CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY FOR

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
THIRD EDITION

by David Porter

A & C Black London

www.acblack.com

For Ana Rita

First edition published 2001 Second edition published 2003 This third edition published 2007 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

© Copyright A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-10: 0 7136 8285 X ISBN-13: 978 0 7136 8285 4

eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0232-9
Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, Norfolk

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Contents

Contents
Page Title Unit One
4 5 6 6 7 8 9 1a – Fill in the gaps 1b – Choose the right word 1c – Finish the sentence 1d – Word substitution 1e – Choose the best word 1f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Page Title Unit Seven
43 43 44 45 46 47 48 7a – Fill in the gaps 7b – Choose the right word 7c – Finish the sentence 7d – Word substitution 7e – Choose the best word 7f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Two
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2a – Fill in the gaps 2b – Choose the right word 2c – Finish the sentence 2d – Word substitution 2e – Choose the best word 2f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eight
49 49 50 51 52 53 54 8a – Fill in the gaps 8b – Choose the right word 8c – Finish the sentence 8d – Word substitution 8e – Choose the best word 8f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Three
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3a – Fill in the gaps 3b – Choose the right word 3c – Finish the sentence 3d – Word substitution 3e – Choose the best word 3f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Nine
55 56 56 57 58 59 60 9a – Fill in the gaps 9b – Choose the right word 9c – Finish the sentence 9d – Word substitution 9e – Choose the best word 9f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Four
24 24 25 26 27 28 29 4a – Fill in the gaps 4b – Choose the right word 4c – Finish the sentence 4d – Word substitution 4e – Choose the best word 4f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Ten
61 61 62 63 63 64 65 10a – Fill in the gaps 10b – Choose the right word 10c – Finish the sentence 10d – Word substitution 10e – Choose the best word 10f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Five
30 31 32 33 34 35 23 5a – Fill in the gaps 5b – Choose the right word 5c – Finish the sentence 5d – Word substitution 5e – Choose the best word 5f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eleven
66 67 68 69 70 71 72 11a – Fill in the gaps 11b – Choose the right word 11c – Finish the sentence 11d – Word substitution 11e – Choose the best word 11f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Six
37 38 38 39 40 41 42 6a – Fill in the gaps 6b – Choose the right word 6c – Finish the sentence 6d – Word substitution 6e – Choose the best word 6f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Answer key
73 74 75 Units One to Four Units Four to Eight Units Eight to Eleven

76

Index

1
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

. you will need to obtain a good English-English dictionary. For this reason. but in normal situations. such as the Easier English Dictionary for Students (ISBN: 978 07475 6624 3) published by A&C Black Publishers Ltd. notice that the other words in the sentences can help you to guess the meaning of the missing words. Advice to the Student Obtain a Dictionary Before attempting to use this book. With any new word. Doing the Exercises There are different types of exercise in this book. to remember them more easily. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and formulate new policies. Working Out the Word or Meaning Also. In the same way. appearing instead together with other words. 2. the two books are so ___?adj?___ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and __________ new policies. but one small example will be enough to show you how to use the book. Although not exactly identical. In these two sentences from Unit One. Although not exactly identical. and to use them correctly. were included in the list of answers. the vocabulary you will learn in this book is presented in example sentences which will help you to understand the words. This will help you to learn the word. 2. write it into your vocabulary notebook. words are very rarely used on their own. notice first of all that the other words in these sentences show you the grammar of these words – here an adjective and then a verb. Although not exactly identical. because the policies mentioned in the second example are described as new. 1. you should copy either the sentence from this book or the example from the dictionary.Introduction Introduction The purpose of this book is to help students learn a common core of vocabulary which will be useful for almost any subject studied at college or university. which this workbook has been based on. Sample Answers With the exercise from which these sentences were taken. we can see from the phrases not exactly identical and copied much of his book that the adjective in the first example must mean something like almost the same. Keep Your Own Notes Next. In the examples above. 2. which you can organise in alphabetical order like a dictionary. the two books are so __________ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. Using your Dictionary A dictionary is really a long list of individual words. Because of the grammar of these words and their meanings – which we can check in the dictionary if necessary – the completed sentences will look like this: 1. the two books are so similar to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. the words similar (adj) and formulate (v). whenever you find out what a new word means. 2 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and ___?v?___ new policies. the verb in the second example seems to mean plan or prepare: 1.

For example. and word-completion. however. at foundation. Although the immediate goal is for students to learn the words here. choose one central meaning for the word from the dictionary entry write down your new word with an example sentence to help you remember its meaning note down any dependent prepositions or collocations to help you use the word correctly Advice to the Teacher The purpose of this book is to equip non-native speakers of English at upper intermediate level and above with a core of sub-technical vocabulary relevant to the full range of university subjects. with special attention being paid to any dependent prepositions and collocations. thoughtful approach to vocabulary learning. If you compare these.Introduction Introduction Words With Many Meanings When you do look in your dictionary. I. To sum up: decide if the word in the example sentence is a verb. it is important that students do not regard simply filling in blanks as the sole purpose of this book. undergraduate or postgraduate level. which means that students should work through the book sequentially. identifying synonyms. This information will help you to use the new words correctly. It is envisaged that this book will be used to supplement an English for Academic Purposes/Study Skills course. The exercises include gap-filling. MA: Heinle & Heinle. each word is presented in an example sentence which aims firstly to provide a context from which students may be able to infer the meaning of the word in question and secondly to give instances of associated words such as collocates and dependent prepositions. notice in your dictionary that we normally use the word to after the word similar (a 'dependent preposition') and that it is usually policies. word matching. it is vital that students use dictionaries appropriately. *Nation. This means keeping a vocabulary notebook in which they should be encouraged to write an example for each new word. which culminated in a series of approximately 800 words ranked in sets according to their frequency of occurrence in texts drawn from a number of very different academic subjects. so try to look for one central meaning. Instead. you will often find that they are not so different from each other. students should approach vocabulary learning actively. you may find that one word has many meanings. . This form of presentation will allow students to find out not only what words mean. P. but also how to use them. and far preferable that they use an English-English learner's dictionary rather than a translation dictionary. The vocabulary items presented here are based on research by I. Similarly. In all cases. Inside the units. plans or programs and so on which are formulated (examples of 'collocations'). For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Boston. S. this book will have succeeded in its wider aim. Since the order of the eleven units presented in this book reflect this ranking. a noun or an adjective read the other words to help you guess the meaning of the new word then if necessary use your dictionary to select a suitable answer if possible. Word That Go Together Remember also to write down any other words which are often found together with your new word. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. Nation*. if it can encourage students to take a more active. the words in Unit One have a wider range of application than those in Unit Two and so on. matching sentence fragments. It may either be used in class or be assigned for study on a self-access basis. the style and content of the examples I have written are intended to be typical of language used in academic contexts. In approaching the exercises. S. P. 3 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

14. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences. . Although not exactly identical. the layout of the columns is _____________________. a murderer may go to prison for life. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people's spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies. We use the term "class" to _________________________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web. 10. the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ the first browser. 5. Before we can judge a government's success. In one case.Unit One 1a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. such as unemployment. we have to decide the ____________________. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties. In newspapers. but just make a _____________________ of the most important points. defence or taxation. 4 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In 1990. 7. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: arbitrary (adj) assign (v) context (n) criterion (n) data (n) denote (v) devise (v) formulate (v) ignore (v) impact (n) similar (adj) summary (n) usage (n) vertical (adj) 1. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 11. the two books are so _____________________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the instructions on the paper. 8. 6. 9. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and _________________ new policies. the _____________________. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 4. 13. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 12. It is often possible to guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it — that is to say. while the rows run across the page horizontally. although they appeared at the top of every page. 2. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant _____________________ on people's sexual behaviour. 3. while another may be set free: it all seems completely __________________.

Many students acquire / derive a great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time at university. 13. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. . 7. Assessment on this course includes / consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%). The United Kingdom makes / publishes more books than any other country. Although it is not very big. 8. 2. 5. There has been a major road accident. 9. 3. Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate / judge the secondary school system there. the increase in temperature varies / fluctuates from country to country. the library has an excellent range / variety of books. 4. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Increasingly. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted / narrowed the expansion in student numbers which the university was planning. the design of buildings is being adjusted / modified to allow easier access for disabled people. 6. 1. On the basis of the latest survey. 12. we know that most people have a very negative / bleak view of politicians and their parties. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. the police followed / pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them. Although the world is getting warmer slowly. 11. 5 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. journals and other resources for study. people are becoming more worried about the danger of pollution and its effect on the environment / ecology. involving / including 23 cars and 16 lorries.Unit One 1b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Following the bank raid. In many parts of the world. During the 1970's and 1980's. it became increasingly evident / visible that companies in the West were uncompetitive. decide which word in bold is more suitable.

11. …events. 12. …of this problem. given the magnitude… Although computers are becoming increasingly complex. i. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. the police viewed the crimes as random… It may be the case that no solution is possible. ____________________ For many years. 4. g. but I want you to illustrate… What will the result be if in the future we assume… Students may be asked to compare many alternative… The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed… Everyone wants to be happy. f. 3. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 5. …at a cost of over £8 billion. from which they have to select the most convincing. 8. k. 1d – Word substitution From the list below. $4 was equal to £1. equivalent (adj) obvious (adj) specify (v) guarantee (n) presume (v) sum (n) If a company does not observe health and safety laws. University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules to graduate. j. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 2. c. …the man they had seen commit the robbery. 10. but we probably all define… Many universities now have language centres to facilitate… Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves. d. l. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services. 3. e. 9. Anybody driving a car is obliged by law to have insurance. . …happiness in many different ways.… The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify… …theories. I like your essay. we need to interpret… In spite of warnings about cancer. 7. it may be fined very heavily if any of its workers are injured.Unit One 1c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. m. but realised later that there was a pattern linking them. …language learning for international students. h. many Westerners equate… Advertisers use a variety of techniques… At first. a. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness. 4. …them to understand what they actually mean. …that nearly everyone has access to a motor car? …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate. 6 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. b. …your points by providing some supporting examples. 6. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: comply with (v) conclude (v) imply (v) method (n) proceed (v) require (v) 1. 13.

namely oxygen and hydrogen. approach Surprisingly perhaps. a. compensate b. distinguished Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking when they go shopping. everyone should take part rather than allow one person to _______________________ the discussion. assess b. On the basis of their examination results. succeeding b. overwhelm b.Unit One 5. dominate c. absolute Rather than try to treat it. components b. The lecturer gave the students a 10 minute break before continuing with the rest of her lecture. the best _________________________ to the problem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it. possible c. locations b. 13. way b. 5. 11. a. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest a link between the two.or two-year warranty in case something should go wrong. 10. 6. places c. ____________________ ____________________ 1e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. a. prime c. 9. 7. a. 8. following c. the lecturer finished with a brief review of the main points. elements Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of different ________________ inside. In this first assignment. the Middle East is one of the most unstable __________________________ of the world.000 per year to live and study in ____________________ Britain. it was clear that most students had completely misunderstood the first part of the paper. 6. theoretical Water is made up of two _______________________. potential b. a. a. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ It may cost an overseas student around £15. redress Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 10. with cancer in second place. pieces c. claims b. the biggest _________________________ health risk for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents. regions The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart disease. definite b. oppress Although it is impossible to give a _________________________ age. 11. 4. 12. many organisations pay higher salaries to _________________ for the high cost of living there. initial 7 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7. choose the best word from a. Most electrical products have a one. indicates c. parts Because Paris is expensive. a. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques. method c. diverse c. measure In a seminar or tutorial. 3. points out In political terms. which is a very large amount of money. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). subsequent The clothing of men and women used to be quite ___________________________. 8. first b. . judge c. whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men. certain c. a. a. we will _______________________ your work and then give you detailed feedback on how to improve your writing. but they are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today. a. we believe that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died. At the end of her talk. adjust c. ____________________ Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years. a. aspects c. 12. b or c: 1. 9. distinct b. but thousands more died from _________________ radiation sickness. sections b. 2. a.

10. When some scientists originally _________________ _________________ known as global warming. 6. the project failed in the long run because of a lack of interest. One travel company is now advertising a completely _________________ _________________ in tourism: flights into outer space by rocket. 11. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. you will lose marks and may even be given a fail grade. a Court of Appeal may _________________ _________________ reached at the first trial and released somebody who has been wrongly held in prison. and yet today it is accepted by nearly everyone. Unfortunately.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: new ultimate establish reverse minimum analyse valid new tense leading marital initial constant put forward status responsibility role concept the hypothesis results dimension temperature reason a link atmosphere results the verdict requirement 1. The Managing Director may run the company. 5. 9. Engineers have played a _________________ _________________ in improving our health by giving us clean water supplies. Most universities require international students to have an IELTS score of at least 6 as a _________________ _________________ for English language competence. there was a very _________________ _________________ in the capital. address and indicate your _________________ _________________. 7. 12. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. nationality. the water remains at a _________________ _________________ irrespective of changing weather conditions at the surface. please give your name. valid can be joined with reason. In some instances. Students are expected not just to describe what they have done but also to _________________ _________________ when they write a research report. On the form. 13. If you submit work late. with many choosing to leave the city and head for the countryside. Investigators have been able to _________________ _________________ between childhood illnesses and industrial pollution. 8. Following the demonstrations by thousands of students. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). but _________________ _________________ rests with the Board of Directors. For example. The growth of China will add a _________________ _________________ to the economic and political situation in the Far East.Unit One 1f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 8 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. the idea was not taken seriously. At the bottom of the ocean. perhaps more so than doctors. 3. 2. 14. unless you have a _________________ _________________ such as illness. although the _________________ _________________ were very promising. .

Unit One 9 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

automatic (adj) equilibrium (n) innovative (adj) series (n) conceive (v) period (n) stable (adj) create (v) precede (v) tradition (n) manipulate (v) In order to be successful. companies which can be __________________ are more likely to succeed. Over a _________________ of twenty years. which is even responsible for taking off and landing. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Since consumers are always demanding new products.Unit Two 2a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Most employers insist that their employees have qualifications in English and _______________. . his blood pressure became ___________________ again and his family were allowed to visit him. The Internet was first _____________________ of as a way of linking computers in the USA together. Most planes today are controlled not by human pilots but by a computer system known as an ________________ pilot. the economy grew at an average of 8% per year. The price of a product will not change if there is _________________ between the supply and the demand for that product. 5. 15. 13. In addition to the regular lectures. Japanese and Korean companies have invested heavily in the UK. wedding guests in most cultures give presents or money to the newlymarried couple. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: achieve (v) ensue (v) mathematics (n) section (n) 1. we have a __________________ of public lectures given by guest speakers from other universities. 2. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 8. Although the arrival of coffee in Britain ___________________ that of tea. Reports are usually divided into separate _____________________ with headings such as 'Findings' and 'Conclusions. it is the second drink which is the more popular today. 10. Some academics have argued that standards have been falling because more students are _______________ first class degrees.' After a very difficult night. 3. some politicians _______________________ other people to get what they want. 10 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 14. By ____________________. 4. Serious unrest and rioting _____________________ as a result of the decision to ignore the result of the election. 7. 9. 12. 11. 6. _______________________ thousands of new jobs.

