi(e)fe. Schlotterose.' Here the Septuagint has us oreXexos 0otViKos.NOTES ON PHCENIX 5io a. offers just the sense required. cf. has palma (In nidulo meo moriar. 1058. Bright. as Phoenix (cf. Rood In Sat. 1275. 710. 80. 810.' and sand are identical khol it is easy to see how the confusion might arise. Anwald means 'power' (cf. This passage paraphrases Job 29. 'stump of a palm. while the English renders by 'sand. . 538. etc. note on 174). eal now bears the alliteration. 29. First Epistle to Corinthians. a So/. 803. 539 ff. 7. i88ff. cf. So always in Ph. Cf. 892*. ff. Chr. 337 a So Chr. 121 So Gu. Pn.. geweor>eS. but gast in El. 835*. b -7a. as shown by his intimate acquaintance by in ' with that country. Cf. 275*. . and is consonance with the opinion of many scholars that the author of the book of Job had resided in Egypt. gast. of up.multa tempora a semetipsa . : The consensus of opinion among the best i believe. Cf. . 54i b Cf. 18 i I 'Phoenix. 642. 8ii b which is conclusive against Schlotterose's emenda 525 526 b. chap. io79b -8o. Cf. while 153. as in El. 550 . 26. cf. 1192. Chr. 649. I095 a An. 1183*. 26. Gaebler. . 535 a Gu. to whom the following passage has been attributed: 'Palma autem arbor secundum Grsecos phoinix dicitur. 18 The Vulgate of D. I Job 29. .

4. see Introduction. 613. So 558a See I Cor. 1612 (Vol. Gu. of Bede. 337 ff-. geongra gyfena. 6o4 6o8 a . hordmadum hceleda (PBB. and Vallarsi in his Vol. Cf. Giles. 7. 148). 9. scolu. 10. 310). 539 ff- 595 a 597 b 598 a. 581-677. 267b ff. xliv-xlv. and sometimes with the works of Jerome. leohtes and lissa. Met. 587. dicitur concremari. Gen. 2919. Gu. Cf. 1527). This finds parallels in Gifts of Men 2 geongra Otherwise one might think of geofona. 565. Cf. Cf. 5. has sceolu. De Viris Illustribus (chap. 696. dicens Et rursum circumdabor pelle mea. the metrical type. of whom Philip was a disciple (thus the Benedictines in their Vol. . 556. 106. in his De Ratione Temporum (Chap. 560. Sunne. 3. 806. 1660 ff. 150. is rare: Beow. Giles' ed. 563 1366. 2182. 575 b For Christ as the sun. 4). 227. Chr. 12. . to Philip the Presbyter (f 456). The com mentary has also been edited under Philip's own name (thus Basel. Cf. . which : . 1070. a 624 . Cf. written in Old English characters. Rid. 6nff. 19. 5O5 b So Chr. 591 ff. Jul. a. an account of whose life is given by Gennadius. 1271. 44. 6. 26. El. 62). 20. 1199*. 52*. This is the only word that suggests the 'redeemer' of Job 19. pp. Cf. 6i4 a. Chr. lifes ne lissa. quos multiplicandos sibi fidelis Dei cultor expectet. atque hos esse seternos ac beatos dies. Cf. 'De Ratione Unciarum': ed. 25. et in carne mea videbo Deum. W. gudffid. wynnum. ginfastra gyfena. 168. Ita enim et superius est locutus. For ludsd. 622-6*. 13. 1015: gingra geafena. 'ample gifts. An adaptation of Rev. There is also said to be a Bodleian manuscript. 757).' this adjective and noun being conjoined in Beow. 1563 (4. 50 ff. b. Cf. - See ff. et rursus de tempus resurgere. n). quae deinceps multis vivat temporibus fieri ergo potest ut sanetus Job in similitudine avis illius dicat se post mortem in cinere carnis velut in nido pro tempore futurum et inde resurrecturum in gloriam. : I jj | however. as part of a commentary on Job but Bede himself attributes the commentary. 39 a.' This passage is indeed found in two uncritical editions of Bede that of Basel. x-xi). and that of Cologne. lifes and lissa. From Job alyseS.122 NOTES ON PHCENIX eisdem nidi cineribus fertur intra breve . Chr. makes the same attribution (cf. Chr. 3 (Cosijn). ff- 566.

So Chr. So Chr.' 63 i 63Q a. a. pp. and send up spiritual fragrance by means of our good lives. 646 So Gu. 'The Phoenix resembles our Saviour. 667 ff. virtuous celestial words. 486 667 . 4. 42$. Jude 25. . ff. Beow. 6. . 777 b -8 a So Chr. - b . b lucis Auctor. For other examples of such macaronic verse . 222* tt. x.. A paraphrase of the Sanctus.' a Cf.NOTES ON PHCENIX 123 See the note on 403-4*5 i n 626 b -3i. in Old English. 11. . 6so . 750-3. El. 164. The Latin is Tleni sunt cseli et terra gloria tua. The Christ of Cynewulf. i. 188 ff. see Conybeare. Rev. that is. : ealles leohtes Leoht. worda and weorca. a. . 28^. 646 ff.. 526 ff.' 639. ix. See EL 776. i652 b Cf. 451 . Other paraphrases are the lines just mentioned and El. 336*. 6si b ff. Cf El. of : 652 a 6s8 Cf. I335 b So 3QOa . Cf. 66i b -2 a 665. . Illustrations. Chr. . The Greek Physiologus has who came from heaven with his two wings full of fragrance. Jul. 557. in order that we with holy prayers may extend our hands. a So 355 a 647 b So Chr. 580^ and note in The Christ of Cynewulf. 659. . Osanna : in excelsis. 'In excelsis. 659 66i b -3 a Cf.

nor wrath. The country stretches out. it lifted up itself Above Deucalion's waters. an abundant stream ceaselessly it flows the twelve months of the passing year. Or wretched famine there. 10 Of 15 the great flood. wet snow. or sleepless care. nor rage that glows With love of slaughter. De Ave Phcenice* In the far east there lies a blessed place. a wide champaign. Yet higher by twelve cubits length that land Than mountains we call high. bird. gently flowing. the gates Of the eternal heavens no summer's heat Nor winter's cold comes ever near that land. there rise no hills. nor dreadful crime. Nor violent rain-storms fall. That place was all inviolate by fire And when the earth was whelmed beneath the waves . nor is bitter grief. where open stand . There is found No wan disease. Nor do the clouds stretch o'er the earth their fleece. A grove is there. Within these groves there dwells a wondrous The Phoenix. But there an everlasting spring 5 abides. so runs its name Clear. No winds blow there with puissance terrible. And keeps the woodland green. nor suffering old age. that never falls to earth. When Phaeton's chariot set the world aflame. and bears a fruit . But in the midst fountain springs sweetest waters all 25 A living. There rage no storms. There yawn no hollow vales. Remote from man. Great Mother Nature gave to 1 it this power.SUPPLEMENT TO NOTES ON PHCENIX TRANSLATION OF LACTANTIUS. solitary satellite Of the great sun it follows and obeys Ever it lives. . Nor cruel death. Here grows a tree That lifts its branches high. Sacred to Phoebus. and a wood thick set With trees whose leaves for evermore are green. Earth is not covered there with cold. sharp fear. Of Through 30 Mellow and fair. by its own death restored . Nor maddening lust. 20 Or poverty in rags. The line-numbering is that of the Latin original.

Ofttimes it plunges in the sacred flood. fly the stars before the dawn's first light. thrice does it beat Alarum with repeated stroke. waits his first bright rays. Nor gliding serpent nor harsh bird of Then Aeolus within his pendent cave Shuts up the winds. Nothing can break through do it harm. The dying swan's last song is thought less sweet. the light breeze of early morn springs up. 60 And the long ages weigh upon it its head. prey. Into Syria The aged one directs its swift-winged flight. secret spot. . thus it fills the flying hours Of day and night with rarest melody. 55 worshiping the fiery one. Phoenicia A 70 It seeks a certain Named by palm with lofty top. glory of his rising. Into the land which from itself is named there it seeks through pathless tracts . that so Its may renew youth. It leaves its fair.NOTES ON PHCENIX 35 When When And bright Aurora rising first grows red. When thus. Less sweet Cyllenean lyre's sonorous strings. The The turning toward the place whence comes new-born Phoebus. Then upward flies. Singing it pours a flood of sacred song. desirous of new birth. O Phcebus. It leaves the sacred groves. if anywhere there be Within the forest a thick place remote. To which no music of the Delphic flute Nor Philomelian warblings can compare. from the bird this to . When the sun Touches the threshold of And 45 his shining gates. of the living fount as often drinks . stir The purple air . But when a thousand years have passed away. When. and. ever moving. lest their harsh blasts should through heaven's empty vault . and thrice Is silent.accustomed resting-place Within the grove. and loosed his steeds In the Olympian fields. Priest of the light and of the sacred grove. the Grecians phoenix. o'er the whole round world Phoebus has shed his light. and on the highest bough 40 Of a tall tree that overtops the grove It lights. Conscious alone of thy great mysteries. it seeks the earth 65 Where death is regnant. 50 Invokes the new light with a wondrous voice.

if compelled the mass is like a seed. Then on the new-made nest It rests. such as the Sabsean land Nourishes in its warm and rich fertile breast. it takes its flight toward home. and the With 85 its it amomum-fruit far-breathing fragrance. life. and dissolved. when ugly worms Hold to the rocks by slender filaments. Then by life-giving death destroyed. the distant sun conceives a fire into ashes is . and sweet balm brings. But first. There doth it build 80 nest or tomb it dies that it may live. 100 As These ashes come together in a mass. adds to these the tender beards 90 Of juicy nard. or aught that still may be. Into the semblance of a rounded egg . dim the sun's bright rays. Cinnamon. or the pigmy race. . seeks repose Upon Dying this it bed of life. And from the broken shell the Phoenix springs. Or Indians . lest aught of its old form remain. Thence first there conies a creature without limbs. . and oil The ashes. To 115 full maturity. in midst of odorous airs. All-healing myrrh. its form Grows hot. the starry skies Of dew ambrosial from It on this. fragrant incense-gum. bones. just as. its Then from its its beak. The winged one is nourished till it grows drinks . nor are the pliant withes oil Hither Of Or mildest cassia. And from It burns. when this has grown with time. From the rich wood it gathers here sweet balm. Thence is it framed in fashion as before. frankincense. The worms are wont to be transformed to moths. and. old and withered. It mingles with myrrh. When early spring Begins to bloom. odorous acanthus. It curls itself. or drops of It Wanting. A 105 milk-white worm . the heat itself produces flame. no It does not on our earth partake of food. Amid 95 the mingled odors yields Nor fearing trusts itself to such repose. thy virtue too it brings.126 75 NOTES ON PHCENIX No Or Or cloud may move to shut them from the bird. And fragrant spices which Assyrians pluck. Or rich Arabians. And by itself creates itself anew. breathes body's spirit forth.

and lights Upon an altar. wings and lovely breast and its head and neck And back are of this brilliant hue. and full of regal grace Such has it ever looked when seen of man. Straightway they sculptured In sacred marble. is flecked With purple spots above. . Are the bright rainbow-colors Iris paints all its Its tail. stalks o'er Arabia's sands. Which. and wondrous to behold Great is the fame and beauty of the bird. spread out like shining gold. worshiped there it The wondrous bird. In size 't is like the bird. when Flora spreads her robes its On 130 the. its claws . clear white with vivid green is Mingled. and flies East to the City of the Sun. But yet not slow. it with its in its talons takes. huge of bulk. . fear and prey forgot. Shine with this color. J35 Upon the clouds its . . like the great-bodied fowl Whose ponderous -weight compels 150 a heavy flight. It seems. 160 Each seeking its own place.NOTES ON PHCENIX 120 127 And moulds The ball it beak into a ball. gave the day and year From this another name. a radiant crown believe its 140 The its head. 125 Its color is of In grain Show Tyrian purple dyed such color as the poppy-leaves in the spring. bright with gems . The race of birds 155 Gathered together. leaves its burden there Within the sacred temple's holy shrine. make With 145 the fair color of the rose are dyed. or like Phasis' bright-hued bird. Great Egypt came to see this miracle. . red earth. Whom From God himself has caused to be new born is thine own self ! In thee there no sex. Like peacock. But light and swift. Glorious is it. like the bright rays that glorious insignia of the sun Spots of bright gold cover its legs. But when at last it came To the pure ether. Smit with a lucent flame. between the wings. You would Surrounds eyes twin sapphires were. how fortunate thy lot. Supported by a thronging choir it flew A joyous multitude with pious gifts Followed its flight. beak ivory. O happy bird. then the throng turned back. rejoicing. all And the host.

John is reported to have seen in vision. p. }>aet is. 1856. from the metre. dun is . still thyself. denne for dael. CCCC. or referring to Biblical originals. Studien 8 (1885). ne >onn< hagol. ne ren. that knows Death is thy only love. 198 (374b -7 a ). . with a few notes calling attention to correspond ences with the standard Old English version of the Phoenix. Englische 1869. No attempt has been made I subjoin a to register all the different readings of V . note 3. The passage in the Vespasian manuscript seems to have been first mentioned by Thomas Wright in his St. Variants are designated by V. Anglo-Saxon Church. 25-6. feowaertig Scs. thy father and thy heir. from him it was taken by Soames. Cambridge contain an abstract of our Phcenixstory. neorxnawonge. The notes are almost exclusively devoted to pointing out correspond ences with the standard version. genam hine Sanctus Johannes geseah ofer garsecge swilce hit land waere. ! is death Thou long'st for death. 9 V. pp. 474-9. introduced by a brief account of the Earthly Paradise. Curious Myths of the Middle Ages. 255-6. who translates a few lines at the beginning.. Both manuscripts are excerpted by Kluge. }>aet is. other wise they are from the Cambridge manuscript. pa se engel. that the version must be dated 1050-1100. ELLA ISABEL HARRIS THE LATE OLD ENGLISH VERSION OF THE PHCENIX Two manuscripts Vespasian D. by Kluge. ne }?aer ne bits snaw. fseSma hehgra ]?onne Paradisus hangatS betwynon heofonan and eorSan wundorlice. Both thine own nurse and nursling. and differences of spelling are virtually disregarded. O No bond Thy one of love delight ! happy bird. 1844. who concludes. ne forst. when they come from the Vespasian manuscript. 211. and Baring-Gould. 14 of the British Museum and 198 of Corpus Christi College. Nis Sser nat>or ne dael ne dune. ac J>ier is fons vite. 170 Attaining life eterne through fecund death. Patrick's Purgatory. pp. That thou may'st be new born. as published somewhat emended version of MS. which St. and gebrohte hine to Paradisum. swa Paradisus is call efenlang and efenbrad. 4 faedma. lifaes wylle. thyself yet not thyself. Yet not the same. Thou art thyself Child to thyself. Paradisum nis naSor ne on heofonum ne on eor)>an Feowaertig faeSma heah wses Noes flod ofer Sa hehstan dune J>e on seo 5 worulde is Paradisum 10 i nu is on Bocleden gehaten Armenia Noes fl5d wses. hit se Ealwaeldend gesceop.128 NOTES ON PHCENIX Nor 165 is there lack.

a V. 20 Paradisus is uprihte on eastewearde Sysse worulde. Sunne J>ser scineS seofen siSe brihtlycor Sone her de?S. cymeS. Ne fealS naefre leaf of. Dalr wunaS on 25 o]> Domsesdseg. f aegere. otun gaeS. seofen siSe brihtlycor. gelice. V. welena unrlm. . swa heh. syndon asnglas feSerum 35 and his bile beorht syndon f aegere and fage feawe synden swylce hwset his eagan aetSele sendon. gesett uppe for asett hine on. blodreade begen twegen. 13 V. twegen. V. om. 14 16 V. J>onne se mona]? in cymetS Januarii. is hlaford ofer eall fugelcynn. 38 40* 35 b ethelice. se faegera fugol fsegerlice His fet syndon bile hwit. on forewarde. ne seggen ne cann hwilces. and His fit5era glitenat5 ponne scmaeS he swa sunnan leoman. ^Elcere wucan sene sij?e se fasgre fugol hine ba^aS in ]?am Hfass wylle. hine gescop. Fenix haten. V. V. J>aer is aelc treow swa riht swa bolt.NOTES ON PHCENIX I 29 kalendas Januarii inn ga$. and swa heah j?aette njefre ne on eorSan nan man geseon J>aer meahte. on >aere. Fenix haten swa se ^Elmihtiga hine sceop. Nis }>zer ne hete ne hungor. mycel and msere. >set nan eorSlic man ne geseh 15 radian. and na deopre ]?onne mon maeg waetan his finger forwyrdne. Ofer }>aet land eall hio floweS aelce montSe aene 15 sitSe. 21 'mete. monao". swa swylce he slo eall gylden. 29 V. 31 b b V. ac a simble dseg. . V. an fugel f aeger. byS for 22 seofanfealdlucor and beorhtlicor. ne eac hwilces cynnes hio syndon. V. V. hete. 28 V. And J>aer is se faegere wuduholt ]>e is on bocum gehaten radian saltus. an he f aeger is f ugol. ongean He 30 J>a hatan sunnan. on >issen earde for her deS. brihte scineS. swilc he gyldene seo. ne J>Sr niht nsefre ne cymet5. mihtige 25 V. ana. 34 aeghwilces cynnes. V. monde. his breost ! . ane. radion. and se Hwaet! 40 se ]?e is fleogeS of his earde. aetSele. V. 33 V. and asett hine on J?aet heagoste treow J>e is on Paradisum. swa claene swa cristal. fconne flowaeS seo welle swa faegere and swa smoltlice swa hunig. ac a he biS singrene wlitig and wynsum. Witodlice wunaS he on Egypta land fiftene ii wucan faeste astgaedere. and J?onn fleogetS se fugel. 3S eagene twa. V. feawe synden swylce. mid ]>am halgum saulum. V. 26 V. inn gaS. Dser wunia)> on Codes senglas unrim. V. and swa scire swa sunnan leoma.

is under heofonan hama hegost. 51 hider cumen. eight lines: otSSet fugele faegerest. ymbe call . swilce smaete gold. V. masrost cynnes. 'Hal wes Jm. . 50 and wundria]?. V. his sweora 65 fsegre gehiwod. J^aer wordum heriatS. swylce hi cyning wsere.' ealra fugela cyning. and b meteS hine faegere J>aer se madme stant. earde. . b 66b read. writigat) 45 and aelc singao" onbutan him on his wisan j?aet aenne heria)>. and J>aet fugelcynn call ferdon heom hamweard. J?onne cumet5 him to swaswa to heora kinge (prose). V. swylce marmorstan And him an read hiow ruda]? on }>am ricge goldfylle gelic glitona^ Fenix. and hine masrlice Fenix haten. writiaS Fenix. has the following. aenne. paer inn gefaerS Fenix. . Fenix se fsegere fugol gehaten. Donne wercaS hio of weaxe.130 NOTES ON PHCENIX Sonne cumaf> to him. 44-5 V. folc Donne wafia]? fserS feorran swi}>e. 55 metatS Fenix. 55-6 V. instead of the next heo nehiget neorxenewange. }?onne faerS eft se fugel. aelc to his earde aredon Fenix. faegnia}? and folgia]? Hwaet! }>aet fugolcynn call faegere Fenix greta]>. Fenix gretaS. his forebreost . fela aetgedere. call Jjset fugelcinn 47 faegere gegreteS ealle Fenix. Hwaet! J?es fugol ferde faegere to his lande. and call oSer fugelcinn to heora earden gewaended. fugela faegerest. 43 V. 66 a V. Da wunede 75 J?ser on Paradisum Fenix se faegere fugel call halig. 63 V mseres. ealle hine. 69 after this. . call fugolcynn. Fenix. Donne faegere fagniaj? }?a=r fugelas ealle. fageninde swySe || . Jm come. 64 ricge. V. hyrnge. f ugela f aegerest ! wellcumiatS Fenix feorran hider cumen gold. V. ! Du glitenast swa read Fenix gehaten. 70 f If tene wucan fugelas manige embuton efne ferdon. lande. uf ene and neo^one and on aelce healfe Sa hio becomon ]?ser heora cyning sceolde. faraj> J>aet for}> into Paradisum. 60 His and and staefn swa beorht swa byme. V. 64* rsed . and fage is f eallat5 to f otum.

J>as 95 eft for faeger. ]>xt Crist us generic. and unrihthaemedu. And ]?urh Codes mihte se hate sunne seme]? )?urh J?ara sunnan hatnesse and hire lioman. a]?as. and attorcraeftas dyrne ligera. but God ane . has: wyrhte cann. and gaderaS >onne ofer call Paradisum togaedere ealle )>a deorwurSan bogas. and maca]? mycelne and heap togaedere. 85 pynceS him }>aet he forealdod sy. Ieofa5 and rixa?5 soSlice Halgan Gaste. 90 J>one Jriddan daeg ariseS se fsegere fugol Fenix of dseSe. and ofermodignaess. onmidd ]>aet fyr. V. swa hine Eallwealdend gesceop . V. . and ba]?aj? hine and him wexan onginnaS J>a fe]?era swa fsegere swa hio aefre faegereste wseron. 102 we supplied. from halgunge. He is J>es halge fugel Fenix ge}>e cwenfugol and }>us haten. and gescildan us wi}> Sa eahta heahsynna. and mid Jam Amen. and mid eallum ]?ingum ]?aet we witon J?aet Code leof is. God. ne nan man ne wat hwej?er hit is ]?e carlfugol buton Crist sylf. has only: se J>e is on heofone heh and halig ealra kinge king. wunian moton. 97 buton Crist sylf 98 eallwealdend . swa se 79 For this line and the next V. From this point on V. 99 After willan V. . nenne gemacan. as in text. no se t>e ealra cyninga Cyning. differs considerably. and faraS to J?am Hfes wylle. Donne on . a buton 78 Scs. and unrihtgitsunge. nu gedafenaS us ]>xt urne Drihten mid aelmaessan and mid halgum bedum. eft. forgyfen we herian mane 105 leasunga se Se on heofonum is heah and halig. J?serinne 95 and biS edgung. Crist us generige J>aet we on wynne wunigen mote mid J>am J>e Ieofe8 and rixeS a bute aende. V. we on wynne aende. V. on worolde Crist forestihte. and Sunu. mor]?or and stala. J?3et we J>a ne fremman ]?aet is. 101 halgum em. mid Feeder. Amen. halgan fugeles . dreogan 100 sceal Drihtnes willan. wislice )>eet and wserlice six JnLsend her swa se wertacen. wlitig and wynsum. faraS Fenix. and twispaece. se heap wyrSeJ? onaeled He feallaS >onne >e he se halga fugol Fenix geworht hafaS. and lufian urne Drihten mid eallum maegene and mid eallum mode se God )>e leofaS and rixaj>. Beorgan we us wi}> ealle }>as heahsynna. wlitig and wundorlic. Nu is us andgyt mancenne: fugelas heria]? Crist. . And ]>us a emb J?usend wintra he hine And nafa}> he forbaerneK and eft for faeger ediung up arisej>. and wyr8a}> forbaerned call to duste. Done aifre embe an ]?usend geara se faegra fugel. and gifernesse.NOTES ON PHCENIX 13 1 Nu 80 sagaS her Sanctus Johannes sot5um wordum.

Ph. Ph. Cf. in ff. 72. i58 b -Q. Ph.i b ff. 29. Ph. Cf. Cf. Ph. 34. 60. 644. 93. Not Cf Ph. 215. Cf. Ph. Ph.132 NOTES ON PHCENIX NOTES. . . 435. heagoste treow. 25 a. Ph. 18. Rev. So Chr. 19. 16. 373. ff . 2. niht. . 45 54. 311. 21. 10. 322. 35 -36 wlitig and wynsum. . 96. 21. Cf. Cf. 8. b a faeger fugol. Ph. Cf Ph. Ph. Cf. Ph. Ph. Ph. 91. hunger. f orst. byme. Cf V. 87. Cf. 13. edgung. 332b ff . Cf. Cf. Ph. a carlfugol >e cwenfugol. Ph. 5. a b singrene. 107. eastewearde. Cf. 98. wlitig 109. fleogeS. 107. Cf. 22. 26. 16. 22. eallum maegene. in. 3Oi ff. 379. 653. b eagan. 90. So Ph. 20. Cf. hlaford. heahne beam. Ph. heah and halig. So Ph. J?riddan daeg. Cf. 4. 41.. 12. So 19. 35. Ph. Cf. Cf. 15. cf. sclnej>. onaeled. 136. . 21. So Ph. 9. 289. Isa. 86. Cf. 239. 37. 97. 62* ff. 15. etc. 27. So Pr. 351Cf. 30. 28. 10. Cf. 60. Cf.' Crist sylf. 335 b Cf Ph. 23. Ph. efenlang and efenbrad. . 193. Jul. 21. 76. Only Chr. 19. fe>era. Rev. Ph. Cf. Egypta. 25 b. 134. 434. >usend. 7. 60. 613. 171. 25. Ph. wunian moton. P/t. Cf. Ph. wuduholt. seofen siSe. 357 ane' Ph. Cf. b Feowaertig faeSma. . PA. Mk. 16. 364. Ne fealS. 13. 30. Cf. 28 ff. Cf. alee monSe. So Ph. 81. 355. etc. Cf. Cf. 92. Rev. gaderaS. P/t. 17. ba>aS. Lk. 20. 4i flf. 66. Hfaes wylle. Cf. 'God ana wat. 'God . no. 27. 352b ff. Ph. and wynsum. 86b hagol. 216. fet. Ph. ne dune. Cf. Cf. 210. snaw. ealra cyninga Cyning. I4b . Cf. 8s -6 Fenix haten. 84. . 39. PA. Ph. 2i a ff. ff . 58. P/i. . daeSe. Cf. Ph. 318.

excepto dracone. anhaga of dugufta estig. Ph. cf. An. and see Ph. 307. quasi omne animal odore capiens. 1509-10. 2i a 2i b . 314. a So El. 4 6b 8. 635. i) gives 'Panther a somewhat different interpretation (Migne. 26 a . cf. PANTHER Chr. So El. hiwa. Pn. 362 . Gen. 17. . Chr. 399 . 18. Cf. Exod. A losephes. 26. who inflicts all The panther is called beautiful in Pitra's Greek. Cf. cf. 1337. 16. 505. 460. referring to the etymology of the Greek word. we cf. Seafarer 35. 25. 176. 219) dictus sive quod omnium animalium sit amicus. Lot. Cahier's MS. Beow. Cf. Other versions at . The preposition Jul. Ph. B refers the beauty to Christ. as in ]>ara. Gen. . dunscrafum. iob . : also sealtySa gelac. . 425. 756. 239-240). 23 (Cahier.' etc. b. So Chr. in ealle tid. . 83 . upon the dragon. Cf. 1223 333 Cf. este with the genitive. El. El. anstapan. 20. fF. 'swa sae bebugeo? cf. 2. : : . wildra. 93 .' Rabanus Maurus (8. . 14.NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS i. Chr. 70. 2: 'Thou art fairer than the children of men. etc. wraetlicre. Mai's Latin. !. 655 El. 11. 22 b . interpretatur. 7. freamaerne. For Pander. sealtySa geswing. 22. 3. Pair. Latin manuscript of the Panther. Cf. 2a . Gu. Accusative as in Ph. Dependent on scyne. -<4n.' wundrum. i ff . 353. in quotes Wisd. Cf Gu. I2 b Pandher. 1071. 2 b -3 a . feorlondum on. 37. the Phoenix. 27 9. scyne. i3 So Ph. possibly should read cyddan. 77. 15. 352. 3. Cf. . B. Beow. thus comments 'Panthera enim omnis fera. 848. 2. 546. Melanges 3. etc. 10. 827. 45. and the Ethiopic. yfla gehwylc. Se. follows. B. possible injuries wraetlic. For he. Cf. . i2 a . 19. An. 43. 346. 87. MS. 1184. sive. applying this to Christ. 332. quoting Ps. 6sb . ' . An. . 1. So 27. Jul. Cf 19. Ph. in. ySa geswing. Cf. The panther. See Gram. Perhaps because he resorts to caves. gehwylces. 1256) but cy>aS. 30 (cf. 50. he. . Cf. . So Ph. io a . The genitive is demanded. as in Ph. 469b So Beow. So 37. Cahier's Latin MS. 97. Subject accusative after hyrdon. 562*. F i ff. 3 a.

a. 9). mansuetum by Matt. See the description of the colors of the Phoenix. Anat. fraetwum. 14. 137. B (statim emittit mugitum . 21. aeghwylc. Chr. 13. 37 37 b. 31-2. according to Cahier's MS. sweghleojjor. cf. W ' . 5-8 (Lauchert's Greek. In the application to Christ. 19. 23. 22. by Ps.). El. Ph. Pitra's Greek. Grosart I. when deer approach. the Armenian. 2g 26. 20. 192 44 ff. 13 (in the Septuagint and Vulgate) to the thus the Greek. 24. 913. Pitra's 9. 105. foddor JngeS. under dunscrafum. etc. Qualifies the comp. and the Ethiopia. Only Chr. See note on 20. 564. : aeghwaes aenlicra. Beow. they quote Gal. 45. B illustrates the Lat. 43. 96. 505. : Cf. 130. Angl. . Various ancient stefne. 40. 'Each (color) shines more beauteous than another. 5 (Zech. beorhtra. Aelian (5. 44. 3i a. Cf. Gu. 1014. wildres. gereordum. Cf. 5. 23. 35. 42. 16. 62). 39. 1333. 562. 95. 61. 23. MS. Theophrastus. 2 Pet. 50. fratwum blican. lixte. has swefeS here 42 'up a. 17. Church . report that the odor of the panther attracts other animals. the Armenian. writers An. 6. 186. like Lat. 36. for sing. 17. Solinus. But swefeS 6 times in Beow. Ph. 4) 9. Chr. 33. 23. Pliny (8. and that it preys upon them in ambush. Only Chr. rather than astondeff (cf. it catches hinds.' An. . (Gr. cf. 4i b. Cf. 4. 888-9: . 28.' The tradi : tion persists in literature into the i7th century. See Cf. 312 aghwas anllc. a. 1080: 'milde and gemetfsest. Gu.. 3. 522. 507. and the Arabic).' cf. Jul. with reference to its attractive power. Works (ed. 12. and. of 'As the Panther smelleth sweetelie . gehwaes. 42 here translating the Latin statim of Mai and MS. b Cf. Ph. These adjectives in -ra are comparatives. gien. Probl. 243). and misapplies it Sneome. 17. So 48. epula. 18. 9. 29) : Thus Nash.134 this NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS point refer Ps. the Ethiopic. . 9. The poet adopts a ready-made formula. Horapollo.' swifeS. Jn. Absurditie. i. ff. Ph." lufsum. The Greek and Latin have 'in his den.magnum) should modify cymed. 32. is illustrated. astandan 'upp astandan sneome of slsepe'. Matt. sneome of slaepe. Cf. Aristotle's account is (Hist. Ebert. Plutarch. . So Ph. 6. 20. 2. Ph. 28. 8. 4O 79S a b . 291-312. its cf. 'They say that the panther is aware that peculiar odor is grateful to other wild animals. 6). B. Probably plur. For the variety of qualities that appertain to Christ. Cf. 259. stenc. beginning with Aristotle. fylle faegen. 792b . the voice. in Spr. So Gu.

207. . and Abbetmeyer. Cf. 6. Randolph. ff. . 705. dareSlacende. 58-61. p. The word only besides in El. Dryden. Cf. Stud. Gu. efne swa some is not found elsewhere. 1247. . Grein interprets this in one place as earthly joys (Spr. An. Ebert (Angl. El. 794. in the poet's intention. 8. 124. to refer to 58. The poet seems to . Lauchert. Pn.NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS 135 tion. Rogers. Gen. 64 64 sigora Sellend. 54: 'wynsum stenc. 5. 20. 651. Shirley. 53. Cf. 54) his . 2. 219. 14. where the smoke does actually rise not rather a from the plain? 66. Euphues and Ephoebus (Arber. of J?am wongstede. 12. s. 444 ff . 196-7. (B) 371-385. 1284. 45 a . swecca. 944. El. Hawes (1503). Euphues (Arber.. 6) understands as 'following after' 54. 884a >reo niht. This is the 'bottomless pit' of 20. is Only El. etc. swete stenc. Cf. The Hol lander. 148. 65. Mamillia (2. . 47. 55. 3. So Cf. Ph. El. 44. 243) . See i Pet. Other instances may be found in Lyly. 20. and in another (Dicht. 228. Hind and Panther 2. 45 b. . calls attention here. 4. Grosart) 6. Syntax requires grunde. the fragrance reminiscence of El. Ebert beornSreat. in susla grund. 668. Volpone 3. but cf. 214. p. Virt. 31.. Based on Rev. 44*. cf. Cf. 6. 8 Eph. 17 (see p. 12. 9. Eng. a. 2 (so Dietrich). dearedlacende. 653. 'dem Gesange folgend') dreama. v. 52-3. Cf. 59 Rev. 1378-9. swceccum. i. conceives of this as it but is explaining. 14). from Eph. subject is quasi-collective. 51. Hell. 1066.' but onely to brute beastes.). Greene. gesaelde. heavenly joys. 'and efne swa same. 279) Ex-amp. 49 50. 63. 732 fi. Ph. (and so Dichtungen I. Naaman. 194. The notion faraS. v. Christ of the Christ. 558 ff. 38. The 37*: eoredcestum. s. 59 ff. 3. : aefter.. between the Crucifixion and the Ascension. represented as binding Satan during his Descent into Cf. 87-8. In Met.. 324 ff. Cf Ph. 6i a . 4. 46. b. 944. swaecca. The Royal Master 3. Jonson.' which would seem rather .' Cf. and swa some regularly follows a word that receives a principal stress El. where Jews and Gentiles are no doubt implied (cf. 59*. 181 ff. Ded. the introduction of men faratS 2. Cf. of distance is ultimately derived above). foldwegum. Jul. 117 of my edition se ealda feond. and W. b. Chr. 9.. swicce. Cf Sat. the Latin hymn on the Ascension quoted on p. to this anticipation of the exegesis 51. S. 11. cf. which she draweth unto her to theyr destruc etc. 1305. Ps. Euphues his Censure. Only El. 1278. p. To a Deformed Gentlewoman. probably a reminiscence of the phrase in El. Ixiii. Rev. 5. but the expression is grund. Works (ed. Chr. Glapthorne. El. Ep.' efne takes the stress. 9. 149) .) as 'Hochjubel. Grein (Spr. 1207. 59-60. 36*. 174.

6 1. ae^ele stenc. a . 65. gemeted. 65 6s 67. 610. on healfa gehwone. 13. cs&elum stencum. p.). 4. 6b. frecne and ferhSgrim. cf . El. Chr. An. ungnySe. ! element was aarv . Chr. i9 a 74 Ph. 100. 7 a. Only Jul. ff. Grein (Spr.always designates antiquity and is never compounded with words signifying inanimate natural objects b Fastitocalon. 586b . Fyrnstreama is without parallel. So Pn. n.' etc. 504. 8ff. 163) a sentence of Eustathius' Hexacmcron quam Aspidochelonem dicunt. Gen. . 5 formation.136 NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS that the conquest of hell and the victory over death are the sweet b Both are 74 it is rather the gifts imparted to men. 9ff. b. The general appearance of the sea-beast is as if great reeds surrounded by sand-dunes. 74 b Beow. . while in covered by Eph. Ph. . I4i a 20. 928. pp. 336. So Ph. So Chr. . the simila Cf. note on 64b and Chr. El. Ph. near end). . Matthew Arnold's 'matted rushy See the different form. etc. . fisca. Referring to the Panther. Ixxxiff.) was the first to see that this stood fo: 7 He quotes from Tychsen's ed. Pn. 8 . -ryrica. cf. a. 390 fyrgenstreama. the Syrian Physiologus (p. Only Jul. Cf. 4. 548. 423 a - a Only Chr. would seem. Cf. 'Balaena. p. Cf. ff . 206. Sanctus Paulus. 53. Pn. Beow. The word only El. 3i8a Almost identical with Ph. 68. refers to Eph. 586 -7 This word means 'ocean' in Ph. 42*. was him noma An. Contrast ing with wildra. 6a . 10. 1466. . Ixxvi. a. to feorhnere. 18). 12. . ferfrSgrim. isles' (Sohrab an Rustum. . Lat. Cf. (Ps. to 72. b a cenned. were waving on the seashore cf. 604 ff. worie. m/>/> Cf. Jul. 73 Acts 14. ealond. i. See Ps. WHALE (ASP-TURTLE) it gen. nij>re. 16. . 4. So Ph. So El. Cf. Ixxiii Cf. 548a 3 3 a. 9. note 18) that perhaps the and the second ri> Ka\6v 'the beautiful city' 8a For his. gehwan. >aes. . Only P/t. I2. fareSlacendum. hwale. See pp. reed-bank 9. 24 see also El. B . Rohricht (for Ro(h)ric).' 2. 5 a. 'canebrake. Cf. b. 17. . above. . cf. o dffiridoxe\uirri (cf. (h)arundinctum. 10. Cf. Pn. 507. Ixxi-lxxii. 231. Cahier's MS. 2108. Cf. 38i a . 141* Cf. 898. ni)?>a. gneaS gija. 465. 1930. 43 a 69. ff. Ph. Only El. mean odor. . 12. Dietrich had suggestec first (Commentatio. and fyrn. 2a woScraefte. 68. 80. 8b hreofum stane. 71. Ger. deor. 662 .

oncyrrapum. one could as naturally speak of vessels being 'hided' to the island as I The word in question. 1918. Gen. i4 b. 862. hyd. sled weccan.) 'collocare. as in Homer's of twisted oxhide (Od. with this meaning. Seil).' Grein (Dicht.) 'machen sitzfest. 448 cf. 228. frecnes. Sled: of course infelicitous. 302. 'booty.' take to be from an otherwise unknown 'Hide/ in gehydian. the other in the ship (cf. 92. streng and anccrstreng. 2i b 22.' (Spr. 266. 15. 'seomode on sale' (cf. we might of their being 'roped. and is followed by Klipstein and Ettmuller. Cf.' Old English has no other instance of setlan. 246 ff. properly enough. Cf. 137 226. . makes no sense. 2. Only An. must be regarded as synonymous with sled weccad . etc. p. see Beow.' is still in use. i6b 20. b heahstefn. 1917. 862-3. So 36. 426. Chr. i5 a. he meant as a derivative of reading. . 291). ferend.have some interesting details: one end (ed. 41. 'heed'). . translates by 'fasten. Chr. 226.' to which. 24 b. 15. Ohthere (Alfred's Orosius. a Gehydad". i3 . 'oncerbendum Other terms are faest. whereas salan (from sal. . Chr. (Dicht. and renders by 'in Sicherheit bringen. unlonde. 28) in another place the ancerstreng is stretched taut from ship to ocean {mere). see note on I4b ) is found Beow. 2901.) translates by 'behiiten'.' Thorpe. . 22). 'Land which is no land. in the Spr. presumably. Ger. formed from the noun hyd in this specific sense. 28a . is apparently not recorded. the i3 . 301-3. Sweet. found in Alfred's version of Augustine's Soliloquies Here we. Grein he brings the word under gehcdan (cf. For MS. Thorpe conjectures gehydaS. the context But the dictionaries tell us nothing of a gehydan virtually forces him. For the anchoring of ships. p. MS. 77. 26. walrus-hide or seal-hide. Eng. 862. aeled wecca}>. indeed. heah fyr aelaS <zla8 is Cf. setlan should disappear from the Old English dictionaries. 'haven' (the verb hySan. faeste. which Thorpe translates 'settle. though such use p. I4 a. Beow. then.NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS 13 ff. . the sense of 'flog with a whip of hide. Cf. So Ph. If the emendation is accepted. gehydiaS. ed. 5*. saela}>. 60. setlap. wic weardiaS.' Not found elsewhere. anchor-cables were thus made of hide. El. 223 b -4a El. This. 72b 25. which may also have been employed in England.' and Beow. Synonyms are found in Beow. 18) knows of such ship-ropes (sciprapas) sixty ells long. . . from huS. of the streng is fast on the earth. Cf. El. Hargrove. which indi If the cates that they must have been spliced or otherwise pieced. Jul. Only Jul. The difficulty is solved if we remember that the cordage of a ship (including no doubt cables and hawsers) in King Alfred's time was (at least sometimes) made of . 228.' means 'devastate') but this would hardly yield the sense required.

An. Klaeber's ingenious emendation has much in its ferh?5gereaht.' 67. 46. the sense of 'guide. Only Chr. ontynetS. Gu. 49. 61. 1538. 59. a. 384. grundleasne. 1705. Suggests the whale Cf. 177. if a noun. adwylme. goda geasne. supported by egewylmuim defending this MS: reading. gnoS. healo8helme. 70*. waeterjnsa. 1303. might mean 'guidance' (in the right way. 493- 38. fasten. 924. wylm. 30. So wynne. cf. 'bark. Cf. Construed with manner. 50.). as frequently implied in the case of the verb). Cf. cf . 512. gcest. in dem. One might think of egewylme. 76*. 216. An. in a very peculiar fah. but also with the following. cf. 561.' Cf. 29. 3i 3i b. deaSsele. fore = 'guilty/ but also 'hostile. 68. Wul- dorcyning. Cf. glen. 59*. favor. Cf. a. 54 a. 1297. Grein hesi . and so Thorpe. 136. there Sat. wylm. 444. 64. NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS sealtne waeg. b. Cf. The word only El. Ofer ferh8gereaht would then signify soul. Plural. Sol. hlemmeS. 811 El. wiS Wuldorcyning. scipu. Only Chr. drence. leaslice lices wynne. So El. Grein (Spr. 73. Like Ger. Only Chr. 390. noj?e. Beow.' as So Dan. 973. 45. Only Chr. Jul. Applied to hell in An. Gen. Cf. 66. Only Gu. tid. 53. The asp-tortoise can hardly be the spirit of the sea.138 27. flah 44. I3 Cf. fremedon. but involves a considerable change ferht gereaht to ferhte riht (not reht. while Thorpe's emendation requires only the The verb gereccan is frequently used in substitution of a single letter. W. An.' 'contrary to the wise guidance of the 7o 7i b. Barnouw (Textkritische Untersuchungen. helle seceS. 5Q5 a fdh feond gemah.' so gereaht. Thorpe suggests ON. wida. mid }>am. in Grein (Spr. 1297. gaest. 87. Cf. b 34 39 Cf.' 'direct. 28. . Jul. Chr. Pn. but see similar instances 137-8). He becomes their slayer by. See : Ixxv. unwaerllce. cwicsusle. and with on (2. 323 cf. 538. Dan. ySmearas. p. 2. etc. Cf. 829. 381. Ph. though in Spr.) understands the word as p. Klaeber is right One would rather expect in of dat for ace. Anticipatory of hellc. Only Jul. So 85. 63. and translates do Ettmuller and Grein (Dicht. leahtrum. 1558. 69. 682. hatne 863. 1188. 45. 97. Cf. . on >as laenan leahtrum fah. 331). Jjone. ceafl. 55. etc. Cf. El. 1585 . For him. and Dicht. as he writes). 28b . feond gemah. tatingly renders by 'prey. 204) prints as gdtst. in }xzt . . 343. a.

Ph. and especially Sol. 347 especially iS93 -4. 64*. Pn. Only Jul. Cf. 6. Cf. Cf. 25. ii. El. hlinduru. 311. 8s b . 8. Gu. 26. Cf. ii a . larum hyrdon. 573. Chr. a. 5-9 5. 27. Cf. Heb. for (i) wi&sace requires a singular subject. nagon hwyrft. b. As in Chr. 1210.' 82. 756. 810. 12. . Cf. Sat. Heb. I4 a. swa Cf. Cf. 1210*. 106. mid siblufan. one might think rather of aighwylcum Run. 9 a. 18. 752. nahton maran hwyrft. 80. 404). 67 a . 11. 62a bihletnmeS. Matt. 951 (cf. 10. Chr. 61. Cf. a. . Met. An. 993. 5-1 1. Chr. i). Cf. (2) Wuldorcyninge would hardly be used so frequently. Chr. 86b 87 . be right. 28. i6 a So Jul. also An.NOTES ON PHYSIOLOGUS Ps. Cf. 2. Cf. cf. 77. feorhcwale. 10. b a 8s -6 . hwylce. 609. grimman goman. EL b a i3O7 -8 . 635. W. Cf. Cf. 87 88 a 89. i6 b . >on ma >e. 7. 1345-7. halo sec an. The ace. 818. 2 Cor. PARTRIDGE Whale (W. 766. An. 16. can not 82^-3. From. A link with the W. 811. Chr. the phrase for 82b is not introduced in the usual way . more remote Rid. 884). and ad for the fire of hell. 29. For>on. 12. togaedre. 104. 2. is 139 used 75 75 a. also Chr. moton engla Frean geseon. 869. 50. 597. J?enden us daeg seine. 4. 23. 501. 3. Ettmiiller's emendation. Jn. Rom. 76. gen. . 17. 817. 7. 1338. 233 . Besides. gebroj>or. 839. So W. 20. as frequently with tid. 22. 8s b the latter only two lines away. 6. men (cf. 8. So Chr. 86. 50i-2 a . . Gu. Only 61. 815. So The word only An. 40. 1224. Cf. b. leofne. . Chr. . sibbe. Isa. cf. 67*. 77i b -2. So Chr. i. haelu sec an. 17. but Grain's emendation requires less change. after in (on). Exod. 78. Cf. 1325. etc. Hy. Chr. to. 55. Chr. 1464. 'Any more than. on hyra lifdagum. Cf. Only El. and the adaptation by Grein. Wuldorcyning geseon moton. 210. So Chr. 1343. 3(4). 8b -9. wuldres Ealdor. Uton. but b i4 b. 16. 1578. ii. 1579.


1888. Leipzig. A re-edition of Grein's Bibliothek. M. WULKER. .) von ihren ELENE i. 1910. Boston. RICHARD P. 2d ed. Based on a copy made by Dr. London. 2d ed. (LI. Cynewulfs Elene. 1-193. 1840. (LI. ed. (&) 1840. JOHN M. 79-116. 1889. 1888. 3d ed. Qua de se ipso Cynevulfus tradiderit. Cynewulfs Elene. 1885. Halle program. 1856. ed. 1880. Based on the MS. 1850. 1847. EBELING. HEINRICH LEO.) 1842. Based on Thorpe. Engla and Seaxna Scopas and Boceras.) b a (LI. KENT. 1858. Vol. I257 -72 . JAKOB GRIMM. Leipzig. 2. 1894. Bibliothek der Angels'dchsischen Poesie.) W. (LI. 4th ed. CHARLES W.BIBLIOGRAPHY (In general. Gottingen and Cassel. 1-98. Maier.) Reprints Grein. Appendix B to Mr. 2.. Codex Leipzig. 1883 . GREIN. 1899. Einleitung in das Studium des Angelsdchsischen. JOHN M.) Rome. and Wiilker. Heilbronn. (The first manuscript- page of the Elene is reproduced in Holthausen's edition. KEMBLE. FACSIMILES OF THE MANUSCRIPT Vercellensis. 2. EDITIONS (a) Complete : 1836. Cynvwulfs Elene. 1908. Based on Thorpe. KEMBLE. LUDWIG ETTMULLER. i257 -72 . Based on Zupitza Heidelberg. Based on Grimm. Period. Arch&ologia b a (LI. 1857. Based on Thorpe. KARL KORNER. bis Anfdngen see Karl Jansen. // Codice Vercellese.) Based on Grimm. Wiilker. 1237-1321. Cooper's Report an Ryme/s F&dera. 1913. Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Poesie.. Part II. . FRIEDRICH Biographia Britannica Literaria: Anglo-Saxon Angels&chsisches Lesebuch. to WILLIAM CLARKE ROBINSON. BENJAMIN THORPE. Partial: 28. pp. Quedlinburg and Leipzig. Based on the MS. 1237-1321. (LI. CHRISTIAN W. 1877.) Based on Grimm. . Vol. Introduction London. Berlin. THOMAS WRIGHT. Cassel.) Our Early English Literature. Forster. 502-3. 1905. The Poetry of the Codex Vercellensis. (LI.. 360-1. Bonn.. . Andreas und Elene. 1-275. Die Cynewulf-Forschung zur Gegenwart. JULIUS ZUPITZA. London. FERDINAND HOLTHAUSEN.

as above. Tradusioni dalla Poesia Anglo-Sassone. STEINECK. (LI. Ixvi-lxviii. JANE MENZIES. 1873). Elene. . 141. HOLT. 141. 141. by Albert S. I257 -72 . etc.) German 1857. Die Alteste Epik der Angelsachsen. 726-802. 1885. Altenglische Dichtungen Leipzig. CHARLES W. : p. The Elene of Cynewulf. pp. 1900. 225-242. 99-147. 141. TINKER. New York. (LI. (LI. Lucius H. 1895. (LI. RICHARD London. KEMBLE. FEDERICO OLIVERO. pp. Bari. Vol. 1237-1321. b a (LI. as above. from Old English Poetry. COOK and CHAUNCEY B.142 BIBLIOGRAPHY 3. (LI. Select Translations 1902. Lewis. 1842. KORNER. Cynewulfs Elene. (LI. 1888. KENNEDY. De Episk-Kristelige Oldqvad. 1898. (b) Partial: Danish 1873.) a b (LI. TRANSLATIONS (a) .. : LEO. : KEMBLE. 1904.) . 1910. Gottingen. M. 1237-77. as above. : FREDERIK HAMMERICH.) WILLIAM STRUNK. Wortgetreuer Uber- setsung. a Metrical Translation from Edinburgh and London.) Italian 1915. The Christ of Cynewulf. 2iob -26o. Deutschen. Boston. 1904. 1237-77. Giitersloh. und Nordlander. 1874. COOK. Juliana. 237-255. p. (LI. : German 1859. 1889. GARNETT. WRIGHT.) ALBERT S. Dichtungen der Angelsachsen.) HAMMERICH-MICHELSEN Christliche (see under Danish. as above. Judith. F. 141. p. i257 b -77. New York. CHRISTIAN W. p. London and Zupitza's Edition. 1-275. 79-116. A Literal Translation of Cynewulfs Elene. 225-242. (LI. 141. I237-77-) ALBERT S. Complete : English 1856. iO9b -i42a by Charlton M. p. Copen hagen. I257 -72 . p. xvi-xvii.) ROBINSON.) 1880. The Poems of Cynewulf. Boston.) : English 1840. as above. in 2. con Introduzione e Note. WEYMOUTH. (LI. JAMES M. Cook. 2d ed. as above. GREIN. Boston. 1901. H.

