ARCHITECTUR.

AL
UTILITIES 2
ELECTRICAL &
MECHANICAL
EOUIPMENTS
• THE NEW· LADDER
TYPE CURRICULUM
REVISED EDITlON
GEORGE SALINDA SALVAN ... fuap
• ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
College of Engineering and Architecture
Baguio Colleges Foundation 1980-1988
• First and lone graduate of B.S. Architecture, 1963
North of Manila, St. Louis University Baguio City
• Former instructor 1965-1969 at St. Louis University
• Recipient of various ACE certificates, Architects Continuing
Education Program
• A l icensed Architect, active practitioner and
a licensed building constructor, inyentor and a board topnotcher.
• Past president of United Architects Phils. Baguio Chapter 1982 and 1983
• Elected National Director; UAP, Regional District I for the year 1987.
• Conferred the title of "FELLOW" United Architects Phils.
College of Fellows, October, 1988
. JMC PRESS, INC.
388 Quezon Avenue, Quezon City
PhHippine Copyright 1999 by:
JMC PRESS, INC.
and
GEORGE S. SALVAN
All rights reserved.
No part of this book may be reproduced in any
manner without permission of the publisher.
REVISED EDITION
ISBN: 971-11-0997-2
Published and Printed by:
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Dedicated to all future
Architects and Engineers
The hope for a functional, comfortable
and convenient designs for better living.
. . '
ACKNOWLEDGM·ENTS
The completion of this book was made into reality through the patient and efforts of the
artist and graduate of architecture, Mr. Johnny Tino Camsol.
Special thanks are also acknowledge to the following artist who contributed in making draw-
ings notably, Roy Pagador, Albert Martin, who help in the cover design, Fermin Balangcod,
Jerry Jun Suyat; Geoffrey Behis, Charles Alanqui and Clamor Lecitona, all from the GSS
Construction and Trading Enterprises.
To the ones who lent unselfishly their Books, like Dean Aveline Cruz of the Baguio Colleges
Foundation Engineering Department and Miss Macabiog, a Librarian of the same school.
To Mr. Luis V. Canave who guided me on the complete process of publishing and printing
books and to Mr. Francisco C. Malicsi, Teresita G. Espinoza, Eduardo C. Villanueva and
Paraides G. Aragones for their untiring cooperation in preparing the manuscripts typewritten
by Miss Thelma T. Villareal in computerized typesetting.
To the many students of Architecture whose curiosity about and interest in Electrical and
Mechanical Equipment and its realization in book form have been a source of inspiration.
And lastly the author wants to acknowledge his heavy indebtedness to the various authors
listed in the bibliography.
v
PREFACE
Since the curriculum for B.S. Architecture was revised, there is a need for a more
comprehensive study of the subject in Electrical and Mechanical equipments.
The Architect is the prime professional and author of the building aesign with which a
project will be constructed, he functions as the creator and coordinator of the different
aspects involved in the planning and as such, Architects has to be knowledgeable in a
summer of fields in addition to those that are concerned mainly with the building design for
him to properly assist and serve his client. After the design is approved, the complete con-
struction drawings and specifications are prepared. It is here where the specifications and
detailed construction drawings setting forth in detail the work required for Electrical and
Mechanical equipments and other service-connected equipments is done.
This book is intended as a practical guide to good electrical and mechanical designing in
architecture. It is written primarily for architects, engineers, and students of architecture,
electrical engineering and civil engineering, and all others who wish a non-mathematical but
comprehensive treatise on this subject. Useful design data have been presented in such a
manner that the text can serve as a convenient handbook in the solution of most problems
encountered in Architecture & Electrical/Mechanical equipments. A strong trend in modern
architectural treatment is the casual acceptance of equipment as a design element, together
with aesthetics, function, and structure. For example, the inclination to hide equipment
behind furring is diminishing.
The book is divided into three parts. It is arranged in a sequential manner so as to guide the
reader from the energy and environment to the indoor climate control which is discussed
lengthily here, the author features the solar energy and fireplace designs which is fast
becoming a part of modern design.
The second part deals with electricity and starts from the principles to the systems and
wiring materials to the service and utilization. When the reader has a background of these
subject matter then he is new ready for the wiring design of the whole system.
The third part deals on Signal equipment and the vertical transportation which comprises the
elevator and escalators. On the Appendix is included some highlights of acoustics and
lighting which is to be discussed more in detail in a future book the author is preparing.
Each subject matter is accompanied immediately with the corresponding illustrations for
clarity and the excerpts from the electrical code is also included.
vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Chapter 1
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY ................................................ 1
Electric Energy, 2
Unit of Electric Current; The Ampere, 2
Unit of Electric Potential; The Volt, 3
Unit of Electric Resistance; The Ohm, 3
Ohm's Law, 4
Circuit Arrangements, 4
..
Direct Current and Alternating Current (d-e and a-c}, 9
Electric Power Generation, 10
Power and Energy, 11
Power and Electric Circuits, 11
Energy and Electric Circuits, 12
Electric Load Control, 13
Electrical Measurements, 19
Chapter 2
ELECTRICAL SYSTEM AND MATERIALS: WIRING .............. 21
System Components, 22
National Electric Code, 24
Economics of Material Selection, 41
Energy Consideration, 41
Electrical Equipment Rating
Interior Wiring System, 42
Conductors, 43
Conductor Ampacity, 44
Conductor Insulation and Jackets, 44
Copper and Aluminum Conductors, 47
Flexible Metal Clad Cable, 47
Conductors for General Wiring, 48
Non Metallic Sheated Cable, 48
Special Cable Types, 49
Busway, 50
Cable Bus, 52
Flat Cable Assemblies, 53
Cable Tray, 56
Closed Raceways, 56
Floor Raceways, 63
Ceiling Raceway System, 70
Prewired Ceiling Distribution System, 72
Boxes and Cabinets, 72
Chapter 3 ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND MATERIALS SERVICE &
UTILIZATION ........................................................................... 75
Electric Service, 75
Overhead Service, 76
Underground Service, 76
Underground Wiring, 78
Service Equipment; 79
Transformers, 79
Service Equipment· Arrangements and Metering, 82
ix
Chapter 4
Service Switch, 83
Switches, 84
Contactors, 96
Special Switches, 96
Circuit Protective Device, 96
Switchboards and Switchgear, 96
Unit Substation, 102
Panelboards, 105
Electric Motors, 110
Motor Control, 111
Receptacles, 112
Switch Device, 113
Outlet and Device Boxes, 115
Lighting Protection System, ·116
Emergency/Standby Power Equipment, 120
ELECTRIC WIRING DESIGN
General Consideration, 124
Load Estimating, 125
System Voltage, 129
Grounding and Ground Fault Protection, 134
Design Procedure, 136
Electric Spaces, 137
Electric Closets, 140
Equipment Layout, 141
Application of Overcurrent Equipment, 142
Branch Circuit Design, 144
Alternative Wiring Techniques, 146
Branch Circuit Design, 148
Guidelines
Residential
Load Tabulation, 161
Panel Load Calculation, 163
Riser Diagrams, 170
Service Equipment and Switchboard Design, 171
Emergency System, 171
123
Chapter 5 HEATING, VENTILATING, AIR CONDITIONING ..................... 181
X
Metaboli sm, 182
Thermal Equilibrium and Comfort, 182
Regulation of the Thermal Environment, 183
Criteria for Thermal Comfort, 186.
Indoor Humidity in Winter, 185
Coping with Special Conditions, 186
The Recycling of Air, 187
Heat Loss Thermal Value of Walls and Roofs, 189
Importance of Heat Conservation, 190
Nature of Heat Flow, 192
Heat Flow Through Homogenous Solids, 192
Air Spaces, 197
Effect of Air Motion, 198
Transmission Through Building Units, 198
Residential Heat Gain, 199
Non Residential Heat Gain Calculations, 201
Reflective Insulating Glass. 202
Solar Energy and Energy Conservation, 203
Chapter 6
Heating Cooling Ventilation, 216
Energy Requirements, 218
Combustion, Chimneys and Fuel Storage, 218
Warm Air Heating, 220
Resourcefulness in the Design of Warm Air System, 226
Hot Water and Steam Boilders, 229
Hot Water Heating System, 232
Circulating Pump, 237
Fireplaces, 238
Hydronic Heating Design and Zoning, 250
Refrigerated Cooling for House, 254
Central Station Air Conditioning, 256
Psychrometry, 262
The Heat Pump, 265
The Induction Method, 267
Incremental Heating Cooling Units, 268
Dual Duct High Velocity Systems, 270
Ventilation, 273
SIGNAL SYSTEM
Private Residential System, 278
Residential Fire Alarm Systems, 280
Residential Intrusion Alarm Systems, 285
Residential Television Antenna Systems, 286
Residential Intercom and Sound System, 286
Residential Telephone System, 287
Non Coded Manual Stations, 290
Coded Manual Stations, 291
Sprinkler Alarms, 291
Fire Protection, 292
Non Coded Systems, 294
Master Coded Systems, 295
Zone Coded Systems, 296
Dual Coded Systems, 297
Selective Coded Systems, 297
Office Building Private Telephone and Intercom Systems, 299
Industrial Building Security Systems, 301
Industrial Building Paging System, 305
Industrial Building Fire Alarm Systems, 305
278
Chapter 7 TRANSPORTATION , .. ......... ...... .... .. .... .... ... ... .... ... ....... .. ...... ... 308
Passenger Elevator, 308
Elevator Equipment, 308
Gearless Traction Machines, 311
Geared Traction Machines, 311
Arrangement of Elevator Machines,
Sheaves and ropes, 312
Safety Devices, 314
Elevator Doors, 315
Cabs and Signals, 318
Elevator Selection, 319
Single Zone System, 334
The Physical Properties and Spatial,
XI
Requirements of Elevators, 335
Special Elevators, 345
Freight Elevators, 359
Material-Handling Equipment, 355
Moving Stairways and Walks, 359
Location. 360
Parallel and Crisscross Arrangements, 361
Size Capacity and Speed, 363
Components, 364
Standard Versus Modular Designs, 366
Safety Features, 369
Fire Protection, 370
Application, 373
Moving Walks and Ramps, 375
APPENDICES ..................... ..................... ................... .. .... .. .......... .
xii
Acoustics
Lighting
chapter PRINCIPLES OF
ELECTRICITY
PRINCIPLES OF ELECTRICITY
2
1. ELECTRICITY ENERGY
In terms of natural resources electricity is an expensive fonn of energy. since the efficiency of
heat-to-electricity conversion, on a commercial scale, rarely exceeds 40%. Electricity con-
stitutes a form of energy itsetf which occurs naturally only in unusable forms such as lightn-
ing and other static discharges or in the natural galvanic cells, which cause corrosion. The
primary problem in the utilization of electric energy is that, unlike fuels or even heat, it can-
not be stored and therefore must be generated and utilized at the same instanf.
The bulk of electric energy utilized today is in the form of alternating current (a-c), produc-
ed by a-c generators, commonly called alternators. Direct-current (d-el generators are
utilized for special applications requiring large quantities of d-e. In the building field such a
requirement is found in elevator work. Smaller quantities of d-e, furnished either by batteries
or by rectifiers are utilized for telephone and signal equipment, controls, and other specializ-
ed usas.
2. UNIT OF ELECTRIC CURRENT
THE ''AMPERE"
When electricity flows in a conductor, a certain number of electron$ pass a given point in the
conductor in 1 second. Numerically, an ampere of current flows in a conductor when 6.25 x
1018 electrons pass a given cross section in 1 second. Current or amperage, is abbreviated
Amp, Amps or a. (on 120 volt service, the ordinary 100 Watt lamp filament carries about
0.833 amp, the motor for a desk calculator. about 1.00 amp.} Current is represented in equa-
tions by 1.
Battery
Produces
Voltage "V''
Pump produces
Pressure " P"
T
CURReNT
cf:o-------.J
Switch
ELECTRIC-HYDRAULIC ANALOGY
RESISTANCE
..,R..,.
FRICTION
'F ..
It is convenient to establish an analogy between electric systems and mechani_cal systems as
an aid to comprehension. Current, or amperage, is a measure of flow and, and such, would
correspond to water flow in a hydraulic system. The correspondence is not complete,
however, since in the hydraulic system the velocity of water flow varies, whereas in the elec-
tric system the velocity of propagation is constant and f!18Y be considered instantaneous;
hence, the need to utilize the electric energy the instant it is produced.
3. UNIT OF ELECTRIC POTENTIAL
THE "VOLT" OR "V"
The electron movement and its concomittant energy, which constitutes electricity, is caused
by creating a higher positive electric charge at one point on a conductor than exists at
another point on that same conductor. This difference in charge can be created in a number
of ways. The oldest and simplest method is by electrochemical action, as in the battery. In
the ordinary dry cell, or in a storage battery, chemical action causes positive charges {+}to
collect on the positive terminal and electrons or negative charges (-J to collect on the
negative terminals. There is a definite force attraction, or tendency to flow, between the
electrified particles concentrated at the positive and negative terminals. Potential dif-
ference or Voltage is the name given to this electromotive force {emf}. This force is
analogous to pressure in a hydraulic or pneumatic system. Just as the pressure produced by
a pump or blower causes water or air to flow in a connecting pipe, so too the potential (emf,
voltage) produced by a battery (or generator) causes current to flow when the terminals bet-
ween which a voltage exists are connected by a conductor.
The higher the voltage (pressure}, the higher the current Wow) for a given resistance (fric-
tion).
LOAD
R
TERMINAI..S
+
BATTERY
4. UNIT OF ELECTRIC RESISTANCE:
THE OHM
SWITCH
By convention current is assisted to
flow from positive I + } to negative
{ -).
The flow of fluid in a hydraulic system is impeded by friction; the flow of current in an elec-
tric circuit is impeded {resisted) by resistance, which is the electrical term for friction. In a
direct-current circuit (d-el this unit is called resistance and is abbreviated R; in an alternating-
current circuit (a-c) it is called impedance and is abbreviated Z. The unit of measurement is
called the ohm.
Materials display different resistance to the flow of electric current. Metals generally have
the least resistance and are therefore called conductors. The best conductors are the
3
4
precious metals-silver, gold, and platinum-with coppet and aluminum only slightly in-
ferior. Conversely, materials that resist the flow of current are called insulators. Glass,
mica, rubber, oil, distilled water, porcelain, and certain synthetics such as phenolic com-
pounds exhibit this insulating property and are therefore used to insulate electric conduc-
tors. Common examples are .rubber and plastic wire coverings, porcelain lamp sockets, and
oil-immersed switches.
INSULATOR
5. OHM'S LAW
The current I that will flow in a d-e circuit is directly proportional to the voltage V and in-
versely proportional to the resistance R of the ci rcuit. Expressed as an equation, we have the
basic form of Ohm's law that
v
I = -R-
that is, a current 1 is produced that is proportional to the electric pressure V and inversely
proportional to the electric friction R.
Examples:
1) An incandescent lamp having a hot resistance of 66 ohms is put into a socket that is con-
nected to a 115 V supply. What current flows through the lamp?
I = .::!__ I = .!..!.? = 1. 74 amperes
R 66
(these figures correspond to a normal 200 W lamp)
2) A bathroom heater draws 11 amperes at 120 V what is its hot resistance?
R = "i =
120
·= 10.91 ohms
I 11
(these figures correspond to a 1320 W portable heater}
3) A household electri c water heater is rated 220 V and 20 amperes. What is the unit's
resistance when drawing this amount of current?
R = Y. 8 =
220
= 11 Ohms
I 20
6. CIRCUIT ARRANGEMENTS
a) Series Circuits
The elements are connected one· after the other in series. Thus, the resistance and
voltages add.
- ...... lo --......c\o o*-1 'f-
+ + +
S VOLTS 9VOLTS
10 OHMS 15 OHMS
-< =]30-==