A new moon occurs / takes place every 28 days. 4. the quality of many British cars tended to be poor. It is now possible to infer / imply a link between using mobile phones and contracting some forms of cancer. Most universities need to earn money from private sources. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 11 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. it is possible to convert / exchange other forms of carbon into diamonds. decide which bold word is more suitable. but the important / major part of their funding still comes from the government. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The main concentration / focus of Greenpeace is on problems concerning pollution. it is not always possible for exporters to know how much money they will receive from sales. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Member countries award / contribute money to the United Nations to pay for the running of the organization. 10. 3. 5. On the first day. In some situations. Although their plan / design was often very good. 6. Expenditure on weapons such as guns. Although it is very expensive. Prehistoric man could not think / comprehend why the moon appears to grow bigger and then smaller each month. 7. 12. 1. Because foreign exchange rates ebb and flow / fluctuate. The fact that population growth is still accelerating / catching up is one of the most important problems we face. a law court can authorise / let the police to enter a house without the owner's permission. 13. 11. 14. 2. Students should not be inert / passive but should try instead to contribute as much as possible to discussions in seminar groups.Unit Two 2b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. the course director and the subject tutor explained their respective / single roles to the new students. tanks and aeroplanes consumes a large piece / portion of a country's wealth. 8. . 9.

…over 30% of marriages end in divorce within five years. 11. …of the European immigrants. 9. g. most smokers were not aware… The new grading machine has the function… In many universities. …what they say so that the readers cannot read the truth. while others may continue to be irresponsible. 10. the US and Soviet governments made the crucial… Politicians often complain that newspapers distort… The history of the Americas is usually from seen from the perspective… An already difficult operation was complicated… …of the dangers of smoking. according to government statistics. 2. c. Einstein published the first part of his theory… Environmentalists point out that electric cars just shift… Most metals expand… As a result of the intense… Fifty years ago. 13. e. …to the library where students can take a break. f. it becomes difficult to concentrate… Some children show a great deal of maturity… Sadly. 6. 15. …by the fact that the patient had a history of heart disease. m. there is a coffee bar adjacent… After studying for two hours. 3. …decision to reduce the number of atomic weapons. j. …the pollution problem from the car itself to the electricity station. l. i. Galileo demonstrated… In the 1980's. d. h. …of separating the larger pieces of metal from the smaller pieces. rather than from that of the original inhabitants. o. . the front half of the train was completely destroyed. 4. …that all objects (heavy or light) fall at the same speed. 5. …heat of the fire. In 1905. 14. …when they are heated.Unit Two 2c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. k. n. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …on your work and so it is a good idea to take a break.… In the seventeenth century. a. …of relativity. 12 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. b. 12. 8. …at a young age. which completely changed our ideas of time and space.

The company has experienced a number of significant changes in the last few years. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. ___________________ ___________________ 12. One important function of newspapers is to uncover dishonest behaviour and wrong-doing by those in power. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 13. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 3. whereas today we accept this concept as completely normal. When the government increased the tax on petrol. 13 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. we have seen an enormous growth in the number of home personal computers. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 6. 11. In the first instance. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential customers. . The organisation of the company has changed completely. Most economists forecast that China will become a leading world economy in the twenty-first century. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: affect (v) expose (v) predict (v) 1. One difficult aspect of writing an essay is selecting material which is relevant to the topic and excluding irrelevant information. The decision to give longer prison sentences indicated a hardening of the government's attitude towards drug offenders. ___________________ 14. the blood passes out of the heart. Lecturers often speak more loudly and more slowly when they want to stress an important point. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 8. with far fewer senior managers. Pollution is a problem which has an effect on every country today. ___________________ 4. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Until the sixteenth century. the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun was regarded as a ridiculous idea. through the lungs and along the arteries before reaching the small blood vessels within the skin. capillary (n) generate (v) select (v) notion (n) decade (n) emphasise (v) pertinent (adj) undergo (v) consequent (adj) signify (v) structure (n) Over the previous ten years. there was a resultant rise in transport costs. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. ___________________ 7. The first thing to do is to choose the courses which you would like to study and then look at each university prospectus. ___________________ 9.Unit Two 2d – Word substitution From the list below.

separate b. verify b. a. external c. a. a. process b. choose the best word from a. chapters c. sections One problem for any teacher is that each student has his/her own ______________ needs. a. concept Further information can be ______________ from the nearest British Council office. certain metals such as iron and steel can have a __________________ field while others like copper cannot. individual c. transition In the some countries. variation The allied forces launched ______________ bombing raids on several important sites in and around the enemy capital. a. empirical b. titles Although this is far from certain. true c. a. phase c. simultaneous b. coincidental Students are often advised to look at the first and last ______________ of a book before attempting to read it in detail. a. 10. 7. 8.6 billion years.b or c: 1. idea c. outside b. 5. contemporary c. headings b. magnetic c. got As everyone knows. obtained b. electrical b. 9. technology After you have submitted your application. segments b. the ______________ age of the universe is about 4. 6. 13. but we must have _______________ evidence to support them. certify c. always try to break up a longer piece of text into small blocks of words. investigate Young children go through a ______________ in their development when they try to copy everything they hear. contrast c. there is no tax on books on the ______________ that education should not be taxed. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). distinctive Good theories are important of course. 12. principle b. 14 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a. a. outlying There is a marked ______________ between the poverty of the poorest members of society and the affluence of the richest. found c. engineering c. opposite b. a. 14. a. science b. a. pieces c. general c. Although he had no _____________ injuries.Unit Two 2e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. doctors later found that he was suffering from internal bleeding. approximate b. 4. chemical Just as dividing up an orange into _____________ makes it easier to eat. realistic 2. the university will attempt to ______________ that the information you have supplied is correct. a. rough Some economists argue that new ______________ causes unemployment while others feel that it allows more jobs to be created. 11. . 3.

After the Second World War. we are still at risk from _________________ _________________ such as earthquakes and floods. the satellite is still continuing to _________________ _________________ to Earth. drug companies have to _________________ _________________ on a huge scale to their research and development activities. In law. Most economists believe that high taxes _________________ _________________ in the economy. 13. 3. Are the mind and body the same thing or are they two _________________ _________________? 2. 15 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. In spite of its age.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: endangered separate transmit precise natural assert reacted sequence of devote highly inhibit verbal events signals details growth entities sophisticated species agreement angrily feasible the right phenonema time and money economically 1. . The company _________________ _________________ to the suggestion that its products were unsafe. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). is still a contract. 7. African nations started to _________________ _________________ to become independent. In order to produce new medicines. 9. In spite of advances in technology. 4. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 11. One threat facing companies today is _________________ _________________ computer 'hackers' who break into the most advanced computer systems. There is considerable doubt over whether the proposal by the American government for a manned trip to Mars is technically and _________________ _________________ Tigers (and other large cats) are now an _________________ _________________ and may disappear altogether in the future. the Minister admitted that several people had been arrested. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 10. While she refused to give any _________________ _________________.Unit Two 2f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 12. 5. 8. a _________________ _________________ even though it is not written down like a formal contract. The accident was the result of a tragic _________________ _________________ which could have been prevented with better safety procedures.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .Unit Two 16 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

While half of the students were responsible for writing the questionnaires. 12. Remember that some verbs may need to be followed by a _____________________. 7. 3. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The government has launched a new ___________________ aimed at reducing youth unemployment. Although we cannot be sure. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. One of the roles of the Managing Director is to ___________________ the work of different departments to ensure that they work well together. but this doesn't take account of the fact that we often use our emotions instead. The purpose of a bibliography at the end of an essay is to show the ____________________ of information used in writing the essay. . 9. 4. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: co-ordinate (v) norm (n) scheme (n) 1. written language is divided up into ___________________ units which we call words. Most countries in the Far East have developed very quickly. while at the opposite __________________ many Third World countries have not grown at all. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 11. 2. 8. result in. 10. In __________________. the others had the __________________ of analysing the data. such as lead to. 6. and so on. most ___________________ point to a significant increase in average air temperatures in the next 100 years. but what we are not so sure about is the ___________________ cause of this. Although speech is mostly continuous sound. we study the physical features of the world – such as rivers and mountains – and how we make use of them.Unit Three 3a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. discrete (adj) pole (n) source (n) estimate (n) preposition (n) task (n) geography (n) rational (adj) underlie (v) Paying for large purchases by credit card instead of in cash has become the ___________________ in many parts of the world. Everyone knows that diseases such as malaria are on the increase again. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Most economic theories assume that people act on a ___________________ basis. 17 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

Sometimes. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). the President convened / gathered a meeting of his top advisors at the White House. If somebody has a diet which is deficient / inadequate in vitamins. 3. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Because of the growth in the number of communication stations / satellites in space. but this style of dress is not correct / appropriate when they start work. Students usually dress casually at university. 12. 6. the astronauts abandoned / left their attempt to launch the space shuttle. the tale / plot was so weak that the film was a failure. 4. Extreme religious groups living in isolated communes / societies have been responsible for a number of violent crimes. viewers have access to more television channels. In order to discuss the implications of the crisis. 18 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Three 3b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Because the weather was so bad. . 1. but one common factor / idea seems to be high levels of education. An important social and political topic / issue in many developed countries is the growing number of old people. 11. The opinions expressed in a newspaper usually reflect the views of the proprietor / landlord. Although the characters were very convincing. 5. 8. The transition / transit from a communist to a free-market economy has been very difficult for a number of countries. 9. There are many reasons behind the success of the fastest-growing economies. 2. he/she may suffer poor health as a result. 7. unexpected economic changes force an organisation to deviate / divert from its original business plan. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 10.

. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …to their new environment more quickly than their parents. …although the police were heavily armed and very aggressive. …of the future. g.… Multi-national companies are often keen to seek… The Earth rotates… It is better to work at a constant rate and to maintain… Nowadays. …within society and can lead to violence. Edinburgh and Cardiff. 10. 4. f. 19 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. …more people from the unemployment totals. …towards women having top positions in the workplace. …this during the year rather than to try to learn everything the night before the examinations. …of the monarchy to life in modern society. e. c. 12. the children often adapt… a. 8. 6. 5. b. i. most people have a more favourable attitude… If a family moves abroad. l.Unit Three 3c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. d. 9. Resentment and jealousy over jobs is a common source of conflict… Many members of the public question the relevance… Retraining courses for the unemployed may just be a way to exclude… The letters L. 11. E and C on the map correspond… Some environmentalists have a very bleak vision… One way in which some countries can produce very cheap goods is to exploit… The demonstrators refused to disperse. …child workers by paying them very low wages. …local companies in developing economies willing to act as partners. …on its axis once every 24 hours. …to London. h. while others are much more optimistic. 2. k. j.

___________________ 20 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. A growing number of scientists find it plausible that other life forms may exist elsewhere in the universe. ___________________ 12. ___________________ 11. If global warming continues. the USA exercises considerable influence over world politics. ___________________ 3. Prisoners are sometimes released from prison early if their behaviour has been good. . The North Americans use more energy and resources than any other nation. Although Mozart lived for only 40 years. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: accomplish (v) conduct (n) exert (v) adequate (adj) consume (v) manifest in (v) area (n) credible (adj) occupy (v) chemical (n) dispose of (v) rely on (v) 1. ___________________ 8. At examination time. Environmentalists are keen to persuade us to throw away rubbish and waste in more environmentally-friendly ways. ___________________ 9. a university will make sure that the student's English is sufficient. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 7. Before accepting an overseas student. ___________________ 10. ___________________ 4. Some countries have such great economic problems that they are forced to depend on aid from richer countries in order to feed their inhabitants. Poisonous substances released into the sea may be absorbed by fish and then find their way into the human food chain.Unit Three 3d – Word substitution From the list below. go to the library early as all the places tend to be filled very quickly. many regions of the world will become drier while others may become wetter. as shown by his very poor examination results. he achieved a great deal in his short life. Because of its economic and military strength. He suffers from a lack of self-confidence. ___________________ 2. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 6. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence.

a. displayed b. the ______________________ speed limit in the UK is 70 mph (110 kph). image b. play Police could not understand why the arrested man had murdered his neighbour since he appeared to have no ______________________. a. a. 10. 6. picture c. circumstances The results of the government inquiry ______________________ that there had been no deliberate attempt by the company to deceive investors. . objective b. appreciate b. a. purpose The first two weeks of the course are designed to ______________________ new students and to allow them to settle into university life.Unit Three 3e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. complete A large number of people became ill after receiving blood transfusions ______________________ with the AIDS virus. explicit c. touch b. style Today. poisoned c. 21 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. instruct c. microscopic b. always ______________________ the focus on the projector so that everyone can read what is on the screen. a. choose the best word from a. 8. a. total b. places b. a person who is found guilty of murder may receive no punishment at all from the court. drama b. 13. 3. change The changes companies make to their cars are often very ______________________ and may not change the basic structure of the cars at all. people are probably more familiar with ______________________ on the television and radio rather than in the theatre. a. move c. approach c. times c. 5. a. respect c. contaminated Joining a newsgroup allows computer users to make ______________________ with other people who share a similar interest. a. orientate b. 7. motive c. a. a. 4. superficial c. biggest In special ______________________. I would really ______________________ some help with this assignment. minute Although most cars can travel much faster. b or c: 1. acting c. highest c. 12. 9. value 2. contact If you have time. and as a result the pilot made an error and crashed. Before giving a presentation. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). revealed c. 11. a. explained One important aspect of marketing is to create a positive ______________________ of a company or product. a. maximum b. introduce The instructions from air traffic control were not fully ______________________. polluted b. adjust b.

rising crime rates seem to be an increasingly _________________ _________________ of life in big cities today. The university refused to make a _________________ _________________ on his application until he had taken a language test. 8. there was a _________________ _________________ in Britain and so workers from other countries had to be recruited. 22 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2.Unit Three 3f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 3. as the name implies. 5. she was kept under house arrest for a number of years. Tourism is now a very significant part of the _________________ _________________. Unfortunately. Because she was an _________________ _________________ of the government. 11. 9. 4. In most countries. Some people found Mrs Thatcher's style somewhat aggressive. 6.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: global power and outspoken physical common previous dynamic labour computer final positive classic shortage prestige experience aspects personality example decision network exercise critic feature economy 1. Mercedes-Benz cars are very famous because they are regarded as symbols of _________________ _________________. earning millions of dollars. while others preferred to regard her as having a forceful and _________________ _________________. . The Internet. Employers are always keen to recruit staff with good qualifications and relevant _________________ _________________. After the Second World War. His doctor advised him to give up fatty foods and to take some form of _________________ _________________ such as golf. linking computers all over the world. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. is really a huge _________________ _________________. Those language learners who focus on the _________________ _________________ of living in a new culture rather than on the disadvantages tend to learn more quickly. 10. Without doubt. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Coca-Cola is probably the _________________ _________________ of a product that is known world-wide. 7. 12.