English translation. London. Berlin. English Writers. Two 1865. Halle 1887. 421-5. M. Leipzig. Munster 1884. H. R. 454-482. Cynewulfs Elene. 'Uber Cynewulf/ Zeitschr. CREMER. as above. J. Teutonic Antiquities in Andreas and Elene. P. H. DIETRICH. W.ELENE 143 4. i. XXI-XXII. 138-9. Vol. LEO. J. 209-314. 257 P. i. 'On Anglo-Saxon Runes. Vol. 1878.' Anglia 8. Metrische und Sprachliche Untersuchung der Altenglischen Gedichte Andreas. F. Untersuchung uber die Quelle von Cynewulfs Elene (also Angl. Grundriss zur Geschichte der Angelsachsischen 1885. 'Zur Textkritik der Angelsachsischen Dichter. Anglia I.en Letterkunde 1882. ff. G. dissertation. 1888. Munster. 1840. Crist und Juliana. MORLEY. New York. pp. i. 1842. in SCHURMANN. 9. GREIN. 1884. P. fur Deutsche Philologie 1869. Commentatio de Kynewulfi Poetce Aetate. 1881. GLODE. 1883. G. dissertation. 1887. 2. KEMBLE. Gottingen dissertation. Stud. JANSEN. Literaturblatt. C. 1887.' Archaologia WRIGHT. 141. EARLE. KENT. Engl. 1857. E. Literatur. Elene. 1887. 451-545. 1899. . 'Zur Rhythmik des Altgermanischen Alliterationsverses. J. etc. 271-318). WULKER. Darstellung der Syntax KLUGE. 993-1001. 1885. 1865. KORTING. M. Beitrdge zur Synonymik und Poetik der Dichtungen Cynewulfs. Tijdschrift voor Nederlandske Taal. Marburg. R. 12. 1883. COSIJN. E. H. 215-226. p. 'Anglo-Saxonica. Geschichte der Englischen Literatur. Rostock dissertation. J. E. TEN BRINK. Gottingische Gelehrte Anzeigen. as above. Grundriss zur Geschichte der Englischen Literatur. SIEVERS. 2d ed. CRITICISM 28. Juliana und Crist. SIEVERS. 'Uber den Syntaktischen Gebrauch des Genitivs in Cynewulfs Elene. E. pp. LEIDING. A. O. KORNER. 2. 1887 (printed Dichtungen. RIEGER. p. SIEVERS. 338-370. 1879. Vol. 3. 141. pp. 573. Allgemeine Geschichte der Literatur des Mittelalters im Abendlande. Metrisches und Sprachliches zu Cynewulfs Greifswald dissertation. 1885. W. Bonn dissertation. Leipzig. Miinster dissertation.. 1859. F. 1887.' 143-159. of the Saxon Chronicles Parallel. C. 360 ff. Die Sprache der Cynewulfschen 1888). EBERT. 1877. FRUCHT. 1888. K. F. 3I3-334B. ROSSGER. M.' Germania 10. M. C.' Paul and Braune's Beitrdge 10. 1885.

English Literature from the Beginning to London. 1899. Mod. p. 358. 1892. WACK. Boston. History of Early English Literature. TRAUTMANN. (On El 1903. 120. . 480-2. Leiden dissertation. Textkritische Untersuchungen nach dem 1902. (On M.) 1891. 65-71.' Banner Beitrage (On El. F. Lang. J. 1903. 123-4. BRENNER. Leiden.) A. . E. E.) A.' Mod. 'Artikel und Demonstrativpronomen in Andreas und Elene. F. Amsterdam. Mod.) 1896. (On El. (On El. Conquest. 1893. Notes 581. 1902. Altenglischen Dichtungen. 1898. as below. Cynewulfs Runenverzcn. F. Lang. Lang.4. Marburg dissertation. S. A. J. 1902. Aanteekeningen op den Beowulf. M. W.' Anglia 17. 1900. 1892. 140. Kynewulf. 1 ABBETMEYER. TWEEDIE. Anglia Beiblatt n. Bonn. J. 788. 'Notes on Cynewulfs Elene. 1889. 73. S. E. Literaturblatt. 1892. 13. F. S. HOLTHAUSEN. Uber den Syntactischen Gebrauch des Conjunktivs den Cynewulfschen Dichtungen. Cynewulfs Wortscnaiz. 166. 'Zur Quelle von Cynewulfs Elene. E. 'Zu Cynewulfs Runenstellen. 97-107. 348-9. 148. 1893. 140. 308-334F. LOSETH. 'Zu Cynewulf. The Christ of Cynewulf. Stud. H. Mod. 'Cynewulf and Alcuin. A. KLAEBER. Notes 7. PROLLIUS. A. Le Moyen Age 2. R. BROOKE.) F.) HOLTHAUSEN. KOEPPEL. M. BROWN. COSIJN. Leipzig dissertation.) A.) O. 1895. Anglia 13. 2. 32. S. 17. 'The Date of the Old English Elene.) 1904. TRAUTMANN. El. Teutonic Antiquities in the . der Bischof und Dichter. PRICE. F. SIEVERS. Anglia 23. 'The Cynewulf Question from Mod. BROOKE. 31. 1899. MATHER. P. SWAEN. Gebrauch des Bcstimmten Artikels und des Schwachen Adjektivs in der 1901. 322-9. F. J. 'Zu 8. TRAUTMANN. fur Deutsche Philogie . 1262-4. 534. COOK. 1889. 1-19. P.' 1892. M. Bonn. p. 60-1.) W. a Metrical Point P. 1899. (On El.' Anglia 15. 516. 1900. of View. (On 1891. El. Lang. M. 1890. Cynewulfian the Poetry. (On El.' Zeitschrift 37.SIMONS.144 1888. 'Notes on Cynewulf. Assoc.' Anglia 13. WULKER. 147-9. 123-4. B. Altenglischen Poesic. 9-20.' Herrig's Archiv 113. C. Notes 14. Anglia Beiblatt 15. 140. BIBLIOGRAPHY in M. BARNOUW. Anglia 12. 1889. Norman 1898. COOK. 919-20. 386. 105-6. G. 1905. 377. (On El. Engl. HOLTHAUSEN. Notes 7. 186-7. 1890. (On El. London. Anglia 25. 1-25. EMERSON. Lang. O. COSIJN. 1904. 371 ff HOLTHAUSEN. STRUNK. 200-220. 629 ff.' Pub.' Anglia 15. F. HOLTHAUSEN. 1277. cols. R.

85-146. 196-233.' Engl. 'Irish-Latin Influence in Cynewulfian Texts. Erklarungen. Vol. BRANDL. 77-8. 197. 'Berichtigungen. Based on the MS. Quedlinburg and Leipzig. Analecta Anglo-Saxonica. RICHARD Leipzig. Stud. 40. Geschichte der Altenglischen Literatur. ISRAEL GOLLANCZ. 3. A re-edition of Grein's Bibliothek.. Die Cynewulf-Forschung. BROWN. OTTO SCHLOTTEROSE. 1908. C. JAMES W. T. With the Latin of Lactantius. Based on Thorpe. 176-8. 1907. HOLTHAUSEN.. 1908. M. 91-2. LUDWIG ETTMULLER. Vol. Based on the MS. Die Altenglische Dichtung 'Phoenix. F. London. 1897. Based on 1891. 1850. 1908. Stud. CHRISTIAN W. F. 1-29. ct Angelsachsisk Kvad. ff. TRAUTMANN. 1842. With the Latin of Lactantius. Vol. Codex Exomensis.' Jour. Notes 27. Quellen und Verwandtschaften der Alteren Ger1908. 531-5. tur. und Vermutungen 1907. J. Complete F.. 'Cynewulfs Elene 1262 f. the Latin of Lactantius. . : Copenhagen. 1857. Beiblatt 17.' Engl. 'The Autobiographical Element in the Cynewulfian 1907. 1909.' Bonn. Beiblatt 18. Elene. New York. Louis F. TUPPER. Bonn dissertation. With the Latin of Lactantius. (On El. 1910. Anglia J. New York and London. P. Chronologische Studien zur Angelsdchsischen Litera Halle. Based on the MS. BRIGHT. Based on the N. GRUNDTVIG. and Germ. pp. Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Poesie. Based on Thorpe. Grein. E. The Exeter Book. GREIN. 131-7. Strassburg.) Anglia 29. 38. 657. K. Based on the MS. 'The Cynewulfian Runes of the Religious Poems. RICHTER. JANSEN. KLIPSTEIN. manischen Darstellungen des Jiingsten Gerichtes. 1906. F. Based on Thorpe. EDITIONS (a) 1840. Halle. C. Lang. With the Latin of Lactantius. BROWN. With the Latin of Lactantius.' Banner Beitrdge 23. Rune Passages. zu Cynewulfs Werken. Engla and Seaxna Scopas and Boceras. Eng. Anglia KLAEBER.PHCENIX 1906. S. Phenix-Fuglen.' Mod. 1895. HOLTHAUSEN.' 'Notizen zu Cynewulfs 646. Bibliothek der Angelsdchsischen Poesie. Anglo-Saxon Reader. GRAU. 6. PHOENIX i. i. 271-2. Metrisch-Sprachliches und Textkritisches zu Cynewulfs Werken. KLAEBER. A. F. (On El. Bonn. 1906. C. 145 F. 1912. 104. 2. Gottingen. F.) VON DER WARTH. 979. London. 21-2. 629 F. G. M. 311. BENJAMIN THORPE. with some changes. S. WULKER. MS. With 1849. 1908. Phil. E.

(Also reprints (pp. 145. 1910. 1-27.) 1814. COOK. London. Archaologia 196. GOLLANCZ. 8th ed. (LI. 1908. 667-677. Anglo-Saxon Grammar and Reader. Based on the MS. German 1854. 145. in Archaologia. 1913. in in Hickes. 1-84. JOHN LESSLIE HALL. Lang Heidelberg. p. 6th ed. Catalogus. in JOHN J. 145. as above. GREIN. p. CONYBEARE. W. : GRUNDTVIG. CARPENTER. 1-84. 7th ed. SCHLOTTEROSE. 320-380. nth ed. p. Oxford. Boston. M. (LI. as above. ALBERT S. 78-89. THOMAS CONYBEARE. 152 stanzas of 9 short lines each. Thesaurus. St. 1-84. 1876. Mod. GREIN. KENNEDY.146 (fc) BIBLIOGRAPHY Partial: 1705. Reprints Thorpe. From Grundtvig's Also published separately as The King of Birds. 142. The Later Genesis. STEPHEN H. (LI. (LI. in Cook and Tinker's Select Translations from 1903. 141. : CHRISTIAN CHRISTIAN W. 17.) 2. Alt. don. . English 1842.) 1879. 1-84.' Pub. p. and other Anglo-Saxon Poems.) Boston. Patrick's Purgatory. 'Cynewulf and Alcuin. Assoc. 1880. Vol. or the Lay of the : Phoenix. with slight changes of spelling. as above. BROWN.. M. 182-264. CARLETON 18. THORPE. (LI.) Based on the MS. Phoenix.. Lon viii-ix) Wanley's transcription of 11. KORNER. p. Reprinted. as above. GEORGE STEPHENS. Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry.. Der Vogel Phoenix. 5th ed. HENRY SWEET. 1844. as above. 508-545. 141. as above. (LI. Vol. 1908.) Reader. TRANSLATIONS (a) Complete : Danish 1840. : 1844.) WRIGHT. (LI. 145. ZUPITZA-SCHIPPER. I. text. in Dichtungen der Angelsachsen. p. 393-423. London. HUMPHREY WANLEY. 1894. F. p.) ROBINSON. 1902. 1897. in Judith.. 1-27. 1-84.) Reprints Grein. 1857. (LI. 1915. 1902. 1826.und Mittelenglisches Ubungsbuch. Old English Poetry. Vol. With the Latin of Lactantius. 667-677. Vienna and Leipzig. 1844. Boston. Gottingen. 1885. Paraphrastic. 437-442. (LI. 1895. 583-677-) 1903. (LI. Rinteln.) FREDERICK KLAEBER. JOHN J. Based on the MS. 30. as above. Anglo-Saxon Reprints Grein. 8i b -4..

p. 1885. HAMMERICH-MICHELSEN. 182-241 (prose. BROWN. De Phcenicis Fabula apud Grcecos. 144. K. 265-287 (prose. Romanes.) 1898. i. 1890.) .) English 1814 and 1826. 'Zu "On God Oreison of Ure Lefdi. SCHIPPER. 1-27. CONYBEARE. 1849. p. Dresden. Italian 1915." v.) BROOKE. WILLIAM R. 291-319.' Germania 19. (LI. PARKER. as above. des Angelsachsischen Gedichtes vom Phoenix. 85-152. 33-41*. 1851. 'Zum Codex Exoniensis. OLIVERO. W. 1-84. ANNA R. 143. Partly verse. 50-84. (LI. New 1902. 33-68 141. (LI.) Latin : 1814 and 1826. C. (LI.) 2. 387-392. GREIN. (LI. 327-338.) 1880. GABBLER. i. 1-27.). 169-170. as above.). cond. and with occasional condensation. CONYBEARE. 1-84. Vol. 62b -69. 1-84.' Engl. (LI. PIPER. : as above. p. 142. York. 491-520. 1-84. E. Part i. cond. Mythologie der Christlichen Kunst.PHCENIX (b) Partial: 147 Danish 1873. b (LI. 141. 151-173 (prose).) 1892. : FREDERIK HAMMERICH. 37. 1-264. 335-349. 2. J. a (LI. 182-60. 1850. 259-264 (prose). 145. (LI. much cond. 1880. 465-475. as above. p. i. T. 1877. 142. 146. Melanges d'Archeologie. p. 146. 437-442 (all prose. Phoenix Visus et Auditus. as above. ROBINSON. versified from the translation under 1903. F. GRASSE.' Anglia Leipzig dissertation. 8i -84. MARTIN. Vol. SIDNEY LANIER. 22. 424-457 (prose. p.) KLIPSTEIN. J. Vol.). (LI. 90-145. 1859. CAHIER and A. Vol. H. 7. 90-145. Autorschaft 488-526. 3. . as above. 1865. 1847. as above. . Stud. partly prose. as above. F. Modern Language Notes. 1907. SIMS. Amsterdam. Shakspere and his Predecessors. G. 1-149 (verse).) BROOKE. in in Poet-Lore.). Copenhagen. n-i7 a 33-39*. 1825. 539-549 (all prose. Weimar. R. 1706. p. CLARA M. as above. KOLBING. et Populos Orientales. (LI. LI. Beitrdge zur Literatur und Sage des Mittelalters. DIETRICH. 143. 1-27. Vol. cond. 144.) : German 1874. p. condensed). 1827. KORNER. 1-84. 1874. as above. as above. 142. p.) (LI. : p. HENRICHSEN. F. 'Ueber die 3. Vol. 1-84. as above. 1892. p. p. (LI. in University of Texas Magazine.) CRITICISM P. 182-263. TEXELIUS.

MARGARET BRADSHAW. P. 151. 1888. Christlich-Lateinischen Poesie. 25-6. in Anglia 8. 'Zum Phonix. Phonix. Leipzig dis 1894. Untersuchungen iiber den Syntaktischen Gebrauch des dem Angelsdchsischen Gedicht vom Phoenix. HI. Verses. I (pp. 1887. COSIJN. 143. 121-3. 'The Versification of the Old English Poem Phoenix. 1898. SIEVERS. 8. verse 1895. as above. SCROLL. Phonix. Kreus und Hollenfahrt Christi. KALUZA. Old English Poetical Motives derived from the Baltimore. der 1891. J. TRAUTMANN. M. Linz. (On Ph. HOLTBUER. W. 56. p. Lang. KALUZA. . 1896. 1874).) 14. 1885.' Paul und Braune's Beitrage 1899. 356. 15. F. ABBETMEYER. 1885. 1885. 1887. I34 a 'Anglosaxonica . 'Phoenix 56. 1903. 1900. 'Zur Kenntnis des Altgermanischen 5. 'Note on the Phoenix. 1892. Die Sinnbilder und Beiworte Mariens. (Also 1885. p. Anglia Beiblatt C. 225-6. p. Verbums sertation. Ueber die Sprache und Mundart der Altenglischen 1890. 1901. Notes 14. as above. MANITIUS. Der Syntaktische Gebrauch des Genitives in 1884. Jour. 144.) Leipzig dissertation. 643. 1892.' Mod. as above (and Vol. SALZER. EBERT. A. J. Stuttgart. FULTON. 87-96. COOK. Ixii-lxv). 324. M. 144. Gudlac.' Mod. TRAUTMANN. Notes II. Vom Vogel Phoenix.) III. M. 1899. 144. 143.' Paul und Braune's Beitrage of the 21.' Amer. Andreas. M. KORTING. 143. COOK. 23. dissertation. Vol. p. I ff.' Engl. BLACKBURN. 144. Lang. KLUGE. p. Marburg 1890. 130. Studien zum Germanischen Berlin. GuSlac. 'On the Authorship 73-85. SPIEGELBERG. p. 10. as above (pp. 1903. p. MATHER.' Anglia Beiblatt 1894. Notes 1896. 1886. as above. 143. 'Anglosaxonica IV. P. Lang. i. M. F. 162-3. as above. in PLANER. H. Doctrine of Sin. F. HART.148 BIBLIOGRAPHY F. F. 1894. 143. 18-19). Anglo-Saxon Poem Phoenix. dem Heiligen Kreuz und der Hollenfahrt. 159. (On Ph. Stud. BARNOUW. A. Lang. CREMER. p. A.' Mod. as above. Notes 14. as above. BAUER. 474-9. p. WULKER. Geschichte Heidelberg. Strassburg. E. Anglia Beiblatt 9. 454-468. 1902. Dichtungen Andreas. COSIJN. Allitcrationsvers. J.' 1898. as above. J. Der Name des Phoenix. Mod. 'Phoenix S. 1899. HOLTHAUSEN. 668. Phil.

145. 141. 'Phonix. Thenix 386. p. 18-21. 'Zum Schluss des in Altengl. 'Emendations 1904-5.PHYSIOLOGUS 1904. Die Cynewulf-Forschung. GREIN. 1885. as above. and Germ. TUPPER. 145. Germ. K.) i." 1 Herrig's Phil. 12. 1908. (b) 1849. 1908. 13. 668b . WULKER. 236-9.) 112. KLAEBER. and Lang. as above. "Phonix. Based on Thorpe. 1907. 274-87. F. 1910. 'The Phoenix and the Guthlac. 1906. KLAEBER. Phil. p. ib. 6. Cynewulfs Anteil am Christ: eine Metrische UnterKonigsberg dissertation. JANSEN. EDITIONS London. HOLTHAUSEN.' Mod. KLAEBER. cf. 145. 1850.' Pub. : German (Panther and Whale) 1857. Assoc. GREIN. 198. BRANDL. as above. 145 (Whale). as above. G. p. 132-3. (On Ph. (Panther 1-18. 13. ROBINSON.' 1904. Notes 1908. (a) 1842. Eng. as above. 258. 1857. see Mann. RICHTER. 12. in Anglia Beiblatt 10. 105-8. 407-8. 25.) F. F. 'Notes on Old English Poems. TRANSLATIONS (a) Complete : English 1842. p. Jour. 141. (On Ph. 263.' 1913. F. ETTMULLER. p. 146. as above. 1905. Old English Poems. pp. 169 ff. 1910. 624.) PHYSIOLOGUS (For a copious bibliography of the Physiologus in general. 236-9. suchung. Complete : THORPE. p. p. Eng. GRAU. as above. 1888. 145. J. p. Jellinek. Archiv 2. : THORPE. Partridge 12-16. H. 145. SCHWARZ. 145. 22. 145 (Whale). 'Textual Criticism as a Pseudo-Science. F.) 2.' Mod. Gottingen. Mod. KLIPSTEIN. p. 149 AHRENS. Darstellung der Syntax im Angelsachsischen Gedicht Rostock dissertation. Phil. Partial: as above. p. SHEARIN. 1-2. (On Ph. F. 13-23.' Jour. . Lang. as above. Whale 1-31. RICHARD P. as above. Based on the MS. as above.

as above. 'The Anglo-Saxon Physiologus. COOK. as above. : ROBINSON. as above. 144. 1898. S. 65-8. R. Phil.) 1892. and Germ. p. as above. J. as above. F. EBERT.) SCHWARZ. 571-91912. 144. WULKER.) b 7-15. (Panther 6i b 64^-74.' F. SCHIPPER. 1898. p. Zum Angelsdchsischen Physiologus. Die Cynewulf-Forschung. COSIJN. Mod. p. as above. DIETRICH. 1898. Neo- Philologique a Helsingfors 1902. 1911. p. p. 143. Vol. 69. 1904. 1851. 332-6. CRITICISM 143. de la Soc. BARNOUW.' 3. p. as above. 1883. MANN. PEEBLES. 1840. I7 -i8. Geschichte des Physiologus. F. as above. 1874. Mod. 148. 9. M. Mem. CAHIER and MARTIN. 144. Darstellung der Syntax in dem Sogenannten Angel 1903. 8-9. 145. p. KLAEBER. 1908. J. I7 -i8. as above. 16. 143. Phil.15 (6) Partial: BIBLIOGRAPHY English 1885. 147. 2. as above. BRANDL. TUPPER. V. KORTING. 1887. MAHN. (Whale (Whale b 7-15. p. as above. 144. 149. 1900. . 1887.) 3. 1888.' Anglia 6. 'Der Angelsachsische Physiologus. 8. JANSEN.' 89-91. as above. LAUCHERT. 'The Physiologus of the Exeter Book. p. n. Notes E. as above. 142. BROOKE. Eng. as above. 241-7. Liege. Neubranden- burg program. Second part. SOKOLL. p. BROOKE. HENRY MORLEY. A. E. p. 1902. p. 78-81. 'Le Conte de 1'Ile-Poisson. Rostock dissertation. 343-395. KEMBLE. Whale 6i b -65. TRAUTMANN. 143. GREIN. RUNEBERG. 1897. 1890. 2. 1894. (On W. 'The Old English Whale. 115-6. F. 147. 1905. 1859. K. p. Anglia Beiblatt n. Strassburg. Lang. sachsischen Physiologus. EBERT. p. Bibliographic des Outrages Arabes 7. as above. 143.' Mod. 1908. 1865. . p. Jour. Marburg. 143. English Writers. 1903. as above. pp. p. Phil. 149. CHAUVIN. 1885.

1082. 569.. 34. 308. . 405. 139. Ph. 1004. 705. as. ade. aefen. 572 562.. supply otherwise the latter. 609. 256. . 68. 503. 75. 596. aefstum. evening: as. 270. El.. 384. Ph.' is to be understood.. 545. 36.. acweSan. 450. 'ind. abywde. 385. aefter. 180. inf. ever. rd. Ph. 457. adv. 1042. 3 sg. ac- El. adwylme. W.... 40. sin. 35. dp.. pp. 524 . Wi. 1034. 5. 435. abreotan. 3 sg. Pn. that of the weak verbs. acenned. A. Ph. gs. Ph. 228. 527. 272 . as. order: $ adwylm. aef st. aefre. sion: n. 19. 802. a coming between ad and but initial & following t. acwaeS. 371. of fire: ds. W2. chill: Ph. 283. 3 El. acigan. abywan. El. m. bear. 317. but: El. 403. Wi. see geaclian. m. 577.GLOSSARY af. aclgde. 744. 1120.' if no other has preceded. Wi. + II. sefstum. El. El. ns. 645. w. transgres as. aebylgS. El. 583. Ph. The double dagger. summon. in. 585 Ph. 401. 430. 1268. 225. as. n. See $ adleg. flame of the pyre: awa. olad. 26. ceded. pres. 393. fire: 1290. Scripture: ns. 894. the anomalous. purify: npm. abeodan.. 223. 339. II. 1257. 437.. 524. II. unless some other designation has just pre verbs. 639. faith. aefest. 350. acennan. etc. Ph. hatred: El. 83. El.. sg.. command.. $. El. utter: pret. El. 566. ip. 1029. 35. purge.. religion: ns. aecraeft. ns. ades. according to Where the designations of mood and tense are omitted. 87. 222. 361. 608. ac. kill. 775 . 401 as. 1291. produce: pp. abannan. . dat.] 'ind. 44. Ph. ade. Ph. ns. acende. . 370. wish. 180. aclian. ade. is. El. is the preteritive present. El. n. convoke: pret. pyre: . used to designate words not elsewhere found in the poetry. 222. 603.. 533. bring forth. 557. W. [The order of words is strictly alphabetical. 493. adreogan. conj. 79. 816 . 596. f.. call: pret. 1063. after (in time) 1265. when of mood only. 448.. offense. El. a. ds. El. Wi. 951. El. Grein. 1304. the reduplicating. slay: 397. inf. El. 1072. 542. Ph. abead. 434. 241 npm. 349. 863. 207. Roman numerals indicate the class of ablaut- Wi. El. 62. grow speak. Ph. El. 776. ad. 382. a&. 510. Ph. 637. Ph. malice. 178. inf. acyrran. always: : acolian. 513. 5. 6. El. ever: El. pp. prp. El. 198. 128. 355. endure: lake 73. always: 896. religion: El. 315. 86. 230. 490. m.. offer: inf. 961. law: m. El. prep. 469. 496. anv.. 97i. 365 ds. W. adv. El. rd. 84... 281. 545 W. turn away: acyrred. pp. 507. V. 559.

Pn. Ph. aelc. adv. 1146. 281. law: aeledfyr. n. riches. 792 aeled. senige. El. serist. Ph. 366. council: as. every one: seghwam. 536. 393. 630. asr. El. alms: as. Ph. El. aegleawe. carcern. Pn.. aeghwa. 478. aengum.. 9. 235. . aergewyrht. ilda. adj. El. accord Ph. ( aenlicra. adv. in Ph. 506. aenige. 806. 509. aenlic. El. gp. aehtgestreon... 506. . 34.. kindle: 3 pi. aslfylce. any: 3i. sooner: El. 1294. Pn. 356. f. aelde. 357. El. en tirely: Ph. El. senlicra. El. Ph. 526. ylda. El. 538. 88. aeriste. in every respect. aeghwaes. sions: aelserend. El. any: gsm. adj. beautiful: nsn. 21. El. elda. Ph. 105. cerning: El. adj. 473. adv. El. con ing to: nsm. 268. as.. SQO. 136 asm. 164.. terror: 1 1 312. 572. 866. El. Ph. t aeriht. posses W. each one: ns. 44. Ph. 660. 934. 1152. 403.. aehtum. 1118. aerra. m. pron. Ph. at first. nsm. 408 (after'?).. 1084. Ph. 28 peerless ?) . 1241. Ph. see aglaeca.. El.. dat. 12. Ph.. 107. adj. aelan. 627. as. asm. aegleaw. El. Ph. adj. aer. ds. 22. ds. 453145. 546 . teacher of the law: El.. Ph. 222. 1254. Ph. i 122. 15. selaS. before: w. n. foreign land: ds. 1270. 1260. aeldum. n. 717. 447. Pn. 1312. as. 233. seglasc. . 676. sege. 602. 72. resurrection: . El. sehte. . pron. 74. fire: ns. 159. 135... 572. 116. 476 d. 379- formerly: aer)>on. ap. 1301. 459. nsm. men: g. 343J from: El.. El. aelmessan. 74. former deed: as.. ns.. dp. aerre. El.. 414. 36 Ph. f.. each. 908. El.152 after (in space) : GLOSSARY El. among: aenig. as. 1285. see moldaern. aerdaeg. Ph. El. aelda. n. Ph. almighty: nsm. conflagration: Ph. aelmihtiga. 909. n. 521 .. aer. pron. vsm. 305aer aelmesse. isn. former: adv. consume: Ph. before. ds. 33. Jelaarendra. See aerest. 1281. 1091. aeldes. 240. 522. skilled the law: aepplede. dsm. 233. asn. 664.. gsm. Son. 1228. aeglaeca. 24. aeples. Pn. aene. senigne. Pn. Ph. asm. f. 28. aeglaece. aehta.. 916. 546. airdagum. asf. prep. mpl. El. egg: ds. 252. before: El. El. Wi. Pn. aefter Son. 972. f. 375. gpm. See aer. 1155. 245. 24.. 283. aeht. 1142. 987. aeppel. Ph. possession: ap. comp. El. wk. dawn: ds. 1246. W. alniges. gs. 559 as. El. 975. El. adv. aeghwylc. 259. in the course of: El. m. 473. afterwards: sefter >on. 59. every one: nsm. El. 312. m. 675. 101. 561. 506. conj. 3 sg.. adj. . apple: gs. n. formerly. aeht. in search of: 138. 495. 905. 581. El. 916. El. See onaelan. former day: dp. adv. npm.. 198. aeleS. 74.. aeriste. Ph.. 258.. 800. once: Ph. Pn. Ph. aelmihtig. pron. 166. 321. asn. apple-shaped: Ph. aerest. 238.. 707. first: El. Ph. Ph. 1253. nsn. aenigne. aerdsege. El. adv.. 828. n. 230. aenges.. El. Pn. nsm. 567. El. 922. El. 363. m. 1044. El.. Ph. aeg..

. 1174. El. El. prp. rd. 43. qualities: i. 673. warlike: nsm. Ph. . 1178. set. chief: nobleman. El. aeSeling. 272. 591 . 146..GLOSSARY aerSon. Ph. 586. agol. Ph. pret. agangan. terrify: pp. adj. aejjele.. . aetsgmne. nagon. anv. 1025. 1131 nsm. aescrof. 614. ae>ele. Ph. 647. 733. possess: 3 sg. 500. before: aer)>an. . go. opt. ds. El. aeSeltungol. El. pass: pp. 401. aflyhS.. adj. food: gs. dsn. 93 . aeSele. 231... 460. Ph. Wi. El. afedeS. dat. w. W. ae>elum. El. Ph. np. Ph. 274. 27. 15. El. Pn. as. 275 . W. n. 399. afysed. El. Pn. 1227. wk. Ph. 1189. El. 2. dsf. El. 315. El. aeSelum. El. afleon. 280. aej>elan. afeded. II. . 1029. aeSelne. El. one versed in the law: ds.. as. W. 1217. Ph. 1074. 251. seSelestan. 20. Ph. 477. ds. 342.. conj.. Ph. 545 . npm.. aetywed. 914.. wk. 834. El. adv. gs. El. gsn. m. show. $ aeSelst?nc. asf. aeSelingas. aeSelcyning. El. El. excellent: aej>ele. f. El. nsf. 476. nsm. afaered. 1182. 239. aetywan. 1183. at: Ph. 559. prince. 5- 281 . 104. 99. ah. spear-fighter: sescwigan. 356. npl. 787. 1182. age. ipf. sescrofe. aeSelinga. 654. sing: El. no. together: Ph.. ae]?ela. El. Ph. sweet: nsm. asn. $ aswita. . Ph. dsm. El. se>elne. dpm. 52. prep. El. 164. nahton. 1146. 153 m. El. Ph. npf. Ph. agan. near: 994. eeSelu. 104. 1124. m. Wi. 662. El. pret. agan. nsm. sustain: 3 sg. El. El. 9. go. asm. 3 1 9. m. have. 422. noble El. 202. Wi.. 73. Ph. 2 sg.. noble afaeran. setes. 259. 3 pi. king: gs. seSelcyninges. impel: pp. aeSeles. 275. 1198. afyrran. excellent: comp. 328. aeSelan. flee from: 3 sg. 137. aeSelusit. 3 sg. asf. aeSelestan. aeSelinges. 346. remove: pp. See aer.. sweet odor: star: gp. 431 npm. with: repast: W. own: nsn. El. pass: pp. El. 66. pp. fountain: Jespringe. intent: nsm. 1003. W. adj. aespring. 263 bring up. Ph. 525afedan. 179. asm. 2. Ph. 12.. Ph. ready: nsm. se^elest- righteous: um. sup.. VI. Ph.. sup. reveal: pp. ipm. El. Negative: 3 pi. wk. 195. afyrhtan. 262. afysan. n. m. to: Pn. ae>elan. 3eJ>elstenca. agangen. 78 . brave with the spear. npm. 886. m. 26. 1084. from: El. Wi. Ph. 155. nature: a. 1107.. sere. agen. spring. 3 sg. afyrhted. Ph. wk.. 290. Wi. eager: nsm. El. Ph. aewitan. ae)>elast. aeSelan. 74. El. 202. 15. i. El. 69. El. Wi. 393- gp. 846. until: sermon. m. precious: El. El. Ph. Ph. 433. 1184. agalan. rear: .. 455. 40. gp. in: El. 628. 528. seeding.. El. aeSele.. Ph. aeSelan. El.. 965. ns. 207. noble. 405. 83.. noble aej>eltungla. Ph. 726. frighten: pp. 538. 354. 48. 219. aeSelestan. aeSelestum. Pr. race: aej^elu. 104. act. % aescwiga. wk. 657. nsn. 56. ahst. 300. np. adj. glorious: wk. wk. nsn. afyrred. 191. asn. 37. aettelan. support. inf.

662. pf. 3 pi. 2 sg. . El. ahengon. 1312. 868. gehwa. sg. .. ahangpp. 17. andsweredon. andleofen. ipm. opt. El. loose. El. anforleton. 718. one: nsm. answer: is. vexation: 970.GLOSSARY 1077 264. m. emerge. 453. alesenra. 96. JandwraS. see ond. choose. El. anda.. almus. as. 29. aglaeca. 619. Ph. El. 934. 358. ahon. Jeglseca. inf. anum. ahof on. 180. 599 . 545. El. Ph. andsaec. asm. pret. andswaru. 177. 210 (opt. pp. El. Ph. alleluia.. pret. 445. alysde. El. agenne. 286. 166. rear: ahof. V. 844. El. 630. 3 sg. El. amen. El.. Ph. all. ageald.?). and. an. andsware.. (Lat).. vouchsafe: alyfed. 462. El. Ph.. Wi. alyseS. 233. Ph. 375. pret. ahebbatS. wk. V. gsf. high: altis. El. 662. El. redeem: 3 sg. opt. aglslcan. El. pp. punish: (?) lift pret. . ametan. num. andwyrde. 462. 205. raise: 3 pi. crucify: 3 pi. El. amen: El. El. 482. give: pret. 536 Ph. 442 . 630. andan. sg. measure out: pret. El. agnum. 355. VI. 1321. adj. El. Wi. El. answer: El. see burg-. 438. alysan. El. 730. anum.. 545. 687. give up. alaedan. aldor. andwearde. now: El. see eald. down: pret. 298. asf. 396. 540. El. ahangen. 879. See also anra aenne. up. fiend: inf. 112. andweardlice. np. opt pret. (Lat). inf. See aeglaec. amered. Ph. 417. alone: nsm. . ahafen. 1141. 3 pi.. lift 3 ahofun. 408. W. agnum. Ph. adj.. 671. face: El. see call. III. ds.. 599. Wi.. as. resistance: nan. 1002. opposition. interj.. pp. npm. 3 sg. El. anforlaetan. amerede. 3 sg. 636. 17. 455.. 528. 251. altus. Ph. 3 agend. inter j. 243. f. Ph. 673. amjete. food. pret. as. El. 677. alleluia: Ph. folcagend. 392. purge. I ahsefen. anboren. alsede. asm. as. 353. El. 2 sg. andweard. adj. Ph. agifan. 455. El. El. 724. alyfan. 585. sg. Ph.. 587. ana. dsm. 852. Ph. Ph. alesan. pp. spring: pret. at n. amaet. Ph. Wi. 1076. ds. El. ahySan. Wi. rd.. pi. ahyded. only-begotten: nsm. grant. present. wk. agefon. genial: abl. answer: as. 57. see ealdor dom. select: pp. see ealdor. 976. andsware. adj. El. Ph.. El. El. ahaefen. agne. 567.. am?rian. El.. rd. 167. ns. 380. 633. Ph. 838. 472. renounce: anforlete. Ph. pret 3 pi. alme. anforlete.. V. wk. ahengon. adj. purify: pp. Pn. n. W2. alesen. 3 52. anra gehwylc. asm. gp. andswerian. sustenance: andleofne. andwlita. ahof. ahfbban. 3 sg. 256. ageaf. 671. 566. 902 . 862. 667. 3 pi. monster: aglaecan. 544. adv. 642. f. (Lat). release: pret. 181 ransom. El. 10. andwlitan. 885. m. agyldan... 1248. 41. enmity: Pn. m. El. aldordom. 947. dsm. 16. 619. 798. eclipse: 318. ipf. present: at asn. 275. 3 sg. ahydan. 475. Wi. plunder: aid.

888. 188. 3. Ph. 847. asecan. np. 62. Ph. El. 467. 242. El. anwealda. 368. ds. with one mind. Wi. 503.. arise. arwyrSe. El. Ph. worthy of honor. anstapan. adj. 848. asundrian. adj. (Lat). ar. see unas?cgendllc. El. El. calm: irk: pp. anhagan.. adv. Ph. VI. arleas. ascian. El. hold aloof: pret. ascaeceS. merciful: arisan. 3 sg. raise. Ph. pi. for ever: El. El. adj. rover: ds. Wi. astah.. El. as?cgendllc. I. anra gehwaes. ns. 33. 714. m. dsf. pret. Wi. 76.. 1309. 144. anmode. aswebban.. Wi. />' ap. n. ap. 423. place: pret.. author: 667. arleasra. rise: 3 Pn. 73anhaga. 1313. rear. f. only.. attorsceatSa. Pn. anra gehwylc. see geascian. 511. nsm. anra gehwa. npm. 863... araered. astondeS. asced. each one: gs. m. ds. areccan.. 951. 900. See asce. El. gracious: 635. adj. Wi. El. El. npm. 996. ns. 373. clap: Ph. ds.. 981. ascan. 1287. ascyrian. pp. ascend: pret. Ph. fetter: ashes: pp. El.. 487. 804. sole: nsm. 186. inf.. purify: pp. El. auctor. Wi.. 187. Pn. aras. awa. 346. weary. El. 1088 . Ph. venomous foe: attorsceaj>an. a>reat. search out: El. 877. anhydig. 663. 803... VI. 795. 576. atre. arum. 5. solitary one: ns. 3 sg. II. inf. Wi. ruler: ns. Ph. El. Pn. 95. m. El. pron. 1244. El. start 1007. aweaxan. dp. mindful: nsm. asaelan. ast?llan. raise up: 3 sg. 129.. 1279. aseted. aseoSan. El. 231. inf. 512. 829. ar. I. 648. aspyrigean. ds. npm. Wi. Pn. a. every: asn. Ph. arwyrSan.. aSreotan. anmod. set. asundrod. asaeled. 58 is. f. atydrede. El. El. Wi. Ph. Ph. purify: pp. adj. 3 pi. arfaest. asecean. aras. asceacan.. 1273. 3 sg.. wicked. ascan. El. 511. pron. VI. W2. 598.. less: god gpm. . 522. anra gehwylc. El. impious. 1308. aras. excellent: 1129. m. sg. goodwill: astondan. erect: El. pret. tatydran. . as?ttan.. declare: Pn. El. asetton. produce: pp. 604. attor. El. anhydige.. 998. El. 486. adj. venom: gs. rise: 3 sg.GLOSSARY anga. El. separate. m.. 12. astelleS. lay. Ph. aswefed. poison. El. asceaden. 285. 87. solitary 15. determined: npm.. 155 3 sg. honor: El. 'inf. 308. imp. aseca]?. out: inf.. wk. Ph. ns. sg. 534. asodene. messenger: angel: vs. anwalda. astigan. El. El. 1019. pp. 836. ^ anstapa. 1301. VI. asceadan. each one: nsm. i rd. inf. 87. 3 sg. Pn. asundrad. as. 1118.. 449. 40. separate: ascyred. free: pp.. El. See also onweald. pret.. 887. nsm. Ph. 396. m. El. seek 407 . make: pp. grow: opt. are. unani mous: npm. El. 470. 1313. adj. El.. aras. astigeS. anhoga. still. El. Wi. attres. araeran. 738.

awyrgda. 2 sg. 87 . spoil: 3 sg.. 3. 33. beag. 109. El. 420. flame: ns. m. El. El. 602. ds. 304. 763 contradict. 567 . m. 47. pp. warlike: nsm. 550. aweaht. bealwes. steadfast: nsm. 575. 581. 520. as. 162. i . ap.. El. bajtyraece. gp. 1199. beadurof. adj. Ph. is. bone: as. 265. bi. beacnian. 946. 2 sg. by: w. adj. baSa. 227. beaggifa. wk. Ph.. B.. banfaet. Ph. pp. violence of fire: ds. valiant. Ph. 152. beaduSreat. Ph. gs. in dsf.. abannan. 221. 1257. . npm. evil. cast. aweahte. awurpe.. upon.. opt. in regard to: w. gp. con dat. ap. adj. (ap. rofre. 1194. El.. body: El. bealu. 342. crimson: nsm. $ baelSracu. W. 458. bold(ly): nsm. 247.. bancofan. 100. n.. El.. sign: ns. m. 31. 505. awake.. 593. baeSweg. I. bseles. incite: i sg. body: ns. see gebann. gs. gainsay: El. prep. beacnaS. Wi. adj. El. Pr. m. El. Ph. gp. sg. ban. anywhere: inscribe: pp. 771. beaga. Pn. Ph. 18. f. 34.. 350. 578. bold: See fyrbaeS. Ph... 1004. 1034. 788. m.] 562. El. aweaxen. elapse: pp. aweorpan. sg. aw?ccan.. Ph.. stout brave: nsm. battle. dat. 444. is. awended. Ph. Ph. see gebaeru. El. El. W. sec begen. El. 15.. n. beacen. Ph. 512. adv. w. El.. awer. 3 sg.. 490. lord: ns. 784. nsf. El. 756. baele. n. call: inf. iniquity: gs. rush of flame. gs. III. battle: beadwe. beaducraeftig. 168. turn: El. See sige-. ayrnan. (= boldly) El. 278. as. hurl: . GLOSSARY 1226. 1250. 389. 575. beadu. Ph. gp. 286. 861. baetS. beacnes. [ahwaer. W. back: fire: as. 216.. See aw?ndan. see also bi-. 1189. Ph..156 aweoxe.. 45. 337. arouse : 3 Ph. W. Ph. 412. awyrdan.. El. bath: as. Pn.. f. 1073. beadu- npm. 244. basu. bi. be. bannan. baire. 78. El. 270. Wi. adj. pret. beacne. 706. baldor. 873. baer. 1185. Ph. opt. run out. awecce. 344. n. pp. n. See Seoden72. cerning. rd. pret. 271.?) Ph. 867. III. crown: lar: ns. El. 1274. col 100. 306. El. bana. 364. adj. El. 283. accursed: nsm. bann. 284. beald. 229. bi. 646. El. awriten.. 8. Ph. awyrged. 367. El. no. Wi. 92. bealu. 9. m. be-. baSian. 107.. Ph. Ph. W2. 286. Ph. see bibaSian. f. El. wrong. prince: ns. baem. El. 45- pyre: ns. Ph. El. bier: ds.. 665. signify. 782. Ph. 1068. 309. aurnen. Ph. banfatu. 3 awehte. 842. awritan. among: w.. El. sea: bald. sigorbeacen. Ph. 1241. inst. as. El. 91. by means of: 262. aweceo". pret. 927. 13. n. army: >reata. nsm. 1299. awyrde. 296. El. bael. dat. baec. inf.. destroy. 601. n. beaggifan. El. El. bancofa. beadu- -baeru. 388. awyrgede. beadurofe. typify-' betoken.

befaestan.. 148 ds. Wi. 177. f. 424. Ph. dp. 851. 354. . 196. rd. see gebed. opt. n. El. pp. begravene. 67 np. son: begangan. pp. El. Ph. 1220.. 1131. 71 gp. See freo-. inf. V. wudubearo. behydan... gsm. beboden. 80. 170. 1154- beama. beamas. 259. np. see neob?d. as. lock up: inf. 432 as. El. 1 El. 3 sg. b?d. begen. ap. bid. 618. El. 91. 1213. 476. 142. 515. behliden.. El. 202 . bearnum. as. Ph. 837. behealdan. bearo. pp. El. 286. cross) ns. 380. 1225. bebyrgan. sin: gp. 3 sg.. -bed. pour out: get. 602. El. secure: pp. El. VI. 980. 402. 527. 3 3 sg. Ph. beliSan. child. II. 396. El. see breahtm. encompass. rob: belidenes. bealosorge. begrafan. 90. seize: pret. num. 535. Ph. bebyrgeS. adv. 843. 391. sige-. 418. bedelfan. inf.. bibugeo Pn. bedyrned. El. in. 1081. 122. 1127.. Ph... 562. Ph. Ph. apf. inhabit: 3 sg. 3 sg. befon. 446. Wi. See beforan. bebeodan. bearne. Ph. gp. reach: becwom. bury: El. g.. 1082. El. anguish: f. behlidan. 422. Pr. 1170. bury. El. deprive. clothe: bifongen. beames. begeotan. El. grant: El. El. rd. El. . El. make fast. command: bebugan. bearna. . pp. Pn. begraefen. 669. 937. biinf. God-. 36. grove: bearwes. 1018. bm. np. make belucan. beamas. El. 525. apf. fulfil: 2 sg. behold: pret. 122. begra. El. begietan. El. IV. Ph. t beclingan. bearhtm. before: 108. II.. 1009. bedyrnan. El. avoid: encircle: healdan. 30. 25 ap. El. pret. Ph. command: pret. Ph. invest. n. 217. sun-. n. pret. baleful sorrow. hide: pp. Ph. Ph. El. II. Pn. Wr. El. asf. shut: pp. Ph. begange. El. beh?lian. 224. 429. III. 13. 851. bind: III. secrete: El. Ph. sigebearn. 409. as. bihealdej>. pp. El. befaested. I. 3 sg. 1142. bihyded. El. El. 814. 402. wynbeam. 6. ..GLOSSARY bealuciaed. El. . beheold. obtain. 1255.. See m. hide. 1230. 447. 114. 1077. 1300. rd. becuman. 974. bihealdan. El. 179. befolen. beam. beam. evil deed. lish: pp. 378. 614. 624. bearwa. bearwas. 805. ns. 1013. 865. 964. . beheold. d. II. 835- 3 sg. ds. Ph. 412. befsested. 3 sg. befeng. bibead. 35 gp. 87. . bifsesteS. bury. prep. observe: inf. 3 sg. bef. 1171. 243. El. IV. clungen. bury: sg. pp. 783. n. hide: pp. w. 171. tree (in the Elene always as. attain: inf. forest.. Wi.. 1144. m. W. . 1027. bu. wudu-. pp. 181. El. beame. begeat. pret. conceal: 793. 964. Ph. pp. 878. begeat. 1074.. Ph. Ph. 1248. bebod. bedolfen. pret. bega. El. Ph. 887. close. Wi. 696. beforehand: El. behelede. El. be- 988.ludseda. Ph. El. bearwe. El. 3 sg. hyded. both: 889. be- be- heled. gs. Eh 1152. 609. 831. ds. Ph. I. bihydde. 710. 584. beforan. estab bealusorg. 715. bebead. : befeolan. El. gs. dat. 112.

f. pi.158 bemiSan. Pn. W. carry. 186. 788. for-.. beorhte. 50. see biteldan. beorgan. 3 pl. Pn. El. 498. beodeS.. beorgeo". wk. asf. beorg. sg. See pp. wk. funeralpile: ds. npm. 1089. III. 240. see god. burgon. radiant. bi>eahte Ph. splendidly. 790. 413 . pret. 1089. u . Ph. eminence. sondbeorg. bisSton. Ph. 227. beorna. surround: 530. 836. biseted. gen. 1009. beorgas. 109. beorhtan. . 1298. 35. W.) : beorhtm. 297. Ph. El. be-. beraedan. beswicaS. npf. brightly: El. beorhtra. deliver: betsehton. bereafod. betaecan. bear. El. beofa>. dat. beornes. El. Ph. 943. III. biseteS. see forberstan. W. See reordberend. 545. clear: beorhtan. bright. 33. m.) 134. pl- beraS. hiw-. El. 3 sg. 92. man. push. adorn. El. cover: pp. bereafian. 3 pl. 583I. 114. np. pret. be>ehte. nsn. 1062.. m. El. Wi. 284. gp. 304. $ beorgan. V. Ph. 497 El. pure beorhtne. comp. gpn. besittan. hill. keep secret: inf. beorhtan. beran. m. offer: boden. 602. 253. El. 45. beofian. petition: as. inf. rob: El.. El. 1212 pret. 1196. tremble: 3 sg. ben. bescufan. Ph. Wi. bescufeS. 585. beneah. hold: pret. troop of beornj^reat. 884 bi>eaht. adv.. beorhta. . proclaim: 3 opt. El. deceive: 3 pl. beteldan. beorge. 3 sg. beorhhliS. Ph. El. hero: El. inf. bes?ttan. 179. Ph. 822. glorious. 1187. . n. adj. inf. beorhtan. 3 pl. 21 gp. benugan. El. be- sylced. pp. GLOSSARY hide. 83. be>eaht. beorhte. mountain-slope: ds. 710. taste: 3 Ph. Ph. 45. Ph. 122. beneah. 56. beseoh. prp. El.. beorhtra. El. mo. 18. .. pp. W. s . m. El. 23. : pret. Ph. 80. Ph. beorhtast. glorious (?): Ph. nsm. gebeodan. beorhte. asm. 578. convey: beon. look: inf. 80 pp. excellent. beorhtast. biereS. 31. be jewel: inf. beswican. El. save (w.de. 1187. beseon. 3i. Ph. bude. El. 76. El. npm. 1199. 306 asn. isf. II. El. . El. 972.. El. gleam ing. wk. set: 3 sg. beorga. gs.. El. pp. 100. El. sup. 5<)2. (?). El. $ beorhste. 389. 489. sunbeorht. pret. I. Pr. See a-. nsm. wk. 128. see benugan. Ph. 805. 510. super. be>eahton. beorhhliSe. i beoniSreat. 759- berseddon. to have at disposal (w. El. V. Wi. Pn. byreo". beswicen. W2. 910. Wi. 1255 asn. 873. El. beorhte. beorhtost. El. El. 88. beorht. beaming: nsm. mountain: J99! 3 ds. boden. prayer. 26. 599. 7. beseted. 697. Ph. El. beodan. nsm. beguile. asm. sg. rob: pret. berstan. IV. 1236. men: 3 ns. hurl: 3 sg. wk. beorhtan. see wesan.. 3 sg.. 65 pp. see breahtm. El. besylcan. bftera.. biswac. beorhtast. Pn. 1026. Wi. cover: be>eahte.. El. shining. 3 pi. weaken: pp. 1 10. 473. Ph. Ph.. 948. . dsf. 3 sg. illustrious: . 490.. sg. 3 sg. W2. beorn. See . asm. II. Ph. 618. bene.. El. beSfccan.

m. onbindan.. 354! in as. Ph. adj. V. 310. III. encompass: pp.. n. W2. Ph. blac. El. W2. do.. bliss: El. 179adj. Ph. Ph. 434. 341. 543- need: 3 sg. beSringan. biweaxan. W. 950. 339. binumene.GLOSSARY 605. inf. I. see bysgu. cover: 3 sg. 419. bishop: ns. surround: 3 pi.. Bethlem. bihlemmeS. brilliant: nsn. bow. n. Bethleme. Ph. biwunden. 1057. 1052. 26. m. invest. bij>eahte. blaeddaeg. III. Wi. conceal: nsm. ds. Ph. oppress: . bittre. beweotigan. bidende. sink: 3 sg. bisceophad. beweotiga}>. fulness: white: glory: gs. Ph. 1245 encircle: pp. El. bindan. bi- bitre. 391. 1207. El. bigengan. 1095. bij>rungen. IV. noxious: gsn. Ph. -wrap: npm. bereave. 329. pp. bigan. 1124. fear: bisorgaS. 277. bitynan. Bethlehem: d. El. bepp. burden. 1093... El. bewrecene. n. See gebidan. bathe: 3 Ph. ds. Ph. beat: pp. 148. IV. biniman. clothe. flame: ns. remain: 3 sg. see bewitigan. W. 459_ sg. bright. Ph. bisgu. bitres. wk. pp. 25/~. see ge-. ask.. bldeS. asf. El. snap: 76. adorn: 1024. day of blaiddaga. W2. bliss: m. bisenceS. bisceope. Ph.. blaede... bisceawad. m. Ph. beSearf. bibaSian. W2. m. 98. m. El. Ph. 3 sg. bad. 391. Ph. Ph. biclyppan. : 3 pi. as. bitolden.. as. bej>rungen. 555. 1069. El. bewindan.. 3 sg. pret. lock: pp. El.. expectation: bide.. El. 296. biwunden. 404. El. 489. Ph. dread. El. as. 1101. W.. gen. 15. El. betweonum. 368. 273. El. bill. Wi. 251. blaca. blaed. 814. bitterly: bitter. bi(-). bend: 3 Ph. El. apm. overgrow: rd. bigang. sg. t 162. bitter. El. 600. El. El.. prep. 662. bewitigan. Ph. adj.. 609. 409. clyppeS. bihl?mman. tend to) 745. m.. beweorcean. V. 170.. bid. 1217. Ph. El. bil. bisceop.. blacum. pr. beg: pret. W2. beteldaS Ph. El. bis?ncan. w. 549. blaest. adv. 3 sg. El. perform (at . bityned. blaze. 91 ipn. 61. Wi. lash. inhabitant: Ph. W. biba>a$. 48. 18.. episcopal rank: ns. shining . 1127. prp. sg. asf. 92. Wi.. 1073. 790. Pn. 488. ds.. 64. biteldan. ns. as. 1212. 3 sg. Wi. bliedes. Wi. El. take heed to: 3 sg. watch: inf. bideglian. 1245. bi- bide. among: inf. El. abide. ap. Ph. 47. 122. 734. III. array: pp. blaec. ptc. 674. harmful. pp. apm. El. biteldeS. 885. 494. course: . close. ns. deglad. sequester: biholene. 3 sg. Ph.. beSurfan. bisorgian. 666 wundene. El. 484. 1090. bisceawian. 3 El. shining. bitolden. bewrecan. pp. baed. bigeS. seize: ds. spiration: 826. . Ph. bihelan. Ph.. gp. deprive: pp. load: Pn.. imp. Ph. sword: ns. grievous: nsf. . 107. pp. pret. bidan.. biddan. El. biweaxen. see also be(-). Ph. sg.