TO.TAL 27VOLTS
\S
TOT'AL.. 25 OHMS
An electric circuit may be defined as a complete conducting path that carries current
from a source of electricity to and through some electrical device (or load} and back to
the source. A current can never flow unless there is a complete (closed) circuit.
6 VOLT l..Z Of.fM
HEADLIGHT
VOLT l2. OHM
HEADL&<SHT
GRAPHIC
PliYSICAl.
In any series circuit, the total Resistance R is the sum of the resistance around the circuit.
Thus,
Total Resistance, R = rab +· rbc + red + r<Ja
hence the tot al circuit is
:
- r,ab:O.O/
a
rd..!t = 0.02
0.01 to 0;02 = 0.02 = 1.20 ohms
battery
120 volt
0 . 02.
IO<!Id 1.15
o.oz.
5
6

+
The battery voltage may be called Vab = 120v
The voltage across the load resistance, V cd = 115v
The resistance of the two wires rbc = rda = 0.04 ohm.
Example:
The battery in the above figure is rated at 120v. the line resistance {both wires) is 0.04
ohm, and the load resistance is 1.15 ohms. Determine the (a) current flowing in the cir-
cuit, lbl the voltage across the load IVcdl·
a) the current flowing is:
I = y_ = Vab
R rab t roc T red -r rda
120
100 amp.
..
b) The voltage drop across the load is
V cd = I X Red = 100 x 1. 15 = 115v
A practical application of series circuits is found in an incandescent lamp street lighting
circuits. The figure below explains that loss of one lamp can disable the entire circuit.
Futhermore, the point of fault is difficult to pinpoint, necessitating individual testing of
lamps.
LA\IIP
"IJ' a
.. ]
0 At; ClR DC.
SOURCE
t •
SIN6t.E wnze u:>oP
Q Q Q

€J
IN A <:::HRISTMA$ LIGHT

IF ONE l-lte;.HT IS OUT rHE WHOLE
CU1'CLJir <::AN NOT WORK.
bl Paraltel Circuits
When two or more branches or loads in a circuit are connected between the same two
points, they are said to be connected in parallel or multiple. Such an arrangement and
its hydraulic equivalent are shown below.
!!I'Oamps zoa
I
l
equals
---7
"'
3oa
aoa
30amps
20.a 1oa.
>
(-
10.25
ANALOGOUS TO:
ltDgpm

10 gptn
120 volt
source
From the circuit shown below, it should be apparent that multiple loads are across the
same voltage and, in effect, constitute separate circuits. From this we conclude that in
the circuit is the sum of the individual currents flowing in the branches that is,
IT = J, + Iz +I,
= 12 + 1 t 10 = Z3 amp
to
ohm

12 a "'"""'}
I,
1
12amp
IO.Q
L
12.
ohm

r
TOTAL.. 23 .amp
23-12= u.amp
11. j = roamp
IO.!mp
roa
IZO
volts

LJJ
120
volts
14

L:dr.

111
Loads connected in parallel are equivalent to separate circuits superimposed into a single
connection. Each load acts as an independent circuit unrelated to, and unaffected by the
other circuitS. Notice that the total current flowing in the circuit is the sum of all the
branches, but that the current in each branch is the result of a separate Ohm's Law
calculation. Thus in the 10-ohm load a 12·amp current flows and so forth.
I= :: IZ. amps Branc:h 1
I :. .1.Z.Q. = l amps Bran'h 2.
IZO
l::IZO .:!Damps Br.and'l 3
IZ
Z3 amps tr>lal corrent.
7
A
The parallel connection is the standard arrangement in all building wiring. A typical
lighting and receptacie arrangement for a large room is shown below.
SWITCH .... .
PICTORIAL
TO HOUSE
P A N E L ~ - - - ~
UGHTS
8
ro amp
SCHEMATIC
ARCHITECTURAL
PLAN
Here the lights constitute one parallel grouping, .and the convenience wall outlets con·
stitute a second parallel grouping. The fundamental principle to remember is that loads in
parallel are additive for current, and that each has the same voltage imposed.
Re!SISTAHCE
Current is inversely proportional to resist-
ance. Thus as resistance drops, current
rises under ordinary conditions that ci rcuit
will carry 10 amp. and will operate normally.
But. if by some mischance, a connection ap·
pears between points a and b, the circuit is
shortened so that there is no resistance in
the circuit. The current rises instantly to a
very high level, and the condition constitutes
a short circuit. If the circuit is properly pro-
tected, the fuse or circuit breaker will open,
and the circuit will be disabled, If not, exce·
ssive current will probably start a fire.
7. DIRECT CURRENT AND ALTERNATING CURRENT
Id-e) and (a-cl
Direct current - whenever the flow of electric current takes place at a constant time rate,
practically unvarying and in the same direction around the circuit. The terms universally ac-
cepted are "d-e voltage" or "d-e current". The d-e voltages of 1.5v positive polarity, and
1.0v negati ve polarity is shown below,
tl-5
+1.o
+05


