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TRNG I HC CNG NGHIP THNH PH H CH MINH

VIN CNG NGH SINH HC V THC PHM

TI

CC TNH CHT CH NNG A PROTEIN NH HNG N CHT NG BNH


Mn hc:

Cng ngh sn xut ng, Bnh, Ko


GVHD: H Xun Hng SVTH: Mai Vn Lc MSSV: 10282891

Thnh ph H Ch Minh,ngy 08 thng 03 nm 2013

Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


I. 1. 2. KHI QUT CHUNG ............................................................................................................ 4 Protein l g? ............................................................................................................................ 4 Cu to phn t protein ........................................................................................................... 4

2.1. Thnh phn nguyn t ca protein .......................................................................................... 4 2.2. n v cu to c s ca protein ............................................................................................. 4 2.3. Cc bc cu trc ca protein .................................................................................................... 4 3. 1. Vai tr ca protein trong cng ngh thc phm ...................................................................... 5 Protein trong bnh. .................................................................................................................. 6 II. TNH CHT CHC NNG PROTEIN NH HNG N CHT LNG BNH ....... 6 1.1. Protein trong nguyn liu chnh bt m. ............................................................................... 6 1.2. Protein trong mt s nguyn liu khc .................................................................................... 7 2. nh hng ca protein n cht lng bnh........................................................................... 8 2.1. To mng gel ........................................................................................................................... 8 2.2. Ht nc, trng n v to bt nho dai do, n hi. ......................................................... 10 2.3. Gi kh v to c cu trc, hnh dng cho sn phm. ............................................................ 11 2.4. Lm bn cc nh tng bnh................................................................................................. 11 2.5. To bt trong khi bt nho .................................................................................................. 11 2.6. Tng cht lng dinh dng sn phm ................................................................................. 12 2.7. To mu sc c trng cho sn phm .................................................................................... 12 3. ng dng trong cc sn phm bnh ...................................................................................... 13 KT LUN ................................................................................................................................... 14

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh M U


Loi ngi bit lm bnh t thi trung c,nhng chic bnh u tin c sn xut ra t nc Anh.Nhng chic bnh u tin c lm ra ch t mt s t nguyn liu nh: bt m, mui v nc. Vo thi y, lm bnh l mt cng vic nng nhc v vic n bnh cng khng d dng, bnh mun n c phi ngm vo cc loi thc ung nh tr, sa, nc, hoc sp cho mm mi dng c. Ngi Vit Nam bit n bnh biscuit khi ngi Php mang chng n nc ta trong chin tranh vo khong cui th k th 19. Ngy nay, nguyn liu dng sn xut bnh rt phong ph v bnh l mt mt hng c gi tr cao v mt dinh dng v cung cp nhiu nnglng. Nhng nm gn y, ngnh bnh Vit Nam pht trin rc r, khng ch nhiu v s lng m cn phong ph v mu m, gi thnh cng nh cht lng. Bnh ngy nay, c s dng nh mt loi thc n c bn trong cc ba n, bnh c xem nh mt thc phm tng cng dinh dng v c bit bnh cn c dng lm qu biu vo nhng dp L, Tt. c mt sn phm bnh t cc yu cu cht lng v gi tr dinh dng, gi tr cm quan, i hi phi qua nhiu cng on, qu trnh phc tp v yu cu t m. C rt nhiu yu t nh hng n cht lng ca sn phm bnh trong nguyn liu ng mt vai tr ht sc quan trng. Hin nay, cc loi bnh thng c lm ch yu t bt m bi kh nng to ra cu trc gluten c tnh cht c bit to ra bnh c trng. Cu trc phn t protein c nh hng ti cht lng gluten, cht lng ca gluten nh hng quyt nh ti cht lng ca bnh. V vy, tm hiu r hn cc nh hng ca protein n cht lng sn phm bnh nhm em thc hin ti: Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng sn phm bnh. Em mong nhn li nhn xt ca c v em cm n c hng dn tn tnh trong qu trnh thc hin ti.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