III. ds. blinne. El. 134. see feorgbona. 826. f. n. brigd. Ph. El. ptc. ip. El. ds. 1138. Ph. bordhreoSan. break 67. bearhtme. (poet. letter: El. I. brec. 1212. brogden.. El. see unbraece.. bregd. 599. sound. blinde. bled. m. bliss.i6o blanca. dp. 759. nesse. m. El.. sg. see gebredian. 122. dp. ip. blind: 1215. El. El. boda. IV. 1 86. m. 515. Ph. n. W2. 115. El. El. Ph. 244. bocstafum. 3 pi. sec be-. blican. Pn See onbregdan. 126. color: Pn. book: gp. 389. breca8. brogden ns. sec geblpndan. np. bleobrigd. ceasing: El.. 292. El. bora. npm. blede. brogden. 207. bodian. 602 inlay: vary. blissum. m. dsm. El. Ph. 917. 'brecan. ship: ns. Ph. 23. 1255 ap. blgndan. bleo. boca. blind- as. m. rend asunder: 504. npm. El. n. W2. opt. ds. brad. 364. El. 299. bledum. joy: ip. flower: np. see hornbora. (Lat.. borda. 122. El.. form. El. f. blostmum. 306. Ph. bredian. branch: np. El. shield: m. 402. bot. 3 sg.. 55iEl. See bleom. El.. see geblissian. Ph. prince: Ph . Ph. See spelboda. adj. protection of the El.. 290. shield: as. bletsian. El. Ph. blindness: gs. El. blij>e. wk. GLOSSARY blanns. 257. bosom 7. blind. blowan. . play of colors: bordhagan.. 204. briceS.. adj.. SrySbord. bord. m. blandum. ds. 826. nsm. dash: inf.. blond. bod. 1317. blindnes. 1187. El. Ph. Pn. bllce. shine: 3 sg. Ph. flesh: ns. shape: as. forth: 3 pi. breahtme. pret. 240. bleobrygdum. bliss. EL blinn. See ge- brecan. Pn. set pp. mild: asm. 91. 1039. atonement: 1217. boc. blandus. for earth) : Pn. 674. ip. 47 ip. Ph. 29. rush. bosm. bless. 1126. f. gp. 21. Ph. adore: bletsiaS. 77. Ph. 38. 71. 599. see gebrec. rnael. inf. 262. announce: pp. see geblowan. bleom. 652. brad. braece. see geblond. 670. El. bregdan. n. 620. lord. noise: . 853. 3 pi.. El. 3 Ph. bona.(?).. blossom. blede. 235. braed. 620. healing. (?). El.. see gebregd. variety of colors. blostmum. reparation. bocum. joyous. 35. breahtme. f. Ph. See wudubled. 246. bliSra : 205. see anboren. m. messenger. blissian. El. 1185. shield: ap.. bocstaef. El.. burst forth. Ph. bregdende. glad: nsm. bodan. . 96. cure. weave: pp. f. 389. blindnesse. 74. dp. adj. Ph. breahtm.. comp. blostma. as. 238.. Ph. ambassador: brego. adj. bote. bee. See modblind. ds. f. bodod. dp. bordhreoSa. m. music: Ph. briecon. 95.. broad: nsn. blede. end. El. 114. 466. gebod. as. boren. tbordhaga. birSe. repentance: bote. bote. bliceS. ip. 299. shift: 23. 865. ds. 24. fruit: as. is. 1141. plait. np.. 39 beorhtme. white horse: can. El.). blostman. bll>an. bordum. 1106. El.

brother: ns. dispenser: 194. El. 1251. m. npn. dp. breostum. briddes. fountain: Ph. m. byrig. sg. butan.. El. Ph. 579. El. adj.. m. conj. 292. 235 bridels. enjoy (w. gp. breast: mind. El. variety: gp. bosom's recess. adj. broSor. brimo. broga. gs. 157. 253. bugatS. 109. 996. 31. Ph. ^brigd. bird. f. 244. breostum. 216. 666. dp. buend. Ph. as. El. 633. Pn.. El. Ph. n. heart: 595. m. without: 802. . El. prep. 967. El.. brytta. Wi. I : 3 pi. El. breotan. 152. m. m. city: brimSisa. burgagendra. 1185. city: 864. byman. np. 276... bu. burg- salum. 1204. brogdenmael.. bregd. 1320. cept: El. byman. 489. pp.. 238. El. m. 1292.. See gebrotSor.. 229. Ph. sec unbryce. Wi. brohte. bridle-ring: dp. 550.. El. nestling: ns. m. 1006. 568 . bryne. burning: as. . bridelshring. ap.. Ph. El. burnan. m. bryttan. 1016. dp. bryttian. burgsittend. El. 674. n. brondes. El. See castle-hall: .. 1130. as. np. dp. Ph. sec aebylgtS. Ph. originator: as. dat. 822. ace. Ph. byrig. w. brldelshringum. inf.. brim. ship: burglocan. bugan.. 475. ns. See ligbryne. W2. 161 as. breostloca.. dat. bylde. Ph. unless: El.. sword: brond. 588. breost. El. 67. El. 1038. save. 134. Ph. brimcald. m. 148. 3 sg..) pret. El. ds. wither: 38. ds. n. m. 1175. 1039. 972. 1057. 972. as. brimwudu. El. 1250. brigda. 660 pret. burg- gebringan. 759. 16. El. W2. 661 . 575. 1138. 826. 238. El. 162. El. El.(?). 1175. bruca>. soul: as. 57- bronte. gs. 1199. brim)ns- san.. El. breac. trumpet: 497. gen. brosnian. 822. except: w. See bebugan.. 3 sg. breostsefa. ship: ap. burga. 358. m. ns. damascened Ph. bringao". El. n. Ph. as. 1315. 689. n. m. . high: 3 gs. 3 pi. Ph.. 894. Pn. fortified position: as. brun. 3 brosnian. 412. burgloca. El. young . brosniaS. 458. bront. bryrdan. m. 805.. 510. 651 El.GLOSSARY 497 620. Pn. ns. see foldbuend.. 107. heart: 842. burna. El. bringan.. El. 992.. burg. bridle: gs. citizen: sittendum. brime. ex sg. 126. 33. breostlocan. see onbryrdan. 958. brungen. bryt- Ph. 50. Ph. 1054. Ph..El.. incite: pret. dusky: nsm.. 545. 7 . 1228. Ph. destroy: taS. pi. Ph. fire: 8n. see abreotan. steep. no. 1004. 637. use. bryce. El. byme. See ge- byldan. Ph. II. occupy. 1046. see witebroga. sea: ns. 296.. II. 1062. burgsael. bregu. El.. Ph. Pn. ds. 520. m. f. El. ns. . cold as the sea: asn. 1194. adj. 26.. 389- burgagend. brucan. See bleobrigd. El. Ph. Ph. holder of the gp. 283. 372. flame: ns. apm. brohton.. -byrd.. 873. 568 ip. burgum. w. . 1095. 539. . butan. 953. 3 pi. Ph. see begen. El. Ph. El. inhabit: gs. El. brid. see gebyrd. -bylgS. bring: 3 pi.

El. cleop- . claene. 915. 214. byrgenne. 669. Ph. 3 pi..162 -byrde. taste. ceaster. bisgum. El. cild. 416. m.). npl. Ph. . cleofiaS. np. Sec gebyrgdon. np. abl.. caf. 999 gs. ceosaS. El. ship: W. cla. byrgen. ceastre. gp. El.. cildhad. cleopian. m. El. see geclaensian. sg. 3 sg. cleave. ion. cold: ipm.. m. 262. 73. 336. El. beget: pret. byrne5. cirice.. Calvarie. tomb: grave. El. ip. clsenum. cildhade. m. El. np. El. 8. Ph. adj. f. bold. El. 1008. n. El. f. corslet: ns.. see nydcleofa. devise: pp. gecigan. cenned. 502. n. sec gebyrde. byrnwlgendra.. ce. byrS. cljenum. campwudu. GLOSSARY ceas. Calvary: El. d. ceolas. cherubim: 750. 250. 634 ceafl. 404. Ph. corsleted warrior: pp. 96 dpf.nnan. W. dp. 452. f. chill.. carcerne. 51. El. 551. gpm. cenned. ceruphin... wholly: Ph. cafe. 224.. Ph. 409. see beran. ds. n.. 639. 330. m. call. byrne. 186. n. El. citizens: byrgan (bury). El. 354. 212. W. 70. adhere: pret. celum. domes. byrnbyrn- 587. 49. m.. m. cempan... sg. Ph. byrgan. ns. Ph. ceastra.. 384. 484. opt. W2. Ph. 277. Ph. . El. 669. brave: npm.. child: gs. adv. 676. El. II. caldu. cald. ceasterware. church: as. byre. Ph. shield: ns. trouble: ip. 715- See unclaene. casere. 541 . gp. El. . bywan.. as. ceastre. wave of sorrow: cearwelmum. 639. 336. cease. wiggendra. 17. Ph. ds. 56. see eoredciest. Ph. see ds. bear. El. 3 pi. $cleofian. m. battle: ds. 3 bysgaS. ceosan. . El. bysgian. See brimcald. 257. El.. 252.. W2. f. pure: nsm. 3 pi. 1245. El. 459. heaven: celo. Ph. El. 235. claene. cildes. W. 672. byrga. El. m. n. cirican. caseres. See gebysgian. ap. 59. nsn. 1258. El. byrnwlgend. see a-. city: gs.. n. . W. mpl. El. 51. choose: 3 I pi. cearwylm. childhood: 776 El. 226. 531. emperor: ns.. soldier. cigan. 42. see abywan. 56. 6. cry: cleopode. III. ceose.. . El. child. 42. cende. 846. ciest. 973 ceastrum. ceolas. caser- 750. El. offspring: 128. El. 553. El. Ph.. Ph. f. 518. 512. see sincaldu. El. f. 175. carcern. mouth: ns. wigendum. El. 274.. 392 Ph. dp. 471. . 508 gp. caldum. claenra. talon: adj. dp. pr. uoo.. npm. f.. 218. See geceosan. 3 W3-. clam. 1205 . 167. ds. adj. clasnsian. Ph. i Wi. byrnan. champion: ns. byrgan. cendan. 479. s. byrgennum. entirely. ceasterwarum. Wi. bebyrgan. torment: sg. ceol. 1098. ipn. Ph. dp. Calvarie. 59. See ac?nnan. Pn. cleofa.. (Lat. byrgenna. reign: gs. prison: m.. caserdom. eat: pret. pi. dp. bysgu. 34. El. burn: 3 sg.. see gebyrga. strife. 652.. Ph. cejmpa.

leoS-. cnyseS. El. 419. El. craeftum. El. El. 398. 849. sgng-. . 798. El. inf. El.. 3 sg.. 1123. IV. 1205 . 378. cyme.GLOSSARY odon. pret. go: 3 3 sg. pi. craeft. mod-. cnawan. Crecas. 145 grain: . f. 103. 684 . fetter: dp. 2 sg. wedercondel. clgm. Crist- cofa. 980. El. Ph. heolstor-. 167. a. 973 5 g. 252. elated: npm. 688. oncnawan. El. El. 558. cunnen. frail: ds. 3 skill: gs. see stanclif. 590. 1214 npm. 908. 459. m. Constantine: n. 1319. 1018. condelle. ion. see ban-. cumaS. Pn. 1303 . 284. see cneo.. knowledge. 514 . cornes. m. enum. come: 508. Christ: El. cnyssed. gp. 222. 72. 91 pi. m. Bering. n. troubled: npm. 376. geclingan. Ph. 317. 640. see godcund. 691 cor]?re. 102. W. El. 344. 3 cuSe. prp. collenferhSe. cneow. col- cwom. creeft. cuman. 3 pi. 262. non. El. UScringan. lenferhSe.. 42. 640. El. 388. 1120. Ph. W.. 535. 366. 1211. 59 pp. cunnan. bold: mo. Wi. craeftig. 514. smite: 3 sg. El. 999. skilful. opt. see be-. El. 3 sg. pr. El. see eofor-. El. colian. collenferhS. 51. n. 167. 587. pret. cann. . 79. 328. Cristes. n. know: i sg. 279. 1050. "63. El. Ph. Crist. 678. Ph. Christian: enra.. pr. pr. 126. See Ph. 543. see biclyppan. as. crungon. El. See acolian. El. cneomaeg. clynnan. corSra. cwom.. 2 3 sg. child: Ph. colodon. cgndel. El. n. can. word-. n. multitude: . 3 sg. Ph. Crlste. cumbul. -cnaewe.. 871. adj. fall. see orcnaewe. 857. El. W2. cun- cort5re. icnihtgeong. cunne. cleopigan. corSor. Ph. cunnon. knee: ds. El. cumac". n. n. 226. W. 989. collenferh]?e. cleowenne. adj. kinsman: dp. El. pret. dp. ipas-. ability. W. 393. See a-.. ns.. El. resound: clynede. 1008. Crlstdp. 3 pi. pret. g. El. 103. 247. 499.. adj. Seostorcofa. 91. 848. cymen. pi. 484. clif. Greeks: slaughter: Creca. craeftes. corn. cymeS. cunnon. 696. 1020 . El. ns. 54. craeft. cniht. El. El. 1035. com. 44. El. d. expert: El. 70. i sg. 304 . Constantlnus. return: cymeo". 683. . 3 pi. 79.. Ph. . 150. El. leornung-. 374. 339. 374. El. 648. . searu-. becuman.. clyppan. cleowen. cost. cneoEl. gp. 595. 925 . 1059.. El. 1136. El. Cristen. wotS- clingan. heorucumbul. El. 635. Ph. 3 sg. 274. 17.. as.. pi. 399. n. El. 281. 883.. see gecost. 274 Ph.. g. leoSucraeftig. El. 93.. Wi. cnyssan. 1258. El. Constantino. cuSon.. ds. opt. 3 pi. El. clommum. El. v. El. f. 8 . 154. power. Constantines. inf. 250. Ph. 549. El. pp. d. perish: n. adj. El. 212. snyttru-. candle: ds. El. -cund. 24. crseftum.. ge-. El. i pi. 460. band. m. youthful: nsm. 696. to be cold: pret. cwomon. See swegl-. III. 3 pi. nsm. beat. 1172. strike. magum. El. individual gs. See beadu-. 1069. El.

1228. El. 335. 392. swyltcwalu. 152. See 610. m. oncwe'San. cwen. 199. cu)>. sige-. 104. 38. Seodcwen. 15. El. 79. n. cwylmed. agonizing death: ns. cwsedon. El. cySan. 610. 245. Ph. 53. Ph. cynestol. heofon-. 56. n. 305. 827. 3 pi. 610. Ciriacus. make known. cyneSrym. man-... ds. El. cwicne. nation: ns. ds. gs. 666. 1152. Ph. 605.. cyr. sigorcynn.. GLOSSARY W2. 934 . see gecweme. 547. cunniaS. Ph. cwet5a}>. 980. 1069. lig-. El. 32. ge-. Ph. 56. 275. 377. m. icicle: ip. diadem: ns. W. El. 691.. as. cynne. cyrran. W. El. 533. 159. as.. 1086. (12 tell. queen: ns. ns. 332. El. 460. El. adj. 3 3 pi. 49. cwealmgeniSlan. cwale. 749. 175. cynejrym. El. cwicsusle. See geagn-. cynn.. El. ge-. proclaim. gim-. 942. 1091. 667 1 3 pi. vs. gs. 342. 1075. sad. 107. 607. 344 816. 41.. 849. cwalu. 356. cylegicelum. 344. El. royal majesty: as. 1152. See a-. choicest. sorrowful: npm. Cyriacus : (the n. El. V. think out. 1042. El. cyst. 1136. Srym-. pr. species: 188. Ph. 1192. turn: 2 sg. El. 51. 5. Pn. El. 324. See healfcwic. 1130. Ph. 1205. . see gecynd. El. cininge. cyning. 634. appearance: See hidercyme. cyn. El. El. n. . El. El. cwene. m. 558.. as. nsm. Wi. etc. cwene.. cwic. wuldorcyning. m. 161. uncuS. 4i6. maegen-. 1069. 49. as. 42. m. lineage. 1059. times) pp. . El.. hleo'Sor-. rodor-. Ph. speech: dp. decide: cynegold.. El. See ?ngel-. ds. -cweme. Ph. W. cynestole. See guS-. El. 499. agony: as. 642. quiver: 3 El. See a-. 169. 175. m. 178. 758. Wi. cynnes. living: asm. 587. El. most excellent: See uncyst. cwylman. 928. cyrrest. mity: cwealm.. cining. 411. cirde. W.. 571.. 2. El. 672. cwicsusl. heah-. 198. El. 1170.. gs. adj. Ph. i 209. hosp-. cyninga. king: ns. 531. 898. 614. Cyriacus. El. sg. adj. 688. imp. sg. 330. cwaca)>. eortS-. 535. say. kill: pp. dp. inf.. imp. cylegicel.. n. f. 13. 1130.. kind. Ph. El. cwsetS. cyrraS. see wiSercyr. 1192. 915. n. ds. 195. cyt5. El. 989. 5V royal dwelling: 330. cwanige. cuS. throne: ds. Ph. Ph. Ph. changed name of Judas) 1098. deadly en as.. hell-torment: ds. m. El. cwide. cwidum. cyninges. El. 384. 490. 866. -cynd. 1204. El. 514. 247. El. as. cwacian. reveal: cy)>aS. 541. 158. Sec dea$-. . 492. feorh-. 96. a. 662. 664. $ cwealmgenfSla. El. El. familiar: nsn. El. sg. 129. 3 sg. Wi. 702. cininges. Ph. 59i. Ph. aeSel-. Pr. as. 837. known. cySed. 120. 62. Pn. pret. 358. 425. 352. El.. m. El. sotScwide. 1211 . gp.. race. cynestolum. 800. speak: pret. W2.164 cunnian. 605. f. cy5e.. cweSan. Pn. i sg. El. 1018. 496. Ph. 40. 634. . cwanig. El. 715. 14. coming: ns. 551. torture: ds. 30. 145. 59- cyme. 453. oncyrran. 521. as. so8-. El. 1170. 546. 676. 47. np. pi. 378. return: 3 pi.

deed. 452. home: as cy^u.. 52. m. distribute. see digol. 261. daro8as. 1234. day: ns. 557. g. daegweorce. See deat5d?nu. 3 sg. Hf-. f. dal. adj. 71. Wi. 302. 463 W. El. np. 651. dalu. El. dig: gs. cySSu. deaS. deaSdene.. El. uncyoig deadra. El.. deglian. Ph. idolatry: dp. W. deogol. Ph. . westdael. digol. condemn: demde. as. Pn. 780. judge: gs. deaSe. dareSlacendra. weldaed. El. see gedafenlic. See deglian. 494. 34 Ph. Pn. Ph. siSgeardagas. judge: El. 2. n. 642 . adj. daga. deoful- a.. of death: as. deaScwalu. n. gs. 84. El. n. m. El. 1041. deoful. W. 584 dea>es. adj.. 37 . dseda. daelan. 383. 98. see meledeaw. 606. deman. daeges El. Pr. h?lledeofol. El.. gpf. deope. 583. deop. 303. El. gildum. m. 277. deofulgild. . day's work: deaw. 24. 882. daegweorSunga. Pn. El. 185 .GLOSSARY relate: inf. See El.. Ph. 1298. m. . El. see daeg . dale: f. . 697. '65 adj. 746. ap. gewin-. 292. El. powerful: npm. dagana. is. D. daege. 5V<r W. El. n. deofles. daegweorSung. 6 1 gp. 500.. 829. El. 358. n. 62. Ph. gedaelan. part.. Pn. 146. David. death: ns. 334.. m. Ph... 1081. deman. 303. pr. 644 . 584. mpl. wea-. daeg. 140. 14. El. delfan. fyrn-. see gedal. 651. dael. El. as. deogol. 32 dp. . 499. El. concealed: 1093. 41 . dygol. f. Ph. bideglian. Danube: 37.. glen: np. Pn. deoflum. ds. 24. hall 478. bestow: daeleS. El.. devil: gs. deofla. 3 sg. nsm. Ph. 302. dareolacende. wk. f. god-. see on-. f.. inf. dawn: as. daedhwaet. 136. ds.. See See gedeman. death-throe: daedhwaete. El. 266. 766. gp. deopra. 528. See east-. 88. 1314.. daegred. act: as. gu-. dagas. 312. El. d?nu. 53 deareSlacende. Ph. El.. 1223. np. 485. deaSd?nu. El. El. 1-232. n. proud: nsm. gp. Ph.. 187. daed. dearninga. . pr. El.. deareS-. El. deopan. See aer-.. 416. deal. El. Ph. grave. Ph. djedum. valley of death: as. deep: El. deeply: El. 485 . cy]>an. 342. see undearninga. secret: daroS. dafenlic. dead: nsn. Ph. 500. 445. spear: 140. 453. as. El. inf. n. El. 368. portion: ns. El. El. Ph. Wi. digol. Ph. n. divide: 3 sg. 1283. 48. blaed-. El. 30. adv. 477. See ealdcySoU.. see dareS-. dema. . deaScwale.. Danubie. 1283 ip. . f. El. 198. hall of death: np.. m. pret. 181. deaSes. El. see geardagas. deaK Ph. Ph. 386.. W.. inf. 1119. David: asf. 945. 434. El. bealu-... lancers: n. 1286 . deaSsele. See man-. 1190. dene. III. daegweorc. gpnu gecySan. 147. daelum. dseleS. El. adj. El. 1306. m. See dead. gs. Ph. Ph. g. degol. festival: bedelfan. nsm. cy$ig. 193. dygol.. dael. Ph. dp. dea>e. 311. deaSraeced.

W. 146. See hildedeor. 1168. dogorrim. 57. dracan. 55. 560. . wk. 658. 19. deorca. dreah.. gs. . nsf. dryhta. El. joy: ns. harmony: gp. npm... 560. . See adj. 600. 358. imp. drusende. Ph. number of Ph. Pn. sacred: sup. drohtian. 524. dogorrimes. 1160.. daughter: Ph. ealdor-. dreoseS. ds. Ph. dry: asm. dreama. El. El. glory: 365. n. El. 406. dryhtna. 138. deorestan. adv. W. El. 210. wk. Ph. m. 138. Hcost. El. 368. days. anv.. 499. dogorrlmum.. domlic. domgeorn. 416. El... see dyrne. El. n. 658 dreames. 365. dreosaS. 81. II. Pn. Ph. 1159. gp. . 452. drus ende. dreosan. draca. wk. asm. El. 445. sup.. 3 I. domes. Pn. 500. 491. El. witedom. Ph. Ph. caser-. Wi. sg. Ph. 1010. ip. 280. dogorgerim. 560 346. See Surhdrifan. El. as. 334. 136. time: drusan. dwell. deore. dreorig. m. black: nsm. fitly: See dyre. + domweorSung. digle. 557. deorcne. See sindream. dryhten. Ph. 597. eager for glory: 383. drowning: is. 482 Pn. dracan. deor. El. multitude: dp. El. wk. domgeorne. 454. deorlice. 339. drygne. live: 3 sg. dierne. El. dygol. concealment: grave: ds. abode: as. as. 12. beast: Pn. gs.. 1261 fulfil: inf. Ph.. dear: nsf. n. dauntless: 261 drlfan. 1258. El. do. Ph. nsm. 34. dragon: 766 .. El. deorc. as. 1234. 726. El. national song: as. ns. 760 . gs. 371 . 717. 1140. dryge. 948. seonotS-. dryhtum. Ph. See deglian. ptc. sg. 499. gp. gs. deor- See adreogan. disig. 726. 98. 1291. Ph. Ph. 1175. glorious: ipf. 766. ns. adj. dreamas. see heorodreorig.. brave.. 32. 1314. 445. don. smoulder: ptc. 25. 25 deora. El. . domlicum. 642. time: ip. dr sedan. II. El. W. Ph. 371 ds. 541 S'ee dryhtleob".. 3 sg. El. m. . inf.. 5. npm. Ph. 30. . Ph. judgment: Ph. El. 84. 88. 494. 452. 88. 583. thoroughly: ns. Ph. 478. gs. Ph. 882 thoughtful: El. Ph. digol. domes. degle. drifeS. 780. . 450. Ph. wis-. Pn. gp. 62. days. 1232. nsm. El. number of drohtiende. Pn. decree. 658 . dp. dreama. Ph. 55 ap. m. dream. dohtor. f. 3 3 pi. gsf. drive: 3 sg. deore. W2. deores. El.. -will: gs. 352. 53 gp. Ph. 211. El. dreogetJ. ds. f. adv. 84. . adj. 705. 48. dreoga]?. 897. honor: ap. Ph. 1280. Pn. 693- dom. happiness: doma. El. Pn. W. 193. gedon. 292. wilder. 198. deogol. 971. vs. adj. 485 . adj. . See gedryht. drohtaS. drohtao". suffer: pret. 187. 352. f. domweorSunga. El. pi. deoplice. 16. deophycggende. 3 sg. El. deophycgende. deoplicost. m. dryhtnes. dryht. dohtrum... drence. 342. adj. 1280. lord: ns. 14. men: gp. fall: deormod... El. . droop: ptc. goddond. El... 383. as. 1206. 945.. -dryhto. see indryhto. ne ondraedan. dryhtne. sup. 48. El. El. n.i66 GLOSSARY adj. 280. . dieogan. Pr. bear. see dysig. t5eow-. + drf nc. 952. np. gs. do: place: El. dogorgerimum.. Ph.. n. m.

Pn.. dwsesce}?. duguS. Ph. El. 3. abode: as. digol. 451. wola. El. comp.. eadhreSige. old enemy. ealdcyt5>u. dp. 238. El. 24.. eadwela. hill: n.. W. 594. gs. nsf. 16. Ph. 1160. npm. f. Pn. hidden. tireadig. nsm. 482. riches: ns. 207. 46. ealdfeond- foolish: dyslice. cage. Ph. 301. m. 12. adj. 58. dygle. Ph. dufan. El. ap.. El. eadga. El. W. provision: gp. f. dysige. child. 375.. wk. 493. 33. happiness: gs. Ph. dugej>a. 353... ealdfeondes. El. 349. 252. rejoice: ptc. dierne. pret. m. Pn. 541 . duguSa. Ph. asf. El. keep secret: pret. eaforan... dunscrafu. Ph.. dear: npm. 1081. asm. dsm. nsm. 971. 401. dunscraef. n. ealdfeond. gpm. Ph. eald. ealda. ealdcyS^e.. 526. secret: home. asn. eye: gp. eades. 159. eadgum. ealdor. 1291. Ph. eaf erum. inf. m.. aldre. 2 pi. Pn. fall: ns. 321. Wi. El. ealdre. El. ead. El. see gedwola. II. duguSum. 1007. ynnan. eadig. 905. 14. 266. El. wk.. blessed: nsf. old: nsm. Ph. ealdian. throng: El. duguSa. Ph.. Ph. asf. asf. Ph. eye: ns. n. also: El. disige. aid. 1316. Ph. dufan. duguSa. un See ead- dun. eaferan. duguSe. 319. El. 621. Ph. dunscrafum. ysig. Wi. nsn. Ph. thrust: pret. yldra. 455. f. eadige. 122. make a noise: 3 sg. npm. ealdne. yre. ealdfeonda. 717. El. hreS-. 20. 473. eadigra. host. ealdcy5?5u. 298. ns. door: ns. El. drymendra. 619. righteous (?) : 361 . duguSa. deogol. 386. foolish: npm. El. 456. 81. Ph. um. 12. 707. See deore. gp. n. 376. El. 439 dp. old ancient: gsf.GLOSSARY dryhtscipe. 348.. Ph. El. wk. El. Ph. dryre. Ph. 348. adj. devil: gs. 500. adj. Wi. El. 1093. ip. Ph. Ph. 381.. 292. See bedyrnan. 3 pi. wk.. extinguish: 3 sg. blot out. eadwelum. adj. power: ns. 494. gpm. Ph. 647- ancient battle: ns.. asm. 571. 562. blessed: nsm. . EL iyslic. happy: nsm. eadgan. 477adj. 806. dugoSum. life: 83. El. adj. Ph. ysig. Wi. El. men: gp. duru. dynede. ygol. 251 dp. apn. 57. El. 462. n. f. npm. adj. 1230.. 279. El. 50. 37. 405 . Ph. ealdgewin. El. former 723. nsm. m. See deglian. . 449. 16. 1093. dp. See hlinduru. Ph. El. 450. El.. kindness: gp. ravine: np. m. eadge... 40. eafera. dwaescan. blessedness: gs. dyrndun. eagum. Ph. ealdum. as. Pn. El. I6 7 eacnian. W. El. 454. ds. 436. nsf. 626. concealed: asf. ealdne. 586. dp. dpm. 12. Ph. see geealdian. eadge.. see geeacnian. El. 1278. vation: duguSe. eaggebyrd. son: ds. adv. 33. eadhreSig. Ph. . bliss. Pr.. iac. dune. 37- welan. yrnan. ap. 677. aid.. sal El. 435. El. dryman. E. 1266. 1290. Ph. as. scathed: nsm. El. m. f. folly: ds. gp.. 603. 638. n. Ph. 351. ealdre. adj.. 742. El. El. !dyrne. eagena.. 398. 693.

559- Ebreisce. 448. earc. always}. 48. ealdre. 12. prince. 285 (or adj. Ph. 725. 397 apm. earnian. 195eardwic. 279 (or adv. eastern El. El. El.. adv. earm. 116. 1285... faere. 1131. Ph. . ion: ds.See nsm. . earne. 3 sg. Ph. trusted compan ion: gp. Ebreas. adv. 44. ealle. ealle. adj. 132. hardship. 241. Ebrea tongue. El. eallum. aldordome.. 1155. EL ealre. sovereignty. 486. El. El. El. See eglond.. earnatS. eagle: ns. as.. east- EL 645 gpn. El. 1118. 768. call. f. dpn. n. 94. a. EL 753. ds. El. eallum. 65. 894.. 1236 42. : earn. dreadful: ge-.^ ealond. El. nsm. dwelling-place: Ph. eardwica. dwelling: as. . 29.1292. El.. wretched. 56. earde. El. benignant: eaSmede. 427. aldor. see f. 1236. gp. ds. 772. I adj. earhfaru. eastdael. 264. Pn. 1101 . 512. (asn. f. 431. eatol. by all means: as. aet-. dwelling: gs. El. 511 (or adj. El. El. 113. ds. El. Ph. 487 ap. n. El.77. 293.. eallre. earhgeblond. eastern road.). 1197. adv. eastan. El. 56. EL eal. 15. . Ph. 157 . 21 . eternal. Ph. m. the whole of: torture: 1292.) 576.. 581. iglond. eastwegas. El. EL 67. 453- ealle tid. way: dp. Ph. king: Pr.. Ph. 97. 505. poor: npm. To ns. m. 5 422. ealne.. 816 . 68. 769 alra. El. earfeSum. . El. nsn. 37<>. deserve 628 Pn. dpm. apn. 287. eallinga. 325. allra. easily: eSe. earnes. 495. eastwegum. 238. m. n. El. Ph. arm: is. ealle. 1088. earce. adj. earme.. earn. 622. asf. n. 187. earfetJe. 1277. ealra. npm. Ph. asn. 32i. ds. eastweg. ds. 17 (in 729.. EL in gs. EL I- 385. pr. earh- El. ea$e. ealles. El. 1. inf. dp.7J nsf. n. W. apm.. dpm. 287. Ph. adj. Ph. 82.. Ph. all..i68 I2i8 132. 49 gpf. Ph. eaxlgestealna. ?) 285. abode: ap. 235. 700. 87.. ealle. nsm. home. Ebreisc. Ph. 102. Ph. altogether. . Ph. ealdor. island. sea: as. ece.. EL 599. dp. asm. Ebreisc. m. El. El. 361 .) See geearnian. . 113? ap. W. . m... ealles. 279 (or adj. Pn. Ph. GLOSSARY Ph. earme. m. Si call. 64. Pr.. Ph. 73 El.) . as. m. Hebrews: the g. Ebresce nsir 673. arc: card. Hebrew Hebrew: 5 Ebrisc. 483. adj. 2. 158. W. Ph. oSywan. Pn. aldor. Ph. 13. 446. everlasting: . m. distress. Pr. medum.. 1293. ...) call.). isle : Ph. 399. Ph. 902 ge- otSeawan. from the east: Ph. eawan. n. domin as. eaxlgestealla.. 475. eaSmedu. ealdordom. 856. El. gen.. Ph.. eardst?de. 255. 346. carding. eastern part: dselum. wholly: Ph. gpm. for ever. ealonde. 177. pr. adv. eardinga. eaS- El. ealra. earm. 1311. reverence: dp. entirely: Ph. 6 eallra. f. El. 1101. dpf. 5*9. eallum. gsn. earmum. (w. m. 158. super. W2. 239.4El. arrow-flight: as. y>ast. m. 354 . 290. win. gsf.... 1220. 484. 442. 275. eallra. 1088. adv. adj. wholly. 731 Pn. eardes. apf. 996- eal (or adv.

see heard?cg. 79.. 622. dreadful. 1101. 59. wk. elde. m. 241 nsn. endelif.). ?) . race of angels: engelcynne. 83. 526.. 585. asn. 484. concord of voices: is. El. 266. Iglond. ecan. n. rejuvenated: nsm. El. n. 848. 258 (or adv. 533. 231. see edmwunga. edgeong. 321. after wards: El. engan. nsf. 1218. 637. Ph.. m. 40. 1051. 604. river: El. 1307. El. zeal: gs. Wi. See 423. 642. courage. 1231 Ph. 255. Elenan. terror: Ph. 733.. anew: Ph. 482. . g. 568. eldes. El. 648. efenhleobor.GLOSSARY Ph. .. Ph. isn. 3 pl. El. 251. dp. 594?cg. 773. adj. ap. 379.433. n. npm. fcgesa. efnedon. 590. 398. 222. again. Ph. 600. 404. Ph. El. wk. 370. Ph. 536. ende- ?ft. 52. m. 620. ig. n. El.. Ph. ds. ns. carry out: pret. 148. Helen: n. see gan. 139- f. 143... ds. ehton. 3 sg. adv.. 685. 1320. ?llenrof. 139. 376. etyeoda. adv. 497. Ph. ds. El. a.. 57. gsm.. 953. 610. terrible: 629. 241. fire: gs. ?) Ph. persecute: 3 sg. El. engla. See ealond. 645. adj. 894.. pursue: pret. 82. egesan. Ph. elj>eod- El. 365. 1262. 381. end: Ph. edw?nden. immediately: El. 608. is. ?ngel. 921 asf. narrow: dsm. ecra. El. n. El. 903. ds. 15. renewed. wk. 461 1129. 256. 219. as. ece. 241. 137. 350. 562. . 621. 354. 1275 . 264. 435. Pn. 1294. El. El. edmowunga. become young again. gp. change: ns. W. ge?ndian. 908. 581. 500. El. nsm. end. 811. Jglpnd. 649. 558. enemy: ?18eodig. angel: egsan. eliteS.. endige. 492.. (nsm. adv. 77. Ph. vigorous: nsm. ?fnan.. bring to an end: opt. nsf. eces.geslic. 573. 1316. El. Ph. 40.. dsn. as. 224. englum. Ph. Elenan. wk. 476. ?ndian. again: El. 5i6. efenhleojjre. 784. El. Ph. lifes.. 1 002. adj. ' See heah?ngel. once more: Ph. ?nde. 924. code. 534.. 858.. elne. W2. 366. . 800. end of life: gs. El. 272. 351. edniowunga. 572. hostile: nsm. 1042. island: W. gsm. adj. 373. 332. 275. 1218.. Ph. 1281. Ph. 1000. 802. El. pr. shore: ds. Elene. 57. edmwe. El. El. Ph. 608. engan. restored: nsm. ellen. asn. See hildegsan. 1063 El. 522. 514. El. enga. 712. 725. 487. Ph. 651. 1316. m. ?r5eod.. . ehtan. edniwe. 928. 473.. ?fnan. do. 258 (or adj. Ph. elnes. adv. m. 777. 953. 382. 1198. once: Ph. 277. 636. 66. gpn. ?gesa. adv. cruel: nsm. 1003. Pn.. Wi. sea: ds. 677.. 3 pl. 1231. \ back: El. f.' Ph. 63. .. nsn. see aelde...). egstreame. egstreame. Ph. ds. edniwinga. edre. El. 411. 713. 746. Ph.. 223 (m. eled. El. El. 1155. El. 82. Pn. 1220. 802. 300. edgiong. egstream. 621. 287. anew. once more: Ph. adj. in due season: Ph. 319. 829. fear. adj. See ge- Ph. ?nge. 484. ?ngelcynn. el}>eodige. El. for ever: El. 16. strength. m.

El. eowres. 68 . pr. El. 272. np. 349. 236. e>eltyrf. EL eofot. 249. doomed . ej?el. eorcnanstanum. ej>el. 307 nsn. 221 asn. n. ds. . faederlic. m. wk. et. 603. faedera. gp. m.. Eusebius. nsm. Ph.. eorScyninga.. fatherland: lond. 455.. n. 184. country: ds. earth: ds. inf. 848. m. 960. . fasger. 291 nsmn.. 388. Ph. precious stone: dp. (Lat). Ph. Ph. pron. faeder. El. 528. 36. 182. Ph. 332. n. . El. adj. 375. 630. 35. eorlum. 591. f. El. 1084. n. gsf . 454 np. El. 878. ns. 463. Pn. El. 251. f. Ph. 197. interval. 343. Ph. . GLOSSARY boar. El. rise.. isn. f acnes. 375. 85. El. 1051. adj. 95. see yrniSu. 450 face.) Ph. 49. ermtiu. eoredciest. Ph.. ds. El. W. El. Eusebius: a. eorSwege. Essaias. nsm. . El. eSles. 411... eSigean. El. 52. faecne. 48. 423. 577. 1025 ip. while: as. gs. eorcnanstanum.. 1174. 1226. Ph. El. eSles. eorSan.. 638 836. 279. Ph. eSellQnd. El. n. 510. 672. 579- eowre. paternal: to asf. eor>an. 425. etSgesyne. conspicuous. 243. show oneself: man. Ph. 259. 158. 431.. gp. eorSweg. . ds. See ea$e. faece... 1109. see onettan. 225. ns. n.. 392. as. guileful: . 43. Ph. Ph. 46. 881. Ph. 404. El. die: faeges. 435.. guile: . 232. dp. faegen. 417. 620. 458 eower. W. Ph. as. 753. etSe.. super. 728. company. 383. . El. Ph. 1237. Ph. -ettan. Pn. . Pn. Pn. faederas. 736. 891 nsf. 595. m. Ph. Ph. 275. 305 asn. El.. . faege. agreeable: nsn. as. wk. Ph. El.. and: easy. crafty. 986. 256. gs. 321. eoredcystum. 427. Ph. adj. 66. . Set $ estig.. 154. multitude of men: facen. 398. 33i- 646 . Ph. wegum. f acne. sin: n. dp. nsm. 629. ds. Ph. El. 436. eorlas. Pn. earth: ns. Ph. 76. Wi. 71 asm. Isaiah: est. 325 eorl. eofota. f. warrior: 787 Ph. asf.. 981. as. father: 460. 178. Ph. (asn. gs. El. troop of cavalry: dp. 1151. El. El. 256. m. 1294.. 72. eSle. 24 is. wilfaegen. ds. eoredcestEl. adj. 1106. as. bounteous: 16. as. eorla. El. El. um. 12. 487 Pn. 627. fair. easily seen: nsf.. 911. El. winning.170 $ eoforcumbul. 524. evil. e)>el- eorcnanstan. conj. native country: $ eof ulsaec. 438. fsecna. 1198. adj. faedere. 1015. 492. 360. 506 eor]?an. eSelturf. glad: nsm. Eusebium. 891 . El. Ph. eor)?an. 390. 1074. El.. W. Ph. gp. F. El. 482. eoredciestum. n. your: El. Ph. El. eorlmaegen. blasphemy : as. eSost. 829. El. gsn. adj. 131. crowd. 415. eorS- vs. Ph. 207. . El. eorlas. 349. faeder. home: gs. eorScyning.. eorre. 321. Pn. sec yrre.. 517. 117 will: grace: as. ds. eorSan. n. eorle. 125.. 1220. domain: as. pr. adj. 136. 38- eorSan. e?5el. beautiful. m. ap. wk gsm faederlican. 315 . n. El. ip. El.helmet: ns. El.. gs. 1107. eofurcumble. n. 350. f. El. king of earth: gp. 674.. eorSe. 622. 610 El. 403. adj.

909 faroSlacende. ship: np. see gefealic.. fareS. gloriously: fsele. asm. apm. splendidly.. faegerre. permanently: fastness: as. 171 Ph. adv. faeSmian. 252. 98. aetSm. 734. faestne. 8. 218. faestnes. 60. lovely: faer. Ph. 29. El. firm. 945. pr. see gefea. aesten. 71 . 1213. 3 pi. 29. See 729. faeSme. m. 35> 5 1 5 gefaer. npm. spotted: nsm. El. El. ar-. Ph. 1208. asp-turtle: W. faru. fan. fsegre. many: El. nsn. famige. yellow: ban-. faraS-. fareSlacendum. fjegerran. | Fastitocalon. adv. faeringa. see -faroS-. 987. 326. n. 295. faereS. 531 . 36. aestlice. See faraS. Ph. 771. El. Ph. surround: 3 pi. El. Ph. fareS-. indec. dpm. aestnian. feollon. fseste. 3. sigor-.. 468. Ph. foamy: apm. 3 sg. embrace: 881 556. Ph. hostile: nsm. geondfaran. adj. Pn. El. see soSfaestnes. faestenne. faran. 21. ns. abhorred: nsm. 51. fall: 61 . fast. Ph.. W. 797. 64 faegrum. 3 sg. El. n. 330. 7. 883 18. 580. 27. sweet: Ph. comp. nsf. 419. faeSmaS. super. ySfaru. fealwe. apf. see earh-. suddenly: W. Ph. ds. fsegre. . 933. 487. 766. 20.. adj. . 769. encircle. Ph. fly: 585. faesten. 74 . W. 1044. 44. feam. El. ipm. adj. . El. faegere. 1037. goldfaet. W. f eallaS. 66.. faeran. faro?5h?ngest. See ge-.. El. adj. 127. 1026. El..GLOSSARY f aegre. wlitig-. El. see be-. nsn. as. farao". see afedan. firmly: -feald. expanse: ds. 627. -met-. aeste. 1134. n. sea. El. 5 . 610. faere. m. dpm. 237. 778.. adv. feallan. oSfaestan. fealle>. Ph.. Pr. . 134. comp. El. See casket: as. 292. -fearotS-. delightful: famig. Ph. El. nsm. fiegeran.. fedan. nsm. adj.. 74. 41. 226. fag. lap. faroS. fah. tawny: npm. see faroS-. (ipf. rd. much. 58. 242. W. 387. Ph. 362. faeste.. feala. El. 54. 636. fela. 174. 723. wuldorfaest. El. war: ds. Ph. tir-. El. 570. f aegran. richly: Ph. advance: pret. n. Ph. VI. 123. 427. beautifully. Ph. 743. El. El. Ph. 172. wis-. soft-. gay: npm.. bosom: Ph. 88. adj. See npm.. fea.. nsm. as.. 3 pi. adv. gryre-. El. adj. 328. 972. W. nsm. 937. 654. fzegerra. for. 1243. admirably: 1274.. 93. adj. faegrestum. wk. Wi. -fea. 949. few: npm. El. El. W. fealwe. fast. 595. ipf. n. El. aest. -fealic. W. asn. See laguEl. 3 pi. gefeallan. fast. El.faring: npm. 912. Ph. see afaeran. see manigfeald. proof: nsm. 3 pl- foron. fealo. faegrum. W. faraSlacende. faestlicor. 77. 3 pi.. 274. 818. El. see saefearo'S. 352 asf. ipm. asm. wk. Ph. aet. cubit: gs. n. fearoShengestas. W. secure: nsm. 3 sg. variegated: 925.. . Pn. journey. pret.. El. aestan. ?). El. faeSmrimes. 261. see gefaestnian. fealu. 569. El. faeSmrim. go: 3 sg. firmly: El. El. 311. 25.. in swimming the 80. sea: Ph.