0 ) 1.0 .__......, ___ ;;;;;;;;;;; _______ _
I.S
a) GRAPHIC representation of d-e voltages with positive and negative polarity
Current Flow
Positive Polarity
Current Flow
Negative Polarity
b) CIRCUIT SYMBOL representati on of BATTERY SOURCE
Alternating Current -whenever the flow of current is periodically varying in time and in
direction, as indicated by the symmetrical positive and negative loops or sine waves as in the
fi gure 2, it is called an alternating current.
10
I
I
S
I I
. :::::::::=:::!=[\ =====:-
c) alternating current
d) fully rectified
e) half-rectified a-c
f) Fully-rectified and filtered a-c ap-
proaches the wave form of true d-<:
as shown in fig. (a) above.
9
10
The distance along the time axis spanned by a positive and negative a-c loop is called one cy-
cle of time. Modern a-c systems in the United States operates at 60 per second, or 60
hertz. This means that current at 60 hertz'(Hz} is delivered to the consumer. In a-c, instead of
resistance, the corresponding parameter in an a-c circuit is impedance, which is also
measured in ohms. Thus for an a-c circuit, the equivalent to Ohm's Law is
I = Y.. where z is the symbol normally used for impedance
z
8. ELECTRIC POWER GENERATION
a) Direct Current -Since the d-e generator is in reality an a-c generator witA a device
(commutator), attached, which rectifies the a-cto d-e, the battery is still the only major
direct source of direct current. The d-e generators are used where accurate speed control
is de#iired, for example, for elevators, or where d-e is required on a larger and more sus-
tained basis than would be economical for batteries. Of course, a rotating d-e generator
unlike a battery, must be driven to produce power. The prime mover can be a motor,
engine, turbine, or any other device that will provide the required input power.
Another source of d-e power is rectification of a-c that can be accomplished on any
desired scale to provide as much d-e power as there is available a-c power. Various types
of rectifiers are in commercial use, including selenium, silicon and copper-oxide types.
b) Alternating Current -Alternating current is produced commercially by an a-c
generator, called an alternator. The prime mover, as in the case of the d-e units may be
any type of engine or Turbine. The process by which electricity is produced is shown in
• the figures below. This principle of electromagnetic induction states that when an elec-
trical conductor is moved in a magnetic field, a voltage is induced in it. Tbe direction of
the movement the polarity of the induced voltage as shown.
MA6NeTIC R:)l.ES-
i:l"t'WeR A
NeNT MA6NET OR
Aha .6\...eCTJlOMAGNET
}S StJIT"ABl...e.
- • f".e\d
If the conductor is formed into a coil and rotated in tne magnetic field, a voltage of alter-
nating polarity is produced, that is, alternating current . It does not matter whether the
conductor or the magnet moves; the motion of the conductor and the field wit h respect
to each other produces the voltage.
P Rotat-100
----..... ', 11'0:------"'
N
..
LVOLTA6E 16 Dff
With tDnt&'ts,
GaliU • S Ll P - RINE'15"
COil.OFIJ
WlRE
. ~ A T 1 N G
'MAGNET Vab
Voltage is picked off with sliding con-
tacts, called "slip-rings".
It does not matter whether the conductor
moves and the magnetic field is stationary,
or vice versa, as long as there is relative mo-
tion between the two.
9. POWER AND ENERGY
Energy-is the technical term for the more common expression-work. In terms of power,
it is the product of power and time, that is
energy or work = power x time
In practical terms, energy is synonymous with fuel and therefore also cost. Thus energy can
be expressed as barrels (tons) of oil, cubi"c feet (cu. metersJ of gas, tons of coal, kilowatt
hours of electricity usage, and dollars/pesos of operating cost. The concept of energy effi-
ciency of structures can be stated in terms of annual usage of oil, gas, and electricity or alter-
natively in terms of$, 'P'or of total fuel cost. In technical terms. energy is expressed in units of
Btu {calories), foot-pounds (joules), and kilowatt-hours.
Power is the rate at which energy is used, or alternatively, the rate at which work is done.
Since energy and work are synonymous.
The term power implies continuity, that is, the use of energy at a particular rate, over a
given, generally considerable, span of time. Thus multiplying power by time yields energy.
Typical units of power in the English-system are horsepower, Btu per hol!r, wall and
kilowatt. In the metric or Sl System the corresponding units are joules per second, calories
per second, watts and kilowatts. In physical terms power is also the rate at which fuel
(energy) is used. Thus power can also be expressed as gallons (liters) of oil per hour, cubic
feet (cu. meters) of gas per minute, and tons of coal per day.
10. POWER IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
The unit of electric power is the watt (W}. A larger unit of 1000 watts is the kilowatt (kw).
The power input in watts to any electrical device having a resistance R and in which the cur-
rent is I is given by the equation:
Wattage W = 12R or W = I (IR)
this is true for both a-c and d-e circuits. However, since the resistance of an item is generally
not known, but tile circuit voltage and current are known. It would be preferable to calculate
Power in this equation.
11
By Ohm's Law V = IR
and since W = I (IR}
W = I (V)
A in Ohms
Win Watts
I in amperes
V in volt
Example:. incandescent lamp = 66 ohms Resistance
115V Supply
v 115
I = R = 66 = 1.74
d-e W = VI= 115 (1.74) = 200watts
power drawn
in a-c multiply x pf
Example:
calculate the current and
power in two branches of the circuit and the total circuit current assume a 120 v a-c
source.
a) Power= VI
p = 150 + 150 + = 300 w
b) Second branch is 10 amp. 0.8 pf load
Power = V x amp x pf
= 120 X 10 X 0.8 = 960 W
but the circuit volt - ampere
is. 120 x 10 : 1.200 Va
300 W = 120. X I
300
I =
120
= 2.5 amperes
v 120
R = - = 48 ohms
2.5
11. ENERGY IN ELECTRIC CIRCUITS
12
Since power is the rate of energy use, it follows that energy = power x time. Therefore the
amount of energy used is directly proportional to the power of the system and to the length
of time. It is in operati on. Since power is expressed in either watts or kilowatts, and time in
hours (second and minutes are too small for use), we have for units of energy: watt-hours
(wh) or kilowatt-hours (kwh) energy used for one hour .
Example:
a) Find the daily energy consumption of the appliances listed below if they are used daily for
the amount of time shown.
Toaster (1340 w) or 1.34 kw 15 min. or % hr.
Percolator (500 w) or 0.5 kw 2 hr.
Fryer (1560 w) or 1.56 kw 39 min. or Y.! hr.
Toaster = 1.34 kw x % hr. = 0.335 kwh
percolator = 0.5 kw x ~ h r . = 1.00 kwh
fryer = 1.56 kw. x Y.! hr. = 0.78 kwh
iron = 1.40 kw x % hr. = 0.70 kwh
Total = 2.815·kwh
b) If the average cost of energy is per kilowatt-hour, find the daily operating cost
2.815 kwh x /kwh='---
c) If considering an average power demand of a househoid is 1.2 kw, calculate the monthly
electric bill of such a household, assuming the rate of per kilowatt hour= P __
Monthly energy consumption
= 1.2 kw x ·
24
hr x
30
days = 864 kwh
day month
Electric power bill
• 864 kwh X .,. __ /kwh • ft" __
12. ElECTRIC LOAD CONTROL
A method of load control for efficient utilization of available energy to produce a high load
factor. This results in a lowering of demand charge, (levying of a charge for power (kwl in
addition to the normal energy (kwh} charge. This demand charge is primarily useful in en-
couraging users to reduce to their peak loads. In so doing, energy use is also reduced
somewhat}. and secondarily in a reduction of energy costs. (An ancillary, but important,
benefit is the maximum utilization of electrical power equipment, which normally runs
underloaded. This results in smaller equipment, lower first cost, and less space utilization).
The control devices and systems are variously referred to as load shedding control, peak de-
mand control, peak load regulation, power use control, and permissive load control.
a) Levei1-Load scheduling and duty-cycle control
The simplest and most applicable. to all types of facilities. the installation's electric load
are analyzed and then scheculed to restrict demand. Thus large loads can be shifted to
off-peak hours and controlled to avoid coincident operation. The user c ~ n also take ad-
vantage of special-night and weekend-utility rates for loads that do not require im-
mediate operation, such as battery charging and transfer pumping. Control can be entire-
ly manual or automated by use of a duty-cycle controller. This device is essentially a pro-
gram clock with switching for a number of circuits or loads.
Typical applications of this device are control of HVAC (heating, ventilation, airconl
loads, lighting load and process loads. Although such as analysis is a necessary first step
in all levels of electric load control its efficacy is limited since many of the loads are
automatically controlled. Thus compressors controlled by pressure switches, fans con-
trolled by thermostats, ·and pumps controlled by float switches cannot be scheduled
with this type of duty-cycle controller and coincident operation cannot be prevented.
13
14
THE HEART OF A DUTY-CYCLE CON-
TROLLER is the program drum and
associated controlled contacts. The ter-
minal strips are wired to the drum con-
tacts and then to the controlled loads.
USEFULNESS OF DUTY - CYCLE
'TIMER DRUM

S19n.al tD
MANUAL OVERRIDE
PRQSRAM DRUM
(pm po.;"1t1onare
ava1 1.1 ble for contro I
bf Z1 .
..
CIRCUIT WIRING
STEPP1N6 MOTOR
a't1v.1ttd by
dr'\.lm SWitG:hes.
TERMfNAL STRIPS
for

1. Eliminating energy waste by shutting down units when not required.
2. Automatic control such as preheat and precool, which results in lower power and
energy levels.
3. Establishment of efficient equipment scheduling without continual manual supervi-
sion.
b) levei2-0emand Metering Alarm
If in conjunction with a duty-cycle controller some type of continuous demand metering
is installed which will go into alarm when a predetermined demand level is exceeded, a
basic load control system will have been established. The load analysis discussed aoo ... e
would have to be extended to determine load priorities so that when the present max-
imum demand load is exceeded and the alarm sounds, loads can be shed (disconnected)
manually in predetermined order of priority and, subsequently, reconnected also in order
of priority. This type of control is practical only for a limited size installation in as much as
most of load switching activity is manual. Also to av'oid excessive alarming, the facili-
ty operator may be inclined to set the alarm point higher than it should be to effect all
possible savings. A unit typical of this type is shown below.
c) Levei 3-Automatic Instantaneous Demand Control
MANIJAl.lY
ADJUS'WI.E
< 0Nnt()C. LQ'\P

'<NOB

INOICA'fO&
This type of control {also called "rate control") is, in effect, an automated version of the
level-2 system. The unit accepts instantaneous kw load information from the utility
system either in the form of continuous current readings or in the more sophisticated
form of pulsed energy data. It then compares this information to the preset Kw limit (rate
control) and acts automatically to disconnect and reconnect loads as required. These
units do not recognize the utility's metering interval of 15 or 30 min., but act continuously
on the basis of load comparison data.
The first step in setting up this system is to separate the controllable ("sheddable") loads
from those that must remain uninterrupted. Depending on the type of facility the two lists
that follow are typical.
"SHE DOABLE"
Non-essential lighting
Ventilation fans
Space heating
Comfort Cooling
Non-critical batch
process equipment
Electric Boilers
NONSHEODABLE"
Essential lighting
Elevators
Refrigeration
Compressors
Sewage Ejectors with
appropriate level
controls
Transfer pumps
Any device with
flywheel effect
(Electric snow melting)
Process equipment
Material bandling
equipment
Office machinery
The nonsheddable loads are fed directly from the power line. The sheddable loads are fed
via a panel of control relays that respond to on/off instructions from the demand con-
troller. The facility's operator will then analyze the sheddable loads and determine a
minimum coincident kw load for this group. This figure when added to total coincident of
the nonsheddable loads, becomes the kw rate control or the set point.
15
16
1NSTANTAN15'0US
tli.TA
BLOCK DIAGRAM of a system of Automatic electric power control. The demand
controller receives instantaneous load data from the metering equipment, compares
it to present limits, and disconnects and reconnects controllable loads automatically
to keep load within these limits.
To avoid excessive cycling of loads a variable width Kw band around the set point is
used. Note that the controller acts to reduce maximum loads (peaks) and in low points
(valleys) 15% of energy is saved.