Unit Three 23 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

scientists were keen to assess / investigate the cause of the accident.Unit Four 4a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. but sometimes we may make _________________ decisions instead. At the beginning of the examination. 5. the United Nations decided to _________________ and provide emergency food supplies. The spell-check facility on a computer allows students to check the _________________ of their assignments for basic errors. Einstein is best known for his work in the sphere / globe of physics. 3. decide which word in bold is more suitable. Although he was interested in many fields. 7. 1. Usually. 4. the majority of applications are _________________ because the competition for places is so great. 4. 2. 8. many scientists _________________ that life may exist on other planets. 5. Artificial intelligence draws an _________________ between the digital computer and the human brain. The police have a duty to _________________ the law fairly and give everyone the same treatment. 11. 10. the house was unsafe because the walls were no longer _________________. Psychology / Biology can help the police understand how criminals think. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). A large number of people _________________ outside the Parliament to show support for their party. Because hundreds of people were dying. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 9. Although there is very little evidence. the bank praises / appraises all of its staff and gives a bonus to the best performers. 24 . but some researchers think that this comparison is too simplistic. question papers were _________________ to all of the candidates in the hall. money and _________________. Following the explosion at Chernobyl. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2. 3. At the end of the year. we try to reach a conclusion after careful thought. Studying a language can take up a great deal of time. 6. 12. 4b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. The imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the Earth's axis / axle. For some university courses. analogy (n) impress (v) speculate (v) assemble (v) intervene (v) spontaneous (adj) distribute (v) perpendicular (adj) text (n) She so _________________ the interviewers that they gave her the job. Following the earthquake. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: administer (v) energy (n) reject (v) 1.

while others show no emotion / sympathy at all. 9. with no conclusions as yet. …of sending all the information users want. In a dangerous situation. 11. he started to acquire / obtain a marked Australian accent. 4. l. resulting in more skin cancer. a. 2. 3. On the screen above me. …their colleagues from prison. . 9. …if we can prove it by using logic and reasoning. After he had moved to Australia. Although the work is far from finished. …outcome was agreement on all the main points. but the eventual… Heavy rains persisted… …terms.' The principle of heredity / inheritance explains why children tend to look like their parents. 6. …showing the different parts of the system. j. most people panic and become very frightened. …that all the goods had to be delivered within four weeks. 8. you can see a diagram… In mathematics.Unit Four 6. …more UV radiation is reaching the Earth. …for several days. with many more part-time and mature students. causing heavy flooding. 7. h. some approximate / tentative conclusions can already be drawn from the responses we have so far. g. If you are taking notes in a lecture. 4c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 11. use shapes / symbols such as "+" and "=" as opposed to the words 'and' and 'equals. k. f. a statement is known as a theorem… The student population is much more diverse… Older university buildings may be wonderful in aesthetic… The contract stipulated… The Internet may soon not be capable… The police usually contact parents about any incident… Because of pollution in the atmosphere. 10. b. 25 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 12. e. 8. 10. i. …his decision to reduce spending on education.… The terrorists demanded that the government release… One journalist asked the minister to justify… The negotiations went on through the night. The two sides have been engaged for some hours now in a lengthy discourse / chat on the issue of weapons. …than in the past. 7. 5. but are not always very practical. …which involves young children. d.

When the interest in the company declined. . there has been a significant increase in the number of overseas students in British universities. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 2.Unit Four 4d – Word substitution From the list below. reservoir (n) The prisoner claimed that he had been attacked by the police. During the last twenty-five years. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allege (v) alter (v) cease (v) philosophy (n) subside (v) elaborate (adj) litigation (n) upsurge (n) fragment (n) induce (v) 1. ___________________ 10. As so many jobs require good skills. The government's refusal to accept the result of the election prompted thousands of people to come out on to the streets and protest. The most recent management thinking encourages managers to listen more carefully to the ideas of their employees. ___________________ 26 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 8. investigators examine every piece of the wreckage to determine the cause of the crash. Because of the possible link between disease in cows and humans. ___________________ 3. Global warming will change the way we live: everybody will experience some change. Following an air accident. ___________________ 4. but there was no evidence to prove this. ___________________ 9. A number of universities are worried about legal action in the law courts by students who are dissatisfied with their courses. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Your research proposal doesn't need to be too detailed: keep it simple and concentrate on the main points. ___________________ 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). there is a pool of people who are unemployed because they do not have any skills. the value of its shares began to fall. many companies stopped trading in British beef and associated products. ___________________ 11. ___________________ 6.

chunks c. 6. experiments b. attempt We have two e-mail systems here: one for __________________ use. . imprint b. thought c. a. eliminated b. it is important to __________________ services such as trains and buses so that they work together and offer a more convenient service. 11. trials The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom was a huge engineering __________________. enforce c. internal c. eradicated c. a. a. development c. ambition b. 27 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. combine Approximately 30 of the world's most industrialised countries __________________ the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. The former West Germany tried to __________________ its business approach onto the former East Germany. 9. attributed to One of the reasons for the relatively high price of many drugs is the huge cost of __________________ and development. 8. 3. indoors The police interviewed three men but later __________________ them from their investigation as they were all innocent. since all its operations are based on __________________.Unit Four 4e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. credited to b. and another for contacting people outside the university. 12. research c. comprise c. a. 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). __________________ of uranium are split into smaller particles. led to c. understanding The __________________ of the American space programme in the 1960's was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. 7. integrate b. a. goal If public transport is to succeed in serving the public. constitute b. 5. a. policy c. releasing huge amounts of energy. logic b. point c. exterminated A computer cannot blindly guess the answer to a question. revolt b. superimpose In a nuclear power station. b or c. way The recent rise in leukaemia and similar diseases has been __________________ radiation leaking from the nearby nuclear power station. are composed of 2. elements Young army officers led the violent __________________ which brought down the democraticallyelected government. atoms b. project b. a. a. a. 1. 10. inside b. choose the best word from a. unite c. a. a. a.

A _________________ _________________ of people released from prison continue to commit offences. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. The policy of privatisation _________________ _________________ of a property-owning democracy. 6. An official spokesman _________________ _________________ allegations that the company had been responsible for the deaths of three employees. whereas in Britain no one is required to join the armed forces. 3. 7. an airport may be closed down to prevent the possibility of an accident. _________________ _________________ has been rejected in favour of a more traditional view of society. Because of the growth in fax machines and _________________ _________________ . insisting that every precaution had been taken. 8. In many European countries compulsory _________________ _________________ is the norm. 5. . One major criticism of the _________________ _________________ in Britain is that there are not enough female judges. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). we will need more new telephone numbers. 4. 28 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Four 4f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Nelson Mandela _________________ _________________ to achieving equality between black and white people in South Africa. As more countries acquire the technology necessary to produce _________________ _________________. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. In some countries. 9.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: atom embodies dedicated military mobile flatly high dense Western judicial fog system service proportion bombs contradicted phones culture his life the principle 1. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 2. the probability that they will be used again increases. 10. When there is heavy snow or _________________ _________________ .

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .Unit Four 29 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

4. . Two students had great difficulty in solving the equation. Heart disease can be caused by a bad diet (especially too much fat). use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Japan may well be the most ____________________ as the great majority of its people are from the same race. ____________________ can be defined simply as the study of life. couples who were previously unable to have children may now be able to start a family. One big advantage of a word processor is that it allows you to check and then _________________ your work easily. 8. biology (n) overlap (v) trivial (adj) edit (v) stress (n) version (n) enlighten (v) symptom (n) x-rays (n) __________________ are not simply used to photograph broken bones but also to fight against cancers within the body.Unit Five 5a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. She found physics easy because some of the course ____________________ with the maths she had studied at school. 30 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 10. 9. 6. 7. The first witness accused the defendant of murder. 11. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aid (n) homogeneous (adj) trait (n) 1. Of all the countries in the world. 12. 5. but luckily their tutor was able to ____________________ them. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). inadequate exercise and too much ____________________. 2. 3. These experiments may seem ____________________ but they are in fact extremely important. Headaches may just be the result of tiredness but can be a ____________________ of a more serious problem. Jealousy is one of the most unpleasant human ________________________. With the __________________ of new medical techniques. but the second witness gave a very different __________________ of events.

12. smoke or talk for the time / duration of the examination. it is perhaps the motor car which has transformed / modified our lives more than anything else. The United Nations representative managed to secure / acquire agreement between the two sides who had been fighting over an area of land rich in oil. but) and prepositions (to. 7. Examination candidates are not allowed to eat. 4. . 31 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. So many contrary / unlike opinions were expressed that no agreement was possible. each of the others made a full confession. 9.Unit Five 5b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Although one of the prisoners refused to respond / answer to any questions. verbs (come. governments usually stop / suppress any newspaper reports which contain bad news. During times of war. During the process known as photosynthesis. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Divorce arouses such strong feelings that it is difficult to remain honest / objective and logical about the best way to tackle this problem. in. When the government tried to implement / start new employment legislation. drink. The opening of a new car factory stimulated / aroused the local economy and improved employment possibilities. The UK Government can decide to suspend / expel an overseas student who does not have a visa and refuse permission for the student to return. green). conjunctions (and. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. plants soak up / absorb CO2 and release oxygen. 11. Of all recent inventions. 2. 1. 6. there was a general strike. go). 5. for) are all categories / groups of words. 3. decide which word in bold is more suitable. 8. 10. Adjectives (big.

…that he had accepted money from any criminal group. 6. The European Union has insisted that all new aircraft incorporate… In today's economy. it is best to use a formal. e. f. h. 4. . l. 12. 5. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). full-time permanent jobs… Most British students used to receive a grant… The police officer denied… At the end of a quotation. …it is unlikely that man will be able travel to other galaxies. …otherwise the conclusions they come to will be useless. they may completely forget recent events. the date and the page number: (Brown 1996:76). and to avoid contractions such as 'isn't' and 'doesn't'. there is one electron… a.Unit Five 5c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …in your writing. 9. …moving around the proton at the centre. 7. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.… The measurements taken by researchers must be accurate… Religion has many aspects. …are disappearing to be replaced by part-time temporary employment. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. …materials such as nylon as well as natural materials such as cotton. i. j. b. …from the government to pay for costs such as rent. …clear memories of their childhood. food and books. g. 11. c. 10. 32 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2. 8. …of conduct to show people how they should behave. remember to put in parentheses… Because the universe is so vast. d. k. …additional safety features. 3. …the author's name. one of which is to provide a code… Although many elderly people retain… At university. impersonal style… Some clothes can be made from synthetic… Inside the hydrogen atom.

one lawyer showed that there were some slight differences between them. __________________ 6. Most metals shrink as they become cooler. Although the two cases seemed to be identical. __________________ 5. __________________ 3.Unit Five 5d – Word substitution From the list below. Although not all the votes have been counted. __________________ 7. . all the employees were relocated to another factory belonging to the same company. initial results suggest that the President has won the election. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. Those who support military service claim that it promotes discipline. __________________ 9. In spite of a massive advertising campaign. Some organisations have a dress code which lays down what their employees should wear. while opponents argue that such service disrupts young people's education. choose one word which could be used to replace the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Although the factory had to be closed. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: advocate (v) compound (n) insist (v) subtle (adj) contract (v) preliminary (adj) tiny (adj) transfer (v) dictate (v) graph (n) retard (v) 1. only a very small proportion of consumers made a permanent change in their buying habits. The prisoner said repeatedly that he was innocent until he was released. __________________ 4. __________________ 8. you can see that unemployment has been in decline for the past six years. 33 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. If you look at this second chart. __________________ 10. One of the many effects of the hole in the ozone layer is that increased radiation will delay the growth of plants and lead to food shortages. __________________ 2. __________________ 11.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. a. but now they are highly developed. message c. a. As trade union membership has declined. reinforcement b. b or c. post-graduate students are asked to become teaching assistants in order to ___________________ undergraduates. Police officers face many dangers. arguments b. the number of ______________ and strikes has also decreased. but this attitude has been changing rapidly in recent years. customer c. a. especially when they are __________________ by violent criminals carrying weapons. a. a. Cigarette packets on sale are required to carry a _________________ clearly stating the dangers of smoking. extension 5. The role of the middle manager is not to formulate new policies but to ______________ them. a. disagreements c. reinstate b. 1. drill c. You can buy goods on the Internet with a credit card. superior 8. uncomplicated 9. encountered 6. instruct b. choose the best word from a. scatter b. patient b. The invention of printing allowed ideas to __________________ much more quickly than before. inform 10. a. a. fraud c. rudimentary c. label b. crude b. Increasingly. In many cultures. facilities for tourists were rather ___________________. corruption b. diffuse c. better b. restore 4. met c. embezzlement 34 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. inferior c. it was traditionally believed that men were _________________ to women. tag 11. . but there is a danger of ____________________ if someone else obtains the number. a. confronted b.Unit Five 5e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. Many athletes take extra vitamins as a/an ________________ to their diet when they are preparing for competition. In the early years. disseminate 7. client 12. manage b. disputes 2. execute 3. use c. Engineers worked throughout the night to ________________ electricity to homes whose supplies had been cut off by heavy snow. a. supplement c. a. renew c. A defence lawyer has a duty to try to establish the innocence of his/her ____________________.

the government _________________ _________________ on the private ownership of guns. Before publishing the results of new research. Most people accept that fighting against terrorism is a _________________ _________________ of any government. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 11. the price of oil increased dramatically. He _________________ _________________ which were so terrible that a massive manhunt was launched by the police to find him. 7. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.Unit Five 5f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 9. There is a tradition that a falling apple helped Newton develop his theory about the _________________ _________________. causing an international economic _________________ _________________. 3. 8. everyone who was _________________ _________________ of 500 metres of the bomb was evacuated. In the 1970's. 35 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). where the two _________________ _________________ we find the ideal balance. 2. Because of the danger of an explosion. While it is probably true they are not capable of _________________ _________________. Because of the work of _________________ _________________. 5.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: force of at regular lines abstract imposed crisis of err on within a research perpetrated a ban concern thought confidence crimes gravity intervals intersect institutes radius legitimate the side of caution 1. On this graph. 4. perhaps every month or every quarter. most animals appear to experience a range of emotions. it is better to _________________ _________________ and recheck the results. 10. Most academic journals are published _________________ _________________. . Following the rise in violence. there is increasing hope that effective treatments for AIDS will soon be available.

. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Five 36 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

All the equipment is made up of __________________ pieces which can be easily assembled in weightless conditions. Animals with a very fast ___________________ have to eat very frequently and do not live very long. The fact that the car was being driven very badly ___________________ the policeman's suspicions. The argument became so heated that it soon _______________________ into accusations of dishonesty and corruption. 11. while others stress the disadvantages. and so he made the driver stop. During the 1930's. a young baby will start to cry if it is hungry. cold. By _______________________.Unit Six 6a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Some religious groups _______________________ that Darwin's theory of evolution is completely wrong. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). President Roosevelt introduced _______________ new policies to solve the American unemployment problem. 10. ___________________ of rock likely to contain oil have recently been located under the ice-sheet in Antarctica. from the managers at the top down to the employees at the bottom. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Some people emphasise the _________________ of new technology. 9. . 5. 6. 4. but it is still too early to claim that machines can actually think for themselves. Students at university are encouraged to play sports or join clubs in addition to following their ________________ studies. 7. or in pain. 12. 8. We can make machines which can _________________ huge numbers of mathematical problems. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: academic (adj) contend (v) interlocking (adj) arouse (v) degenerate (v) metabolism (n) benefit (n) hierarchy (n) radical (adj) compute (v) instinct (n) strata (n) 1. An organisational chart shows the company __________________ . 3. 37 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2.

… At the end of the process.Unit Six 6b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. h. 8. …of the Catholic Church – the representative of God here on Earth. Medium. 6. and these special words can make progress very slow. Government safety inspectors found abnormal / unlikely levels of radiation in the area around the nuclear power station. 4. g. decide which word is more suitable: 1. 5. The decision to expand the airport has caused a great deal of controversy. so all the minor… Mercury is the smallest planet… Whatever type of job you may be contemplating. 13. 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …was the fact that the murderers were both under 10 years old. …to the same safety and pollution regulations. 12. Companies which cannot adapt to changing situations very often go into decline / decrease. k. m. 11. 8. The appeal / claim by protesters for more money to be invested in education was rejected by the Government. 12. d. 10. …in our solar system. i. 5. …the university careers service can give you advice. The tone / style of the meeting was rather serious and formal. b. 11./ Middle-sized companies are often more flexible than larger organisations. Mahatma Gandhi refused all food and indeed nearly died in his protest / complaint against British control of his country. More than 30. …centres today. it is important to ignore subjective… Buildings in places such as California have to be reinforced… In the United Kingdom. He is such a powerful boxer that all his opponents are in awe / fright of him. Many police officers argue that ex-prisoners commit / perform as much crime after they come out of prison as before they went in. Studying a new subject means having to learn a lot of new vocabulary / terminology. j. f. 38 . c. 6. In India. Most universities oblige / force overseas students to take an English language test before they start their course. …impressions and to base decisions on facts instead.000 people participated / contributed in the experiment. a. any parts which are not of uniform… When selecting new employees. 2. …so that they will not collapse in the event of an earthquake. …roles were played by people from the local area. you should avoid alcohol as the two may interact / cooperate and make you ill. …but construction has already started and should be completed soon. 3. 7. l.… The murder was a very strange case but the most striking aspect… All new cars on the market today have to conform… The Pope in Rome is – according to the doctrine… Cars are not allowed to enter many civic… The police accompanied… The film was made on a very low budget. 9. 10. e. because of pollution and congestion problems. 7. before her son became king in 1901. …shape and size are rejected and sent back for recycling. 2. If you are taking medicine. Queen Victoria reigned… …the witness to the court to ensure that he would be safe. …for most of the previous century. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. 6c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 9.

Heavy smokers have a tendency to develop lung cancer and other serious illnesses. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 39 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. campaigners have protested against the building of new roads. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 8. . ___________________ 7. It is impossible to grow crops without an adequate supply of water. One of the main causes of the increase in inner-city lawlessness is the number of young people dependent on drugs. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). During examinations. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: activist (n) extract (v) propensity (n) 1. In recent environmental demonstrations. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 10. most children are able to talk with an adult in a limited fashion. By the age of three. but it is impossible to maintain this for very long and so it is not recommended. students are not allowed to talk to or help other students in any way. ___________________ 9. Students should not read every page of a book but instead identify and then take out only those ideas which are relevant. assist (v) clarify (v) converse (v) incline (v) sustain (v) propagate (v) urban (adj) ___________________ The lecturer tried to explain her point more clearly by using another example more familiar to her students. Because of unhappy childhood experiences. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. he is disposed to believe that most people are basically very selfish. ___________________ 3. 2. Some students will stay up all night to finish their work. ___________________ 6.Unit Six 6d – Word substitution From the list below.

11. rewrite b. sympathise c. 9. a. volume c. hit c. a. legal b. collided The journalist asked the Prime Minister repeatedly about the scandal but he refused to ______________________ on it. a. achieved In most companies. choose the best word from a. prospered c. persuaded While South Korea has ______________________ over the last fifty years. assist b. students are often asked to ______________________ to produce a group report or presentation together. fertile c. a. salary Following unification. unite c. scope To improve teamworking. revenue c. 4. reproduce The age at which a child becomes ______________________ in the United Kingdom is 18. employees receive extra ______________________ if they do extra work. agricultural Most universities have trained counsellors who can reassure and ______________________ students who have academic or personal problems. 8. productive b. revise c. crashed b. 10. b or c: 1. a. Wearing a seatbelt when travelling in a car is now a ______________________ requirement in many countries. discuss Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary. the employers agreed reluctantly to _____________________ their pay offer to the workers. tobacco companies ______________________ the public for years that smoking was not a direct cause of cancer. and people who do not so may be punished in the courts. compulsory c. the German government decided to move the capital from Bonn and ______________________ it once more in Berlin. 3. succeeded b. 12. cheer The ______________________ of world trade increased enormously during the twentieth century. income b. 13. 5. a. 40 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a. . co-operate 2. a. comment b. place There are many parts of the world which are ______________________ enough to produce food but do not have enough water. 7. locate c. a. a. promised b. 6. position b. a. a. an adult c. console b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). North Korea is still relatively underdeveloped. an individual Many scientists believe that most dinosaurs were killed as a result of a huge meteor which ______________________ with the Earth 65 million years ago. binding Because the strikers still refused to return to work. mention c. a person b. size b. assured c.Unit Six 6e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. a.

4. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 9.Unit Six 6f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 6. 11. In order to increase pressure on the government. After two months of non-stop fighting there was a _________________ _________________ of peace on Christmas Day before the fighting started again. try to _________________ _________________ and don't panic. The countries in the _________________ _________________ are in general poorer than those in the northern. the Rolls Royce has only ever been aimed at a _________________ _________________. Most _________________ _________________ not only look alike but also behave and even dress similarly. concentrate on what you can do! 2. Sometimes. Some insects are so small that they can only really be seen properly _________________ _________________. niche brief under southern economic go off at endless hemisphere their goals reality a tangent your nerve cycle sanctions interlude twins market the microscope When you look at your exam paper. _________________ _________________ is now so advanced that pilots train with it. 41 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. women are still not able to _________________ _________________ as easily as men in terms of reaching the top positions. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. While the Volkswagen car was designed to appeal to the masses. 3. . 10. 5. In spite of equal opportunities policies.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: keep identical attain virtual 1. _________________ _________________ were imposed preventing the sale of oil. university life just seems to be an _________________ _________________ of assignment after assignment. 8. 7. Some lecturers are difficult to follow because they _________________ _________________ and talk about something completely different.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). .Unit Six 42 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.

Although unemployment was falling. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Many political scientists argue that it is impossible to have a truly modern economy without ___________________ and a more open society. _____________________ are the tiny. 2. there has been a worrying increase in the number of _____________________ taking drugs. In many countries. most people looked up to him almost as a ____________________. 3. In the USA. the building ___________________ killing more than 300 people inside. 2. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: adolescent (n) collapse (v) friction (n) affiliate (v) commodity (n) invoke (v) aristocracy (n) democracy (n) repudiate (v) cell (n) dissolve (v) saint (n) muscle (n) 1. steel and sugar. trade unions usually ___________________ to a national union organisation. 3. 4. the royal family and the ___________________ in Russia were overthrown and a communist government was installed. ___________________ can arise between people who have jobs and those who do not. citizens can ______________________ the right to silence if they do not want to answer a question in court. . 6. Computer equipment can become obsolete / antique very quickly because new technology emerges so fast. 8. 5. He was more than a national hero.Unit Seven 7a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. As a result of the revolution of 1917. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 9. At the public enquiry. Without any warning. Individuals who have become very rich through business usually also have a lot of political ___________________ and can therefore influence political decisions. Sugar and salt ___________________ easily in water. 13. In swimming pools. In times of unemployment. 12. 11. 10. there is a slight odour / fragrance because of the chlorine in the water. basic building blocks from which all living creatures are made up. ___________________ markets allow traders to buy and sell raw materials such as cotton. and refute / contradict even wellestablished theories such as evolution. In order to become more powerful. 43 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Some religious groups are strongly opposed to modern science. the Managing Director ___________________ all suggestions that the company had tried to avoid responsibility for the accident. in fact. the economy remained depressed / distressed because consumers still felt insecure about their jobs. decide which word in bold more suitable 1. 4.

d. 9. a. g. h. they are particularly interested in the colour and the touch / texture of the material. I just want to give you a brief sketch… Fifty years after the Second World War. l. …rather than speak in great detail about this new topic. 7. …and concentrated resources on the airforce instead. Before the election. k. Increasingly. Recent tests show that girls are getting higher scores / results than boys in most school subjects. 4. …is responsible for making laws. 8. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. There are so many aircraft using Heathrow Airport these days that the noise is almost incessant / eternal. …but today they are much smaller. 2. The creditors / debtors of a company are those individuals or organisations to whom that company owes money. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …which is concerned for example with lines and the shapes and angles they make. President Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded… The new management team managed to revive… When we talk about sociology. 5. …the company. The defendant is allowed to discuss / confer with his/her lawyer before and during the trial.Unit Seven 5. j. the UK Parliament… Early computers were very cumbersome… The Government has reduced the number of ships in the navy… …due to the economic growth of the last 30 years. 10. f.… Muslims have a system of divine… In 1991. …law based on the Koran. 44 . e. the chance of an accident will increase. 12. 10.… Electrical equipment is usually supplied with a fuse. 11. 7c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 6. 3. which many had thought was beyond hope. 7. …the neighbouring country of Kuwait.… People in Japan enjoy a great deal of affluence… In this lecture. …which will blow if a fault develops. called the Cold War. Some species of birds migrate / commute from North Africa to Britain. i. it seems that politicians who are dogmatic / pragmatic rather than rigid in their views tend to be more successful. …we are interested in the study of society and how people behave within it. When designers choose material for making new clothes. b. c. a state of tension prevailed… Like the United States Congress. 13. If the pattern / configuration of the control panel in an aircraft makes it difficult for the pilot to read the instruments. 9. …between the communist and capitalist worlds. 6. all the main political parties tried to explain their main policy / line to the voters through television broadcasts and newspaper advertisements. 8. One branch of mathematics is geometry. 11. 12.

If you wish to travel or work before studying. Increasingly. employers are keen to recruit people who have at least a basic ability in computing. ___________________ 10. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. 8. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Only a small proportion of the competitors in the Olympic Games actually ___________________ win a medal. Companies often give employees inducements such as bonuses and pay rises to encourage them to work harder. it is possible to postpone your entry to university by one year. the authorities tried to have discussions with the terrorists to secure the release of the hostages. and I thought that her decision not to expand the company showed a great deal of wisdom. Rather than use force. During the 1930's. ___________________ 9. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 45 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 13. . open spaces. peasant (n) prudence (n) In many types of music. and yet consumption of drink actually increased. its opposite being claustrophobia. 2. Agoraphobia can be defined as a dread of large. ___________________ 6.Unit Seven 7d – Word substitution From the list below. I am impressed by her business sense. the sale of strong drink was illegal in the USA. ___________________ 4. Some products are exported and may not be available at all in the home market. ___________________ 7. some kind of drum is used to provide the beat. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 11. There is growing pressure on governments to protect forests and wild animals. The 1949 revolution in China was successful because the agricultural workers and farmers gave their support to the communists. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: alcohol (n) defer (v) competence (n) domestic (adj) conserve (v) horror (n) corporate (adj) incentive (n) rhythm (n) ___________________ fraction (n) negotiate (v) 1. ___________________ 12. It is now common organisational policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aim of the organisation.

b or c: 1. redraw c. The study of ___________________ has been helped considerably by the Hubble telescope. impartial 8. In the US today. a. transact c. triangle b. Economic Some political parties want to ________________________ the process by which we vote in general elections so as to make it more representative. disinterested c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). region b. tissue b. corrupt 12. more and more children live with one parent. a. a. flesh c. make 10. b. astrology c. reform 3. nutrition c. a. rewrite b. time 11. a. food b. a. the building should be ready for use by the end of the year. and yet the ___________________ of the two-parent family still exists. the ________________________ Department is responsible for managing money within that organisation. Monetary c. schedule c. astronomy b. a. In the next century. square c. a. Finance 2. In any large company. the ________________________ of Asia will become the most significant sector of the world economic market. neutral b. choose the best word from a. stereotype c. degenerate c. rectangle 46 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. According to the _______________________. matter 5. a. nutrients 9. Switzerland declared that it would remain _______________________ and not take part in any of the fighting. In the Second World War. a.Unit Seven 7e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. continent c. A simple everyday example of the _______________________ is the standard postcard. it is increasingly common for people to _______________________ business without actually meeting. a. . area 4. a. icon b. Because of modern communications. degrade b. The roots of a plant absorb water and ______________________ from the soil in which it grows. the only telescope up in space. Many food products carry a 'sell by' date since they ________________________ over time and become unusable. perform b. symbol 6. timing b. astronomer 7. Mad cow disease was probably caused by allowing cows to eat nerve _____________________ from sheep and other cows.

