CHECK YOUR VOCABULARY FOR

ACADEMIC ENGLISH
THIRD EDITION

by David Porter

A & C Black London

www.acblack.com

For Ana Rita

First edition published 2001 Second edition published 2003 This third edition published 2007 by A & C Black Publishers Ltd 38 Soho Square, London W1D 3HB

© Copyright A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form without the permission of the publishers.

A CIP entry for this book is available from the British Library ISBN-10: 0 7136 8285 X ISBN-13: 978 0 7136 8285 4

eISBN-13: 978-1-4081-0232-9
Text typeset by A & C Black Printed in Great Britain at Caligraving Ltd, Thetford, Norfolk

This book is produced using paper that is made from wood grown in managed, sustainable forests. It is natural, renewable and recyclable. The logging and manufacturing processes conform to the environmental regulations of the country of origin.

Contents

Contents
Page Title Unit One
4 5 6 6 7 8 9 1a – Fill in the gaps 1b – Choose the right word 1c – Finish the sentence 1d – Word substitution 1e – Choose the best word 1f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Page Title Unit Seven
43 43 44 45 46 47 48 7a – Fill in the gaps 7b – Choose the right word 7c – Finish the sentence 7d – Word substitution 7e – Choose the best word 7f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Two
10 11 12 13 14 15 16 2a – Fill in the gaps 2b – Choose the right word 2c – Finish the sentence 2d – Word substitution 2e – Choose the best word 2f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eight
49 49 50 51 52 53 54 8a – Fill in the gaps 8b – Choose the right word 8c – Finish the sentence 8d – Word substitution 8e – Choose the best word 8f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Three
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 3a – Fill in the gaps 3b – Choose the right word 3c – Finish the sentence 3d – Word substitution 3e – Choose the best word 3f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Nine
55 56 56 57 58 59 60 9a – Fill in the gaps 9b – Choose the right word 9c – Finish the sentence 9d – Word substitution 9e – Choose the best word 9f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Four
24 24 25 26 27 28 29 4a – Fill in the gaps 4b – Choose the right word 4c – Finish the sentence 4d – Word substitution 4e – Choose the best word 4f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Ten
61 61 62 63 63 64 65 10a – Fill in the gaps 10b – Choose the right word 10c – Finish the sentence 10d – Word substitution 10e – Choose the best word 10f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Five
30 31 32 33 34 35 23 5a – Fill in the gaps 5b – Choose the right word 5c – Finish the sentence 5d – Word substitution 5e – Choose the best word 5f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Eleven
66 67 68 69 70 71 72 11a – Fill in the gaps 11b – Choose the right word 11c – Finish the sentence 11d – Word substitution 11e – Choose the best word 11f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Unit Six
37 38 38 39 40 41 42 6a – Fill in the gaps 6b – Choose the right word 6c – Finish the sentence 6d – Word substitution 6e – Choose the best word 6f – Make a collocation Vocabulary sheet

Answer key
73 74 75 Units One to Four Units Four to Eight Units Eight to Eleven

76

Index

1
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

With any new word. 2 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Although not exactly identical. but one small example will be enough to show you how to use the book. Working Out the Word or Meaning Also. the two books are so similar to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. the two books are so ___?adj?___ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. Although not exactly identical. the words similar (adj) and formulate (v). because the policies mentioned in the second example are described as new. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and __________ new policies. 1. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and ___?v?___ new policies. words are very rarely used on their own. notice that the other words in the sentences can help you to guess the meaning of the missing words. In the same way. to remember them more easily. we can see from the phrases not exactly identical and copied much of his book that the adjective in the first example must mean something like almost the same. 2. such as the Easier English Dictionary for Students (ISBN: 978 07475 6624 3) published by A&C Black Publishers Ltd. the vocabulary you will learn in this book is presented in example sentences which will help you to understand the words. This will help you to learn the word. Because of the grammar of these words and their meanings – which we can check in the dictionary if necessary – the completed sentences will look like this: 1. Sample Answers With the exercise from which these sentences were taken. Advice to the Student Obtain a Dictionary Before attempting to use this book. In the examples above. the verb in the second example seems to mean plan or prepare: 1. whenever you find out what a new word means. For this reason. but in normal situations. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). you should copy either the sentence from this book or the example from the dictionary.Introduction Introduction The purpose of this book is to help students learn a common core of vocabulary which will be useful for almost any subject studied at college or university. the two books are so __________ to each other that one writer must have copied much of his book from the other. Keep Your Own Notes Next. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and formulate new policies. Doing the Exercises There are different types of exercise in this book. you will need to obtain a good English-English dictionary. which this workbook has been based on. and to use them correctly. were included in the list of answers. which you can organise in alphabetical order like a dictionary. notice first of all that the other words in these sentences show you the grammar of these words – here an adjective and then a verb. 2. In these two sentences from Unit One. appearing instead together with other words. Although not exactly identical. . write it into your vocabulary notebook. 2. Using your Dictionary A dictionary is really a long list of individual words.

This form of presentation will allow students to find out not only what words mean. so try to look for one central meaning. however. If you compare these. notice in your dictionary that we normally use the word to after the word similar (a 'dependent preposition') and that it is usually policies. undergraduate or postgraduate level. but also how to use them. MA: Heinle & Heinle. which means that students should work through the book sequentially. For example. P. which culminated in a series of approximately 800 words ranked in sets according to their frequency of occurrence in texts drawn from a number of very different academic subjects. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). P. . students should approach vocabulary learning actively. at foundation. Nation*. I. *Nation. Instead. this book will have succeeded in its wider aim. if it can encourage students to take a more active. This means keeping a vocabulary notebook in which they should be encouraged to write an example for each new word. Word That Go Together Remember also to write down any other words which are often found together with your new word. thoughtful approach to vocabulary learning. matching sentence fragments. Since the order of the eleven units presented in this book reflect this ranking. the style and content of the examples I have written are intended to be typical of language used in academic contexts. Although the immediate goal is for students to learn the words here. To sum up: decide if the word in the example sentence is a verb. plans or programs and so on which are formulated (examples of 'collocations'). you will often find that they are not so different from each other. 3 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. identifying synonyms. Similarly. The vocabulary items presented here are based on research by I. The exercises include gap-filling. a noun or an adjective read the other words to help you guess the meaning of the new word then if necessary use your dictionary to select a suitable answer if possible. it is vital that students use dictionaries appropriately. each word is presented in an example sentence which aims firstly to provide a context from which students may be able to infer the meaning of the word in question and secondly to give instances of associated words such as collocates and dependent prepositions. In all cases. Inside the units. word matching. In approaching the exercises.Introduction Introduction Words With Many Meanings When you do look in your dictionary. Boston. (1990) Teaching and Learning Vocabulary. with special attention being paid to any dependent prepositions and collocations. the words in Unit One have a wider range of application than those in Unit Two and so on. This information will help you to use the new words correctly. it is important that students do not regard simply filling in blanks as the sole purpose of this book. It may either be used in class or be assigned for study on a self-access basis. S. It is envisaged that this book will be used to supplement an English for Academic Purposes/Study Skills course. S. and far preferable that they use an English-English learner's dictionary rather than a translation dictionary. choose one central meaning for the word from the dictionary entry write down your new word with an example sentence to help you remember its meaning note down any dependent prepositions or collocations to help you use the word correctly Advice to the Teacher The purpose of this book is to equip non-native speakers of English at upper intermediate level and above with a core of sub-technical vocabulary relevant to the full range of university subjects. and word-completion. you may find that one word has many meanings.

It is often possible to guess the meaning of a word from the other words around it — that is to say. Although not exactly identical. 11. but just make a _____________________ of the most important points. Students should not try to write down everything they hear in a lecture. the two books are so _____________________ to each other that one author must have copied much of his book from the other. . while the rows run across the page horizontally. the layout of the columns is _____________________. 13. 2. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. and so paved the way for the development of the World Wide Web. we have to decide the ____________________. 12. 5. 6. a murderer may go to prison for life. such as unemployment. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: arbitrary (adj) assign (v) context (n) criterion (n) data (n) denote (v) devise (v) formulate (v) ignore (v) impact (n) similar (adj) summary (n) usage (n) vertical (adj) 1. The rise in the number of deaths from AIDS has had a very significant _____________________ on people's sexual behaviour. One student failed because he completely ________________________ the instructions on the paper. Before we can judge a government's success. Market researchers use _________________________ such as people's spending patterns as well as information about age and occupation to decide on the most effective marketing strategies. The _____________________ of drugs has increased significantly in spite of more severe penalties such as longer prison sentences. The Prime Minister set up a committee of financial experts to help him discuss and _________________ new policies. In one case. 3. In 1990. We use the term "class" to _________________________ groups of people who share the same social and economic backgrounds. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). In newspapers. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The new journalist was ____________________ to researching the election promises of the main political parties. 4. the British researcher Tim Berners-Lee _____________________ the first browser. 10. while another may be set free: it all seems completely __________________. 9. the _____________________. 14. 4 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 7.Unit One 1a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 8. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. defence or taxation. although they appeared at the top of every page.

10. In many parts of the world. the police followed / pursued the robbers but were unable to catch them. the increase in temperature varies / fluctuates from country to country. Increasingly. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . decide which word in bold is more suitable. people are becoming more worried about the danger of pollution and its effect on the environment / ecology. Following the bank raid. 6. 11. 3. 4. 8. The United Kingdom makes / publishes more books than any other country. the library has an excellent range / variety of books. During the 1970's and 1980's. 13. the design of buildings is being adjusted / modified to allow easier access for disabled people. 9. it became increasingly evident / visible that companies in the West were uncompetitive. 5.Unit One 1b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. journals and other resources for study. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Many students acquire / derive a great deal of enjoyment and satisfaction from their time at university. 7. 5 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. we know that most people have a very negative / bleak view of politicians and their parties. 2. There has been a major road accident. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. involving / including 23 cars and 16 lorries. 12. The lack of extra student accommodation restricted / narrowed the expansion in student numbers which the university was planning. Education experts from France travelled to Japan to evaluate / judge the secondary school system there. Although it is not very big. Assessment on this course includes / consists of coursework (30%) and examinations (70%). Although the world is getting warmer slowly. 1. On the basis of the latest survey.

5. many Westerners equate… Advertisers use a variety of techniques… At first.Unit One 1c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. …them to understand what they actually mean. m. …the man they had seen commit the robbery. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ 2. …at a cost of over £8 billion. c. …your points by providing some supporting examples. …a sun tan with health and youthfulness. …happiness in many different ways. …language learning for international students. University regulations state that students must pass 18 modules to graduate. . it may be fined very heavily if any of its workers are injured.… The investigation was stopped because the witnesses could not identify… …theories. 6 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. f. g. l. but I want you to illustrate… What will the result be if in the future we assume… Students may be asked to compare many alternative… The Channel Tunnel between France and England was constructed… Everyone wants to be happy. i. 2. 9. 4. 12. Anybody driving a car is obliged by law to have insurance. the police viewed the crimes as random… It may be the case that no solution is possible. k. 6. 4. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: comply with (v) conclude (v) imply (v) method (n) proceed (v) require (v) 1. equivalent (adj) obvious (adj) specify (v) guarantee (n) presume (v) sum (n) If a company does not observe health and safety laws. 1d – Word substitution From the list below. 11. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. ____________________ For many years. 10. a. 7. I like your essay. j. …events. e. we need to interpret… In spite of warnings about cancer. d. …that nearly everyone has access to a motor car? …the programs they use are becoming much easier to operate. 13. $4 was equal to £1. but realised later that there was a pattern linking them. 3. b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). but we probably all define… Many universities now have language centres to facilitate… Numbers and results are not particularly useful in themselves. given the magnitude… Although computers are becoming increasingly complex. h. …of this problem. 3. 8. from which they have to select the most convincing. …to persuade consumers to buy products and services.

6. which is a very large amount of money. 2. the best _________________________ to the problem of poor public health may be to attempt to prevent it. At the end of her talk. 11. a. the lecturer finished with a brief review of the main points. The lecturer gave the students a 10 minute break before continuing with the rest of her lecture. 13. 12. redress Many people were killed instantly at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. 5. following c. elements Computers can be difficult to repair because there may be hundreds of different ________________ inside. a. we will _______________________ your work and then give you detailed feedback on how to improve your writing. 7. 4. 8. points out In political terms. components b. a. certain c. we believe that the woman was between 25 and 30 when she died. approach Surprisingly perhaps. prime c. 6. b or c: 1. with cancer in second place. . definite b. a. compensate b. succeeding b. the biggest _________________________ health risk for tourists travelling abroad is actually road traffic accidents. assess b. 10. 3. a. 9. pieces c. On the basis of their examination results.Unit One 5. In this first assignment. aspects c. Most electrical products have a one. locations b. the Middle East is one of the most unstable __________________________ of the world. sections b. regions The ___________________________ cause of death today in Britain is heart disease. parts Because Paris is expensive. method c. ____________________ ____________________ 1e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here.or two-year warranty in case something should go wrong. 7. distinguished Research _______________________ that customers want free car-parking when they go shopping. a. namely oxygen and hydrogen. it was clear that most students had completely misunderstood the first part of the paper. subsequent The clothing of men and women used to be quite ___________________________. 10. measure In a seminar or tutorial. but they are assuming that we will continue to use oil at the same rate as today. absolute Rather than try to treat it. choose the best word from a. One problem facing overseas students is adapting to new teaching techniques. many organisations pay higher salaries to _________________ for the high cost of living there. way b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). adjust c. possible c. diverse c. claims b. oppress Although it is impossible to give a _________________________ age. a. a. a. 8. dominate c. overwhelm b. everyone should take part rather than allow one person to _______________________ the discussion. 12. a. a. whereas today women often wear trousers as well as men. potential b. 9. places c. ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ ____________________ It may cost an overseas student around £15. first b. initial 7 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 11. indicates c. a.000 per year to live and study in ____________________ Britain. distinct b. The fact that crime increases when unemployment goes up seems to suggest a link between the two. a. but thousands more died from _________________ radiation sickness. judge c. theoretical Water is made up of two _______________________. ____________________ Many people think that oil will run out in the next 100 years.

Unfortunately. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. Engineers have played a _________________ _________________ in improving our health by giving us clean water supplies. a Court of Appeal may _________________ _________________ reached at the first trial and released somebody who has been wrongly held in prison. Students are expected not just to describe what they have done but also to _________________ _________________ when they write a research report. perhaps more so than doctors.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: new ultimate establish reverse minimum analyse valid new tense leading marital initial constant put forward status responsibility role concept the hypothesis results dimension temperature reason a link atmosphere results the verdict requirement 1. and yet today it is accepted by nearly everyone. but _________________ _________________ rests with the Board of Directors. 8. the idea was not taken seriously. For example. Investigators have been able to _________________ _________________ between childhood illnesses and industrial pollution. 6. 2. 4. 9. 14. you will lose marks and may even be given a fail grade. the water remains at a _________________ _________________ irrespective of changing weather conditions at the surface. valid can be joined with reason. Following the demonstrations by thousands of students. the project failed in the long run because of a lack of interest. The Managing Director may run the company. 11. 13. If you submit work late.Unit One 1f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 7. When some scientists originally _________________ _________________ known as global warming. although the _________________ _________________ were very promising. nationality. 12. there was a very _________________ _________________ in the capital. with many choosing to leave the city and head for the countryside. 3. At the bottom of the ocean. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). On the form. 10. 5. Most universities require international students to have an IELTS score of at least 6 as a _________________ _________________ for English language competence. address and indicate your _________________ _________________. One travel company is now advertising a completely _________________ _________________ in tourism: flights into outer space by rocket. unless you have a _________________ _________________ such as illness. The growth of China will add a _________________ _________________ to the economic and political situation in the Far East. . Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 8 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In some instances. please give your name.