Most commercial units permit considerable flexibility in field adjustments in order to ar-
rive at optimum operation. Some units as shown below, have special provisions to over-
come some of the limitations inherent in rate control systems. These are:
1. Excessive cycling due to too narrow an band or insufficient time delay bet-
ween control demands.
2. Inability to change or " weight" load priority structure. resulting in excessive cycling of
certain loads and insufficient cycling of others.
3. Excessive off-time due to the absence of limit t imers.
4. Inability to readily adapt to varying load patterns resulting from variable production
schedules, time schedules, changes in weather.
5. Nonrecognition of the block of energy available in a given timing interval.
As a result of these limitations, this system is most useful in applications where operating
modes do not change frequently and the facility is not very large. Thus, stores, super-
markets, warehouses, small industrial facilities, and commercial installations are well
served with this level system if they have at least 20% sheddable loads; and their con-
nected electric load is at least 150 kilovolt amperes (kva).
d) Level 4-ldeal Curve Control
This demand c<Jntrol unit operates on
the rate control principle, keeping the
demand within a band around the set
point.
This controller operate by comparing the actual rate of energy usage to the ideal rate,
and controls kw demand by controll ing the total energy used within a metering interval.
DSMAND
INTEftVAI..
GRAPH of a cumulative energy use
over a demand Interval. (Energy use is
the time integral of power; i.e., kwh =
kw x t ime)
A constant rate of energy use over a demand interval would show as the set of repeated
straight lines. The utility company determines the demand over the demand interval by
integrating the kwh energy over the interval and dividing by t he interval time. Thus, the
user is actually given a block of energy (kwh) that can be utilized at any desired rate, not
necessarily at the constant rate of the above Figure (a).
17
TO
-------·----- -

, ... 't-.(IP!''i """
1"""'-- -- - - --- - - - - - ' The desirable rate of energy use •s
.... ..c::o. F " Ideal Curve" as shown in this figure.
OFFSET.,. • .. 0
Fl6 . .a
UJNl'Jl,Cl.I..SiP I.O'.DS

r!ME' __.,.
Graph (b) showing an offset, whi ch es-
tablishes an " ideal curve" to whj,ch ac-
tual energy use will be compared by
the controller. in deciding whether to
shed or add loads.
the
INT'EfU.lAL l.OG.IG.
\O&I'fL
CURVE PULSS
c;.e NEllA "ffR
18
...• • ..,., 'T

-
el Level 5-Forecasting Systems
These systems are the most sophisticated, the most expensive, and the most effective.
They are best applied to large structures where the number of loads, load patterns, and
complexity of operation precludes the partially manual operation of the precedi ng
systems. As a result of the large amount of load data, these systems frequently are in-
stalled as part of the computerized Central control facilities in. large Industrial plants, sky-
scrapers, and very large institutional facilities. The units operate by continuously fore-
casting the amount of energy remaining in the demand interval, based on kwh pulse data
received. They then examine the status and priority of each of the connected loads and
decide on a course of action.
13. ELECTRICAL MEASUREMENTS
To measure energy, the factor of time must be introduced, since ... energy = power x
time.
a-c watt-hour meters are basically small motors, whose speed is proportional to the power
being used. The number of rotations is counted on the dials which are calibrated directly in
kilowatt-hours.

I-E'AOS
..........

;..
J
,
I
A::IWER
l LOA.O J
S<>URCA
WM
I
..
,

WATTME\1:R
LEADS
SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT of Wattmeter connections. Note that the current coil is in
series with the circuit load, whereas the voltage loads are in parallel.
TYPICAL INDUCTION-TYPE Kwh Meter with Kw demand dial. Decade dials register total
disc revolutions that are proportional to energy. Disc speed is proportional to power.
19
chapter
....
ELECTRICAL
SYSTEM and
MATERIALS:
· WIRING
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS AND
MATERIALS: WIRING
1. SYSTEM COMPONENTS
The major components of a building's electrical power system are illustrated here:
HI6H • VOLTAeE
PRIMARY
2400,4160,72.00
OR VOL. TS
Sfai'MER MAIN
1-....,_.----4SWIT£M
VAlJL T !21>/2De Clf
1------J IZO/Z10 or
227/100Volts
LAfi6E'
MO'Tl:>R
DIAGRAM of a typical Building
electrical from the incoming seNice
to the utilization items at the end of the sys-
tem. This type of diagram is referred to as a
" Block diagram". Since the major compo-
nents are shown as rectangles.

22


RISER SAAFT
..---.., ..... M.c .c. j
I1DOM
ROOF
It ·is called a " riser diagram.'! when this some type of information is presented showing
the. spatial retations between compenents.
When electrical symbols are used· in lieu of the blocks, it is called a " one line" or a
" single line diagram" .
These components may be arranged in three major categories.
3 CATEGORIES:
1st- WIRING ............ ............ includes conductors and raceways of all types
2nd-POWER HANDLING EOUtPMENT ....... ........... includes transformers
switchboards, panelboard, large switches and circuitbre_!lkers.
3rd- UTIUZATION EQUIPMENT .... , .. ........... actual utilization of equipment
such as lighting motors, controls wiring devices.
In the Block diagram shown, there is a diffe·rentlation by line weight between heavy and
light (large and small) conductors. This size differentiation, as indicative of the amount
of power handled and is shown in the following figure.
tt. IH.P!VIt:t..t.\1.
91?ANQ.I ataaln'

