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Headless Goddess of Nuapada Orissa

Headless Goddess of Nuapada Orissa

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Headless Goddess of Nuapada Orissa
Headless Goddess of Nuapada Orissa

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Published by: singingdrum on Mar 10, 2013
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The present paper deals with the Headless Goddess, discovered recently in the Nuapada district of Orissa State. (Eastern-India). Prior to this, there have been welldocumented researches on the intriguing Headless Goddess or often-called Lajja-Gauri, hitherto reported from Western India, Southern and Central India. The present finding of Headless Goddess carved on a limestone plaque, is first of its kind in Eastern India. Nuapada region lies in 82.32 E. and 20.49 N. Latitude of Orissa State 1 (Eastern India). The land is clad with lofty mountains and valley. However, it now witnesses drought and famine in view of scanty rainfall. There is, evidence of a continuum of Civilization and Culture in Nuapada from the early time up to the early medieval period. The territory formed eastern part of South-Kosala in the ancient and the medieval history of India2. There developed an urban culture in Maraguda valley of Nuapada at least towards the early Christian period. Maraguda served as the capital of the Saravapuriya dynasty3 (6th-7th Cent. A. D.). The Chinese pilgrim Hieun -Tsang visited the capital during the 7th Cent. A.D. and has left a graphic account of it4. The land, moreover, boosted of a strong tradition of mother Goddess worship. Mahisamardini Durga icon, Sakti Peetha, Durga temple with goddess in Situ and Yoni stone 5 etc. are some of the Sakta-Tantric relics unearthed in Nuapada region. Further finding of the Bhudevi icon, modeled in a crossed legged posture, in Maraguda Valley, is not only unique but also substantiate the tradition of Mother Goddess worship in the concerned land. There is the representation of a tree on the head of Bhudevi, thereby providing the clue that, it is the deity of vegetative fertility6. Among the other relics, pertaining to the worship of Mother Goddess and deity of vegetative fertility in Nuapada land, however, there are two such Headless Goddesses carved on limestone plaque, very often designated as Lajja-Gauri, which offers a fascinating challenge to the connoisseurs of Art and Indologist. FIND SPOT—Recently, two limestone plaques have been unearthed in Nuapada district. Plaque No. I is arrested while excavating the plinth area of Komna Panchayat College building of Nuapada, while plaque No. II was discovered by Mr. J. P. Singh Deo from the Kotipadar village, which is about 10 kms. from Khariar Subdivision of Nuapada.

Some lotus leaves along with elongated stems are also discerned on the right side of the shoulder as if they emerge from the neck and bend to the right. Thus. she holds a lotus-bud having an alongated stem. Bulbous bosom and heavy hips of the motif indicate its fertility aspect. while the object upheld in left hand is completely mutilated. moreover. I). The motif. the figurine does. Singh Deo. upper part of the figurine adorned with vegetation. The navel is prominently shown. The motif is two handed. unfolds a vegetative and fecundity aspects of the figurine (Figure 1). is considerably injured. attempt is made to show anatomical details. Headless Goddess. it is characterised by a round and polish body. While fashioning the figurine.D. 2 While the former plaque is in possession of Komna Panchayat College authority the latter is preserved in the personal Museum of Mr. the lower part of the body of this motif is wrapped with garment (jama). wears a cloth (typical of jama). Instead of the head. therefore. however. the common posture of female during childbirth. Fold of garment is marked on either thighs or ankles. is two handed which are shaped in up-right posture. The feet are shaped flat along with the fingers. as if it is flowering from it. I. X 12 CM. Below the navel. Unlike plaque No. are indicative of its blooming youth and also a pointer to the fertility aspect. There is a design.OHRJ.D. On stylistic ground. lotus leaves with stems are delineated on the neck. the folding of skin is discemed which betokens a sense of woman-hood. Pendent breast. The motif. however. The figurine. XLVII. as cited already. which seems to be a wrinkling of skin or fold of garment on either thigh of the motif. II. The motif. Vol. ICONOGRAPHY OF THE GODDESSES Plaque No. which covers the lower part of the body up to the ankle and loiters on the pedestal. navel and vulva etc. Annulate design. In its right hand. broken. moreover. The most striking aspect of the deity is that it is headless. the abdomen of the deity is partially chopped off. is carved in a squatting position. The vulva region is carefully carved. It is carved in squatting position with outstretched legs. not only reveals its fertility and vegetative feature but also demonstrates a stark sexuality about it. II–Headless Goddess measures 11 CM. A. This motif is also carved in squatting position on a pedestal. within a shallow pedestal. No. however. Headless Goddess. The neck portion of the image is obliterated. which is. While the navel is faintly visible. Natural and unornamented. indicating armlet 54 . Plaque No. Legs are shaped in outstretched posture as far as possible to expose the vulva region. Winkles of skin on either side just below the breast is carefully fashioned to give an aesthetic sense to the motif. illegible at present. The deity in nude and headless. X 11 CM. I–Headless Goddess is carved on a limestone plaque measuring 10 CM. A. Both the arms are. But sufficient care was taken to exhibit its genital prominently. Unlike its counterpart (plaque No. may be ascribed to the later part of the 8th or 9th Cent. Probably the artist had shown the clitoris. Even the right foot is placed on a raised platform to meet this objective. Plaque No. it can be assigned to the 8th Cent.