7. the discussions are still only in the _________________ _________________. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. One extreme political group started a _________________ _________________. The _________________ _________________ is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. 6. Doctors have a _________________ _________________ which requires them to act in the best interest of their patients. The results of the vote showed agreement across the _________________ _________________. 47 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). the _________________ _________________ from underground hot water supplies can be used to produce electricity. kidnapping and bombing. _________________ _________________ refers to the competition which often exists between the children in a family for the attention and love of their parents. The decision by Japanese companies to invest in the UK was _________________ _________________ Britain being part of the European Union. 5. 2. In areas with active volcanoes. both on the extreme left and extreme right. including hijacking. Although there has been some success. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The water evaporated.Unit Seven 7f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. . the court sentenced him to three years in prison.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: sibling thermal code contingent 1. Although he _________________ _________________. 10. 9. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 8. When speaking. we tend to use _________________ _________________. 4. pleaded salt precipitated intermediate political campaign colloquial US not guilty a crisis energy crystals stages Congress rivalry of terror of ethics spectrum upon language The shortage of oil in the 1970's _________________ _________________ in the world economy. 12. but in academic writing we need to be much more formal. leaving behind only _________________ _________________. 11.

Unit Seven 48 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

Periods of high economic growth tend to be followed by low growth. 4. _____________________ energy provides approximately 80% of the electricity used in France. more than in any other country. who in turn report to the Production Manager. 5. 5. 8. In this company. 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). it is possible to make a simple telescope. 2. you are allowed to _____________________ up to 10% of a book for your own personal study.Unit Eight 8a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. About 20% of the atmosphere is made up of _____________________. The _____________________ value of all the companies in the group was in excess of $250 million. followed by more high growth again. they are _____________________ to fail their examinations. 8b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 49 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. If students do not attend lectures. Camus uses the disease mentioned in the title as a metaphor / simile to represent fascism and other extreme political ideas. ___________________ support from workers in other unions can be very important for it to succeed. 3. In any strike action by a trade union. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. . Karl Marx _____________________ that the structure of a society is determined by the economic structure of that society. The _____________________ Court in the United States is the highest and most important court in the country. he/she may fail. By law in the UK. 9. which is vital for life on Earth. Some students complained because the extra lecture coincided / synchronised with one of their religious festivals. 11. like a _____________________. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aggregate (adj) nuclear (adj) reproduce (v) 1. 6. countries which may have been enemies in the past are often allies / friends today. In many cases. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. fraternal (adj) oxygen (n) lens (n) pendulum (n) liable (adj) postulate (v) supreme (adj) subordinate (adj) By putting two _____________________ together. 4. the supervisors are _____________________ to the inspectors. 7. The former President's personality was so strong that her influence invaded / pervaded every aspect of political life. If a student does not follow / adhere to the regulations concerning examinations. 10. 2. In his book The Plague.

…themselves with the North. 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). … The US Navy has the largest fleet… Medical researchers managed to correlate… University courses used to be very rigid… From a very early age. with capitalist countries aiding the South. children develop a spatial… During the Korean War.… The European Union has reduced most of the bureaucracy… Because of radio telescopes. Some students are reluctant / unhappy to ask questions because they are shy. f. While our reserves of oil and coal are fixed / finite. a. 10. …asbestos to lung cancer and other respiratory diseases many years ago. . children have to work very long hours. 11. c. energy sources such as the wind or the sun will in effect never end. 9. …distant stars which are invisible from Earth. to the detriment / expense of their education and even their health.Unit Eight 6. 8c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 8. 50 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. as this would cause it to collapse. 7. while others have a monarch. 7. …which may be caused by the food which children are eating. j. g. …up and down or from side to side. …either a king or a queen. 8. …associated with customs. i. b. 6. …and offered students no real choice or flexibility. 5. 3. we can now detect… It is vital to make sure that the structure of a bridge will not oscillate… …awareness allowing them to understand where things are around them. 9. …abilities develop fully so that it can communicate and learn. The number of people living on our planet is on an upward trend / pattern and is expected to top 10 billion in the years to come. h. thereby simplifying trade regulations. The contents / index at the back of a book allows the reader to find specific information. It is very important that a child's linguistic… Teachers have noticed an increase in aggression. k. The idea that HIV and AIDS only affect homosexuals is a complete error / fallacy. 11. e. In some parts of the world. 10. 2. d. communist countries aligned… Some countries have a president. …of ships in the world.

Revolutionaries overpowered the troops holding the radio station so that they could announce the change of government to the people. Many companies in the developed world are trying to provide for older customers as the proportion of young people decreases. __________________ 2. __________________ 11. __________________ 5. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. __________________ 3. Britain developed gradually from an industrial economy into a service economy. The government has decided to initiate an investigation into the increase in deaths from drugs. it was not possible to notice any real improvement in the condition of the patient. __________________ 7. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. There is a very real danger that medicines currently used to treat infection will become completely ineffective if they are used too often and indiscriminately. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 51 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In the course of a trial. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). One of the most important skills to learn as a student is how to make use of your time effectively. Despite the efforts of the doctors. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allude (v) evolve (v) cater (v) launch (v) discern (v) proclaim (v) testify (v) utilise (v) drug (n) rebel (n) territory (n) 1. lawyers are forbidden to mention or even refer to any previous criminal activity the accused may have been responsible for in the past.Unit Eight 8d – Word substitution From the list below. . In the twentieth century. Most animals will attack other animals which try to enter their space. The independence of the United States of America was announced in 1776. __________________ 10. __________________ 9. __________________ 4. __________________ 6. The witness was so nervous that he refused to give evidence when the case came to court. __________________ 8.

a. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Many political parties support the introduction of a common _____________________. exude b. allots b. a.Unit Eight 8e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. club c. deprived c. provoked c. pours 7. gives c. currency 10. trickery b. factional c. sticky liquid to attract insects. league 8. finance c. biased Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. stimulated 5. a. flows b. The decision of the House of Commons surprised no one. denied 4. a. frustrated c. accepted all over Europe. leak c. 52 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In the seventeenth century. If children are _____________________ of love and security they may have problems in later life. magic c. William Harvey showed that blood _____________________ around the body on a continuous basis. created b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). despondent b. The decision of the university to close the swimming pool at weekends _____________________ an angry reaction among students. sad 6. choose the best word from the following list: 1. . drip 2. miracle 9. Some plants _____________________ a sweet. a. partisan b. allocates 3. circulates c. a. a. According to witnesses. a. Students on the new technology course became very _____________________ at the lack of suitable books in the library. a. money b. some UFO's can appear and disappear again as if by _____________________. as the politicians simply voted along _____________________ lines: the left-wing all supported the Prime Minister. the university _____________________ each student a limit of 500 pages of computer printing. a. division b. To cut down on costs. The G8 is a _____________________ of the world's eight richest countries. and the right-wing all opposed him. stripped b.

10. since the sun produces so much heat. 3. 4. In some countries. Most of the students complained that the lectures were an _________________ _________________ because it was impossible to understand the lecturer. 2. 6. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. Many students make the mistake of reading without considering first why they are reading. 7. There is very little evidence to suggest that _________________ _________________ as portrayed on television and in film actually cause antisocial behaviour.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: solar imperial dissipates Peace sex and legislate on the premise invest give utter against energy money violence control their consent waste of time power that Treaty 1. _________________ _________________ this would reduce the number of serious injuries. perhaps a quarter of the world's population was under British _________________ _________________. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. young people can get married below the age of 18. 9. Some years ago. During the nineteenth century. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. One obvious source of energy is _________________ _________________. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 53 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The _________________ _________________ signed at Versailles marked the end of the First World War. which just _________________ _________________ for no good reason. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 8. It is almost impossible to _________________ _________________ people who use the Internet for criminal purposes. seat-belt legislation was introduced.Unit Eight 8f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. One common complaint is that companies do not _________________ _________________ in new developments for the long-term future. if both pairs of parents _________________ _________________. 5.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Eight 54 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Nine 9a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: acid (n) illuminate (v) molecule (n) battery (n) integer (n) prince (n) breed (v) lustre (n) carbon (n) matrix (n) stationary (adj) 1. The element _________________ is all around us. A great deal of research has shown that poverty. 5. 8. 10. 9. 7. even in the pencils with which we write. In the United Kingdom. 11. Astronomers' work is becoming more difficult as the night sky is increasingly _________________ by electric street lighting from urban areas. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. in the air we breathe. lack of education and unemployment can _________________ social unrest. the '_________________ of Wales' is the official title of eldest son of the monarch. it was believed that the Earth was _________________. The music was really quite boring and had no real __________________. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. The grid on the left of your handout is known as a square __________________. . and that the Sun moved around the Earth. 3. Until 400 years ago. Car batteries also have to be handled with care as they often contain an _________________ which can burn holes in clothes or even cause injury. and don't bother with any fractions or decimal points. as the number of columns and the number of rows are the same. Two atoms of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen together produce one __________________ of water. 6. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. In this exercise. just use _________________. 55 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. 2. One of the biggest problems for electric cars is that the __________________ they use for power are rather heavy.

Because of the rise in the number of prisoners. …yourself to giving relevant ideas and information only. 6. j. 56 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. After six weeks trapped in the embassy. some students are not averse… …and so the people in it are free to work on what they like. In the 1970's. …of only one point. when they like. 3. …in a country start fighting each other. 3. 11. 6. …required. d. 10. g. 9. the Pope… The organisation of the department is really quite amorphous. b. 5. Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich states accumulated / collected vast sums of money through the sale of oil. you must confine… Because of the special apparatus… From the Vatican in Rome. e. The prediction that we will completely tire / exhaust our reserves of oil in the not too distant future seems now to be incorrect.' which we now see in place names like Lancaster. the whole penal / punishment system will have to be changed. 9. 4. She won the championship by a margin… Examples of animals imported by man replacing the indigenous… In 1685.Unit Nine 9b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. …called 'castra. 8. 10. 4. a. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. higher fees are charged for science and technology courses. 7. 2. as opposed to those who simply want a degree. …to stealing books from the library. Because he lied to his colleagues and family about his girlfriend / mistress. 2. f. k. Sometimes a piece of music can evoke / provoke very strong memories and emotions. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). i. …species already living there can be seen in all countries. the hostages were finally emancipated / liberated. c. the minister destroyed not only his marriage but also his career.… The Romans built a large number of castles or forts… Because of their high price. The biggest issue on which the two parties' policies divide / diverge is the amount of money to be spent on education. Most universities have a special fund / finance for students who have run out of money and need help. …into several different families. 5. an aristocrat by the name of the Duke… Civil war may break out very quickly if different factions… Plants can be subdivided… When you write an essay. 7. the police regularly use torture / torment to force prisoners to give them information. …has the power to influence the lives of millions of Catholics. 9c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. . …of Monmouth led a rebellion against the English king. h. The most successful students are probably those who have a strong integral / intrinsic interest in their subject. 8. In some countries.

. ___________________ 9. The workers went on strike as they viewed the management's plans as an attack on their job security. all sales were halted until more tests could be carried out. while others think that we know nothing about language at birth. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ambiguity (n) efficient (adj) residue (n) 1. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 11. Some industry experts believe that the Internet will supplant television and all programmes will be viewed from a computer. ___________________ 10. and very proficient at his job. Most of the money was spent on salaries. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. He is a very pleasant colleague. Aluminium is a very suitable substance for aircraft because it is light and strong. Some psychologists think our language ability is intrinsic. with the remainder used for new equipment. He lost a great deal of political support because his speeches were so full of uncertainty and anomalies. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 4. 57 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. annual (adj) innate (adj) construe (v) material (n) displace (v) orbit (v) reverberate (v) suspend (v) The yearly external examiners' meeting is held at the end of every academic year to discuss the examination papers which the students have written. ___________________ 6. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The International Space Station circles the Earth about every 90 minutes.Unit Nine 9d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 5. ___________________ 8. The noise of the explosion echoed through the empty streets. Because of reports that the meat was not safe. ___________________ 2.

which we hear as sound. The professor __________________ several possible explanations for the rise in recorded crime. 58 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. wonder b. reverberate b. fix Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The chief _______________________ which many companies have today is not the property they own but rather the creativity and skills of their employees. When writing a summary. Please _____________________ two colour passport photographs to the application form. absolutely c. a. violate c. break b.Unit Nine 9e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. unduly b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). evaporates b. conventional b. miracle c. try to ____________________ the main ideas into just a few short sentences. highly 10. shrink c. named 9. enumerated c. a. a. Although the research team are all somewhat _____________________ people. attach c. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. His health is so bad that it will be a _______________________ if he is alive next year. odd c. 1. the movement of the drum causes the air molecules to __________________. liability 5. a. a considerable amount of petrol ____________________ from car fuel tanks and into the atmosphere. b or c. bizarre 8. When you hit a drum. link b. There are still too many countries which regularly ____________________ their citizens' human rights. they work very well together and produce some very good ideas. collapse 4. shake 7. numbered b. dries 3. breach 2. condense b. a. a. The supervisor was not __________________ concerned about the student asking for a week's extension to finish his essay. a. a. dehydrates c. a. asset b. benefit c. marvel 6. choose the best word from a. a. . In very hot climates. vibrate c. but warned him that there would be no more extensions after that.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). All students will need a _________________ _________________ in order to understand the sources of information they have to use. Policemen carrying _________________ _________________ rifles surrounded the building. 9. most people lived and worked in _________________ _________________. Until very recently. high gained voluntary federal umbilical low wide of science areas government morale complement velocity momentum vocabulary cord action work In the United States. the astronauts are connected to the spacecraft by a long life-line. 8.Unit Nine 9f – Make a collocation Unit 0000 Start by reading through the sentences below. Political change in Central Europe _________________ _________________ when President Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. Researchers work at the _________________ _________________ in order to increase our knowledge. whereas today most of us live in cities. many people choose to do some type of _________________ _________________ even though they receive no pay for this. If soldiers are not paid on time. 6. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. After retiring. 5. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 59 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. 2. 10. sometimes resulting in a revolution against the government. Young children need a stimulating environment so that they can develop the _________________ _________________ of intellectual and social skills. 11.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: full frontiers drastic rural 1. _________________ _________________ can set in. The company was losing so much money that only _________________ _________________ by the management – including the dismissal of 15% of the employees – enabled it to survive. the _________________ _________________ has overall responsibility for foreign affairs and defence. . Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. often referred to as the '_________________ _________________'. 7. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. While walking in space. 3.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .Unit Nine 60 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.