Pt f. destroyer of ns. 597. 1079. mind. widan ferhS). Wi. . El. W. El. 595. 415. as. feSre. staerced-. geferan. gpm. 218. See 340.. 356. 371. werige. see gefera. 898 Pn. Pb 380. nere. feorh- ap. 205. 458.. See herefeld. see gefelan.. feorhl?gu. lege. 266. feohgestreon. grasp. El. 801 1037. 36 . W. W. 646. see gefeon. El. 680. 192. feore. f. Ph. deep: El. 41. adv. 991 . 641 as. 68. feogaS. 646 . Ph.. adj. m. El. feor. cruel-hearted: nsm ds. ns. 192. ferhSgrim. 327. See ealdfeond.. (see feond. pi. time: feore. 108. 3 pret. m. W2. feSa. 797. riches: gp. feSe feorhcwalu. 77. fej>rum. El. . n. El. 10. go: inf.. 5. ferh>e. 137. gleawra. comp. Wi. Ph. 174. felan. (see widan El.. Ph. ferhSgleaw. Ph..172 fegan. 223. n. feormian. W3-. -fere. 93. devil: ns. 419. 463. feorlondum. 1164. werigferho n. see feala. sailor: ferhS. stranger: np. 145.. enemy. ferhSsefan. Ph. 207. f eondes. m. wise: nsm. hate: El. far: Ph. feolan. 26. 360. ds. 433. ap. El. plumage fe>run feorhn^ru. 895.. fyrhS881 . f. . gleaw. feodon. El. 35. 213 as. 218. mind. 13. feSan. 174. ds.. fyrhS.. 1142. firhSsefan. El feorh. ferend. n. feather: ip. 163. feSer. grip: ds. 215. 316.. . murder: salvation: . El. life: f cores. fel. 427. 263. W. El. feogan. feran. 306. 221. El. ip. 954. 98. 134. ferhSe. as. 123. ferhSgereaht. 89. 1288 to 211.. Phoenix: ns. feore. Ph. W. feld. ip. 993. see gefegan. 534- El. 845. El. Ph. adv. El. . field: ns. El. .. dp. El. n. See also HSre. feonda. ds. consume: feormaS. 72. np. m. m. carry: inf. 560. adj. sad: apm. 266. ap.. Ph. gestreona. feorgbona. Pn. 39 Ph. W. the soul: wise guidance of 70. widan 1321. fyrhSEl. W. 91 1.. inf. Ph. 326. ap fe>re. fyrhSsefan fyrhSsefan. adj. as. band of foot-soldiers: ap feore. m.. GLOSSARY $ f eorlgnd. Pn58 . 239. 415 . fejrum. cwale. f. 86. loo. Ph. f?rian.. W. fenge. see waelfel. ferhS) 761 . El. 280. El. El.. m. El. see gefere. El. 1287 81 Fenix. 831. f?ng.. 356. feon. Ph. Pr. life: ferhbsefa. four: El. m. 1179. enmity: 498. El. El. See 1 collen-. feorran. spirit: Ph. fiend. Ph. El. W. fyrhSe. fe8eg?st. adj. -fera. 498. 108. from afar: 1213. 721-2. feorh- feSrum. . Ph.. El. gs. 558. feoh- El. ds. soul.. heart: 850. 347.. fe>re. gp. fela. see gefeoht. feorh- gestas. 744. wing pinion: np. see befeolan. ns. feorhhord. feoht. feower. ferhSwerig. as. 570. feondum.. 215. 3 sg. 86.. as. in the far past: fyr. distant land: dp. Ph. m. heart: ns. El. 900. for ever: El. El.. ds. 504.. 3 pi. m. 196. m. gs.. death: ds. 25. Ph. 558. m. i. El. . soul. f erhS- feondscipe.

sustenance: gs. 280. findaj?. See also feSer. apf. flod- 641. Ph. W.. 297. folcagend. vb. 396. 402. ds. np. findan. 1255 3 pi.. see geflita. Bah. dp. 316. see gefetrian. W. foldan. tail: Iras. 1287. 509. fodder. see gefic. fundon. pi. gs. 134. as. 123. fish: fisca.. folc. folcscearu. 1217. imp. El. Ph. see geflit. -flit. El. pain. see ge-. El. 259. song. 3 sg.. El. Ph. flyhthwates. opt. fliht. firena. El. as. ip. 8. folces. 157.. 352. foldan. fodor)?ege. 3 pi. flodas. 396. 831. m. 259 .. 379. 163.. Ph. El. fand. flodweg. 379. funde. See afleon. fand.. 27. (Lat. isc. 1143. El. El. folcsceare. m. El. El. wing: np. foldan. 'flaesc. firenum. 74. 174. flod.. 721-2. see gefog. flyhS. breath: Ph. 744. dp. as. El. findest. Ph. flyhthwate. El. see flyht.). El. 1078. fleogeS. flana.. Ph. s. fifelwaeg. 145. 360. 499. 502. 340. 373 inf. fodder: . Ph. ruler of a nation: gp. 1270. 3 f. 221 . human beings: fyra. Ph. 1173. 39. 60. 362. El. 968. m. 295. 335 .. folcagendra. feSerhQma. indecl. 39. flot. n. pret. five: 3 pi. El. El. flugon. El. men. III. 16. is. as. El. El. 322. Ph. n. adj. Ph. flesh: Ph. nsm. El. Ph. 197. see haswig-.. 215... m. poem: fiSrum. Pn. 1095. 3. El. 1056. m. Ph. 987- flota. i. ocean: El. 84. 64. pang: dp. mpl. ap. foddor. finire. folde. W. 215. earth: gs. fijru. ns. flyhte. folk. abl. 891 . 44. 632. pp. flihte. 140. El. f. Pr. land: ns. 127. fi>rum. fgtian. adj. m?reflod. fodorSegu. g. 3 sg. i. 15. is. as. fej?er- 322. flod- ip.. m. firenum. 10. 460. see ferhS-. finger. ds.. El. fitte. See saefisc. 898. flee: pret. 80. 3 i pi. m. irgenstream. sea: as. it. m. funden. 1080. people. flight: is. as. foldbuende. 327... 974. W. Sec oSfleogan. swift-flying: fine. . 117. f. flugon. f. flyht. sin: firene. iSre. See lagu-. El. fleon. W. 257. Ph. finda}>. 743 . 1032. Ph. Ph. 326.. fetrian. Ph.. 535. . (Lat. Ph.. 3 sg. 13. Ph. 100. adj. np. flf. 1 folce. m. 974. 675inta. 872 . Ph. El. firhb -. . El. pret. El. n. foldan. Ph. See h?llfiren. El. El. Ph. 1014. pret. 492.. inf. m. m. El. is. n. ds. Pn. fiscas. strong in flight. fi}>ru. iren. 3 sg. flyhthwaet. food. flote. Ph. fly: fleogan. 987. sg. 35 lira. see gef?tian. gp.). ns.. flood: wylmum. Pn.. m.. 5. folcscere.GLOSSARY -feSere. 226. folca. waegflota. finis. gp.. gp. El. foldbuend. folce. inhabitant: m. f. 51. 925 . 1080. Ph. f. flaesce.. as. Ph. fnaest. f. Ph. 535. 1314. fingra. crafty: jlan. flodwylm. gsm. 652. fog. 248. voyage: ds. Ph. end: 3 sg. 29. d. El. . 989. El. f irum. 237. end: ns. Ph. is. funde. El. 1236. m. 1 20. 2 sg. f oleum. m. 173 II. Ph. W.. 117. find: 2 sg. finit. ip. -fetSere. crowd: ns. El. finger: gp. ocean-road: wege. -fie. 415. n. El. Pr. arrow: gp. 202. urigfeSere. current: np. nation: ds. -flita. plumage: homa. 895. f. II.

pi. for. El. See beforan. El. fornom. 64. as. El. 657. folme. adj.. foldweg. ds.. w. 591. foreJ>ancas. 979. foreg?nga. folgaS. foldwaestm. Ph. 578. allow: pret. shrivel: 3 forsweleS. road: ip. 164. see be-. El. pret. in forhycge. 58. Ph. let. 587. 782. forbodene. 933- visit: pp.. forsecan. m. eminent in power. El. on: El. foresceawode. IV. El. forgrip folgian. 2 pi. El. 677. 345. forS. burn.. pret. 1134. w. following: El. mold: as. Ph. 1066. $ foldhrerende. Ph. 136.. 703. forgyldan. 689. m.. 793 .. adj. demolish. see forgyldan. forgildan. sg. of: Pn. Ph. before: forsawon. El. 159. 688. 904. n. sg. 124. i sg. earth: 5- gpn. Ph. i W3-. forsoht 3 sg. forbid: pp. opt. 473. be subject to: 3 sg. forleten. forward: Ph. ace. ge-. 507. forstes. forht. adv. 2 sg. fruit of the earth: ip. forlaete. on account of. bestow: Ph. 63. 3 sg. presence of: 175. folga}>. as: foran. 1184. foldwsestmum. adv. 344. Ph. foldgraef. destroy: sg. seize: 3 Ph. 3 sg. forgiefen. forbeodan.. . 1268. 34. seduce: pret. 552. foldwegum. Ph. forlJeteS. dat. forth: 590. 2 pi. Ph. m. El. forst. foregengan. forgripan. El. W2. El. El. 532. in opt. forswelan. dat. ymbfon. forniman. Wi. before. prep.. before: Ph. El. 521. 3 sg. 377. grant. 248. Wi. foremihtig. 4. fore. 292. 268. 155. 1065. 15. 139. follow: 3 pi.. folgiaS. quite: inf. W2. as. pret 3 pi. 591. Ph.. hand: ap. El. foldan. 455. gs. recompense. El. w. 784.. 351. 712 . III. Ph. forgrunden. 596. fearful: nsm. 491. scorn: 389. 929. pret. El. forgeaf. 490. 598. abandon: 3 1 sg. 746. I. 332. El. despise: fon. Ph. 867. imp. in: El. forseon. Ph. forgeaf. 362. apn. forgildan. Ph. Wi. 845- grave: adj. forlierde.. forhycgan. 546. before: Ph. foldhrerendra. Ph... 120. El. fornimeS. El. sg. sg. III. 318. forefather: np. 62. foldan. forgifan. Ph. the walking on 3 i sg. 600. Ph. be cause of: El. before. 404. forlset. 406. Ph. GLOSSARY foldan. no. 318. 432. 404. forlsetforlete.. 848. forlseran. forsegon. folmum. 620. on-. 496. regard instead to: El. folga>. foresee: pret. pp. 1262. 354 pret. V. fornam. 51. m. 175. en. ace. 514- m. El. El.. forbirsteo". 1218.174 region: soil: is.. Ph. 1105. in front: El. 637. rd. 700.. sg. El. f. Ph. fore'Sanc. 654. the 170. for. El. prep. 1198. 568. Pn. abhor. for: Pn. thenceforth: . 615. re Ph.. 417. scorn. frost: ns. Prepotent: nsm. V.. anforlaetan. 437. dp. be wanting: II. m. pp. 636. El. 1076. folm. 180. 227. destroy: 3 3 sg. foresceawian. forgrindan. foldgraefe. Ph. give. 461 . forberstan.. 208. forgifeS. snatch away. 1273.. 525. 356. adv.. w. aforetime: El. 131. Pn. forethought: ap. 577. 1062. j fore. fail.. See of: El. forlaetan. forlet. 1318. 504. 930. way. El. 564. Wi. 3 sg. 144. pret..

Ph. pret. sec gefraege. 15 . fraetwum (splendid treasure: a. form: 3 pi. n. m. 10.GLOSSARY El. 200. fraetwum (exquisitely).. asm. 1271 . I W. El. foot: Ph. forj>ylmed. i. 70. embellish. 1120. 296. El. . Pn. danger: terrible. gefraetwed. forSylman.. gepp. Franks: ns. adj. destruction: as. fremme. 20. El... See ge- adorn: inf. ip. V. 925. 88. 508. freotreo. fr?mman. El. 590. -fraege. f. Ph. g. 701. -frege. '75 from. fraetwed. forjjon. ap. El. El. fraet attraction. frecnan. 1147. out of: w. 276. 93 asf. fraetwian.. m. Ph... 767. forSan. prep. frecnes. 1307. forjjsnotterra. 390. fremede. fection: fraetwum. adj. protect: freoSode. fremmaS. 239. as. 73. therefore. El. 368. 569. 579. Pn. from. El. 379. 29. pr. 309 (adv. for>rycced. 585. adj. Wi. m. f raetwa. freobearn. 488. gs. frean. hence. I. 524. El. gpm. freojm. 116. 360. Ph. 672. lead astray: 3 sg. 646. friendship: freondraedenne. fremedon. 299. fraetwan. inquire: gan. freondleas. 3 pi. 284 _ frecne. comforter: ns. very wise: See manfrea. 257 d... rihtfr^mmende. El. Wi. El. 578. El. El.. always: El. sg. 2 sg. 712. forSgewitenra. peace: ds. 636. El. 472 . pp. dp. 1208. foot-measure. El. wherefore: 522. 517. utter: opt. garnish: See also friS.. 291. friccan. depart. fotum. 1319. frecen... f recnan. vs. . gefraetwad. 213.. W. 560. 353. pi. np. Ph. herald: 54. -freca. ptc. 301. W. gpm. wum. 954. pret. forward: nsm. promote: pret. 411. 5 perilous: nsm. forSsnotterne. adornments: . Francan. dsn.. splendor: i. 524. dangerous. Ph. forSgewitan. Ph.. 550. El. do. 637. lasting: asm. f or)>ylmde. envelop. 597. 470. 1161 . i. :6t. abiding. 3 offer: orwyrd. 208. 1199. raetw(i)an. fet. 1053. m. 311. n. W2. 335. adj.. 411. n. 140. Ph.. adj.. see gefrege.. freoSu. . wk. 48. 450. Ph. See ge- fricca. fremedon. 1142. 610. Ph. man-. gs. forSsnottor. inf. 3 sg. 82. freoSian. $ fortyhtan. fremedon. Ph. 1068. 330. frefrend. Ph. wrap: pret. El. El. well known: asm. 675.?). pret. 44. 1277.. pp. Ph. freond. as. El. Ph. a. friendless: nsm. El. 274.. forSweard. fpl. 3 sg. Ph. 150. W. in front. 1066 : . ly). m. forSweardne. El. foot: dp. oppress: pp. 422. 21. adj. 569 . El. 157. n. fotum. Ph. fricgan. fortyhte. El. El. See gef r^mrnan heaSo-. fricg- ram. ask. freondraeden. see guSfreca. Ph. forSryccan. Ph. accomplish. pret. pass away: pp. Wi. El. per 'orweard. frynd. Ph. crush. Pn. Ph. Ph. 680.. 534. noble child: ns. friend: ns. noble tree: as. . 192. conj. f. fotas. 190. raetwe. 309. Ph. El. W2. n. wk.. per ap. n. Ph. 95 . . n. dat. a... 3 pi. 578. $ freamaere.. 1309. fotmselum. El. f. lord: El. El. 6tmael. np. frean. deck. Ph. Ph. El. frea. freamaerne. El. El. Ph. El. gpm. freoSian. 765. 831. Wi. W.

534. womful. 1143. frige. El. El. fylle. 86. adj. I Pn. 371. 630. frym)>e... Ph. 591 330. rescue: gs. 261. 328. fula. 574. baptism: 490.. fur8ur. 5- love: n. 219. fruman. ns. 2 p fylgdon. El. frymSa. See also freoSu. n. . adj. 466. El. foulness. beginning: frymSe. 280.. fyllan fyllo. frugnen. El. 438. consolation. friSelease. fyre . 793. n. 276. adv. ds. ful.. 236. 542. Ph. 769. 637. (fill). m. . ful. fruman. full: . 159. 145. 291. 127. 219. El. El. Pr. fromlice. . pret. 174. 266. 646.. 390. 426. fully: El. creature. 939. old: 154. ready: Ph. 502. fugles. 201. frignan. 772. masterly: asn. young bird: ns. m. fyr. Pn. El. furSor. 1034. boldly: El. prep. El. see gefyllan. El. W. nsm. fulful- El. fugle. El. 570. see furSor. 257..... 13. f. El. fruma. Ph. ns. bird: ns. frod. El. El. 454. dissolution: fylgan. Ph. El. 1219. ds. as. ns. pp.. from. frizes. Ph. El. furSur. 328. GLOSSARY 991. 322. 172. El. 3 sg ordfruma. Ph. asn. 443 gpm. Ph. 597. ful. 341. El. 525. leod-. frigu. see gefulwian. 84. gp. npm. as. 752. El. fultum. help: as. 192. as. frigne}?. Ph fyll. 1311. fugol. fugla. El. i . ask. see gefrige. about to die: nsm. fyres. author. 377. Wi. El. 545. full. 769. Ph. frynrS. fulwian.. 431 fullaestan. gs. 426. 839. 1041. m. see aelfylce. vsm. scyld-. fulwiht.. 2 sg. barbarous: adj. fruman. 210. El. 360. apm. 558. 578. Ph. El. El. 309. f. 343. wihte.. friSeleas. 637. 88. 1106. 993. 196. El. fyllan. fuglas. Ph. bold: npm. prince. m. 1237. n. 529. -fylce. gs. Ph. nsm. follow: pret. nsf. 860.. experienced: nsm. See ge- 121. III. fruman. El. 84. 208. f. See gefylgan ds. 100. is. 1142. 531. 914- adv. Ph. np. f. 155. El.. more: furj?or. Ph. joy. El. feast: fire: gs. wihtes. fugel. 1037. 311. 443. 1314.. deliverance. 125. adv. gs. impurity: gp. as. 1106. W. 1053. El. an gel: ns. Ph. 37i. Ph. creation: gp. El. hyht-. 1287 as 215. savage. frome. gp. 371. Ph.. El. f rymj>a. Ph. 589. fricgan. Ph. 570. 345 . 267 geleaf-. 652. 1237- speedily: Ph. asm. f rodra. 510. frignest. 104. friSowfbba. -frige. See hild-. 1184. frofre.. 490. nsn.. Ph. See furSum. npn. support: El. lord: El. 850. See syn-. 352. even. frodne. m. El. 463. inf. 197. El. 35. aid. El. friS. Ph. frofra. Ph.. see adj. n. 455. 1068. fram. gs. El. f. 542. see gefullsestan. fugeltimber. furj>um (just fr^m. hygefrofor. Ph. See gefrignan. El. 239. m. 36. 502. vs. 387. just: sySSan as soon as). 236. Wi.. 167. 380. adv.. beginning: gs.. wise. creator: ns. frofre. 215. inquire: 3 sg. fylle. 585. 1164. f rode. 22. peace-weaver. El. fus. frofor. 504 El. 315. as. 1164. Kf-. ds. 335 163.. adj. further. 388.176 fricgendra. 15. ds. overthrow: fylde. Pr.

fyrhat. W. gar. 398. delay: pret. gangaS. n. fyrdas. fyrngewritu. space fyrste. ns. gam-.. adj. ds. day of yore: dp.. appointed time. n. gangum.. gseldon. El. m. 155. fyrgenstream. El. El.. fyren.. W. weota. f. 360. See a-. m. army: adj. 531. gang.. Wi. as. fyrnwiota. n. See a-. See gegaedrian. prophet: ns. 937. 313. 528. old strife: as. 320.. go: imp. ocean-stream: gad. sing: pp. 490. gol. gefysan. garas. go: pret. fiery: 60. n. 633. 694. as. see afyrran. El. El. gaelan. yrngeweorc. fyrngp. fyrn. fyrngeflitan. fyrngeflita. m. gaedraS. fyrngear. see afyrhtan. 29. fyrgenstreama. m. fyrmest. 1154. m. El. fyrstmearce... gaest. fyrd- fysan. 35. see ferhS(-). fyrd. galdor. 648. see gast. 692. Pn. See bigang.. long ago: 974- m. 560. I 77 See aeled-. ds. ancient habitation: ap. 219. feSeg?st. El. 118. n. See fyrndaeg. 67. n. 373. guest: ns. El. -gaedre. ancient learning: gongaS. gaest. dp. yrnwita. El. 23. Ph. gaedrian. fyrnum. 438. inf. word: 161. El. np. 1001... garsecg. scream: El. spear: 125. gangan. n.. 34. Pn. 372. 84.. agan. n. 846. 29.. 431 . El. espe El. fyrhtan. rd. El... Ph.. 411. as. 343. 1079. El. Ph. 68. . gangan.. brave: npm. 406. 1256. El. prepare one's self: El. yrngeflit. fyrn- gearum. galen. war-song: warrior: curiosity: ns. galga. 3 pi. 949. n.. scripture: See eodon. 557. ancient work: ancient El. El. ancient day. ancient enemy: as. Ph. fyrngesetu. adv. 7. 95 np. W. of time: El. . 118. Ph. anv. eodan. gp. See agalan.. yrngeset. ardent: nsf. pi. gan. 425. 519. 570. VI. garsecges. 124. yrngemynd. 263. El. m. m. yrngewrit. bSlfyr. expanse: as. gong. m. see g<?m-. fyrndagum. fyrnwitan. Ph. 316. ganga>. 1268. ap. fyrda. 3 pi. rincas.. fyrbaeS. El. ocean: gs. 21. garas. lack: ns. npl.. 289. m... 437. 632. pret. fyrn- as.GLOSSARY Ph. 226. Ph. El. El. Ph. fyrbaSe. 52. fyrngidda.. 904. past years: i. Ph. 48o. cially: first: El. El. 179. m. W2. 327- n. ancient decree: ns. n. yrngidd. 981. El. fyrdhwaet. m. El. 27. galan. Ph. 992. 3 sg. gongum. galgan. see togaedre.. ds. gewrito. El. El. fyrbaeSe. 261. benp.. 193. Ph.. interval.. El. history: as. 3 sg. 223. cross: ds. 542. El. fyrhS(-). see hygegaelsa. adj. El.. proper interval: ds. gan. gangan. m. 1034. fyrdrinc.. Ph. 719. code. bath of flame: hell-fire: fyrst. El. El. 1179. fyrstmearc. ap. course: dp. Wi. 641. fyrran.. fyrdleotS.. G. yrngesceap.. 1096.. gather: 3 sg. fyrwet. gaelsa. El. fyrngewritu. gp. ipf. 377. El. hwate. adv. El. galdrum. El.

El. . exactly: El. gebedu. the geard. 594.. 1045. npm. past days.' ge. geaclod. reac 648 Ph. Ph. 682. mpl. gebeodan. El.i 78 GLOSSARY f. 593. n. 1029. 393pp. 258. 125. -gean. pre pare: inf. dp. 57. Ph. m. El. 710.. gastleas. gear- 471. geardagas. gaestas. 1265 gearum. 669. 519. m. . home: 355. gearwe. inf. El.. 1148. gearu. geardum. i. readily: El. gebaeru. 352. 578. leasne. 1240. 418 asm. adv. 525 El. (Lat. garjmst. command: pret. adv. gaest. adj. 154. 586. . W2. 176. El. together: Ph. geatolic. 889. joy: ap. 648. nsm.. Pn. contradiction: El. 1106. formerly. gear. geador. ghost: gs. 167. of yore: 1266. days on earth: geardagum.. 399. life: n. 523. 1145. geara. 74. gastas. completely: El. geagncwide. El. El. El. 966. El. 924. gastgerynum. 189. dead: asm. npn. both and: ond. gastum. Ph. 300. 1077. 331. El. geaclad. spiritual mystery: dp. El. 26. nsm. splendid: nsn. n. as. stately: nsf. ap. . 222. spirit. 285. 965. gasta. adv. 772. Ph. m. ns. 562. 288. 276. disquiet. . clearly: comp. gear328. . d.. ge. 889. 555 El. 615. geascad. prayer: 458. i. Ph. 1129. . geare. 480. Ph. 544. ready: El. n.). gasthalige. adj.. conj. adj. ds. Ph. super. 1157. adj. geblde>. 1058. 85. 605. See middangeard. 629. gearwor. gasthalig. n. garjrsece. . gearum. court: 936.. ap. 23. see ge?fnan. ip. spiritual son: 673- adj. geascian. 790.. El. El. III. 865. geaclian. jaws: n. and: ge. El. El. 419. El. year: . El. geara. 1000.. 719. 204.. gebsero. 384. gaudia. see ongean. El. 1037. 513. gastns.. ap. as. gearosnotor.. asf. El. offer: gebead. 562. behest: gebed. El.. 946. battle: ds. El. excite: pp. gaste. El. behavior. gastsunu. El. El. noo. expect. very wise: nsm. 549. ge. m... gsesta. learn: Ph. soul. 1007. ge or: . II. vs. Pn. wast. completely: El. geaefnan. adv. El. mpl. El. P in si answer: adv. See gegearwian. . garSracu. well: El. bold with El. 152. Ph. El. gaudium. gasstes. gebann. W2. destitute: 46. await: wait: inf. adj. as.. n. make ready.. $ garSrist. dagum. gastes. np. (ap. gastgeryne. . 1245- . as. . bid. 227. 630. bearing: ns. gp. geaflas. El. P I. nsm. El. El. gearwe. pron. 1186.. 189. Ph. gebidan. 3 geagninga. El. gebunden See fyrngear. geasne. .. 182. El. dp. Ph. 659. El. 835. 199. gearusnottor... 401. ns. spear: gast. W2. geardum. 258. gp.. 7. 539. 875. El. 557. dp.. gjesthalge.. or. Ph. 860. gearolice. Ph. 1070. El. gencwidas. holy: npm. attain: 3 sg. 1022.. snottorne. El. Ph. gearu. El. whether El. 21. . see Su. 673- El. completely: 531. gearwian. Ph. 302. ?) El. . bind: pp. Ph. dp. 647. f. nsf. gebindan. 1267. W. El.. adj.. El.. 290.

Ph. 39. 229. gecorene.. Ph. pp. El. gecygS. 1191.. geceas. demed. 1050.. W2. sec gecigan. gebredade. rd. crash. trouble. regenerate: pp. 257. n. See eaggebyrd. Wi. species: ns.. 939. gebrecan. 1126. 735 . 68. W2. transport: pp. gecneowe. natural: nsn. 155. Ph. pp. gebroj>or. pret. npm. 1168. afflict: pp. Wi. gecost. adj. 338. 295. break: pp.. Ph. . Pr. 3 sg. 3 sg. Ph. 9. I 1061 . El. 2 sg. perceive: geblowan. 3 sg... behest. gebrec. 37. El. 344. 80. sg. El. . 147. 283. 57.. 808. Ph. 1039. decay: brosnad. geblowen. gecySe. 1166. El. Ph. pret. gebrocen. 49. gebroht. geblissod. bring. gebrosnian. n. ism.. gecneow. El. 454- sg. Ph. bloom. tried: nsn. El. gedseled. Ph. Ph... gecySed. 240. 3 pi. Pr. n. gebyrga. 840.. proved. 3 sg. gecyrran. W. Ph. dear: nsm. gecySde. flower. 256. Ph. 21. 678. Ph. Ph. Wi. 3 gebyrge. 261. gebysgad. known: sg. gecoste. pp. Ph. blend: pp. gecnawan. npf. El. geblpnd. germinal Ph. gebringan. see leodgebyrga. 3 pi. 1186. gecynde. pret. El. ger.. 27. brothers: n. gedeman. Ph. adj. Ph. 651. See sundorgecynd. See woruldgedal. Ph. opt. 356. W. 4. rd. pp. choose.. contract: pp. n. f. 1091 El. pp. gebyrde. 294. 382. gecwaejj. geclingan. geceosatS. proper: nsn. 162. cleanse: El. ge- gedaelan. pp. 866 El. 360. gecynd. 372 npm. W2. vigor: as. asm. cheer. III. geclsensod. ge- . El. Wi. 1035.. El. Ph. 595. Ph. 62. rd. ordain: pp. 179 inf. opt. 387 ds. 541. . 446 inf. 861 588. Pn. vicissitude: ns. ceosanne. gedal. W2. gecygan. 72. . n. gecnawen. 252. Wi. geblgndan.. make 3 sg. ge- gedafenlic. Ph. V. 409. gebyrd. El. asf. diversify: pp. El. pass: turn: sg. Pr. innate. restore. . 1140. gladden. Ph. 269. gecweSan. gecySan. Ph. ger. corenum. dissolution: as.. El. 1059. El. IV. bidding: ns. select. death. El. 388. trait: as. sex: . 3 sg. gecyS. gebredad. nature. announce. 990. gecyfteti. gather: 3 gebringeS. 140. gecygan. El. gebod. . 1265 gecyrre.. 1050. nature: as. recognize. geclungne. gebregd. ge- as. taste: opt. El. blow: pp. 876. npm.. geblonden. imp. pret.. El. El. Ph. 38. gepp. gebiesgad. dpm. geblowene. i sg. invoke: 3 Ph. 428 over come: pp. becoming.. El. 8. Wi. change: cyrred. mpl. 551. . 440. 114. gebroo'or. 179. gebysgian. El. El. adj. gebyrgan. f. gecweme. gecySanne. 226. ns.. 270. Pn. 816. gebredian. 3 sg. gecytSe. elect: geceoseS. .. sg.. El. gecnaweS. W. 7. 592. El. Wi. W2. gecorenne. kind. 69. 593. adj.. 329.. noise: ns.GLOSSARY geblissian. Pn. see earhgeblond. 533 El. 3 sg. geblissad. 47. 607. Ph. geclaensian. W. 708 pp. . gecwaeS. gecySan. geceosan. II. gecoste.. 690. 271. speak: pret. El. 593- gecyrred. gecigan.

116. El. 400. 949. adj. 784. gefetrian. W2.. gefeohte. W2. sg. Ph El. 3 sg. Ph. m. Ph. 1261. agreeable. Ph. El. hearsay: is.. rd. deceit. 427.. 968. gedwolan. geflitu. gef on. geeawe. commit.. El. gain: gefeon. 3 sg. Ph. El. as. 371. 980. 3 pl. W2. 24. 1053. gefremede. ds. 174. grow earn. gefetrade. geealdad. gefremme. El. Ph. multitude: ns. geflota.. VI.. embel pp. Ph. ptc. gefeged. 3 gef rege. GLOSSARY anv. faerenne. El. El. feel: i pl. 60. apply: inf. 33. Ph. imp. El.. gedd. gefeonde.. El. W2. fetch: inf. geendad. gefremed. El. pi. do. ns.. come. 495. 463... gefea. battle: 3 sg. adj. 363. I i do. gefetigean. 3 sg. gefraetwade. as. ac gefealic.. gefeah. W2. El. 779. end: Ph. 991. as. 1068. pret. El. See ds. gefremma)?. El. fit together: pp. fasten: die: pp. sg. El. gefean. gef remedon. Ph.. 993. adj. joyous: gefeallen. . 646. 870. 3 show forth: gedryht. 386. W. gefrmman. W2. gefice. geferan. 1119 gefere. n. El. gefremede. 143 (hlyst gefeho listens). El. 389. 1159. Wi. El. known. strife: 2 sg. Ph. geflita. W. gefsegon. 248. 402 912 2 pl. wilgedryht. gef?rian. inf. bring. gefaestnian. geaefnan. m. Ph. gef era. geealdian. I 7 _6.. gef rege. Pn.. gp. see stangefog. 311- gef?tian. fix: W. see gefraege. 607 . 41. Ph. gefremedon. 1041 . El. accessible: nsm. m. impregnate: pp.. gefic. gefraege.gefremmaj>. rd. manifest. sg. pp. n.. gefremede. El. El. El. n. El.. V. El. gefraetw(i)an. 1116. Wi. 526. see fyrngeflita. gefelan. El. take: 3 sg. geeacnian. m. El. geearnast. geefnde. n. 651. opt. gefehtS. 1161. ns.. geearnian. gefean. 68.. Ph. 4. geeawan. 18. gefaran.. adj. 341.. 195 . rejoice: 3 sg. 1015. pret. 737. El. pi. companion. 849. gefremede. gefreoSiah. 872. nsn.. 27. error. 3 sg.i8o gedon. 818. inf. 274. ns. famous: nsn. El. pp. fall: pp. npm. . bring: feredra. pp.. 247. n. 7.. W2. Ph. gefaer. ge- heresy: Ph. joy: ds. happiness. gege- fsestnod. lish.. 239. El. El. gedwolan. old: pp. is.. swimmer: ds. 577geflit. protect: . 1184. delight. geflotan. gefremede. pp.. 415. W2.. be glad. 501 pret. El. seise. 309. deck: gefraetwad. gefraetwed. adorn. El. El. See fyrngeflit. grant: . pret. execute: pret. 635.. Wi. 422. Ph. gefog. Pn.. El. expedition. deserve: El. reveal: opt.. gefeleS. 569. . 650. . sib-. gedwolan. 348. Ph. ap. defend. gefeoht. gefeallan. 3 sg. 510. fellow: flock: as. asm. host. El. gedwola. f. journey: . Wi. 585. 334. El. fraud: is. gefraege. Ph. W2.. Wi. El. no. 3 954. gefegan. 615. W2. 500. 1 . 3 sg. pret. complish: 515. shackle: pret. 426 as. 443. 743. geeacnod. report. ge?ndian. go: 736. 299. ge?fnan. Ph. ns. Wi. 3 sg. 1290.

gehwam. 910. gefylleS. inf. 569. 206 gehwasm. 624. El. pret. W2. . Wi. 71. as. El. 606. 3 sg. 336. gefullaestan. Ph. gegaedratS. pret. care. Ph. 534. pp. pret. 26. geglenged. gehladene. Ph. 964. shield: pp. 1310. nsn.. gehwaeSres. El. learn: pp. gehwaes. gegaedrian. El. Pn. gehealden... gehwaer. geheold. either: nsm. confine: heaSrod. asn. Wi. Pn. 452. gehwa. gefylle. 76. El. gehwam. See also anra gehwylc. pron. apf. 3 pi. Ph. Ph. Ph. gehealdan. hide. 1287. 3 sg. W. El. gehydan. El. gehwylces. gehegan. El. 3 sg. dp. Ph. comrade: information. Ph. . Wi. adorn. Pn. asm. 409. 57 1313 Ph. 22. dsn. El.. W2. Ph. 66.. Ph. Ph. gehwane. 512. 39. ns. III. 1135. Ph. See also anra gehwa. depress. npm. gehwylcra. Ph. El. hold: gehigd. W3. gehwylcum. Pn. dsf. adorn: pp. El.. 627. El. 1143. gefrugnon. load with: gehongen. fill: 3 sg. 195. m. gehroden.. W. gefrugnen. gehwone. 260. W. 645. 1092. El. 3 sg. all: gsf.. 576. gefrugnen. set in motion: pp.. each. Ph. geh^fgian. El. gefysde. 197 El. 155- 181 pp. keep. 3 pi. gehydde. f. El. 90. 1229. Pn. gefylgaS. Ph. 1179. 548. Ph. gefrignan. . everywhere: EL gefysan. El. 1283 133. 1270. Ph. opt. pron. gehefgad. 613. VI.GLOSSARY imp. see gehygd. El. 67. gefricgan. 347gefyllan. 234.) dsf. gegl?ngan. pp. 1317. 1030. 29. El. gefulwad. rd. 615. 1276. 653. El. gefulwian. 45. hold. 322. each. gehyded. 493. 185. 358. gehwylcum. 464. gepp. Pn. dsm. gehladan. 381. W2. gehweorfan. 319. W.. gehrodene.. gegearwod.. pret. W. gsn. El. El. pp. gefrigen. El. fylde. pp. 1071 1131.. Wi. 278. 1084. gehwylces. n. gehaeftan. 503. Wi. gsn. El. 153.. dsm. 973. . 3 pi. dpm. observe: . Pn.... sg. gefylled. 1151. II. result of ip. gefreogum. Wi. gehwaene. 38.. Ph. gsn. 451. El. 465. pret. Ph. . 680... 522. gehongene. gefreoj>a. V. gegaedrad. 1187. 6. fulfil: opt. pp. gehwylc. gehwylcne. burden: Ph. supply: pp. 609. 1014. 1183. grief: ds. Ph. El. gefylgan. gegearwian. gehon. 79. Ph. 3 sg. 47. gehwylcre. hear. follow: inf. El. 18. deck: load: pp. 603 (mf. 52. geheoldan. rd. gehwaes. 832. pron.. El. I. El. gehSum. 423. both. Ph. all. ge- hsefted. 60. 667. opt. 1044. 62. 192 3 pi. gehleSa. gefylled. 74. El. . Pn. Ph. Wi. adv. W2. every: nsm. 20. 476. turn: El. gehreodan.. Ph. asm. npm. help: gefullseste. El 598. gehlodon. baptize: pp. 1126. ge- 460. gather: 3 sg. npm. 3 sg. 374. 1156. gehwearf. ge fylle. Ph. learn: pret. torture: pp. gefrige. gehwylcum. inquiry: hang with. El. 46. III. Pn. geheaSrian. El. pp. . persist in: 2 pi. 172. no. 269. 23. equip. . 628. gehSu. El. 113. asf. every. 630. gpf. load: pret. npm. 889. conceal: pp. pp. Ph. El. gehwone. gehwaeSer. 469. W2. El. gsm.

gem?ngan. practise: 3 sg. El. in the gelaedan.. El.. succeed: pret. thought. 1269. gelic. 660. 923. gemyndig. El. gelicnes. gelicost. El. carry out: 3 sg. see 8inggemearc. gelimpe. heedful: . faithful: 1048. geliden. mark: gemearcaS. W. See fyrn-. mindful. 1 3 3 sg. is. obey: pret. 644. El. adj. 871. gehyrwan. similar: nsm. 548. gehyraS. Ph. 1224. eager: npn. 146. 31. assembly: as. asn. see geywan. Wi. 3 pi. likeness: ns. believe: El. El. 3 sg. El. super. Ph. 221... hearken unto. gehynan. memory. faith: 1036 . mind: ds. npm. 953. gehyrdun. El. gelseston. meet geliestenne. I. 318.. 960.. 94- gemyltan.. dat. pi.. gelicast. gemonge. hyrsted. adj. pret.. 271. gelamp. geleafan. 785. 518. pp. n. 237. El. pret.. gelyfe. ge1282. J 249. gemetan. adj. Ph. El. w. n. n. 709. pp. geleafan. Pn. 963.. gemetgaj>. 1320. 8. Ph. 1002. Ph. npm. gemete5. gehyran. El. 511. See lystan. 3 sg. 585. El. as. geletest. f. 714. El. 720. midst of. Wi. El. inf. gelamp. 1197. number: as. 37. gemylted. gehyrstan. mearcad. geleafful. 3 pi. gemot. gsn. 796. 1225 231 . 108.. m. 118. f.. 3 gemearcian. 459. bring: gelsedeo Ph. nsf. gelyfan. adj. See ungelice. do. gemengde. El. see gemang. El. gelaestan. Wi. El. geloden. W2. 331. 1303. ds.. 3 sg. mindful: Ph. gel?ttan. grow: pp. 96. 444.. belief. prep. 302 gemynde. geleaffull. alike: Ph. El. Ph. gemong. adj. Wi. gelewan. melt: pp. El. El. geleodan. even-tempered: 3 sg. geliSan. gelice. Ph. III. gernynd. gehyrdon. El. 3 pi. pret. lead.... gelicast. GLOSSARY fast: 3 pi. Ph. 333. gelice. with: gelaeste. See ingemynde. . opt. gehigdum. gemearc. El. El. host. 13. nsf. opt. 1208. gs. geliden. El. find. El. weaken: pp. Wi. 244. 491 . pollute: 1296. adj. gemetfaest.. i I pipi. 442 imp. W. 279.. gemetgian. gehyned. grow mild: nsm. ge. Wi.. ger. nsn. 1312. W2. Ph. adorn: pp. hinder: 2 sg. as. Wi.182 gehydian. 265.. W2. raa& gehydiao". Wi. 3 sg. 601 . 39- gemah. hear. W. Ph. learn: 2 sg. super. 479. like. 1155. 364. gelieddon. modgemynd. $ 595 23. 1227. 387.. rd. Wi. nsn. El... 2 sg. sg. Wi. 429.. gelaeca. El. 1248. pret. pp. Ph. 966 . El. meditation: dp. geleafan. attain: pp. El. J malicious: nsm.. 4. Ph. Ph. 441. gelimpan.. gehyrde. El. gehygd. El. El.. In gemonge. opt. gelices. geleafa. W. Ph. El. gehyrdest. W. inf. El. pass away: pp. 1233. gellcast. 491. gelysted. El. . 1064. gehyre. see guSgelaeca. gemang. gehygdum. El. El. El. 230. 3 sg. 1293. ns. 957 gehyrdon.. in-. ge- . pp. El. 1137. like. meted. Wi. gelyste. neglect: El.. happen: pret. opt. n. adv. gelyfdon. Ph. 1013. 1166. Ph. pi. 1272 . 424.

deliver: pret... El. 74- geofon. sorrowful: El. geoc. opt. next: El. youth: gs. meal: dp. 132. 682. torngenrSla. youth: ns. georn. helper: 1077. geomre. m. 28. woful: Ph. 940. w. Ph. as. dsm. 268. giong. gereord. pi. 65. El. geralde. IV. El. georne. geond. El. 1177. 36. See cwealm-.. ns. El. adv. . gere. 163.. El. Ph. See hygegeomor. 413. geornor. sad. as. El. 101 ac . 600. wk. open: pp. 82. adv. take: pret. El. ds. geogoS118. El. see bi-. eagerly: comp. reveal: 2 sg. -g?nga. geniSlan. pour: pp. adj. help. 902. W2. zealous: nsf. geomormod. gen. 741.ii63. geornllce. geopenad. sweord-. very: address: 1065. 3 sg. npm. Ph. 599. Ph. 3 sg. see togenes. 213.. 925.. sad. save: generede. Ph. gerfccan. W. ge- flow through: opt. adj. 4. El. geofenes. geondfaran. m. means: ip. Ph.. 3 Pn. still: El. 1102. survey: geondwliteS. See domgeorn. 413. moreover. El. 627. 192. 969. 92. in: 323 ace. pp.. Ph.GLOSSARY nsm. 647 . hades. 819. El. El. f. 373. El. 3 sg. pret. goten.. 638. nsm. 517. Pr. asn.. geogoShad. geondlacan. 649. n. 580.. 3 pi. rejuvenated: generede. 278. genam. asf. fresh: gpf. 118.. geopenie. 301. enmity. gereaht. nsm. 433.. El. nsf.. 792. geof ones. 70. 216. 199. 1157. foreg?nga. 573. Ph. 236. well: comp. laS-.. Pn. gereordum. 1063.. nsn. 555 . report: inf.. geornor. 471. again: El. 211. 412. El. 1092. W2. comp. genejian. zealously: El. El. 182. El. W. See cniht-. 353.. ds. earnestly. geneosian. 322. Ph. I. n. gerjedum. Ph. adv. geopenian. among. El. Ph. Ph. rd. 1171. n.. restore: pp. See be-. 16. El. Wi. El. Wi. 3 sg. 1054. El. throughout. II. geondlace. Pr. geniman. ds. 355 El. 119. El. 68. Pn. geomran. . 1133. 1080. 1108... gin. 1267. edgeong. see ferhSgereaht. Ph. 610. 267. hostility: geniSlan. ocean: gs. 139. 1078. nsm. apm. traverse: geondfaraS.. 624. consolation: geoce. inf. see gif-. ging.. 1218. 922. geomrum. zealously: 1148. m. 1097. El. El. 322. El. Ph. gladly: curately: geof-. El. adj. 67. geolorand. El. Wi. 1265 . -genes. 1231. El. name: nemned. 351. El.. Ph. geongra. W2. . Ph. Surhgeotan. 734. Ph. renew. geomormode. geocend. El. geong. visit: ge- geondwlltan. geotan. geomre. geopenigean. gen?mnan. 266. 556. prep. gingra. 50. El. also: See also gina. generedon. through.. geniwad. adj. genegan. 258. m. surely. inf. 70. npm. 1158. adv. i. 1139. 3 sg. shield: geomor. sea. geniSla. Wi. i. geogoS. geogoSe. 227. sorrowful. geneahhe. VI.. adv. 3 sg. glen. El. see geare.. genlwian. neosaS. 701 . 279. 1247. 385. 1201.. f. 12. young: 159.

813. I. El.... room: (on 320 geruman. feoh-. pret. geszelde. proclaim: inf.. gast-. inf. . inf. Ph. adj. gestaSelian. Ph. extend: gerymde. 3 sg. gesette. ordain: pp.. Ph. wintergerim. gesamnod. nails). gesefte. gescrifan. 1249. . 3 sg. 1308. ap. sg. to pieces: pp. Wi. establish: pret. Ph. ge- geset. gesegen... gesaelig. 3 sg. gesohte. Pn. El. 3 sg. 197. see: El. assemble: 956 . geresteS. wk. as. 3S (wira gespon. 790. 660. gesawon. object: gesihb see gesyhS. 73 geseSan. El. 282. 118. Wi. see wyllegespring. Wi. El. pret. gespon. 278. El. gesyllan. 3 sg.1 84 GLOSSARY sg. gesceadan. destiny. n. 75J inf. El. . Wi. gessegon. El. 255. El. El. geas. n. Ph. 417. 29. El. see aeht-. geryno. Wi. Ph. 3 sg. Wi. El. gerim. gesprsece. 1032. V. speak: opt. apart). 1280. see gaest. 2 sg. harm.. 168. gesittan. gesaelan. f. El. ordain: pret. pay: El. 582. geseceS. El.. 210. mansion: gp. gesasliga. ges?cgan. 3 pi. gescinan. gescyrded. rd. gesceap. El. see dogor-. illumine: 3 sg. El. gesceafta. See fyrngesceap. El. pp. adj. reach: 166. behold. existence: as. 675 86 gesion. 436. geryne. mi. pret. 100 geseh. 350. geseon. place. Ph. 985. geseceo". gescraf. 230. gather: 3 somnao". 270. gescodan. 149. creature: gp. gesceaft. Wi. sit. 576. 3 pret. W. 1047.. pp. 1284. Pn. see eaxlgestealla. pp. El.. 3 sg. 1055. gain. dp. 68. object: as. 729. El. Ph. 3 pi. 180. gesege. seat: ap. 1 I pi. geseah. El. 141.. I. gesfttan. ge- molest. gestealla. 71. Ph. pret. 243 pp. 264. 3 sg. secret: as. 739. geseftost. gesc?o"3an. 280. 1295. ges?llan. abode. super. 156. I][ n. El. Ph. 667. fate: ap. cut gesecan. El. 868. prove. Ph. W2. 474. geruma. See fyrngeset. sceapu. El. gesteald. g?st. speak: inf. 566. 395. gesaeton. Wi. . woruld- W. Ph. wordgeryne. See 3 sg. El. 3 sg. ger?stan. geseoS. geruman. 26. Wi. nsm. gesomnian. n. plague: 400. opt.. gestealda. 1089.. bind: blessed: pret. gesecggan. 121 . opt. 894 Pn.. rest: 3 El. El. seek. pret. gesceaf turn. Ph.. gesettest. El. El. pret. pleasant: pret. gescop. m. gescme)>. decide: sceaden. gesprecenra. n. Wi. 1285. create. fashion: 138. heaven: as. establish. 84. sit down: 3 pi. nsm. 59. 56. protect: pp. 5 . El. gescod... decree. defend. W2. gestreon. 802. gestaj?elad.. gesetu. 842. 589. 671. gescyldan. gescyppan. gescylded. gespring. El.. pret. gestreon. Ph. 88. 1083. nsm. gpf. geryman. sg. V. gesprecan.. V.. gespon. inf. haunt. gesamnian. . gesette. El. creation: El. gescyrdan. as. twist: as. 183. dwelling.. 1 3 destine: . 442. VI. W2. 10. El. El. Ph. El. VI. verify: El. away. El. sg. Ph. visit: 3 sg.

gesyne. gewaelan. El. 726. eSgesyne. pret El. 1005.. plain: nsn.. See raed- gesweorcan. Ph. gain. vision. W2.. Wi.. pp. adj. El. El. geSejncan. Ph. Ph. EL getimbran.. con 754pret. might. 145. 202.. 3 sg. getengde. El. erect.. El. ip. get?nge. pp. 856. 430. 321. endure.. 634.. ge- Jringan. power: dp. gesihSe. ge>enca>. welter: ns. perfect: pp. 3 sg.. El. shut in: pret. penetrate: pret. geas. 519. visible: See 264. 1286. 721-2. opt. gewod. (?) pret. Wi. Wi. pi. tyned. Wi. 1035.. get?llan. 563. faithful: nsm. adj. thought: ns. 185 El. 137. 253- geswica}>. 3 sg. El. 3 sg. bury: pp. on: npm. 921. ge- 228.. El. Wi. geswigian. getacnian. El. swear: swerige. gefiinge. 1114. Ph. 1292. getimbrede. strain: ns. W2. El. . gesg. ge]>rec. weaken: pp. gejrow- geSrySan. El. El. W2. 552. dedicate. El... gej>ungen. advance: pp.. getaecan. 160. 807.. count: pp. getacnod. true.opt.GLOSSARY gestrynan. W2. getyn. gesw?rian. 3 ade. nsn. from: I pi. geswing. 313. El. geswiged. El. El. grow dark: i pret.. VI. thought: gp. 3 sg. getynan. inf. see ges?llan. El. cease sg. 3 pi. as.. persecute: gej>reatod. 2. getaehte. swit5rad. 1 ge8ringan. 1244. prosperous: asm. ge}>anc. gesund. gej?inges. m. 426. gejrowode. sundne. El. n. exalt. f. El. embattle: pp. 1241. Wi. f. El. 184. gewaede. El. III. III. geSoht. 695. gej>ance. 200. El. bring to silence: pp. geswearc.. as. 614. sg. gewadan. 3 sg. Ph. gestryna)?. El. ds. dp. geSreatian. pp. pain. gegej>eaht. 698. Wi. El. 847. as. geSeaht. El. geswicaS. 859. VI. gewealdum. apm. Ph.. suffer: gej?olian. 98. III. 144. arm. torment: ge)?reade. getimbreS. fate: gs. adj. 965. apm. ge- ge>ungen. think: imper. 649. El. counsel: ge]?eaht. 855. J>eahte. reveal: getaehtesS. see wintergewaede. Wi. geswin. El. 686. ge- gesyho . geSrowian. n. geswican. 267. El. geSeon. Pr. gesyllan. pret. show: pp. ge- J^ancum. 601. 1018. I. ge^onca. plot: ap. 7. sg. geweald. 468. ge)?6ht. n. 1264. geteled. W2. ge)>oncum. geSeaht. 486. n. opt. 2 pi.. El. El. rush: ns. n. 3 getynde. gej>rowedon. modgeSanc. devote: pret. Pn. ds. mn. geSanc. resting tyde (skilled). El.. getrywe. geswiSrod. 40.. 120. 392. El. El. 312. as. El. Ph. El. See in-. 1075 . torture: gewseled. sight: 346. train: pp. knowledge: 610. get5rec. El. lessen. 516.. 918. device.. 8. secure: 3 pi. Ph.. 1060. 2 . 997. W2. El. ge- getSolian. W3-. Wi. struct: build. El. 1239. tossing. 114. gejrowade. 3 sg. ge>ry]?ed. 1010. overcome: inf.. get?ngan. El. El. npm. See handgeswing. El. El.. El. geswiSrian. adj. geSrean. suffer: pret. syhSe. 1190.. Wi.

i come : sg. 3 sg. take up one's abode: 3 sg. become: 3 sg. gewyrd. gewyrceS. W. 30. pp.. 655. fly: Ph. El. Ph. Ph. see wintergeweorp. pret. welgad.1 86 GLOSSARY gewitt. utterance: ap. geworden. 425. occurrence: 3 pi. gewyrdan.. 177. See in. gewlitegad. Ph. gewindaeg. do harm: inf. pp. beautify. gewlcian. endow: pp. record: ap. 3 sg. \ . ip. struct: inf. Ph. 122. event. 632. gewiten. geywan. weorSaS. Ph. 641 El. 1192. W. 571. gewicaS. as. gewearS. gewlenced. 14. 674. perfume : wyrtad. Wi. 99. 94. 538. ge- writu. geweorp. gs. struggle: ns. gieddade. giddum. 320. El. 41 pp. 469. time of tribulation: np. 3 sg. gewrit. 387. El. gieddinga. gewritu. 611. gewat. gewittes. dp. W2. opt. 97 npm. gicel. dwell. 55. npm. dwell in. commit: opt. understanding: ns. gew?rian. Ph. 738. III.. 3 pi. El. See ealdgewin. dp. ge- geweaxan. 643- gewyrcan. 3 sg.. Wi. 58. 658. 456. 1256. Pn. geywde. 549. El. El. 614. Ph. W2. 787 . W. see cylegicel. turn: gewende. W2. pret. gewunien. sg. speech: gp. 28. 19. 191 n. gidd. 513. Ph. geweorSan. m. Pn. gewin. El. . 647. geweorc. 3 sg. 938. sg. giddum. El.. wyrded. pret. Wi. | gewelgian. inhabit: pret. El. . . sing: pret. gewiciaS. 117. n.. Ph. El. 554. Ph. clothe: pp. gewyrcen. El. gidda.. 923 opt. wlteo". 203 . El. gieddian. distinguish. El. 481. 313. day of toil. gewita>. Ph. 586. gewiteS. bedeck: gew?ndan. 3 pi. I. El. 1264. W2. geywed. 3 ge- El. Ph. 3 sg.. 3 sg. embel lish: pp. Ph. El. gewl^ncan. depart: . 3 sg. gewat. gewyrSeS. ip. $ gewyrtian. W. .. 1047. 488. geweorSe. 102. show: geywdest. . 183. 19... 3 sg. pp. 332. 1272. bring to pass: 3 sg. geweaxen.. pi. Wi. 823. giedding. 1277 pi. 104. 994. 3 pi. Ph. gewyrht. gewended. pret. geiewed. pp. El. book: np. El. 543. n. inf. Ph. happen: pret. gewyrceS. El. con i geweorSian. 1268. 617. ns. 531. 162. See forSgewItan. El. gewritum. Ph. ge El. El. . See sundorgewyrd. geweoiteS. W2. geworhtest. make. create: 2 sg. 1275. Ph. opt. gewyrSeo". see aergewyrht. Ph. gewiteS. Wi. abide. 357. see fyrngeweorc. El. El. Wi. 3 sg. . fyrngewrit. See fyrngidd. pret. El.. 612. W2. El. El.. vanish. gewerede. 1192. pp. pp. ge- gewitan. gewindagas. 263. adorn. 41. gewritu. El.. El. pret. El. 537. 827.. El. 3 away. gewlitigian. inflict damage. f. 459.. 654. gewitaS. 551 geweorSod. 727. build. scripture: np.. gewitene. See ungeEl. pass 428. sojourn gewunode. Ph. geworden. 74. opt I sg. 418. El.. writing. Ph. 150. grow up: pp. 148 . El. gewearS. ap. n. Ph. gewurdon. 1288. El. 1038. gewritu. El. Ph. 1191. 313.. mind. geweorSad. gewlteo". El. W2. come: 3 sg. gewunian. f. 16. go: 3 sg. honor: 3 pp. be: 3 pi. gewritum. gewite.. 2 sg. rd.