SWira-llNG
Pl<'l:>TE:t:Tlbf-.1 !"DR lAUE

AIR a!Z'a.liT

t .aJILpjt.j•
- t.V.IN FEECERS AHP BUILPII"G.
23
24
2. NATIONAL ELECTRIC CODE-
Or NEC is a code used by all inspectors, electrical designers, engineers, contractors, and the
operating personnel charged with the responsibility for safe operation.
NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES
RULE IX-ELECTRICAL REGULATIONS
Pursuant to Section 102,203 and 1301 of the National Building Code (PO 1096) the following
Rules shall govern the installation Qf Primary and Secondary Distribution Lines,
Transformers and other equipment in subdivisions along public and private roads and at-
tached to or over buildings.
1. General Locational . Requirements in Towns, Subdivisions, Human Settlements, In-
dustrial Estates and the like.
Overhead transmission and/or distribution lines/systems including transformers, poles,
towers and the like shall be located and installed following the latest standards of
design, construction and maintenance. However, in the interest of public safety, conve-
ni ence, good viewing and aesthetics may be located and installed along alleys or back
streets so as not to cause visual pollution.
2. Location of Poles and Clearances of Power Lines along Public Roads.
a. All poles erected on public roads shall be covered by Approved Pole Location (APU
plan from the Highway District City/Municipal Engineer.
b. Poles and transformer supports shall be located not more than 500 mm inside from
the road right-of-way or property line, and shall not obstruct the sidwalk, pedestrian
path and/or the road drainage canal or structure, existing or proposed.
c. Primary lines shall have a minimum vertical clearance of 10M from the crown of the
pavement when crossing the highway and 7.5 M from the top of the shoulder or
sidewalk when installed along the side of the highway or street in a highly urbanized
area.
d. Secondary, neutral and service lines shall have a minimum vertical clearance of 7.5 M
from the crown of the road pavement when crossi ng the highway and from the top
of the shoulder or sidewalk when installed along the side of the highway or street in
highly urbanized areas.
e. Clearances of Supporting Structures such as Poles, Towers, and others and their
guys and braces measured from the nearest parts of the objects concerned:
• From Fire Hydrants, not less than 5 M.
• From Street Corners. where hydrants are located at street corners, poles and
towers shall be be set so far from the corners as to make necessary the use of fly-
ing taps which are inaccessible from th'e·poles.
• From Curbs, not less than 150 mm measured from the curb away from the road-
way.
NOTE: Guy wires and other structures shall in no way be installed as to obstruct
pedestrian and/or vehicular traffic.
3. Attachments on and Clearances from Buildings
a. Attachments for support of power lines and cables, transformers and other equip-
ment and/or communications lines installed on buildings shall be covered by an Ap-
proved Attachment Plan from the local Building Official.
b. Where buildings exceed 15M in height, overhead lines shall be arranged where prac-
ticable so that a clear space or zones at least 2 M wide will be left, either adjacent to
the building or beginning not over 2.5 M from the building, to facilitate the raising of
ladders where necessary for fire fighting.
EXCEPTION: This requirement does not apply where it is the rule of the local fire
department to exclude the use of ladders in alleys or other restricted
places which generally occupied by supply lines.
Table 1. Minimum Vertical Clearance of Wires Above Ground or Rails (Supply
wires include trolley feeders)
Nature
of
Ground
or rails
under-
neath
Overhead guys:
messengers:
Communications,
span, and lightning
protection wires;
communication
cable; supply cable
having effectively
grounded continuous
metal sheat, or in-
sulated conductors
supported on and
cabled together with
an effectively
grounded messenger,
all voltages
WHERE WIRES CROSS OVER
Open supply line
wires, are wires and
service drops
15000
0 to 750 to to
750 15000 50000
volts volts volts
T roily contact con-
tact conductors and
..
associated span or
messenger wires
0 to Exceed-
750 ing 750
volts volts to
to ground
ground
Meters Meters Meters Meters Meters Meters
Track rails of railroads (except
electrified railroads using
overhead trolley conductors)
handling freight cars on top
of which men are permitted
Track rails of rail roads (except
electrified railroads using
overhead trolley conductors)
not included above
Public street, alleys or roads
or roads in urban or rural
districts
Driveways to residence
garages
Spaces or ways accessible to
pedestrian only
8.20
5.50
5.50
3
3
4.5
8.20
5.50
5.50
3
4.5
8.5 9 6.7 6.7
6 6.7 5.5 6
6 6.7 5.5. 6
6 6.7 5.5 6
4.5 5.2 4.9 5.5
WHERE WIRES RUN ALONG, AND WITHIN THE LIMITS OF PUBLIC HIGHWAYS OR
OTHER PUBLIC RIGHTS-OF-WAY FOR TRAFFIC
Street or alleys in urban dis-
tricts
Roads in rural districts
5.50
4.20
5.5
4.5
6
5.5
6.7
6
5.5
5.5
6
6
25
26
4. Open Supply Conductors Attached to Building
Where the permanent attachment of open supply conductors of any class to buildings is
necessary for an entrance such conductors shall meet the following requirements:
a. Conductors of more than 300 volts to ground shall not be carried along or near the
surface of the building unless they are guarded or made inaccessible.
b. To promote safety to the general public and to employees not authorized to ap-
proach conductors and other current-carrying parts of electric supply lines, such
parts shall be arranged so as to provide adequate clearance from the ground or other
space generally accessible, or shall be provided with guards so as to isolate them ef-
fectively from accidental contact by such persons.
c. Ungrounded metal -sheathed service cables, service conduits, metal fixtures and
simi lar non-current carrying parts, if located in urban districts and where liable to
become charged to more t h ~ n 300 volts to ground, shall be isolated or guarded so as
not to be exposed to accidental contact by unauthorized persons. As an alternative
to isolation or guarding non-current-carrying parts shall be solidly or effectively
grounded.
d. Clearance of wires from building surface shall be not less than those required in Table
2.
Table 2. Clearances of Supply Conductors from Buildings
VOLTAGE OF SUPPLY CONDUCTORS
300 to 8, 700 volts
More than 8,700 to 15,000 volts
More than 15;000 to 50,000 volts
Exceeding 50,000 volts
HORIZONTAL
CLEARANCE
IN METERS
1.0
2.5
3:0
3.0 plus 10 mm
per Kv in excess
VERTICAL CLEARANCE
IN METERS
2.5
2.5
3.0
3.0 plus 10 mm
per Kv in excess
(2) Where span length exceeds 45 M the increased clearances required by Rule 232, B, 1 of
the PEC shall be provided.
e. Supports over buildings. Service-drop conductors passing over a roof shall be
securely supported by substantial structures. Where practicable, such supports shall
be independent of the Building.
5. Conductors Passing By or Over Buildings
a. Minimum Clearances. Unguarded or accessible supply conductors carrying voltages
in excess of 300 volts may be run e i t h ~ r beside or over buildings. The vertical or
horizontal clearance to any building or its attachments (balconies, platforms, etc.)
shall be as listed below. The horizontal clearance governs above the roof level to the
point where the diagonal equals the vertical clearance" requirement. This rule should
not be interpreted as restricting the installation of a trolley contact conductor over
the approximate center line of the track it serves.
b. Guarding of Supply Conductors/Supply Conductors of 300 volts or more shall be
proPllrly guarded by grounded conduit, barriers, or otherwise, under the following
conditions:
1) Where the clearances set forth in Table 2 above cannot be obtained.
2) Where such supply conductors are placed near enough to windows, verandas,
fire escapes, or other ordinarily accessible places within the reach of persons.
NOTE: Supply conductors in grounded metal sheathed cables are considered to be
guarded within the meaning of this rule.
c. Where the required clearances cannot be obtained, supply conductors shall be or
Grounded Metallic Shield, Jacketed Primary Cables grouped or bundled and sup-
ported by grounded messenger wires.
Table 3. Minimum Clearance in Any Direction From Line Conductors to supports,
and to Vertical or Lateral Conductors. Span Ol Guy Wires Attached to the
Same Support
{All voltages are between conductors)
Clearance of
line conduc-
tors from-
Vertical and
lateral conduc-
tors: Of same
ci rcuit
Of other cir-
cuits
Span and guy
wires attached
to same pole:
General
When parallel to
Ligtning-
protection wires
parallel to line
Surfaces of cross-
arms
Surfaces of poles
In gene-
ral
mm
75
75
75
75
75
75
6. Clearance of Service Drops
Communication
lines
On joint-
ly used
poles
mm
75
75
150
150
75
125
In gene-
ral
mm
75
150
150
300
75
75
Supply Lines
0 to
8,700
volts
On joint-
ly used
poles
mm
75
150
150
300
75
125
Exceeding
8,700
volts, and
for each
1,000 volts
of excess
mm
6.25
10
lO
10
5
5
a. Service drop conductors shall not be readi ly accessible and when not in excess of
600 volts, shall conform to the following:
27
28
• Clearance Over Roof. ' Conductors shall have a clearance of not less than 2,5 M
from the highest point of roofs over which they pass with the following excep-
tions:
Exception No. 1. Where the voltage between conductors does not exceed 300
votts and the roof has a slope of not less than 100 mm in 300 mm, the clearance
may not be less than 1 M.
Exception No. 2. Service drop conductors of 300 volts or less which do not pass
over other than a maximum of 1.2 M of the overhang portion of the roof for the
purpose of terminating at a through-the-roof service raceway or approved support
may be maintained at a minimum of 500 mm from any port.ion of the roof over
which they pass. ...
b. Clearance from Ground. Conductors shall have a clearance of not less than 3M from
the ground or from any platform or projection from which they might be reached.
c. Clearance from Building Openings. Conductors shall have a horizontal clearance of
not less than 1 M from windows, doors, porches, fire escapes or similar locations and
shall be run at least 500 mm above the top level of a window or opening.
d. Service Drop of 'communication lines, when crossing a street, shall have a clearance
of not less than 5.50 meters from the crown of the street or sidewalk over which it
passes.
Service Drop of communication Jines shall have a minimum clearance of 3.00 meters
above ground at its point of attachment to the building or pedestal.
e. No parts of swimming and wading pools shall be placed under existing service-drop
conductors or any other over-head wiring; nor shall such wiring be installed above
the following:
a) Swimming and wading pools and the area extending 3.00 meters outward
horizontally from the inside of the walls of the pool.
b) Diving Structures
c) Observation stands, towers or platforms
7. Wiring Methods
Service entrance conductors extending along the exterior or entering buildings or other
structures shall be installed in rigid steel conduit or asbestos cement conduit or con-
crete encased plastic conduit from point of seN ice drop to meter socket and from meter
to the disconnecting equipment. However, where the service entrance conductors are
protected by approved fuses or breakers at their outer ends !immediately after the ser-
vice drop or lateral ) they may be installed any of the recognized wiring methods.
a. Abandoned Lines and/ or portions of Jines no longer required to provide service shall
be removed.
b. Power or communication poles, lines, service drops and other line equipment shall
be free from any attachment for antennas, signs, streamers and the like_
c. Metallic sheaths or jackets of overhead power or communication cables shall be
grounded at a point as close as possible to ground level whenever such cables
change from overhead to underground installations.
8. Transformers
a. Oil-insulated Transforme,. Installed Outdoo,. Combustible material. Com-
bustible buildings and parts of buildings, free escapes, door and window openings
shall be safeguarded from fires originating in oil-insulated transformers installed on,
attached to, or adjacent to a building or combustible material. Space separations,
fire·resistant barriers and enclosures which confine the. oil of raptured transformer
tank are recognized safeguards. One Or more of these safeguards shall be applied ac-
cording to the degree of hazard involved in cases where the transformer installation
presents a fire hazard. Oil enclosures may consist of fire-resistant dikes, curbed areas
or basins, or trenches filled with coarse, crushed stone. Oil enclosures shall be pro-
vided with trapped drains in cases where the exposure and the quantity of oil involv-
ed are such that removed of oil is important.
b. Dry-Type Transformers Installed Indoors. Transformers rated 112-1/2 KVA or
less shall have separation of at least 300 mm from combustible material unless
separated therefrom by a fire-resistant heat-insulating barrier, or unless of a rating
not exceeding 600 volts and completely enclosed except for ventilating openings .
..
Transformers of more 112-1/2 KVA rating shall be installed in a transformer room of-
fice resistant construction unless they are constructed with Class B (80°C rise) or
Class H (150°C rise) insulation, and are separated from combustible material not less
than 1.85 M horizontally and 3.7 M vertically or are separated therefrom by a fire-re-
sistant heat-insulating barrier.
Transformers rated more 35,000 volts shall be installed in a vault.
c. Askarel-lnsulated Transfformen l·nstafted Indoors. Askarel-insulated
transformers rated in excess of 25 KVA shall be furnished with a pressure-relief vent.
Where installed in a poorly ventilated place they shall be furnished with a means for
absorbing any gases generated by arcing inside the case, or the pressure relief vent
shall be connected to a chimney or flue which will carry such gases outside the
building. Askarel-insulated transformers rated more than 35,000 volts shall be install-
ed in a vault.
d. Oil-Insulated Transformers Installed Indoors. Oil-insulated transformers shall be
installed in a vault constructed as specified in this Section except as follows:
11 NOT OVER 112-1/2 KVA TOTAL CAPACITY. The provisions for transformer
vaults specified in Section 9.3 of this Rule apply except that the vault may be con-