I. KHI QUT CHUNG 1. Protein l g? Protein c bt ngun t proteios theo ting Hylap c ngha l quan trng nht. Protein l cc polymer, phn t lng ln ch yu gm L- amino acid kt hp vi nhau bng lin kt peptit to thnh chui polypeptit. 2. Cu to phn t protein 2.1. Thnh phn nguyn t ca protein Tt c cc protein u cha cc nguyn t C, H, O, N. Mt s cn c cha mt lng nh. T l phn trm khi lng cc nguyn t trong phn t protein nh sau: C: 50 55% H: 6.5 7.3% O: 21 24% N : 15 18% S: 0 0.24% Ngoi cc nguyn t trn,mt s protein cn cha mt lng rt nh cc nguyn t khc nh: P, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Ca, 2.2. n v cu to c s ca protein Amino axit l cu t c bn ca protein. Amino axit l nhng hp cht hu c mch thng hoc mch vng trong phn t c cha t nht mt nhm amin (- NH2) v mt nhm cacboxy (- COOH). Cc amino axit thng gp trong protein (trong t nhin) l nhng L--amino axit. Cng thc cu to tng qut ca amino axit:

R: c gi l mch bn hay l nhm bn, cc amino axit ch khc nhau mch R. a s cc protein u c cu to t 20 L--amino axit v 2 amit tng ng. 2.3. Cc bc cu trc ca protein Cu trc bc mt: Cc amino axit ni vi nhau bi lin kt peptit hnh thnh nn chui polypeptide. u mch polypeptide l nhm amin ca amino axit th nht v cui mch l nhm carboxyl ca amino axit cui cng. Cu trc bc mt ca protein thc cht l trnh t sp xp ca cc amino axit trn chui polypeptide. Cu trc bc mt ca protein c vai tr ti quan trng v trnh t cc amino axit trn chui polypeptide s th hin tng tc gia cc phn trong chui polypeptide, t to nn hnh dng lp th ca protein v do quyt nh tnh cht cng

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


nh vai tr ca protein. S sai lch trong trnh t sp xp ca cc amino axit c th dn n s bin i cu trc v tnh cht ca protein. Cu trc bc hai: L s sp xp u n cc chui polypeptide trong khng gian. Chui polypeptide thng khng dng thng m xon li to nn cu trc xon v cu trc np gp , c c nh bi cc lin kt hyro gia nhng amino axit gn nhau. Cc protein si nh keratin, collagen... (c trong lng, tc, mng, sng)gm nhiu xon , trong khi cc protein cu c nhiu np gp hn. Cu trc bc ba: Cc xon v phin gp np c th cun li vi nhau thnh tng bi c hnh dng lp th c trng cho tng loi protein. Cu trc khng gian ny c vai tr quyt nh i vi hot tnh v chc nng ca protein. Cu trc ny li c bit ph thuc vo tnh cht ca nhm -R trong cc mch polypeptide. Chng hn nhm -R ca cysteine c kh nng to cu isulfur (-S-S-), nhm -R ca proline cn tr vic hnh thnh xon, t v tr ca chng s xc nh im gp, hay nhng nhm -R a nc th nm pha ngoi phn t, cn cc nhm k nc th chui vo bn trong phn t... Cc lin kt yu hn nh lin kt hydro hay in ha tr c gia cc nhm -R c in tch tri du. Cu trc bc bn: Kt hp ca cc chui c cu trc bc 3 trong phn t protein. Nhng phn t protein c cu trc t 2 hay nhiu chui protein hnh cu, tng tc vi nhau sp xp trong khng gian to nn cu trc bc 4. 3. Vai tr ca protein trong cng ngh thc phm Protein l cht c kh nng to cu trc, to hnh khi, to trng thi cho cc sn phm thc phm: To cu trc gel cho sn phm Gi kt cu, gi kh, to xp To bn ca bt trong bia To hnh khi cho phomai To mng bao Tng tc vi ng to hng v mu cho sn phm Kt hp vi polyphenol to hng c trng cho tr C nh mi, gi hng Protein cn gin tip to ra cht lng cho cc sn phm thc phm.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