596. see ongin. geofona. glaes. 265. Ph. El. girwan. See wuldor- npm. grace: 3 sg. an. gem. blemish: . El. sagacious: ns. 542. nsm.. III. giefe. El. 956 brilliant. adv. 189. hostage: inf. 92. 1144. V. gleawhydig.. pret.. gyfena. still. gietan. 176. 967. see onginnan. 199. gimmas. El. 624. gliw. ds... 3 sg. glsedum. . hygegleaw. apm. See as-. gisle. nsm. wise: nsm. El. 962. nsm. 3 sg. ds. Ph. gild.. 857. see deofulgild. joy: gma. El. El. adj. 807. gp. gp. El. 144. ginnan. asm. ferhJS-. 935- gleawllce. 327. gpm.. glsed- 1096. wisdom: flame: gleaw- ds. repay: 493. adorn. 267. See waelgifre. iu. glaem.- nesse. glengeS. gielt. El. 303. 92. 621. El. see gif-. sincgim. El. pru 571. gnyrna. geald. gift. -117. gifu. 71 giefe. asf. 436. Ph. See forPh. Ph. 600. adj. glaedmod. see gen. greedy. gnyrn. gifeS. 606. ling: Ph. See Ph. geofona. Ph. ds.. 353. gladan. grace: ns. See gold-. 300. 777. 139- ging. fire. adj. 2 53 splendor: ns. joyous: dsm. dsm. grant: 3 sg. wil-. gif re. gif. 435. hyht-. vsm. Ph. El. glsedra. 1267.. El.. gleawe. n. glgngan. 1024. Ph. yet: El. 1058. sec beag-. 90 . sec gym-.. Ph. adv. give: 3 pi. 536. geong. 464 . gildan. . n. adj.. mode. gnornsorga. adj. 5V? also El. gleawra. ray. Ph. El. gleawnes. sec gylt. El. I. 576. 773. n. 593. f. El. jewel: 183.. gladost. toglldan. 519. geaf. 208. ap. 1070. Ph. gleawe. gingne. 1004. 1212. El. 182. 360. 1157. wk. gim-. adj. 533. El. Pn. for-. see mistglom. gudaed. El. Ph. 289.. 1302. gimcynn. gifa.. wise: nsm.. gifa. gleaw. El.. See also 1260. if: glaed. pret. rapacious: nsm. f. build. gifu. gp. prudently: gildan. Wi. .. gimma. 977- sorrow: . conj. 314. 102. See a-. Ph. endowment: gp. W2. El. as. Ph. m. 3 sg.. 514. El. pret. 782. gled. gife. gife. gleda. 384. gim. ginga. young: 875 . wisely. Wi. glom. Ph. Ph. 516. cheer. 658. as. comp. gleawmod. 365. El. f. radiance: ns. dent. 594. 319. 289. gif an. discerning. gisel.. gin. once: El. El... 1033. See gegl?ngdp. np. f. glide: inf.. m. Ph. El. gnornian. npm. 638. El. gifa'5. gleawe. 459. El. gio. npm. glass: ns. 1201. glad-hearted: spark Ph. see be-. gife. 300. ginge. glen. 1247. m. 507. 441. ongietan. bemoan: gnornode. 1163. adj. wuldor- gladum. ofgifan. 29. gleawestan. 789. gllwe. Ph. 462.. sage. apm. super. 303 . glad. super. erect: 1022. Ph..GLOSSARY gief-. nsm. f. El. 655 gp. El. is. wk. 557. adv. Ph. precious stone: gimcynnum. El. gin. gnorn- sorge. gnornsorg. see gen. Ph. gp. glidan. gimme. El. return.

gomol.. dend. selle. grunde. dust: gs. 1202 apm. m. asf. grima. See gold: is. El. El. seleste. El. 29. 13. 1139- GLOSSARY sadness: gp. nsm. 507. f. God-given: ip. n. 1046. 1265. Pr. n. 281.. see fold-. grapum. 258 1247. m. 1062. Ph. asm. Codes. El. asn. etc. gprnen. g. comp. 100. 1048. see ungnySe.. adj.. 62. 565. Son of God: grim. adj. old: . El. 43. seleste. graeswonge. gold-setting: ds. m. nsm. 55. 359. gold- Ph. gram. adj. vsf. benefactor: ap. ds. selust.. 1114. El. see forgrindan. 819 Ph. 719. El.. Godbearn. 59. m. 1299. El. 417. 1024. 1019. godspel. El. El. Code. selestan.. god- grim. goldwine. El. gripan. El. abyss: as. m. nsn. m. 1033.. 975. 622. fierce.. 78. gold. grene. wk. Pn.. n. Ph. 992. see gang(-).. m. 62 . betera. d. 258. grimSee fernS-. adj. El. 1260 . adj. 760. gnyrnwraec. God.. gs. El. El.. Ph. El. 618. . gamelum.. grund. 1088. wk. graef. 657.. n. El. 637.. 209. goddsd. Ph. selestan. 461 W. El. nsm.i88 422. W. grundleasne. good: Ph. betere. goldhoman. Gotan. f. W. El. ground: ds. Pn. gnyrna. adj. god. gnyrnwrsecum. goddond. grap. grimme. adj.. greot. 647. 96. as. m. 1117. wk.. goman. good deed: god- diedum. El. Ph. 403. n. 303. etc. El. W. asm. 76. El. super. grim: asm. helmet: ns. adj. 331 1309. 669. gripe. greote. grundleas. 615. god. 46. . El. gramum. fate. El. grassy plain: ds. El. El. 345. 118. See h?llegrund. 1028 selest. 527. wk. El. 293. earth. 76. king: ns. ns. El. see HreSgotan. heoru. moldgraef.. hostile: gpm. 506. greedy: nsm. goldhord. np. 36. nsm. El. m. God: . jaw: ap. green: nsn. with gold: garment ornamented ap. Pn. m. W. 201. etc.. grasp: dp. nsn. godra. greotes. 90. helmet: ns. dpm. El. selest. W.. El. El. Ph. ds. n. godcunde. 786. 571. is. 1289. gnySe. (23 times) . El. 810. wk. goldhoma. pleasure: ns. grip: ds. world: as. 355. gs. 267 . 46. El. golden jewel: ap. Ph. Ph. El. 91. 1139. 109. Ph. earth. 525 Ph.. Ph. apm. 624. f. El. El. 462. 944. 298. . good: gp. Ph.. 620. gpm. bounty. 1302. angry. goma. 14. El. m. n. npm. Ph. 118. El. 506 goldfaet. gospel: ns. revenge for wrong: dp. godspelles. (10 times) Ph. graedig. Godbearnes. . 1 619.. gramra. grip. vsm. apm. a. 71. . grafan. golde. goda. 395. 461. 556 . El. 201. see forgripan. El. 760. divine. gong(-). gold- gimmas. v. n. El. see begrafan. 78. See cynegold. 962. 154. stangripe. El. graeswong. treasure: as. greote. 924. Ph. gpf. asf. bottom: as. selesta. grimhelm. . 835. m. 791. 1039. man. 46. 687. 161. 176. bottomless: asm.. El. Ph.. 517. 12. 1114. godra. 154. grimne... 4. 125. Ph. Ph. beteran. grindan. Ph. (8 times) . gomel. 179. dsm. 498. apm. 408. godcund.. golde. 36. 359. 1170. Ph. . El.. goldgim. Ph.

748. 1221. 570. Ph. 3 sg. 1203. gudaed. 212. adj. have.. 410. 760. haegles.. 3 sg. guSfrecan.GLOSSARY grymetan. 369. ns. human being. 14. 703.. 72 639. 16.. guSrof. class: guSe. heed: opt. see a-. El. Wi.. sorrow: is. 936. 621.. 2 pi. haeftnede. vs. El. Ph. guSweard. shape. 462. long. 740. El. 998. 189 asn. haebbe. 809. haegl.. guSEl. ns. geogoS-. Ph. gyf-. guSrofe. guma. 278. God: 640. El. dpf. hael. ns.. 1253. ip. 1 sg. haefde. 258. inf. form. % guSscrud. 393. f. kingdom of men: combat: queen: valiant ds. gime. ns. El. food: Ph. 461 gyltum.. Ph. ds. m. as. radiant: asn. m. El. El. 667. ns. bondage. 562. Pn. El. as. imprisonment: El. 619. haebbe. $ guSgelaeca. iu. Wi. 870. Ph. n.. i pi.. notice. El. I sg. El. El. 125. m. m. 115. 139. vs. np. 43. Ph. El. Wi. 1063. n. El. El. clear: El. W. i. golden: nsm. Ph. haslende. 538. 776 . battle-prince: haeftnyd. see gehasftan. . El. roar: grymetende. El. 63. hador. adj.. 590. 14. 72. 297. gylta. El.. 254. Pn. 331. ds. 5945 ds. El. 316. W. El.. warrior: geliecan. $ f. Saviour: ns. Ph. pl- haebben. haelan. . 616. Ph. Wi. El. El. El. haedrum. El. f. manner: . brightly: clearly: haeft. El. Ph. Haelend. gs. m. m. Ph. redeem: ptc. 60. 249. 7. wifhad. 353. hsebbe. cild-. np. Ph. gumum. gudaeda. opt. 408.... 49. El. as. 1297. gyrnan. El. gyrn. as.. 3 pi. 464. vs. 372. 204. guman. Ph. Pn. 1246. adj. 808. possess: I + gryrefaest. m. brave: nsm. H. nsm. pret. 920. 412. 511. gyrne. hafu. ds. armor: ns.. hail. m. gumrice. Ph. n. See also gio. m. habban. f.. ongyldan. hail: Ph. Ph. 1254. gieltas. haefdon. haedre. 726. m. terribly firm: nsn. 556. 381. 175. 650.. haefde. hold. guSheard. haeftan. sg. chief: ds. adj. Ph. El. strong in battle: npm.. man: ns.. W3. El. 74. 1006. 1003. guScwen. El. 155. gyfl. 3 sg. 23. d. 531. guSfreca. 408. gylt. 862. m. man. ap. 554.. had. 224. greeting: save.. 3 sg. gp. see gif-. nature: El. gs. 910. 638. 21 . 30. El. n. adv. for-. haeleS. El. ds. 408. 254. as. 1130. 410. thraldom: ns. 569. gyldan. hafaS. adj. heedor. 201. El. 415. haefdon. El. hade. 336. dp.. erd-. El. former deed: gp. hade. m. 20... habba>.. 825. El. sin: gp. 62. Ph. 1096.. Ph. gumena. El. 817. ptc. W.. 273. El. bondage. Ph.. warrior: as. Pn. 3 sg. See sac- bisceop-. adj. man: 1186. gyman. ap. battle. 616. Ph. gylden. guS. 3 Ph. 912. 288. gylte. 49. hasle. yearn: gyrneo". Hselendes.

1297 super. 3395 asf. 162. (40 times) . as. haelej'a. 1015. nsn. asn. Ph. El. 1155. 483. . haetan. dsf. handum. 13. 148. El. . halige. hJetSenum. 51. W. wk. Pn. hatost. El. 570. 1202. 88. (64 times) (39 times) . nsf. 142. wk. 843 ap. 193. halgum. behest: as. hit. 188. 709. he. 22. halgan. halges. 5.. 421. wk.. .. 281. sg. 244. 267. gp. handa. adj. 1007. 262. 121. 457. 976. 1202. 1008. 364. pret. W. 126. (20 times) Pn. 254. El. El. 628. him. 505. 273.. Ph. 62. 31. 218. haelo. etc. El. 679. hat. 420. dsm. hatum. 147. 223. Ph. ns. Ph. (21 times) . 268. 206. El. 3 3 sg. El. 73. f. Ph.. halige. 9. Ph. etc. 13. 384. 40. . El. GLOSSARY El. heathen: npm. call. ham. See fyrhat. 442. haes. 34. Ph. 515. 740. 183. n. haeSen. El. violable?). 15. 1003. 1273. Ph. ipm. 420. 921 . 1145. Ph. hire. 619. Ph. El. 1204. 509. wk. 1161. El. 1006. 936. his. . 1195. Ph. in. neck: Ph. 988. wk. 1219. 156. Ph. apf. 99. El. Pn. haerfest. halge. Ph. Ph. hiere. 86. 214. 72. El. haswa. gsf.. 63. 1012. 17. 1140. See gasthalig. 841 . 1136. pret. Ph. Ph. El. Ph. hserfeste. he: nsm. 1054. W.. El. haliges. ds. pp. Ph. . halgan. El. 222. asn. . 73. halge. 444. 3 sg. 1146. wk. dsmn. combat: ns. holy: nsm. (13 times) Ph. 877. Ph. 325. opt. gray-plumed: nsm. 966. 1076. El. hate. 153. 170. El. name: Pi- haga. 677. asf. halga. rd. 999. El. El. 539. nsm. etc. hatost. Ph. haeleSa. command: 42. . 173. 852. hehte. haswigfeSra. 843. healing: 1216. 65 asf. 521. 789. 211. El. W. 129. imper. 1204. 1198. . 853. El. gpm. gsm. 1012. halge. 3 sg. dsf. 86. 457. hateS. 87. El. halige. 1023. wanhal. gsmn. 76. 1173. wk. 271. 107. El. hot: nsm. 365. W. haMu. 209. hie. 1169. 1224. El. 25. 598. f. see leodhata.. 661. hand. 751. W. 440. El. 30. 14. 41. m. 1054. dp. hio. 413.. 106. 957. asm. suming: nsm. El. El. haswigfeSere. hand: . 153.. El. asn. etc. Ph. 66. 599 . 67. ns. m. 18. turfhaga. 805. 1200. 477. fervently: Ph. 40. adj. 720. see an-. 105. Ph. wk. 43. 135. adj.. 758. het. hal. 74! hire. 298. 679. haten. m. wk. hat. as. gray: Ph. 179. 79. 17. 244. 49. 1087. ds. 579. 1143. etc. nsn. 476. halge. 691. adv. UShasu. halgum. 81. W. 568. 609. 701. 1023. see 756. El. nsf. hatan. 863. El. npm. 143. 656 821 dpm. hals. halgan. nsf.. 18. hine. | handgeswing. Ph. haeSene. heht. El. 49. 44. adj. nsn. hata. Ph. wk. El. see onhastan. harvest: Ph. 75i. 593. etc. 86.. 41. 1108. f. 885. hataS. 79. 355. El. gsm. 128. 76. haeleSum. 167. halig. 86. 170. wk. El. 276. 380. 1094. halgan. con 613. El. 567. heat: Ph. 429. bid. 146. f.. hames.190 hsele>. haetu. cure. Ph. etc. 439. 200. El. 641. 531. 1133. El. 785. nsf. npf. El. heo. 333. bord-. 671. nsm. 670. nsn.. 625. halige. halige. pron. El.. (14 times) El. 399. haligra. home: gs. 418. 59. 1032. Ph. Ph. El. adj. 447. Ph. 710. 1051. dpf. dp. 55. El. hata. 1158. El. El. etc. . 626. (13 times) asm. 73 (in 882. El.

336. 68. comp. Ph. healfa.. throne: heahsetl. 67. Srohtheard. 1 1 hy. 129. 451. El. (as sing. 319. 626 . 133. W. 447 nsf. m. 590 nsm. 32. Ph. 166. 476. adj. 3 inf. Ph. heal.. hero: ingas. height: ds. 613.. 441. 112.. healfcwice. 609. 701 . 1180. throng: ns. El. El. Ph. f. Sraec-. healdan. 758. heardran. heanne. . heane. 58. stern: asn. Ph.. 12.. isf. opt. adj. bearding. 543. healt. ns. W. heard?cg. 115. nsf. cruel: nsm. gehealdan. El. 415. 699.. nsn. 571. 112. asm. 84. 758. healda>. hearde. 704. half-dead: npm. malicious. Ph. gp. 521. heahsetle. 400. W. 182. adjure: El. 554 asm.. keep. heannesse.. 979. 411. 350. El. . El. 389. healf. healde. 402. 359. heard. Ph. Ph. heardhearma. 327.. as. npm. El. m.. 489. throne: Ph. Ph.. 557. El. 983. 824. proud: as. 25. ap. half a. W. troop. fiendish: gpm. healf e. high-prowed: W. 1206. herre. 382. 58. healsian. him. El. grievous: dpn. sec medoheal. 631 (in. 410. El. heah. 548. heanne. hit. heahmaegen. side: 1209. El. 1169.. 429. hie. 13. 2 sg. very: El. 619. 208. 171. etc. 565. Ph. adj. 336. Ph. 121. comp.. npm. 75. heardum. 43. injury: gp. Ph.. El. heannes. hean. W. 36. etc. Pn. Ph.. hold: pret. 36..) heafelan. nsn. 1 753 . hyra. 269. 130. Ph. abject: nsm. heafela. times) hio. adv. Ph. hea. 360 . 481.. . 391 El. El. 156. 835. El. 405. 22.. 604. wk. heo. exalted: asm. n. adj. heold. 206. El. 141. 324. 702. El. archangel: m. adj. 391heah. 247. m. dp. El. 293. 1215. np. 912. 955.. mighty power: nsm. heafde. heahmod. El. El. 143- n. 399. npm. 449. head: np. Ph. est: ns. 174. on hean nesse. inf. W2. i sg. sg. El. 569. gp. heapum. 48. heafodwylm. n. 35. 457. 32. El. Ph. pret. . . heoldon. hira.. El. El. heahcyning.. asn. Ph. etc. heanne. El. hie.. ds. healf cwic. El. wk. El. halt: npm. m. high. Ph. 604. 160. hihst. ap. 483- 180. (35 326. 1232. healsie. Ph. El. Ph. El.GLOSSARY asn. 424. See guS-. high: Ph. hearm. heap. humiliated. 809. edge: nsm. m. 549. host. as. 515heahstefn. is. hearda. in the highest). m. 246. 641. . Pn. heafde. El. apn. Ph. 3 sg. heahseld. heanum. (19 times) (18 times) hi. El. Ph.. 1125. 67. king in the high heardre. lofty: nsm. El. 83. 464. 325. 565. See be-. hearm. El. 116. adj. adv. severe: heah?ngel. gp. adj. multitude. hearmra. 555. 395. hea. 202. Ph. 39. El. + is. 1136. Ph. f. head: ns. rd.. hiera. Ph. 1133adj. El. El. Ph. heape. mettlesome. 23. 12. 1216. heafod. 28. Ph. 3 pi. hard: dsm. Ph. 197. observe: 3 pi. Ph. ds. poor: lowly: dpm. hi. healdeS. . healte. heardum. El. ns. Ph. 658. adj. tears: El. 751. . with hard nsn. mo -. as.. heahengla. 446. El. n. ip. super.

Ph.llegrund. Ph. helm. heofonum. 679. fierce: El. heart: gs. IV. 706. 1082 . El. 483. heofon- El. heolstor. see began.. El. El. gs.. 68.. 123. f. | heaSofrejmmende.. 223.. adv. 188. 101. El. 173. 728. Ph. 1125.. hellish sin: firena. 527. ds. ds. heofenum. Ph. El.638. gp.. heofonrices. herge. scea)>an. El. 130. m.. adj. adj.. 32. npm. Ph. multitude. help. See bihelan.. 579. heofoncyning. gsm. heofontungol. heolstorhof u. ds. her. darkness. i. El. meSelinf.. adj. h?fgian. gp. . steorran. El. heria. El. 976. 45. h?ngest. El. nihthelm. hafen. ensign: as. El. 650. m. 695. heofun. El. ds. heorte. heofoncyninge. army. 367. . El. king of heaven: heofoncyninges. J heolstorhof. W. heaSowelma. 217. heofonas. 536. El.. wounded: npm. 621. heofunof heaven: hrofe. 748. ns. 6. 115. he. heorodreorges. 656. helle. hearm- 444. Ph. defender. see hlw. h?lian. VI. El. 629. El. El. 890. m. heofonrice. hegende. Ph. 129. hearpan. 1012 . Ph. El. adj. sec beh?lian. m. 119. waegh?ngest. 1032 heorudreorige. El.. heorucumbol. Ph. herges. lift. 131. Ph. 49.. 58. np. El. 1305.GLOSSARY hearmloca. heo. Ph. hearpe. 1215 disheartened: consolate. harp: gs... hell. see geheaSrian. heolstorcofa. cope of heaven. m. dis gsm. heortan. gs. El. 753. 764. heofonllc. $ heorucumbul. 135- f. rear: 3 sg. W. El. heaSorof. El. succor: ds. gs. El. n. valiant: heofoncininges. 107.. 210. 101 . gehegan. brave.. El. 176. m. gp. 45. 661 . El. h?lledeofol. 477. nsm. see faroS-. 25. See grim-. 58. herga. 641. helan.. Ph.. as. obscurity: is. Ph. raise. El. 626. 957. Ph. ds.. 112. m. El. El. Ph. vault heaj>orofes. El. heaven: ns. 205. tomb: np. n. hell- 628.. 1305. Ph. heaSowylm.. hell: gs. help. heofuna. 143. heorugrimme. 801. Pr. 1113. $ he. El. ds. helmet of in visibility: is. El.llfiren. 699. heofonhrof. 43h?re. troops: ns. 1224. heavenly: 740. dire. ap. heortan. heofona. El. El. pret. heolstre. nsm. 3 El. See ahe. . hefeS. heaSuwylme. heofontunglum. h?llescea'Sa. devil: as. heatSrian. conceal: 703. 228. 23. 83. prison: locan. heorudreorig. 418. 521. El. star of heaven: dp. Ph. abyss of hell: El. 65. 631 dp. dark abode. Ph.. devil: ns. W. heorugrim. 73. heriges. n. m.. kingdom of heaven: hofon. ds. 12. 52. heofon.. h?bban. 901. 183. $ heolo'Shelm. m. 25. here: 3i. ness: m. inf. heofonsteorra.. gp. El. fierce flame: m. 475. Ph. El. f.. protector: 148. as. El.bban. f. as. ds. 445. El..668. 446. fighting: 616. helpe. pi. Ph. pp.. 718. heolstre. abode of dark El. 170. helle. as. 78. m. heolo)>helme. helle- heonan. m.fgian. adj. adv. 1145. 197. as. heofones. heolstorcofan. 107 . 1113. 1230. helpe. 391. El. star: np. Ph. . hide. heriga. 552. heoloS-. as. n. W. n. El. see gehe. 1230. gs. hence: f.

El. heredon. El. 269. 453.. as. hleonaS. beauty: ds.. 25. 1087. hlafordes. Ph. height: ds. El. 25. no. magnify: 3 pi.. El.. on. Wi. behind: Ph. f.. jubilation: El. 99. people: m. hate: as. Wi. hue: J?reate. npn. El. ap. m. d. 234. m. pr. herefelda. 61. El. m. hettende. n. . heremaegene. hererseswan. El. hidercyme. 406. Ph. El. 126. El. 613. Jerusalem: a.. El. h?reweorc. Ph.. battle-adder. 101... bled El. backward: army: here- hinsiS. | hl?mman. 193 m.. m. 141 . f. 616. 3 pi. hergum. hinsi^e. hereteman. El. m.. 1056. ds. dp. brave: El. snap: 3 sg. El. hildensedran. El. m. hlwe. hergaS. color. as. bold.. El.. bread: El. herefeldas. warrior: rincas. 616. El. adj. np. warlike expedition: ds. hlehSu. W.. battle-field: ds. ds. 18. adore. h?remaegen. hleahtre. m. hlemmeS. 263. ds. pret. W2. El. El. run: pret. impend: 3 sg. 6. El. death: 68. hleo. hilde. heria>. appearance: ns. ns. El. 441. 616. 983.. hladan. see gehladan. El. Pn. h?rian. h^retema. | hildes?rce. hergendum.. m. hilde. hlaefdige. inf. hleop- Hierusalem. Jerusalem... 10. hleapan.. El. 314. 54. 32. enemy.. 65 83- is. hater: 119. commander: assembly: 10. El. gp.. hiehSa. herigean. coat of mail: hildesercum. hl?nce. 995. herehu>e. heremeSle. El. lady: vs. n. 18. 421. hilde. f . $ h?remeSel. h^resiS. h?refeld. 133. hlaew. see hyge(-)hild. ^ hindanweard.. dpm. 1097. hleahtor. El. 507. h?reraeswa. 73- adj. 920. 936. pp. spear: El. El. Ph. ap. nsm. 293. herigum. hlaewas. 429. f. 8. m. $ hild^gesa. El. El.. 291 (color?). 25. 52. advent: f. ns. hiw. El. np. hiwe. 119. 1074. see waelhl?nce. Ph. behind: Ph. hlaford. m. as. El. El.. m. 1221. El. . heresiSe. hleonian. ds. see heah. hlaf. m. Pn. adv. ds. hildfruma. 41. hiwe. Ph. hergendra. m. ns. Ph.. 113. $ hinderweard.. as. h?ttend. ds. Ph. El. 656. form: heo. prey: n. 400. 920 . hilde- W.. . overhang. np. hildensedre. radiant: nsm. 32. leader of the army: np. hettendum. 475. war: ns. battle: ns. 170. hildenaidran. mound: ns. 302. herre. hlafes. gs. El. El. h?reSreat. h?rehuS. 81 . 149. Ph.. adj. 374. hereweorces. np. El. hildedeor. hindan. lord: gs. 20. 424.. hiwa. army: battle. praise. protection: 150. 180. 656. gpm. Ph.. is. nsm. hiwbeorht.. multitude. f. El.. 893 El. m. 265. dp. m. 61. m. 49. adj. vs.. leader of the ds. 541.. as. El. worship. assem ds. hige(-). dp. see hyrwan. 265.. hilderinc. 148... El. W. n. El.GLOSSARY El. 298. terror of battle: ns. rd. W. 311. is. hte. war: gs. 550. See bihl?mman. n. n. El. 273. herwan. 3 pi.

Ph. prison: W. W. hreosan. See heolstor-. 73. Goths: g. Ph. rejoice: ptc. gsf. I hlyt.. adv. 149. gehon. 712. hleoSor. clear: nsm. W. hreoseS. 81. m. see waelhreow. n. 656. Ph. rejoicing. 8. n. hraSe. hrefen. Ph. 710. pr. stanhliS. HreSas. 60. loudly: El. HreSa. adj. hreodian. adj. bright. sea: ds. 983. weary of El. Ph. Ph.. 429. . adj. hlude. see gehreodan... 1087. immediately: El. Ph. El. adj. Hchgma. Ph. 1099.. exultant: El. adj. Ph.. hrerend. rise: hlifaS. gs.. corpse: hraedllce. El. 406. hreora. hlyn. see foldhrerend. blasphemy. 171. El. rough: dsm. El. sound. Ph. leprous: hn^sce. n. hlidan. n. adv. Ph. Ph. hlihhan. treasure: as. . 45. listening: as. turmoil of the sea: holm]?rsece. hreodode.. . gate: ap. holtes. W2. 995. 25. horn: np. adj. Ph.. ing word: as.. 32. Ph. f. hleoj^or. see beorh-. homa. Ph. 228. holme. hremig. hleo^orcwide. chant: 3 hon. hreofum. soft: npm.. life: nsm. 3 pi. El. 1133. 554.. El. hord. wood: holtwuda. see gehleSa. throng: ds. commandment. tone: hlyst. ns. El. hreow. n. El. gracious: nsm. hofe. descend: 3 sg. El. hleor. El. inf. 51 . utterance: np. hrefn. m. see feSer-.. wood: ns. El. hreofe. holtwudu. Ph. lamentable: nsn. adj. as. hllfiaS. hlinc. Ph. bank. $ hra we rig. 115. hleoSres. npm. See a-.. loud: nsm. 604 23.. 135. $ horh. 821. 58. gold-. El. m. forest. nsn. See efen-.. 728. 668.. 592. Ph. hlud. f. hond. 131 gp. nsm. El. as. GLOSSARY n. hreodan. 143f. angry: gpm. as. hleo)>ra. see anhoga. 834. 1215. cell: ds. nsf. boran. sift: pret. ds. See feorh-. tower. hleo)>riaS. hleSa. 539. 1273. El. filth: is. sweghleoSor. Ph. m. hlincas. 113. El. 54. hof. Ph. hleoSrian. 58. melody. hengon. II.. hnagre. horn. hoga. rd. m. holt. hreoh. raven: ns.. 1092. crucify: pret.i 94 face: n. 557. pi. morSor-.. m. ds. trumpeter: np. 76. onhlidan. hra. hliS. Ph. El.. hofe. El. hofe. El. hornas. revil See oferhllfian. 669. 134. m. 1138. 126. m. Ph. El.. hremige. hold. 615. El. adj. W2. horn3 sg.. weary in body.. See wuduholt. sg. 297.. body: 885 hlihhende. W2. hlifian.. as. $ hospcwide. 424. Ph. lay: gs. horu. fierce: nsm.. 1239. f. 406. El. 78. quickly: El. holm. ledge: np.. m. deplorable. yShof. fall.. El. El. m. defilement. El. decree: 399as. hand: as. El. see bordhreoSa. nsm. grove. ns.. court: ds.. adj. 183. 579. . no. 52. Ph. hreof.. VI.. n. 523. goldhord. no. 217. holmtSracu. m. 3 pi.. forest. El. hreoSa. hnag. El.. quickly: El. hang. adv. Ph. hluttor. Ph.. ra)?e. 372. 446. hlinduru. 12. 901. 764.. attention. number. hornbora. hleoSorcwide. hlyte. see be-. speak: inf. rough.. 441.

. 479. threaten. ds. n. 643. 429. 185. 1047. in truth. 54. 561. hwaes. See gehweorfan. 613. 954.. 176. whale: hwaeles. hrof as. 32. hunger: W. wilhreSig. 500. make proclamation: 397. 1103. main. 58. See heofon- See dsed-. 625. H45hreSerloca. Ph. 720. 474.. . hwate. until: El. hum. hweorfan. hwon. Ph. hwilnan. time. 670. sound: ns.. 81. as. hror. hrof.. El. pr. inf. Ph. hutS. hreSig. El. 16. 218.. 16. m. f. 179. 1092. pr. hwylc. why). m. menace: opt. adj. hungres.. Ph.. El.. See unhwilen.. hwan. hwil. ds. 82.. 1158 (to hwan. hrimes. El. m. how: El. El... see lythwon. fyrd-. 616. 3 pi. El.. where: 217. 81 . n. sundhwaet. . hweorfaS. f. indecl. m. escape: inf. El. adj. what: dsm. hoar-frost: ns. glorious: '95 n. 49. El. Ph. 590. gs. 695. Ph.. m.. height: ap. 379. 364. 47. bring. El. 356. El. active. be active: 3 pi. m. bring. is. adv. see aeghwaes. Ph.. hwonne. 519. 217. hwa. neverthe hwae)>re. adv. hungre. plunder: huSe.. HreSgotan. El. 675. as. m. hwopan. 701 hungre. Hugs: Huns: n. adv. hwaet. 645. pron. ns. 87. 613. hwilen. hrusan. 3 pi. El. ds. earth: ds.. hruse. booty. still. awer. 205. 624. 400. 114.GLOSSARY hreSeadig. hwopan. El. pret. n. 997. adj. El. 128. do hwaet. 703. adv. Hugas. 563. hwastSre. 843. roof. f.. verily: El. abode. yet. Ph. El. m. 1006. 202. 86. hwlt. II95adj.. 143. m. 339. hwaer. W. bosom. ds. ship: hringedstefnan. 149. 1 hwaet. gehwaer. W. while: 582. 389- Ph. adj. who: nsn.. 222. valorous: gpm. hwael. See swylt-. when: Ph. 634. courageous: npm. See isn. 632. brave: npm. . hr58er. Huna. See See bridelshring. comfort. turn: 2 pi. 228. gs. hreSer. 89. El. as. 20. hwaetmode. El. npn. pr. adj. 212. 21. hundred: 2. hryre. Ph. El. El. as. aeg-. ring. flyht-. hwale. 611. 443. El. hwile. hringe. rd. wraechwil. adv. bus. El.. 22. Hunas. less: El. hwaet. 960. intj. 582.. See h?rehuS. m. hweorfaS. 359. Ph. help: 16. lof-. 93. destruction: ds. as.. 903. breast: hreSerlocan. 532. 920. g. bund. Ph. body: 1237. W. downpour: ns. as. brave. Ph.. El. Ph. asf. 367. transitory: wk. hrorra. . 1132. m. n. see gehwaeSer. 640. n.. hungor. El. El. 456. 649. 335. 719. 20. which. 342. soul: El. 41. 160 asn.. lo: 293. province: 40.. rd. El. 3. III. 6.. 60. house: ns. orb: ns. Ph. El. heart. 720. hringedstefna. 1165. gehwa. El. gs. Pr. circle: is. El. white: nsm. hweorfaS. 881. 51 ns. 1150. nsm. hreopan. hrof. 512. hu. brave. hringe. 102. np.. n. 414. pron. 254. 687. 625. 550. hreopon. 334. 208. Goths: 161. see ead-. hropan. ds.. W. 1160. 334. 366. 248. W.. hwastmod... 853. pass: 3 pi. W. 65. Ph. El. 73. brim. 305. Ph. hwaeSer.

El. I: ns. El... Ph. f.. Wi. Ph. El. deop-. 393. 3 pi. i. hygegeomre. see gehynan. stiS-. I. hyS. hyrst. hyrdan. lean.. El. El. 2. 629. dp. hwylcne. El. pron. 1099. etc. 573. 88. obey. 809. 858. El. as. Pn. 1210. f. me. lazy: ic. 29. adj. m. 700. m. i sg. hyrwdon. 568. 424. Ph. El. hygegeomor. dp.. 71. 995. hyded. as. El. 314. course: El. sad. 355. See pi. El. joyful: nsm. nsm. (i times). misery: dp. herwdon.. see an-. hwylce (swa hwylce. etc. hyntSu. El. hyhta. . hyrdon. hynSum. gehyran. El. youth: vs. hige. f. hy5e. 288. El. hydan. adv. see onhyrdan. 407. ap. :j:hyhtlice. Pn.. 5. 668. us. adv. El. pret. aeg-> ge-. i 3 sg. ns. 263. ymbhwyrft.. wonhydig.. queen: El. hyse. 1094. np. 608. hynan. 240 Pr. ^hygegaelsa. gleaw-. 367. mec. 229.. ns. 400. Ph. Ph. 630. El. regard: 387. El. f. 241. hygeSanc. 577. Ph. asn. W. 567. conceal: pp. hyldan. 218. 819. 240. mind: hige. 685. 920. El. heart's secret: hygerune. Pr. El. El. 548.. 853. El. see ahySan. El. El. 2 sg. gs. See nathwylc.. 637. hyrstum. 1082.. dp.. stiS-. 8. soever). usic. see for-. 798. Ph. El. is. El. 655. 399. El. 862. Ph. m. 164. Pr. me. 405. giver of joy: 852. increase: 3 sg. asf. we. what 5. El. hige- hyht. be-. hyrdon. sluggish. ns. 670. 34. 650. 1108. 1078. inf. dis . hyran. adj. hyrde. 73. hyrstan. 248. . Ph. hyrwan. gehydan. 12. adj. hyrdon. hwyrftum. thought: fcancum. El.196 hwylcum. El. hyrde. 361. as. Wi. 480. hySan. 839. hyhtgifa.. i pi. 923. hyrde. 319. relief: W. hygefrofor. heart. 533. gp. El. El. GLOSSARY El. higegeomre. 210. idge. hear: pret. 910. Pr. 851 dsf. see gehydian. hygd. 477. .. 934. see onhyldan. (49 times) 56i. 355 neglect.. 528. 7. f. Wi. idese. See gehyrwan. hope: ns. 523. despise: pret. 3 pi. see gehygd. consolation: higefrofre. 197. El. vpm. El. as. m. 31. El. hyrdest. as. affliction. 85. 333. ( ?) . harbor: ds. 364. hearken to: . 397.. 6. 538. 163. 572. ides. sorrowful: 1216 . 9. idese. 156. ruler. Pn. 423. npm. 347. 62. this way: El. El. hydig. 469. hydde. El. 75 . 14. hwylcre. min. 859. El. El. El. 355.. 317. hydian. Pr.. as. hyder. 670. prudent: 553. El. npm. wiSerhycgende. lady. 547. 79. ns. hygerun. joy: as. 3 W. hwyrft.. hyhtful. pret. W. El. m. 3 pi. asm. 667. hyge. 1169. gaily: Ph. f. El. etc. 552. gs. Pn. adj. 23. i. hige. opt. see gehyrstan. El. See a-. 841. 129. Pr. 3 pi. ds. hygegleaw. hyrdon. Pn. 90Sus. Ph. Wi. ds. El. 1297. higegleawe. IceS.. El. 8. hycgan. pret. soul. See 78. m. Pr. wiShycgan. m.. El. as. armor: ip. hide.. son. (15 times). prince: 348. i. i.

laMe)>. 93i. 55. 1200. 456 wk. 209. 9. 59. f. 1290. a. npm. . iSnne. 4 (geond innan. El. on. Pn. ir-.. ilde. El. Ph. Ph. 900. into. Joseph. lacan. 3 pi. in: in. lo. asn.. faroS-. ptc. Ph.. -laeca. Israhelas. W.. dareS-. pr. Joseph: losephes. 21. long ago. 305. lob. . see geiewan. 77. in. 220. 1229. 75. etc.. El. laedan. 489. blessing: um. impressed: El.. 198. indryht- lacan. El. earnest purpose: as. 875. W. 207. El. 903. mi fly: . laeded. 1203 a. ludea. 5. Ph. 943. 935. island: ns. See geond- $ ingemynde.. kalend. El. lace. instruct: 3 sg. n. asn. 201. the formerly. g. 1184. El. wk. laedeS. El. L. El. 183. El. 922 41. 1299. 977. laedan. . 1026. IsedaS. . 1089. 649. pr. El.. ilcan. month: a. 693. 241. ludas. as... regard: as. flap': nsm. dat. 338. Pn. inwit. throughout: behold: El. Ph. El. n. inbryrdan. gsn. once: same: nsn.. adv. 127. W. m. adv. la. ingeSanc. 896. 556. (Lat). 122. Wi. 1209. adj. 88 . dp. m. Ph. ace.. 418. 520. 196. asf. 361. lacende. 568.. prep. 107. K. Ph. 846. pp. indryhto. ge- instaspes. 1287. f. 1205. rd. Jews: . laeran. El. 807. Ph. Ph. 71. ludeas. 597. n. 572. El. Ph. pr. 680. Bishop El. *'' w. 509. 969. 1271 asf. See a-. breast: as. Iglond. 609. abl. Cyriacus. adv. 177. W. ludeum. . lacende. 1253. etc.. El. 210. El. pr. lobes. Ph.. . 567. nsm. spread: hold: 3 pp. w. 1303. 1056. 416. 168. W. See Ph. 944. uplaedende. lac.. carry: laeded. 301 throughout} innoS. ilce. 549. -laec. m. 837 d. in. .. in. 667. n. see ag-. 860. Wi. 1057. m.. 1305 El. Iserde. . 765. 79. gudaed. 776. Pn. nsn. Pr. wicked thought: inwit)>ancum. transitory: inwitSanc. 16. 316. Israhela. in. 436. malice: El. gelaeca. Ph. 487. lacende. g. iu. Judas: Iscariot. 922. 655.. El. within: El. laene. 1123.. 517. 64. pron. upon: El. 328. ip. pret. adv. n. 481. 517. inno}>e. Ph. . 17. see onbryrdan. Ph. 345. El. innan. 3 pp. prep. see aelde. immediately: as. inf. 788. 274. Ph. ealpnd. 529. laenan... 600. Pr. 509. present: ds.. El. see yr-. 577. inwards: ds. iniquity.. flicker. 1137. lacaS. n. El. n. n. Israelites: g. a. lyft- ingemynd. Ph. sg. 139. (56 times) ludeas. asn. eglpnd.. fleeting. w. 16 6. (38 times) 30. flare: ptc. sg. 640. . Job: g. 682. 216. ilce. 433. 441. intj. 308. laenan. 580. wk.. to: El. 586. 66 1 . El. 200. 268. 627. 1033. 278. inward desire. El. . 660. ilca. 1146. m.. teach. 691. 800. 379.GLOSSARY ier-. 658. n. El. See also gio. 336. see aeglaec. 452. 491. g. adj. 200. apm. 58. El. 669. inge>anc. 201. I 97 see yr-. 505.. iewan. Ph. gift. 775. lead: 3 pi. perishable: asm.

m. 1206. laude. misfortune: Ph. lagu- leafscead. m. injury.. laus. m. El. scholar: 693 np.. f. leaf: np. El. m. Ph. Ph. lago- 137. np. 75. El. leader: ns. f. n. lafe.. Ph. 66. track: ds. Ph. npm. 440 (on El. El. m?te-. asn. . leahtor-.. laS. 39. See sige-. 383. 94. lareowas. Ph. laf. flood. Ph. lama. 3 pi. remains: as. sg. leaf. trace. sea: as. Wi. injury: lje>j>um. leahtra. iniquity. 65 pret. streame. leavings. 142. leaffull. El. 3 sg. GLOSSARY El. as. praise: lagufaesten. sawl-. lame. leafum. last. 1209. 497.. 30. gs. El. grund-. abl. loathsome.. Ph. Ph. 839. lare. See forlaeran. lore: El. ds. river: floda. n. rd. lafe. persecutor: ns. adj. laestan. (Lat. transgres sion: gp. Ia5ost. El. m. Ph. 32. 1246. 70. invite. 575. lagu- Ph. Ph. 3 sg. n. 555- streamas. land. falsehood: ds. asm. laS. harm.. El. f. reward: ds. ip. lam.. sin. El. course. laSum. El. enemy. instruction. hateful: Ph. lagustream. 520. hated: asn.. Ph. laes. 945 dp. m. El. comp. recompense. El.. asn. see Sy-laes. 978. gpm. nsm. slowly: aelaerend. adj. 368. El. leasne. flood. gs. 1105. instigation: ip. Pn.. El.. frifce-. lajjes. 386. lare.. 522. i 173. Ph. 582. gp. as. f. Ph. 376. shade: ds. cause: pret. 205. 286. super. 50. m. 101. lease. laSod. lafe. 237. 316. lean. 1 Jesse. m. Ph. W. leort. . a lame person: np. detested. laste. asm. El. sinless: npm. dp. 475.. dust: n. Ph. admonish: inf.. El. leahtras. lagu. doctrine. less: El. laj?aj>. leahtrum. leasum. laSode. 424. gs. ap. 1166. 432. free from: adj. Ek See forlaetan. 839. larum. adj. larsmiS. 819. see geleafa. adj. 1017. 191 . 556 ip. El. harm. river: ds. 518. latteow. allow: laSgemSla. m. 1214. is. El. 272. leafy leafsceade. El. lattiow. ge368.. nsf. 1210. Ph. relics: as.. m.. El. leas. El. leahtor. laeSSu. W2.. 250.. 269. El. see geleaffull. f. n. carry out. See gefullaestan. Ph. imper. lang(e). 899. see Ignd.). 576. 53 laSra. laetan. El. scholar: El. 551 . El.198 . W. 1227. 1210. . El. let. laSlic. -leafa. 422. 62. 48. laman. 276. 476. 676. 825. leahtorlease.. . 929. 335. 778. latteowes. 454. 456. El.. El. . deprived of: nsm. larsmiSas. s. leane. sorgleas. water: as. lagofaesten.. 249. laestan. see Igng(e).. 520. El. leton. late: 708. lareow. 388. iJetetS. El. follow: inf. lar. larum.. advise. dp. clay. late. gast-.. leahtorleas. leasne. . sigorlean. summon: pp. laSian. m. laguflod. El. n... adv. El.. laste. 30. 1st. ap. laessa. leas. 497. Ph. behind). See ar-. sg. 3 sg. El. dpm. laire. W. 203.