structed of reinforced concrete not less than 100 mm thick.
2) NOT OVER 600 VOLTS. A vault is not required provided suitable arrangements
are made where necessary to prevent a transformer oil fire igniting other
and the total transformer capacity in one location does not exceed 10
KVA in a section of the building classified as combustible, or 75 KVA where the
surrounding structure is classified as fire-resistant construction.
3) FURNACE TRANSFORMERS. Electric furnace transformers of a total rating not
exceeding 75 KVA may be installed without a vault in a building or room of fire-
resistant construction provided suitable arrangements are made to prevent a
transformer oil fire spreading to other combustible material.
4) DETACHED BUILDING. Transformers may be installed in a building which does
not conform with the provisions specified in this Code for transformer vault, pro-
vided neither the building nor its contents present fire hazard to any other building
or property, and provided the building is used only in supplying electric service
and the interior is accessible only to qualitied persons:
e. Guarding. Transformers shall be guarded as follows:
1) MECHANIC PROTECTION. Appropriate provisions shall be made to minimize the
possibility of damage to transformers from external causes where the
transformers are located exposed to physical damage.
21 CASE OR ENCLOSURE. Dry-Type transformers shalt be provided with a non-
combustible moisture resistant case or enclosure which will provide reasonable
protection against accident insertion of foreign objects.
29
30
31 EXPOSED LIVE PARTS. The transformer installation shall conform with the pro-
visions for guarding of live parts in PEC Rule 1056.
4) VOLTAGE WARNING. The operating voltage of exposed live parts of transformer
installation shall be indicated by signs visible markings on the equipment or struc-
tures.
9. Provisions for Transformers Vaults
a. New Building. New building requiring an expected load demand of 200 KVA or
above shall be provided with a transformer vault, except that tran.sformers may be
mounted on poles or structures within the property if enough space is available, pro-
vided that all clearances required can be obtained and no troublesome contamination
on insulators, bushings, etc. can cause hazards and malfunctioning of'1he equip-
ment.
b. location. Transformer and transformer vaults shall be readily accessible to qualified
personnel for inspection and maintenance. Vaults shall be located where they can be
ventilated to the outside air without using or ducts wherever such an arrangement is
practicable.
c. Walls, Roof and Floor. The walls and roofs of vaults shall consist of reinforced con-
crete not less than 150 mm thick, masonry or brick not less than 200 mm thick, or 300
mm load bearing hollow concrete block shall have a coating of cement or gypsum
plaster not less than 20 mm thick. The vault shall have a concrete floor not less 100
mm thick. Building walls and floors which meet these requirements may serve for the
floor, roof and one or more walls of the vaults. Other forms of fire-resistant construc-
tion are also acceptable provided they have adequate structural strength for the con-
ditions and a minimum fire resistance of two and one-half hours according to the ap-
proved Fire Test Standard. The quality of the material used in the construction of the
vault shall be of the grade approved by the Building Official having jurisdiction.
d. Doorways. Any doorway leading from the vault into the· building shall be protected
as follows:
1t TYPE OF DOOR. Each doorway shall be provided with a tight-fitting door of a
type approved for openings in such locations by the authority enforcing this
Code.
2) SILLS. A door sill or curb of sufficient height to confine within the vault, the oil
from the largest trensformer shall be provided and in no case shall be height be
less than 100 mm.
3) LOCKS. Entrance doors shall be equipped with locks, and doors shall be kept
locked, access being allowed only to qualified persons. Locks Jnd latches shall be
so arranged that the door may be readily 'and quickly opened from the inside.
10. Ventilation. Ventilation shall be adequate to prevent a transformer temperature in ex-
cess of the prescribed values.
a. Ventilation Openings. When required, openings for ventilation shall be provided in
accordance with the following:
1) LOCATION. Ventilation openings shall be located as far away as possible from
doors, windows, fire escapes and combustible material.
2) ARRANGEMENT. Vaults ventilated by natural circulation of air may have roughly
half of the total area of openings required for ventilation in one or more opsnings
near the floor and the remainder in one or more openings in the roof or in the side-
walls near the roof; or all of the area required for ventilation may be provided in
one or more openings in or. near the roof.
31 SIZE. In the case of vaults ventilated to an outdoor area without using ducts or
flues the combined net area of all ventilating openings after deducting the area
occupied by screens, gratings, or louvers, shall be not less than .006 sq, mm per
KVA of transformer capacity in service, except that the net area shall be not less
than 0.1 sq. m. for any capacity under 50 KVA.
5) DAMPERS. Where automatic dampers are used in the ventilation openings of
vaults containing oil-insulated transformers, the actuating device should be made
to function at a temperature resulting from fire and not a tempera..,...which might
prevail as a result of an overheated transformer or bank of transformers.
Automatic dampers should be designed and constructed to minimize the possibili-
ty of accident closing.
6. DUCTS. Ventilating ducts shall be constructed of fire resi5%ant material.
7. DRAINAGE. Where practicable, vaults containing more than 100. KVA
transformer capacity shall be provided with a drain or other means which will
carry off any accumulation of oil or water in the vaults unless local conditions
make this impracticable. The floor shall be pitched to the drain when provided.
8. WATER PIPES AND ACCESSORIES. 'Any pipe or duct system foreign to the
electrical installation should not enter or pass through a transformer vault. Where
the presence of such foreign system cannot be avoided, appurtenances thereto
which require maintenance at regular intervals shall not be located inside the
vaults. Arrangement shall be made where necessary to avoid possible trouble
from compensation, leaks and breaks in such foreign system. Piping or other
facilities provided for fire protection or for water-cooled transformers are not
deemed to be foreign to the electrical installtion.
11. CAPACITORS
a. Application. This Section applies to installation of capacitors on electric circuits in
or on buildings.
Exception No.1. Capacitors that are components of other apparatus shall conform
to the requirements for such apparatus.
Exception No. 2. Capacitors in hazardous locations shall comply with additional re-
quirements in PEC section 400-414.
location. An installation of capacitors in which any single unit contain more than
three gallons of combustible liquid shall be in vault conforming to part C of PEC Sec-
tion 319.
Mechanical Protection. Capacitors shall be protected from physical damage by
location or by suitable fences, barriers or other enclosures.
Cases and Supports. Capacitors shall be provided with non combustible cases and
supports.
rransformers Used with Capacitors. Transformers which are components of
:apacitor to a power circuit shall be installed in accordance with PEC Section 319.
The KVA rating shall not be less than 135 per cent of the capacitor rating in Kvar.
12. Emergency Systems
a. The provisions of this Section shall apply to the installation, operation and
maintenance of circuits, systems and equipment intended to supply illumination and
power in the event of failure of the normal supply or in the event of accident to
elements of a system supplying power illuminiation essential for safety to life and
property where such systems or circuits are required by the Fire Code, or by any
government agency having jurisdiction.
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Emergency system are generally installed in places of assembly where artificial il-
lumination is required, such as buildings subject to occupancy by large numbers of
persons, hotels, theaters, sports arenas, hospitals and similar institutions. Emergen-
cy systems provide power for such functions as refrigeration, operationof
mechanical breathing apparatus, ventilation essential to maintain life, illumination
and power for hospital room, fire alarm systems, fire pumps, industrial processes
where current interruption would produce serious hazards, public address systems
and other similar functions.
b. All requirements of .this Section shall apply to emergency systems.
c. All equipment for use on emergency systems shall be properly approved.
d. Tests and Maintenance
1) The authority having jurisdiction shall conduct or witness a test on the complete
system upon completion of installation, and periodically afterwards.
2) Systems shall be tested periodically in accordance with a schedule acceptable to
the authority having jurisdiction to assure that they are maintained in proper
operating condition.
3) Where the battery systems or unit equipment are involved, including batteries us-
ed for starting or ignition in auxiliary engines, the authority having jurisdiction
shall require periodic maintainance.
4. A written record shall be kept of such tests and maintenance.
e. Emergency systems shall have adequate capacity and rating for the emergency
operation of all equipment connected to the system.
f. Current supply shall be such that in the event of failure of the normal supply to or
within the building to group of buildings concerned, emergency lighting to emergen-
cy power, will be immediately available. The supply system for emergency purposes
may be composed of one or more of the types of systems covered in Section 12.7
shall satisfy the applicable requirements of this Section.
Consideration must be given to the type of ser:vice to be rendered; whether for short
duration, as for exit lights of a theater, or for long duration, as for supplying
emergency power and lighting during long periods of current failure from trouble
either inside or outside the buildings as in the case of a hospital.
Assignment of degree of reliability of the recognized emergency supply system
depends upon the careful evaluation of the variables of each particular installation.
g. A storage battery of suitable rating and capacity shall supply, by means of a service
installed according to Section 200 of the PEC and maintained at non mofe than 90
per cent of system voltage, the total load of the circuits supplying emergency
lighting and emergency power for a period of at least 1/2 hour.
Batteries, whether of the acid or alkali type, shall be designed and constructed--to
meet the requirements of the emergency service. Lead-acid type batteries shall in-
clude low gravity acid ( 1.20 to 1.22 S P. GR.), relatively thick and rugged-plated and
separators, and a transparent jar.
h. A generator set driven by some form of prime mover, with sufficient capacity and
proper rating to supply circuits carrying emergency lighting or lighting and power,
equipped with suitable means for autormatically starting the prime mover on failure
of the normal service shall be provided. For hospitals, the transition-time from ins-
tant of failure of the normal power source to the E!mergency generator source shall
not exceed ten seconds. (See Section 12.4).
i. There shall be two service, each in accordance with Section 200 of the PEC, widely
separated electrically and physically to minimize the possibility of simultaneous in-
terruption of power supply arising from an occurence within the building or group of
buildings served.
j. Connection on the line side of the main service shall be sufficiently separated from
said main service to prevent simultaneous interruption of supply through an oc-
curence within the building or group of buildings served.
k. The requirements of Section 12.3 and Section 12.6 also apply to installations where
the entire electrical load on a service or sub·service is arranged to be supplied from a
second source. Current supply from a standby power plant shall satisfy the require-
ment of availability in Section 12.6.
I. Audible and visual signal devices shall be provided, where practicable, for the
following purposes: ..
a) To give warning of dearrangement of the emergency or auxiliary source.
b) To indicate that the battery or generator set is carrying a load.
c) To indicate when a battery charger is properly functioning.
m. Only appliances and lamps specified as required for emergency use shall be supplied
by emergency lighting circuits.
n. Emergency illumination shall be provided for all required exit lights and all other
lights specified as necessary for sufficient illumination.
Emergency lighting systems should be so designed and installed that the failure of
any individual lighting element, such as the burning out of a light bulb, shall not
leave any area in total darkness.
o. Branch circuits intended to supply emergency lighting shall be so installed as to pro·
vide service immediately when the normal supply for lighting is interrupted. Such in-
stallations shall provide either one of the following:
1) An emergency lighting supply, independent of the general lighting system with
provisions for automatically transferring to the emergency lights by means of
devices approved for the purpose upon the event of failure of the general lighting
system supply.
2) Two or more separate and complete systems with independent power supply,
each system providing sufficient current for emergency lighting purposes and are
both lighted, means shall be provided for automatically energizing either system
upon failure of the other. Either or both systems may be part of the general
lighting systems of the protected occupancy if circuits supplying lights . for
emergency illumination are installed in accordance with other Sections of this
Rule.
p. For branch circuits which supply equipment classed as emergency, there shall be an
emergency supply source to which the load will be transferred automatically and im-
mediately upon the failure of the normal supply.
q. Emergency circuit wiring shall be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and
