Section 3: Mathematics 3.1 Measurement Systems The International System of Units (SI) The Metric System U.S. - Metric Conversion Length Weight Volume Mathematical Constants Mathematical Symbols Squares, Square Roots, Cubes, Cube Roots of Numbers Diameter, Circumference and Area of a Circle Geometric Formulas Triangle Square Rectangle Parallelogram Trapezoid Regular Pentagon Regular Hexagon Regular Octagon Circle Ellipse Sphere Cube Rectangular Solid Cone Cylinder Trigonometric Functions Powers of Ten

45 47 47 48 48 48 48 49 50 51 52 55 58 58 58 58 58 58 59 59 59 59 59 60 60 60 60 60 61 65

3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6

3.7 3.8 3.9

Number Systems 68 Binary Equivalent of Decimal 68 Octal Equivalent of Decimal 68 Binary Equivalent of Octal 68 Hexadecimal Number System 68 Binary Coded Decimal Equivalent of Decimal 69 The Gray Code 69 American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) ... 69 Special Control Functions Used in ASCII: 71

vi

Section 4: Aircraft Drawings 4.1 Types of Aircraft Drawings Sketches Detail Drawings Assembly Drawings Installation Drawings Sectional Drawings Cutaway Drawing Exploded-View Drawing Schematic Diagram Block Diagram Repair Drawings Wiring Diagrams Pictorial Diagrams Orthographic Projections Meaning of Lines Material Symbols Location Identification Fuselage Stations Water Lines Butt Lines Wing and Horizontal Stabilizer Stations

73 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 75 76 76 76 76 76 76 77 78 79 79 79 79 79

4.2 4.3 4.4

Section 5: Aircraft Electrical Systems 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 Electrical Symbols Alternating Current Terms and Values Ohm's Law Relationships Electrical Formulas Formulas Involving Resistance Formulas Involving Capacitance Formulas Involving Inductance Formulas Involving Both Capacitance and Inductance Resonant Frequency Total Reactance Impedance

81 83 91 92 94 94 95 97 100 100 100 100

5.5

Electrical System Installation Selection of Wire Size Notes on Wire Installation Switch Derating Factors Wire and Circuit Protectors MS Electrical Connectors Resistor Color Code Aircraft Storage Batteries Lead-Acid Batteries Nickel-Cadmium Batteries

101 101 106 108 109 110 114 116 116 117

Section 6: Aircraft Materials 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 Composition of Wrought Aluminum Alloys Four-Digit Designation System for Wrought Aluminum Alloys Mechanical Properties of Aluminum Alloys Temper Designations for Aluminum Alloys Heat-Treatable Alloys Non-Heat-Treatable Alloys 6.5 6.6 6.7 Temperatures for Heat Treatment of Aluminum Alloys Bearing Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum Alloy Sheet

119 121 122 123 124 124 124 125 126

Shear Strength of Aluminum Alloy Rivets 127 Single-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets ... 127 Double-Shear Strength (in pounds) of Aluminum-Alloy Rivets .. 127 SAE Classification of Steel Strength of Steel Related to its Hardness Color of Steel for Various Temperatures Color of Oxides on Steel at Various Tempering Temperatures 128 129 130 131

6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11

Section 7: Tools for Aircraft Maintenance 7.1 Measuring and Layout Tools Steel Rule Hook Rule Combination Set Vernier Calipers Dividers Outside Calipers Inside Calipers Hermaphrodite Calipers Scriber

133 135 135 135 135 136 136 136 136 136 136

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How to Read the Vernier Scale Micrometer Caliper Dial Indicator Feeler Gages Small-Hole Gages Telescoping Gages 7.2 Holding Tools Vises Bench Vise Drill Press Vise Pliers Combination/Slip Joint Pliers Water Pump Pliers Vise-Grip® Pliers Needle-Nose Pliers Safety Wiring Tools Diagonal Cutting Pliers Duckbill Pliers Safety Wire Twisting Tool Bending and Forming Tools Tools for Making Straight Bends and Curves Cornice Brake Box Brake Press Brake Slip Roll Former Forming Compound Curves in Sheet Metal English Wheel Cutting Tools Shears Throatless Shears Squaring Shears Scroll Shears Hand Shears Tin Snips Compound Shears Saws Band Saw Hacksaw W o o d Saws Crosscut Saw Ripsaw Compass, or Keyhole Saw Backsaw