however. There is a punching mark around the neck of the deity. II. but deviation is also. In later case. The goddess may be thus called “Lotus Headed“ and it too reveals the same vegetative and fertility aspect of the Deity (Fig. The composition is coherent and it produces a felling of indivisible wholeness of unity. Two figurines of Headless Goddesses of Nuapada. I. Whereas plaque No. “Lajja-Gauri” or Shameless woman10 . Fluted petals of the lotus are meticulously carved. Composition of the different parts of the figurine is cohesive and well integrated. navel and the vulva regions 7. however. There is also no standardized iconographic text on this subject matter. Consequently. and art object remain within an inseparable bond. Headless Goddess is a beautiful workmanship of the artist. No. The primary emphasis was given in fashioning the breast. Also. In Indian perspective. which seems to represent the necklace. Headless Goddess does not occupy an exalted position among the pantheon of Hindu deities8. It is also a Goddess without an anthropomorphic head. headless deity is different in this respect. confusion arises in the sphere of satisfactory identification of the Goddess. This reveals the veneration of maternity as a divine principle. Usually. no all-inclusive explanation has yet been made pertaining to the origin and development of Headless Goddess in India. The posture of the motifs appears natural. Orissa. garment is provided to cover the vulva region. however. I instead of lotus flower. plaque No. Both the motifs. Hitherto. II.OHRJ. 2 is carved on either arm or elbow of the goddess. To show its vegetative trait Lotus flower/ Medallion is delineated on its neck. Headless Goddess is fashioned in stark nudity with prominent vulva. Their body movement is vivacious and elastic. where the artist. XLVII. Hosts of scholar of both East and West have accepted the 55 . Vol. II). Whereas. plaque No. Indologists have been identified the said image as “Aditi Uttanapada9”. It is ornamented. ANTIQUITY AND IDENTITY OF THE GODDESSES Fertility Goddesses were widely popular in the ancient world. are associated with vegetative fertility and sex. marked in the delineation of these figurines. This particular trait is rarely found in the iconography of LajjaGauri discovered until now from other parts of India. in former plaque No. As a substitute of head. Sexuality and fertility aspect is only marked from the outstretched leg posture. demonstrate the artist’s mastery on form and conception. art form. which show the taste of medieval finery of Orissa. Indeed. such fertility goddesses were modeled as headless. heavy hips and open bosorn of the Goddess. a full-blown lotus is exhibited on the shoulder. in the shape of efflorescence from the neck. lotus petals are seen to issues out of its neck. which is the common feature of Headless Goddess or Lajja-Gauri.