equipment and shall not enter the same-race-way, box or cabinet with other wiring
except:
a) In transfer switches, or
b) In exit or emergency lighting fixtures supplied from two (2) sources.
r. The switches installed in emergency lighting circuits. shall be so arranged that only
authorized persons have control of emergency lighting, except:
a) Where two or more single throw switches are connected jn parallel to control a
single circuit, at least one of those switches shall be accessible only to authorized
persons.
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b) Additional switches which act only to put emergency lights into operation but
not to disconnect them may be permitted.
Switches connected in series and three-and-tour-way switches shall not be allowed.
s. All manual switches for controlling emergency circuits shall be located at the most
accessible place to authorized persons responsible for their actuation. In places of
assembly, such as theaters, a switch for controlling emergency lighting systems
shall be located in the lobby or at a place conveniently accessible therefrom.
In no case shall, a control switch for emergency lighting in a theater for motion pic-
ture projection be placed in the projection booth or on the stage. However, where
multiple switches are provided, one such switch may be installed in such locations
and so arranged that it can energize but not disconnect for the circuit."'
t. Lights on the exterior of the building which are .not required for illumination when
there is sufficient daylight may be controlled by an automatic light-actuated device
approved tor the purpose.
u. In hospital corridors, switching arrangements to transfer corridor lighting in patient
areas of hospitals from overhead fixtures to designed to provide night
lighting may be permitted, that switches can only select between two sets of fix-
tures but cannot extinguish both sets at the same time.
v. The branch circuits over current devices in emergency circuits shall be accessible to
authorized persons only.
w. Where permitted by the authority having jurisdiction, in lieu of other methods
specified elsewhere in this Section, individual unit equipment for emergency il·
luminations shall consist of:
1) Battery
2) Battery charging Jlfleans, when a storage battery is used.
3) One or more lamps, and
4) A relaying device arranged to energize the lamps automatically upon failure of
the normal supply to the building.
The batteries shall be of suitable rating and capacity to supply and maintain, at not
less than 90 per cent of rated lamp voltage, the total lamp load associated with the
unit for a period of at least 1/2 hour. Storage batteries, whether of the acid or alkali
type, shall be designed and constructed to meet the requirements of emergency ser-
vice. Lead-acid type storage batteries shall have transparent jars.
Unit equipment shall be permanently fixed in palce (i.e. not portable) and shall have
all wiring to each unit installed in accordance with the requirements of any of the
wiring methods discussed in Chapter 11 of the PEC. They shall not be connected by
flexible cord. The supply circuit between the unit equipment and the service, the
feeders or the branch circuit wiring shall be installed as required by Section 12.17.
Emergency illumination, fixtures which obtain power from a unit equipment which
are not part of the unit equipment shall be wired to the unit equipment as required
by Rule 5257 of the PEC and in accordance with the one of the wiring methods des-
cribed in Chapter 11 of the PEC.
13. EffECTIVELY
a. All primary and secondary supply lines already existing shall comply with the provi·
sions of this Rule Within two (2) years from the effectivity of this Rule.
b. Transformers to be installed on, ilttached to, or in buildings shall comply with the re-
quirements of this Rule. Transformer installations already existing shall comply with
the requirements within two (2) years from the effectivity of this Rule.
c. Non-compliance with the provisions of this Rule shall be subject to the penal provi -
sions in Section 213 of PO 1096.
RULE X-MECHANICAL REGULATIONS
1. Definitions-For purposes of this Rule, the f ollowing defi nitions shall apply:
A CCI DENTAL CONTACT -Any inadvertent physical contact with power transmission
equ.ipment, prime movers. machines or machine parts which· could result from slipping,
falling. sliding, tripping or any other unplanned action or movement.
AIR ·coNDITIONING-The process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its
temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of the con-
ditioned space.
BALUSTRADES-The frames on either of the moving steps of an escalator.
BOILER -A closed vessel for heating water or for application of heat to generate steam
or other vapor to be used externally or to itself.
BUFFER - A device designed to stop a descending car or counterweight beyond its nor-
mal limit of travel by absorbing and dissipating the kinetic eneryy of the car or
counterweight.
CAGE/CAB -An enclosure for housing the operator and the hoisting mechanism,
power plant and equipment controlling a crane.
CAPACITY OF WORKS. PROJECT OR PLANT- The total horse-power of all
engines, motors, turbines or other prime movers installed, whether in operation or not.
CAR - The load-carrying unit of an elevator including its platform, frame, enclosure and
door or gate.
COMPRESSOR-A mechanical device f or the purpose of increasing the pressure upon
the refrigerant.
CON DENSER- A ve.ssel or arrangement of pipes or tubing in which vaporized re-
frigerant is liquified by the removal of heat.
CONDEMNED BOILER OR UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL -A boiler or unfired
pressure vessel that has been inspected by the Building Official and declared unsafe or
disqualified and power stamped or marked designating its rejection.
CRANE -Means a machine for lifting or lowering a load and moving it horizontally, the
hoisting mechanism being an integral part of the machine.
DUCT - A passageway made of sheet metal or other suitable material not necessarily
ieak tight, for conveying air or other gases at low pressure.
DUMBWAITER-A hoisting and lowering mechanism equipped with a car not to ex-
ceed 3861 sq. em. in area and a maximum height of 1.20 m., the capacity of which does
not exceed 277 kilos, used exclusively for carrying materials.
ELEVATOR LANDING-That portion of a floor, balcony or platform for loading or
discharging passengers or freight to or from the elevator .
ELEVATOR WIRE ROPES- Steel wire ropes attached to the car frame or passing
around sheaves attached to the car frame from which elevator/ dumbwaiter cars and
their counterweights are suspended.
ENCLOSED-Means that the moving parts of a machine are so guarded that physical
contact by any part of the human body is precluded or prevented. This does not
howeve·r prohibit the use of hinged, sliding or otherwise removable doors or sections to
permit inspection, lubrication or proper mai ntenance.
ESCALATOR-A power driven, inclined, continuous stairway for raising or lowering
passengers.
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EVAPORATION-That part of the AC/refrigeration system in which liquid refrigerant
is vaporized to produce 'refrigeration.
EXTERNAL INSPECTION - An inspection made on a boiler during operation.
GUARDED -Shielded, fencea, or otherwise protected by means of suitable enclosure
guards, covers or standard railings, so as to preclude the possibility of accidental con-
tact or. dangerous approach to persons or objects.
HOIST - An apparatus for raising or lowering a load by the application of a building
force, but does not include a car or platform. tt may be base-mounted, hook suspen-
sion, monorail, over-head, simple drum type or trolley suspension.
HOISTWA Y-A shaftway for the travel of one or more elevators or dumbwaiters.
INTERNAL INSPECTION -An inspection made when a boiler is shut down, with
hand-holes, manholes, or other openings opened or removed to permit inspection of the
interior.
LIQUID RECEIVER- A vessel permanently connected to a system by inlet and outlet
pipes for storage of a liquid refrigerant.
LOCOMOTIVE BOILER - A boiler mounted on a sel f-propelled track locomotive used
to furnish motivating power for travelling on rail s.
LOW PRESSURE HEATING BOILER- A boiler operated at pressures not exceeding
1.05 kgs/sq./m. with steam or water temperature not exceeding 250°F.
MACHINE- The driven unit of an equipment.
MACHINE HOUSE - An enclosure for .housing the hoisting mechanism and power
plant.
MACHINE PARTS -Any or all moving parts of a machine.
MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT. MACHINERY OR PROCESS - Includes steam
engines, internal combustion engine plants, hydraulic power plants, pumping plants,
refngerating plants, air conditioning plants, mill shops, factories, foundries, shipyards,
etc. containing any mechanical equipment, machinery or process, driven by steam, in-
ternal or external combustion fuel, electricity, gas, air, water, heat, chemicals or other
prime movers.
MOVING WALK - A type of horizontal passenger-carrying device on which
passengers stand or walk, with its surface remaining parallel to its direction of motion
and is uninterrupted.
POINT OF OPERATION- That part of a machine which performs an operation on the
stock or material and/ or that place or location where stock or material is f ed to the
machine. A machine may have more than one point of operation.
PORTABLE BOILER - An internally fired t}oiler which is self-contained, primarily in-
tended for temporary location.
POWER TRANSMISSION MACHINERY -A shaft, wheel, drum. pulley, system of
fast and loose pulleys, coupling, clutch, driving belt, V-belt sheaves and belts, chains
and sprockets, gearing, torque connectors, conveyors, hydraulic couplings, magnetic
couplings, speed reducers or increasers or any device by which the motion of an engine
is transmitted to or received by another machine.
PRIME MOVER -An engine or motor operated by steam, gas, air, electricity, liquid or
gaseous fuels, liquids in motion or other forms of energy whose main function is to drive
or operate, eit her directly or indirectly, other mechanical equipment.
PROCESS MACHINE- An equip.ment designed and operated for a specific purpose.
REFRIGERANT -A substance which produces a refrigerating effect by its absorption
of heat while expanding or evaporating.
TON OF R EFR I G ERA TION -The useful refrigerating effect equal to 12,000
BTU/hour; 200 BTU/minute.
TRAVELLING CABLE -A cable made up of electric conductors which provides elec-
trical connection between an elevator or dumbwaiter car and a fixed outlet in the
hoistway.
UNFIRED PRESSURE VESSEL-A vessel in which is obtained from an exter-
nal source or from an indirect application of heat.
VENTILATION - Process of supplying or removing air by natural or mechanical means
to or from any space.
2. Guarding 9f Moving and Dangerous Parts:
All prime n10vers, machines and machine parts, powers transmission equipment shall
so guarded, shielded, fenced or enclosed to protect any person against exposure to or
accidental contact with dangerous moving parts.
3. Cranes:
a. Access to the case or machines house of a conviniently placed stationary ladder,
stairs or platforms requiring a step-over, that no gap exceeding 300 milimeters is
allowed.
b. Adequate means shall be provided tor cranes having revolving cabs or machine
houses to permit the operator to enter ur leave the crane cab and reach the ground
safely, irrespective of its position.
c. Cages, cabs or machine houses on cranes shall be enclosed to protect operator dur-
ing inclement weather.
d. A gong or other effective warning device shall be mounted, on each cage or cab.
e. Temporary crane warning device may be allowed provided there is a
flagman whose sole duty is to warn those in the path of the crane or its load.
f. The maximum rated load of all cranes shall be plainly marked on each side of the
crane. If the crane has more than one hoisting unit, each hoist shall have marked on
it to its load block, its rated capacity clearly legible from the ground or floor.
4. Hoists:
a. Operating control shall be plainly marked to indicate the direction of travel.
b. Each cage controlled hoist shall be equipped with an effective warning device.
c. Each hoist designed to lift its load vertically shall have its rated load legibly marked on
the hoist or load block or at some easily visible space.
d. A stop, which shall operate automatically, shall be provided at each switch, dead end
rail or turn-table to prevent the trolley running off when the switch is open.
e. Each electric hoist motor shall be provided with electrically or mechanically operated
brake so arranged that the brake will be applied automatically when the power is cut
off from the hoist.
5. Elevators:
a. Hoistways for elevators shall be substantially enclosed through their height, with no
openings allowed except for necessary doors, windows or skylights.
b. Ropes, wires or pipes shall not be installed in hoistways, except when necessary for the
operation of the elevators.
c. Hoistway pits shall be of such depth that when the car rests on the fully compressed
buffers, a clearance of not less than 600 millimeters remains between the underside
of the car and _the bottom of the pit.
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d. When four or more elevators serve all or the same portion of a building, they shall be
located in not less than two (2) hoistways and in no case shall more than tour t41
elevators be located in any one hoistway.
e. Where a machine room or penthouse is provided at the top to a hoistway, it shall be
constructed with sufficient room for repair and inspection. Access shall be by means
of an iron ladder or stairs when the room is more than 600 millimeters above the ad-
cajent floor or roof surface. The angle of inclination of such ladder or stairs shall not
exceed 60° from the horizontal. This room shall not be used as living quarters or
depository of other materials and shall be provided with adequate ventilation.
f . Minimum number of hoisting ropes shall be three (3) for traction elevators and two
(2) for drum type elevators.
g. The minimum diameter of hoisting and counter-weight ropes shall be 30 millimeters.
h. Elevators shall be provided with over-load relay and reverse polarity relay.
i. In high-rise apartments or residential condominiums of more than five (5) stories. at
least one passenger elevator shall be kept on 24-hour constant service.