II. TNH HT H NNG PR TEIN NH HNG N HT NG NH 1. Protein trong bnh. Protein c vai tr rt quan trng trong qu trnh hnh thnh nn mt sn phm bnh. Protein trong bnh c ngun gc t cc loi nguyn liu s dng trong cng thc bnh, chng c trong nguyn liu chnh l bt m hoc l t cc nguyn liu ph (sa, trng). 1.1. Protein trong nguyn liu chnh bt m. Hm lng protein trong cc bt m khc nhau th khng ging nhau. Hm lng protein tng dn t hng bt cao n bt hng thp nhng v mt dinh dng th protein trong bt hng cao c gi tr cao hn. Protein ca bt m c chia lm 4 nhm: Albumin: ho tan trong nc . Globulin: ho tan trong dung dch mui trung tnh. Gliadin ( cn c tn l Prolamin): ho tan trong dung dch ru 60-80%. Glutenin: ha tan trong dung dch kim yu 0,2% . Trong 4 loi ni trn th hm lng Anbumin v Globulin chim khong 20%, cn 80% l Gliadin v Glutenlin, v t l hai loi protein ny trong bt m l tng ng nhau. Gliadin: c chia ra lm 4 loi , , (khi lng t 30.000- 45.000 alton ) v ( khi lng t 60.000 - 80.000 alton). Cc gliadin thng tn ti dng n hnh. Trong , , -gliadin th 30 amino axit u u ging nhau trong 20 amino axit u tin to thnh peptide a bo c m u bng lisin, tip tc bng amino axit a bo v kt thc bng gc alanin. Ngoi ra cc cu sulfua lm cho cu trc bc III cht hn. Cn gliadin li cha rt t ( hu nh khng c ) cc amino axit cha lu hunh nn trong n hu nh khng c cu sulfua (trong ch yu l glutamin v prolin chim trn 75%) Glutelin: c tnh a hnh mnh m v c xu hng t lin kt vi nhau bng cc tng tc u bo, lin kt hydro, cu sulfua. Glutenin c cu to t 25 di n v c chia ra lm 3 nhm : A, B, C. Cc di n v ny kt hp vi nhau bng lin kt hydro, tng tc a bo, cu sulfua. Khi cc glutenin lin hp li to thnh si, ngm nc th to thnh mng mng, n hi, chu ko cng . Tnh cht ny cng tng khi cng tng tc v s lng tng tc gia cc chui protein cng tng. Khi c mt t tc nhn oxi ho, cht lng bt nho cng tng. iu chng t cu sulfua c vai tr rt quan trng . Hai protein Gliadin v Glutenlin khng ha tan trong nc m khi nho vi nc th trng ln to thnh mt khi do n hi gi l gluten. Hu ht cc loi ng cc trong thnh phn ch yu l tinh bt v khng c gluten. Chnh nh c gluten m bt m c tnh cht nh to ra n, bng xp, dai, gin ca cc sn phm nh bnh m, bnh ngt, m n lin... v v th tr thnh thnh phn nguyn liu chnh quyt nh n tnh cht ca cc loi sn phm trong ngnh cng nghip ny. Loi la m khc nhau th lng gluten khc nhau. i vi la m bnh thng th lng gluten ti chim khong 20 25% khi lng ht. Gluten mu sng xm, n hi, gin t cao. Thnh phn ha hc ca gluten ph thuc loi ging v cht lng la m. Trung bnh trong gluten sy kh cha khong 85% protein, 2-3 % cht bo, 2% cht khong, cn li khong 10-12% cc cht gluxit.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