1227. Ph. 345. see letitia. Ph. 666. 440. secret counsel: as. 723. see ad-. n. 607. 556. 64. gather: pret. disease: ns. lovely: asn. people: 1116.. 1214. 479. 757. leohtes. irrigate. l?ncten. El. 580. El. 486. leodfruma.. El. leaslic. ism. wk. 479. 1238. El. leng. see longe. Ph. Wi. np. nimble: asn. nsm. weorudlest. bright. El. El. leohta. as. 254. bed. El. as. leohtne. weak: npm. land: ieof. Ieof a. 10 (pref letitie. 606.). nsn. El. nsm. W. 268. 561. leoSrune. leodhata. learn: pret. see gel?ttan. Ph. 288.. leodan. leohte. El. teonleg.. asn. El. ap. 673.. El. 511. couch: ds. multitude of men: ns. adj. see geleodan. leas- leoftael. V. 1127. deceitful: apf. as. leofspell. lease. 103. spring: ns. El. enlightening: fair. leohte. 181. m. 518. adj. leoSucraeftig. leodum. Icon. Pn. cheerful: legene. adj. adj. Ph. a.. leodmaegen. protector of the people: ns. $ leoSrun. asm.. 173. m. 208. lesan. n. El. leode. gp. I 99 false: npm. Ph.. leodgebyrga. 128. Ieof re andleofen. . leoma. leofesta... 3 pi.. leo}>ucraeftig. El. El. leoht. 285. leofra. nsm. 1123. 1300. ds. adj. adj. Hg. leohte. 20. leohte. El. 723. art leodmajga. prince: ns. l?gu. m. Ph. 32. i-leofen. leornedon. n. blaze. water: lecca)>.. lest. El. adj. dryht-. 397. 345. ns. 563. mpl. lie. 1048. 547. Ph. leohte. El. erable). leasllce. n. clearly. 7. vsm. 1017. El. leodscipe. Ph. leornian. El. 163. flaming: isn. unga. 66. leofspelle. 491. gracious: nsm. leger. 1045 n sn. leohtan. gladness: gs. 116. 689.. m. adv. effulgence: 116. fyrd-. mi. lefe. El.. g. leoda. l?ccan. song: m. ds. comp. I pi. W. 737. El. leasne. 1246. brightly: n. i 1036. lie: ns. Ph. leofne. legere. body: ns. deceptive: asm. El. 486. 523. El. Ph. d. hater of men: leodhatan. 94. glad news. 582. f. adj. See alesan. dear. gpm.. El. light: ns. 1294. leoht. counsel in song. El. see onleon. 522. active... El. 286. Ph. El. leofspel. m. 596. sg.. El. 661 joyous: ism. El. Ph. El. adj. 1251. 298. as. is. gs. 883. El. super. light: ns. W2. ns. lef. m. 1137. Ph. .. adj. 163 asf. 380.. El. El. wk. gp... 966. nsm.. El. 1300.GLOSSARY leas. 1123. 317. f. $ legen.. leasingum. Ph. El. see lttan. nsn. laes. 88.. El. f. El. leoflic. 948. see feorhl?gu. learning: El. 734. n. 203. collect. leoht.. leoS. countryman: leoScraeft. leg.. men. radiant. (Lat. 380. 890. np. 56. 191.. El. Ph. 272. leodfruman. m. leodmaeg.. glorious: 602. ap. clear: El. sigeleoS. leodgebyrgean. 508. 1206.. El. W. agile: Ph. message of love: ds. luminary: light. El. 92. beloved: Ph. leornungcraeft. Ph. wk. of poetry: See as. 307. El. El. n. lenctenne. n. asm. fiery. 1116. dp. 69. leasung.. 883. 5 . Ph. m.

fndelif. lixte. 137. adj. flame: ns. leomu. sg. war rior: liss. 88. locade. 737 np. El. f. 90. leofa>. locian. 604. lofhwaet. ds. Pn. 296.. m. 540. 3 pi. flame's Ph. m. inf. londe. See etc. tSeostorloca. El. . word: KgSracu.. see gelicnes. 142. lige- 50. El. 220. ligesearu. lying: nsm. 878. 486. 270. lifdaeg. lixeS. life. sse-. 1214. Ph. W. 513. 1116. 53. 56i. gp. rage: ip. hreSer-. dp. El. joy in life: lifwynne. n. m.. land: ns. El. 606. lig. live: 3 sg.. 367. 370. 381. as. ds. Hhtan. See leg. lichoman. llces. Ph. lygewordum. Ph. 622. . be at rest: 3 sg. 150. m. 75. Ph. loc. El. Ph. See unlifgende. Kfweard.. ds. 3 pi. 94. Ph. 191.. (8 times) . ligeS. sec gelimpan. lixan. ligesynnig. 489. El. Ph. 337. lifgaS. lisse Ph. n. lif don. 580. 3 sg.. 27. 125. 441 . 182. El. Kcnes. 307. -loga. 166. etc. 3 leofaS. f. Ph. lihteS. gp. 28. 270. 878 Ph. gs. 24. lixaS. is. Ph. El. 533. 187. 290. El. Ph.. 370. lifwyn. ligeword. m. Ph. onlic(e). 205. praise: 3 Ph. 39.. 3 sg. Ph. El. locan.. 575. Ph. Ph. n. burning. 883. El. pret. El. El. guardian of lifwearde.2OO 563. n. 587.. lice. 335- W. 268. deception: El. El. ds. Ph. lif- liSend. inf. El. adj. lifgende. El. lig]?raece. liSan. 596. 584. Ph. 70. ds.. W3. f. El. etc. Ph. 1046. pret. licgan. Ph. author of ns. 208. gs. IdcaS. day of El. Hffruma. 617. shine. El. 305. W2. life: ns. lonao". prison: ds. (9 times) 151. m. GLOSSARY Ph. 651. lif. 220 El. Ph. 1036. 268. El. El.. pi. 33. Ph. lofian. 212. glisten: . lofhwata... 526. W2. n. El. Ph.. as.. V. El. be pleasing: 517. ns. El. body: ds. . shine. pret. El. ds.. lie: ns. stronghold. 64. lyhteS. gs. landes. leomum. 311 . 434. geliSan. ecstasy: ds. 513 . Ph. El. i f. waeg- 672. see be-. 2 pi. 563. limb: np. Wi. limseoc.. 299 Pn. lof. in. falsehood. . lame: npm. as. wk. ns. fighting-man. as. 523.. Ph. n. 434. 661. 575. 20. 17. lige. limseoce. 181. lissa. ptc. see ge-. 3 sg. troop armed with lindwered. ligbryne. El. El. clasp: locum. -lic(e). look: 101 . 250. . land. abide:. 634. life: dp. 505. Ph.. limpan. n. lim. El. 1300. n. W2. Ph. Ph... 23. lifes. ds. 649. 999. 645. life: loca. lofe. shields: 664. leomu. W. keen for praise: nsm. 150. W.. Ph. gleam. 1271 . searwum. 262. Ph. 3 sg. ds.. ds. see waerloga. ap. ds. 225. lying 547. ^ Hgcwalu. as. (10 times). 666. 87. n. lindwigend. ip. fire's violence. 520. lixton.. give light: 3 sg. licm. El. m. fire: 577- 748. ap. dagum. lichoman. 1027. 899- adj. joy. 4535 ligcwale. fire.. Ph. . hearm-. 417.. liges. 218. El.. m. Ipnd. 1269. praise: 890 . 3 pi. 607 as. Ph. lindwigendra. life: Wi. ip. homan. 518. Pn. Ph.. fiery torment: ds. lifgan.. $ lindweorud. lige. 69. gs. See breost-. np. lixtan. lichgrna. lige. El. 676. lician. 116. Hchoman. El.

dsn. adj. lyhtan. msegen>rymme. m. more: El. 698. speak: pret.. W2. winemaeg. lystan. lygeword. 667. 817. lasting: nsm. pp. lyfte. 489. 61. Ipnge. floating in air: nsm. mseraS. few: a ns. maegena. ofer- m. 634. ns. maegeno'rym.. 340. riches of the world: ap. the 3 pl. nsm. mseran. 32. El. say. onlucan.. See cneo-. El. lyre.. El. gp. sec ligeword. wk. see wraecmaecg. . Wi. 1223. wind: heaven: 39. . see llhtan. maegenj>rymmes.. Igng. El. 1206. 796. leng. mjerum. Ph. 62. earth: gs. 3 sg. .. Wi. 347. mor-. Ph. time: gp. 665. 261 W. unite: . enclose. Ph. Ph. londwelan. nsn. strength. Ph. lufe. lungre. adj. knit together. 478. ns. loose. glorify. lucan. Ph. See host. 201 3 londa. El. lufan. great glory: is. Ph. wk. El. heah-. adv. fotmael. 537- lyftlacende. f. 970. lufu. n.. locen. Wi. eg-.. 664. ds. ma.. a little during. msegne. maere. 702. mseldon. ex tol: 3 pl. f. 2. might: rnaeg. longer. forthwith.. 508. adj. El. Ph. loss: ns. 142. 706. imme luste. lucis. 1248.. 225 El. El. sg. as. Ph. 63... 383. m. pleasant: 625 471 as. un-.. lythwon. maegencyning. kinswoman. 344. lysteS. ns. 101. adv. Ph. lytle. 264. troop: 283.lufiatS. El. Ph. dsf. See unlytel. pleasure. See brogden-. mjeran. El. leod-. while: El.. gsf.. Wi. Ph. power. El. 440. El. joy: . 150. lord of hosts: . few: as. lytlum. 1251. 233. 491. 960. m. II. See gelysted. lustum. 669.. more: comp. El. relative: ns. n. (Lat). lyt. Ph. f. wk. ma.. 735 heavenly host: gs. lyfte. 505.. El. Pn. 937. 340. ds. 948. . 434. maegen.. See lufian. W. 3 maelde. 138. gs. as. maela. leod-. El. celebrate. See be-. lang. 607. El. lysan. 55. Ph. lufaj?. ns. 351 _E1.GLOSSARY gp.. little: wynlgnd. 52. El. dsm. as. 734. asn. f. masran. long: nsn. 123. lyfte. f.. adv. El. love: ns. maegene. 432. asm. 80. Ph. lyfan. lufu. mael. adj. mserne. 5975 3 lufsum. 368. 900. 481. lange. 138. glorious: nsm. inf. londes. 316. Ph. 793. sky. Ph. is. see a-. 629. longne. Ph. . 1293. Ph. desire: sg. ip. ig-. 272. maeran. lust. air: ds. 165. El. El. inf.. wk. ds. Ph. 1271. Ipndwela. m. eorl-. . 702. El. adv. 242. m. 330.. 810 . El. light: 26 maegen. 564. adj. feor-. maegnes. long: 602. El. lytel. 338. W. 907. El. El. . See alysan. M. set: maecg. Ph.. 53.. El. 864. 723. longa. El. 30. lufan. h?re-. El. siblufe. El. lufe. El. El. n.. El. 672. 408 is. gs. El. See diately: El. 987. maslan. See nihtlgng. love: pl. El. maegn. 633 asm. n. 576. 1119. n. lyft. eSel-. lux. See ea-. love: as.. gelyfan. short time. 555 en . release: 296.

El. wk. 499. 323 dpn. 134. Ph. El. 872. sin: gs. manigfeald.. 573 3 pi. men. mancynn. many: nsm. 635. . 626. 258. ds. 735. npn. . 173. 990. 609. Marian. Ph. maximus. wk. . greatest. . manf r?mmende. see unmaete. 2 i pi. any one: ns. Ph. adj. pr. 1291. 347. maSelian. El. El. 466. adj. 979- mon)?waere. manifold: Pn. 501 apm. 4. 735. 448.. El. monnes. nsi manSwasre. be able: i sg. El. m. nsn. Ph.. miraculous deed: El. maSmas. guilt. 231. manweorc. See freamaere. ma>elade. sg. ap. meahton. manna. super. n. El. custom: kind: dp. nsm. 14. as. maertSa. m. maete. adj. manfremmendum. mon- monncynnes. 323. opt. 170. mserSum. Ph. 632. 7H. Mary: d. gp. Ph. Ph. mandaed. 179. 176. . El. 1233 . maeg. 1013. wk. Maias. adj . harangue: pret. El. wicked. El. Ph. 457. 31. . Marian. mongum. Ph. 644. 3 sg. number of men: El. pr. 66. . man. opt. sg. Ph. El. see gemang. 627. person: ns. marmstan. Pn. 119. sinful. 128. 611. maerost. 214. El. El. 70. see meSel. address. 812. meahton. 496. manrim. 544. asf.. man. mannes. 1017 . May: 1229. 15 monegum.. dpm. 377. El. 15. 448. Pn. 807. 477. El. . mankind: cynnes. 705 . maSum. Ph. Ph. is. Ph. El. pret. maege. El. 702. . maest. 583. glory. manweorcum. 561 2 meaht. mannum. 1317. 594. i manigum. marble: marm- mana. 491 npn.. 903. 573. adj. 930. El. Pn. Pn.. monige. monigfealde. 3 sg. a. El. monge. 1225 apn. 50. 1229. monigfeald. $ adj. 160. El. one. . 166. 333. meahte.. meahten. 472 ip. El. El. man. np. f. n. 3 pi. manSeaw. 581. pret. magon.. 358. devil: maersiaS. manes. 1312.. known: W2. El. 617. 467 mon. evil-doing: npf. 358. . 907. El. -mang. El. evil deed: manvs. adj. El. El. (Lat). n. 6. evil.. 511 113. 1176. maeSel. monna. maeg. 3 sg. f. W2. can. evil 3 sg. npm. 521 . 18. dp. see gemah. . 3 pi. magon. Pn.. 443. wicked: dsm. ap. gp. ds. Ph. 2. monge. n. El. m. 64 655. El. magon. stane. manig.. Maria... El. maerost. 422. Ph. renown: gp. 1177.. apn. El. 324. maerSu. . El. 942. 1178. 1159. celebrate: 3 pi. El. sinful.. El. 685. pret. 243. maSelode. 1242 . 243 gs.. 157. prp. 404. 650. 633.. . nsmn. El. Ph. pron. dasde. 16. maeran. El.. manegum. 3 sg. 588. treasure: ap. 775. Ph. 582. 660. El. as. maSelade. maeran. 626. maege. m. 770. 332. meahte. Ph. | n. 1259. 871. El. monig. El. speak. ma}>elode. 970. dpm. 326. i pi. Ph. magan. man>eawum. El.GLOSSARY 1223 1064. see micel.. 677. El.. m. gs. manfrea. El. pi. El. manrime. El. 755man. El. i 33. asn. maersian. Maius. 860. mane. manegum. wicked lord. Ph. man. 660 asn. Ph. -man. . Pn. 1296.

exhausted. 461. wk. 176. 3 . God: 358.. 1259. El. V. mearcian. 597. Ph. meare. great: nsm. judgment: prayer: ds. 596 . dsm. mengo. adj. 1000. Ph. 196. gs. 986. . See gemetan. Ph. 462. Meotud. Ph. meaht(-). meledeawes. food: adj. Ph. see y6m?re. mycle. mycsuper. El. El. Creator. province: 233ap. 422. El. meet. 260. assembly-room. Ph. El. sea-path.. Ph.. ns. 977. 524. as. m?teleas. 102. adj. maest. meledeaw. ip. 698. confound. meSel. 812. m. merit: inf. El. micla. 618. 474. warder of the W. 432 . 457. 1176. grand: nsf. Ph. vs. 306. Ph. see onmedla. 189. Ph. 471. sg. 819. 986. metton. El. El. El. indicate: See 3 pi. metan. El. Metudes. 564. m.. honey-dew: gs. ds. 242. metaC. W. medu. sea: ds. Meotude. 1043. ds. 381. (Lat. 10 . asf. 366. miclan. 6. Ph. 538. dsm. mseste. find: pret. 426. El. disconsolate:' nsm. 1318. ds.. asf. Metude. 260. Ph. 612. El. maist. 993. pp. El. council. 408. El. f. Meotod. maet. m?nnisc. see eaSmede. medo- meSe. 443. n. 617. assembly: Ph. See hejemeSel. meSum. f. 3 pi. 3 3 pi. Ph.. guerdon: meorde. wk. flood: n?restraet. nejeflod. super. see Meotud. human: asn. mycle. Ph. betrayer. gpm. i mejeweard. See sae-. See ametan. Wi. sea: ns. El. meSle. 472. El. see amfrian. 225. 554. deliberating: adj. 3 sg. mseste. apm. El.. m?ngu. See g?mengan. 55. meSelhegende. El. counseling. 698. confuse: inf. El. ds. see gemetfaest. Meotudes. 44. mseste. measure. meldan. 6. maeSle. Lord. W. El. gemearc. 593. 377. Ph. ds. apn.. Ph. ipf. maxima. El. El. horse: ns. miserable. 279. ism. 668. meted. 420. adj. 546. El. El. Meotodes. . traverse: pret. as. mead-hall: healle. see fyrst-. media. melda. 35. ns. . El. without food: nsm. ds. 1193. Wi. 428. road through mearcpaSu. Ph.GLOSSARY mightiest: 670. El. Metud. 625 . mearc. 333.. W. meord. W2. Ph. Ph.. vb. nsn. maest. mearh. m. El. Metud. mejra.). m?ngan. El. mede. mearcpaeS. 42. lum. 660. meagol. 47 mycel. 116. El. 1263. informer: npm. meSle. 53. f. metan. mette. El. medoheal. myclan. m. 167. see eaSmedu. a El. 203 m. n?re.. meritare. see rniht(-). wk. crowd. 274. 612. Ph. micel. lum. El. mearciaS. msest.. El. see gemetgian. metgian. multi tude: 871 as. 735. El. 247. isn. company. 338. ism.. m. adj. m. me)>le. gemearcian. 833. powerful: meag- median. nsm. 984.. designate. El. ySmearh... -metfaest. nsf. f. m. El. asf. El. much. . 686.. 31 nsf. menigo. numerous: super... mte. 786. n. council-chamber: El. 646. isn.. meSelst?de... ns. merestrjete. El.

greatly: myclum. 163 . El. power of mind: Ph. See ael-. 622. minne. El. 1263. 1177. Ph. 494. 538 . wk. adj. 249. 665. 656. 10 538. with. 149. El. 275. El. 462. W.. as. nsn. dsm. 436. mistglome. gum. in hwaetheart as gp. 88. n. 215. mid. mildan. wk. mine: nsm. Ph. Ph. 366. ful: El. El. dpf. El. power: as.(?). El. mode high Ph. 176. 9 mode. 640. 1085. with. among: . El. meahtum. mine. 157. ds. adv.. prep. modcraeft. 454. ace. dpm. 775. 1043. 6.. might. middum. meahtig. 31. merci . 262. isn. midle. nsm. minum. Ph. geomor268. 553. modig. m. together (to?). asn. 528. 1263. gloom: secret: middangeard. adj. together with: Ph. is. 160. 864. thought modgej'anc. 810.. 1296. misty 47. 1070. 543. Ph. 610. El. mine. Ph. 535. 9. spirited. meahtiga. El.. El. 15. heah-. I. 1193. besides: Ph. 1068 adj. vsf. asm. Ph. 529. miht. (on a bridle) dp. mercy: as. El. 942. bit n. 16. adj. heart: El. modgeSanc. gentle: asm. 584. mine. 563 438. 44. valiant. n. modblind. f. 1193. meahte. Ph. 629. 79. 408.. 310. Ph. 822. 916. 457- adj. 854. middangeardes. 577. Ph. 840. El. dpn. mirce. mm. El. 786. El. 1163. 583. 1176. 28.. . mitem. El. El. 727. pron. 434. by: 297. meaht. El. W. (Lat). 483. fore-. Ph See an-. 138. 674. 1203. dark. mihta.. . 930. glaed-. 65. Ph. mid. E mihtig.. m. 840. midst of: dsf. dpm. dat. 657. dsn. 707. minum. minum. milpaeS. Ph. as. El. pa5as. mil- also. 446. as. nsm. minum. El.. 523. apf.. 640. adv. gs 597. w. 714.. heart. minra. apm. earth. mode Pr. 349. 337. 737 . inmost mild. 903. Pr. Pr. 10. 990. gracious. 119. 621. 657. 340. 407. m. as. conceal. 844. milde. 865. 560 W. mihtum. El. meahta. 5. 891.. 907. 447. as. Ph. brave: gpm m. memory: ns. 1233. 105. f. mighty: nsm. 345.. 680. wit: W. 817. See bemiSan. gpm. werigmod. El. reonig-. El. 517.. 377. 8. mile-path: ap. 340. 28. Pn. GLOSSARY 876. 1043. mldlum. 821. El. 1317 dsm. spirit: ns. 681. or inst. 31 .. 677. intel ligence. asf.2O4 miclum. ip. El. adj. mihtiga. 377. milts. mihte. apf. 647. Ph. mine. 499- modgemynd. 617. mind. deor-. ap. 1242. 511. 1223. m. El. : modes. with. 819. 1 100. 1064. 918. Ph. 4. Ph.. 535. as. with: w. Pn. 381. E Ph. 1082. blind npm.. 31.. with. 918.. W. keep El. ds. tirmihtig. miltse. 70.. mod. | mistglom. 1067. El. 471 8. middle: ds. 805. El. Ph. 42. Ph. 3. middel. 3 ma. 554.. midl. m. miSan. El. modigra. Ph. 597. 1123. at: 328. El. 323. tmidd. 6. El. gleaw-. middle. i. 843. 306. . world: gs. vsm. 23. 532. El. 496. 501. 377. El. sg. El. mitis. 1178. El. 295. Ph. El. 92. modblinde. El. pret. El. hearted: nsm. 1242. 471. mild. El. 33. 584. 1099. Ph. 558. adj. Ph. gloomy: middre. Ph. 998. my. 1025. 742.

pret. motan. Ph. naman. 3 pi... El. Ph. 06 1 . remind: 3 sg. N. 564.. gs.. . see manig. grave: ds. naenig. 16. monao 1 .. El. ment: ds. pron. El. 1307. 516. modigra. modga. Pn. 66. morSorhofe. 538. m. El. remember: myndgia}?. 470. 1134. imon(-). naeglas. see wesan. 626.. Ph. decay: nad. n. gpm. 1293. 51.. 650. morlond. gs. nales. morgenspel. n. see wesan.. monig. El. myndig. see gemot. 1115. n. 505. Ph.. moldweg. m. n. El. Ph. 413. as. El. 66 . 61. mosmote. mind: sefan. El. morSorsleht. f. 1303. naefre. molde. 175 opt. Pn. 1086. 6 . . . El. naman. 55. is.. sec agan.. pret. El. noble: 205 . W2. asm. moldan. mother: ns. naedre. Moyse. 81 . naegel. 361. m. 190. motun. El. Ph. 13. 503. 1109. earthy dwell ing: ds. noman. morning news: ns. Ph. El. 670. not at El. 397. mund. El. 338. 505. 428.. modas. El. 586. myndgian. noma. 916. Ph. land. as. 3 pi. 778.. f. W. see ge-. pi. heart. El. mouth: as. Pr. 567np. motan. anv. See hildenaedre. grave. 433 86. 43. mosten. 1103. ton.. W. 832. Ph. 262. 3 pi. i pi. 668. adv. 876. El. n. 1158. m. El. 3 pi. n. 1283.. 388. grafum. name: 1 El. 1315. W. 564. 468. nsn.. nan.. g. 559... -r.. naegla. 214. molsnian. pron. 524. wege. serpent: gs. 465. ap. f. Ph. pp. El. sorrow: munt. El. 260. 383. 21. El. I pi. gp. 906. Ph. m. W. np. 3 sg. 942. ds. El. moton.GLOSSARY wk. may: 3 sg. nsm. Ph. f. 657. see gemyltan. a. 970. mountain: muntas. dp.. mor- 1128. mynga]?. Ph. El. El. moten. W. 612. 818. 437. El. 433. naeglum. naesse. m. . modsefa. moldmoldgraef. naeglas. 436. moldan. 730. moldaern. punish El. none: nsm. earth: gs. month: mon]?a. 283. El. Ph. mynde. see gemynde. no one. 148. lorSorhof. none: nsm. El. 1173. notan. f. myltan.. 359. W2. all.. m. monSwaere. hand: mundum. mynd. see man(-). 1065. mot.. sec gemyndig. El. 53- moldan. gsm. nahton. 337. 366. 496 land: as. Ph. 1079. motan. njedran. never: nail: El. ds. slaughter: by no means: nalles. m. Ph.s. cliff: ds. modor. n.. modigne. 333. W2. nama. na. weortSmynd. moorland: gs. not. gp. murder: sin: morSres. 174. 786. dp.. Ph. n. as. as. 660. muS. El. i El.88. see manSwaere. moldserne. 449. moldan. morSres. Moyses. Ph. 1078. nainges. 1253. 88 moton. 756. place of naes. El. ns. 38. morSorslehtes. 467. Ph. pr.. see witan. Ph. modsorge. 78.. El.. Moses: d. 340. no one. ip. El. naere. morSor. noman. nat. adv. m.659. earth: ds. 10. grief. moldmols- myngian. 418. 750. 530. El. 1005. modsorg.

by night: 198. 451. Ph.. exactly: El. nioSoweard. etc. 22. dp. nihta. narrowly. See Sreoniht. plot: as.. 78. Nazareo 913. adj. as. ns. 498. some one: El. paradise: inf. darkness: ns.. nemnan. night: 1158. nearu. El. 15(2). Ph. np. embarrassment: nearwe.. lasting El. Pn. .. 1233. ge- 676. El. Ph. 1103. Ph. narrow 711. f. 870.. (49 times). perplexity. 62. ap. El. 1065. nearusorg. Nergendes. 1078. 20. ninth: nsf.. nemne. steep.. ds. ns. Ph. the night: 67. obscurity: Nerigend. 1240. El. 14. for-. El. 799. 361. deep: neolum. 447. neol- (43 times) Ph. 413. 189. Ph. . El. 227.397 J m. 1261. ds.. nime. (21 times) ne. that: except save See bi-. 432. 874. as. opt. See genegan. neste. cee nearu-. n?bb. call by name: Ph. II. neowe. 1276. El. n. gs. depth. neighborhood. 260. neawest. nearollcra.. pr. nihtlangne. 63. nean. 78. adv. 81. 559. nemned.. neol. 89. Wi. adj. beneath: El. V. go to. 485. 756. gpm.206 nathwylc. device. see geneahhe. El. El. ds. nearwe. cell: El. (n times) . W.. 1 niman. 461. f. 299. nihthelm. nigoSe El. nsm Ph. Ph.. 3. adv. 1 . Ph. seise: IV. nerian. survive: inf. 578. neoSan. pron. 832. ii . 1115. see willan. nemde. concealment. etc.. El. 67. 1279. snatch away. 78. tightly: El. nest: ds. Saviour. Ph. 384. ds. 469. neoj>an. nigoSan. desire: ns. 357. neorxnawang. W. 615. 1115. . f. 380 n?mnan. Ph. See that. 25. Ph. 657. 3 sg. n. ne.nesta. 215 553. night-long.. see gen^rian. 503. El. conj. asf. Ph. neru. f.. etc. see feorhn?ru. 943. adj. ds. adv. dsm. El. adv. neither. El. El. El. near: El. neolnes. uneasiness: El. sec nyd. 483. neah. 192. is. nihtum. 465. 478.. nearo-. El. vicinity: gp. 3 sg. n. 262. etc.. m. f. 221. address. d. inf. speak to: El.. El. nellan. geniman.. nearwe. Deliverer: 1086. abyss: nesse. neob?d. take. 326. El. Ph. 189. conj. 287. 66. oppressive: nearulic. 1195. bill: ns. name. El. crushing sorrow: as. neorxnawgng. neosan. nihtes. adv. as. ned. Wi. neotan. nimeS. 694. 240. m. 147. 1060. nearwe. Ph. Wi. nearusorge.. distress. beak.. nihtlgng.. asm. gP. Ph. . El. adj.. nor: El. 149. 152. 1173.. 3 sg. 73- GLOSSARY nsm. 874.. 1228. nesan.. negan. pp.. El. neahhe. n. 299. Nazareth: 28. El Ph. 307. El. niht. 167. not: El. n. see mwe. nest. adv.. below: niojjoweard. grievously: neat. . visit: See geneosian. 53 j nearusearu. inf. deathbed: as. El. 2. adj.. 1240. nemnao pret. El. W. Ph. f. 432. 913. Pn. 1004. 98. nigoSa. Ph nearwe. Ph. 1109. cattle: f. 14. neaweste. 553 neod. Nfrgend. El. Ph. 397 3 pi. nearusearwe. enjoy: Pn... from near: sufficiently: El.

W. 259. oferhlifaS. 309. 109. 66 1. 403. at tack: gp. n. nyton. f.. Ph. . Ph. 1115. 324. 657.. 9iS. El. nydcleofa. 331. superior power. 1171. now: El. El. Sreanyd. 913.. -niSla. 89. 6. see edniwinga. 1302. 4. El. 448. El. need. 303. sec hasft-. 115. 431. 1061. 1086. Ph. 50. ds. 207 man. El. hatred. m. 232. 13". 157. mSa. 590. 702. 385. niSer. asm. El. 295. prison. 13. 70.. Ph. 313. 195. across: yond. El. 289. 534. 451. Sovereign. not at all. Ph. pp. 1017. adj. adv. 197. lii. 981. adv.. }>earfe. 400. see witan. 181. 870. : Ph. ni>a. always: a. 482. from : the norths norjjan. Wi. 918. W. lu. 64. 762. f. upon: against: El. person: 503. ni>. nij>re. 31. El. Oferwealdend. great need: 521. 413. over: Ph. 72. El. ns. 66. 832. 905. W2. 469. furnace: gs. 1303. asn. by no means: Ph. oo. of stum. over. sec nama. shore: ds. renew: See gemwian. 230. above. conj. wk. 1103.. . m. W. 700. 406. wk.GLOSSARY niS. ns. Pn. 815.. f. etc. nedcleofan. 269. 337. adv. 373. 233. 881. lorSan. 266 (n. 49.. El. since: El. Pn. ds. El. 159.. ofnes. 604. haste: ip. nIS. niwe. 845. niwe. 515. El. now: El. 297. niwan. inf. 411. Ph. of re. surpassing: that. stern in fight: W. El. ofer- ydSearf. 25. W.. . niwigan. 9. (28 times) 583. Pn. prep. 1276. 474. El. ds. 28. 7335 w. Ph. El.. 1305 122. ofest. i. below: 648. gp. O. (niwan stefne. iotS.. 103. Ph. 250. 996. then(l) El. Ph.?) . 434. 1201. El. 447. as. neowne. 65. 432. El. see benugan. gp. 736. m. m. 121. 255. El. adv. 388. 400. 75. nsm. See unoferswrSed. 588. see m6er. 803.. prey (?) as. W. ofer. 465. from: w.. nydcleofan. oferswISan. 711 (2).. niSheard. niwan. 715. 470. 1087.. 539. 1128 w. 958. 440. El. of. of. 244. asm.. 174. below: nij>er. 202. ace. See edniwe. 93. El. edge. 38.. $eow-. Ph. malice: ni>. dat.. 943. m. be Ph. 195. enmity. dat. yd. down. niwan. f. dungeon: 711 . oferhllfian. W2. 780. now Ph. no>e. prep. 330. out of. 1178. 641. El. 1023. 997. 927. 372. 234. overcome: oferswlSestS. 321. wk. 118. Ph. Ph. adj. 267. El. 55.. necessity: nydj>earfe. 372. anew). W. nySer. as. ier. Ph. 498. 233. 349.. 1135. brave in fight. niSa. isf. ofer. 838. 80. Lord: El. 1289. 239. no. 794. niSSa. see genrSla. ysse. 118. 282. dsf. feud: as. El. adv. Ph. 45. niSre. mgan. 941. 780. 2 sg. See awa. 249. 1236. 186.. 249. 101. 28. never. dsm. 62. 187. 983. ofermsegene. 81. Ph. 1133... nlwinga. 1083. 210. El.. 6. nia. adv. 635. oferswiSedne.. ex ceeding might: ds.. new: nsm. 237. 1113. El. 74. 158. over: El. oferSearf.. ever.. after: El. nyste. ofermaegen. 1226. of en. El. aoma. inf. throughout: El. 42. m. 838. 480. rise above: 3 sg. adv.

on sg onettan. 192. upon. 573. El. Ph. 3 sg. 455. inflame: onseled. . 217. 696. adv. 468. . El. 610. 503. W. 713. 1164. El. Pr. GLOSSARY ofestum. of etc. 850. Wi. 41. III. relinquish: oncwaeS. on. n. Pn. pret. 286. (39 times) Ph. ond. ginnetS. turn El. Ph. prep. 55* $ gncorrap.. . 6. in is Ph. in. 550.) 143: move Ph... 237. in that text.. 1000. to: El. receive: fehg. 1095 inbryrded. 108. Ph. El. 3 sg. (17 times) Pn. 667. inf. 50. Ph. El. 386. Pr. ongean. Ph. El. 828. aside: El.. 188. 246. change: oncyrde. Pr. 426 . 961.. ongin. 303. 567 anc 1002 (cf. Ph. etc. 725. 1253. Ph. dat. 306. gam: 3 sg. 1046. 1213. 503. prep. etc. dat. etc. anchor: ip. with: w. 1033 1128. prefix and-. oncneow. 301. onbrygdeS. 11. 64. 97. Wi. inspire: . times. 36. 638. 51. El. at: Ph. Pr. (44 times) 21. Ph. 108. 12. 842. 244. 73. ofgiefan... 1094. 225. 278. 669. stand. pret. breviation the ab uniformly so printec 30. Ph. ofgifan. 578. 77. 75 (intr. imp. up: lift. and: 931. on Ph. El. 682. Wi. 186 13 times. 216. 67.. onbryrdan. inf. inf. 14. by.. Pn. ofgiefeS. 4. 395. W. 362. Ph. oncySig. 192. Pn. inf. 28. pncor. onbryrded. onfengon. 533. III. 490. unbind. 471. ace. 12. sup. ignorant: nsm. 225. upon: El. 484. 2. devoid: nsm. pp. take.. 126. see ongitan. pret. 159 onfeng. often: 513. 39. Wi. adj. 3 sg. 1210. 30. oliccan. beginning: Ph. 87. pp.208 44. III. 98. fruit: is. feng. however which also usually occurs as 7 is found in andswarc. W. hasten: 3 35. ofstlice. avert. m. times n ond thu occurs the (146 times) . 3 sg. 3 sg. 25.. twice. 224. w. on. inf 3 sg. 384. 3 sg. El. 3 pi. El. 190. El. Ph. 261. pret.. but in the others a 10. cable: ip.. El. V. 3 sg. onbraegd. 412.. 11. hastily: 1197. Ph. 96. 22. 570. 238. ofet. 1205. among: Ph. 27. 645.. rd. hawser. 160. in.. ' adv. recog under pret 3 sg. 921. etc. pret. oftost. 335 onfehS. m. W.. 54. ongan. 1148. on on onbindan. w. 34. 311. kindle. . pret. rd. pret. 966. 951 . loose: 3 sg. ongyn perceive: onginnan. otherwise the word occurs in the manuscripts always as 7 . please: inf. 91 43 ongen with: El. conj. fear: drald. 252. begin: 3 sg. 1156. oft. El. n. Ph. start . onetteS. El. ondraedan. 99 times. ns. 2 pi. 14. 2p oncweSan. 984. 609. 1167. 70. 74. V. El. 157. 40. sg. 935. Ph. against: El towards: Ph. into. El. answer: ongunnon. V. on. onginnat El. 63. 1250. W. El. 3 sg. forsake. 901. 52. . nize: elate. Because Elene. oncyrran. onfon. The so printed. Wi. $ onbregdan. 81. 67. acknowledge. El. before . onslan. 10$ oncyrrapum.. 324. 84. 970) and is uniformly and. El. onband.. ongietan. oncnawan. W. 433. 238.. 26. 977. 102. W. El. E 198. oncrum. 1141. Ph... 231. 442.

pret. onsyne... onwrige. Ph. gs. guiltless: asm. 1124. 1266. 209 3 sg. onmedla.GLOSSARY ongitan. or- onspannan. El. 506. ontynan. t reEl. open: 3 sg. beginning: ds. onsawen. 58. El. El. despise: pret. onsion. Wi. 3 pi. El. 63. El. 648. 1250. Ph. sg. onsend. 20. Ph... re onguldon.. nsf. ace. 573. 746 349-" face: . El. grant. oS. 1249. onwindan. El. 1230. in like man pret. onhlidan. courage: Wi. 490. pride: rd. El. m. 5Ve also onsyn. learn. 370. 99. 600 oSeawed. discover: pp. El. 212. adv. hseted. El. 464. 1155. ns. onlucan. pret 3 3 sg. 235. Wi. pp. ontynde. or)>oncum. adj. recog nise: 3 pi. ongita)>. know. other: nsm. Wi. well-known: far-famed. unlock. Ph. imp. veal: t pret. III. nsn. 140. 3 pi. onsund. evident. ip. bestow: onlag. open: asf. El. 1089. f. Ph. m. dsm. sg. ord. III. 49. El. 589. onhyrded. 47.. onspringan. I. . 509. pp. 82. onsawan. wk. see ongin. 136. ordfrum- 120. Ph. unlock: pret. 647. power: ns. ongit. open.. lack. 398. 68. appear. prep. m. on- open. onwald. onscunedon. Ph. El. I. 2 pi. revealing: onlice. onwreon. . pay the penalty. Ph. W. ontyned.. 423. spear: as. Ph.. 2 sg. pron. disclose. send: onsendan. see geopenian. El. El. like: super. openan. El. reveal: ontynet). 3 sg. sg. plain: nsm. shun.. El. El. 312.. cpenian. onhyrdan. 322. pret. Ph. n. sow: pp. "813. inf. open: 86. onweald. otSywan. 3 offer: organ: adj. 304- spring up: onspringaS. be manifest: pp.. 44. 423. 359.. 6. change: ignite: on- Wi. flourishing: pi. oo. art: ip. onspeon. 841. Ph. nsm. 12. 3 onwand. onhyldan. organan. all- licost.. El. quite: 410. ongyn... pp. 1246. ongyldan. El. Pn.. El. 288. author: ds.. oncnaewe. El. El. ns. Ph. 55. onsion. onleac. declare. Ph. 674. onsende. Wi. open: pp.. Ph. understand: imp. pp. W2. rise again. 393. nsm.. unscathed: f. Ph. onw?ndan. onleon. until: w. dsn.. Ph. El. pret. till. 229. yield up: an. El. m. 480. 253onscunian. See also anwalda. 53. 343 . Ph. 870. 242. El. 590. pret. Ph. revive: 3 sg. pret. orde. scyldne. orscylde. bow: onhylde. ns. El.. 1187. ordfruma. strengthen. 3 sg. . onsyn.. El. adj. similarly.. El. orSanc. See onlic. 1099. m. 3 sg. Wi. oSeawan. 6Ser. ongiten. onwrige. Wi. onhaetan. adj. pret. onwaecnan. 312. organa. onwrah. onwrigen. oSrum. 1072 inf. on- wended.. 663. Ph.. 3 sg. 139. Ph. 590. ordum. sg. 3 El. V. Ph. II. see onsyn. rd. Ph. 1243. onhliden. 1251. 1257. as. chief: ons?ndan. onwsecneo".. El. ds. ner: El. pp. en opt. III.. nsm. 1254. want: Ph. sg. adj. I. pret. f.

6}rum. 233 . oSywan.. Ph. See ger?ccan. See fly away: hasten El. m. 3 pi. 919. El. shield: ns.. 3 sg. 6}>re. power: ns. o$6aet. Wi. wk.. see freondraeden. n. Ph. oSfleogeS. $ oSscufan. reord. 141. renes. Ph. inf. sf. 28. oSerne. rseste. m. See swonrad. pron. sorrowful.GLOSSARY oSrum. m. (Lat. asm. m. reonigmode. adj. Ph. see mearc-. reonigmod.. wise: npm. counsel: ap. conj. El. giver: ns. pret. 676. counsel. raefnan. 975. 59 o6>aet. o>e. W2. pr. suffer: Ph. 941. n. 982. Wi.. reanan. raeswa. 55 . 420. 168. 869. journey: ds. El. El. 151. as. $ot5fleogan. exhort: oSfaestan. raedas. or: 74. ojjrum. 36. asn. El. El. W. 571- 3 sg. 834. explain. dis El. 49. see h?reraeswa. raedend. Paul: peace: ds. perennis. 866. wisdom: W.. 312. 477. 55. El. 69. See unraed.. owiht. raedan. pax. 928. 643. El. plegade. Pn. pea. Wi. adj. otSeawan. El. 634. sec deaftraeced.. and: display. Pn. stir up: also rserdon. f. paeS. 3 sg. away 886. advise. 508. unceasing: perenne. rador(-). raeste. dpf. raeran. a-.. El. 159.. (from) o)?J?3et. see waelreaf. 36.. Ph. pret. reonig. raSe. plunge: inf. Wi. plega. cil: f. is. rain: ns. melody: reorde. El. plegean. 23. 246. raest. smoke: Wi. rsedge)>eaht. El. reaf. 50. f. panther: ns. ap. gs. El. 12.. inf. downcast: npm. rec. rd. 540. -reaht. 670. 504. P. + panSer. 14. place for rest: as. -raeden. R. 166. El. Ph. oSywde. f. asf. Paulus. dpm. 553. Pn. weal: W. 3 pi. 1023. see sundplega. El. El. 23. rap. ren.. sad: nsm. El. 1114. reccen. see hraSe. -red. milpaeS. raeced. 24. being wise. )>eahtende. 347. See araeran. until: raedgeSeaht. 3 sg. W. peacock: gs. raedSeahtende.. reonigan. 281. : 3 sg.. f.. rade. npn. adj. (Lat. 484 W. beraedan. anything: El. kingdom: regna. 1009.).. reord. P . -raede. Ph.ccan. gs. show: See 163. dsn. 804. 443. adj. m. inflict: II. pandher. wisdom: coun Ph. expedition. foresight. fit. El. 449. as. m. abl. 1162. . El..). rad. inf. 346. see geraede. oSscufeS. 56. 263. raise. expound: 553 . m. 806. El. rsedes. 1052. 245. 363. thought. 795- pean. El. r?stan. Pn. 6>re. Ph. rest: gs. II. 300. pret. regnum. see rodor(-). 156. inf. pacis. see gereaht. See geolorand. 320. clap: pret.. Pn. El rid.. conj.. Ph. cernment. 954. Pn. as.. move. re. opt. counsel. 672. El. El. rsed- oSSe. see daegred. see oncorrap. rsedge^eaht. See waelr?st. El. raedum. see bereafian.. El. bene dp. (Lat). sad.. El. 1083. .. 284. ns. taking Ph. rand. n.

number: gs. rinc. See unriht. is. 13. 411. rume. 1235. El. 40. ap. heatSo-. ge-.. king of heaven: gs. El. mourn: 3 sg. Rom. 463. . ds. rice. . 1241. 1151. 634. ricsian.. rincas. 14. gu3-. 3 sg. rightly. El. 887 orcyninges. adj. risan. 206. 880. 631. Pr. . ryhte. 664. El. 14. ridan. cry: 3 pi. El. adj. 50. at once: 607. riht. hilderinc. 449. El. 3 pi. rode. 1083. Ph. 1012. El. El. 494. 206. 856. roda.. 1023. El. law: 372. 1075 El. Ph. 917. Ph. 40. heofon-. El. as. doom: ae-. El. El. see unrime. 219. rihte. rad- 434- orum. 887. ride: pret. 129.. See fully: 553. nsm. Rome. El. 1241 . rices. nsm. n. 550. 482. 632. ryht.. See as-. 10. . El. El. . El. 46. right: gs. extensive. . El.. Romwarena. 919. 566. sky : ns. cross. 46. Ph. reordber- (man) endra. ds.GLOSSARY 128. pp. II. reoteS. Wi. gallant: aesc-. Ph. reordian.. account. m. m. 624. rad- El. 2. El. 1224. 601. rodera. number: as. as. Romans: n. rihtfr?mmende. -rist. Rome: g. true: asf. see ger^stan. 820. 1067. ds. ap. 405. El. 869. rihte. 59. El. rices. El. 834. 417. Ph. Ph. woruldrlce. 59. nsf. roderum. El. f. speak. 9. ?llen-. be mighty. 1235 482. ns. El. 664 dp. heaven. 631. 623. El. 917. Ph. region: rice. reordode. 211 El. 1235. 880. rimes. See gum-. n. 1075. 156. 982. 50. El. as. instantly. reordade. 910. ip. El. rule: 'opt ricsie. g. rimtalu. weep. rihta. 762. wk. 281. El. Ph. sigerof. . See wiSreotan. adj. El. El. equity. gereord. rimtale. 1052. 62. see aerist. as. manrlm. asm.. El. reordberend. stretching: npm. . : 338.. 13. 369. El. gs. hero: El. truth: as. adv. Pn. rodor. empire: gs. I. as. valiant.. 103. 147. 390.. rodorcyning. Romware. n. rices. 46. riht. discourse. rum. 973. reordiaS. ryhtfremmende. reotan. rime.. El. truth adj. 664.. rihte. 795 . rod. 663 ryhte. m. super. 632. El. r?st. pr. 1282. Ph.. 1067. 13. rlmde. riman. El.. 3. speech endowed with gpm. El. esteem as: npm. say: pret. adv. gp. El. 1023. 774. 804. El. Ph. faeSm-. wk. See beadu-. restan. mighty. El. powerful: El. kingdom: El.. W2. 631. rodora. 62. see arisan. ricesta. gs. dominion: 147. justice: ryhte. 9. ds. inf. 1231 .. roda. El. 1282. n.. spacious. f. adj. as. El. 284. victory: ns. 3. W2. 1162. as. adj. El. . as. is. 1073. 3 sg. royalty: See fyrd-. reordum. gp. 601. 624. un pr. right. rood: 720. El. See dogor-.. rode. ricene. El. 856 gp. rim. 643 774. uprodor. 919. rof. See suS-. rodorcyninges. . 460. rihtes. El. Ph. gs.. El. righteous: npm. radores. sway. Romwara. rime. 820 rode. El. wide- rihte. El. n. 982. power: ns. riht. rofne. exactly. El. gs. realm. 147. warrior. as. ridon. 635 Pn. rice.. see raest.

asf. waelrun. Wi. sawlum. affliction: El. sael.. np. wifisacan. 523 . ryman. as. gs. see burgsael. 194. m. 1031. sJelde. n.. Swa some. sea-weed: gp. Saulus. m. f.. ip. see saeryric. 1066. Sachius. sselum. samod. sacu. saes. cause to set: Ph. 56. happiness: dp. 795. 653. rune. grievous: sare. saewaroS. Ph. See and-.. El. expanse: ds. 1262. as.. 253. rumran. 3 tie. m. Ph. 246.. palace: 552. El. sarwrsece. -ryne. Ph. sawla. 799. npm. El. ap. Ph. Saul: g. see spng.. See geruma. Salo- ryric. n. . Ph. El.. (Lat). El. ds. See ds. 941.. 95- somod. adv.. El. m. sea. 461.. tribulation: saefisc. grievous: seed: m. ds. El. see geryman. n. mischief. 343. sacerdhad. Ph.. backward. sang. sarwracu. as. ns. sanctus. 251. sse- waroSe. El. sasged. 103.. El.. wiSersaec saed. El. 228. m. sar. saemearh. 629. 382. sacu. ip. El. 369. run. see riht(-). 933. 540. secret ds. delsae.. sael. adj. 906. seafarer: ende. gp. ryne. gesaelan.fish: W. Wi. somod. reaping. f. sashSend. private 411. 406. ryht(-). 54. gent: $ saeryric. make El. 589. fight. S. 48. leo$-. 941. 479. pang: sarum. n. 54. 1278. ns. see ge-. saelum. nsm. 53. 1284. n. 498. 566. saeryrsea-coast: ds. El. Salomon. See sasne. salor. nsf. W. Ph. 497- pr. El. Solomon: g. 614. see for-. 564. Pn. Ph. sawol. sec geryne. W. 697. El. m. with pp. n. sascc. . El. np. pain. 142. pr. adj. 245. some.. Ph. 1183.. strife: 906. See gs. f. adv. ryp. El. 10. also also: El. sarllc. saint: Pn.212 full: 1241. sawel. m. 584. sar. 1178. 488. El. Ph. ica. Ph. see somnian. f. ssece. n. as well. sea: El. ssemearas.. W. saece.. 1207.. 333. rune. El. saelan. saefisca. 504. negli hyge-. saelig. together: 729. GLOSSARY comp. El. El. ingathering: rypes. gs. misery. pp.. ropes: pi. 1162. 1172. 240. ship: El. Ph. holy. ds. 228. gp. see onsawan. secret: council. Ph. m. as. mystery. adj. a-. priesthood: 1055. sawle. adj. See sawla. sawle. Zacchaus: ns. somed. nsn.. dire. soul: ns. mones. 584. saegan. 140. ocean-steed. Ph. salore. 437- pr. Ph. as. 513. as. 729 . sacan. ap. council: ap. asf. wansaelig. ns. Saules. f. dp.... El. similarly: El. trouble: saecc. fast 15 . 69. also. 1169. 890. same. El.. battle: as. saela}>. sawol.. Wensaecce.. n. El. eoful-. sae. El. f. delight. W. slack. samnian. 220. ssemearas. El. El. 15. joy. 382. 889. rune. sawan. Ph.

be said: 3 sg. Ph. sceal. scma>. sceacan. storm: El. El. bi-.. harm. pret. Ph. See leafscead. sciran. see gesceap. determine. 308. El. n. scancan. sceadan. guilty. 117. opt. Ph. scraef. scealt. np. 762. demon: gp. scomu. 743. sceall. pret. fore- scolu. 838. El. 90. II. IV. sin: ip. gesceadan. iniquity. 210.. I. 3 pi. El. 563. 896. 2 pi. 31. inf. as. asm. El.. El. man: scealcum. scriSan. -sceap. Ph. scmende. gp. 1192. Ph. Ph. adj. scineS. 88. Ph. See Ph.. n. W. 1301. f. El. opt. 763. m.3 250. 168. see folcscearu. El. ptc. Ph. 180. scipu. 643 . shadow: ap. m. otSscufan. 180. See 1232. See gesclnan.f. retainer: scolu. leg: 310. 560. sceolde. 463. El. See gesct58an. throng: ns. go. El. appoint: sg. scearu. sce6J>eS.. 633. 589. scir. abruptly: Ph.. 378. W2.. sciran. leasne. wk. Ph. 210. dishonor. scuras. El. see gesceaft. gorgeous: nsf. 470. 396 .. 370. gp. . scealc. 237. scyle. 709. pass by: pp. scired. sciran. I. wk. Wi. El. scearplice. El. np. sceoldon. El. See 3 pi. El. h?lle-. 68 . 470. feond-.. sg. 756. W. . See also 692. sceamu. sce/SSan.. 3 pi. El. dpm. be necessary: 687. 951 Pn. El. m.. scyld- um. -scipe. scur. leod-. sculan. 1319. guilty: igne. 1049. enemy. Ph. 234. Pr. ought. See be-. scufan. ns. 515. Ph. 3.. sceame. 1281. sceoldon. 1115. seine. -sceaft. El. El. ship: ap. 2 sg. oppress: 3 sg.. El. scyldig. scyldSee unscyldig. sceatum. El. shine: 3 sg. ap. f. sawolPh. ns. scyld.. ds. 583. sceamu. glorious: nsm. See attor-. scyldful. region: ns. 3 sg. 595. sceawede. 692. Seodscipe. scylda. 545. scome. adj. host. sclnan. 502. sceaSa. 310. 412.. sceolu. sceawian. see gescyldan. see widsceop.. 327. scyldfullum. behold: sceawia>. 3 wQmsceaSa. Ph. injure: sce^eS. sg. Ph. dp. scunian. scead. 3 sg. El. scinnena. 692.. asf. foe: El. see dunscraef. 580. W. should. see guSscrud. 310. sceaS- 673. adj. 449. ing-place: an. scinna.. scealcas. Ph. 58. sceal. sceacen. 877. scyldan. marshal: scead. sculon. 14. sinful: 3 pi. Ph. m. 1176. see.. asm. El. El. pret. Ph. 310. f. see gescrifan. 210. see onscunian. Ph. shower. lifeless: 213 m. adj. 836. 308. . . m. sail: scrud. rd. horde: ns. winterscur. sceade. shame: See also scgmu. see sceolu. 31- asm. El. lurk will. shame: ds. see dryht-. thrust: inf. sceat. command. -sceop. move. El. f. 168. scanca. bright. anv. sceadu. . El. 183. 3 a-. 764. shield: scyld. 3 sg. shall.. 234. 39. VI. See asceacan. Ph. 768. sce>}>an. adv. cast. weigh fault. sceata. upon. m. scrifan. El. inf. multitude: ns. scip.GLOSSARY sawolleas. 3 sg. 246. 1313. El. 31. dp. 982 367 Ph. 13. ap.. pp.. sceawian. Ph.

adj. see unscynde. 44. El. scyne. 76. }>a.. W. etc. 17. See se Se. El. 133. shrewd thought. $y. (20 times) (28 times) Ph. 783. 644. 122. np. 238. 266. 720. Pn. 414. 419. 43 . m.. 587. 305. . 675. 666. 283. 401. 269. 90. S3. 6. (12 times) scyppan. Pr. 25. 45. El. Ph. 41. gp. etc. 60. searolice. >aera. Ph. }>on. Ph. 619. El. 763. (22 times) . 14. W. 342. (9 1205. Pn. 573. 420. 26. El. 80. 601. 956 see also Ph. etc. gp. 59.. Sa. 13. 437. El. >e. sealte. etc. 66. 302. W. El. scyll. see searu-. 12. Ph. 277. nsn. . 33. nsm. 69. 15. Ph. hasten: 3 sg. Ph. 416. El. see >y. also to San. 9. 709. 292 sealt. se.. 1241 . 58. 71 J (n times) Ph. -who. W. J>aet. 16. wise 73. n.. 515. searuj>ancum. 294. W. W. etc. Pn.. 193. 339. etc. 153. shell: ds. 426. El. 243. 57. 94. 231. care: ip. Pn. times) El. 450. . (12 Pn. 301. 183. Ph. 281. Scyppend. 288. . . 50. (14 times). 470. 272. 558. 370. 173. scynde. see gescyppan. scyndan. 101. W. 58. 610. gsf. 97. Sacs. El. n. 580. 1242. Pn. 1152. 54. (16 times) . nsn. 76. 1078 . El. El. 582. 378. 30. 141. Caere. 274. 327 as. )?3sre. etc. >a. Ph. 396. Ph. m. plot.. >ane. 308. searo. asf. . scyllum. (55 Pn. 309. 324. the. W. (18 times) etc. wile. ip. searo-.. 8. scynde. 946. 927 . El. Creator: . 109. 185. 38. searucraeft. 803. El. }>aes. ip. 93. etc. deceit. etc. 796. Ph. >aet. 4. El. Ph. 35. adv. 502. 293. J>aere. 47. 3. 611. 12. apm. (35 times) Ph. 864. Ph. 3. 52. El. 411. }>ara. asm. adj. adj. 98. 120. El. 67. 418. scyrian. nsf. beautiful: Pn. . 55. scynra. 59. Ph. (21 times) Ph.. 221. . brilliant. gs. that. Sam. (14 times) 81 see also . 334. 80. El. 716. f. 64. wum. See wlitescyne. 591 gpn. El. gsmn. etc. El. Ph. 310. 1190. 980. 1131. salt: W. . 20. 42. 468.. 4. sealt- El. 89. seamSanc. Wi. . searas. 624. 7. . J>one. 9. salt wave: y>a. 37. 432. pron.. . Pn. f. El. etc. guilty: scyldwyrcende. 44. 891. El. see gescyrdan. 297. 138. 8. Sa. 633. 25. see ascyrian. 1012. dp. ap. 762. See lige-. etc. El. 631. Pr. Ph. 424. 608. Gone. 268. 234. Sa. etc. 59. . Ph. dsf. El. (31 times) W. craft: Ph. Sy-laes. 384. 8. 342. ismn. 791 scyrdan. etc. Pn. 1224. El. etc. 1089. $ sealtyS. 884. which: times). 70. searulice. Saes. 5aet. 31. >a. 428. >am. El. 323. El. Saet. 71. 752. scale: ip. Pn. workmanship: artisti >am. scylle. 1065 39. pendes.. 42. . skill. 307. Pn. 28. 2. pret. Ph. . 797.. 66. (38 times) searu. Sam. dsmn. hurry. 76. 27. sinful. Ph. Ph. nsf. 911. 285. 85. El. 66. sio. 439. m. 96. 262. 1018. searu. asn. 107. (10 times) . El. 86. asm. El. 71. . apm. 54. . El. 78. searo)>ancum. thought: 545. 69. El. Scyp- W. etc. cally: cunningly. seo. 65. 73. 254. 98. se. 354. 423. (15 times) . 750. 74. 370 vs. 169. 587. El. . Pn. 715. J>jem. sealtne. 36. etc. Ph. 23. Ph. 120. 560. 966. searo. 300. 19. 721-2. nearu- 1234. ap. El. 38. resplendent. . 414. 985. nsf. etc. (13 times). Scippend.2I 4 GLOSSARY adj. 630. he. 21. 172 (2). 200. 662. W. 19 npm. 61 . searocraeftum. 61. 1026. 15. times). El.