5. it appears to be increasingly easy for teenagers to procure / secure drugs if they want them. Before they take their examinations. 2. 3. students should revise thoroughly and try to assimilate / ingest what they have been studying. The ____________________ between a mother and a child is very important for the emotional development of the child. ____________________ is the scientific study of man including such topics as religion and culture. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. . 7. the price on the world market falls. 4. A huge trench was dug to channel / deviate excess water away from farming areas. The costs were so enormous that they ____________________ the project impossible. One of the simplest but strongest shapes is the ____________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). When there is a ____________________ of oil. When you want to _______________________ something. an appendix / index at the end of the report or essay is the best place for it. 10b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. If you have made a plan for your writing.Unit Ten 10a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 10. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. it becomes much easier to ____________________ through your notes and decide which ideas to include. 61 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 3. In nearly all parts of Eastern Europe. 6. make sure that the words you write are exactly the same as those in your source. Although many drugs are illegal. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: anthropology (n) province (n) sift (v) quote (v) surplus (n) foetus (n) render (v) triangle (n) intimacy (n) repress (v) 1. 8. 9. If you have a lot of data which you want to include. Recent research has shown that drinking heavily during pregnancy can harm the ____________________. 4. attempts to ____________________ movements for political change failed completely. The Canadian capital Ottawa is in the ____________________ of Ontario. 2.

At the end of an essay. The influence of television is so great that actors can be elevated / lifted to superstar status almost overnight. France's road and rail networks diverge / converge on Paris because it is the capital. …some students still could not understand the solution to the problem. …to slow down the ageing process. d. there is a strange anomaly… In recent years. 7. a. k. …the design for the Concorde was just too expensive to produce commercially. According to opponents of the death penalty.… Sometimes articles are anonymous. 6. …but in the majority of cases the name of the author appears with the article. 10. h. 3. 8. 8. 62 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. b. Some years ago. some Asian countries have emerged… Some analysts think that many customers will dispense… New government proposals will increase the rigour… University students usually have the option… A new drug developed by a leading company purports… Although it was particularly radical and ingenious. …in both French and English. i. 9. 5. 2. 9. …of the law by introducing longer prison sentences. For health reasons. 10. e. 10c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. students should always append / affix a bibliography. g. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …with conventional phones altogether and use mobile phones instead. 4. Many people working today find it difficult to tolerate… In Canada. giving details of the sources of information they have used. smoking is restricted if not completely embargoed / prohibited in many public places. f.… …whereby a 16 year-old may get married but is not allowed to buy a beer. c. 11. the idea that executions help to prevent murder is a complete myth / legend. .… In some American states. 6. 7.Unit Ten 5. …of choosing extra subjects to study if they wish. …from almost nothing to become major economic players. j. the shapes of cars were very angular / bent whereas today they are much more rounded. it is a huge advantage to be fluent… Although the lecturer's explanation was very cogent. …high levels of stress and insecurity.

10e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. 4. The new law course attempts to cover all aspects of international law. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ascribe (v) embrace (v) assent (n) enhance (v) outcome (n) comprise (v) emancipate (v) inconsistent (adj) interrelate (v) saturate (v) vague (adj) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 1. addiction Although we now believe this to be impossible. 2. deliberate The outline is a kind of ______________________ which gives in general terms the basic structure and content of a piece of work.Unit Ten 10d – Word substitution From the list below. compulsion b. 6. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. conscious b. draft People who smoke heavily experience a/an_________________ to smoke. 10. 5. articulate c. The USA is composed of 50 states. but on rare occasions they may be _________________. 11. The President's speech was so __________________ that many people were persuaded to accept the need for change. in that as one rises or falls so does the other. 5. the Queen must give her agreement to a new law before it can come into force. purposeful c. sketch b. The clear increase in skin cancer has been attributed to the fact that more people now take holidays in hot countries. Wages and inflation are closely linked. a. undying If a questionnaire is badly written. a. A significant number of students decide to study for a Master's degree to boost their knowledge. obtain 2. perpetual b. which makes it very difficult for them to stop. 6. 9. choose the best word from a. Some people argue that robots in the home will liberate us from having to do the housework in the not too distant future. In Britain. obligation c. early scientists tried to produce ________________ motion machines. a. forcing car manufacturers to look for customers elsewhere. The minister resigned because many people felt that his behaviour was at variance with his role in public life. eloquent Car crashes are almost always accidental. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). everlasting c. 8. The result of the experiment was a complete surprise to everyone: the new process was a success! The market for cars in Europe is almost full to capacity. elicit c. a. machines which would never stop. 3. 4. that is. 63 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. . A recent survey has found that most people have only an uncertain understanding of how and why we study theoretical science. expressive b. a. skeleton c. b or c: 1. solicit b. 3. it will not _________________ the type of information required from the people completing it. 7.

such as improved communications and more jobs in the local area. a. 3. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 11.Unit Ten 7. Many feminists now argue that women do not have a _________________ _________________ towards children. In many universities. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 10. there is a/an _________________ _________________ provided especially for students and staff. 7. _________________ _________________ is usually an economic disaster. a. 64 . removed b. sections Students who are ____________________ on the campus make more use of the university sports facilities than those living outside. 8. Because they increase the availability of information. stages c. boost b. settled One of the biggest problems with malaria is that the disease can _________________ and give the patient serious medical complications again and again throughout his or her life. 9. 9. the court decided that the contract was _________________ _________________. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 5. politicians often ignore what they are asked. domiciled b. bolster No doubt every country has ____________________ in its history which its people now regret. episodes b. In _________________ _________________. Many successful business figures want to enter government in order to satisfy their _________________ _________________. withdrawn c. enrich c. repeat b. An international rescue operation was organised _________________ _________________ the United Nations. Because the original information was incorrect. Through the Internet. but playing sports and joining clubs will help to ___________________ a student's time at university. resident c. The building of a new airport will bring _________________ _________________. 6. _________________ _________________ of computer technology argue that computers help protect our freedom. preferring instead to discuss their own interests. One of the problems with _________________ _________________ such as coal and oil is that they will not last for ever. recur c. 4. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: maternal television high political null and health tangible leading under have fossil interviews clinic exponents instinct ambitions fuels void benefits access to inflation the auspices of 1. Books are usually electronically protected so that they cannot be _________________ from the library unless they have been issued in the proper way. 11. students now _________________ _________________ information from academic libraries all over the world. arise 8. 2. a. causing prices to rise and the value of money to fall. 10f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. a. extracted Studying is important. 10.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Ten 65 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

6. Some business leaders become bored with well-established organisations and prefer instead the ________________ of setting up a new company. 4. Supplying ________________ to Third World farmers may seem an excellent idea.Unit Eleven 11a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 7. Increasingly. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 2. The Director reminded the middle managers that full cooperation from all workers was _________________ to the success of the company. 5. . Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. The USA has a huge domestic market and so is less reliant on ___________________ for the success of its economy. thousands of people ________________ in Sudan and Ethiopia because there was no food. with a ___________________ of about 570. while others may stay with a host family as a ___________________ measure before renting their own houses. We recommend that you take a pre-sessional study skills course. 66 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. With any quotation you wish to use. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: challenge (n) export (n) pest (n) 1. 10.000 kilometres. but in practice these machines are often not suited to local conditions and so tend to break down. what used to be considered as ___________________ goods are now regarded as necessities. In many developed countries. 13. 9. 3. 11. 12. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Most international students choose to live in university accommodation. During the 1980's. 8. One major problem with some early insecticides was that they tended to kill not only harmful ___________________ but also those insects which actually helped the farmer. which will ________________ you to practise the language skills you will need later. make sure that the author you are quoting is an ________________ or academic authority. major industrial companies are finding that consumers are concerned about any ________________ created by the manufacture of their products. diameter (n) fundamental (adj) starve (v) enable (v) import (n) temporary (adj) expert (n) luxury (n) tractor (n) pollution (n) The ________________ of live animals is strictly controlled so as to prevent diseases from being brought into the country.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. and yet today these countries make many high-quality products. causing it to become weak. Very small bubbles / blobs of air can become trapped in liquid metal. 11. Two of the missing children have been rescued but the fate / destiny of the other six is still unknown. the number of deaths from accidents has fallen sharply. The government lost the election because of a whole brochure / catalogue of scandals and political errors. . 67 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 8. 4. 10. 5. 7. Until recently. students were hostile / unfriendly to the idea of being videoed during their presentations. large parts of Holland were drained / emptied of water to produce new farmland. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). The introduction of the fax and more recently e-mail has made it much easier to communicate / contact with other people all around the world. 2. but they soon realised that this would help them to improve their technique. In the past. At first. Following the decision to pass legislation to compel / urge employers to improve safety standards at work. Car theft / burglary remains higher in Britain than in any other European country. The area around the Great Pyramids is one of the most important archaeological sites / spots for the study of ancient Egypt. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. 9. goods from countries such as Taiwan and Korea were often thought to be worse / inferior.Unit Eleven 11b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 6. 3. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The process / action by which plants use sunlight to produce food is known as photosynthesis.

5. 2. h. f. l. but not if it is too damp or cold. …is its people. …about the safety of the national railway system. 12. c. 4. k. 10. it was simply not robust enough for everyday use. b. since it has very few sources of raw materials or energy. According to a recent large-scale government survey… Car manufacturers are keen to develop other sources of fuel… An increase in the number of accidents led to a public debate… Although it means that people live longer. 8. 68 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. i. 3. e. g. …research in order to develop new products on behalf of large companies. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 6. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. …used in modern hospitals has increased the cost of health care. 11. 9. …all tutorials for a week. d. levels of reading and writing skills are still low. 7.Unit Eleven 11c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …based on the lunar cycle. universities are being asked to undertake… As people can now make purchases on impulse… Computers make use of the binary system (0. …conditions. …with credit cards. …system (0-9) which we use in everyday life. …conducted in the UK.1). For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …and warm. rather than the more normal twelve-month system. . unlike the decimal… Although the new equipment performed well under laboratory… a. j. …– such as solar power – since oil will not last for ever. the equipment… Japan's greatest resource… A group of students decided to complain because one tutor cancelled… Some countries use a thirteen-month calendar… Young plants will grow quickly if the soil is moist… Increasingly. buying habits have changed.

Unit Eleven

11d – Word substitution
From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:
bulk (n) inspect (v) shrink (v) 1. fluid (n) instance (n) switch (v) fulfil (v) novel (n) topic (n) huge (adj) revolve (v) vital (adj)

In some cases, the patients did not make any improvement, but generally the treatment was a huge success. While a few students stay in university halls of residence, the majority of students choose to rent their own accommodation at some point in their studies. In the course of a marathon, a runner needs to drink water periodically in order to make up for the liquid lost through sweating. Before starting work on your dissertation, make sure that you have discussed the subject with your supervisor. Staff responsible for examining aircraft checked the plane and declared it unsafe. Some students find it very confusing when a lecturer changes from the topic under discussion to share a joke with his audience. The stories of Charles Dickens give us a very clear picture of life in Britain in the nineteenth century. Many students complained when the university failed to keep its promise to allow students 24 hour access to the computer centre. Each time the star rotates, it sends out a radio signal which we can detect on Earth, allowing us to calculate the speed of rotation.

___________________

2.

___________________

3.

___________________

4.

___________________

5.

___________________

6.

___________________

7.

___________________

8.

___________________

9.

___________________ 10. It is absolutely essential that you check your examination entries to make sure they are correct; if they are not you may not be allowed to sit your examination. Most universities have found that demand for engineering courses has decreased, while new subjects such as media studies have become very popular. The amounts of money owed by some Third World countries were so enormous that in many cases it was decided to cancel the debts since they would probably never have been repaid.

___________________

11.

___________________

12.

___________________

69
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11e – Choose the best word
For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:
1. In addition to reading books and journals, the other main source of information available to university students is the ________________ given by the academic staff. a. lectures b. lessons c. classes

2.

The atmospheres of most planets are not ________________, making it difficult for us to see the surface. a. transparent b. lucid c. clear

3.

Three terrorists managed to escape but all of them were ________________ within 24 hours and returned to prison. a. trapped b. snared c. captured

4.

Anybody who joins the army as a soldier has to accept that danger is an ________________ part of the job. a. inside b. internal c. inherent

5.

Students without the normal academic qualifications but who have relevant work experience may be offered a place on an easier diploma course on the ________________ towards an MBA. a. journey b. direction c. route

6.

In Egypt, water from the River Nile has been used for thousands of years to ________________ the dry desert land so that crops may be grown. a. irrigate b. moisten c. fundamental

7.

Improvements in quality control techniques have resulted in more high-quality products with very few ________________. a. mistakes b. failures c. defects

8.

As you can see from your handout, the first ________________ of figures down the left-hand side shows the growth in population. a. line b. column c. string

9.

The ________________ of men to women in China is unusual, in that there are more men than women. a. ratio b. number c. quantity

10.

According to a recent survey in Europe, most workers expressed a preference for increased ________________ time rather than the chance to do more overtime and earn extra money. a. leisure b. hobby c. relaxation

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

70
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11f – Make a collocation
Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:
public television air gas electrical academic career mental tropical cassette fares stations circuits change transport cylinders journals illness tapes

rain forests

1.

In modern cars, sound systems play CDs rather than _________________ _________________.

2.

The _________________ _________________ of the Amazon contain over 10% of all known plant species found on Earth.

3.

One of the most important developments in the history of the computer was the printing of tiny _________________ _________________ on small chips of silicon.

4.

The explosion was caused by terrorists, who had packed a number of _________________ _________________ with home-made explosive.

5.

Increasingly, cars are being excluded from city centres and improved _________________ _________________ is being developed instead.

6.

For the most recent developments in any subject, _________________ _________________ are a much better place to look in than text books.

7.

Psychologists have shown that living in very tall buildings can lead to depression, or even _________________ _________________.

8.

Thanks to the introduction of satellite communications, we can confidently expect the growth in the number of _________________ _________________ to continue.