nh gi cht lng gluten ngi ta dng cc ch s sau: Mu sc: Gluten tt c mu sng i khi xm hoc hi vng, gluten xu th mu xm. Kh nng ht nc ca gluten: Nu kh nng ht nc ca gluten cao th l gluten tt v vy sau khi xc nh gluten ti phi xc nh lng gluten kh. Bnh thng gluten ti cha 6575% nc. n hi: L tnh cht rt quan trng ca gluten. N th hin kh nng gi kh ca bt. cng t: Cng c trng cho kh nng gi kh ca bt. S thay i th tch gluten khi nng: L ch s quan trng c trng n ca gluten. Cc yu t c th thay i tnh cht vt l ca gluten. Nhit : Nu gim nhit nho th Gluten tr nn cht hn, tng nhit nho th Gluten n nhanh nhng kh nng gi kh km v bnh t n hn. Nhit m gluten trng n trit nht l 40oC. Mui n: c tc dng lm cho Gluten cht li v tng kh nng ht nc ln, cng thy phn protein gim i r rt. Cng nho:c tc dng lm tng qu trnh to hnh Gluten nhng lm gim kh nng gi kh ca Gluten. Axit Ascorbis, Kali bromat, peroxyt v mt s cht oxy ha khc: c tc dng lm cho Gluten cht hn. Cht kh: c tc dng hn ch s pht trin ca mng gluten. 1.2. Protein trong mt s nguyn liu khc Trong sn xut bnh tng gi tr cm quan, gi tr dinh dng ca sn phm bnh ngi ta thng b sung cc nguyn liu giu protein nh sa, trng, Protein trong trng,sa c s dng nh cht kt dnh cht bo v to hng v trong cc sn phm bnh t cht bo, to cu trc v v ngon trong cc sn phm bnh (bnh m, bnh ngt, bnh quy gin, v lp v bnh pizza). Sa Hm lng protein ca cc loi sa khng chnh lch nhiu, chng thng nm trong gii hn 3.0-4.6%. Ring i vi sa b hm lng protein khong 3.3-3.5%. Cc protein ca sa l nhng protein hon thin. Trong thnh phn protein ca sa c n 19 loi amin axit khc nhau, trong c y cc acid amin. Trong sa c 3 loi protein ch yu: Casein chim khong 80%, lactalbumin chim 12% v lactoglobulin chim 6% trong ton b lng protein c trong sa v cn mt vi loi protein khc nhng lng khng ng k. Trng Protein trong trng rt hon ho cn c gi l protein l tng.Tnh b dng ton phn ny c chng minh bng gi tr sinh hc ca trng, ngha l ly lng nitrogen ca protein tng cn (sinh c) chia cho lng nitrogen ca protein trng c n vo s c t s bng 1, tc l n bao nhiu protein ca trng vo th s bin by nhiu thnh protein c th. Ly t s ny nhn vi 100 ta s c gi tr sinh hc ca trng l 100, trong khi ca cc thc phm khc lun thp hn.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


Protein ca lng trng ch yu thuc loi n gin v trng thi ha tan; Cn Protein ca lng trng ch yu l Albumin v cng c thnh phn cc amino axit tng i ton din. Trong cc sn phm bnh th ngi ta thng b sung lng trng trng h tr qu trnh to bt. Thnh phn ha hc ca lng trng trng bao gm: Thnh phn Ovoalbumine Ovomucoide Ovomucine Ovoconalbumine Ovoglobuline T l (%) 58.4 14.1 2.0 13.2 11.9

2. nh hng ca protein n cht lng bnh 2.1. To mng gel Khi cc phn t protein b bin tnh tp hp li thnh mt mng li khng gian c trt t th hin tng c gi l s to gel. Polymer-polymer v polymer dung mi tng tc cng nh lc ht v lc y c cn bng nh vy m mt h thng c trt t c hnh thnh (Schmidt, 1981). Cn phn bit cc hin tng tng t nh s to gel, vi cng mt c im chung l lm gim mc phn tn ca dung dch. Khi cc phn t protein b bin tnh tp hp li thnh mt mng li khng gian c trt t gi l s to gel protein nh s lin hp (association), tp hp (aggregation), s kt ta (precipitation), s kt t (floculation) v s ng t (coagulation). ch to gel ca protein trong bnh C ch v cc tng tc c quan h n vic hnh thnh mng protein ba chiu c trng cho gel hin cha hon ton r rng. Nhiu nghin cu ch r rng cn phi c giai on bin tnh v gin mch xy ra trc giai on tng tc trt t gia protein protein v tp hp phn t. Khi protein b bin tnh cc cu trc bc cao b ph hu, lin kt gia cc phn t b t, cc nhm bn ca amino axit trc n pha trong th by gi xut hin ra ngoi. Cc mch polypeptit b dui ra, gn nhau, tip xc vi nhau v lin kt li vi nhau thnh mng li khng gian ba chiu m mi v tr tip xc ca mch l mt nt. Cc phn cn li hnh thnh mng li khng gian v nh hnh, rn, trong c cha y pha phn tn l nc. Khi nng tng th kh nng gel ho tng v s nhng v tr tip xc to ra nt mng li tng ln. Nng protein cng ln th cc ht tip xc trc tip khng qua mt lp no ca ca mi trng phn tn v khi gel cng d v nhng v tr c bit u mt, nhng gc cnh cc yu t bn d b mt do d to ra nt mng li. Cc nt mng li c th to ra do: Lin kt disulfua Theo thnh phn protein, gluten c cc amino axit cha nhm -SH (sistein) to gia cc nhnh v cun li thnh cu trc hnh cu, protein cht li lm cho bt c cu trc vng chc. Nu trong phn t cng t nhm -SH v cng nhiu nhm -S-S- th cht lng

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


gluten tt c ngha l nu t l mi lin kt disulfua tri hn ngha l protein c cu trc bc ba v bc bn nhiu hn th gluten ca bt cht hn , sc cng ln hn, cht lng bnh tt hn. Nh vy cht oxi ho s chuyn lin kt -SH thnh lin kt -S-S- gip to cho khi bt nho c cu trc gel chc chn v do mn.