whereas in left hand. she carries severed head. Sakambari 12. Still identification from other angle has been postulated. The recent finding of two Limestone plaques of Headless Goddess from Nuapada area of Orissa (Eastern India) however differs from each other in their treatment of details.D. XLVII. in Brahmanical tradition also. The Dhyana (Hymn) of Chhirnamasta depicts her iconography. Marshall13. (Chhirnamasta tatha chhirna chhirna mundavadharini etc). has identified the lotus head figure as.OHRJ. to point out the origin and development of so-called Lajja-Gauri or Headless Goddess. In view of the exhibition of the vulva region. Mahanagni 15. she has been also praised as “Jagat vaandhya jagatpuujya jagata prana parayani” Chhirnamasta of Hindu version may be equated with Vajra Yogini of Buddhist tradition. This fact is also highlited in her Dhyana 23 (Hymn). Headless Goddess. thus. Later on. Headless contour of divinity was fathomed. belong to different folk culture and social sub-strata. It seem that the various forms of mother goddesses (including the goddesses of Dasamahavidya) originally. No.D. Kotavi 14. seems to unfold some clue pertaining to the origin and development of the deity and thereby its identity. Consequently. She is attended by two Sakhis (attendant) on either side. 56 . personified Yoni type of fertility figurine 11. Scholars have also advocated pre-historic origin of the figurine. Three streams of blood issues out from her chopped off throat and fails into the mouth of the Sakhis. the Vajra Yogini motif of the Buddhist Art seems to be the replica of the former24. therefore. In the right hand she holds dragger/discs. But the most common characteristics of these figurines as also discern in other examples. these goddesses were absorbed into the brahmanical religion and identified as a part of the universal mother goddess in Indian culture25. Dhere18 however went a step further in elucidating the folk tradition and textual evidences. and ten century A. Sankalia17 advanced indigenous Chalcolithic origin after the Inamgaon excavation. the story of Renuka (Wife of sage Jamadagni) is an illustration. The sporting of vegetation from the throat impel Scholars to identify her as. Prithivi. In this sphere. outstretched leg postures (squatting position) and vegetative fertility or nourishment aspect. She is also portrayed as Digamvari (nude) which shows her sexual aspect. In view of the nourshing feature. still remains a riddle. and with. The icon of Renuka has been worshipped as Matangi Devi and Yallamma and Prithvi etc. C. Headlessness of divinity in Indian context is discerned at least since the protohistoric time as the case of fertility figurine recovered from Mohenjodaro19 and Inamgaon20 shows. Vol. But in between first century A. she has been categorized as. having two hands. thus. however. 2 denomination—Lajja-Gauri. that she is headless. while others saw an affirnity with the nude folk Goddess. It. for procuring offspring by barren women today21. for the Headless goddess16. Riddle becomes more acute with the discovery of more and more such icons from different parts of India. Hunter further coined the nomenclature ‘Nagnakavandh’. are Headlessness. Another glaring example in this sphere is Devi Chhirnamasta of Dasamahavidya 22. R. ascribed to this headless deity.

was also a personified yoni type figurine. very often the composite features of sex and fertility.. Padma Purana and Visnudharmottara Purana also describe her as Lotus-headed37. the Santals and the Mundas30. numerous female deities of fertility nature either in anthropomorphic shape or in aniconic features are commonly found in the peasant India. embodies. In fact.OHRJ. like copulation. Sasthi. 57 . Moreover. In this respect. Raka. Bharhut. conveys the sense of Kama (Sexuality). who coalesced in her person sexuality and fertility. ‘Sri’. Srisukta of Rigveda further describes her as Arda. By this time the cult of ‘Sri’ or Laksmi was also discerned in Buddhist culture. The outstretched leg posture or semi-squatting position of the motif. One such instance is a carving in Gotul or youth dormitory of the Muria tribe of Baster region of Madhya Pradesh28 (Middle India). At the same time sexuality correlates with fertility and fertility ritual29 or vice versa. XLVII. Analogous can be drawn in this respect from. Literary text like Sankhayana Grihasutra32 also brings her profile as Goddess of sex and fertility. Sexual aspect of the earlier image of. The idea traversed into the Art tradition of India. Goddess ‘Sri’ alias Laksmi was usually fashioned in between two husks. where erotic Arts are found fuse with fertility31. Youth dormitory of the tribals primarily rests on sexuality or sexual foreplay. No. Prthvi. 2 In Parvati legend. Goddess. her headless contour. Squatting posture. She thus embodies in herself vegetative fertility or nourishing aspect. although is a prescribed position of woman during child birth as outlined in Charaka and Susruta Samhita 26. identified with Laksmi has been equated with corn36. nourishing feature and Headlessness contour is commonly meet with. At the same time. yet the said posture is also a prescribe posture of Kamasastriya Vandha 27 (coitus). Belief in the relation of sex and vegetative fertility is fathomed among the tribal of Eastern India like the Oraons. The cult of Goddess ‘Sri’. In Buddhist Art. therefore. in Tribal culture of India. The lotus head aspect of Laksmi betokens her vegetative fertility character. ‘Sri’ is evinced in the ‘personified Yoni type’ figurine having squatting posture. Vol.D. conception and birth. Goddess ‘Sri’ was assimilated with other Goddesses like Laksmi. her sexual aspect. ‘Sri’ and ‘Laksmi’ concept of Indian Art and literature. Kosambi and Budhgaya 35 etc. thus. Just before 1st century A. The village Goddess of fertility. she was reckoned as the guardian deity of the farmers33. Jaya and Sachi 34 etc. Such type of motifs has been retrieved from the Buddhist Art Centres like Sanchi. had direct bearing on sexuality and fertility (in our context nourishment feature). being devoid of anthropomorphized head is conspicuous. often outstretched leg posture of female is noticed. thus. Laksmi has been equated with Sakambari 38 as one covered with vegetation as a substitute of head. who pours water on her head to keep her ‘Arda’. It reveals certainly the highest regard accorded to the women folk. As such. As such. in the Jaiminiya Brahman.