9.

Increased competition among the airlines in Europe has meant that _________________ _________________ has become much cheaper.

10.

After several years working as a lawyer, she decided to have a _________________ _________________ and become a university lecturer instead.

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

71
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven 72

Vocabulary sheet
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

i. 11. 10. 11. revealed. 4. 5. 6. 4. e. b. infer. f 1d 1. 9. appreciate 3f 1. i. c. 12. 11. k. 4. 10. 4. 3. 4. 6. appropriate. 12. e. m. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). abandoned 3c 1. contribute. image. consists of 1c 1. endangered species. maximum. norm. co-ordinate. 8. 4. a. 2. predict. summary. 9. proceeding. 8. e. g. evaluate. 7. 9. 5. 3. 9. 13. similar. 14. indicates. 9. 15. equilibrium. 9. 8. drama . new concept. 6. reacted angrily. 11. individual. 12. capillaries. 5. 14. 8. 2. appraises. 5. 5. economically feasible. 4. discrete. l. 10. 6. estimates. 9. d. 5. phase. text. 7. labour shortage. 12. spontaneous. achieving. 5. common feature. distinct. preposition. j. arbitrary. b. devised. usage. new dimension. a. 8. g. 7. obtained. 12. 9. 9. dynamic personality. . 14. 9. credible. pertinent. 2. 13. principle. dispose of. criteria. d. 8. structure. assess. outspoken critic. 5. 9. elements. 8. 4. 7. 10. 12. superficial. 6. creating. 3. n. 13. heredit. affects. potential. 10. range. task 3b 1. 2. 3. 5. 6. 5. 5. explicit. h. 8. 2. contact. 5. 2. 4. 10. components. 4. f. 10. acquire. 10. empirical 2f 1. issue. 7. respective. separate entities Unit Three 3a 1. technology. 6. dominate. 10. 8. expose. 10. involving. mathematics. 7. 13. 3. approach. sections. 11. approximate. 11. adequate. analogy. 10. sum. 5. 2. 11. 12. 12. generated. 12. derive. automatic. 6. 3. natural phenomena. f. 12. modified. 4. 12. 8. ultimate responsibility. discourse. 4. l. ignored. perpendicular. impact. 5. definite. reverse the verdict. 13. 12. is required. period. physical exercise. factor. 8. 3. 6. g. adjust. e. 7. b. initial results. portion. convert. comprehend. 8. energy. put forward a hypothesis. 3. 6. decade. communes. j. chemicals. denote . 9. 9. 3. preceded. deficient. 4. 10. verify. 2. leading role. l. 11. areas 3e 1. 4. 8. context. 4. circumstances. concluded 1e 1. 10. 14. series. contaminated. stable 2b 1. segments. impressed. 5. rational. 6. 2. 6. 3. 2. analyse results. 10. evident. 13. plot. assert the right. deviate. 12. rejected. axis. power and prestige. 8. 7. presuming. 12. valid reason. investigate. undergone. l. 12. 2. a 3d 1. 13. 5. k. 3. vertical. 4. 3. devote time and money. 9. 7.Answer key Answer key Unit One 1a 1. speculate. 6. 5. 7. 3. distributed. subsequent. emotion 4c 1. 10. simultaneous. j. 6. obvious. 8. underlying. 14. 11. 9. focus. 3. emphasise. establish a link. exerts. 2. 6. computer network. methods. 12. 5. 4. proprietor. 3. g. 2. 7. environment. 13. 8. magnetic. scheme. pole. psychology. manipulate. 7. 2. occurs. select 1. 4. 6. 15. 10. 5. o 2d Unit Four 4a 1. j. 9. restricted. 2. external. inhibit growth. tentative. constant temperature. 8. major. c. 5. i. 11. guarantee. accomplished. 4. 7. 14. h. manifested. 10. occupied. 7. c. b. chapters. global economy Unit Two 2a 1. 10. equivalent. positive aspects. prime 1f 1. 9. 3. 2. 7. 11. d. 7. previous experience. sphere. transition. innovative. convened. 11. passive. transmit signals. 11. 4. f. publishes. formulate. regions. 4. 5. 6. negative. 13. h 73 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. varies. minimum requirement 2e 1. m. 8. specify. 11. 3. consume. 7. tense atmosphere. imply. 11. 4. a. 11. sequence of events. orientate. highly sophisticated. 10. 2. 8. k. symbols. fluctuate. I. 8. k. 7. final decision. d. 9. 7. contrast. assembled. 11. 3. marital status. 11. 13. sources. notion. 11. precise details. 12. 12. 11. classic example. c. compensate. 8. geography. ensued. 13. 7. 9. data 1b 1. 10. pursued. accelerating. 13. 6. 6. authorise 2c 1. intervene 4b 1. conduct. 10. 12. 9. 9. conceived. 2. rely on. h. 6. 11. verbal agreement. 2. 2. 3. 7. signified. motive. administer. tradition. 12. 3. comply with. assigned. 3. 2. design. satellites. consequent.

l. invoke 7b 1. 8. f. 4. defer. 10. 11. 13. 11. repudiated. dissolve. eliminated. 4. inclined. lenses. 3. 11. 12. 9. stress. 8. i. enlighten 5b 1. 11. 8. obsolete. fertile. negotiate. tone. virtual reality. peasants 7e 1. console. 10. intermediate stages. 2. 11. 12. 9. 3. domestic. 3. duration. 7. competence. 8. 3. 2. 12. finite 4. 4. salt crystals. appeal 6c 1. b. embodies the principle. collapsed. h. 7. saint. 3. cells. 10. 3. at regular intervals. stereotype. 2. 5. 5. 8. rhythm. 1. d. 3. 6. goal. 2. 9. 10. b. alter. 9. 3. hierarchy. 6. 9. 3. 5. instinct. 11. assured. retard. within a radius. 6. 4. 10. rudimentary. radical. extracts. 6. abnormal. 12. induced. converse. 9. 10. contract. neutral. 5. 2. absorb. supplement. niche market 6d 1. lines intersect. 12. 6. 3. 10. identical twins. Nuclear. decline. 9. 5. 8. southern hemisphere. k. c. transferred. protest. litigation 4e 1. homogeneous. . awe. 5. 2. 5. high proportion. 2. contingent upon. 10. 74 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. transformed 5c 1. m. 12. 4. astronomy. 12. 6. fallacy. graph. revolt. secure. 2. 7. 9. corporate. 7. compute. migrate. 4. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. 10. b. 11. revise. atoms. 3. pragmatic. 9. 5. horror. k. 6. participated. g. allies. 11. 7. oxygen. 7. imposed a ban. fraud 5f 1. economic sanctions. 8. commit. 12. execute. 5. clarify. 10. 5. e. 9. 6. 6. 13. traits. 8. 10. d. client. 4. h 7d 1. index. keep your nerve. X-rays. 7. superior. 6. pervaded. co-operate Unit Five 5a 1. overlapped. 2. symptom. an adult. 8. research. odour. aid. f. superimpose. locate. 6. 4. fraternal. insisted 5e 1. benefits. 4. 4. 13. precipitated a crisis. g. 4. 3. categories. upsurge. 3. 11. thermal energy. 9. alcohol. 5. c. 2. comment. 4. metaphor. research institutes. Supreme. 2. logic. attain their goals. 4. conserve. 5. stimulated. pendulum. i. volume. 6. 12. 9. creditors. endless cycle. 6. 12. preliminary. 2. perpetrated crimes Unit Seven 7a 1. 7. reform. liable. legal. aggregate. 4. Medium-. 5. 2. e. 7. colloquial language.Answer key Answer key 4d 1. 8. dedicated his life. 5. 7. prudence. a. 10. 3. reluctant. 4. reproduce. 6. refute. g. confer. 8. h. interact. 10. democracy. ceased. legitimate concern. 6. mobile phones. academic. schedule. 1. subtle. degrade. a. affiliate. 6. 11. Sibling rivalry. philosophy. scores. force of gravity. muscle. 2. expel. subordinate. l. brief interlude. 9. flatly contradicted. 5. 12. political spectrum. 10. 5. activists 6e 1. 9. constitute 4f 6f 1. contend 6b 1. 6. 2. diffuse. incentives. 2. US Congress Unit Six 6a 1. advocate. l. 11. restore. 8. strata. abstract thought. 10. 10. 7. elaborate. nutrients. a code of ethics. 10. 10. instruct. attributed to. depressed. metabolism. aroused. suppress. 5. 6. terminology. 5. 2. 7. compound. 3. degenerated. 3. judicial system. 8 subsided. aristocracy. 8. 3. c. version. 5. 8. dense fog. campaign of terror. 4. postulated 8b 1. detriment. prospered. urban. texture. k. military service 1. crisis of confidence. transact. policy. 6. 11. income. 7. propagate. 5. j. contrary. trivial. 4. 7. 11. internal. 12. 7. 11. 11. 3. d 5d 1. 11. 4. 7. 12. 12. 4. label. biology. 5. 3. friction. integrate. a. fragment. Finance. 11. 9. 4. 8. oblige. 13. j. 3. 7. 5. 7. objective. 8. confronted. 9. 6. 3. 4. 6. configuration 7c 1. under the microscope. tissue. 10. go off at a tangent. 10. 13. incessant. fraction. 11. 2. 10. rectangle 7f 1. Western culture. 2. 8. adhere. err on the side of caution. pleaded not guilty. 8. 2. 9. edit. 2. respond. project. 8. 9. 6. interlocking. 7. 10. f. 2. 11. j Unit Eight 8a 1. 8. 9. 8. 7. atom bombs. dictates. 3. collided. 5. continent. 9. i. reservoir. 9. tiny. 9. coincided. 12. implement. 8. 9. 4. adolescents. propensity. alleged. disputes. assist. 7. 6. 7. sustain. trend. 7. 11. e. commodity. 3.

g. 2. integers. leisure 11f 1. inherent. d. 5. 2. 3. interrelated 10e 1. territory. import. 9. 8. 10. lustre. novels. 9. 7. inspecting. on the premise that. a. evolved. fluid. ascribed. fate. huge Unit Ten 10a 1. b. 9. intrinsic. e. j. 5. 10. deprived. shrunk. inconsistent. elevated. instances. 9. comprises. 3. 4. catalogue. 3. communicate 11c 1. 4. 5. 8. 4. perpetual. fund. 4. 2. 4. 10. c. 4. bulk. batteries. 5. 4. 3. stationary. 7. 5. 7. k. 4. 6. 9. province. 7. legislate against. 5. rendered. 7. revolves. 7. l. i. 5. i. inferior. tropical rain forests. 9. 6. Prince. j. b Unit Nine 9a 1. exports. 3. 3. under the auspices of 10c 1. procure. vague. 7. null and void. magic. f. 5. 6. sites. 10. b. 3. 4. acid. discern. 5. vital. electrical circuits. reverberated. g. defects. fundamental 11b 1. episodes. drained. 8. 7. 4. solar power. 4. sift. drastic action. accumulated 9c 1. mistress. health clinic. elicit. 10. matrix 9b 1. 8. 10. 2. dissipates energy. 10. low morale Unit Eleven 11a 1. evoke. deliberate. 3. 11. 5. frustrated. 2. skeleton. umbilical cord. 7. liberated. 10. 6. 6. prohibited. 10. provoked. proclaimed. partisan 8f 1. 9. irrigate. 3. 8. voluntary work. 6. imperial control. maternal instinct. 3. 6. 2. annual. 8. angular 3. 6. d. allocates. 12. h 11d 1. violate. public transport. 10. asset. channel. miracle. 9. vibrate. a. 6. 10. 11e 1.Answer key Answer key 8c 1. 3. 4. 11. molecule. 9. mental illness. construed. 7. 8. 8. assent. High inflation. sex and violence. h. eloquent. 8. 4. torture. 7. a. 7. innate. 6. tangible benefits. 5. d. fossil fuels. 2. invest money. 7. k. currency. route. resident. 8. quote 10b 1. enrich. breed. 6. displace. Federal Government. hostile. 10. 7. outcome. 12. e. d. repress. 5. have access to. 6. 6. k. circulates. exhaust. g 8d 10d 1. 11. foetus. diameter. career change 75 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a. recur 10f 1. full complement. 9. 9. allude. 8. 10. 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 9. carbon. switches. i. temporary. 8. appendix. append. compulsion. 3. surplus. 5. 7. expert. cater. 6. rural areas. h. enhance. league. 7. 11. wide vocabulary. 3. 8. give their consent 1. 2. 5. 6. 10. 6. 9. 6. tractors. 11. 3. converge. 11. 3. 9. 5. residue. 11. starved. 2. b. 3. 8. gas cylinders. f. testify. . 9. 5. 8. bubbles. 6. condense. 2. 5. 10. 8. h. enumerated. Rebels 8e 1. column. attach 9f 1. material. 9. 2. compel. 8. 2. 5. 11. 12. high velocity. 5. transparent. saturated. utilise. removed. frontiers of science. 9. 5. launch. 7. 3. Peace Treaty. 10. 11. 10. gained momentum. 9. 5. leading exponents. exude. pollution. 4. triangle. 7. 4. 5. ratio. 9. 8. 4. f. 7. 2. lectures. utter waste of time. e. air fares. 10. 4. pests. 2. c. process. illuminated. i. 11. 2. 7. captured. 2. luxury. g. academic journals. 13. challenge. 2. j. political ambitions. embrace. unduly. emancipate. 6. 3. k. 3. orbits. ambiguity 9e 1. 10. diverge. 2. 6. 11. fulfil. 4. evaporates. 9. 6. e. 11. enable. c. 8. 11. 3. 4. suspended. c 9d 1. 2. odd. topic. cassette tape. assimilate. 4. 7. penal. drugs. 6. j. 10. television stations. intimacy. efficient. 9. 7. 11. television interviews. 2. 9. Anthropology. 10. 8. 4. theft. myth. 2. 8. 10. 8. 2. f. 4.