3 sg. 420. secean.mninga. . pp. secggan. 35. 3 pi. El. 5V? ge-. pron. See ges?cgan. El. 271 . see aseoSan. sefan. sece. 488. . 532. 1149. sefa. 1165. . El. sg.. 97. that: nsm. El. inf. seld. for-. s. seomian. 20. ds. 151. 374.. seppan. El. El. comp. 1117. sendeS. 173. El. cistern. se. seofon. 260. p. 524. 320. W. see: pret. to: sellend. 574. saegon. 457. Pn. 1044. selest. grant: 182. El. 64. say. silver: seomatS. seventh: saegdest. set. El. 19. selost. Pn. 1157. sefte.. 3 i se(o)lf. El. comp. saegde. vp. imper. pret. secgas. m. El. secgaj>. with: adv. sg. sg.GLOSSARY seats. (Lat. Pn. segn. see god.. asm. 36. Pn. saegdon. seek. 671. El. ds. 410. lay: opt. 1200. mind... 325. El. seofeEl. slogan. ymbs?llan. Ph. sg. rare. speak: pret. 3 sg. rush to: 3 Ph. 416. 998. pret. 469. pret.. El. 931. immediately. standard: 124. ask. sionoSe. teach. See be-. forth gesecan. Ph. 215 adv. 1001 secggas. El. un- seonoSdom. sellicran. 530. saegde.. mod- s?rce. num. V. 1180. secean. 34. 913. Wi. council: El. 322. Ph. Ph. sg. give. El. declare: 3 I pi. El. seon. 755- mpl. m. in 3 pi. seono}>. Ph. seofeSa. assembly's as?cgendlic. s?le. septe.. 945. El. Pr. sg. 532 El. favor. El. ssegdon. El. 552. Pn. secen. as. 376. 154. 697.. El. search for: pret. secan. 414. 30 peculiar: Ph. seald. El. W.. 474. Ph.. abide. see sylf. saga. seat: bus. sealde. 1165. 655. sohte. see limseoc. gp. see bis?ncan. adj. 47. ascribe: pret. 588. 275. 190 struct: pret. for-. 552. 627. seraphm. nsm. seca>. well. asf. 693- super. instruct: pret. El. W. 3 pi. tell. sohton. El. 45. 623. 606 Pn. report . seoSan. El. send: 3 sg. 796. seceS. pret. San. 1171 ns. 1257 sencan. 474.. 313. better: El. wils?le. saegdon.. geseon. saegde.. sohton. m. 3 El. El. 329. pit: as. Wi. heart: ns. seoc. selle. warrior: ns. np. question: 319. secgaS. El. see god. se $e. adj. who. El. See breost-. sefa. 3 1105. man. El. pi. 983 inf. see hildesejce. 382. 3 sg. 160. . see geset. seek. m. secga.. . seraphim: a. 3 sg. 1149. seSan. 774. ns. inf. . remain: 3 pi. 9. seonoS. El. 425. visit. 87 . seven: seolfren. El. El. 493. opt.. El. El. inf. El.). 3 pi. 3 pi. 216. 1275. El. 376. repair to: 3 sg. adj. ferbJS-. sellicra. 1026. m. 437. 956. 349. Ph. secgas. sende. 458. Wi. El. see deaS-. 568. 527. sedi- seonoSdomas. W3. 598. W2. El. teach. ensign. El. El. inquire. 1158.. inf. See ons?ndan. 2 665. 278. deci 366. asn. m. 27. 3 pi. pret. 857.. W. Wi. sion: ap. 567. El. as. . rel.. giver: sellic.. sefan. see heahseld. sel. Ph. El.. f. m. 3 sg. 1190. El. El. s?llan. II 10. See a-. sendan. wonderful: nsn. 671 inf. 317. selest. i. 1126.cg. 674. . sedes. 303. ap prove: pi. 694. see geseSan. see gesefte. abl.

tance: sidwegum. 1162. 316. : sigora. . El. Ph.. pret. 373. ordain: See sette. 1020. El. El.. 277. 439. El. f. El. El. El. cross: gsm. ns. sigerof.. 1207. np. dp. 488. 190. W. sette. victory: sincaldu. 658 2 pi. m. 158. asm. (see Saes $e) dsm. 33- m. 622. 3 sg.. El. 446 as. El. sibgedryht. 897. El. n. f. 444. sidne. adj. 48. 1183.. 675. El. 623. sigebeamas. jewel: standard: sigebeacne. sybbe.. Silvester. Pn. 103. . everlasting joy.. 601 grace: as. victorious sign of victory. 282. 654 torture. >a Se. per- C . $ sigorcynn. sigebeames. siblufan. 420. Ph. gs. distant part. ]>one >e. race: spacious: vast: Ph. sine. . 47. 965 ds. gp. sigebeam. nsm.. 479. ds. place: sette. 86. adv. asm. 144. 85. as. Ph. f. 154.. 329. Pr. Ph.. El. wide: 729. El. 380. 73. Ph. 3 sg. ge-. 79. El. seat: Ph. 467... 493. 516. . 260. El. great dis dp. 184. J?a >e... pr. Ph. 194. ymbs?ttan. 26. ns. as. gp. 868. 1136. . 755.. ever-during cold: ns. n. sigewong. 71. n. f. tory. W. ds. El. Ph. El. ns. El. 282. m. Ph. GLOSSARY se )>e. kinsfolk: siblufe. dsm. record: pret. El. sigores. W. kin. side. treasure: sinces. El.. friendship (or 1308. 818. ^ sigebeacen. in: 3 pi. persecute: pret. 536. Silvester: d. reward of victory: as. 1183. victory. >ara ap. 124. n. sfttan. sybbe... Silvestre. victory: gs. setton. sigebeame. 618. 847.. asn. tree of victory. ns. 282. 64. 1172. 732. syb. deep: El... sibbe. El. $ sigecwen.. sigebeama. f. El. set. 975- sindream. 283. El. costly gift: ap. wide: Ph. W. conquering victorious. 63. sibbe. 527. El. sincgim. El. 264.2l6 1184. f. gp. sigorlean. 337. El. 1315. El. n. side. sigeleoS. 8. sigebeacna. asn. bliss: sybbe. El. 328.. Ph. 158. setl. i sigorbeacen. 665. victorious queen: as. 495. . 1226. El. sidweg. far. 1257. sidne. sige. El. 3 sg. 1219. El. sigor. npm. n. }?am >e. 443. n. Ph. pret. 168. 1147. 985- emblem of standard: sid.. sigesped. ns. victorious son: ap. 888. setton. 280. I. El. . vic ns. in. 481. 437.. 1289. .. 327. 1028 m.. 17. adj.. broad. 1014. 863. 190. adj. f. ds. field of victory: ns. 998. victory: a-.. 498. 975. El. sib. 315. Ph. reward of victory: song of victory: bent gp. El. m. Ph. sigeleana. victorious: on El. sincweorSung. n. El. sincweorSunga. El. sigebearn. m. 376. heahsetl. ns. kinship. 337slgan. reckon: opt. n. phant: nsm. as. gs. W. f. 598. 346. Wi. trium asm. El. kinsfolk) ns. peace: El. 69. 1121 . J>am ]?e. sigerofe. sigorfaest. sigaS. 156. inf. success. 971. }?e. count. El. Ph. gs. great. fly press as. 508. El. i pi. victorious El. El. 319. sigerofum. See sigelean. Ph. ns. m. 464. 861 gp. >a >e. 1140. be-. love: ds. Ph. El.

14. 39. 220 (beon on slSe. smeSe. adv. ceeding. Ph. m. Srym-. El. 747. 208-. siSian. Ph. III. 3 pi. sySSan. pret. 75 . nsm. El. asn. 1302. si}>}>an. 639. 243. 229. Ph. slsepe. Ph. 260. singao". wk. sine. see sliSe. singaj>. El. 90. 914. 636 . siteS. pro 911. Ph. El. 154. 842. El. 69 super. 675singal. Ph. 1189.). 248. siSdag- snaw. snel. nimble: Pn. .. sleht. snottra. 950. El. nsm. El. See foro -. 304. 385. 248. sungen. 42. siSum. escape). m. adv. ns. snoterestum. 106. W2. 247. 507. dp. El. ring out: pp. Ph. El. adv. 3 pi. pure. since: si^an. Pn.. snottor. 579. 975- t sHSdaeg. El. 677. El. El. 217 thenceforth. sit5 fates. chant.. siS]?an. 313. El.. wilsitS. 57. m. 240. W2. 347. smylte. sySJ?an. 577. pi. goldsmith: gp. 385.. 617.. El. 33. journey: El. abide. sliSen. speedy: !63. when: sySSan. El. singan.. adj. . 857. sio>an. depart.. burgsittend ymbsittende. El. 42 is. Ph. 635. . siS. awful.. perpetually. 1028. smij>a. si^an. El. sionoS. adj. cease lessly: siSSan..GLOSSARY petual bliss: 741 . fell. m. El. Ph. 208. 69. 440. 1037. siSe. El. advance: as. . wise: . Ph. hin-. sit: 561. 464. snow: snell. 1315. ds. march: gs. 2 sg. 676. W. 1309. siomode. abl. straightway: siSode. sindreamum. 69. 926. adv. adv. fine: El. si)?J>an. 584. sing.. vanish: pret. adj. smiS.. 639. Ph. swift. Ph. morSorsleht. 1154. sySSan. see siSSan. 504. Ph. El. 3 3 sg. adj. sio?5San. de parture: gs. sitest. 109.. El. 3 sg. 1 syS^an. El. 317. Pn. continual: sioSSan. nsf. later: El. sindreame. singallice. then. m. El. 116. See be-. 74. nsm. 3 17.. 42. See h?re-. sneome. sijmm. sySSan.. 3 sg.. 3 pi. consider. 997. . nsm. sleep: El.. 337. 481. smaete. siomian. Pn. later.. 518. 1002. 502. Ph. afterwards: 271. 129. sungon. silken. 56. inf. Ph. departure: voyage: gs. 'deal': ns. see unsmeSe. sungon. remain: 3 sg. speedily. El. smeagan. without: Pr.. siSes. El. Ph. see seonoS. snude. 3 pi. Ph. 277. sittan. pret. after. si\>- Ph. V. hymn: 140. gearusnottor. Ph. quickly. 42. 572. ip. El. later day: dp. sllSan. 732. ds. um. 446.. El. 10 1 6. W. siSe. 124. W2. Ph. in. (Lat. El. ns. m. 220. ns. conj. since straightway: Ph. adj.. see unslaw.. prep. as soon as.. 123. dpm. El. . slaw. 1005. pret. 747. serene: nsm. slj>a. ds. adj. Pn. sIS. constant. 906. 818. journey. 117. El. in. 488. adj. pret. looi dreadful: asf. See larsmiS. smeadon. 1060. sang. sg. reflect: 413. 95. siSfaet. gesittan slaep. thereafter: ds. Ph. El. time: gp. 146 . 9 El. Ph. >an. si>ia)>. as. . sl^es. IIQO. 4<>9> 483. 114. 224. slsepe. Ph. 1051 . El. singeS. 1147. 694. ut-. w. malign: nsn. El. Ph. El. when: 230. 555. then: 66. 1219.

Ph. soft. care. soScwidum. sorge. Ph. sagac ity.. 1031 Ph. success. Wi. Ph. m.. true miracle: as. 690. vsm. true king: 444. ns. soSfaestra. gpn. soSan. El. m. 1031 Ph. adj. believing. snyttrocraeft. somed. as. El. gnorn-. is. gs. 313. 395. 622. El.. mod-. sg. El. nsm. See bisorgian. Ph. 635. 554. Ph. 269. 222. El. 297. comp. splott. 571. 694. spel. 665. wigsped. righteous: -SQirme.. as. Ph. ns. sorgleas. i compose: Ph. 296. 640. sondbeorgum. Pr. soSwundor. somnaS. 544. pret. as. 622 . sorgleasra. sorgful.. faithful. truth: ds.. see god-. El. El. sorrowful: apn. 530. soSfaestum. grieve: sorgaS. somniaS. 193. 300. See soSfaestnes. sgrne.. gather. Ph. speowdon. Ph. 3 sg. n. soS- 3 pi. 888. soon. adj. quickly.2l8 snyrgan. is.. sona. true: nsm. wisdom: El. 488. adj. 324 El. 663. El. as 120 . 3 sg.. 611. ns. 10. . spannan. blessed: 589. soSfaeste. Ph. dp. 337- abounding. soSlice. sorgum. El. Pn. Ph. assemble: . 1119. See adj.. snyttro. 55. song.. 799- 200. 329. 160. splott- um. soSfaestnesse.. El. 461. 317. 307. wk. El. GLOSSARY scud: inf. opt. as.. spelboda. See sige-. 293. speowan. dune: ip. spit: pret. m. 540. 606. m. seduction. Ph. prudence. 587 sojjfaeste. 1140. samnode. song: El. 1060. f. fsestra.. softe. 1182.. El. El. sail. sang. 407. 1244. Ph. anxiety: ds. 922. spot: El. nsm. 540. . n. unsnyttro. f. wil- sorg. 132. sand-hill. free soft. El. soSra. see gespgn. n. 564.. see aet-. soScyning. 1 1 22. 85. n. see onspannan. npf. 29. soSfaeste. songcraeftum. soon as. somnige. . soSe. 244. wisdom: snyttrucraeft. prudence. 588. spedig.. 938. songcraeft. ip. El. sagacity. El. El.. W2. . sped. Ph... 493. ip. El. faith. dpf. nsf. El. 1289. spel. creation: Ph. 9595 is. see samod.. 97. gpm. 394. prophet: ns. 574. 868. . 778. solarium. the Sona swa. word of truth: upper chamber: [Lat. that. 366. Ph. morgen-. sondbeorg. 467. see samod. El. see unsofte. rich: nsm. 47. gesomnian. 2 pi. adv. El. adv. victory: fulness. 56 . 514. sorgum. pret. W. El. 8. Wi. 10. 547. ns. Ph.. speedily: El. Ph. 1149. truly: 517. nearusorg. sorgfulran.] ds. spon. soSfaest. Ph. 374. 1172. m. spild. temptation: splotch. sorgian. 3 pi. . Ph. 888. piety: samnode. tosomne.. El. ip. nsn. 112. f. See bealu-. somod. 1082. 382. 713. n. from sorrow: El. El. 523. musical dp. 66. sorrow.. gpm. 204. sorrow... 417. m. spittle: as. wk. sec same.. f. comp. adj. 7. songe. El. 808. spmnian. Ph. W2. 892 asm. soScwide. $ solere. Ph. 3 sg. 390. m. 154. 708. 19. as. abundance: Ph. m. 60 samnodan. moment sand- spald. collect: 3 sg. leof-. npm. El. as.

m. m. See Ph.. Ph. 716. stanPh. stsercedfyrhSe. mason's El. mount. 219 adj. 615 .. El. 185. n. ip. sg. Ph. See stol. stopon. staeppan. stanhliS. 78. El. succeed: inf. 135- Stephanus. stearc. 565. steam. V. 302. El. voice: ns. rd. . stonde)>. Pn.GLOSSARY spowan. u. 54. El. spraec.. f. 54. 497. Ph. advance: staepes. stondan. W. cairn: dp. see stondan. pret. sprecan. El. 3 stondaS. 653- See astigan. stefnum. adj. See beorh-. fix.. stangreopum. crag: np. 1021. m. see stHShydig. n. sec ae-. Ph. still: Ph. 227. El. El. 659. 1094. Ph. st?nc. 135. pret. spice: 586. staSelige. 520. Pn. El.. El. ds. steadfast: set. stangripe. 492. 404. staSelian. see aspyrigean.. 615. ip. as. adj. 824. 38. W. stefne. 542. ds. 17. staef. 1061. 1021. stanum. 577. stodon. I. place. staeS. 3 rise: 3 sg. m. 57. Pn. 3 i Ph. stfiShycgende. pi. smoke. as.. steape. 8. handful of stones: dp.. stone: sta]>e.. El. 748. stangefog. stedewange. Pr. obdurate: npm. standan. Ph. 3 sg. stride on. El. adv. 3 pi. pret. see onspringan. El. bank. . W2. aeSelst?nc. (of ships): pret. m. 3 pi. Pn.. odor. spyrigean. El. 64. 185. El. stael. m. 427 strength en: inf. pret.. stencum. stefna. 565 piercing: nsf. Stephen: n.. 44. standaK stod.. ds.. wongst?de. See also styman. pi. gesprecan. 3 sg. ip. stfdewong. Ph. wrohtstaef. 509. i nsm. locality: stead: as. see hoc-. 3 pi. El. VI. 36. fragrance: ns. 22. 81. spring. 683. is. 65. stanhleoSum. 22. ride stodon. stand: 3 sg. gesprlng. be . avail. 750. 54. 675. stefn. courageous: npm. see gesteald. 492. 917- obstinate. vapor: ns. hard: nsn. Ph. 121. sound: stefne. stencum. see astgllan. adj. sec anstapa. time: 1128. ip. staSolian. establish: El.. pi. Ph. 206. ns. m. El. stigaS. El. El. stanclif um. steep: npm. 797 . W. . m. 716. gestaftelian.. 3 pi. shore: 232. Ph. staercedferhS. stigeS. 8. 542. pr. stand: as. springan. 725. art: ip. see heahstefn. staj^elode. stan. 613. Ph. see instaepes. stigan. brave: npm. is. 803 steap. stiShidige. see gestealla.. 232. W. 227. steorra. stille. 542. 824. El. 78. me8el-. 135. stefne. stearce. stondaS. 121. Ph.. 44. marmstan. 130. 38. n. stefn (prow). stane. adj. W. 60. as. 45. See eorcnan-. dp. El. El. st?de. -stealla. El. stout-hearted. 22. El. determined... -steald. staSelien. st?llan. El. El. speak: 332.. staeSe. 302.. card-. opt. a. VI. n. 509. El. sg. Ph. 18. stiShydig. El. stapa. El. ds. strShidig. see hringedstefna. El. stefn. Ph. place. npm. see heofonsteorra. courageous. El. See stanclif. see cynestol. 74. n. 45. clifu. cliff. stangefogum.

m. 47. 411. 683. -sund. certain: asn. -sum. Ph. 803 npm. stunde.. 905. W. ip. from the south: su^an. no. sundorwisne. El. hard. 169. gp. 324.. Ph. sun: ns. 140. f. adv. 778 222. Ph. sunde. 228. swa. nsm.. see luf-.. 541. torment. streamas. 12 . strudan. 461. El. storma. 185. 601... Ph. . adj. 603. see gestrynan. southern sky: as. suSrodor. 186. El. 11. 592. El. stream. is. cwicsvisl.. endure: 3 sg. 271. 131. 87. 113.. stowe. styman. sunnan. Pn. El. 597. ds. 190. El. 1022. W. 381. nsm. character: as. Ph. plunder. Ph. adv. 447 as. 278. 653. ocean: 436. 223. ds. ip. wyllestream. bath: plegan. Ph. 213. 686. 1200. 55. adj. see ge-. 532. 896. wynsum. 674. 478. 89. sea. 288. 405. ns. pron. 1019. 104. npm.. 325. W. Ph. El. See astgndan. 100. 838. severe: 90. 88. sundor. wondrous wise: asm. 25. 315 . 37. time: ip. 62. 59... str^ngSu. as. sume. n. GLOSSARY 3 sg. 564. swa. Ph. 835. see merestraet. 403 . i gs. 479. 57- stowe. reek: 3 sg. might. sunum. .. a: asf. m. sunu. ap. aside: El. susla. susle. 15. Pr.. 944. El. 378. 691.. different direc 407. f.. straightway: El. even as. even: then: sunbearo. torture: suslum. . -Pr. apart. nsm. El. adv. 141. adv. 132. sumum. 646. as. n. See wicstow.. El. 121 Pr. gs. 141. sumes. apm. . power: ns. II. ds. strong: 99. storm: gp. sunnan. strong. El. thus. straet. El. El. rob: 3 sg. 587. 133. sum. summer: El. 772. as. adv. suna. some. 8. streon. Pn. ns. manner: Ph. 181. sumeres. 583. 650. 1228. $ sundorgecynd. stod. 209. ds. sund. See woruldstund. stundum. 251.220 rife: pret. . etc. Ph. sumor. See eg-.. Ph. $ sundhwaet. W. m. . f. Wi. 606. 33- m. 305. 296 (29 etc. Ph. 209. 163. is. 716. sundes. Ph. sume. 242. strang. Pn. son: ns. in W. sundrian. m. . El. sunne. i. stream: 1201 . El. storm. see asundrian. El.. sundhwate. 120. El. suna. 69. 121. 474... See See also steam. tions. strudeS.. firgen-.. fume. | sundorwis. El. somewhat: Ph. stow. sunde. times) 31. 548 (2) . ap. 715. vs. 17. with swift motions: f. lagu-. gs. also: Ph. ds. m. El. just as: El. far and wide: El. stymeS. El. 892 See gastdp. Pn. onsund. Ph. El. in like 437. sume. suSan. 30. so: 306. 703. El.. 86. adj... Ph. place. stund. sunu. Ph. 15. remarkable f. spot: stowe. see gestreon.. 579. streame. Ph. (3). See also sumes. 161 . part(ly) : Ph. . 232. conj. sundsundplega. El. El. m. 253. 136. adj. 534. strynan. El. 436. El. 589. susl. 950. sun-bright: apn. 724. 37. flood. stondetS. Ph. . 406. 625. . 1318. see strong. 675. sunbeorht. strang. times) (11 Ph. 588. Pn. is. in. 375 gs. El. 120. sunny grove: Ph. 18 Ph. 1131. 7.

243.. Ph. 652. $ swelling. 128.. sw?ng. Pn. m. . El. adj. 785. . 186. 1294. El. nsm. 47. sweg. 168. 507. 1269. 199.... 6. 288.. when: .. Ph. melody. adj. Ph. m. 1275- adj. apf. swefan. 41 (?). down: swiaS. Pr. . 5.. sleep. super. swan. El. Pn. sweartestan. 931 abominable: gpf.. gs. 66. Ph. See geswigian. heaven. as. swetra. sweet: nsm. 245. . black. 208.. sky: gs. such . Ph. 467. 439. foe. as El. sleep: 3 39. openly: with authority. see be-. El. swefn. sweSrian. El. W. adj. 755 374 Ph. swaef. apm. swega. 26. as. sweordgemSlan. heaven's candle. 325. swegle. 41.. adv.. El. ds. swigian. sweord. 655. as.GLOSSARY ii5S. see asw?bban. 46. n. swicce. dream: ns. 305- swaecc.. 7. 56. Ph. swelgeS. 214. swanes. see andswaru. 239. n. swegles. gs. 70. sweotollice. Ph. swete. as soon as: El. 340. 300. sword: is. 861. yet: swa-]?eah. 193. own: gs. sweartra. El. swican. adv. + sweghleoSor. 137. swa. sweJraS.. 623. quiet 142. 103. sg. 120. wk. ds. ipf. El. sail: dp. Ph. . swetum. W. adj. 64. hleojres. see same. adj. . swifeS. blow. Ph. neck: sweoran. W2. pret. sweta. See El. see forswelan. 23. Ph.. 375- 447. . 618. 328. swettra. sweotole. dark: swerian. rank. adv. 1309. with certainty: El. m. nsm. Ph. El. vsm. swaes. 46 ip. . Ph. perfume: Pn. clearly. sec and-. El. 39. sweot- um. W. escape: swift. 606. 652. sweg- fragrance. swallow: III. 317. Pn. troop: dp. 3 sg. 199. sun: gs. Ph. 78. 229. vision. See swaecc. $ swicc. . swetum. 3 sg. ap.. swetest. 500. 517. sun: ds. . music: . enemy: 1181. sweot. El. like: sweglcgndel. El. 280.. as far as: Pn. 108. 36. m. . slumber: ds. odor: gp. Ph. sweghleoj>of. 322 so: as: as: . 214. die swefnes. Ph. Ph. 565. V. nsn.. see gesweorcan. 114. sweorcan. 757- El. swegl. geswejian. 690. 635. 65 ipm.. 71. El. swar.. down: 3 sg. 558. geswlcan. nsm. El. 108. Ph. sore: heavy: nsm. 315. Pr. Ph. 124. swegle. 1255. El. sweofote. swelan. El. 212. swelgan. Ph. f. 645. 29. m.. Ph. 132. Ph. swetne. 131 gp. m. 75. . 496. beloved: nsm. Pn. sweorde. swan: 137. dsm. swice. Pn. comp. swe}>rat5. 315. swa . . 507. 972.. 124. swa-$eah. swetestan. El. Pn. 644. n. El. swlge. swsesum. still. Ph. as well . swengas. wk. diminish: 3 sg. go out. Ph. buffet: ap. plainly: swaru.. m. m. El. dear. since.. see hwylc. m. W3-. Ph. m. be silent. sweglcondelle. 597. 3 sg. Ph. 207. melody: ns. swicc. n. f. swaecca. sweora. swaeccum. swa s<?me. El. 20. Pn. sw^bban. sweart. swa hwylc. swift: W. as.. swelling swellingum. 42. nevertheless. asm. 498. 608. Ph. sweordgemSla. sweofot. quiet: nsm. 57 . nsm. . because: 1291. Ph. 789.. sup.

. 85... 200. Simon: n. 347. sylfes. see geswing. ds. El. see geswiSrian. dp. El. sinful. flame: gs. 469. 488. Pn. sylfa. Ph. 104. adj. El. 374. gsn. sylfum. 958. d. 305. f. swim: 3 pi. 235. see siSSan. sixth: nsn. swlj>ra. 778. syxte. 369. El. synnum. swiS. -syne. swin. 382. synna. sinning: swylce. El. 350. III. roar.. . El. Ph. 1207. self. ns.. swiS- symbel. Ph. El. nsm. syx. num. El. Pn. El. pr. T. 254 as. swilt. see oferswiSan. 54. syb. 317. El. 282. El. 414. adj. as W. tacne. 1105. swiSan. Ph. 30. 742. nsm. Ph. 146. 240. synful. El. 406. conj. seolf e. 269.. swylce. 1001. 69. 1309. Syrians: pr. see swylt. ns. 57. right: comp. El.. El. six: n. own: 855. vsm. swinsian. Ph. 124. 184. El. 677. Ph. -syhtS. 566. swQngor.. 1200. Ph. strongly: 663. token: . feud. 523. . 1295.. 741. likewise: swylt. 166. 76. Ph. . 944. 466. 108. synnig. exactly: Symon. pron. dpm. gs. for ever: El. sySSan. swinsade. 1228. as. heat: syn. sluggish: nsm. swoles. swiSrian. El. 571. swylthwile. m. strong: comp. 46. sin: ns. 1280. Ph. feast: ran. ever. 668. Ph. see besylcan. El. 1113. sylfne. 1121 is. El. . 184. adv. 530. El. gsm. ns. 7n. see gesyne. emblem. as: El. sinful. 1318. synwyrcende. 956. 171 Ph. swiSost. 618 resound: 3 sg. 214. 603.. synn. 242.. self. nsm. W. adj. see sib. lige- 239.GLOSSARY swilt. npm. 233. El. if: like. synne. El. seolf. El. Ph. sylcan. El. super. gsf. See synnig. n. -syn.. 7. Ph. 5*4. swim- Ph. 140. dsm. El. eagerly: 940. 1244. 1216. 1121. seolf ne. El. 1103. Ph. wicked. adj. 222. syxta. 199. gp. hour of death: f. 315. gp. sylfum.. El. mac". 532. pret. El. sign. moreover: 1033- El. much. gp. asm. npm. adv. adj. question: ip. swylthwil. ds. swole. 395. n. Syrwara. swylc. adv.. asf. El.. sylf re. self re. 1295 El.. see geswin. 601. El. 808. 940. sylfra. ip. 708. 369. ds. guilty: npm. tacen. hostility: Ph. tacna. pron. see gesyfrS. seolfum. Ph.. El. swylces. El. tacne. 497. 661. Ph. syxum. f. 915. Syrware. always. n. also. swgnrad. see onsyn... wk. synnum. W2. swinsaS. El. swij>e. synfulle. 96.. 164. nsm.. adj. El. make melody: 3 sg.. in. 9. El. swiSost. 997- sea: swonrade.. g. sylf. banquet. . sing. as. El. 209. very: Ph. . super. such as: nsm. 375. swiSe. 319 proof: tacnum. El. 772. 355 Pr. tacna. 447. 439. 303.. 732. 530. apm. guilty: El. swylce. El. agony of death: swyltcwale. Ph. swimman. Ph. 677- n. sylfe. gpm. apm. death: ns. El. f. swyltcwalu. swing. 3. 204. El. El.. 450. adv. 985. 32. Ph. symle. swol.

285.. Pr. devouring flame: El. gen. blessed: tirfaest. telgan. Ph. 854. 1010. W2. sg. talde. El. El. taehte. Wi. as: 898. 106.. .. Pr. as. El. gerund. sense: Ph. to: Ph. inf. prep.. Ph. 34.. 193. with 34. pret. 72. 407.. as. tema. W. Ph.. 1044. 14. pret. dye: gp. adj. 988. weatacen. Pr. tacnian. heroic deed: gp. 870. 533. dat. tacna. See getimbran.. W. wk. 69. 1105.. Ph. til. renowned. 198. 568.. tapur. 1058. 243. 410. 89. Pn. 16. 83. talian. ds. 1247. tearas. El. 1160. 600. Ph. 191. I See get?llan. 10. Ph. tirmihtig. honor: pp. telga. 325. El. 63. El. 114. chain: ip. f. W. 1143. 64. tire. time: opt. together: Ph. 605. 1218... 430. 594. timbran. besides. temple: 1058.' make. tear. tngan. 1279. 188. 708. El. npm. 77. interpretation: as. gp. adv. consider: pret. f. tiid. sec h?retema. El. 195. 87. 1001. 334. Ph. El. togaedere. 1012. 175. w. tir. during. Ph. from: El. 209. 536. 450. timber. w. 226. El. tidum. Pn. asn. tilra. tear: np. See be-. tiht. see biteldan. W. teona. Ph. 1321.. nsf. tlman. Ph. in return. 32. period: ap. El. 1176. 17.. 574. see fugeltimber. El. w. 139. teonan.. adj.. teon.. 857. see get?ngan. W.GLOSSARY El. t?llan. tima. times) . in reply: El.. 225. twig: ip. . Ph. tempel. adv. tirfseste. Wi. sorrow (?): teosu.. glorious: nsm. over: El. 71. 86. for. m. m. 472. 5. 124.. togenes. 645 . 188. tireadge. m. prep. 517. tan. Ph. 909. 1200. taecan.. ns. Ph. good: gsn. 874. too: El. tilgaS.. 164. Pn. 246. reckon: 10. likewise: Ph. 579. talade. 40. Ph. is. ip... El. 14. See tilgan. Wi. time: El. 658. 60. 1139. glory: tireadig. m. 982. adv. sec get?nge. El. El. taper: ns... 146. 1158. to. 631. 509. 36. 3 pi. glorious: wk. at: Ph. see getacnian. -t?nge. gpf. sec tyht. almighty: nsm. 988. destruction: as. sorrow: ds. II. m. 1057. El. to: El. El.. np. teag. adj. 319. Pn. Pn. 440. w. 1162. 211. (14 times) W. on: tirmeahtig. f. 184.. w. renown. be fore: Ph. El. 754. build: inf. tid.. nsm. 1134. npm. branch: telga. teonlice. ins. 22. Wi. famous: 104. El. 1022. temple. 10. sec leoftael. as. see rimtalu. Ph. 787. to. (53 etc. toeacan. adv. (see to San) . 663. toward: Ph. 1209. 275 . Ph. (see to tSaes) . 60. talu. nsm. m. Pr. togeanes. tida. teonleg. tida. m. 607. adv. tael. 61. m. etc. 562. 1249. togaedre. 1166. 955. telgum. Ph. tanum. grievously. ns. 7. Ph. as. m. 5. n. teldan. t?lg. Ph. w.. tiles. 77. 574. W. 574. 23. getaecan. 611. ds. hour: ns. dp. 66. take: grief. bough. strive for: 3 pi. Ph. 386. tireadga. point out: 3 sg. 223 adj. tugon. 325. 475. m. 167. 349. teagum.. Ph. dat. 510. El. El. 76. 390. 421. 17. as.

gp. etc. adv.. see atydran. Ph. El. 1202. dp. El. Ph. 556. 7. tyhtan. 574torn. sod. 430. 165. tu.. 830.. sorrow: torne. El. | trig. 138. um. V. 55. )>a. 214. See fortyhtan. $a. tohte. turf: ds. El. see getyn. see bi-. Sa. 76. 1027. f. adv. vanish: El. El. 206. adv. faith: treowe. 325. trymede. 3 sg. scatter: pp. Ph. together: El. Ph.. El. twenty: dn. 2.. torhte. pp. adv. 128. torngeniSlan. El. strife: tohtan. 754. 1113. tooth: np. See 1134. m. . tydran. ontynan. 294. W. trig. -tweonum. so: 704 (2). . El. 43. Ph. 1252. tu. n. twa. tu. 757. 22. ns. when: El. 955. 96. El. n. 1180. Ph. 96.. num. 1306. 605. El. 429. 442. 1219. tread. disperse: Ph. 645- pr.. torhte.. 634. 175. torhta. (76 times) . twflf. Ph. torhte. trages. n. f. m. 786. 184. towegen. 147. pret. towrecene. 1180. Ph. twelfum. 1306. 668. . treowe. m. wk. See aeSel-. 3 sg. D. 525 (on gsn. tyn. 867 . trydeS. 841 treow. heofontungol. star: np. El. El. doubt: tweon. tyrf. m. bitter foe. see wearhtraef. El. traef. 1220. twam. in.. 413. + turfhaga. as. soil: sward: Ph. 35. nm. tree. turf- torngemSla. Pn. 349. ge-. I. toglideS.. $tunece. El. 34. towegan. 830. 171. El. clear light: as. . Ph. see getrywe. 5.. cross: gs.. dm. too".. evil: gs. ds. tyhtaj?. 643. bitter enemy: np. 78. tungol. 389. El. m. Ph.. 10 apf. see betweonum. treo (treow). march.twelve: im. is. El. ds. coat: ns. El. strengthen: as. etc. El. tungla. Ph.. III. motion: El. trsed. 1249. num. 131. tihte. trage. Ph. tweonde. 828. 664. . (16 times) >a. glori ous: nsn. 3 pi. El. El. torht. 652. 106. twentig. El. El. m. twentig- toweorpan. El. : torhtost. tyhte. sod. 3 : incite. El. toglad. twegen. 93. El. astir). 1269. 14. eSelturf. destroy.. refulgent. 612. tweo. trywe. pret. traverse: sg. Ph. El. as. El. 407.. GLOSSARY depart. af. 107. trio. hagan.. ns. 28. toworpen. bad. tyht. to}>as. . 200. Ph. El. 53. 69. paw(l) pret. nn.. 568. trymman. 668. npm. towrecan. 854. Troianas. 3 sg. turf. nsm. Wi. see untraglice. treow. 194. 395. El. two: nf.. drive apart. Pr. 164. famous (?) Ph. ds. 706. treow. 157. El. nsn. n. to Saes. battle. so: to San. 281. El. adj. num. tosomne.. El. spur on: 3 pi. see twegen. i. El. traglice. El. turf.. tihte. f. 880.. V. 3 sg. grief.. 146. an. evil: nsm. f. ds. npm.224 toglidan. adj. wk. trymedon. ds. Ph. super. abolish: pp. f. treowes. Trojans: n. bright.. wood: ds. n. twa. + torht. Pr. Wi. 200. tynan. 119. Ph. conj.. 701. 709. tree. see untweonde. treowum. 66. V. 28 . tredan. then: El. nsn. 955. 703.. 25.

inwit-. El. 3 sg. W. 739. 489.. j?ece?>.. Pn. ip. 608. S?gu. 587. oferSearf. El. 42. inf. n. 71. >egn. 12. etc. 638. pret. 175. W. follower. which. gp. 735. 48. rite. El. 69. times). m. 487. J'e him (whose). 288.. 554- Ph. overspread: pret. thanks. hyge-. adj. 962. order that. dp. El. 148. 15. if: El. Seaw. 693. Seah. f. El. because: also to Saes. 448. that: think. 84. tendant: ns. that. 106. 388. 397. Sancian. 410. see fodorS?gu. (19 times) W. See rasdtSeahtende. or: Je. Segnung. J>eahte. 579.. terrible: conj. (12 times). Sanon. 811. gratitude: >anc. 14. m. asn. El. while: El. 444. 80. . Jjegnum. 1181 .. El. intend. conj. 59. >egnunge. W. ge-. 424. searviSanc. 252. as. Pr. El. El. 177. 151. grievous: nsf.. Jjeahtedon. in 62. 549. because: Ph. >egnunge. ds. 256. 216. disciple: dp.. minister. Ph. 55. accept. Ph. See swa-Seah. Ph. 717. $e. 642. 34. 644. enfold. 13... 979. Wi. i.. W2. adv. . 313. 148. thank: pret.. El. conj. 823. 435 Pr. Saes Se. El. 79. that: >sette. El. 70. where: El. Pn. 296. adj. Ph. 138. ns. 1317. 607. 163. 68.. 623 . )>egn. 9. 15.. 36. Saer. from the time that: J>ses )>e. invest: 3 sg. Pn. 745- f. <5earlic. 21. Ph. El. El. 893 >onc. 157. 4. because: ]>xs 3 pi. that: ><ES >e. at thought: gs. El. that: Ph. 568. 468. See nyd-. 540. Ph. need: ns. >egna. 32. S?ccan. ii . o/ter: Saet. Ph. 88. as. Ipxr. 1012.. where: 57.. 453. thence: >anon. Ph. 249. 36. 35. Sec t5e. m. or-. thither: >aer. S?ccan. El. 1139. 1262. >ser. 957. 1140. >e. }>6hte. )>earHc. 833. 1105. (24 (33 times) Ph.4. so: Scant. 144. 27. 516. 58.GLOSSARY Saer. t>aes >e.. 726. custom. there: 1113. 5V<?se'6e. so >set. 31. ns. deliberate: pret. Ph. worship: El. Ph. El. 429. pron. 380* 563. W2. 196. 329. 66. El. Segn. J>ser. Wi. etc. 704. ]?eaw. El. J?onces. Seawum. 85. >eccat5. Searl. 1281. Saes Se. practice: 168. See manSeaw. 476. Searf. 41. See fore-. Saes. 114. 560. Sane. conj. Sanon. 357. adv. although. 18. Ph.. agree to: >afian. }>aer. that: El. Pn. etc. 121 1 . as: Ph. 875. adv.. Seahtian.. Ph. as: ]>xs >e.. >egnum. Ph. See Saette. El.. 38. Ph. El. }?onan.. thought: >eaht. re- . conj. 165. See getSeaht. 1107. Safian.. otStSaet. where: Ph. 426. Ph. J>3er. 365.. ?S?ncan. to the place 658. 362. El. Ph. Ph. (66 times) Ph. etc. 25. . 143. than: 441. Ph. f. 39. W. W. 717. }>e. ii3- conj. 581. W. (31 >e. . 225 1080. 21. \>xs >e. 81. 3 sg. >ancode.. El. 31 dp. deck: See be3 pi. 415. 327. service. 162. Ph. 547. >earf. Ph. 656. W2. El. etc. Pn. 160. El. indecl. }>eah. 174. )>earl. conj. 553. who. consider. 369. 1242. 839. El. 822. purpose: 3 sg. Pn. though: 82. times) . Se. El. )>eawum. . conj. man: as. W. 25. 348. 4. El. etc." whence: J>onan.

Sonne. king: 487. thine: nsm.. n. thing. }>eod- >m. ns. El. pret. ]>inga. >eoda. 398. El. El. )>issum. 307. Ph. great Sin. 703. J?as. El. 341 . tory. 8is. 321 dsn. 63. J>ysne. 1167. see Syncan. nation. Seodscipe. Ses. servant: J?eow. El. V... 485. asn. 92. Seodenbealu. 501. 906. )?inggemearces. Ph. El. gsn. ]>ln. m. S?nden. El. gp. Seostre. 820. gsf. tomb. Ph.. 416. 3 sg. 929. asn. Seodnes. 185.. }>inum. f. Seodig. Sonc. 358. J>eoda. 421. 3 sg. }>ingode. See geSolian. endure: pret. Ph. gpf. 727. 704. ds. El. f. adv. Pr. ns. dsf. Syssum. 563. discipline: scipe. 781. 3 pi. 608. 643 . Seon. conj. El. inf. J>yssa. El. ds. 312. Ph.. f. El. gp. >6hton. El. m. El. dsm. 659. >ys. J>ige6. 409. 7. El. El. El. El. Sing. see geSeon. aerSon. 609. while. 14. Ph. 153. J>ysse. adj. El. >eodnes. 3 sg. Ph. so long as: ]?enden. darkness: dp. Seowdom. Son. n. 1173. nsn. El. J>eostrum. 739. Seownyd. 3 sg. 773. 402. ds. See geS?ncan. 151. make address: pret. 63 . Serscan. 162. 201. taste: >igeS.. Jnsse. as. El. 730. prince. apm. see brim-. of: 410. El. . thraldom: Jnngode.. J?es. 813 . . 789. t5as. >ege. 510. }?eodne. }>eodcwen. El. see geSoht. dpm. W2. Singgemearc. pron. El. . 1156. J?eow- 667. Ph. 160 np. service: as. people: ns. Ph. this: nsm. 549. se. Ph. 312. benighted: Singe. 349. El. Sisa. time: gs. ]?eos. 1277. )>eode. n. . El. >mes. J?eowned. see Sanon. Sincan. werSeod. Seostorcofa. 1089. 448. El. El. }>Inre. El. >is. El. 770. measure of his Seostru. receive: El. evil: 68. 630. Soht. }>eodnes. Seod. his J>Inne. 435 J>is. Ph.226 fleet: GLOSSARY pret. f. Solian. 465. El. J>eod. intercede: El. 1187. opt. 38. waeterSisa. Pn. 605. 903. bondage. people: ns. . m. ns. Seostorloca. Sonan. ]?olian... 777. grave: )>eosterlocan. El. 77.. El. Pn. . dark chamber: }>eostorcofan. Seos. Ph. asm. J?eodenbealwa. chief: lord: gs. El. 858. thy. 858 dpn. El. isn. 777. nsn. 468. 390. 551.. m. 1259. apn. 219. J?eostrum. J'isne. El. Seodcwen. Ph. asf. J?as. Ph. Singian. Ph. Ph.. El. 509. El. then: Ph. 165. H ne . 666 ipf. Ph. J?egun. gs. El. Singa. ds. W. 489.. III. 628. . See ?!-. El. 533. See latteow. as. queen of the people: 1156. see aefter Son. El. 749. 387. )>ige$. El. m. Seow. }?inum. }>mum. gsmn. El. Seoden. 659 . 165. >isses.. 767. Pn. 518. 3 sg. see geSinge. see Sane. dsf. 494. 64. 426. 767. >eoden. dom.. 3 pi. pret. 87 139. 576 asm. see ?!Seodig. seise upon: 3 sg. 700. darkened. 450. }>ystrum. El. El. . matter: gp.. 181. 770. J^olade. W2. Ph. 597. 833. m. 125. dp. pron. $ Seodwiga. El. nsf. ]?in. speak.. J?isse. beat: J?irsce5. 3. El. . 647. asf. 770. J^eodwiga. 539 .. 35 partake pret. 784. 505 Pn. champion of Pn. 259. Slogan. 403. suffer. 539. 481.. El. devour: 3 sg. 89. 267. Ph.. 782. m. 468 . 402.

weigh. is. El. ponder: pret. 483. W3-. constraint: ip. Ph. Pn. Jrowode. .. )>rym. see geSrec. El. Srean. 63. Sreanyd. El. 473. 185. . >nste. Create. 421 . daring: nsf. majesty: 483. 704. W. 254. )>ream. splendor: is. JringaS. EL See ge- ?5rowian. waepen-. El. J>raec- 1286. patient: )>rohtheard. 494. adj. 485. See be-. ds. smoke: is. J>reora. 99. 326. El.. 884 182. 1286. 61.. }>onne. wigSracu. Jreonihta. J>rym. 1090. adj. 1178. El. thrice: }>riwa. ns. $ Sraecheard. Ph. 816 . 3. Srowian. af. 1286. press 3 pi. adj. )>rymma. 1239. third: nsm. adj. 16. )>rydedon. ip. 644. }>rym. beorn-. Srosm. as. see geSreatian. maegenSrym. band. El. 31. Ph. endure: pret.. 549. pret. Sreat. 628 gp. 409. 605 onset: ns. ip. 855. 546. Pn. El. Jrage. Sraegan. 501 . El. El. bael-. El. dire ns.. 1298. adj. Srydian. 331. )>ridde. 1280. lig-. 3 pi. conj. J?reatum. 858.. 426.. El. Ph. El. El. woe: ip. Sriwa. See gartSrist. as. 335. Jrealic. )>r6wian. holm-. Srea. tSriste. (27 times) Pn. conflict. Jmstra. }>rosme. ]?reanedum. W2. Srag. f. m. than: on. Pn. . f. 61. W. 329. Breoniht. if: El. etc. Jrymme. m. >rymme. 128. f. 341. suffering: ns.. three nights: g. W. am. . 446. m. Sreagan. 71. battle: 45. 156. see fortSryccan.GLOSSARY 188. Pn. gs. >rymma. 27. 628. 144 (2). Sreatian. El. El. Ph. pret. 76.' El. 49. 227 fpl. >reat. Sreo. . El.. Pn. See cyne-. 869. El. 40. 267 El. 41.. J>reanydum. nn. 519. 208. npm. El. 1298. 489. 329.. 274. 123. see aSreotan. 769. W2. >onne. Pn. nsm. El. El. 160. gar-. 859. Jjriddan. hearde. Ph. nsf. suffer. 647. 1277. El. Ph. J>rsece. 51. 1239. . Ph.. 163. 1167. . 38. 873. 847. bold. 219. }>riste. throng: >reate. season: as. El. El. terrible. )>riddan. ]>read. an. El. Jjrymme. . Pn. Srohtheard. El. glory. ip. 833. 704. adj. 501. See Srym. Ph. Srealic. ds. valiant in gpm. 618. 1263. El. hejeSreat.. hasten: 336. 589.. time. (22 times) 1273. gp. Sryccan. 931. 38. 329. SrJegde. J>reo. El. see geSrean. III. 48. adv. crowd. Ph. El. Wi. 3 pi. )>ridda. m. See J>rungon.. Bringan. Jreanyd. m. 537. three: 285. 483. 388. Jrym. 271. 123. 30. 13. 541 . pain. 24. brave.. 348. Ph. Ph. troop. 8rltig. when. El. 1096. Ph. surely: fight: npm. El. El.. Srec. Ph. El. confidently. asm. Sreodian. El. 41 ism.. El. Pn. is. 215. 2. 67. horrible: nsm. ds.. 142. . 51. 526. gf. Jroht. adv. 1185. Jreo. 3 sg. Jreodude. ^ Sroht. punish: 1296. 53. . El. throng. >rie. Sonne. 68. 74. Jragum. Sridda. thirty: El. f. 50. Sracu. i sg. brave in battle. 35. 49.. El. beadu-. geSringan. 236. 41 lord: vs. 1179. Jrymmes. see Srydian. pp. 1315.. 151. 60.. inf. 884. etc. Srist(e). num. 177. 745 Ph. >reo. run: 3 sg. 185. 217. Sreotan.