Unit One 9 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

15. 5. some politicians _______________________ other people to get what they want. 3. wedding guests in most cultures give presents or money to the newlymarried couple. companies which can be __________________ are more likely to succeed. Serious unrest and rioting _____________________ as a result of the decision to ignore the result of the election. Japanese and Korean companies have invested heavily in the UK. Since consumers are always demanding new products. The price of a product will not change if there is _________________ between the supply and the demand for that product. 10 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.' After a very difficult night. which is even responsible for taking off and landing. 8. we have a __________________ of public lectures given by guest speakers from other universities. 14. the economy grew at an average of 8% per year. 10. his blood pressure became ___________________ again and his family were allowed to visit him. 4. it is the second drink which is the more popular today. Some academics have argued that standards have been falling because more students are _______________ first class degrees. . 6. 7. Most planes today are controlled not by human pilots but by a computer system known as an ________________ pilot. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). By ____________________. Most employers insist that their employees have qualifications in English and _______________. Reports are usually divided into separate _____________________ with headings such as 'Findings' and 'Conclusions. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: achieve (v) ensue (v) mathematics (n) section (n) 1. In addition to the regular lectures. 12. 9. 2. The Internet was first _____________________ of as a way of linking computers in the USA together. Although the arrival of coffee in Britain ___________________ that of tea. Over a _________________ of twenty years. 11. automatic (adj) equilibrium (n) innovative (adj) series (n) conceive (v) period (n) stable (adj) create (v) precede (v) tradition (n) manipulate (v) In order to be successful. _______________________ thousands of new jobs.Unit Two 2a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 13.

the course director and the subject tutor explained their respective / single roles to the new students. A new moon occurs / takes place every 28 days. Most universities need to earn money from private sources. 2. Although it is very expensive. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Students should not be inert / passive but should try instead to contribute as much as possible to discussions in seminar groups. 8. 11. The fact that population growth is still accelerating / catching up is one of the most important problems we face. 14. it is possible to convert / exchange other forms of carbon into diamonds. Member countries award / contribute money to the United Nations to pay for the running of the organization. 5. Prehistoric man could not think / comprehend why the moon appears to grow bigger and then smaller each month. 4. it is not always possible for exporters to know how much money they will receive from sales. 7. 6.Unit Two 2b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Because foreign exchange rates ebb and flow / fluctuate. 9. It is now possible to infer / imply a link between using mobile phones and contracting some forms of cancer. tanks and aeroplanes consumes a large piece / portion of a country's wealth. 1. 13. the quality of many British cars tended to be poor. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Expenditure on weapons such as guns. 12. On the first day. but the important / major part of their funding still comes from the government. 10. a law court can authorise / let the police to enter a house without the owner's permission. In some situations. 3. The main concentration / focus of Greenpeace is on problems concerning pollution. decide which bold word is more suitable. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Although their plan / design was often very good. 11 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

… In the seventeenth century. …what they say so that the readers cannot read the truth. …when they are heated. e. 12. 2. 9. …that all objects (heavy or light) fall at the same speed. …the pollution problem from the car itself to the electricity station. 4. g. n. …of separating the larger pieces of metal from the smaller pieces. …of relativity.Unit Two 2c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. f. b. h. Galileo demonstrated… In the 1980's. . there is a coffee bar adjacent… After studying for two hours. …at a young age. the front half of the train was completely destroyed. o. k. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). …to the library where students can take a break. while others may continue to be irresponsible. 15. i. it becomes difficult to concentrate… Some children show a great deal of maturity… Sadly. 5. 6. 10. m. which completely changed our ideas of time and space. a. c. 13. most smokers were not aware… The new grading machine has the function… In many universities. 3. j. Einstein published the first part of his theory… Environmentalists point out that electric cars just shift… Most metals expand… As a result of the intense… Fifty years ago. rather than from that of the original inhabitants. 11. …of the European immigrants. 8. …heat of the fire. …by the fact that the patient had a history of heart disease. 12 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. l. 14. according to government statistics. …decision to reduce the number of atomic weapons. …over 30% of marriages end in divorce within five years. In 1905. the US and Soviet governments made the crucial… Politicians often complain that newspapers distort… The history of the Americas is usually from seen from the perspective… An already difficult operation was complicated… …of the dangers of smoking. …on your work and so it is a good idea to take a break. 7. d.

through the lungs and along the arteries before reaching the small blood vessels within the skin. ___________________ 9. the blood passes out of the heart. ___________________ 6. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. whereas today we accept this concept as completely normal. One important function of newspapers is to uncover dishonest behaviour and wrong-doing by those in power. ___________________ 5. In the first instance. Pollution is a problem which has an effect on every country today. capillary (n) generate (v) select (v) notion (n) decade (n) emphasise (v) pertinent (adj) undergo (v) consequent (adj) signify (v) structure (n) Over the previous ten years. ___________________ 2. One difficult aspect of writing an essay is selecting material which is relevant to the topic and excluding irrelevant information. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: affect (v) expose (v) predict (v) 1. 13 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Until the sixteenth century. The first thing to do is to choose the courses which you would like to study and then look at each university prospectus.Unit Two 2d – Word substitution From the list below. Lecturers often speak more loudly and more slowly when they want to stress an important point. . ___________________ 8. ___________________ 14. ___________________ 7. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. the idea that the Earth moves around the Sun was regarded as a ridiculous idea. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 13. Most economists forecast that China will become a leading world economy in the twenty-first century. ___________________ 4. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. The new computer system created a lot of interest among potential customers. there was a resultant rise in transport costs. we have seen an enormous growth in the number of home personal computers. The organisation of the company has changed completely. The company has experienced a number of significant changes in the last few years. 11. The decision to give longer prison sentences indicated a hardening of the government's attitude towards drug offenders. ___________________ ___________________ 12. ___________________ 10. When the government increased the tax on petrol. with far fewer senior managers.

a. separate b. 4. outside b. verify b. coincidental Students are often advised to look at the first and last ______________ of a book before attempting to read it in detail. 14 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. rough Some economists argue that new ______________ causes unemployment while others feel that it allows more jobs to be created. distinctive Good theories are important of course. external c. magnetic c. 8. 12. concept Further information can be ______________ from the nearest British Council office. simultaneous b. transition In the some countries. a. process b. opposite b. a. headings b. titles Although this is far from certain. always try to break up a longer piece of text into small blocks of words. approximate b. technology After you have submitted your application. a. 7. a. a. 11. the ______________ age of the universe is about 4. contemporary c. certain metals such as iron and steel can have a __________________ field while others like copper cannot. a. pieces c. a. a. investigate Young children go through a ______________ in their development when they try to copy everything they hear. outlying There is a marked ______________ between the poverty of the poorest members of society and the affluence of the richest. 6. a. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). engineering c. . but we must have _______________ evidence to support them. sections One problem for any teacher is that each student has his/her own ______________ needs. there is no tax on books on the ______________ that education should not be taxed. certify c. true c. a. empirical b. individual c. realistic 2. 9. obtained b. chapters c. phase c. chemical Just as dividing up an orange into _____________ makes it easier to eat. 14. doctors later found that he was suffering from internal bleeding. the university will attempt to ______________ that the information you have supplied is correct. got As everyone knows. contrast c.b or c: 1. a. a. principle b.6 billion years. 13. 10. 5. 3. general c. Although he had no _____________ injuries. segments b.Unit Two 2e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. a. choose the best word from a. found c. science b. idea c. electrical b. variation The allied forces launched ______________ bombing raids on several important sites in and around the enemy capital.

) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: endangered separate transmit precise natural assert reacted sequence of devote highly inhibit verbal events signals details growth entities sophisticated species agreement angrily feasible the right phenonema time and money economically 1. After the Second World War. we are still at risk from _________________ _________________ such as earthquakes and floods. In order to produce new medicines.Unit Two 2f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 4. 10. In spite of advances in technology. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. One threat facing companies today is _________________ _________________ computer 'hackers' who break into the most advanced computer systems. 11. 3. In spite of its age. 12. 5. In law. 13. Are the mind and body the same thing or are they two _________________ _________________? 2. African nations started to _________________ _________________ to become independent. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. the satellite is still continuing to _________________ _________________ to Earth. 7. The company _________________ _________________ to the suggestion that its products were unsafe. There is considerable doubt over whether the proposal by the American government for a manned trip to Mars is technically and _________________ _________________ Tigers (and other large cats) are now an _________________ _________________ and may disappear altogether in the future. 15 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. . the Minister admitted that several people had been arrested. drug companies have to _________________ _________________ on a huge scale to their research and development activities. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). is still a contract. The accident was the result of a tragic _________________ _________________ which could have been prevented with better safety procedures. While she refused to give any _________________ _________________. a _________________ _________________ even though it is not written down like a formal contract. 9. Most economists believe that high taxes _________________ _________________ in the economy. 8.

. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Two 16 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). and so on. discrete (adj) pole (n) source (n) estimate (n) preposition (n) task (n) geography (n) rational (adj) underlie (v) Paying for large purchases by credit card instead of in cash has become the ___________________ in many parts of the world. 17 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Everyone knows that diseases such as malaria are on the increase again. most ___________________ point to a significant increase in average air temperatures in the next 100 years. but what we are not so sure about is the ___________________ cause of this.Unit Three 3a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. Although we cannot be sure. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: co-ordinate (v) norm (n) scheme (n) 1. 11. One of the roles of the Managing Director is to ___________________ the work of different departments to ensure that they work well together. Although speech is mostly continuous sound. written language is divided up into ___________________ units which we call words. while at the opposite __________________ many Third World countries have not grown at all. While half of the students were responsible for writing the questionnaires. In __________________. we study the physical features of the world – such as rivers and mountains – and how we make use of them. Remember that some verbs may need to be followed by a _____________________. 4. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. but this doesn't take account of the fact that we often use our emotions instead. 6. The purpose of a bibliography at the end of an essay is to show the ____________________ of information used in writing the essay. result in. 8. 7. Most economic theories assume that people act on a ___________________ basis. 2. 3. such as lead to. Most countries in the Far East have developed very quickly. the others had the __________________ of analysing the data. 10. 12. 5. The government has launched a new ___________________ aimed at reducing youth unemployment. . 9.

but this style of dress is not correct / appropriate when they start work. he/she may suffer poor health as a result. The opinions expressed in a newspaper usually reflect the views of the proprietor / landlord. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . the tale / plot was so weak that the film was a failure. the astronauts abandoned / left their attempt to launch the space shuttle. 11. 18 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. decide which word in bold is more suitable. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). If somebody has a diet which is deficient / inadequate in vitamins. 6. Extreme religious groups living in isolated communes / societies have been responsible for a number of violent crimes. 10.Unit Three 3b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. but one common factor / idea seems to be high levels of education. 9. There are many reasons behind the success of the fastest-growing economies. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 3. viewers have access to more television channels. 12. Because the weather was so bad. 2. Although the characters were very convincing. 8. unexpected economic changes force an organisation to deviate / divert from its original business plan. 5. 1. An important social and political topic / issue in many developed countries is the growing number of old people. Students usually dress casually at university. The transition / transit from a communist to a free-market economy has been very difficult for a number of countries. Sometimes. 4. the President convened / gathered a meeting of his top advisors at the White House. In order to discuss the implications of the crisis. 7. Because of the growth in the number of communication stations / satellites in space.

E and C on the map correspond… Some environmentalists have a very bleak vision… One way in which some countries can produce very cheap goods is to exploit… The demonstrators refused to disperse. 19 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). k. …local companies in developing economies willing to act as partners. g. d. …to London. 10. …of the future. …on its axis once every 24 hours. f. the children often adapt… a. …although the police were heavily armed and very aggressive. b.… Multi-national companies are often keen to seek… The Earth rotates… It is better to work at a constant rate and to maintain… Nowadays. 5. …within society and can lead to violence. h. 9. …of the monarchy to life in modern society. most people have a more favourable attitude… If a family moves abroad. 11. …to their new environment more quickly than their parents. …more people from the unemployment totals. e. …child workers by paying them very low wages.Unit Three 3c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. c. l. 7. 2. 3. …this during the year rather than to try to learn everything the night before the examinations. i. 8. while others are much more optimistic. j. Resentment and jealousy over jobs is a common source of conflict… Many members of the public question the relevance… Retraining courses for the unemployed may just be a way to exclude… The letters L. 4. 12. …towards women having top positions in the workplace. . Edinburgh and Cardiff.

Because of its economic and military strength. a university will make sure that the student's English is sufficient. ___________________ 11. Although Mozart lived for only 40 years. ___________________ 20 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Some countries have such great economic problems that they are forced to depend on aid from richer countries in order to feed their inhabitants. The North Americans use more energy and resources than any other nation. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 2. He suffers from a lack of self-confidence. many regions of the world will become drier while others may become wetter. Poisonous substances released into the sea may be absorbed by fish and then find their way into the human food chain. ___________________ 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). ___________________ 3. If global warming continues.Unit Three 3d – Word substitution From the list below. At examination time. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. ___________________ 7. Prisoners are sometimes released from prison early if their behaviour has been good. ___________________ 8. the USA exercises considerable influence over world politics. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: accomplish (v) conduct (n) exert (v) adequate (adj) consume (v) manifest in (v) area (n) credible (adj) occupy (v) chemical (n) dispose of (v) rely on (v) 1. ___________________ 5. Environmentalists are keen to persuade us to throw away rubbish and waste in more environmentally-friendly ways. go to the library early as all the places tend to be filled very quickly. ___________________ 12. ___________________ 9. as shown by his very poor examination results. A growing number of scientists find it plausible that other life forms may exist elsewhere in the universe. he achieved a great deal in his short life. Before accepting an overseas student. ___________________ 10. .