Similarly.. 2 Consequently. 58 . No. In another Lajja-Gauri plaque of Ter example. conch is noticed besides the other emblems44.) and Majati (5th Cent. Thus.D. although Durga-Parvati and Sri Laksmi appear distinct. The Lion head in some of the Lajja-Gauri image. which also bears direct co-ordination with Laksmi. the stone plaque of LajjaGauri excavated from Bhokandan (5th Cent. from the 1st Cent. which can be further interpreted as symbol of water and thereby fertility.OHRJ. Vol. Nandi and Linga in different categories of Lajja-Gauri plaque. However. in the evolution of Durga-Parvati and Sri Laksmi concept the cardial traits like headlessness. the conch is also an attribute of Vishnu. But none of these interpretations appear satisfactory in view of the simple fact that in Narasimha Iconography (incarnation of Visnu). the Linga. the Saivite affinity of the goddess is very suggestive from the allusions of Bull. yet all of them fuse together in one Universal Mother Goddess in reality. A. they are considered as one 39. therefore. or vehicle of the goddess45. the salient features of the above discussions are as follows :– (1) That the Mother Goddess worship was wellknown from the beginning of Indus civilization and culture as the Mohenjodaro fertility goddess and Inamgaon clay figurine testifies. At least. Although these goddesses appear distinct at superficial level. It seems that Durga-Parvati and Sri Laksmi had their common source of origin. That in Brahmanical culture. A. It has been interpreted as Kirttimukha. In this plaque. sometime the artist.) exhibits conch (Vaisnavite emblem). the Bull faces the linga on the right edge and the devotee and the Lions face are carved on the left edge42. XLVII. In addition to. the fertility deity of Mohenjodaro and the Inamgaon headless clay figurine may be reiterated as being the forerunner of Durga-Parvati alias Sri Laksmi.) show Linga. A. therefore. But doubt arises in case of lion’s head. amorous aspect and fertility/nourishment features are commonly met with. In this sphere. D. Vrisava and Lion head by its side41. Covertly. to exemplify the Durga Laksmi traits in the person of headless goddess do delineate the cardinal emblems of the Saiva-Sakta and Vaisnava creeds. Some of the examples may be furnished in this context–that the Lajja-Gauri plaque discovered from padri 40 (1st century A. most likely represents Narasimha-Visnu. D. it is the head rather than the body that bears significance. came to the forefront of the Brahmanical culture. numerous Mother Goddesses including Durga-Parvati and Sri Laksmi etc. Damaged plaques of Lajja-Gauri from Ter (Ter Museum) show the goddess as armless and lotus-headed. in some other examples. It is heartening to note further that the so-called Lajja-Gauri or headless Goddesses combines these common characteristics of Durga-Parvati alias Sri Laksmi. yet very often. the Nandi and the Lions head43 (Saiva-Sakta features). Lajja-Gauri icon has been noticed amidst Saptamatrikas46 that further unfolds the fact that Lajja-Gauri also belongs to the family to which Saptamatrikas belong 47. Similarly. the goddess of fertility. D.