137 138 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 141 141 141 142 142 142 143 143 143 143 144 144 144 144 144 145 145 145 145 145 145 146 146 146 146 147 147 147 148 148 148 148 148 149

7.3

7.4

7.5

ix

7 7.9 .8 7. or Planishing Hammer Mallets and Soft-Face Hammers Sledge Hammers 149 149 149 149 149 150 151 151 151 154 154 155 156 156 156 156 157 157 157 158 158 158 158 159 159 159 160 160 161 162 162 162 164 164 166 166 166 166 166 166 167 167 7.Chisels Flat Chisel Cape Chisel Diamond Point Chisel Round Nose Chisel Files 7.6 Hole Cutting Tools Twist Drills Twist Drill Sizes Drill Gage Twist Drill Sharpening Drill Point Gage Large Hole Cutters Hole Saws Fly Cutter Countersink Reamers Drills for Wood and Composite Materials Auger Bits Forstner Bits Flat Wood-Boring Bits Brad-Point Drills Spade Drill Threads and Threading Tools Unified and American Standard Thread Form Thread-Cutting Tools Body and Tap Drill Sizes Taps Screw Pitch Gage Torque and Torque Wrenches Click-Type Torque Wrench Deflecting-Beam Torque Wrench Torque Conversions Recommended Torque Values Pounding Tools Carpenter's Claw Hammer Ball Peen Hammer Metalworking Hammers Straight Peen and Cross Peen Hammers Body.

.

Screws Aircraft Screw Heads Set Screws Self-Tapping Sheet-Metal Screws Nuts Nonlocking Nuts Self-Locking Nuts Low-temperature locking nuts High-temperature locking nuts Wing Nuts Anchor Nuts Channel Nuts Pressed-Steel Nuts Instrument Nuts Rivnuts Threaded Fastener Safetying Locking Washers Cotter Pins Safety Wire and Safety Wire Twisting 8.1 Sheet Metal Layout and Forming Definitions Layout Procedure Example Forming Minimum Bend Radii for 90° Bends in Aluminum Alloys 205 207 207 208 208 210 211 9. Huck Rivets High-Strength Pin Rivets Hi-Shear Rivet Hi-Lok Fasteners Hi-Tigue Fasteners Cowling Fasteners Thread Repair Hardware Helicoil Insert Acres Sleeves 181 182 183 183 184 184 185 185 186 186 186 187 187 188 188 189 189 189 190 193 195 195 196 197 198 198 198 200 201 202 203 203 204 8.5 8.2 xii . Olympic-Lok Rivets.4 Washers Special Rivets Blind Rivets Friction-Lock Rivets Mechanical-Lock Rivets CherryMax Rivets.3 8.6 Section 9: Metal Aircraft Fabrication 9.

.

.

.7 17..6 17.3 17.4 Installation of Flexible Hose Fluid Line Identification 273 274 Section 15: Oxygen System Servicing 15.6 Locating the Center of Gravity Datum Forward of the A i r p l a n e — N o s e Wheel Landing Gear Datum Aft of the Main Wheels — Nose Wheel Landing Gear 281 283 284 285 Datum Forward of the Main W h e e l s — T a i l Wheel Landing Gear.2 16.4 17.8 17.850 PSI Oxygen Cylinders 277 279 279 Section 16: Aircraft Weight and Balance 16.5 17. 1 1 Core Materials 1 7 .3 16.3 14. 1 0 Damage R e m o v a l — S c a r f i n g and Stepping 1 7 .1 17.9 Resin S y s t e m s — T y p i c a l Properties Resin Mix Ratios Fiber/Resin Ratio Formulas Reinforcing Fibers Textile and Fiber Terminology Yarn Part Numbering Systems Fabric Weave Styles Common Weave Style Numbers and Features Ply Orientation Conventions 291 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 301 302 302 304 305 1 7 ..1 16.1 Oxygen System Servicing Filling Pressure for 1. 1 2 Bleeder Schedules . 288 Section 17: Composites 17..2 17.14. 286 Datum Aft of the Main Wheels — T a i l Wheel Landing Gear 287 Location of CG with Respect to the Mean Aerodynamic Chord .4 16.5 16..

Appendices 1: Hydraulic Fittings 2: Engines 3: Aircraft Lead Acid Battery Theory 4: Aircraft Tires 307 309 313 315 335 Index 347 \ xvi .

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