Tng tc gia cc nhm a bo Khi cc nhm ny gn nhau, tng tc vi nhau th hnh thnh ra lin kt a bo, lc ny cc phn t nc bao quanh chng b y ra v chng c khuynh hng nh t li. Tng tc a bo c tng cng khi tng nhit , lm cc mch polypeptit st li vi nhau hn do lm cho khi gel cng hn. Lin kt hydro gia cc nhm peptit vi nhau, gia cc nhm OH ca serin, treonin hoc tirozin vi cc nhm COOH ca glutamic hoc ca aspactic. Lin kt hydro l lin kt yu, to ra mt linh ng no gia cc phn t i vi nhau, do lm cho gel c mt do nht nh. Lin kt tnh in, lin kt cu ni gia cc nhm tch in ngc du. Kh nng to gel ca protein c s dng to cng, n hi, ci bin kh nng hp th nc, to dy, to lc lin kt (bn dnh) gia cc tiu phn cng nh lm bn bt trong cc sn phm bnh. Ngi ta cng thng thm caraghenat polysulfat (tch in m) vo sa (pH ca sa) to ra ion tng tc c hiu vi vng tch in dng casein K. V th m cc mixen casein c th c cha trong cc gel caraghenat. Khi gel mi to thnh cn cha mt lng ln nc pha trong. Nhiu gel c th cha ti 98% nc. Ngoi lp nc hydrat ho lin kt cht ch vi cc nhm c cc ca chui protein, cn co nc dng dng mi t do. Ngi ta nhn thy, mc d nc b nht ny c tnh cht ging nh nc ca mt dung dch mui long c gi bng lc vt l, vn khng th b y ra mt cch d dng. C th l khi to gel to ra mt ci by nht nc. Hoc cng c th cc l ca mng li protein gi c nc dng mao qun. Khi i t dung dch nc protein, cc giai on u ca qu trnh to gel bng nhit c th nh sau (phng trnh (*)): 1/ Phn li thun nghch cu trc bc bn thnh cc di n v hoc monomer. 2/ Bin tnh khng thun nghch cc cu trc bc hai v ba (s gin mch vn cn l tng phn). (PN)n nPN nPD (*) Trong PN protein t nhin; PD Protein b bin tnh; n - s bit. Ngi ta thy, trng thi gel cui cng tng ng vi cc tp hp protein tng phn b bin tnh (PD)x , (x n) nn c th l phng trnh (**) hoc (***):