6. adjust b. a. always ______________________ the focus on the projector so that everyone can read what is on the screen. a person who is found guilty of murder may receive no punishment at all from the court. respect c. complete A large number of people became ill after receiving blood transfusions ______________________ with the AIDS virus. total b. 10. minute Although most cars can travel much faster. style Today. 7. a. 21 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Three 3e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. circumstances The results of the government inquiry ______________________ that there had been no deliberate attempt by the company to deceive investors. polluted b. 9. picture c. move c. a. revealed c. play Police could not understand why the arrested man had murdered his neighbour since he appeared to have no ______________________. biggest In special ______________________. displayed b. motive c. a. value 2. b or c: 1. image b. introduce The instructions from air traffic control were not fully ______________________. explicit c. a. choose the best word from a. a. purpose The first two weeks of the course are designed to ______________________ new students and to allow them to settle into university life. explained One important aspect of marketing is to create a positive ______________________ of a company or product. a. a. acting c. 12. a. 13. people are probably more familiar with ______________________ on the television and radio rather than in the theatre. 8. and as a result the pilot made an error and crashed. change The changes companies make to their cars are often very ______________________ and may not change the basic structure of the cars at all. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). contaminated Joining a newsgroup allows computer users to make ______________________ with other people who share a similar interest. microscopic b. places b. appreciate b. a. a. approach c. I would really ______________________ some help with this assignment. Before giving a presentation. 5. drama b. maximum b. objective b. orientate b. instruct c. 11. touch b. a. times c. the ______________________ speed limit in the UK is 70 mph (110 kph). 3. . contact If you have time. a. poisoned c. superficial c. highest c. 4.

she was kept under house arrest for a number of years. 3. Employers are always keen to recruit staff with good qualifications and relevant _________________ _________________. 12. linking computers all over the world. 6. there was a _________________ _________________ in Britain and so workers from other countries had to be recruited. 10. Unfortunately. Because she was an _________________ _________________ of the government. earning millions of dollars. After the Second World War. 7. rising crime rates seem to be an increasingly _________________ _________________ of life in big cities today. is really a huge _________________ _________________. 8. Those language learners who focus on the _________________ _________________ of living in a new culture rather than on the disadvantages tend to learn more quickly. His doctor advised him to give up fatty foods and to take some form of _________________ _________________ such as golf. 4.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: global power and outspoken physical common previous dynamic labour computer final positive classic shortage prestige experience aspects personality example decision network exercise critic feature economy 1. 2. The Internet. Coca-Cola is probably the _________________ _________________ of a product that is known world-wide.Unit Three 3f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. In most countries. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. 22 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 5. 11. Some people found Mrs Thatcher's style somewhat aggressive. 9. The university refused to make a _________________ _________________ on his application until he had taken a language test. . Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Mercedes-Benz cars are very famous because they are regarded as symbols of _________________ _________________. while others preferred to regard her as having a forceful and _________________ _________________. Without doubt. Tourism is now a very significant part of the _________________ _________________. as the name implies.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Three 23 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

but some researchers think that this comparison is too simplistic. Although he was interested in many fields. 5. 4. At the beginning of the examination. 10. For some university courses. we try to reach a conclusion after careful thought. A large number of people _________________ outside the Parliament to show support for their party. scientists were keen to assess / investigate the cause of the accident. The spell-check facility on a computer allows students to check the _________________ of their assignments for basic errors. 6. 7. money and _________________. Although there is very little evidence. The imaginary line between the North Pole and the South Pole is known as the Earth's axis / axle. 4.Unit Four 4a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. many scientists _________________ that life may exist on other planets. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Following the earthquake. Following the explosion at Chernobyl. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). decide which word in bold is more suitable. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. the bank praises / appraises all of its staff and gives a bonus to the best performers. 11. 9. but sometimes we may make _________________ decisions instead. Studying a language can take up a great deal of time. analogy (n) impress (v) speculate (v) assemble (v) intervene (v) spontaneous (adj) distribute (v) perpendicular (adj) text (n) She so _________________ the interviewers that they gave her the job. At the end of the year. question papers were _________________ to all of the candidates in the hall. the majority of applications are _________________ because the competition for places is so great. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: administer (v) energy (n) reject (v) 1. Because hundreds of people were dying. Artificial intelligence draws an _________________ between the digital computer and the human brain. 24 . 12. Usually. 3. 2. 2. 3. 8. Psychology / Biology can help the police understand how criminals think. Einstein is best known for his work in the sphere / globe of physics. 1. The police have a duty to _________________ the law fairly and give everyone the same treatment. 4b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. the United Nations decided to _________________ and provide emergency food supplies. 5. the house was unsafe because the walls were no longer _________________.

some approximate / tentative conclusions can already be drawn from the responses we have so far. e. 5. use shapes / symbols such as "+" and "=" as opposed to the words 'and' and 'equals. …which involves young children. 3. k. j. f.… The terrorists demanded that the government release… One journalist asked the minister to justify… The negotiations went on through the night. …more UV radiation is reaching the Earth. l. …of sending all the information users want. i. …outcome was agreement on all the main points. On the screen above me. …his decision to reduce spending on education. with many more part-time and mature students. 10. d. 6.' The principle of heredity / inheritance explains why children tend to look like their parents. resulting in more skin cancer. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). with no conclusions as yet. 8. he started to acquire / obtain a marked Australian accent. you can see a diagram… In mathematics. . c. …their colleagues from prison. but are not always very practical. 9. a statement is known as a theorem… The student population is much more diverse… Older university buildings may be wonderful in aesthetic… The contract stipulated… The Internet may soon not be capable… The police usually contact parents about any incident… Because of pollution in the atmosphere. g. 12. 7. …for several days. After he had moved to Australia. …showing the different parts of the system. 7. 11. …that all the goods had to be delivered within four weeks. If you are taking notes in a lecture. h. 9. but the eventual… Heavy rains persisted… …terms. …if we can prove it by using logic and reasoning. 4. Although the work is far from finished. 4c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 8. b.Unit Four 6. while others show no emotion / sympathy at all. The two sides have been engaged for some hours now in a lengthy discourse / chat on the issue of weapons. causing heavy flooding. a. 25 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. …than in the past. 10. 2. most people panic and become very frightened. In a dangerous situation. 11.

many companies stopped trading in British beef and associated products. Because of the possible link between disease in cows and humans. ___________________ 26 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The most recent management thinking encourages managers to listen more carefully to the ideas of their employees. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 8. ___________________ 6. When the interest in the company declined. During the last twenty-five years. Your research proposal doesn't need to be too detailed: keep it simple and concentrate on the main points.Unit Four 4d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 7. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allege (v) alter (v) cease (v) philosophy (n) subside (v) elaborate (adj) litigation (n) upsurge (n) fragment (n) induce (v) 1. ___________________ 5. reservoir (n) The prisoner claimed that he had been attacked by the police. there is a pool of people who are unemployed because they do not have any skills. there has been a significant increase in the number of overseas students in British universities. ___________________ 10. As so many jobs require good skills. ___________________ 3. ___________________ 11. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). the value of its shares began to fall. investigators examine every piece of the wreckage to determine the cause of the crash. The government's refusal to accept the result of the election prompted thousands of people to come out on to the streets and protest. ___________________ 9. but there was no evidence to prove this. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. A number of universities are worried about legal action in the law courts by students who are dissatisfied with their courses. ___________________ 2. Global warming will change the way we live: everybody will experience some change. Following an air accident. .

a. and another for contacting people outside the university. integrate b. trials The Channel Tunnel between France and the United Kingdom was a huge engineering __________________. exterminated A computer cannot blindly guess the answer to a question. choose the best word from a. . imprint b. releasing huge amounts of energy. 3. The former West Germany tried to __________________ its business approach onto the former East Germany. unite c. 5. attempt We have two e-mail systems here: one for __________________ use. 9. 8. a. chunks c. combine Approximately 30 of the world's most industrialised countries __________________ the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. a. 4. a. __________________ of uranium are split into smaller particles. logic b. eradicated c. way The recent rise in leukaemia and similar diseases has been __________________ radiation leaking from the nearby nuclear power station. inside b. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). credited to b. 1. a. comprise c. enforce c. superimpose In a nuclear power station. revolt b. point c. 12. ambition b. experiments b. thought c. development c. internal c. policy c. led to c. research c. 10. a. 6. 11. a. attributed to One of the reasons for the relatively high price of many drugs is the huge cost of __________________ and development. since all its operations are based on __________________. 27 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. understanding The __________________ of the American space programme in the 1960's was to put a man on the moon by the end of the decade. a. elements Young army officers led the violent __________________ which brought down the democraticallyelected government. goal If public transport is to succeed in serving the public. a. a. b or c. a. project b. a. are composed of 2. eliminated b. indoors The police interviewed three men but later __________________ them from their investigation as they were all innocent. constitute b.Unit Four 4e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. it is important to __________________ services such as trains and buses so that they work together and offer a more convenient service. atoms b.

insisting that every precaution had been taken. Because of the growth in fax machines and _________________ _________________ . 9. 3. whereas in Britain no one is required to join the armed forces. 10. we will need more new telephone numbers. In many European countries compulsory _________________ _________________ is the norm. 4. _________________ _________________ has been rejected in favour of a more traditional view of society. the probability that they will be used again increases. an airport may be closed down to prevent the possibility of an accident. The policy of privatisation _________________ _________________ of a property-owning democracy. 7.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: atom embodies dedicated military mobile flatly high dense Western judicial fog system service proportion bombs contradicted phones culture his life the principle 1. As more countries acquire the technology necessary to produce _________________ _________________.Unit Four 4f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 5. 2. . 8. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). In some countries. 6. A _________________ _________________ of people released from prison continue to commit offences. 28 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. One major criticism of the _________________ _________________ in Britain is that there are not enough female judges. When there is heavy snow or _________________ _________________ . review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. An official spokesman _________________ _________________ allegations that the company had been responsible for the deaths of three employees. Nelson Mandela _________________ _________________ to achieving equality between black and white people in South Africa.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Four 29 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. .

Two students had great difficulty in solving the equation. The first witness accused the defendant of murder. 10. 11. Headaches may just be the result of tiredness but can be a ____________________ of a more serious problem. 12. . 30 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Jealousy is one of the most unpleasant human ________________________. Japan may well be the most ____________________ as the great majority of its people are from the same race. 4. These experiments may seem ____________________ but they are in fact extremely important. 8. She found physics easy because some of the course ____________________ with the maths she had studied at school. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aid (n) homogeneous (adj) trait (n) 1. Of all the countries in the world. couples who were previously unable to have children may now be able to start a family. ____________________ can be defined simply as the study of life. but luckily their tutor was able to ____________________ them. One big advantage of a word processor is that it allows you to check and then _________________ your work easily. Heart disease can be caused by a bad diet (especially too much fat). inadequate exercise and too much ____________________. With the __________________ of new medical techniques. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 9. 3. 2. 5. but the second witness gave a very different __________________ of events. 6. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. biology (n) overlap (v) trivial (adj) edit (v) stress (n) version (n) enlighten (v) symptom (n) x-rays (n) __________________ are not simply used to photograph broken bones but also to fight against cancers within the body.Unit Five 5a – Fill in the gaps From the following list.

governments usually stop / suppress any newspaper reports which contain bad news. for) are all categories / groups of words. 12. 1. 3.Unit Five 5b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. go). green). drink. Although one of the prisoners refused to respond / answer to any questions. there was a general strike. . 10. plants soak up / absorb CO2 and release oxygen. 7. 5. 4. decide which word in bold is more suitable. The United Nations representative managed to secure / acquire agreement between the two sides who had been fighting over an area of land rich in oil. 6. The UK Government can decide to suspend / expel an overseas student who does not have a visa and refuse permission for the student to return. So many contrary / unlike opinions were expressed that no agreement was possible. each of the others made a full confession. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Divorce arouses such strong feelings that it is difficult to remain honest / objective and logical about the best way to tackle this problem. 11. During the process known as photosynthesis. it is perhaps the motor car which has transformed / modified our lives more than anything else. 2. 8. 31 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. in. but) and prepositions (to. During times of war. verbs (come. Examination candidates are not allowed to eat. Adjectives (big. When the government tried to implement / start new employment legislation. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The opening of a new car factory stimulated / aroused the local economy and improved employment possibilities. smoke or talk for the time / duration of the examination. 9. conjunctions (and. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Of all recent inventions.

there is one electron… a. impersonal style… Some clothes can be made from synthetic… Inside the hydrogen atom. …otherwise the conclusions they come to will be useless. food and books. …in your writing. …the author's name. g. …additional safety features. full-time permanent jobs… Most British students used to receive a grant… The police officer denied… At the end of a quotation. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 11. 6. the date and the page number: (Brown 1996:76). c. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. …from the government to pay for costs such as rent. one of which is to provide a code… Although many elderly people retain… At university. and to avoid contractions such as 'isn't' and 'doesn't'. 3. k. b.… The measurements taken by researchers must be accurate… Religion has many aspects. e. The European Union has insisted that all new aircraft incorporate… In today's economy. it is best to use a formal. remember to put in parentheses… Because the universe is so vast. 9. h. 8. …are disappearing to be replaced by part-time temporary employment. d. l.Unit Five 5c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. j. …it is unlikely that man will be able travel to other galaxies. 12. 7. f. . …moving around the proton at the centre. 4. 32 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 10. …materials such as nylon as well as natural materials such as cotton. …that he had accepted money from any criminal group. i. they may completely forget recent events. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. …clear memories of their childhood. 5. …of conduct to show people how they should behave. 2.

Although not all the votes have been counted. choose one word which could be used to replace the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. one lawyer showed that there were some slight differences between them. all the employees were relocated to another factory belonging to the same company. __________________ 4. 33 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. initial results suggest that the President has won the election. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The prisoner said repeatedly that he was innocent until he was released. __________________ 5. If you look at this second chart. __________________ 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). __________________ 8. __________________ 10. only a very small proportion of consumers made a permanent change in their buying habits. Those who support military service claim that it promotes discipline.Unit Five 5d – Word substitution From the list below. Some organisations have a dress code which lays down what their employees should wear. Most metals shrink as they become cooler. __________________ 3. Although the factory had to be closed. you can see that unemployment has been in decline for the past six years. Although the two cases seemed to be identical. Water is a combination of hydrogen and oxygen. __________________ 9. __________________ 11. __________________ 7. while opponents argue that such service disrupts young people's education. . Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: advocate (v) compound (n) insist (v) subtle (adj) contract (v) preliminary (adj) tiny (adj) transfer (v) dictate (v) graph (n) retard (v) 1. One of the many effects of the hole in the ozone layer is that increased radiation will delay the growth of plants and lead to food shortages. __________________ 2. In spite of a massive advertising campaign.

use c. a. a. Engineers worked throughout the night to ________________ electricity to homes whose supplies had been cut off by heavy snow. renew c. superior 8. customer c. a. manage b. especially when they are __________________ by violent criminals carrying weapons. execute 3. label b. scatter b. The role of the middle manager is not to formulate new policies but to ______________ them. patient b. In the early years. Many athletes take extra vitamins as a/an ________________ to their diet when they are preparing for competition. tag 11. Police officers face many dangers. Increasingly. a. but this attitude has been changing rapidly in recent years. You can buy goods on the Internet with a credit card. disagreements c. fraud c. better b. b or c. 1. a. A defence lawyer has a duty to try to establish the innocence of his/her ____________________. uncomplicated 9. client 12. a. embezzlement 34 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. corruption b. message c. met c. a. a. a. crude b. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). a. reinforcement b. disseminate 7.Unit Five 5e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. diffuse c. arguments b. supplement c. confronted b. post-graduate students are asked to become teaching assistants in order to ___________________ undergraduates. As trade union membership has declined. but now they are highly developed. drill c. but there is a danger of ____________________ if someone else obtains the number. the number of ______________ and strikes has also decreased. a. instruct b. extension 5. . disputes 2. restore 4. In many cultures. it was traditionally believed that men were _________________ to women. inferior c. encountered 6. a. rudimentary c. Cigarette packets on sale are required to carry a _________________ clearly stating the dangers of smoking. inform 10. reinstate b. facilities for tourists were rather ___________________. The invention of printing allowed ideas to __________________ much more quickly than before. choose the best word from a.

8. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. Before publishing the results of new research. Most academic journals are published _________________ _________________. the government _________________ _________________ on the private ownership of guns. 2. 10. Most people accept that fighting against terrorism is a _________________ _________________ of any government. He _________________ _________________ which were so terrible that a massive manhunt was launched by the police to find him. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). there is increasing hope that effective treatments for AIDS will soon be available. Because of the danger of an explosion. In the 1970's. 11. causing an international economic _________________ _________________. most animals appear to experience a range of emotions.Unit Five 5f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 5. perhaps every month or every quarter. While it is probably true they are not capable of _________________ _________________.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: force of at regular lines abstract imposed crisis of err on within a research perpetrated a ban concern thought confidence crimes gravity intervals intersect institutes radius legitimate the side of caution 1. the price of oil increased dramatically. On this graph. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. everyone who was _________________ _________________ of 500 metres of the bomb was evacuated. where the two _________________ _________________ we find the ideal balance. 6. 35 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 4. Following the rise in violence. it is better to _________________ _________________ and recheck the results. . 3. 7. 9. There is a tradition that a falling apple helped Newton develop his theory about the _________________ _________________. Because of the work of _________________ _________________.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Five 36 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. .

An organisational chart shows the company __________________ . but it is still too early to claim that machines can actually think for themselves. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: academic (adj) contend (v) interlocking (adj) arouse (v) degenerate (v) metabolism (n) benefit (n) hierarchy (n) radical (adj) compute (v) instinct (n) strata (n) 1. 8. 5. 3. 2. while others stress the disadvantages. 7. Animals with a very fast ___________________ have to eat very frequently and do not live very long. and so he made the driver stop. from the managers at the top down to the employees at the bottom. All the equipment is made up of __________________ pieces which can be easily assembled in weightless conditions. President Roosevelt introduced _______________ new policies to solve the American unemployment problem. 12. Students at university are encouraged to play sports or join clubs in addition to following their ________________ studies. 4. During the 1930's.Unit Six 6a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. ___________________ of rock likely to contain oil have recently been located under the ice-sheet in Antarctica. Some people emphasise the _________________ of new technology. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 6. 10. The argument became so heated that it soon _______________________ into accusations of dishonesty and corruption. . The fact that the car was being driven very badly ___________________ the policeman's suspicions. 11. a young baby will start to cry if it is hungry. cold. 37 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. We can make machines which can _________________ huge numbers of mathematical problems. By _______________________. or in pain. 9. Some religious groups _______________________ that Darwin's theory of evolution is completely wrong.

11. h. and these special words can make progress very slow. More than 30. The tone / style of the meeting was rather serious and formal. you should avoid alcohol as the two may interact / cooperate and make you ill. l. 13. 10. k. m. …was the fact that the murderers were both under 10 years old. He is such a powerful boxer that all his opponents are in awe / fright of him. f. Most universities oblige / force overseas students to take an English language test before they start their course. 2. In India. 3. 11. 5. c. Government safety inspectors found abnormal / unlikely levels of radiation in the area around the nuclear power station. …so that they will not collapse in the event of an earthquake. 6.000 people participated / contributed in the experiment. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 6. 9. Medium. The decision to expand the airport has caused a great deal of controversy. 7. …centres today. …but construction has already started and should be completed soon. a. 9. it is important to ignore subjective… Buildings in places such as California have to be reinforced… In the United Kingdom. …roles were played by people from the local area. 10. …for most of the previous century. because of pollution and congestion problems. d. 5. If you are taking medicine. …the university careers service can give you advice. j. Mahatma Gandhi refused all food and indeed nearly died in his protest / complaint against British control of his country. 3.Unit Six 6b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below.… The murder was a very strange case but the most striking aspect… All new cars on the market today have to conform… The Pope in Rome is – according to the doctrine… Cars are not allowed to enter many civic… The police accompanied… The film was made on a very low budget. 6c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 4. decide which word is more suitable: 1. 12. The appeal / claim by protesters for more money to be invested in education was rejected by the Government. 2. 7. before her son became king in 1901. e. so all the minor… Mercury is the smallest planet… Whatever type of job you may be contemplating. …shape and size are rejected and sent back for recycling. …in our solar system. …of the Catholic Church – the representative of God here on Earth. Queen Victoria reigned… …the witness to the court to ensure that he would be safe. …impressions and to base decisions on facts instead. 12. 8. Many police officers argue that ex-prisoners commit / perform as much crime after they come out of prison as before they went in. any parts which are not of uniform… When selecting new employees. 4./ Middle-sized companies are often more flexible than larger organisations. Companies which cannot adapt to changing situations very often go into decline / decrease. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). i.… At the end of the process. b. g. 38 . …to the same safety and pollution regulations. Studying a new subject means having to learn a lot of new vocabulary / terminology. 8.

campaigners have protested against the building of new roads. Because of unhappy childhood experiences. ___________________ 7. ___________________ 4. 39 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 9. . Some students will stay up all night to finish their work. ___________________ 3. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. By the age of three.Unit Six 6d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 6. ___________________ 8. One of the main causes of the increase in inner-city lawlessness is the number of young people dependent on drugs. ___________________ 5. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Students should not read every page of a book but instead identify and then take out only those ideas which are relevant. assist (v) clarify (v) converse (v) incline (v) sustain (v) propagate (v) urban (adj) ___________________ The lecturer tried to explain her point more clearly by using another example more familiar to her students. but it is impossible to maintain this for very long and so it is not recommended. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. It is impossible to grow crops without an adequate supply of water. most children are able to talk with an adult in a limited fashion. In recent environmental demonstrations. Heavy smokers have a tendency to develop lung cancer and other serious illnesses. students are not allowed to talk to or help other students in any way. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: activist (n) extract (v) propensity (n) 1. he is disposed to believe that most people are basically very selfish. ___________________ 10. 2. During examinations.

assured c. salary Following unification. . a. a. a. sympathise c. hit c. tobacco companies ______________________ the public for years that smoking was not a direct cause of cancer. choose the best word from a. rewrite b. fertile c. 5. 13. position b. 4. the German government decided to move the capital from Bonn and ______________________ it once more in Berlin. legal b. 3. assist b. a. Wearing a seatbelt when travelling in a car is now a ______________________ requirement in many countries. reproduce The age at which a child becomes ______________________ in the United Kingdom is 18. mention c.Unit Six 6e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. crashed b. 12. 10. prospered c. scope To improve teamworking. a. a. an individual Many scientists believe that most dinosaurs were killed as a result of a huge meteor which ______________________ with the Earth 65 million years ago. promised b. achieved In most companies. North Korea is still relatively underdeveloped. discuss Despite a great deal of evidence to the contrary. a. cheer The ______________________ of world trade increased enormously during the twentieth century. a person b. an adult c. the employers agreed reluctantly to _____________________ their pay offer to the workers. volume c. employees receive extra ______________________ if they do extra work. locate c. a. revenue c. productive b. a. a. size b. a. b or c: 1. comment b. income b. 8. students are often asked to ______________________ to produce a group report or presentation together. place There are many parts of the world which are ______________________ enough to produce food but do not have enough water. agricultural Most universities have trained counsellors who can reassure and ______________________ students who have academic or personal problems. 6. unite c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). compulsory c. binding Because the strikers still refused to return to work. console b. co-operate 2. 9. 40 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. persuaded While South Korea has ______________________ over the last fifty years. collided The journalist asked the Prime Minister repeatedly about the scandal but he refused to ______________________ on it. succeeded b. a. 11. a. 7. revise c. and people who do not so may be punished in the courts.

concentrate on what you can do! 2. 11. While the Volkswagen car was designed to appeal to the masses. university life just seems to be an _________________ _________________ of assignment after assignment.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: keep identical attain virtual 1. _________________ _________________ were imposed preventing the sale of oil. After two months of non-stop fighting there was a _________________ _________________ of peace on Christmas Day before the fighting started again. Some insects are so small that they can only really be seen properly _________________ _________________. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.Unit Six 6f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. 3. In order to increase pressure on the government. Some lecturers are difficult to follow because they _________________ _________________ and talk about something completely different. 4. 10. 6. . Most _________________ _________________ not only look alike but also behave and even dress similarly. the Rolls Royce has only ever been aimed at a _________________ _________________. women are still not able to _________________ _________________ as easily as men in terms of reaching the top positions. _________________ _________________ is now so advanced that pilots train with it. 7. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 41 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In spite of equal opportunities policies. The countries in the _________________ _________________ are in general poorer than those in the northern. 9. 5. try to _________________ _________________ and don't panic. niche brief under southern economic go off at endless hemisphere their goals reality a tangent your nerve cycle sanctions interlude twins market the microscope When you look at your exam paper. 8. Sometimes.

Unit Six 42 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. . For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). basic building blocks from which all living creatures are made up. 4. Computer equipment can become obsolete / antique very quickly because new technology emerges so fast. Many political scientists argue that it is impossible to have a truly modern economy without ___________________ and a more open society. ___________________ markets allow traders to buy and sell raw materials such as cotton. there is a slight odour / fragrance because of the chlorine in the water. there has been a worrying increase in the number of _____________________ taking drugs. citizens can ______________________ the right to silence if they do not want to answer a question in court. At the public enquiry. 6. Some religious groups are strongly opposed to modern science. decide which word in bold more suitable 1. . _____________________ are the tiny. 8. 9. In swimming pools. the royal family and the ___________________ in Russia were overthrown and a communist government was installed. the Managing Director ___________________ all suggestions that the company had tried to avoid responsibility for the accident. In the USA. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: adolescent (n) collapse (v) friction (n) affiliate (v) commodity (n) invoke (v) aristocracy (n) democracy (n) repudiate (v) cell (n) dissolve (v) saint (n) muscle (n) 1. He was more than a national hero. 2. As a result of the revolution of 1917. ___________________ can arise between people who have jobs and those who do not. steel and sugar. 12. 5. the economy remained depressed / distressed because consumers still felt insecure about their jobs. 7b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. Sugar and salt ___________________ easily in water.Unit Seven 7a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 13. the building ___________________ killing more than 300 people inside. 4. 3. 2. 11. most people looked up to him almost as a ____________________. 43 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In order to become more powerful. In times of unemployment. In many countries. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. 7. and refute / contradict even wellestablished theories such as evolution. in fact. 10. 3. trade unions usually ___________________ to a national union organisation. Individuals who have become very rich through business usually also have a lot of political ___________________ and can therefore influence political decisions. Although unemployment was falling. Without any warning.

… Muslims have a system of divine… In 1991. a state of tension prevailed… Like the United States Congress. …law based on the Koran. they are particularly interested in the colour and the touch / texture of the material. which many had thought was beyond hope. l. 7. Recent tests show that girls are getting higher scores / results than boys in most school subjects. e. d. all the main political parties tried to explain their main policy / line to the voters through television broadcasts and newspaper advertisements. …the neighbouring country of Kuwait. 12. Some species of birds migrate / commute from North Africa to Britain.Unit Seven 5. h. the UK Parliament… Early computers were very cumbersome… The Government has reduced the number of ships in the navy… …due to the economic growth of the last 30 years. 11. …which will blow if a fault develops. c. 11. …and concentrated resources on the airforce instead. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 13. g. f. a.… Electrical equipment is usually supplied with a fuse. …we are interested in the study of society and how people behave within it. k. 7. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. …but today they are much smaller. b. j. 9. …which is concerned for example with lines and the shapes and angles they make. 8. If the pattern / configuration of the control panel in an aircraft makes it difficult for the pilot to read the instruments. The creditors / debtors of a company are those individuals or organisations to whom that company owes money. 12. 2. called the Cold War. The defendant is allowed to discuss / confer with his/her lawyer before and during the trial. 10. 10. 9. …between the communist and capitalist worlds. 7c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. 4. …is responsible for making laws. When designers choose material for making new clothes. There are so many aircraft using Heathrow Airport these days that the noise is almost incessant / eternal. Before the election. it seems that politicians who are dogmatic / pragmatic rather than rigid in their views tend to be more successful. President Saddam Hussein of Iraq invaded… The new management team managed to revive… When we talk about sociology. …rather than speak in great detail about this new topic. 5. …the company. I just want to give you a brief sketch… Fifty years after the Second World War. 6. Increasingly. 8. the chance of an accident will increase. 44 . One branch of mathematics is geometry. i.… People in Japan enjoy a great deal of affluence… In this lecture. 6. 3.

the sale of strong drink was illegal in the USA. Only a small proportion of the competitors in the Olympic Games actually ___________________ win a medal. peasant (n) prudence (n) In many types of music. ___________________ 6. some kind of drum is used to provide the beat. There is growing pressure on governments to protect forests and wild animals. ___________________ 45 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Some products are exported and may not be available at all in the home market. its opposite being claustrophobia. ___________________ 13. ___________________ 12.Unit Seven 7d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 5. I am impressed by her business sense. and I thought that her decision not to expand the company showed a great deal of wisdom. the authorities tried to have discussions with the terrorists to secure the release of the hostages. employers are keen to recruit people who have at least a basic ability in computing. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. The 1949 revolution in China was successful because the agricultural workers and farmers gave their support to the communists. ___________________ 4. ___________________ 3. and yet consumption of drink actually increased. ___________________ 9. Rather than use force. ___________________ 11. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: alcohol (n) defer (v) competence (n) domestic (adj) conserve (v) horror (n) corporate (adj) incentive (n) rhythm (n) ___________________ fraction (n) negotiate (v) 1. ___________________ 10. 8. open spaces. During the 1930's. Increasingly. If you wish to travel or work before studying. 2. It is now common organisational policy for a company to have a mission statement explaining the aim of the organisation. ___________________ 7. Companies often give employees inducements such as bonuses and pay rises to encourage them to work harder. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . it is possible to postpone your entry to university by one year. Agoraphobia can be defined as a dread of large.