carved on the limestone plaques of Nuapada. Sanskrit literatures moreover.. ARID CLIMATE IN NUAPADA (ORISSA. EASTERN INDIA) AND INVOCATION OF HEADLESS GODDESS—SAKAMBARI Environment plays a vital role in shaping human society and culture. shows that the Ecosystem in the concerned land was very congenial. other manifestations of the great Mother Goddesses. however. D.OHRJ. A. As such. Efflorescence of civilization and culture in Nuapada-Khariar region of Western Orissa in Early History as revealed by archaeology. nude torso seems to be the representation of Goddess Sakambari 53. Change of Ecosystem may be one of the potential factor of the decline and disintegration of the Maraguda Urban Centre of Nuapada during the 8th-9th Cent. reveal the connection of Sakambari with vegetative fertility. Sakambari came to be worshipped in India at the time of drought and famine. Sakambari declares to provide to the whole World including the Gods with nourishing vegetables produced from her body until the shower of rain51. The Lotus head of the Goddess as already cited cognate the deity with Sri Laksmi. In Sri-Chandi portion of the Markandeya Purana. however. a section of Skanda Purana mentions the sacred place–Mahakuta as the original abode of Devi Sakambari 52 Mahakuta region. In Devi Mahatmya. soon bestows all kinds of inexhaustible store of food and drink 50. Two headless Goddesses. Sakambari is known to have lived a ‘Thousand Divya’ (Divine) years only on vegetables49.D. The hypothesis receives substantial support when we investigate the environmental condition of India during aforesaid ages. 2 (2) Chhirnamasta and Sakambari. appear to be no other than Sakambari. moreover. No. where nude torso of female with all the characteristic attributes of so-called Lajja-Gauri is discovered. Consequently. Bijapur. the blue coloured Sakambari manifested from the body of Parvati during the fourteenth cycle of Vaivaswata Mannantra48. Karnataka State) is full of archaeological ruins. it has been pointed out that the worship of Sakambari. sexuality fertility and nourishing aspect. Vol. identified with Badmi (Dist. therefore. HEADLESS GODDESS VERSES DEVI SAKAMBARI In our present context. There was. A. 59 . combines themselves the cardinal traits of Lajja-Gauri or Headless deity like–headlessness. According to Laksmi Tantra. Sakambari Mahatmya. for which Sakambari stands. a marked decline of the climatic condition in the present Nuapada district at least from the 8th Cent. it is the Goddess Sakambari whose iconography and iconology seems to tally well with the headless goddess or so-called Lajja-Gauri. moreover. XLVII. The worship of such goddess in Nuapada region of Eastern India divulges the necessity–the necessity to ward off drought and famine. causing thereby drought and famine.