Index Index To find the entry for any word in this workbook. simply use the alphabetical list below which will give you the exercise listing and item number: assess asset assign assimilate assist assume assure astronomy atmosphere atom attach attain attitude attribute auspices authorise automatic averse aware awe axis 1e 9e 1a 10b 6d 1c 6e 7e 4c 4e 9e 6f 3c 4e 10f 2b 2a 9c 2c 6b 4b 1 4 11 3 5 2 6 6 8 2 10 4 11 4 11 14 6 11 5 11 4 comply component compound comprehend comprise compulsion compute conceive concentrate concept conclude condense conduct confer configuration confine conflict conform confront congress consent consequent conserve consist console constant constitute construct construe consume contact contaminate contemplate contend context continent contingent contract contradict contrary contrast contribute controversy convene converge converse convert co-operate co-ordinate cord corporate correlate correspond create credible creditor crisis criterion critic crucial crystal culture cumbersome currency cycle cylinder 1d 1e 5d 2b 10d 10e 6a 2a 2c 1f 1d 9e 3d 7b 7b 9c 3c 6c 5e 7f 8f 2d 7d 1b 6e 1f 4e 1c 9d 3d 3e 3e 6c 6a 1a 7e 7f 5d 4f 5b 2e 2b 6c 3b 10a 6d 2b 6e 3a 9f 7d 8c 3c 2a 3d 7b 5f 1a 3f 2c 7f 4f 7c 8e 6f 11f 1 7 10 13 6 4 8 3 8 2 12 3 11 10 13 6 1 3 5 12 10 7 3 13 11 3 12 4 3 6 12 11 9 12 3 3 11 2 1 2 2 9 1 7 8 3 12 13 3 6 6 4 4 2 3 9 4 12 9 12 3 4 11 9 3 4 deficient define definite degenerate degrade deliberate democracy demonstrate denote dense deny depress deprive derive design detect detriment deviate devise devote diagram diameter dictate diffuse dimension discern discourse discrete dispense disperse displace dispose dispute dissipate dissolve distinct distort distribute diverge diverse divine doctrine domestic dominate drain drama drastic drug duke duration dynamic 3b 1c 1e 6a 7e 10e 7a 2c 1a 4f 5c 7b 8e 1b 2b 8c 8b 3b 1a 2f 4c 11a 5d 5e 1f 8d 4b 3a 10c 3c 9d 3d 5e 8f 7a 1e 2c 4a 9b 4c 7c 6c 7d 1e 11b 3e 9f 8d 9c 5b 3f 1 5 3 10 11 2 12 11 9 7 4 1 3 10 11 10 8 10 4 10 1 10 7 6 4 7 8 2 6 7 10 1 1 2 8 10 13 2 7 3 3 4 2 2 8 7 2 5 3 10 2 A abandon abnormal absorb abstract academic accelerate access accompany accomplish accumulate accurate achieve acid acquire adapt adequate adhere adjacent adjust administer adolescent adult advocate aesthetic affect affiliate affluence aggregate aggression agitator aid alcohol align allege allocate allude ally alter alternative ambiguity amorphous analogy analyse angular annual anomaly anonymous anthropology apparatus appeal append appendix appraise appreciate approach appropriate approximate arbitrary area aristocracy arouse ascribe aspect assemble assent assert 3b 6b 5b 5f 6a 2b 10f 6c 3d 9b 5c 2a 9a 4b 3c 3d 8b 2c 3e 4a 7a 6e 5d 4c 2d 7a 7c 8a 8c 6d 5a 7d 8c 4d 8e 8d 8b 4d 1c 9d 9c 4a 1f 10b 9d 10c 10c 10a 9c 6b 10b 10b 4b 3e 1e 3b 2e 1a 3d 7a 6a 10d 6c 4a 10d 2f 12 4 1 2 1 5 9 6 7 10 7 8 10 9 12 5 2 7 1 8 2 3 1 4 10 6 7 3 2 10 7 9 7 1 2 9 1 4 3 11 9 3 5 10 1 4 11 2 7 12 7 2 5 13 4 4 5 10 12 11 4 2 2 11 7 7 B battery benefit biology bomb breed bubble bulk bureaucracy 9a 6a 5a 4f 9a 11b 11d 8c 9 9 11 2 6 3 2 9 C calendar cancel capable capture carbon career catalogue category cater cease cell challenge channel chapter chemical circuit circulate circumstance civic clarify classic client clinic code cogent coincide collapse collide colloquial column comment commit commodity commune communicate compel compensate competence complement complex complicate 11c 11c 4c 11e 9a 11f 11b 5b 8d 4d 7a 11a 10b 2e 3d 11f 8e 3e 6c 6d 3f 5e 10f 5c 10c 8b 7a 6e 7f 11e 6e 6b 7a 3b 11b 11b 1e 7d 9f 1c 2c 7 6 6 3 1 10 5 5 3 2 1 4 4 4 2 3 6 4 5 1 6 11 1 8 3 4 3 4 10 8 5 9 5 6 11 6 8 12 4 12 15 E economy edit efficient elaborate electron element elevate elicit eliminate eloquent emancipate embody embrace emerge emotion emphasise empirical enable energy enhance enlighten enrich ensue 3f 5a 9d 4d 5c 1e 10b 10e 4e 10e 10d 4f 10d 10c 4b 2d 2e 11a 4a 10d 5a 10e 2a 12 2 2 3 12 6 9 6 8 1 4 8 3 5 11 2 14 2 4 5 12 8 4 D data debate decade decimal decline dedicate defect defer 1a 11c 2d 11c 6b 4f 11e 7d 14 3 1 11 7 6 7 4 76 .

Index Index entity enumerate environment episode equate equilibrium equipment equivalent err establish estimate ethics evaluate evaporate eventual evident evoke evolve exclude execute exert exhaust expand expel expert explicit exploit exponent export expose external extract exude 2f 9e 1b 10e 1c 2a 11c 1d 5f 1f 3a 7f 1b 9e 4c 1b 9b 8d 3c 5e 3d 9b 2c 5b 11a 3e 3c 10f 11a 2d 2e 6d 8e 13 8 5 9 8 10 4 2 7 6 7 5 6 2 11 1 6 1 3 2 9 2 3 11 11 10 6 4 6 3 1 6 1 G generate geography geometry goal grant graph gravity guarantee 2d 3a 7c 4e 5c 5d 5f 1d 6 4 1 10 3 5 3 7 interval intervene interview intimacy intrinsic invade invest investigate invoke involve irrigate issue 5f 4a 10f 10f 9b 7c 8f 4b 7a 1b 11e 3b 1 12 3 4 9 4 9 3 13 3 6 9 monarch morale motive muscle myth 8c 9f 3e 7a 10b 8 11 8 7 5 N navy negative negotiate nerve network neutral niche norm notion novel nuclear null nutrient 7c 1b 7d 6f 3f 7e 6f 3a 2d 11d 8a 10f 7e 12 4 11 1 11 7 11 1 9 7 6 7 8 H hemisphere heredity hierarchy homogenous horror hostile huge hypothesis 6f 4b 6a 5a 7d 11b 11d 1f 9 7 6 5 8 4 12 12 J job journal judicial justify 5c 11f 4f 4c 2 6 5 10 L label laboratory labour launch league lecture legal legislate legitimate leisure lens liable liberate linguistic litigation locate logic lustre luxury 5e 11c 3f 8d 8e 11e 6e 8f 5f 11e 8a 8a 9b 8c 4d 6e 4e 9a 11a 10 12 1 10 7 1 1 5 5 10 1 2 5 1 11 9 9 4 9 I identical identify ignore illuminate illustrate image impact imperial implement imply import impose impress impulse incentive incessant incident incline income inconsistent incorporate index indicate indigenous individual induce infer inferior inflation ingenious inherent inhibit initial innate innovative insist inspect instance instinct institute instruct integer integrate intense interact interlock interlude intermediate internal interpret interrelate intersect 6f 1c 1a 9a 1c 3e 1a 8f 5b 1d 11a 5f 4a 11c 7d 7b 4c 6d 6e 10d 5c 8b 1e 9c 2e 4d 2b 11b 10f 10c 11e 2f 1f 9d 2a 5d 11d 11d 6a 5f 5e 9a 4e 2c 6b 6a 6f 7f 4e 1c 10d 5f 6 13 13 7 1 6 6 7 8 9 1 9 1 10 5 7 7 4 8 1 1 7 11 2 13 9 4 10 2 10 4 11 8 4 5 11 5 1 11 10 9 3 11 4 2 5 10 7 7 7 11 8 O objective oblige obsolete obtain obvious occupy occur odd odour option orbit orientate oscillate outcome overlap oxygen 5b 6b 7b 2e 1d 3d 2b 9e 7b 10c 9d 3e 8c 10d 5a 8a 6 6 2 10 5 8 1 7 3 8 7 9 11 8 10 9 F facilitate faction factor fallacy fare fate feasible feature federal fertile final finance finite fleet fluctuate fluent fluid focus foetus formulate fort fossil fraction fragment fraternal fraud friction frontier frustrate fuel fulfil function fund fundamental fuse 1c 9c 3b 8b 11f 11b 2f 3f 9f 6e 3f 7e 8b 8c 2b 10c 11d 2b 10a 1a 9c 10f 7d 4d 8a 5e 7a 9f 8e 11c 11d 2c 9b 11a 7c 6 4 11 9 9 1 5 10 1 10 5 1 11 3 8 2 3 10 9 2 10 10 7 5 7 12 4 5 5 2 8 6 1 13 2 M magic magnetic magnitude maintain major manifest manipulate margin material maternal mathematics matrix maturity maximum medium mental metabolism metaphor method microscope migrate military minimum minor miracle mistress mobile modify moist molecule momentum 8e 2e 1c 3c 2b 3d 2a 9c 9d 10f 2a 9a 2c 3e 6b 11f 6a 8b 1d 6f 7b 4f 1f 6c 9e 9b 4f 1b 11c 9a 9f 9 11 11 10 6 10 1 1 6 5 7 11 9 3 3 7 2 3 8 8 12 10 14 7 5 3 9 8 8 5 8 P parenthesis parliament participate partisan passive peasant penal pendulum period perpendicular perpetrate perpetual persist perspective pertinent pervade pest phase phenomenon philosophy physical planet plead plot pole policy pollution pope portion positive postulate potential 5c 7c 6b 8e 2b 7d 9b 8a 2a 4a 5f 10e 4c 2c 2d 8b 11a 2e 2f 4d 3f 6c 7f 3b 3a 7b 11a 9c 2b 3f 8a 1e 5 10 5 11 2 13 4 4 9 5 11 5 12 14 12 5 7 8 1 6 3 8 4 2 10 11 12 8 7 8 11 5 77 .

Index Index pragmatic precede precipitate precise predict preliminary premise preposition prestige presume prevail previous prime prince principle proceed process proclaim procure prohibit project propagate propensity proportion proprietor prosper protest province provoke prudence psychology publish purport pursue 7b 2a 7f 2f 2d 5d 8f 3a 3f 1d 7c 3f 1e 9a 2e 1d 11b 8d 10b 10b 4e 6d 6d 4f 3b 6e 6b 10a 8e 7d 4b 1b 10c 1b 6 13 1 9 11 3 8 6 4 6 9 7 13 2 9 11 2 2 1 6 6 2 9 3 5 7 1 8 4 10 2 2 9 12 render repress reproduce repudiate require research reservoir resident residue resource respective respond restore restrict retain retard reveal reverberate reverse revise revive revolt revolve rhythm rigid rigour role rotate route rudimentary rural 10a 10a 8a 7a 1d 4e 4d 10e 9d 11c 2b 5b 5e 1b 5c 5d 3e 9d 1f 6e 7c 4e 11d 7d 8c 10c 1f 3c 11e 5e 9f 1 7 10 9 4 5 10 10 9 5 3 4 3 9 9 9 5 8 13 2 5 3 9 1 5 7 9 9 9 8 3 spatial species specify spectrum speculate sphere spontaneous stable starve station stationary statistics status stereotype stimulate stipulate strata stress structure style subdivide subjective subordinate subsequent subside subtle sum summary superficial superimpose superior supplement suppress supreme surplus survey suspend sustain switch symbol symptom synthetic 8c 2f 1d 7f 4a 4b 4a 2a 11a 11f 9a 2c 1f 7e 5b 4c 6a 5a 2d 5c 9c 6c 8a 1e 4d 5d 1d 1a 3e 4e 5e 5e 5b 8a 10a 11c 9d 6d 11d 4b 5a 5c 6 6 3 8 6 1 10 15 5 8 8 10 11 5 7 5 3 6 4 10 5 11 8 9 8 8 10 8 2 1 7 4 9 5 6 1 5 7 6 6 8 11 thermal tiny tissue tolerate tone topic torture tractor tradition trait transact transfer transform transition transmit transparent transport treaty trend triangle trivial tropical 7f 5d 7e 10c 6b 11d 9b 11a 2a 5a 7e 5d 5b 3b 2f 11e 11f 8f 8b 10a 5a 11f 2 4 4 1 8 4 8 3 11 9 9 6 12 3 12 2 5 3 10 3 4 2 U ultimate undergo underlie undertake unduly uniform upsurge urban usage utilise utter 1f 2d 3a 11c 9e 6c 4d 6d 1a 8d 8f 10 13 8 9 9 10 7 8 7 6 6 S saint sanction satellite saturate schedule scheme score section secure seek segment select sequence series sex shift shrink sibling sift signify similar simultaneous site skeleton sketch sociology solar sophisticated source 7a 6f 3b 10d 7e 3a 7b 2a 5b 3c 2e 2d 2f 2a 8f 2c 11d 7f 10a 2d 1a 2e 11b 10e 7c 7c 8f 2f 3a 10 2 8 9 10 11 8 14 3 8 12 14 3 12 1 2 11 6 5 5 1 3 9 3 8 6 4 2 5 Q quote 10a 10 R radical radius random range ratio rational react rebel rectangle recur reform refute region reign reinforce reject release relevance reluctant rely remove 6a 5f 1c 1b 11e 3a 2f 8d 7e 10e 7e 7b 1e 6c 6c 4a 4c 3c 8b 3d 10e 7 6 10 7 9 9 4 11 12 11 2 4 12 13 12 9 9 2 6 4 7 V vague valid vary vast velocity verbal verify version vertical vibrate violate virtual vision vital vocabulary volume voluntary 10d 1f 1b 5c 9f 2f 2e 5a 1a 9e 9e 6f 3c 11d 9f 6e 9f 10 1 11 6 10 8 7 3 5 6 1 7 5 10 9 12 7 T tangent tangible tape task technique technology temporary tense tentative terminology territory terror testify text texture theft theorem theory 6f 10f 11f 3a 1c 2e 11a 1f 4b 6b 8d 7f 8d 4a 7b 11b 4c 2c 5 8 1 12 9 6 8 7 10 10 8 9 4 7 5 7 2 1 X x-ray 5a 1 78 .

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