timing b. nutrition c. matter 5. astronomer 7. stereotype c. flesh c. a. A simple everyday example of the _______________________ is the standard postcard. symbol 6. continent c. a. schedule c. Finance 2. the building should be ready for use by the end of the year. a. food b. redraw c. triangle b. degenerate c. tissue b. it is increasingly common for people to _______________________ business without actually meeting. In the next century. a. . Switzerland declared that it would remain _______________________ and not take part in any of the fighting. astronomy b. the ________________________ Department is responsible for managing money within that organisation. more and more children live with one parent. disinterested c. The roots of a plant absorb water and ______________________ from the soil in which it grows. The study of ___________________ has been helped considerably by the Hubble telescope. Many food products carry a 'sell by' date since they ________________________ over time and become unusable. make 10. In the Second World War. In any large company. a. a. rewrite b. area 4. a. reform 3. the only telescope up in space. In the US today. the ________________________ of Asia will become the most significant sector of the world economic market. neutral b. Because of modern communications. nutrients 9. a. and yet the ___________________ of the two-parent family still exists. Economic Some political parties want to ________________________ the process by which we vote in general elections so as to make it more representative. Mad cow disease was probably caused by allowing cows to eat nerve _____________________ from sheep and other cows. b. icon b. impartial 8. corrupt 12.Unit Seven 7e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. region b. perform b. square c. astrology c. degrade b. a. a. time 11. Monetary c. choose the best word from a. a. a.b or c: 1. transact c. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). According to the _______________________. rectangle 46 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 9. 8. 5. leaving behind only _________________ _________________. One extreme political group started a _________________ _________________.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: sibling thermal code contingent 1. 7. Although there has been some success. 47 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Seven 7f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 4. the court sentenced him to three years in prison. both on the extreme left and extreme right. In areas with active volcanoes. we tend to use _________________ _________________. pleaded salt precipitated intermediate political campaign colloquial US not guilty a crisis energy crystals stages Congress rivalry of terror of ethics spectrum upon language The shortage of oil in the 1970's _________________ _________________ in the world economy. but in academic writing we need to be much more formal. the discussions are still only in the _________________ _________________. 2. The decision by Japanese companies to invest in the UK was _________________ _________________ Britain being part of the European Union. The results of the vote showed agreement across the _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). _________________ _________________ refers to the competition which often exists between the children in a family for the attention and love of their parents. kidnapping and bombing. the _________________ _________________ from underground hot water supplies can be used to produce electricity. 10. . Although he _________________ _________________. When speaking. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 12. including hijacking. The water evaporated. 6. Doctors have a _________________ _________________ which requires them to act in the best interest of their patients. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. The _________________ _________________ is made up of the House of Representatives and the Senate. 3. 11.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Seven 48 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

fraternal (adj) oxygen (n) lens (n) pendulum (n) liable (adj) postulate (v) supreme (adj) subordinate (adj) By putting two _____________________ together. 10. The _____________________ value of all the companies in the group was in excess of $250 million. you are allowed to _____________________ up to 10% of a book for your own personal study. In any strike action by a trade union. followed by more high growth again. If a student does not follow / adhere to the regulations concerning examinations. 7. 49 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Periods of high economic growth tend to be followed by low growth. 2. 11. which is vital for life on Earth. In this company. 3. more than in any other country. 9. they are _____________________ to fail their examinations. _____________________ energy provides approximately 80% of the electricity used in France. . he/she may fail. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. In his book The Plague. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). About 20% of the atmosphere is made up of _____________________. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: aggregate (adj) nuclear (adj) reproduce (v) 1. 5. 6. If students do not attend lectures. 5. like a _____________________. the supervisors are _____________________ to the inspectors. By law in the UK. 8. Camus uses the disease mentioned in the title as a metaphor / simile to represent fascism and other extreme political ideas. The former President's personality was so strong that her influence invaded / pervaded every aspect of political life. it is possible to make a simple telescope. ___________________ support from workers in other unions can be very important for it to succeed. who in turn report to the Production Manager. countries which may have been enemies in the past are often allies / friends today. 4. The _____________________ Court in the United States is the highest and most important court in the country. 3. 8b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 4. In many cases. Some students complained because the extra lecture coincided / synchronised with one of their religious festivals.Unit Eight 8a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. Karl Marx _____________________ that the structure of a society is determined by the economic structure of that society. 2.

For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. The idea that HIV and AIDS only affect homosexuals is a complete error / fallacy. In some parts of the world. Some students are reluctant / unhappy to ask questions because they are shy. f. as this would cause it to collapse. While our reserves of oil and coal are fixed / finite. 9. 7. 10. …of ships in the world. 4. 8c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1.… The European Union has reduced most of the bureaucracy… Because of radio telescopes. k. 6. a. …which may be caused by the food which children are eating. The contents / index at the back of a book allows the reader to find specific information. …themselves with the North. 8. i. 3. 7. children develop a spatial… During the Korean War. children have to work very long hours. with capitalist countries aiding the South. energy sources such as the wind or the sun will in effect never end. thereby simplifying trade regulations. … The US Navy has the largest fleet… Medical researchers managed to correlate… University courses used to be very rigid… From a very early age. 5. communist countries aligned… Some countries have a president. 8. It is very important that a child's linguistic… Teachers have noticed an increase in aggression. j. 11. …up and down or from side to side. b. …associated with customs. …asbestos to lung cancer and other respiratory diseases many years ago. 9.Unit Eight 6. h. 2. The number of people living on our planet is on an upward trend / pattern and is expected to top 10 billion in the years to come. …distant stars which are invisible from Earth. 50 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. …abilities develop fully so that it can communicate and learn. d. …either a king or a queen. 11. c. g. we can now detect… It is vital to make sure that the structure of a bridge will not oscillate… …awareness allowing them to understand where things are around them. to the detriment / expense of their education and even their health. while others have a monarch. e. …and offered students no real choice or flexibility. .

Most animals will attack other animals which try to enter their space. 51 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. In the twentieth century. The witness was so nervous that he refused to give evidence when the case came to court. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. There is a very real danger that medicines currently used to treat infection will become completely ineffective if they are used too often and indiscriminately. Despite the efforts of the doctors. The independence of the United States of America was announced in 1776. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: allude (v) evolve (v) cater (v) launch (v) discern (v) proclaim (v) testify (v) utilise (v) drug (n) rebel (n) territory (n) 1. __________________ 11.Unit Eight 8d – Word substitution From the list below. __________________ 9. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Britain developed gradually from an industrial economy into a service economy. __________________ 4. . review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. Many companies in the developed world are trying to provide for older customers as the proportion of young people decreases. One of the most important skills to learn as a student is how to make use of your time effectively. __________________ 5. __________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The government has decided to initiate an investigation into the increase in deaths from drugs. Revolutionaries overpowered the troops holding the radio station so that they could announce the change of government to the people. __________________ 10. __________________ 3. __________________ 2. __________________ 7. __________________ 6. __________________ 8. lawyers are forbidden to mention or even refer to any previous criminal activity the accused may have been responsible for in the past. In the course of a trial. it was not possible to notice any real improvement in the condition of the patient.

a.Unit Eight 8e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. 52 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. gives c. allocates 3. some UFO's can appear and disappear again as if by _____________________. league 8. choose the best word from the following list: 1. exude b. allots b. a. partisan b. division b. The G8 is a _____________________ of the world's eight richest countries. William Harvey showed that blood _____________________ around the body on a continuous basis. The decision of the university to close the swimming pool at weekends _____________________ an angry reaction among students. provoked c. If children are _____________________ of love and security they may have problems in later life. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). money b. In the seventeenth century. despondent b. sad 6. factional c. as the politicians simply voted along _____________________ lines: the left-wing all supported the Prime Minister. Many political parties support the introduction of a common _____________________. a. currency 10. . a. The decision of the House of Commons surprised no one. deprived c. the university _____________________ each student a limit of 500 pages of computer printing. finance c. pours 7. According to witnesses. magic c. miracle 9. created b. stripped b. a. drip 2. Students on the new technology course became very _____________________ at the lack of suitable books in the library. stimulated 5. frustrated c. To cut down on costs. a. trickery b. a. a. leak c. denied 4. a. a. circulates c. biased Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. accepted all over Europe. club c. Some plants _____________________ a sweet. flows b. and the right-wing all opposed him. sticky liquid to attract insects. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

Unit Eight 8f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. Most of the students complained that the lectures were an _________________ _________________ because it was impossible to understand the lecturer. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. 4. young people can get married below the age of 18. 10. There is very little evidence to suggest that _________________ _________________ as portrayed on television and in film actually cause antisocial behaviour. 3. One common complaint is that companies do not _________________ _________________ in new developments for the long-term future. _________________ _________________ this would reduce the number of serious injuries. . It is almost impossible to _________________ _________________ people who use the Internet for criminal purposes. 9.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: solar imperial dissipates Peace sex and legislate on the premise invest give utter against energy money violence control their consent waste of time power that Treaty 1. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. During the nineteenth century. 6. 8. perhaps a quarter of the world's population was under British _________________ _________________. The _________________ _________________ signed at Versailles marked the end of the First World War. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 53 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. if both pairs of parents _________________ _________________. In some countries. Many students make the mistake of reading without considering first why they are reading. 5. One obvious source of energy is _________________ _________________. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 7. 2. Some years ago. since the sun produces so much heat. seat-belt legislation was introduced. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). which just _________________ _________________ for no good reason.

© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. . review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Eight 54 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Car batteries also have to be handled with care as they often contain an _________________ which can burn holes in clothes or even cause injury. A great deal of research has shown that poverty. just use _________________. 7. Astronomers' work is becoming more difficult as the night sky is increasingly _________________ by electric street lighting from urban areas. 6. it was believed that the Earth was _________________. One of the biggest problems for electric cars is that the __________________ they use for power are rather heavy. Until 400 years ago. in the air we breathe. and that the Sun moved around the Earth. Two atoms of oxygen and an atom of hydrogen together produce one __________________ of water. even in the pencils with which we write. 55 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.Unit Nine 9a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 4. 10. 8. The element _________________ is all around us. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. and don't bother with any fractions or decimal points. 3. The music was really quite boring and had no real __________________. as the number of columns and the number of rows are the same. 2. the '_________________ of Wales' is the official title of eldest son of the monarch. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 9. In this exercise. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). In the United Kingdom. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 11. 5. lack of education and unemployment can _________________ social unrest. The grid on the left of your handout is known as a square __________________. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: acid (n) illuminate (v) molecule (n) battery (n) integer (n) prince (n) breed (v) lustre (n) carbon (n) matrix (n) stationary (adj) 1. .

7. 10. 2. 3. …of only one point. …called 'castra. 11.Unit Nine 9b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. …has the power to influence the lives of millions of Catholics. In the 1970's. j. f. . d. 8. Saudi Arabia and other oil-rich states accumulated / collected vast sums of money through the sale of oil. Most universities have a special fund / finance for students who have run out of money and need help. g. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1.' which we now see in place names like Lancaster. 9. the minister destroyed not only his marriage but also his career. 6. when they like. i. 8. …in a country start fighting each other. 7. After six weeks trapped in the embassy. Sometimes a piece of music can evoke / provoke very strong memories and emotions. 56 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 5. c. the hostages were finally emancipated / liberated. higher fees are charged for science and technology courses. h. an aristocrat by the name of the Duke… Civil war may break out very quickly if different factions… Plants can be subdivided… When you write an essay. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 10. 5. 4. The biggest issue on which the two parties' policies divide / diverge is the amount of money to be spent on education. Because of the rise in the number of prisoners. …into several different families. some students are not averse… …and so the people in it are free to work on what they like. 3. the Pope… The organisation of the department is really quite amorphous. …of Monmouth led a rebellion against the English king. …yourself to giving relevant ideas and information only. you must confine… Because of the special apparatus… From the Vatican in Rome. a. The most successful students are probably those who have a strong integral / intrinsic interest in their subject. e. 6. 4. as opposed to those who simply want a degree. k. the whole penal / punishment system will have to be changed. 9. The prediction that we will completely tire / exhaust our reserves of oil in the not too distant future seems now to be incorrect.… The Romans built a large number of castles or forts… Because of their high price. the police regularly use torture / torment to force prisoners to give them information. In some countries. 2. 9c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. She won the championship by a margin… Examples of animals imported by man replacing the indigenous… In 1685. …species already living there can be seen in all countries. Because he lied to his colleagues and family about his girlfriend / mistress. …to stealing books from the library. …required. b.

57 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. ___________________ 7. Because of reports that the meat was not safe.Unit Nine 9d – Word substitution From the list below. ___________________ 2. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. ___________________ 8. ___________________ 6. Some industry experts believe that the Internet will supplant television and all programmes will be viewed from a computer. with the remainder used for new equipment. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ambiguity (n) efficient (adj) residue (n) 1. He is a very pleasant colleague. ___________________ 5. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. ___________________ 11. Some psychologists think our language ability is intrinsic. ___________________ 9. and very proficient at his job. Aluminium is a very suitable substance for aircraft because it is light and strong. annual (adj) innate (adj) construe (v) material (n) displace (v) orbit (v) reverberate (v) suspend (v) The yearly external examiners' meeting is held at the end of every academic year to discuss the examination papers which the students have written. . The workers went on strike as they viewed the management's plans as an attack on their job security. Most of the money was spent on salaries. all sales were halted until more tests could be carried out. ___________________ 4. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). He lost a great deal of political support because his speeches were so full of uncertainty and anomalies. The International Space Station circles the Earth about every 90 minutes. ___________________ 3. while others think that we know nothing about language at birth. ___________________ 10. ___________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. The noise of the explosion echoed through the empty streets.

In very hot climates. link b. a. a. the movement of the drum causes the air molecules to __________________. vibrate c. wonder b. unduly b. a. a. bizarre 8. fix Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. a. which we hear as sound. evaporates b. a. benefit c. 1. enumerated c. Although the research team are all somewhat _____________________ people. condense b. odd c. but warned him that there would be no more extensions after that. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). shrink c. The supervisor was not __________________ concerned about the student asking for a week's extension to finish his essay. When you hit a drum. . collapse 4. named 9. shake 7. breach 2. 58 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. The chief _______________________ which many companies have today is not the property they own but rather the creativity and skills of their employees. asset b. reverberate b. they work very well together and produce some very good ideas. marvel 6. choose the best word from a.Unit Nine 9e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here. highly 10. a considerable amount of petrol ____________________ from car fuel tanks and into the atmosphere. b or c. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. The professor __________________ several possible explanations for the rise in recorded crime. a. a. numbered b. There are still too many countries which regularly ____________________ their citizens' human rights. violate c. miracle c. conventional b. liability 5. a. When writing a summary. attach c. dehydrates c. absolutely c. dries 3. a. Please _____________________ two colour passport photographs to the application form. His health is so bad that it will be a _______________________ if he is alive next year. try to ____________________ the main ideas into just a few short sentences. break b.