6. A. Agriculture usually suffers in the event of poor monsoon. C. Calcutta C. N. XLVII. No. The foregoing discussions indicate that the environmental change wrought at least since 8th Cent. No. P. James–Ancient God. 1979-80. Kuanr (Eds. Tiwari–Comprehensive History of Orissa. Bulletin of Deccan College Research Institute. P. P. Consequently. Poona. Vol. besides creating artificial water reservoir. Nuapada region of Orissa (Eastern India) had shared this common background.D. Faint traces of a Dam on Zonk river of Nuapada popularly known.) graphically refer to the harrowing details of famine in different parts of India55. K. 5.D. 1984. 2. To meet the natural calamity. in Nuapada region. 30.-XLLX. References 1. Singh Deo of Khariar. P. Deccan College.). K. who had rendered their help and assistance for preparing this paper. Dhavalikar–Lajja-Gauri. O. Pune.) and the account of Arab traveller like Sulaiman (9th Cent. The present finding of two limestone plaques of Headless Goddess. P. however. artificial water reservoirs were harboured by the then farming community. Deptt. Vol. District Gazetteer of Orissa. Deo. P. A. urban centres like Champa. London M. literary sources like Vamana Purana (7th Cent. 35-37.OHRJ. 7. 1993. 1987. These Literary references certainly testify to scanty rainfall in India that resulted into drought and famine in many parts of the land. as Lac-bridge seems to be constructed for irrigational purpose at that time to combat against drought. Vol. of Archaeology. A. B. 3. lac (Shellac) and Gud 58 (Molasses). Tiwari–Op. Kalahandi. A.D. cit. divine grace was also sought through the worship of goddess Sakambari (Headless deity). 1984 E. Ex-Maharaja of Kalahandi and Dr. Vaisali. The morta used to bind the stones of this bridge is reported to contain Dhup (Rasin). Under such predicament. P. 4. J. 2 India suffered from arid climate during the post-Gupta period54. 1960. 143-144.) and Dasakumara-Charitam of Dandini (8th Cent. 8. Ibid S. Orissa Review. Senapati and D. A.) present the picture of drought in India56. Late P. were deserted and liquidated57. 144. 60 . Bhubaneswar.D. Patel–Brief note on Maraguda Excavation. Delhi S. 11. 47. P. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I am grateful to Shri J. Even the Javanese Chronicles (7th Cent. P-40. Pradeep Mohanty. P. 30–35. could have been for the purpose of worship by the farmers of the concerned region in their respective home. 1980 Bhubaneswar. Pataliputra and Varanasi etc. had certainly hit hard on the farming communities of the land.D. Singh Deo–Cultural profile of South-Kosala. 8. 40.

18. 228. Oxford University Press S. P.) Essay in Indian Proto-History. Bagchi—Eminent Indian Sakta Centre in Eastern India. 2.1915. Bhairavi. Lannoy—The Speaking Tree. 23. 489f. 1979.-1. P. III-123. 215ff. B.OHRJ. These ten goddesses are known as Dasamahavidya such as Kali. 162-163. . 1980. 28. Benoytosh Bhattacharya—The Indian Buddhist Iconography. 1970–72. According to Kubjika Tantra. D. 1987. N. Dhumavati. Lannoy—op. K. cit. 1991 D. Deo—Mahurjhari Excavation. 1979. M. Henceforth. Kunti Kumudini Kulla Kurukulla Karalika Kameswari Kamamata Kamatapa Vimochani (Sahasranam) 24. G. 34. Matangi and Kamala etc. Agrawal and D. 19. Vol. M. 1968 R. Dhavalikar—Early Farming cultures of the Deccan.) Giridarsi. Tara. Janssen—On the Origin and Development of the Lajja-Gauri SAA.. Devi Parvati cut off her own head and nourished her attendants. P. 2. K. Vol. Gupta—Some interesting plaques of Lajja-Gauri from Paunar in A. 1979-80. 14. 10. Mukhapadhyay—Terracotta from Bhita. Essays on Indology (Dr. Elwin—Kingdom of the Young. 25. XLVII. 116-117. Tantrik texts further describe the circumstances of the emanation of Devi Chhirnamasta. XXIII. 26. Sankalia—The Nude Goddess in India Art. Bhubaneswari. Calcutta. P. 1971 61 13.-33. 49. 1978 (Marathi. 15. Sodasi. P. 74–94. Delhi. 21. 30. P. Ramesh (Eds. 22. K. 461. India and South-Eastern Asia. Parvati came to be known as Chhirnamasta. Delhi. M. 17. S. H. Calcutta C. P. 11. 33. Poona) J. cit. Bombay J. Marshall (Ed. Sankini and Dankini by the blood that issued out from her throat. D. 1971. Desai—op. Artibus Asia. 12. Chhirnamasta. Poona As enumerated in Chandisaptasti section of Markandeya Purana. 2 9.-1. Nagapur H. Artibus Asia. No. XXXIV. 19. Dhere—Lajja-Gauri. Indica. 1956 H. Dhavalikar—op. 2. 1911-12.)—Mohenjodaro and the Indus Civilization. V. 52. Chakravarti (Eds. 29. P. 31. When the later refused her to attain the sacrifice of Daksaprajapati (Father of Parvati-Sati). P. Dhavalikar—Environment : Its influence on History and Culture in Western India. 41-42. Also. S. Sankalia—The Nude Goddess or Shameless Women in Western Asia. S. Narasimha and K. 1975 V. Bombay S. Vagala. K. XXXI. Marshall—Excavation at Bhita. K. 4–10 R. see also S. Vol. P. Stella Kramrisch—An image of Aditi-Uttanapada. ARASI. XIX. G. 259. Dasgupta—Aspects of Indian Religious Thought. 1968 S. 1975. 1996. 72. 1931. 1977 F. V. 1956 Calcutta. P. Desai—Erotic Sculptures of India. 20. J. Fig. Oxford University Press. Dikhit felicitation volume). 27. Calcutta. 1972. C. 36. B. D. 41-42. cit. 247-48. D. London M. Banerjee—Development of Hindu Iconography. Marg. 259–270. P. 1968. 15. Devi Parvati alias Sati transformed herself into Ten Goddesses in order to frightening Siva. A. Artibus Asia. Calcutta R. Dange—Vedic concept of field and the Devine Fructification. 16.