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh

Phn u ca phng trnh (**) l phn ng kt ta, phn th hai ca phng trnh (**) l phn ng ng t kh. Trong iu kin thun li cho bin tnh hn l cho tp hp (protein mang in tch ln pH thp hoc cao, lc ion rt yu, c mt s ion, c mt cc tc nhn phn ly nh: ure, guanidin, cc cht ty ra) th s un nng s lm xy ra phn ng theo phng trnh (***). Giai on tp hp cng chm so vi giai on bin tnh th cng c iu kin cc mch polypeptit c gin mch ra tng phn, s c trt t, ng u, trn, trng mnh, rt n hi v trong sut; gel bn, khng b co tch dch. Ngc li cc gel c to thnh t cc tiu phn protein c tp hp th s c, t n hi v c bit khng bn (gel b co v d chy dch). S gin mch cc phn t protein s lm xut hin cc nhm phn ng nht l cc nhm k nc (a bo) ca protein hnh cu. Do cc tng tc k nc gia protein protein s thun li v l nguyn nhn chnh ca vic to tp hp lin tc. Cc protein c khi lng phn t cao v c t l phn trm axit amin k nc cao s to gel c mng li chc. Khi nhit cao cc tng tc a bo s thun li trong khi s hnh thnh cc lin kt hydro li d dng khi lm lnh. S gia nhit cng c th lm phi by cc nhm SH bn trong, do xc tin vic hnh thnh hoc trao i cc cu isulfua. Khi c mt nhiu nhm SH v S-S - s tng cng h thng mng gia cc phn t v gel to ra bn vi nhit. Cc cu canxi lam cho gel c cng v bn tt hn. Vng pH thun li cho s to gel s c m rng cng vi s tng nng protein. V khi nng protein cao th cc lin kt a bo v lin kt isulfua c iu kin to thnh s b tr li cc lc y tnh in cm ng vn do protein tch in cao sinh ra. im ng in do vng mt cc lc y nn gel to ta km phng, ngm t nc v cng. Cc protein c t l axit amin a bo cao (trn 31,5% s phn t) nh hemoglobin, ovalbumin, s c vng pH to gel thay i ph thuc vo nng protein. Tri li cc protein c phn trm cc axit amin a bo thp (2231%) nh - globulin, serumalbumin, gelatin v protein ca u tng th li khng thay i pH to gel khi nng protein thay i. Yu t nh hng n s to gel. Nhit : nhit thp to nhiu lin kt hydro gel bn hn. Axit ha hoc kim ha nh pH pI gel to thnh chc hn. Cc cht ng to gel nh cc polysaccharide lm cu ni gia cc ht gel c cng v n hi cao hn 2.2. Ht nc, trng n v to bt nho dai do, n hi. Khi nho bt m vi nc gliadin v glutenin kt hp vi nhau s trng n to thnh mt khi do n hi gi l gluten. Gluten c kh nng ht nc tt (Ht nc gp 2 ln trng lng ca n).

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


Cc protein ca gluten bt m c kh nng to hnh, to bt nho c tnh c kt, do, v gi kh khi gia nhit hnh thnh cu trc xp cho bnh m. Mng gluten phn b u trong khi bt nho, mng ny va dai, va n hi, c tc dng gi kh lm khi bt nho n. Nu trong phn t cng nhiu nhm -S-S- th cht lng gluten tt, to bt nho cng dai do, cu trc cht hn , sc cng ln hn, cht lng bnh tt hn Trong qu trnh nho v nhi bt, cc si gluten ny s tr nn di hn, do dai v khe hn, bin hn hp bt t mt ng ln nhn bt v nc ban u thnh mt khi bt nho do mn v n hi. 2.3. Gi kh v to c cu trc, hnh dng cho sn phm. Trong cng ngh sn xut bnh kh nng gi kh ca bt nho c nh hng quyt nh n s hnh thnh cu trc v hnh dng cho sn phm. giai on ln men bt m nm men s chuyn ho ng c trong bt m thnh cn v CO2 theophng trnh phn ng sau:

Chnh CO2 s l tc nhn lm bnh m n, kh CO2 c to thnh s b gi li trong cc mng gluten vng chc. Khi nng bnh m nhit cao CO2 s tng th tch, mng gluten s cng ra v to thnh nhng ti cha CO2. Khi nhit cao hn CO2 s thot ra khi ti cha n v to ra nhng l xp trong bnh. Kt qu l bnh c xp, xp v cu trc ca bnh ph thuc vo kh nng gi kh ca mng gluten.Qu trnh ny gp phn hnh thnh cu trc v hnh dng cho sn phm. Gluten ca bt m cht lng cao th s to c mng gluten vng chc gip gi kh tt, bnh s xp, dn, dai. Cn gluten ca bt m cht lng thp hn s to mng gluten yu hn nn c kh nng gi kh km hn, bnh s t xp, t dn hn. 2.4. Lm bn cc nh tng bnh Cc protein c mt trong nguyn liu ca bnh cn c tc dng lm bn h nh tng cho bt nho. Chng hn vi sa, mng ca cc cu bo ng vai tr cht nh ha t nhin v bo v cc cu bo chng li hin tng hp git. Mng ny c cu to t cc lp triglixerit, photpholipit lipoprotein khng tan v protein ha tan c hp th k tip nhau. Trong sa ti, lp protein ha tan l imunoglobulin. Nu sa cha ng ha th s xy ra s gng gn cc cu bo v s hnh thnh kem. Khi ng ha bn nh tng tng ln do lm gim kch thc ca cu bo v cng do cc siu mixen casein c tn to ra (do ng ha) s thay ch cc imunoglobulin v c hp th vo trn cc cu bo. Cc protein c hp th vo b mt lin pha gia cc git du b phn tn v pha nc lin tc, s to ra nhng tnh cht c l nh dy, nht, n hi, cng, c tc dng chng li s hp git. S ion ha cc axit amin mch bn ca protein(xy ra ty theo pH )cng s to ra lc y tnh in lm cho bn ca nh tng tng ln Protein ni chung, l nhng cht lm bn rt bnh thng ca nh tng du/ nc.C th l do bn cht ho nc ca a s protein nn khi c hp th th phn ln nht ca phn t s nm v pha nc ca b mt lin pha. 2.5. To bt trong khi bt nho Di tc ng ca lc c hc, pH=8-9 hoc pH ng in ca n (pH=4-4.5) protein lng trng trng c kh nng to bt tt nn c ng dng trong cc loi bnh c cu trc n xp, kemNhng nu cng v thi gian khuy qu ln th gy ra hin tng tp hp v ng t protein tng phn b mt lin pha khng kh/nc. Cc phn protein khng c ha tan