Young children need a stimulating environment so that they can develop the _________________ _________________ of intellectual and social skills. 6. . Researchers work at the _________________ _________________ in order to increase our knowledge.Unit Nine 9f – Make a collocation Unit 0000 Start by reading through the sentences below. After retiring. 11.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: full frontiers drastic rural 1. _________________ _________________ can set in. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. Political change in Central Europe _________________ _________________ when President Gorbachev came to power in the Soviet Union. most people lived and worked in _________________ _________________. 5. Policemen carrying _________________ _________________ rifles surrounded the building. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 8. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 59 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. the astronauts are connected to the spacecraft by a long life-line. 2. often referred to as the '_________________ _________________'. 4. Until very recently. 3. whereas today most of us live in cities. If soldiers are not paid on time. high gained voluntary federal umbilical low wide of science areas government morale complement velocity momentum vocabulary cord action work In the United States. The company was losing so much money that only _________________ _________________ by the management – including the dismissal of 15% of the employees – enabled it to survive. the _________________ _________________ has overall responsibility for foreign affairs and defence. 10. many people choose to do some type of _________________ _________________ even though they receive no pay for this. While walking in space. 7. sometimes resulting in a revolution against the government. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. All students will need a _________________ _________________ in order to understand the sources of information they have to use. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. 9.

review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.Unit Nine 60 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. . © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

In nearly all parts of Eastern Europe. 10. 4. The ____________________ between a mother and a child is very important for the emotional development of the child. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). When you want to _______________________ something. The costs were so enormous that they ____________________ the project impossible. 3. 5. Before they take their examinations. When there is a ____________________ of oil. decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1. If you have a lot of data which you want to include. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: anthropology (n) province (n) sift (v) quote (v) surplus (n) foetus (n) render (v) triangle (n) intimacy (n) repress (v) 1. it becomes much easier to ____________________ through your notes and decide which ideas to include. the price on the world market falls. 4. ____________________ is the scientific study of man including such topics as religion and culture. 61 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 2. attempts to ____________________ movements for political change failed completely. 7. One of the simplest but strongest shapes is the ____________________. Recent research has shown that drinking heavily during pregnancy can harm the ____________________.Unit Ten 10a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. an appendix / index at the end of the report or essay is the best place for it. 9. The Canadian capital Ottawa is in the ____________________ of Ontario. students should revise thoroughly and try to assimilate / ingest what they have been studying. 2. . 10b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. 3. it appears to be increasingly easy for teenagers to procure / secure drugs if they want them. A huge trench was dug to channel / deviate excess water away from farming areas. 6. make sure that the words you write are exactly the same as those in your source. 8. If you have made a plan for your writing. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. Although many drugs are illegal.

j. 2. 10. smoking is restricted if not completely embargoed / prohibited in many public places. At the end of an essay. 8. …to slow down the ageing process. the idea that executions help to prevent murder is a complete myth / legend. 11. f. …of the law by introducing longer prison sentences. the shapes of cars were very angular / bent whereas today they are much more rounded.Unit Ten 5. …some students still could not understand the solution to the problem. a. e. b. it is a huge advantage to be fluent… Although the lecturer's explanation was very cogent. 7. h. For health reasons. Some years ago. …from almost nothing to become major economic players. 9. 62 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. Many people working today find it difficult to tolerate… In Canada. …but in the majority of cases the name of the author appears with the article. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 4. 6. …the design for the Concorde was just too expensive to produce commercially. …with conventional phones altogether and use mobile phones instead. According to opponents of the death penalty. 9. k. 6. 3. 10c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1. d. …in both French and English. …high levels of stress and insecurity. some Asian countries have emerged… Some analysts think that many customers will dispense… New government proposals will increase the rigour… University students usually have the option… A new drug developed by a leading company purports… Although it was particularly radical and ingenious. . c. France's road and rail networks diverge / converge on Paris because it is the capital. 7. The influence of television is so great that actors can be elevated / lifted to superstar status almost overnight. i. students should always append / affix a bibliography. …of choosing extra subjects to study if they wish. there is a strange anomaly… In recent years. 8. giving details of the sources of information they have used.… Sometimes articles are anonymous.… In some American states. g. 10. 5.… …whereby a 16 year-old may get married but is not allowed to buy a beer.

9. 2. purposeful c. The USA is composed of 50 states. which makes it very difficult for them to stop. skeleton c. The minister resigned because many people felt that his behaviour was at variance with his role in public life. draft People who smoke heavily experience a/an_________________ to smoke. The result of the experiment was a complete surprise to everyone: the new process was a success! The market for cars in Europe is almost full to capacity. undying If a questionnaire is badly written. articulate c. forcing car manufacturers to look for customers elsewhere. early scientists tried to produce ________________ motion machines. a. a. deliberate The outline is a kind of ______________________ which gives in general terms the basic structure and content of a piece of work. choose the best word from a. 10e – Choose the best word For each of the sentences here.Unit Ten 10d – Word substitution From the list below. 6. 11. choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. a. 6. 5. 7. 3. 10. everlasting c. expressive b. that is. addiction Although we now believe this to be impossible. the Queen must give her agreement to a new law before it can come into force. in that as one rises or falls so does the other. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word: ascribe (v) embrace (v) assent (n) enhance (v) outcome (n) comprise (v) emancipate (v) inconsistent (adj) interrelate (v) saturate (v) vague (adj) ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ 1. sketch b. but on rare occasions they may be _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). obligation c. 4. The President's speech was so __________________ that many people were persuaded to accept the need for change. it will not _________________ the type of information required from the people completing it. a. The clear increase in skin cancer has been attributed to the fact that more people now take holidays in hot countries. 4. 8. 3. Wages and inflation are closely linked. eloquent Car crashes are almost always accidental. elicit c. 63 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a. . Some people argue that robots in the home will liberate us from having to do the housework in the not too distant future. b or c: 1. solicit b. The new law course attempts to cover all aspects of international law. machines which would never stop. perpetual b. compulsion b. obtain 2. conscious b. A recent survey has found that most people have only an uncertain understanding of how and why we study theoretical science. 5. In Britain. a. A significant number of students decide to study for a Master's degree to boost their knowledge.

settled One of the biggest problems with malaria is that the disease can _________________ and give the patient serious medical complications again and again throughout his or her life. resident c. One of the problems with _________________ _________________ such as coal and oil is that they will not last for ever. An international rescue operation was organised _________________ _________________ the United Nations. students now _________________ _________________ information from academic libraries all over the world. extracted Studying is important. Through the Internet. 64 . a. the court decided that the contract was _________________ _________________. sections Students who are ____________________ on the campus make more use of the university sports facilities than those living outside. 11. 6. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. a. 4.Unit Ten 7. episodes b. enrich c. 8. _________________ _________________ is usually an economic disaster. 7. _________________ _________________ of computer technology argue that computers help protect our freedom. The building of a new airport will bring _________________ _________________. boost b. a. 11. recur c. In many universities. 2. stages c. but playing sports and joining clubs will help to ___________________ a student's time at university. 10f – Make a collocation Start by reading through the sentences below. removed b. 9. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. causing prices to rise and the value of money to fall. 9. preferring instead to discuss their own interests. there is a/an _________________ _________________ provided especially for students and staff. 10. a. a. 10.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below: maternal television high political null and health tangible leading under have fossil interviews clinic exponents instinct ambitions fuels void benefits access to inflation the auspices of 1. In _________________ _________________. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). such as improved communications and more jobs in the local area. bolster No doubt every country has ____________________ in its history which its people now regret. withdrawn c. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once. Books are usually electronically protected so that they cannot be _________________ from the library unless they have been issued in the proper way. Many successful business figures want to enter government in order to satisfy their _________________ _________________. Because they increase the availability of information. 3. Many feminists now argue that women do not have a _________________ _________________ towards children. repeat b. arise 8. domiciled b. politicians often ignore what they are asked. Because the original information was incorrect. 5.

. © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).Unit Ten 65 Vocabulary sheet _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

while others may stay with a host family as a ___________________ measure before renting their own houses. but in practice these machines are often not suited to local conditions and so tend to break down. 11.Unit Eleven 11a – Fill in the gaps From the following list. 13. The Director reminded the middle managers that full cooperation from all workers was _________________ to the success of the company. thousands of people ________________ in Sudan and Ethiopia because there was no food. During the 1980's. with a ___________________ of about 570. With any quotation you wish to use. The USA has a huge domestic market and so is less reliant on ___________________ for the success of its economy. Supplying ________________ to Third World farmers may seem an excellent idea. Jupiter is the largest planet in our solar system. 66 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 12. 3. 7. major industrial companies are finding that consumers are concerned about any ________________ created by the manufacture of their products. diameter (n) fundamental (adj) starve (v) enable (v) import (n) temporary (adj) expert (n) luxury (n) tractor (n) pollution (n) The ________________ of live animals is strictly controlled so as to prevent diseases from being brought into the country. 6. use each word only once to complete the sentences below. make sure that the author you are quoting is an ________________ or academic authority. Increasingly. Some business leaders become bored with well-established organisations and prefer instead the ________________ of setting up a new company. 8. 9. Remember that in the case of nouns and verbs you may need to change the form of the word: challenge (n) export (n) pest (n) 1. what used to be considered as ___________________ goods are now regarded as necessities. One major problem with some early insecticides was that they tended to kill not only harmful ___________________ but also those insects which actually helped the farmer. We recommend that you take a pre-sessional study skills course. Most international students choose to live in university accommodation. 5. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). . which will ________________ you to practise the language skills you will need later. 10. In many developed countries.000 kilometres. 4.

. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. goods from countries such as Taiwan and Korea were often thought to be worse / inferior. Two of the missing children have been rescued but the fate / destiny of the other six is still unknown. Very small bubbles / blobs of air can become trapped in liquid metal. 8. At first. the number of deaths from accidents has fallen sharply. The area around the Great Pyramids is one of the most important archaeological sites / spots for the study of ancient Egypt. 5. but they soon realised that this would help them to improve their technique. 9. large parts of Holland were drained / emptied of water to produce new farmland. 3. Following the decision to pass legislation to compel / urge employers to improve safety standards at work. 10. 7. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. 6. In the past. The government lost the election because of a whole brochure / catalogue of scandals and political errors. students were hostile / unfriendly to the idea of being videoed during their presentations. 11. and yet today these countries make many high-quality products. Car theft / burglary remains higher in Britain than in any other European country. Until recently. 4. causing it to become weak. 2. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). decide which word in bold is more suitable: 1.Unit Eleven 11b – Choose the right word In each of the sentences below. The introduction of the fax and more recently e-mail has made it much easier to communicate / contact with other people all around the world. The process / action by which plants use sunlight to produce food is known as photosynthesis. 67 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007.

unlike the decimal… Although the new equipment performed well under laboratory… a. the equipment… Japan's greatest resource… A group of students decided to complain because one tutor cancelled… Some countries use a thirteen-month calendar… Young plants will grow quickly if the soil is moist… Increasingly. …research in order to develop new products on behalf of large companies. 6. According to a recent large-scale government survey… Car manufacturers are keen to develop other sources of fuel… An increase in the number of accidents led to a public debate… Although it means that people live longer. …based on the lunar cycle. 10.1). 7. j. levels of reading and writing skills are still low. but not if it is too damp or cold. …system (0-9) which we use in everyday life. …– such as solar power – since oil will not last for ever. h. b. …with credit cards. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). c. Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt. review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible. it was simply not robust enough for everyday use. i. …conducted in the UK. buying habits have changed. universities are being asked to undertake… As people can now make purchases on impulse… Computers make use of the binary system (0. 2. …and warm. . …conditions. …all tutorials for a week. 5. 4. 12. 68 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. d. …is its people. …used in modern hospitals has increased the cost of health care. 11. since it has very few sources of raw materials or energy. 8. k. f. g. e. l. …about the safety of the national railway system. rather than the more normal twelve-month system. 3. 9.Unit Eleven 11c – Finish the sentence Choose the best ending for each of the sentence extracts below from the list underneath: 1.

Unit Eleven

11d – Word substitution
From the list below, choose one word which could be used in place of the language shown in bold without changing the meaning of the sentence. Remember that you may need to change the form or in some cases the grammatical class of the word:
bulk (n) inspect (v) shrink (v) 1. fluid (n) instance (n) switch (v) fulfil (v) novel (n) topic (n) huge (adj) revolve (v) vital (adj)

In some cases, the patients did not make any improvement, but generally the treatment was a huge success. While a few students stay in university halls of residence, the majority of students choose to rent their own accommodation at some point in their studies. In the course of a marathon, a runner needs to drink water periodically in order to make up for the liquid lost through sweating. Before starting work on your dissertation, make sure that you have discussed the subject with your supervisor. Staff responsible for examining aircraft checked the plane and declared it unsafe. Some students find it very confusing when a lecturer changes from the topic under discussion to share a joke with his audience. The stories of Charles Dickens give us a very clear picture of life in Britain in the nineteenth century. Many students complained when the university failed to keep its promise to allow students 24 hour access to the computer centre. Each time the star rotates, it sends out a radio signal which we can detect on Earth, allowing us to calculate the speed of rotation.

___________________

2.

___________________

3.

___________________

4.

___________________

5.

___________________

6.

___________________

7.

___________________

8.

___________________

9.

___________________ 10. It is absolutely essential that you check your examination entries to make sure they are correct; if they are not you may not be allowed to sit your examination. Most universities have found that demand for engineering courses has decreased, while new subjects such as media studies have become very popular. The amounts of money owed by some Third World countries were so enormous that in many cases it was decided to cancel the debts since they would probably never have been repaid.

___________________

11.

___________________

12.

___________________

69
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11e – Choose the best word
For each of the sentences here, choose the best word from a,b or c:
1. In addition to reading books and journals, the other main source of information available to university students is the ________________ given by the academic staff. a. lectures b. lessons c. classes

2.

The atmospheres of most planets are not ________________, making it difficult for us to see the surface. a. transparent b. lucid c. clear

3.

Three terrorists managed to escape but all of them were ________________ within 24 hours and returned to prison. a. trapped b. snared c. captured

4.

Anybody who joins the army as a soldier has to accept that danger is an ________________ part of the job. a. inside b. internal c. inherent

5.

Students without the normal academic qualifications but who have relevant work experience may be offered a place on an easier diploma course on the ________________ towards an MBA. a. journey b. direction c. route

6.

In Egypt, water from the River Nile has been used for thousands of years to ________________ the dry desert land so that crops may be grown. a. irrigate b. moisten c. fundamental

7.

Improvements in quality control techniques have resulted in more high-quality products with very few ________________. a. mistakes b. failures c. defects

8.

As you can see from your handout, the first ________________ of figures down the left-hand side shows the growth in population. a. line b. column c. string

9.

The ________________ of men to women in China is unusual, in that there are more men than women. a. ratio b. number c. quantity

10.

According to a recent survey in Europe, most workers expressed a preference for increased ________________ time rather than the chance to do more overtime and earn extra money. a. leisure b. hobby c. relaxation

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

70
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven

11f – Make a collocation
Start by reading through the sentences below. Then take one word from the box on the left and combine this with one from the box on the right to make a collocation. (Note that more than one pairing may be possible and also that some words appear more than once.) Then try to match your combinations with the spaces in the sentences below:
public television air gas electrical academic career mental tropical cassette fares stations circuits change transport cylinders journals illness tapes

rain forests

1.