where the portrait of Laksmi is shown as seated on Lion. S. Orissa Historical Research Journal. Calcutta S. That Durga and Laksmi although appears distinct yet they had common source of origin or the goddesses are the different manifestation of a single Universal Mother Goddess is appear from Mahabharata. H.—The recent evidence from Padri in Gujarat– East and West. P.OHRJ. 48. Kaumari. I. 464. 56. N. 1970. P. 38. Shinde—The Earliest temple of Lajja-Gauri. cit. 44. 306. No. Radcliffe Bolon—Forms of the Goddess Lajja-Gauri in Indian Art. 6) at least since the later-Vedic period. Janssen—op. 47. H. 33. 2 32. 55. 1980 S. 53. XLVII. 37. 42. Indica. Mahesari. 217. cit. Ibid Ibid Ibid. L. 120–123. P. P. 35. 43. Dasgupta op. 32. 51–56. 18. 45. Dhavalikar—op. V. 113 Ibid P. P. 6 (No date). cit. No. 54. P. G. P. J. Gonda—Aspect of Early Visnuism. Vol. cit. F. K. Their close affinity however is discerned from the Gupta Coin. H. P. Tattwananda (Trans & Ed) Sri Chandi.) Dimensions of Indian Art. B. P. they are closely associated with Siva and are treated as the aspects of the Great Mother ( See S. 49. 112–117. 1991 C. P-44-45. Varahi. London) so. Deo—Forgotten Forts of Kalahandi. F. Delhi Ibid M. cit. 46. 464. Fig. Vaisnavi. M. K. 50. 481–485. 191. 14 D. Tattwananda–op. Chandra and J. 120–123 Markandeya Purana–91. M. M. 1957)-F. Vol. 162. cit. at one time Durga was also conceived as vegetation Goddess. cit. Wilkins—Hindu Mythology. 1900. Desai—op. 44. Vol. P. 1992 Ibid C.-1. 45. M. 4. Part-II. Jain (Eds. Radcliffe Bolon—A late 8th century Matrika set at Aihole. Bagchi–op. Sometimes. Sankhayana Grihasutra 11. Delhi. 464. K. 3. 1975 J. Janssen–op. P. 34. Dhavalikar—Environment : It’s influence on History and Culture in Western India. . P. 1991. 43. C. S. 51. 2. 1996. Indrani and Chamunda. P. 57. 112-113 Ibid. the vehicle of Goddess Durga (See A. P. cit. 52. Also see F. P. 62 40. 33. P. Bhubaneswar. XVI. P. 70-71. 36. 1992. Mumbai. P. 39. cit. 1979-80 Ibid Sakambari is also an epithet of Goddess Durga (W. 23). P. P. P. P. 58. Altekar catalogue of Gupta gold coins in the Bayana Hoard. The Divine Mothers (Matrikas) are generally Seven in numbers like—Brahmani. Janssen—op. which appends Durga Stotra (Mahabharata-IV. Radcliffe Bolon—op. 41. 1968.

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