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


ny s khng c hp th trc tip vo b mt ln pha. Do nht ca vch lng khng to cho bt mt bn tt. Ba nhn t quan trng nht c tc dng lm bn bt l: C sc cng b mt lin pha yu. C nht ca pha lng cao. C mng mng protein c hp th bn v n hi. Cc mui cng c th nh hng n d ha tan, nht, gin mch v kh nng tp hp ca protein. Do m lm thay i tnh cht to bt, NaCl thng lm tng gin n v lm gim bn ca bt do n lm gim nht ca protein. Cc ion Ca2+ cng lm tng bn ca chng v tng kh nng to ra cc cu ni gia cc nhm cacboxyl ca protein. Saccharose v cc ng khc thng lm gim s gin n ca bt nhng li lm bt c bn tt hn v chng c kh nng lm tng nht chung ca bt. Cc glucoprotein ca lng trng trng nh Ovomucoit, avalbumin c tc dng lm bn bt v chng c kh nng hp th v gi nc trong cc vch 2.6. Tng cht lng dinh dng sn phm Protein l thnh phn dinh dng quan trng nht cu to nn cc b phn ca c th. Chng c mt trong thnh phn nhn v cht nguyn sinh ca cc t bo. Qu trnh sng l s thoi ha v ti to thng xuyn ca protein. Trong cc sn phm bnh tng cht lng dinh dng ngoi thnh phn chnh l bt m th ngi ta cn b sung thm nhng nguyn liu giu protein nh sa, trng 2.7. To mu sc c trng cho sn phm Mu sc c trng ca cc sn phm bnh c hnh thnh qua nhiu giai on khc nhau, trong c phn ng thy phn protein trong nguyn liu. Thu phn protein to ra cc hp cht peptit thp phn t nh h enzym thy phn proteinaza trong bt m thu phn thnh phn protein trong bt m:

Cc axit amin v peptit thp phn t trn c to thnh trong qu trnh thu phn protein s l cc nguyn liu chnh cho phn ng to mu Maillard sau ny. Ngoi tc kh nng to mu sc, protein cn gp phn gi cht cc phn t cht thm c hnh thnh t nguyn liu qua qu trnh ch bin. Trong bnh cng nh trong thc phm mi thm thng do cc hp cht bay hi c nng rt thp nm gn b mt. Cc nng ny ph thuc vo mt cn bng phn chia gia khi thc phm v khng gian ban u ca n. Franzen v kinsella (1974) chng minh rng khi thm protein vo mt h thng mu nc - cht thm th s lm gim nng cc cht bay hi trong khng gian ban u.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh


Vic c inh hng thm c th bao gm s hp th b mt thc phm hoc xm nhp vo bn trong thc phm bng khuch tn. Cn phn bit hai kiu hp th trn cht rn: + Hp ph l hc c tnh thun nghch do cc tng tc vanderwaals. + Hp ph ha hc do lin kt ng ha tr hoc lin kt tnh in. Trong trng hp u nng lng gii phng bi phn ng nh hn 20 KJ. mol-1. Vic c nh cht thm bng hp th ngoi ra cc kiu tng tc trn cn c cc tng tc hydro v tng tc a bo ( k nc ) tham gia. Cc hp cht c cc nh cc ru th c lin kt bng cu hidro cn cc hp cht bay hi c khi lng phn t thp th tng tc k nc (a bo) vi cc gc axitamin khng phn cc ca protein. 3. ng dng trong cc sn phm bnh Cracker Nguyn liu: bt m c hm lng gluten cao, cht lng tt nn khung gluten pht trin ti a to bt nho dai do, n hi. Cu trc sn phm: gin, cng. Biscuit cng Nguyn liu: bt m c hm lng gluten thp hn bnh Cracker. Khung gluten cng pht trin to bt nho t dai v t n hi hn bnh Cracker. Cu trc sn phm: gin, cng. Biscuit mm Nguyn liu: bt m c hm lng gluten thp hn Biscuit cng nn s to khung gluten b hn ch, bt rt t dai do, t n hi. Cu trc sn phm: gin, xp. Cookies Nguyn liu: bt m c hm lng gluten rt thp nn s tao khung gluten b hn ch mt cch ti a, bt rt mm. Cu trc sn phm: mm hoc mm xp. Cake Nguyn liu: bt m c hm lng gluten t cao n thp, khung gluten rt pht trin n km pht trin. Cu trc sn phm: c m cao, mm hoc mm xp, thi gian bo qun ngn.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh KT N

X hi ngy cng pht trin cng vi khoa hc cng ngh cht lng cuc sng cng ngy c tt hn. Theo s pht trin ca x hi, yu cu ca con ngi v sn phm bnh ko ngy cng cao hn. Mu m p, cht lng tt, an ton v sinh l nhng im c ngi tiu dng c bit quan tm khi la chon mt sn phm bnh. p ng yu cu ny nh sn xut cn c s m bo trong cng ngh sn xut. Hnh thnh mt sn phm bnh thng phi qua nhiu cng on, chu nhiu nh hng. u tin, phi k n l nguyn liu ban u dng cho sn xut trong nh hng ca tnh cht, chc nng protein ti cht lng sn phm bnh. Hy vng vi bi bo co ny gip cho nhng ngi cn v hiu su thm v protein trong bnh ni ring v trong thc phm ni chung. Khng nh protein c vai tr quan trng trong sn xut bnh v cn nghin cu nhm khc phc nhng nh hng khng mong mun y mnh cng nghip bnh ko. Xin chn thnh cm n.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh MC LC


Cc bc cu trc ca protein

Cu trc bt nho

Hnh 1: S th hin lin kt ca glutenin v gliadin vi nhau v lin kt disulfua to thnh mng gluten.

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh

Hnh 2: S biu din s gi kh trong bt m (Gan v cng s 1995).

Hnh 3: Cu trc bt m c hm lng gluten cao (a) v thp (b). Mt s sn phm bnh ko

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Cc tnh cht, chc nng ca protein nh hng n cht lng ca bnh TI LIU THAM KHO
1. Ha sinh cng nghip_ L Ngc T (ch bin), La Vn Ch, ng Th Thu, Nguyn Th Thnh, Bi c Hi, L Don Din_Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut H Ni. 2. Ho hc thc phm _L Ngc T, Bi c Hi, Lu Dun, Ng Hu Hp, ng Th Thu, Nguyn Trng Cn _Nh xut bn khoa hc v k thut H Ni -1999. 3. The Physicochemical Properties of Gluten-Free Dough with the Addition of Hydrocolloids and Proteins http://www.google.com.vn/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=8&sqi=2 &ved=0CHEQFjAH&url=http%3A%2F%2Fetd.ohiolink.edu%2Fsendpdf.cgi%2FCrockett%2520Rachel%2520Lynn.pdf%3Fosu1251825675&ei=XWktU fOMFemViQeXuoGAAg&usg=AFQjCNFRD5vqY4PgsIIrR2TwB8o0e5uVmw&sig 2=dLRubfkvrd1NCzAUdikUrQ&bvm=bv.42965579,d.aGc 4. Cht gluten l g?_http://www.td-in.vn/vi/Chat-gluten-la-gi-md-introdetail-typenewfaq-id-208.htm 5. Cng ngh sn xut bnh m_ http://www.hoahocngaynay.com/en/nghien-cuu-giangday/quy-trinh-hoa-hoc/1155-cong-nghe-san-xuat-banh-mi.html

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