In modern cars, sound systems play CDs rather than _________________ _________________.

2.

The _________________ _________________ of the Amazon contain over 10% of all known plant species found on Earth.

3.

One of the most important developments in the history of the computer was the printing of tiny _________________ _________________ on small chips of silicon.

4.

The explosion was caused by terrorists, who had packed a number of _________________ _________________ with home-made explosive.

5.

Increasingly, cars are being excluded from city centres and improved _________________ _________________ is being developed instead.

6.

For the most recent developments in any subject, _________________ _________________ are a much better place to look in than text books.

7.

Psychologists have shown that living in very tall buildings can lead to depression, or even _________________ _________________.

8.

Thanks to the introduction of satellite communications, we can confidently expect the growth in the number of _________________ _________________ to continue.

9.

Increased competition among the airlines in Europe has meant that _________________ _________________ has become much cheaper.

10.

After several years working as a lawyer, she decided to have a _________________ _________________ and become a university lecturer instead.

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.

71
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

Unit Eleven 72

Vocabulary sheet
_____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________________________________

Don't forget to keep a record of the words and expressions that you have learnt, review your notes from time to time and try to use new vocabulary items whenever possible.
© A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3).

e. 5. 5. symbols. analyse results. achieving. 6. 3. criteria. 10. convert. sequence of events. publishes. k. 4. simultaneous. arbitrary. 14. text. 4. 8. orientate. 4. equivalent. evident. tradition. predict. 11. evaluate. pursued. 7. portion. involving. 3. 6. 2. 7. 7. 5. 11. 8. equilibrium. emotion 4c 1. generated. new concept. h. speculate. 2. 4. 12. preposition. 8. j. methods. stable 2b 1. 8. obtained. sources. proprietor. 12. 7. 7. 2. preceded. fluctuate. 11. impact. 9. 13. transmit signals. 4. k. g. 13. rely on. manifested. 7. 4. derive. 3. imply. 2. principle. varies. 12. 5. 12. leading role. b. summary. 14. labour shortage. 7. infer. plot. 9. 10. 3. assess. 6. dispose of. 7. 6. 8. 10. 12. 3. 3. 8. 6. issue. reverse the verdict. series. 10. 5. a 3d 1.Answer key Answer key Unit One 1a 1. 9. abandoned 3c 1. 10. 12. d. 11. 9. definite. elements. approximate. 4. 10. 13. intervene 4b 1. 6. sum. accomplished. 12. co-ordinate. 8. 8. 6. 11. 7. maximum. physical exercise. 9. mathematics. factor. 5. j. a. m. comprehend. l. f. initial results. 5. d. constant temperature. manipulate. 13. appropriate. 13. 8. 9. 8. 10. conduct. comply with. creating. scheme. d. ignored. e. precise details. superficial. 4. individual. subsequent. 12. 11. 3. 7. l. 9. 8. range. rejected. i. impressed. expose. contrast. 10. c. modified. 13. 9. transition. 5. 6. obvious. l. 9. classic example. 12. assigned. b. explicit. 4. empirical 2f 1. 9. endangered species. conceived. 4. regions. 8. indicates. devised. 8. h 73 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 8. previous experience. motive. 7. 4. 10. 10. establish a link. consists of 1c 1. deficient. outspoken critic. 6. 3. k. e. 8. c. 2. 13. c. marital status. is required. 3. n. underlying. vertical. 11. 9. presuming. 10. 11. 6. 15. occupied. adequate. e. exerts. external. energy. verbal agreement. 12. 12. 3. phase. heredit. 10. m. 14. convened. positive aspects. psychology. 2. segments. f 1d 1. 5. tentative. 2. 9. 4. satellites. 2. 7. analogy. 2. new dimension. 5. 7. reacted angrily. distributed. g. 5. compensate. proceeding. 12. 6. formulate. select 1. 12. 2. appreciate 3f 1. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). 3. contaminated. i. consequent. 10. chapters. 11. 11. pole. 7. separate entities Unit Three 3a 1. 6. occurs. investigate. 2. 8. 8. 3. deviate. 9. dynamic personality. 3. 3. put forward a hypothesis. 8. axis. contact. ultimate responsibility. c. 5. pertinent. components. 6. 9. design. 4. 4. 14. 7. 2. 11. l. authorise 2c 1. 7. guarantee. 13. assert the right. b. f. j. 7. 14. 14. specify. 3. 11. assembled. appraises. notion. 3. perpendicular. 9. administer. 2. rational. capillaries. communes. revealed. 6. 5. innovative. 5. 4. j. circumstances. acquire. f. computer network. chemicals. estimates. similar. power and prestige. 11. 5. economically feasible. image. 13. 2. structure. 5. restricted. 12. discourse. natural phenomena. 9. 10. 2. undergone. denote . 10. 2. usage. devote time and money. 12. task 3b 1. 12. spontaneous. 11. 15. verify. potential. 11. 11. adjust. 6. 5. 13. 8. k. highly sophisticated. 8. minimum requirement 2e 1. 12. 2. b. 9. affects. a. 11. discrete. norm. 10. magnetic. environment. 12. 4. 12. 4. 2. 7. 13. 4. . passive. 10. tense atmosphere. 11. distinct. 4. automatic. geography. sphere. 5. 9. 2. inhibit growth. concluded 1e 1. 4. valid reason. 10. dominate. negative. data 1b 1. 6. 11. decade. 7. consume. technology. contribute. i. 12. 7. 10. respective. h. 6. 3. a. 11. 3. 3. period. accelerating. 4. 6. common feature. 5. 9. ensued. emphasise. context. 3. 11. 5. areas 3e 1. credible. 7. I. 13. signified. 6. final decision. 4. focus. 8. 2. 5. prime 1f 1. 10. drama . global economy Unit Two 2a 1. d. 9. sections. g. h. major. o 2d Unit Four 4a 1. 6. 2. 9. 3. 6. approach. 10. g.

3. lenses. contrary. 10. overlapped. console. 1. 12. 5. 2. j Unit Eight 8a 1. label. 6. 13. 4. 5. 5. 12. 9. strata. assist. 10. 11. d. 3. 13. 3. metabolism. 11. revolt. 11. 11. 9. 6. l. supplement. 6. 8. preliminary. litigation 4e 1. 6. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). Supreme. 3. dictates. 5. upsurge. 10. 10. 10. prospered. 13. intermediate stages. 9. thermal energy. 9. 7. m. alter. 7. i. research institutes. 6. 2. attributed to. 8. collapsed. military service 1. legitimate concern. contingent upon. 5. activists 6e 1. i. philosophy. 1. 11. oxygen. 2. 10. index. invoke 7b 1. 2. 9. alcohol. 5. 10. astronomy. 10. income. 3. k. i. 4. 9. 4. 8. integrate. 6. co-operate Unit Five 5a 1. migrate. 7. 10. pleaded not guilty. f. 6. 9. 5. 6. instinct. 2. 3. 9. 7. j. 2. 6. 5. 8. degenerated. stereotype. 8. 4. 4. 12. rectangle 7f 1. 10. 2. participated. 4. graph. h 7d 1. confer. 2. g. 3. odour. 8. oblige. 12. 11. assured. 11. k. 11. 10. transact. 8. 10. 6. keep your nerve. fraction. l. 2. 12. 10. 3. 7. 4. 7. benefits. 4. h. a. coincided. 9. retard. l. 12. identical twins. 11. j. rhythm. abnormal. 7. protest. symptom. an adult. 2. 4. . 3. repudiated. 8. ceased. 10. fertile. 8. 5. 9. interlocking. 8. virtual reality. 6. at regular intervals. pervaded. propensity. 6. 6. 11. 4. h. b. 6. embodies the principle. implement. contract. commodity. c. appeal 6c 1. f. 3. 7. superimpose. tiny. 4. 7. biology. fraud 5f 1. 74 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 5. b. reproduce. 2. internal. homogeneous. 3. edit. reform. salt crystals. f. pendulum. competence. 8. transformed 5c 1.Answer key Answer key 4d 1. 11. political spectrum. endless cycle. extracts. 5. 7. Nuclear. elaborate. 12. 11. clarify. tone. 3. Sibling rivalry. execute. 3. 11. decline. peasants 7e 1. configuration 7c 1. 4. 10. inclined. 8. k. 5. converse. sustain. crisis of confidence. incessant. d 5d 1. e. 8 subsided. restore. 9. e. 11. propagate. 2. induced. obsolete. 5. dissolve. 10. Finance. reluctant. 5. 7. colloquial language. 8. instruct. insisted 5e 1. conserve. 5. depressed. prudence. attain their goals. 9. US Congress Unit Six 6a 1. 12. high proportion. legal. a. compute. 3. interact. 7. 2. go off at a tangent. detriment. 6. 7. 6. metaphor. 2. 5. aggregate. 3. terminology. 5. 8. 9. 10. collided. d. 8. abstract thought. 11. subordinate. perpetrated crimes Unit Seven 7a 1. advocate. 6. 3. fraternal. categories. 11. expel. volume. incentives. 9. aroused. lines intersect. 2. 4. 8. 7. contend 6b 1. flatly contradicted. radical. comment. dense fog. 12. 7. a. 6. democracy. 4. 7. 10. b. 5. 8. 10. 4. schedule. 7. atom bombs. 9. 6. objective. 3. 9. corporate. 12. imposed a ban. secure. 11. 12. 4. alleged. 4. 12. trend. stimulated. e. locate. continent. Medium-. force of gravity. cells. 12. 6. 10. Western culture. adolescents. niche market 6d 1. g. affiliate. 3. 7. transferred. research. 2. disputes. 8. 11. stress. commit. duration. rudimentary. c. 7. 9. 11. pragmatic. mobile phones. southern hemisphere. 2. 8. reservoir. 13. 2. 2. 2. trivial. postulated 8b 1. 13. domestic. neutral. 4. brief interlude. defer. 9. c. 12. 8. texture. 3. 7. compound. 5. eliminated. scores. revise. 10. suppress. 4. horror. constitute 4f 6f 1. diffuse. 2. 2. 8. friction. 10. 12. traits. fragment. 6. 6. 7. 2. atoms. economic sanctions. 9. 4. precipitated a crisis. confronted. 5. 4. 9. creditors. muscle. awe. judicial system. nutrients. dedicated his life. 3. 9. a code of ethics. liable. saint. fallacy. superior. campaign of terror. under the microscope. err on the side of caution. 10. client. allies. 9. 5. 7. degrade. 4. adhere. 11. 3. logic. refute. 5. absorb. subtle. aristocracy. within a radius. policy. aid. 8. X-rays. 6. 7. project. 9. academic. g. goal. 3. respond. enlighten 5b 1. finite 4. 3. urban. tissue. version. negotiate. 5. hierarchy.

partisan 8f 1. on the premise that. 9. k. 7. 7. 10. luxury. cassette tape. 7. 10. 6. c. . a. diverge. fund. 11. evolved. 5. 9. 3. vibrate. low morale Unit Eleven 11a 1. 11. ascribed. j. enumerated. 6. 8. 2. 6. 8. emancipate. academic journals. 10. 7. prohibited. 10. column. invest money. 6. 2. h. 2. communicate 11c 1. 9. 4. k. electrical circuits. 8. material. d. d. pollution. null and void. g. 4. 7. 8. outcome. ratio. 7. 5. orbits. tangible benefits. episodes. matrix 9b 1. frontiers of science. 4. 5. 10. 3. 2. c 9d 1. 4. evaporates. Federal Government. 10. 4. 7. magic. allocates. allude. 7. repress. j. 6. challenge. have access to. accumulated 9c 1. 7. 5. 10. switches. 5. 4. 5. umbilical cord. transparent. 8. 5. j. tractors. j. 10. 4. 4. 9. exports. construed. television interviews. unduly. 6. 10. High inflation. leading exponents. compulsion. imperial control. enrich. surplus. 6. maternal instinct. 6.Answer key Answer key 8c 1. 4. h 11d 1. attach 9f 1. 11. 3. inherent. 10. eloquent. suspended. 9. irrigate. 9. 9. 2. breed. 2. solar power. c. 11. 4. g. rendered. 6. 3. 3. 8. 5. 6. fossil fuels. f. liberated. 3. fate. route. 10. public transport. 7. enhance. f. 9. i. deprived. 2. residue. territory. Prince. proclaimed. voluntary work. stationary. Peace Treaty. 10. 11. elevated. province. 11. 5. diameter. 2. 11. 9. drastic action. displace. lustre. Anthropology. bubbles. torture. a. 2. 7. tropical rain forests. 10. 6. 2. 7. odd. defects. assimilate. b Unit Nine 9a 1. 4. acid. 4. 2. 4. removed. 9. 3. legislate against. 10. i. e. starved. 9. k. resident. 5. 8. 4. 9. 3. 3. 8. 6. h. skeleton. quote 10b 1. 11. 3. 7. fundamental 11b 1. 8. 2. e. 4. 4. hostile. revolves. air fares. 8. political ambitions. integers. 5. league. ambiguity 9e 1. 12. annual. intrinsic. 9. 5. intimacy. 8. 12. lectures. 10. shrunk. exhaust. 10. 8. 11. f. 5. 2. carbon. 2. embrace. 8. procure. sex and violence. bulk. compel. 3. 2. l. mistress. career change 75 © A&C Black Publishers Ltd 2007. 11e 1. 10. 9. 6. 6. 2. sift. gas cylinders. condense. 7. innate. batteries. discern. 2. instances. 8. 6. 8. appendix. perpetual. expert. import. utter waste of time. health clinic. testify. 6. frustrated. inspecting. 7. cater. under the auspices of 10c 1. illuminated. 8. 5. 3. 6. 12. b. 4. launch. 9. 2. 10. fulfil. 13. 11. 10. myth. Rebels 8e 1. 5. give their consent 1. television stations. inferior. circulates. 5. rural areas. i. 4. 3. 8. 10. 8. 4. vital. 3. 9. 10. molecule. e. 11. deliberate. 9. full complement. topic. 6. mental illness. interrelated 10e 1. 3. penal. 3. currency. 3. 5. 5. 2. 7. 9. 9. saturated. violate. 8. provoked. 3. foetus. drugs. sites. 10. utilise. 6. 5. 8. process. assent. 2. high velocity. 5. a. efficient. comprises. catalogue. captured. c. 6. 6. reverberated. 11. angular 3. triangle. gained momentum. 5. leisure 11f 1. 2. 3. a. 9. h. dissipates energy. d. 7. b. 7. 7. wide vocabulary. 7. 7. 4. temporary. channel. huge Unit Ten 10a 1. g. b. converge. 3. enable. 9. exude. 2. inconsistent. g 8d 10d 1. 8. elicit. miracle. e. 3. f. append. For reference see Easier English Dictionary for Students (978 07475 6624 3). pests. i. evoke. novels. theft. 8. 4. 9. 7. 11. recur 10f 1. vague. drained. 6. 4. d. asset. 11. fluid. 5. k.