482. eow. bore. El. adv. 372. 83. 51dwelling: JrySbold. (29 times) Pr. 1106. pret. 613. uhtan. endue: pp. im nsm. such: asm. (13 times). adj. Se. Syncan. see manSwaere. m. asn. El. 676. (37 times) Ph. El. prp. 3 pi. 177. El. El. as. J?e... El.. adj. 1237. dawn: ds. El. El. 781 Ph. 928. imperishable. n. 526. Jjurhwodon. El. El. eow. Pn. SryS. sec forSylman. 339. 86. 403. etc. f. adv. pierce: pret. 446. imperishable: Ph. 927. El. Syder. 46. 120. ufan. 400. El. adj. 151. }>usend. El. Ph. 299. need: 2 sg. Ph. ap. 285 ap. ns. Ph. thousand: as. majesty: El. 81. ace. unclean. on ac count of: Surh. fill. adj. possess. 539. 42..228 Srymcyning. El. . 368. 294. etc. 65. J>urhgoten. 9. 246. 546. 811. )?usendu. EL fturhdrifan. J>rynesse. 43. prep. by. 301. 919.. El. 622. 68. El. ds. 3 sg... vile: dpm. Ph. in. 8urfan. m. times) Pr. 621. 3 sg. 630. 5. dp. 364. 54i. 931. II. El. El. Surh. Ph. Ph. mighty as.. 6. ufeweard. (31 times) etc. unbryce. host: ip. U. see Seostru... 184. gloriously: Jrymlice.. 623. . above: Ph.. 699. J>m. uncuSe. 290. Sy-laes. 289. 823. uncyste. opt. . J>ry)>e. Pn.. tSrynes. 183. tSyslic. gs. (14 times). Sy. }ms. El.. ]?ynce. unclsenum. El. El. king of glory: }>rymcyning. 98. etc. Sylman. adj. 6. on the upper side: nsm. 84. 79. Surhgeotan. El. 72. 7. J>urg. Srymlice. that way. 940. 962. adv. 151. . lest: ]?y-l3es. . Jmrh. Ph. See beSurfan.. J>earft. GLOSSARY as. 528. 790.. trinity: gs. etc. etc. 55. uhta. ?Surst. 1104. )?urst. f. eowic. 532. 18. )>rymsittendum. Pn. 540.. El. >ysllc. adj. uncyst. f..imbue: fcurhdrifen. adj. }>orfte. 494. morning twilight. through. El. El. Pr. conj. 295. Swaere. }>yslicne. >ince. thus. etc. VI. 318. np. by reason of. 1 1 02. seem. (23 33.. 9. 295.. 551. thirst: ns. "Su. 810. unas?cgendlic. Systru. np. 514. J>ry}>um. 662. 548. 1120. in throned Srymsittende. thither: >yder. 316. 366. 298. 642. (29 times) . Ph. n. J>earf. 308. unknown: iniquity: asf. by 639. El. Wi. pron. see se. . 81. El. 6.. El. ns. ge. 123. 447. 578. dsm. 326. W.. }>ec. Ph. Sus. Ph. 430. El. . banner. + SrySbold. m. adv. ap.. Surhwadan. El. 632. with: }>urh.. 3. 623. standard: El. 570. unbraece. 466. raging: np.. El. adj. W. thou: ns. indescribable: nsm. uncuS. ]?uf. unclaene. . 189. m. can: i sg. w. 105. El. El. 441. SrySan. etc.. 309. 82. Suf. 1066. mortal: nsn.. Ph. 92. I. appear: 3 sg. 942. pret. 1165. Ph. El. 326. El. Ph. 1029. means of. 707. 30. sec geSrySan. 400. 293. Jmsend. so: El. Susend. Ph. pp. Jmhte. El. Jm. Jmsend. (10 times). El. El.

. adv. 1107. n. dsm. W. ungelice. unoferswiSed.. celestial. W.. 1307. 663. El. lofty. adv. adv. Ph. El. n. large. 59. 485. dat. 74. $ unwaerllce. 75. unwislice. Ph. Ph.. unscyldigne. 736. eternal: nsm. Ph. diligent: nsm. beneath: El. El. El. invincible: unconquered.. Pn. adj.. 843. adj. 992. w. El. uppe.. dewy-winged. 798. 414. unwary: isn.. 16.. scarcely. 40. 1092... El. wrong. 26. adj.. 947- times) 625. pron. guiltless. . etc. openly. 625. 511.. $ungny3e. 181. 63- adv. 803.. El. adj. unsnyttrum. folly: W. deep in: El. El. unin npn. 218. unsnyttro. El. jured: scathless. unrime. uplican. unwillum. 1232. 70. adj. 496. m. 2. adj. ra:dum. sin.. ip. nsn. ace. 202. adv. 410. gs. as. different ly: adj. un. numberless. Ph. unrihtes. upward. with difficulty: 695. El. sin: 516. El. nsn.. 95. adj. heaven. uprodor. unscyldig. ous: unblemished. user. 101. El. El. Ph. dat. 27. unlytel. 582.. 293... false: 1042. 653. unweaxen. unsmeSes. active. + unl<?nd. 289. 872. 731.. adj. rimu.. El. Ph. adv.. f. 629.. urigfeSra. adj. gsm. without delay: untweonde. adj. upwards: El. (20 Ph. adv.. counsel: ip. usse. firmament: uprador. 1188. foolishly: up.. heavenly: wk. undoubting. 365. innocent: asm.. unhwilen. . unscyndne. Ph. 529. lifeless: unw?mme. Ph. 32. glori asm. (15 times) . usse. 4. unwillingly: W. adj. uppan.. 392 dsn. 93. frankly: unsmeSe. inviolate: nsm. 458. 132. 97. unweaxenne. see uprodor. zvhat one mistakenly ds. everlasting. 1201 apf. 886. unwarily: W. bered: adj. rugged: gsn. unscynde. 13. 764. El. 52. 44. 806. infinite: nsf. Pn. 229 adv.. ungewyrded. our: unslaw. unsofte.. under. takes for land: unlonde. un- nsm. $ unwaer. 47. over. 71. amid: Pn.. under. heaven: urigfeSere. 102. unriht. 472. 1285. dead. as. young: asm. tall: gpm. adv. 712.. El. 714. untraglice. . rough. as. 405 . 879. prep. upon: w. un wavering: asm. upweard.. on high: Ph. 6 1 npn. El. uprador. unsnyttra. unlifgendes. adj. 46. adv. 832. Ph. W.. .. adj.. 37. in. 879. otherwise. El. Pn. nsm. un- uplic. El. 1247. toward El.. wk. 425. 794. 46. ' uplJedendra. 717. 620. immature. 14. w. 353. 87. El. undearnunga. asf. npm. 403. adj. folly: gp. etc. evil unraed. uplican. El. adj. great: 283. El. asf. Ph. hardly. unnum nsn. El. up. uplaedende. m. unstinted: ware. untweondne.GLOSSARY undearninga.. wk. adj. 29. 178. El. EL apm. adj. unmsete.. unriht. El. Ph. W. unlifgende. be neath: El. El. 1226. El.. Pn. 374. above. El. adj.. 14. under. 438. unrihte. prep. 700.

ns. 246. El. wansaelig. waestma. 628. titan. 61 El. 45. fierce against corpses: wafian. El. W2. see ceaster-. waedl. El. speed. see gewaelan. W... waelhreow. Ph. n. W2. Ph. nsf spoil of death: ds. Ph. see unwaer. 164. f. wansseligum. wsedes. W. waetra. Pr. gp. fade: 3 pi. 246. wajgli)>ende. . weak: wannhalum. let W. 237. f. form: ap. waMle. wieghengestas. around. wserlogan. 41 np. utsiS. waestma.. Ph. Pn 1189. as. as. El. ship: ap. wa. ip. waeterSisa.. flight: ip. m. ip. out: El.. 58.. wsestmum. El. . m.. wald-. see weald-. Ph. ds. pass: 3 sg. 27 . wsedle. dpm. wonder) wan. Ph. adj. f. gp.. waelr^st. poverty. 28. billow: gs.. 617. mighty swimmer: waegh?ngest.. seafarer: np.. 24. Syrware. 236. W. adv. waelfel. 79- interj. ip. 53 . Ph. waeg. waed. wsepnum.. sec gewaede. wserlicra. . want: gs. gs. as. . waerlice. 486. press on: inf. waniaS.. 466 f. wary. wsere.. 255. El. 230 . waeterjjisa. about: Ph. f. roam. waetres. water: ns.. 17.. won.. wise man. scribe: npm. . nsm. El. El. waerlic. waeter. Wi. El. Ph. us: waepenSracu. El. waer. 233. waerloga. W. waegflota. gaze at: 3 pi. 99. 50. waepen. 823. cruel. adv. arm: ns. departure: as. El. m. waer. ip. GLOSSARY Ph. See fifelwaeg. wa>um. f. conflict. 342 (wundrum wafiaS. sick. El.. Ph. .. utsi}>.. waestm. m. wsegflotan. Ph. waelrun. 184. 72.. n. adj.. 580 El. Ph. 161. f. wang(-). See foldwaestm. adj. 112. 45.. woe: El. waeSan. waelreaf. battle: 44. 544. 341.. 724- grave: waelreste.. dark. wses- tmas. Ph.. m. ship: ap. unhappy. El. wseSeS. gpm. 86. sea: gs. 60. waelgifre. w. as. W.230 ut. 55. fruit: np.. see onwaecnan. adj. waegliSend. 530... El. See ge-. El. implacable: El. increase. 106. 486. El. waecnan. 53. of mail: wselhlencan. ware. murderous: coat nsm. adj. . m. 48. Ph. 39. waestmas. wave. uton. wJepenJ>raece. 37. 34. 9. wonsselige. waelan. 478 . waelhl?nce. uSweota.. npm. wasteres. VI. dp. El. 99.. Pn. Ph. black: nsm. wa8. adj. Ph. wjega. wafiaS. 243 waestmum. weapon.. wseges. Ph. n. ap. W. secret hope of carnage: waelrune.. 12. 301. 6. adv. El. 80. 1274. covenant: as. dpm. . n. Ph. uSweotan. wsestmum. wanian. . 332. 978. n.. 250 . waelhreowra. m. El. proportion: Ph. Ph. Surhwadan. 65 gp. El. wadan. m. wsestmum. 1030. W. Rom-. wave-stallion. m. np. wanhal. 273n. as. perfidious one: ds. El. prudent: gpn. 473. -wsede. Ph. 72. without: Ph. see wgng(-). miserable: f. adj. see unwasrlice.

. wearmiatS. 801 Wealdend. 3 sg. El. f. V.. gp. n. W.Ph. m. weaxan. wave: Ph 97: weadaed. wedende. see ge-. lips: W. fold-. 149. ap. Weald1085. 1316. welan. see saewearoo ii . 495f. ii. weallende. 567. Wi. Lord: ns. W2. weardode. wedan. beating. inf. El. El.. baeS-. Ph. El. penalty: as.. adj. m.. 3 sg. 347. way: as. weder. 18. 384. See towegan. Wi. see ritSow?bba. weardian. 1238. gs. 3 sg. mold-. wealdan. waef. weather: ns. 1022. n. 512. . see andweardlice. El. w?d. 232. pi. adj. . 18. yrfeweard. See aw?ccan. 21. 543. mpl. wel. 443. 892. 168. np. 309. 718. 927. as. see anwealda. weave. 187. 161. 464.. 752. See Ph. 255. 1043. nsn. 153. weldeed. Ph. pret. 338. El. hold sway. glow: ns. waeg. Ph. wearoS. 54. webbedan. 231 n. V. El. experience: 3 sg. 234. rule: sg. geweaxan. El. hinder-. El. El.. W. m. protector: El. El.GLOSSARY waSema. . | wearhtraef. occupy: of. 3 pi. eorS-. weccaS. El. 26. weardas. 152. wela. Ph. Ph. 85 . 1274. I Ph.. nioSo-. warm. well. persuade: 35. Ph. El.. El. wemend. 135. weard. hot. see wylrn. good deed: a. weaxen. 5i. m. sg. Ph. guardian. 337. wefan. ufe-. 197.. 84. 851. hindan-. -weald. gs... as. El. endure. 3 sg. 2 Ph. Ph. 3 sg. pret. dp. weg. 4.. np. 187. ns.. II 455 inf.. . sign of woe: ns. Ph. see gewelgian. 655. 448 W. f.. Waldend. weardlice. El. El.. n. 13- wood. see and-. Ph.. VI. 206. vs. See gu8-. wceS. 761 opt. kindle: 3 pi. become 3 pi. hope: Ph. 732 See Oferwealdend. hold possession inhabit. 55. See ead-. Ph. dp. 1284. weald. 172. Ph. woruldwela. for-. sun: ns. wealth: gs. Ignd-. rage: El. 26. wa^eman. 445. Wi. 213. weardiaS. increase: weox. El. walde. Pn. Ph.. 1150. wen. hot: nsf. wel- 3 pl- weardedon. f. wegan. 631. welgian.. w?bba. evil deed. sin: El. wealdas. 3 pi. 938. forS-. 773. m. El. Hf-. 1101. -weard. see unweaxen. forest: ds. El. Ruler. 482. 1 wmme. glowing: nsn. rightly: Ph. ism. weaxetS. wedra. candle of the sky. wedres. 1067. 80.. devise: 2 pret. 28. east-. abode of felons: wearhtreafum (hell). rd. upweard. weatacen. El.. Ph. El. wealdest. El. ptc. 477- surging. webbian. weoxan. weccan. m?re-.. 12. 3 pi. 78i . pret. m. pret. W2. bi-. 547.. riches. 880. onweald. revealer. wedercpndel. grow. 5i6. 57- W. weleras.. waken: 3 sg. discloser: wearmian. 450. wealde. -wealda. weave: ns. 914. wearm. daedum. Waldend. See a-. Ph. welm. wematS. endes. 182. 421... weman. see unw?mme. weardaS. adv. 61. W2.. m. wearda>. siSweg. 391.

El. 596. See a-. 417. cast. wyrSeS. El. wretched: wk. 3 sg. wendan. 236 human gs. npm. expectation: ds.. honor: 636. 559. revile: 2 pl. El. 230. weorj>e5. El. weorpan. wk. dp. weorSeti. see daeg-. weorjMaS. company: is. 15. etc. 387 npn. 394 np. werum. Ph. Ph. turn: 348. ship: 1196. as. 588. weorSan. Ph. weres. miserable. change: inf. El. 1038. gp. sg. be. 1304. See lindweorud. 336. El. El. weregan. Ph. El. El. El.. people. I W. w?rian. ap. 401 3 sg. 543. 584. 445. See geweorSian. 478. 952. $ weorudlest. weras. 39. weorodum.. 429. 782. is. werode. wera. weorSen. Ph. see uSweota. gp. weartS. pi. 3 sg. Wi. . 867.. worpene. weroda. . weorSmynd. no. El. El. . . imagine: pret. f. ip. 1117. 295. El. 60. -weorp. 475. 80. depart: wende. ns. dp. El. El. clothe: pp... hrawerig. 3 pi. expect: pret. werge. Ph. throw: pp. . ge-. 849. gp. 428. weoruda. El. weorSung. 1222. 668. 575. wenan. weorSod. weorud. El. n. 304. pret. Wi. 537. weota.. pret. adore. -w?nden. weorcum. 211. dp. See geweorSan. 378. opt. 1222. 20. 584. to-. 844. wurde. 440. 3 sg. 785 Ph. 546. 5. multitude: ds.. weoredum. 3 sg. El. hope: pret. 508. opt. El. werge. 63. ds. . 581. 1085. El. 407. weorca. Mediterranean Sea: d. wor El. think: wena]?. 19. manweorc. daeg-. 231. weorod. 130. 257. H37. weorSian. Wendelsae. El. w?rgSu. 547. 1104. n.. npm. 897. curse. 287. ge-. adj. 465. 2 wurde. El. El. Wi. 14. weor^aS. m. . Ph. 1150. GLOSSARY wenan. 3 pi. ns.. 959. wer. wende. 3 pi. 475. werig. 357. 3 pl. 681 565. wenaS. 314. 1243. see edw?nden. weras. El. gs. El. werede. El. El.. weorSode. . El. El. 341. 294.. ap. pr. 598. want of men: ds. m. W. 1278. Ph. (18 times) 3 pi. El. 688. 304. 85. See also wita. 94. deed. Wi. weres. See a-. u.232 wena. 62. inf. W. 49. W. gp. work: ns. ns. 3 sg. 1177. 503. 404. 961. 1 pret. inf. 240. h?re-. 42. honor: W2. be ing: gs. as. wiSweorpan. El. n. El. 976. El. weorode. El. sincweorSung. 53. gs. 309. as. onw?ndan. wendon. werod. El. man: ns. 478. 3 sg. 187. pret. f. El. opt. 3 sg. El. f. 364. pret. werod. wene. wera. 978. 979. El. Ph. 596. wende. 386. Ph. n.. 22. weorc. wurdon. 48. apparel. 72. wereda. W. 891. Ph. 9. El. gs/weorces. act. male: weres. nsf. 357| w?rgan. El. 351. Ph. 158. El. condemnation: wergSe. weorcean. Ph. El. . werodes. 1318. El. 211. El. 967. 527.weorSodon. El. El. III. See assembly: as. 220. 56. ip. Pn. El. 1281. i Ph. become: El. El. see geweorp. weoroda. weortSeden. See gewerian. El. pret. Ph. see beweorcean. 752. wergdon. 1049. El. 33i. 343. weorude. pp. 59. El. werum. 142. werodleste. Ph. Ph. sg. 372. curse. El. 763 vpm. 659. El. W. See ferho -. 223. wende. Ph. 815. 564. host: ns.. weor>an. III. 3 pi. 3 pi. 789. weor6aj>. dom-.

sie. 131. wifes. bi}>. 969. W2. 1304. npm. wej>el. adv. woman: gs. El. widan ferh?S. n. ns. (15 times) Ph.. werSeod. 777. wicstow. westenne. 1038. 1196. 239. 3 pi. 7. 526. etc. 19. El. 923. 89.. 1288. see neawest. wsere. See 4. n. 1229. W. m. El. 96. 394. 815. 3 pi. El. . biS. etc. 31. 340. waes. W. synt. battle: El. 373. ns. 430. 1081 Ph. wid. 1182. (34 times) Ph. . -wet. 50. 742. part: ap.. for ever: El. 465. Ph. far: 277. 463. westward: westan. wlcedon. Ph. 46. 2 pi. 740. 637 opt. El. 116. El. from the west: werigmod. Ph.. 826. western westdselas. ds. 675. El. 1. adv. El. 626.. npm. sie. W. 171. Ph. 2 sg. Ph. exist: sg. El. 605. wide. adv. times) times) 58. 26. 62. sindon. ip. 22. 528. pret. widsceop. 474. pret. 508. wide. weary in soul: nsm. beotS. . westdael. ?o. El. opt. 314. 969. 893. 512. dp. 611. 223. El. 643. 3 sg.. 31. 233 Ph. eardwic.. 801. 2 sg. 9. as. 3 pi. dsn. 201 as. 19. 1144. Pn. Ph. -west. m. ds. El. f. 169. adj. 1267 . adv. adj. Ph. I W. W. Ph. 310. 474. Ph.. 468. . etc. Ph. deserted. np. wifum. wieron. 622 sy. female sex: hades. 491. 825. 15. 7. 3 sg. 161. 611. sg. f. Ph. El. widan ferfiS. 761. westen. El. . .. 1222. 4. wicum.. 3 sg. El. wicg. 1132. Ph. 467. W. 3 sg. adj werigferhSe. 48. 707.. Ph. si. wic. wilder ness: ds. 297. Ph. 165. 82. El. El. W. naes. Ph. wlcode. weste. 544. n. W. widan. 489. pret. extended: nsm.. nis. war. dwelling. n. horse: as. wigges. etc. Pn. . wig. widan. i. numerous: 6. 60. 3 sg. 612. 799. 379. 435911 . 661 i wldsceope. 428. waste. anv.. 630. wif. 38. El. dsm. Pret. ds. See 54. wk. 465. El. 71. 639. 789. 25. El. El. 339. See ge wician. dp. 1295. dwelling-place: wicstowe. ns. com. Negative: 3 3. 1289. etc. . El. man Ph. . secluded: werj>eode. 397 (89 times) Pn. 17. beo)>. we8el. f. 19. Pn. etc. 480. 184. El. 4. El. 40. El. 162.GLOSSARY weary-hearted : werigf erh$. npm. 754 Pn. 810. 12. El. fyrhS. asf. . poverty: abode. dp. wifum. Ph. wer^eodum. (14 times) Ph. 286. great. El. see fyrwet.. blotS. wlgge. Ph. adj. 280. gs. . 22. eart. 432. Ph. 74. 5. 37. 340. 809.. . 64 . sion: as. 773. 8. . west. wesan. 66. ii. pret. weseS. sg. 516. 6. 159. be. n. 443. 291 3 pi.. . inf. 1308. (23 (26 55. desert. Pr. 131. 817.. El. 22. 655 . werod. waere. 185. 82. naere. 1321. sien. adj. El. . 161. Pn. Ph. . wiges. mfn. El. 325. waes. Ph. 97. etc. 171. 236. wk. gs. is. Ph. sint. wide. El. 470. i. wif- 991 Ph. wk. Ph. 211. . 1243. El.. i sind. 359. El. 1016. syndon. 59. waeron. people: El. . wlfhad. wide. wician. see weorud. Pn.. W. 744. i El.. El. Ph. 623. sg. encamp: 3 sg. widely. El. 357. 448. Ph. 131.. (16 times) . 542. as. 65 El. apm. Ph. 37. 426. El. nation. Ph. werj>eode. 255. . 3 sg.

.. wilda. 267. noldon. 223. 245 year: gp. El.. owiht. aught: Ph. see wil-. m. asm. delightful plain: ds. 420.. 470. glad. 344. wintergewaede. El. m. ns. Ph. [wild(d)eor. wils?le. ' 43J choice: Ph. lord: wilgiefa. . vs. is. 456. 465 El. woldon. gp. wolde. 633. victory: as. El. El.. wk. will- 32. m. 1016. wiggjrsece. 89. wintres. contest. | wigSracu. See aesc-. 984. f. glad glad pilgrimage: as. El. 684. 162. 492. wiggende. willan. delight: ip. Ph. 472. 580. -win. pi. wille. np. W.... 971 woldan. Ph. 152.. wlsestar . wigan. W. Ph. El. wile. 109. El. pret. ds.. willgifa. 18. 938. windan. date: ap. El. 1160. f. 3 pi. 678.. 57. winde. will. 608. n... 469. Negative 3 Pn. 1153. El. gs. as. . . winter: gs. 363. 963. 201. Pn. n. 150. 814. 1112. gp. . Ph. desire: ns. wintra. wintergeweorp. 448. El. wintergerim. see be-. adj. El. ns. dp. opt. 3 sg. ip.. 343wilder. 150. adj.. Ph. i wis. El. Ph. wilde. Ph. 4. El. 3 pi. wig^rsece. devoted retinue: wilgedryht. . Ph. 2. 565. 40. n. 773. wild beast: gs. adj. Ph. news: ds. m. wilgifa.. wigan. gp.. 361. ion. ruler. winter storm: ns.. Pn. willan. 213. . 149. gp. f. 1252. El. El. nsn. El. wille. El. wildne. wintrum. 217. 3 sg. super. 452. wiht. 1264. 984. 342. GLOSSARY El. wildra. El. 1 wilsIS. lindwigend. willum.. 164. 994. 219. 1071. will-. 106. wildres. 3 : sg. attrac wir. ns. winemaeg. 26. as. Pn. gs. wilspella. El. wire: ip. Seodwiga. 165. wild: nsm. ip. wolde. El. f. El.. 566. wise. 790. willum. pleasant hall: ns. strife: ds. 182. wiga. sg. Ph. 221. warrior: ds. tion: gs. 35. 112. 19. Ph.. 66. 153. ant: gladdened. 1080. m. willsele. willan. see gewin.. wish: 592. 420. 43 9. 246. El. winter. wilspel. 179. ds. n. see unwillum. anv. El. El. 658. 466. gs. nsm. 828. wilwong. m.. wind-driven: nsn. Ph. H35J El. wille. El. wigena. 1090. king. wirum. W. El. ds. 399. wine. willum. m. beast. 394. rejoiced: nsm. wigsped. 1272. prudent: sg. dear 'kinsman: np. willum. is. See spelle. 1132. as. 32 pret. 1136. willa. m. 61. Ph. 430 El. wilsum. m. 1196. n. delicious: dpmn. willan. El. willan. 2 sg. adj. wihte. nele. El.. willan. El.. onwindan. winterscur. Ph. willwonge. Ph. 574. adj. 1117. Ph. ap. wind: ns. winter shower: ns. wira. Ph. El. warrior: ns. wilsuman. willhreSig. joy. 537. 250. m. i Ph. wigge.. wk. El. 37. wilfaegen. sec goldwine. El. wilhreSig. 193. 654.234 1189. wile. 486. willgifan. sg. wilgifan. wintergewaedum. as. ds. 529. 789. 681. El. exult winemagas. El. 815.. Ph. Ph. 611. El. Ph. willslo . See byrn-. wigend. Ph. anything. will. m. 63. 621 .] wind. 428. m. wigona. 1085. El.. winter garment: ip. adj. npm. 2 woldon. windig.

III. 2 witan. 513. El. 334. 516 dsf.. 588 witgena. 459. as. I. as. wite. 3. wi5socon. 65 . 666.. 617. wiSsacan. El.. 180. El. 357. El. Ph. wiSsaece. nat. wise. torment: 520 dp. wiShyccge. wlanc. -El. torture. fact: np. tion: as. El. witan. 1189. 1122.. ap. gewitt. 596. sage: 351. reproach for: opt. El. wise. 592. reject: El. 640. wiSsoc. 1240. . . wk. wiSsocun. gaze: 3 3 pi. sg. wiSroten. 72. W.. 3 sg. El. 185. 618. as. El. gainsay. 314. 616. ip. 323. gen. wlitescyne. ace. wite. gp. resist: Wi. wita. wiston. 663. Ph. learned: npm. nsf. 569. w. n. f. 401 inf.. to: El. El. El. wltum. 926. . also pp. 609. wiSopt. fair. > m. El.. opt. 1040. Ph. ns. 451. El. brightness: ns. wita. resist: 84. El. imper. wisan. El. Pn. reject. m. glance. wisfaest. pi. lovely. El. wiShycgan. .. El.. witon. i 946. asm. 18. . El. 469. Ph. see unwislice. wis939.. See geondwlitan.. wite. against: El. Ph. way of escape i as. wiS. see andwlita. 44. witan. fyrnwita. w. loathe: opt. 385. II.. see wlonc.. ns. 561 . sg. wat. wlitan. w. 823. 77. gs. prophet. witS- sg. See weota. pret. witebroga. wiSerhycgende. withstand. wk. return. nysse. 169. El. wisdom: 357. 245- El. wiste. wise man: ae-. El. W. El.GLOSSARY El. contend against. sec gewitan. adj.. 332. 771 . 1188. El. nourishment: wisfaeste. El. opposition. 394- np. hostile. witum.. sg. m. 525. wiste. upbraid with. El.. El. 289. pret. nyton. 767. 341 . witigan. m. wl?ncan. know: 419. Ph. El. i i pi. defy: pret. VI. n. El. against: El. wliten. 3 pi. m. look. gs. Ph. wlslice. m. 153. 1144. El. Pn. wit. 837. El. 1243. m. nyste. 933 pret. . wiSercyr. Ph. ma 952. 1319. Ph. Wi. f. domes. witgan. 3 sg. Pr. 1191 as. dat. adj. 235 prep. beauty. J 3 sg. 932. wisan. 719.. 14. Negative: El. ment: 1153. prophecy: Ph. wita. El. 294. 1030.. 548. 355. wiSersaec. wat. El. 765 wlitao". El. 308. 1203. 390. 544. asn.. food. scorn. 403. Ph. see bewitigan. beauteous of as pect. 32. levolent: nsm. Ph. adj. El. pret. wiSsaecest. delightful: 318. witebrogan. 3 sg. manner: W. 75. suffering: gp. El. 860. 16. Ph. contradic as. 369 . El. . 938 30. wlitigan. adj. wiSwurpon. witan. 307 (2). wisestan. custom. I pi. wisdom. witga. pret. Ph. El. witgan.. 684. i sg. gp. El. 2 pi. 3 sg.. with: El. 3 sg. wlitig. as. 543.. apm. 1182. El. Ph. witedom. ap. 359. 64. El. 3 sg. 369. 7. 674. 12. opt. El. 3 sg. 165. W. sace. 815 . Ph. ds. wlite. against: 416. wlat. 617. 77. . see gewl?ncan. Pn. gs. pret. pret. see inwit. wioVeorpan. 439. El. wiste. prp. $ wiSreotan. deny: 2 sg. 644 . nsm. 644 . See sundorwis. 67. 927. 416. with: El. horrible punishns. El. wist. forsake: soc. beautiful. beautiful: nsm. wlita. wlitigan. 2 pi. El. 3 sg. 3 pi. 334. 30.

1072. 43. 543. 994. adj. wornas. Ph. ds. 72 comp. worpod. wordum.. wlitige. wonhydige. gs. See graes-. worde. n. El. womsceaSa. np. body.. field. W. 582. Ph. 2. 1238. dp. m. gs. 1284. 43. see wan. st?de-. ns. proud. WQm. 1104. 411. 314. wlitigurn.. Ph. 1310. belly: Ph.. 598. 1168. El. 255. El. wangstede. destruction: neorxna-. day on earth: dp. . speech: craeftes. 287. stately: nsm. Ph. 1003. 425.. woS song 659. super. womns. 127. Ph. treasure of world: ap. 4i8. mysterious El. as. 456. GLOSSARY Ph. 749. El. 492. El. . 343. place: ds. woruldstund. wordes. Ph. 363. El. 385. 537. El.. 547. 1191. Ph. sinful. El. 825. wolcen. Ph. wongas. 169. wlitige.. womb. 48 w6$. Ph. Ph. blemish.j worulda. 2. foolish: apm. Pn. worie. Ph. 61 np... W. El. world ]?urh without end). 105. terror. gp. wordum. 655. 1252. poetic skill: crsefte.. ns. wlitige. 1272.. % wordcraeft. 1153. 662. 24. woruldgestreon. guilty: apm. 9. 508. 794. 65. 221. El. 4. 149. Ph. n. El. Ph.. sceaSan. 544. in El. gp. m. is. El. 4. El. wo)>a. . nsm. wgnhydig. sinner: wom- worulde. as. W. gs. Pr. m... 334. brightly: wlitigfaest. woruldwelan. W. El. 452. wanges. 50. ds. wonges. ma. woScraefte.. n. 132 . Pn. El. 89. El. pp.. El. 27. adj.. 761. kingdom o) ds. ag*: El. worian. 281. prayer: ip. heave: opt. Ph. wopes. Ph. ap. 592. woruldwela. toss.| woruld worulda. n. Ph. 6. 1319. El. 13. asn. wordgeryne. 440. stone: El. f. Wi. woruldrice. f. ns. 1142. word: 440. word. npm. tl WQng. adj. wlitigra. m. 85. 21 1 Pn. 307. woma. 344. np. El. 1277. np. world. . ipmfn. number. w<?ngst?de. 662 (in. wlitegaste.. wgn. 71. 304.. 43. adj. Ph. wil- woruldgedale.. El. / woruldgedal. sige-. ns. beauty: changeless nsm. 247.. 19. 581. ds. 351. 770 this world: 1049. cloud: ns. womfulle. 363. multitude.. 394. 419. poetic wlonc. El. Ph. wonge. m. wolcna. El.. Ph. El. wordcraefte. El. worulde. as. world: 117. worldly posses sion: ap. Ph. woSa. m. 184. illusion: f. wop. El. El. as. Ph. 100. 7. woruld. m. W2. wordum. 439.. 501. sin: El. 1274. 569. 749. wo'Scraeft. El. 4.. strain: gp. Ph.. woruldstundum. 452. death. El. adv. El. 559. shout: ip. 51. 1132. n. 139. 633. worn. gp. m. El. 939. ns. wordgeryno. weeping. 893. Pn. tumult: ns. Ph. Ph. El. see gewlitigan. 771 voice: 724. 551. is. 589. is. 529. 548. as. wlitigan. El. asf. lamentation: ns. See ligeword. Ph. 41. 583. wong. wloncum. . 1299. 338. wolcnum.236 89 . gp. 130. 231 dpm. 684.. 19. . speech: behest: as. . 3 sg. El. Ph. f. Ph. throng: as. 946. 181. 763. plain: gs. 203 165. El. ap. worda. 398. m. ing: 323ap. gs. W. 561. 979. m. is. sound. 89. ip. say 289. Ph. n. 990. 320. 45. Ph. womful. wk. worpian. wlanc. wordart: El. 749.

ns. cover. king of glory: ns. gp. adv. adj. 747. wraechwile. Pr. 67. El. Pn. wuldorgeofa. wolf: ns. asn. 516.. ds. 867. wuldorcyning. camp-. Ph. See on2 pi. El. wraS. I. bearwes. variegate: wundor. as. 130. Ph. ds. 84. opt. 1321 . 34. Pn. See awritan. 77..] [Cf. See brim-. 1182. wuldre. 609. Wi.. Ph. grove: gs. wudubled. wood: ns. 85. period of exile: ds. 759. 823. wrixlan. 186. nsm. wuldorgifu. f. El. vance: V. as. 1040. wraetlicra. El. asf. El. 16.. 65. as. 666 (wuldre. pret. i glorious: adj. wraetlice. as. misery: As. 1150. 551. write. 37 Ph. Ph. 63. 813. Ph. pp. is. 3 sg. wraec. 1182. 1304.. El.628. evil: wraechwil. 178. perversely: f. wuldorgifa. m. 801. 567. Ph. wraecmaecg. El. El. 50. Ph. 527.. nsn. wrixleo". Ph. 5. 17. wuduns. change: 3 sg. 537. wroht. 84.. Ph. m. misfortune: ns. carol: wund. press forward. weave: trill. 514.. Ph. 387. wound: n. f. 598. 194. wrecan. wunde. f. 27.. 1020. 51. 752. 47 bleda. 295. m. wuldorcyninges. write: sg. 1072.. Pn. wreon. asf. El. wrohtstaef. Ger. Pn. 37. El. holtwudu. f. El.. wraetlic. W. marvelous. wratSum. 294. . wriSene. wood: Ph. 727. Ph. m. beauteous: wrstlicran. dp. 367. 583. 844. 217. wridian. f. flourish: 3 wuldorfaest. wr^ccan. wuldorfaeste. wudubearo. wreon. comp. wrixleS. won wuda. 782. 165. El. El. miserable man: vp. Ph. 475. awake. warble. 386. 309. 1030. m... forest wudubledum. 963. pi.. 232. wraetlicum. support... 612. 291. See be-. Ph. 3 sg.. wuduholt. Ph. 926. m. writan. pret. curi 378. wuldorgifum. Wi. El. wudubeam.. ously). Ph. m. splendidly: Ph. El.. El. miracle. thrive. npf. 117. treachery: ns. 247 . glorious gift. 112.. glory: gs. Ph.. 307. Ph. comp. wrenca. W. 1090. wraecmaecggas. gs. cyninge. El. crime. 75. wuldres. m. Ph. wraSu. wudu. conceal: I. wraSe. 27. See sarwracu. El. 237. wechseln. wraece. gs. ad 1047. 75. El. wraetlicost. adv. wridaS. nsm. tree: gp. 828. wrigon. wraetlice. ap. Ph. ap. 1117. 738. 28. wraj>e. hostile: perverse: wuduholtum. npm.. 662. vengeance: 495. 294. W. See andwraS. artistically: ously: super. 85. El. 439. 19. ap. help: as. arouse: inf.GLOSSARY wracu. composition: 133. perverted. Ph. wuldre. 967. dpm. El. wrixleo". 24. n. sg.. Ph. 542.. 169. 121. towrecan. W. 4. 318. wonder. 9. f. El. 152. n. 420. 681. nsf. wrohtstafas. writ. fruit: . strangely: bearwe. ns. 1252.. wuldor. Ph. 89. wuldords. Ph. El. beama. drous: dsn. W2. 127. 893. 196. wriSan. giver of glory: ns. 1124. wr?nc. 548. 588. El. I.. grace: ip. wulf. Ph. adj. 106. wraSe. see gewrit. 1135. forest. wuduwuduwududp. m. glori El. El.. El. 362. 459. 3 35. m. El. Ph. forest. 294. sin. see gnyrnwraec. twist.. wrsecon. 89.

Wi. Ph. wynnum. El. 1124. Wi. wunade. wunigan. wyn. Ph. adj. 70. wyn- sume. Ph. be: 3 sg. 109. 65. 348. wynsumu. 583. 653 . See 1047. 1064. delight. 9.. charming. wunaS. 331 pret. El. well-spring: dp. wynne. 480. as. ravishing.. pret. make. wundorlice. 3 a-. wyrdan. 16. 27 . Ph. wyrged. El. ip. El. wynsume. 69 .. surge: El. inf. npn. pleas El. 133. 541. see andwyrde. 27. . El. Pn. 451. 1256. 80. crimson: is. m. . 19. Ph. dp. 1040. 46. El. heaSowylm. wundorwyrd. wyrdan. event: El. pleasant. Ph. El. wonderfully: comp. wundorgp.. 3 sg. See ge- gs. wynsumum. Ph. Ph. f. wundrian. El. 65.. 63. fate: ns. 3 sg. wyrdetS. wynne. 237. pret. Ph. wynsum. 813. as. wundra. f. wonder: wundriaS. wynlgnd. wunode. El. re wyrcan. 318. i sg. wundorlicne. ge-. Pn. adj. Ph... 12. 468. 294. wyrceS. nsm. Ph. fair: n. wundra. 765.. 1090. wunian. wundrade. maker: Ph. gs. . wundorwyrd. as. 54J Ph. worhte. 363. 307. 589. 278. El. wunodest. See sg. 789. 63. W. create: 3 sg. work: worhte. 283 swell. 3 pi. 609. 359. Ph. wondrous: asm. El. 2. m. wundorlic. wuniaS. 959. 779. joy. El. 827. El. Pn. El. wunao". 1238. asn. 7. m. Ph. destroy: 904. pret. activity: as. tree of delight: as. wyllestreamas. ap. n. m. 394. wunia>. wyllan. See gewunian. 232. npf. -wyrht. see awyrged. 470. . El. 45. Pr. delightsome: Ph. 196. opt. El. wylm. See soSwundor. 290.. 230. El. 3 sg. m. marvel: 1 1 897. apf. 172. adj. see gewyrht. 313. ns. Pn. 203. 105. El. inf. 3 pi. 1299 . 908. nsm. bliss. wondrous power: W. 411. asm. W. 394. wylmes. worhte. destiny: gp. 43- 3 sg. Ph. 85. El. 194. 3 sg. 1028.. Ph. El. nsm. adv. Ph. 22. Ph. 342. wundorlicor. wynsumast. num. Ph. do. Ph. Ph. 105. Ph. dwell. Pr. El. Wundrum. wurman. 82. 1071. 1254. creator. Ph. gewyrcan wyrd. 827. ungewyrded. 127. 867. 624. Ph. 1310. stream: 39.. f. wundrum. Ph. El. 641. Ph. Ph. 181 807 . Ph. wynsumra. 13. . nsm. Ph. wyn 345. marvel. wynsumra. fact: as.. 2 sg. 950 3 sg. Hce. as.. 362. heafod-. 659.. 529. wynn. W2. See ad-. Ph. wyllestreama. Ph. 794 . 3 sg. Ph. wynsumne. Ph. 844. scyld-. wynbeam. ds. wonderful event: as.. gpf. 602 . pret. npf. welm. 191. 580. 724. wyrhta. main: wunaS. sg. 245 . Ph. for-. 25. 978. Ph. blissful land: Ph. W2. well: np. np. El. ip. wyrda. Ph. W. welling stream: gp. ure: ns. sup. El. wynlic.. El. wuna>. wylla. wyllestream. wondrously. El. 363. 821. 367. 34. -wyrde. 82. 155. 3 wunode. live. 1102. synwyrcende. 130. gp. .. pret. cear-. ipf. as. wylme. lake: flod-. 1297. wunige. 1020 . wyrda. See Hfwyn. Ph. wyllegespryngum.238 GLOSSARY ns. gp. as. 12. wyllegespring. haunt: inhabit: comp. 3 sg. wurma. W. El. ns.. 386. m. strangely..

66. Ph. 94- m. Y.. see aelde. 1255. npm. yppe. 68 surface of wyrsa. 43 . m. 10. sur ymbseald. 271. 1064. 1181. 44. Ph. W. gp. 360. to: ySmearh. f. inheritance. yrnan. ymbsllan. ace. Ph. 190. adj. otSywan. 52. about. El.. concerning. Ph. yrfeweard. wrath: as. dp. 438. wyrmum. ip. grasp: 3 sg. ymbe. 239 rd. m. wyrSe. 405. 273. the El. wave: f. 573. 33. 560. ywan.. El. ymbs^ttan. f. El. after: 383. ymbfehS. n. wyrtum. El. heritage: El. 47. Ph. Ph. dp. Ph. wyrta. 172. np. sorrow. wyrta. El. 196. Ph. ySfaru. wyrt. Ph. 614. ymbsealde. f. old age: ns. 1071. ap.. as. ns. sec gewyrtian. with reference 541. El. spice: np. yslan. root: ip. 959. on 534. 869. ash. 408. Ph. El... 214. sur round: ymbseteS.. 292. beside. ySmearas. prep. Pn.. worst: apm. W. yShof. ship: ap.. Pn. Ph. restan. See arwyrSe. yldran. Ph. Ph. nsf. 619. ySfare. yldo. ns. n. yfla.GLOSSARY wyrm. 232.. earth: El. 902. as. 572. forefather: np. 435. as. 493. billowy ocean: Ph. El. 932. 1290. Ph. ds.... 265 . Ph. ap. 52. wyrtian. is. 239. El.yrm}>u. Ph. woe: . W. 576. Ph. ip. 50. adj. m. El. yslan. worse: dsn. 529. as. See sealtyS. m. 565. 291. Pn. Ph. f.. ymbfon. Ph. 460. adj. Ph. wyrtum. ySm^re.. 493. wyrtum. ysle. y5a. 305. 136. rush of billows: around: El. ymbsittend. wave-dwelling. w. wyrwyrsan. uppermost: ylde. 430. adv. yrre. as. dear. Ph. 18. 685. ermSum. yldran. worm: ns. ocean-steed. dp.. 953. Ph. wyrta. dp. Ph. adj. . eorre. Ph. wyrresta... compass. 442. 376. 1320. yfle. Wi... yrre. El.. El. 39. yrfes.. misery. 742. eorne. wyrta. El. 286. yfela. 594. n. yldu. yldra. 213. Ph. 164. yrnb. Ph. gs. 653. m. y"5. Ph. surface: .. account of. Wi. yfemest. yfel. 61 . 1040. 194. 60. 474. wyrtum. Ph. cinder: ap. 224. El. ymbhwyrft. El. 768. Ph. ap. 252. known: nsn. anger.. yShofu. n. 465.. yfele. npm. 401. ge-. wyrta. m. Ph. wyrtum. evil: El. 614. yrfe. ship: as. 49. 227. 414. 276. angry: asm. precious: wyrSe. 260.. 731. heir: yrrnSu. plant: gp. encompass. El. Ph. round: pp.. 204. f. see aet-. adj. gp. 664. ymbsktendra. gp. see ayrnan. flood. 272. neighbor: gpm. np.. El.


P. under wilgifa: as. 1296. P. for i. last line: Absurditie (Works. 177. under witan: I for Wi. 235. 352. under bisceawian: bisceawaS. 293 should be waegflota: as. ed. he. 1827: R. Ph. 192. 956. under heard: ipn. to last line. under wer: El. variant. 196. P. P. losephes. glaedra. 60). under gebrosnian: crumble. P. 183. MS. -e. . for 187. 691 should be is. 191. under 550*: An. under ful: El. 223. 961. 7. cubits'. 1. under gastgeryne: ip. J. I. 169. P. P. 161. P. P.. variant. 173. Edd. for dp. under 15 He. end of for nineteenth read ninth or tenth. 12 read Job 12. 232b . 848. 829. 200. under snyttro: El. P. P. 7 552-69. 25. xxxiv. P. for heorucumbul P. under lyftlacende: asm. 313. 509. 107. add See also fyrgenEl.. P. 107. P. 46. P. prep. here-. f. fourth in See the note on An.. leoht. 102. stream. 165. variant. second quotation Europe. gecynd: f. 57 should be apm. P. variant. for dp. 147. under ?loeodig: eadwelan. on. 352. daegweorSung: ap. 176. P. 94. 839 should be gs. Stephanus. 121. 909. 29). 178. 218. 124. 5 : : : : ELENE 25.. 232. asn. P. variant. P. for ds. under firgenstream. So. 7 4>olvi^.ERRATA P. i insert W. 201. under gen: before Pr. under cumbul: see eofor-. n. 1. under gleaw: El. heoru-. under 939 should be nsm. under 556 iudad. under wisfaest: El. an-. sltS-. P. 138. D. under fruma: El. title: PHCENIX. F. fifth line Krapp's edition. 167. Edd. . El. 163. P. Wortschatz. MS. 315. Alt. under npm. under galdor: ip. under 69 leaslice lices wynne.for one-. fourth paragraph delete for On read On'. 89. for dp. h?recumbul. 313. 386 (and delete the last entry). Anz. B. 179. P. aenlicra. . 122.. : insert 922 in 1. for gs. 5. fugelas. under grymetan: nsn. 1095 should be ip. secg. under eadwela. 788. : : P. 824. 639. 1. after 72: P. 314 should be apm. under 1825. i. 1083. for Job. 74. fug[/]as. 279. under as. -h[e]gende. for read hejecumbul. 1049. 96. 234. dp. 1. P. under corSor: El. leoht. for ds. under to. P. P. : . PANTHER 1. f b. lix. Ten Brink (Zs. under craeftig. P. and so for El. geceosaS? alesaS?. ge[ceos]a]>. next under H32b below runes: 1 1 i8 a under . geresteS. for dpn. under breost: El. P. 159. for nsm. PHCENIX 317. 134. P. under Hfwyn: np. 99. 213. should be ip. 189. following 1316: as. under craeft: dp. 1278 : : : : : . second paragraph P. 314 is apm. for ap. before Wa. 235. 173. talade?. h[ere]-. wor[w]ld-. 133. P. under ligesearu: ip. Grosart. 581. under hygeSanc: ip. 230. Chr. -gedale. 314 should be ap. P.













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