simply use the alphabetical list below which will give you the exercise listing and item number: assess asset assign assimilate assist assume assure astronomy atmosphere atom attach attain attitude attribute auspices authorise automatic averse aware awe axis 1e 9e 1a 10b 6d 1c 6e 7e 4c 4e 9e 6f 3c 4e 10f 2b 2a 9c 2c 6b 4b 1 4 11 3 5 2 6 6 8 2 10 4 11 4 11 14 6 11 5 11 4 comply component compound comprehend comprise compulsion compute conceive concentrate concept conclude condense conduct confer configuration confine conflict conform confront congress consent consequent conserve consist console constant constitute construct construe consume contact contaminate contemplate contend context continent contingent contract contradict contrary contrast contribute controversy convene converge converse convert co-operate co-ordinate cord corporate correlate correspond create credible creditor crisis criterion critic crucial crystal culture cumbersome currency cycle cylinder 1d 1e 5d 2b 10d 10e 6a 2a 2c 1f 1d 9e 3d 7b 7b 9c 3c 6c 5e 7f 8f 2d 7d 1b 6e 1f 4e 1c 9d 3d 3e 3e 6c 6a 1a 7e 7f 5d 4f 5b 2e 2b 6c 3b 10a 6d 2b 6e 3a 9f 7d 8c 3c 2a 3d 7b 5f 1a 3f 2c 7f 4f 7c 8e 6f 11f 1 7 10 13 6 4 8 3 8 2 12 3 11 10 13 6 1 3 5 12 10 7 3 13 11 3 12 4 3 6 12 11 9 12 3 3 11 2 1 2 2 9 1 7 8 3 12 13 3 6 6 4 4 2 3 9 4 12 9 12 3 4 11 9 3 4 deficient define definite degenerate degrade deliberate democracy demonstrate denote dense deny depress deprive derive design detect detriment deviate devise devote diagram diameter dictate diffuse dimension discern discourse discrete dispense disperse displace dispose dispute dissipate dissolve distinct distort distribute diverge diverse divine doctrine domestic dominate drain drama drastic drug duke duration dynamic 3b 1c 1e 6a 7e 10e 7a 2c 1a 4f 5c 7b 8e 1b 2b 8c 8b 3b 1a 2f 4c 11a 5d 5e 1f 8d 4b 3a 10c 3c 9d 3d 5e 8f 7a 1e 2c 4a 9b 4c 7c 6c 7d 1e 11b 3e 9f 8d 9c 5b 3f 1 5 3 10 11 2 12 11 9 7 4 1 3 10 11 10 8 10 4 10 1 10 7 6 4 7 8 2 6 7 10 1 1 2 8 10 13 2 7 3 3 4 2 2 8 7 2 5 3 10 2 A abandon abnormal absorb abstract academic accelerate access accompany accomplish accumulate accurate achieve acid acquire adapt adequate adhere adjacent adjust administer adolescent adult advocate aesthetic affect affiliate affluence aggregate aggression agitator aid alcohol align allege allocate allude ally alter alternative ambiguity amorphous analogy analyse angular annual anomaly anonymous anthropology apparatus appeal append appendix appraise appreciate approach appropriate approximate arbitrary area aristocracy arouse ascribe aspect assemble assent assert 3b 6b 5b 5f 6a 2b 10f 6c 3d 9b 5c 2a 9a 4b 3c 3d 8b 2c 3e 4a 7a 6e 5d 4c 2d 7a 7c 8a 8c 6d 5a 7d 8c 4d 8e 8d 8b 4d 1c 9d 9c 4a 1f 10b 9d 10c 10c 10a 9c 6b 10b 10b 4b 3e 1e 3b 2e 1a 3d 7a 6a 10d 6c 4a 10d 2f 12 4 1 2 1 5 9 6 7 10 7 8 10 9 12 5 2 7 1 8 2 3 1 4 10 6 7 3 2 10 7 9 7 1 2 9 1 4 3 11 9 3 5 10 1 4 11 2 7 12 7 2 5 13 4 4 5 10 12 11 4 2 2 11 7 7 B battery benefit biology bomb breed bubble bulk bureaucracy 9a 6a 5a 4f 9a 11b 11d 8c 9 9 11 2 6 3 2 9 C calendar cancel capable capture carbon career catalogue category cater cease cell challenge channel chapter chemical circuit circulate circumstance civic clarify classic client clinic code cogent coincide collapse collide colloquial column comment commit commodity commune communicate compel compensate competence complement complex complicate 11c 11c 4c 11e 9a 11f 11b 5b 8d 4d 7a 11a 10b 2e 3d 11f 8e 3e 6c 6d 3f 5e 10f 5c 10c 8b 7a 6e 7f 11e 6e 6b 7a 3b 11b 11b 1e 7d 9f 1c 2c 7 6 6 3 1 10 5 5 3 2 1 4 4 4 2 3 6 4 5 1 6 11 1 8 3 4 3 4 10 8 5 9 5 6 11 6 8 12 4 12 15 E economy edit efficient elaborate electron element elevate elicit eliminate eloquent emancipate embody embrace emerge emotion emphasise empirical enable energy enhance enlighten enrich ensue 3f 5a 9d 4d 5c 1e 10b 10e 4e 10e 10d 4f 10d 10c 4b 2d 2e 11a 4a 10d 5a 10e 2a 12 2 2 3 12 6 9 6 8 1 4 8 3 5 11 2 14 2 4 5 12 8 4 D data debate decade decimal decline dedicate defect defer 1a 11c 2d 11c 6b 4f 11e 7d 14 3 1 11 7 6 7 4 76 .Index Index To find the entry for any word in this workbook.

Index Index entity enumerate environment episode equate equilibrium equipment equivalent err establish estimate ethics evaluate evaporate eventual evident evoke evolve exclude execute exert exhaust expand expel expert explicit exploit exponent export expose external extract exude 2f 9e 1b 10e 1c 2a 11c 1d 5f 1f 3a 7f 1b 9e 4c 1b 9b 8d 3c 5e 3d 9b 2c 5b 11a 3e 3c 10f 11a 2d 2e 6d 8e 13 8 5 9 8 10 4 2 7 6 7 5 6 2 11 1 6 1 3 2 9 2 3 11 11 10 6 4 6 3 1 6 1 G generate geography geometry goal grant graph gravity guarantee 2d 3a 7c 4e 5c 5d 5f 1d 6 4 1 10 3 5 3 7 interval intervene interview intimacy intrinsic invade invest investigate invoke involve irrigate issue 5f 4a 10f 10f 9b 7c 8f 4b 7a 1b 11e 3b 1 12 3 4 9 4 9 3 13 3 6 9 monarch morale motive muscle myth 8c 9f 3e 7a 10b 8 11 8 7 5 N navy negative negotiate nerve network neutral niche norm notion novel nuclear null nutrient 7c 1b 7d 6f 3f 7e 6f 3a 2d 11d 8a 10f 7e 12 4 11 1 11 7 11 1 9 7 6 7 8 H hemisphere heredity hierarchy homogenous horror hostile huge hypothesis 6f 4b 6a 5a 7d 11b 11d 1f 9 7 6 5 8 4 12 12 J job journal judicial justify 5c 11f 4f 4c 2 6 5 10 L label laboratory labour launch league lecture legal legislate legitimate leisure lens liable liberate linguistic litigation locate logic lustre luxury 5e 11c 3f 8d 8e 11e 6e 8f 5f 11e 8a 8a 9b 8c 4d 6e 4e 9a 11a 10 12 1 10 7 1 1 5 5 10 1 2 5 1 11 9 9 4 9 I identical identify ignore illuminate illustrate image impact imperial implement imply import impose impress impulse incentive incessant incident incline income inconsistent incorporate index indicate indigenous individual induce infer inferior inflation ingenious inherent inhibit initial innate innovative insist inspect instance instinct institute instruct integer integrate intense interact interlock interlude intermediate internal interpret interrelate intersect 6f 1c 1a 9a 1c 3e 1a 8f 5b 1d 11a 5f 4a 11c 7d 7b 4c 6d 6e 10d 5c 8b 1e 9c 2e 4d 2b 11b 10f 10c 11e 2f 1f 9d 2a 5d 11d 11d 6a 5f 5e 9a 4e 2c 6b 6a 6f 7f 4e 1c 10d 5f 6 13 13 7 1 6 6 7 8 9 1 9 1 10 5 7 7 4 8 1 1 7 11 2 13 9 4 10 2 10 4 11 8 4 5 11 5 1 11 10 9 3 11 4 2 5 10 7 7 7 11 8 O objective oblige obsolete obtain obvious occupy occur odd odour option orbit orientate oscillate outcome overlap oxygen 5b 6b 7b 2e 1d 3d 2b 9e 7b 10c 9d 3e 8c 10d 5a 8a 6 6 2 10 5 8 1 7 3 8 7 9 11 8 10 9 F facilitate faction factor fallacy fare fate feasible feature federal fertile final finance finite fleet fluctuate fluent fluid focus foetus formulate fort fossil fraction fragment fraternal fraud friction frontier frustrate fuel fulfil function fund fundamental fuse 1c 9c 3b 8b 11f 11b 2f 3f 9f 6e 3f 7e 8b 8c 2b 10c 11d 2b 10a 1a 9c 10f 7d 4d 8a 5e 7a 9f 8e 11c 11d 2c 9b 11a 7c 6 4 11 9 9 1 5 10 1 10 5 1 11 3 8 2 3 10 9 2 10 10 7 5 7 12 4 5 5 2 8 6 1 13 2 M magic magnetic magnitude maintain major manifest manipulate margin material maternal mathematics matrix maturity maximum medium mental metabolism metaphor method microscope migrate military minimum minor miracle mistress mobile modify moist molecule momentum 8e 2e 1c 3c 2b 3d 2a 9c 9d 10f 2a 9a 2c 3e 6b 11f 6a 8b 1d 6f 7b 4f 1f 6c 9e 9b 4f 1b 11c 9a 9f 9 11 11 10 6 10 1 1 6 5 7 11 9 3 3 7 2 3 8 8 12 10 14 7 5 3 9 8 8 5 8 P parenthesis parliament participate partisan passive peasant penal pendulum period perpendicular perpetrate perpetual persist perspective pertinent pervade pest phase phenomenon philosophy physical planet plead plot pole policy pollution pope portion positive postulate potential 5c 7c 6b 8e 2b 7d 9b 8a 2a 4a 5f 10e 4c 2c 2d 8b 11a 2e 2f 4d 3f 6c 7f 3b 3a 7b 11a 9c 2b 3f 8a 1e 5 10 5 11 2 13 4 4 9 5 11 5 12 14 12 5 7 8 1 6 3 8 4 2 10 11 12 8 7 8 11 5 77 .

Index Index pragmatic precede precipitate precise predict preliminary premise preposition prestige presume prevail previous prime prince principle proceed process proclaim procure prohibit project propagate propensity proportion proprietor prosper protest province provoke prudence psychology publish purport pursue 7b 2a 7f 2f 2d 5d 8f 3a 3f 1d 7c 3f 1e 9a 2e 1d 11b 8d 10b 10b 4e 6d 6d 4f 3b 6e 6b 10a 8e 7d 4b 1b 10c 1b 6 13 1 9 11 3 8 6 4 6 9 7 13 2 9 11 2 2 1 6 6 2 9 3 5 7 1 8 4 10 2 2 9 12 render repress reproduce repudiate require research reservoir resident residue resource respective respond restore restrict retain retard reveal reverberate reverse revise revive revolt revolve rhythm rigid rigour role rotate route rudimentary rural 10a 10a 8a 7a 1d 4e 4d 10e 9d 11c 2b 5b 5e 1b 5c 5d 3e 9d 1f 6e 7c 4e 11d 7d 8c 10c 1f 3c 11e 5e 9f 1 7 10 9 4 5 10 10 9 5 3 4 3 9 9 9 5 8 13 2 5 3 9 1 5 7 9 9 9 8 3 spatial species specify spectrum speculate sphere spontaneous stable starve station stationary statistics status stereotype stimulate stipulate strata stress structure style subdivide subjective subordinate subsequent subside subtle sum summary superficial superimpose superior supplement suppress supreme surplus survey suspend sustain switch symbol symptom synthetic 8c 2f 1d 7f 4a 4b 4a 2a 11a 11f 9a 2c 1f 7e 5b 4c 6a 5a 2d 5c 9c 6c 8a 1e 4d 5d 1d 1a 3e 4e 5e 5e 5b 8a 10a 11c 9d 6d 11d 4b 5a 5c 6 6 3 8 6 1 10 15 5 8 8 10 11 5 7 5 3 6 4 10 5 11 8 9 8 8 10 8 2 1 7 4 9 5 6 1 5 7 6 6 8 11 thermal tiny tissue tolerate tone topic torture tractor tradition trait transact transfer transform transition transmit transparent transport treaty trend triangle trivial tropical 7f 5d 7e 10c 6b 11d 9b 11a 2a 5a 7e 5d 5b 3b 2f 11e 11f 8f 8b 10a 5a 11f 2 4 4 1 8 4 8 3 11 9 9 6 12 3 12 2 5 3 10 3 4 2 U ultimate undergo underlie undertake unduly uniform upsurge urban usage utilise utter 1f 2d 3a 11c 9e 6c 4d 6d 1a 8d 8f 10 13 8 9 9 10 7 8 7 6 6 S saint sanction satellite saturate schedule scheme score section secure seek segment select sequence series sex shift shrink sibling sift signify similar simultaneous site skeleton sketch sociology solar sophisticated source 7a 6f 3b 10d 7e 3a 7b 2a 5b 3c 2e 2d 2f 2a 8f 2c 11d 7f 10a 2d 1a 2e 11b 10e 7c 7c 8f 2f 3a 10 2 8 9 10 11 8 14 3 8 12 14 3 12 1 2 11 6 5 5 1 3 9 3 8 6 4 2 5 Q quote 10a 10 R radical radius random range ratio rational react rebel rectangle recur reform refute region reign reinforce reject release relevance reluctant rely remove 6a 5f 1c 1b 11e 3a 2f 8d 7e 10e 7e 7b 1e 6c 6c 4a 4c 3c 8b 3d 10e 7 6 10 7 9 9 4 11 12 11 2 4 12 13 12 9 9 2 6 4 7 V vague valid vary vast velocity verbal verify version vertical vibrate violate virtual vision vital vocabulary volume voluntary 10d 1f 1b 5c 9f 2f 2e 5a 1a 9e 9e 6f 3c 11d 9f 6e 9f 10 1 11 6 10 8 7 3 5 6 1 7 5 10 9 12 7 T tangent tangible tape task technique technology temporary tense tentative terminology territory terror testify text texture theft theorem theory 6f 10f 11f 3a 1c 2e 11a 1f 4b 6b 8d 7f 8d 4a 7b 11b 4c 2c 5 8 1 12 9 6 8 7 10 10 8 9 4 7 5 7 2 1 X x-ray 5a 1 78 .

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