6. Escalators:
a. The angle of inclination of an escalator shall not exceed 35° from the horizontal.
b. The width between balustrades shall not be less than 558 millimeters nor more than
1.20 meters. This width shall not exceed the width of the steps by more than 330
millimeters.
c. Solid balustrades of incombustible material shall be provided on each side of the
moving steps. If made of glass, it shall be tempered type glass.
d. Each balustrade shall be provided with a handrail moving in the same direction and at
the same speed as the steps.
e. The rated speed, measured along the angle of inclination, shall be not more than 38
mpm.
f. Starting switches shall be key o p e ~ a t e d and located within sight of escalator steps.
g. Emergency buttons shall be conspicuously and accessibly located at or near the top
and bottom landings but p·rotected from accidental contact.
7. Boilers and Pressure Vessels:
a. Location of Boilers:
1) Boilers may be located inside buildings provided that the boiler room is of rein-
forced concrete or masonry and that the boiler room shall not be used for any
other purpose.
2) In case the main building is not made up of fire resistive materials, boilers shall be
located outside the bui lding at a distance of not less than 3.00 meters from the
outside wall of the main building and the building housing the boiler shall be
made up of the fire resistive materials.
3) No part of the boiler shall be closer than one meter from any wall.
4) Fire tube boilers shall be provided with sufficient room for removal/replacement
of tubes either thru the front or rear.
b. Smokestacks whether self-supporting or guyed shall be of sufficient capacity to
handle fuel gases, shall be able to withstand a wind load of 175 km per hour and
shall rise at least 5 meters above the eaves of a building within a radius of 50 meters.
c. Manufacturers/ assemblers of boilers/ pressure vessels/ pressurized water heaters
shall stamp each vessel on the front head or on any nther suitable location withe the
name of the manufacturer, serial number. maximum allowable worl<ing pressure,
heating surface in sq. m. and year of manufacture.
d. Boilers of more than 46. sq. m. heating surface shall each be provided with two
means of feeding water, one electrically driven, one pump and one injector.
e. Two check valves shall be provided between any feed pump and the boiler. in addi-
tion to the regular shut-off valve.
f. Where two or more boilers are connected in parallel, each steam outlet shall be pro-
vided with a non-return valve and shut-off valve.
g. Boiler rooms shall have at least two separated exits.
h. In no case shall the maximum pressure of an old/existing boiler be increased to a
greater pressure than would be allowed for a new boiler of same construction.
i. Each boiler shall have at least one safety valve. For boilers having more than 46 sq.
meters pressure of water heating surface or a generating capacity exceeding 907 kg.
per hour, two (2) or more safety valves shall be required.
j. Each boiler shalt have a steam gauge, with a dial range of not less than 1-1/2 times
and not more than twice the maximum allowable working pressure. It may be con-
nected to the steam space or to the steam connection to the eater column.
k. Whenever repairs/replacement are made on fittings or appliances, the work shall
comply with the section on New Installation of the Philippine Mechanical Engineer-
ing Code.
I. After a permit has been granted to install a boiler/pressure vessel/pressurized water
heater upon payment of the installation fees thereof, it .shall be the duty of the Build-
ing Official to make periodic inspection of the installation to determine compliance
with the approved plans and specifications.
m. Upon completion of the installation, the Building Official shall conduct an inspection
and test, after which a certificate of operation for a period not exceeding one year
shall be issued upon payment of the required inspection fees.
n. The Building Official shall notify the owner in writing of the intended date of the an-
nual inspection at least 15 days in advance. However, the owner may request a post-
ponement in writing of said inspection and the Building Official shall fix a date for in-
spection agreeable to both, but not to exceed 30 days from the intended date.
o. The owner or user of a boiler shall prepare the same for inspection by cooling it
down, blanking off all connections to adjacent boilers, removing all soot and ashes
from tubes, head shell, furnace and combusti9n chamber. The owner shall assist the
Building Official by providing all labor and equipment required during said inspec-
tion.
8. Refrigeration and Air Conditlonrng:
a. The temperature and humidity of the air to be used for comfortable cooling shall be
maintained at 68.74°F effective temperature at an air movement from 4.57 to 7.60
MPM within the living zone.
b. Water from evaporators, condensers and other machinery shall be properly col-
lected into a suitable water or drainage system.
c. Ducts shall be constructed entirely of non-combustible materials such as steel, iron,
aluminum or other approved materials. Only.fire retardant lining shalt-be used on the
''"iside of ducts.
d. Access doors shall be provided at aU automatic dampers, fire dampers, thermostats
and other apparatus requiring service and i n ~ c t i o n in the duct system.
e. Where ducts pass thru walls. floors or partitions, the space around the duct shall be
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sealed with fir_e resistant material equivalent to that of the wall, floor or partition, to
prevent the passage of flame or smoke.
f. When ducts or the outlets or inlets to them pass through f ire walls, they shall be pro-
vided with automatic fire dampers on both sides of the fire wall through which they
pass.
· g. Fire doors and fire dampers shall be arranged to close aut,omatically and remain
tightly closed, upon the operation of the fusible link or other approved heat actuated
device, located where readily affected by an abnormal rise of temperature in the
duct.
h. Each refrigerating system shall be provided with a legible metal sign permanently at-
tached and easily accessible, indicating thereon the name of or in-
staller, kind and total number of kgs. of refrigerant contained in the system and field
test pressure applied.
i. In refrigerating plants of more than 45 kg. refrigerant, masks and helmets shall be
used. These shall be kept in a suitable cabinet outside the machine room when not
in use:
j. Not more than 136 kgs. of refrigerant in approved containers shall be stored in a
machine room at any given time.
k. Where ammonia is used, the discharged may be into a tank of water, which shall be
used for no other purpose except ammonia absorption. At least one gallon of water
shall be provided for every 0.4536 kg. of ammonia in the system.
I. Refrigerant piping crossing a passageway in any building shall not be less than 2.3
meters above the floor.
m. In a refrigerating system containing more than 9 kgs., stop valves shalt be installed in
inlets and outlets of compressors, outlets of liquid receivers, and in liquid and suc-
tion branch header.
n. Window type ACs shall be provided with drain pipe or plastic tubing for dischargi ng
condensate water into a suitable container.
o. Window type AC installed on ground floors of buildings shall not be less than 2.13
meters from the ground.
p. Window type ACs shall be provided with exhaust ducts if the exhaust is discharged
into corridors/ hallways/ arcades/ sidewalks etc.
q. Window type ACs installed along corridors/hallways/above the first floor shall not
be less than 2. 13 meters above the floor level.
9. Water Pumping for Buildings/ Structures:
a. Installation of pumping equipment to .supply buildings/structures from existing
water supply system shall only be allowed if there is always water in the mains.
b. To maintain water pressure in all floors of a building/ structure, the following
systems may be used:
1) Overhead tank supply -may be installed above the roof supported by the
building/structure or on a separate tower.
9.2. 1. Water tanks shall be provided with a vent and an overflow pipe leading to
a storm drain and shall be fully covered.
2) Pneumatic tank - an unfired pressure vessel, initially full of air, into which water
from mains is pumped.
- A suitable pressure switch shall stop the pump when pressure required is at-
tained.
- Tanks shall be designed for twice the maximum total dynamic pressure re-
quired.
- An air volume control device shall be installed to maintain correct air volume
inside the tank.
10. Pipings:
a. Piping shall, as much as possible, run parallel to building walls.
b. Grouped piping shall be supported on racks, on either horizontal or vertical planes.
c. Piping on racks shall have sufficient space for pipe or chain wrenches so that any
single line can be altered/repaired/replaced without disturbing the rest.
d. Piping 100 millimeters in diameter and above shall be Smaller sized pipes
may be screwed .
e. Piping subjected to varying temperature shall be provided with expansion joints.
f. Galvanized piping shall not be used for steam.
g. Piping carrying steam, hot water or hot liquids shall not be embedded in concrete
walls or floors and shall be properly insulated to prevent accidental scalding to per-
sons and to minimize heat loss.
h. Color coding of piping shall be as follows:
1) Steam Division - High Pressure- White
- Exhaust system- Buff
2) Water Division - Fresh water, low pressure-Blue
- Fresh water, high pressure-Blue
- Salt water piping-Green
3) Oil Division - Delivery-Brass or 'Bronze
- Discharge- Yellow
4) Pneumatic Division - All
5) Gas Division - All piping-Black
6) Fuel Oil Division - All piping-Black
7) Refrigerating Division - Pipes-Black
- Fittings- Black
NOTE: All cases not specifically covered by t his Rule shall be in accor-
dance with the Philippine Mechanical Engineering Code.
3. ECONOMICS OF MATERIAL SELECTION
The selection of electrical materials involves not only choosing a material or assembly
that is funct ionally adequate and, where necessary, visually satisfactory, but also the
consideration of economic factors. This is necessary since, in most instances_. There is
available a multiplicity of equipment that will fulfill the construction need. In such
cases, economic factors often decide the issue.
4. ENERGY CONSIDERATION
Energy costs are a major factor in ecof)omic analysis. However, energy considerations
are at least as important, in and of themselves. In addition to purely electrical charac-
teristics, electrical equipment possesses also economic and energy ' ' ratings'' .
5. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT RATINGS·
All electrical equipment is rated for the normal service it is intended to perform. The
ratings may be in voltage. current, duty, horsepower, kw. kva, temperature, enclosure
and so on.
41
4.2
a) Voltage-the voltage rating of an item of electrical equipment is the maximum
voltage that can safely be applied to the unit continuously. It frequently, but not
always, corresponds to the voltage applied in normal use. Thus, an ordinary wall
electrical receptacle is rated at 250 v maximum, though in normal use only 1 20v is
applied to it. The rating is determined by the type and quantity of insulation used
and the physical spacing between electrically energized parts.
b) Current-the current rating of an item of electrical equipment is determined by m a x ~
imum operating temperature at which its components can operate properly con-
tinuously. That in turn depends on the type of insulation used.
A motor is rated in horsepower (or kw), transformer is rated in kva and a cable, is
rated in amperes. The criterion on which all these it base is maximum permissible
operating temperature.
6. INTERIOR WIRING SYSTEMS
The function of any wiring system is to conduct electricity from one point to another.
When the primary purpose of the system is to distribute electrical energy. it is referred
to as an electrical power •Y•tam. When the purpose is to transmit information. It is
referred to as an electrical signal system.
Due to the nature of Electricity, its distribution within a structure poses basically a
single problem: How to construct a distribution system that will safely provide the
energy required at the location required. The safety consideration is all-important, since
even the smallest interior system is connected to the utility's powerful network and the
P.Otentiat for damage, injury, and fire is always present.
The solution to this problem is to isolate the electrical conductors from the structure ex-
cept at those specific points, such as wall receptacles, where contact is desired. This
isolation is generally accomplished by insulating the conductors and placing them in
protective raceways. The principal types of interior wiring systems in use today are:
a) Exposed Insulated Cables
NM ("Romex"l, AC ("BX"I Ml (Mi'neral Insulated,
ALS, and CS. The latter two types are represent-
ative of the many metal-ja,keted types available.
This type of wiring system relies upon the cons-
truction of the cable itself for protection both of and
from the "hot" conductors, since raceways are not
required in the installation (see Sections 11 & 12).
b) Insulated Cables in Open Raceways {Trays)
This system is specifically intended for industrial application, and it relies upon
both the cable and the tray foJ· safety.
c) Insulated Conductors in Closed Raceways
This system is the most general type and is applicable to all types of wiring in all
types of facilities. It can further be subdivided into two major subcategories.
CONOUCTOR
rNSUL.ATOR
C.lOSED ~ W A Y
1. Field Assembled Systems -We include here wiring
in conduit, surface raceways, and under-
floor ducts. In general, the raceway is installed first
and the wiring pulled in or laid in later. The
raceways themselves may be:
a) Buried in the structure; for example, conduit in
the floor slab or underfloo( duct. (see sections
19 and A, B, E).
b) Attached to the structure, for example, all types
of surface raceways, including conduit and wire
ways suspended above hung ceilings. (see sec-
tions 21 and 221.
c) Part of the structure; for example cellular con-
crete and cellular metal floors (sections 20 B, and
CJ.
2. Combined Conductor and Enclosure
This category is intended to over all types of factory-constructed busway and
bus duct, plus a few special types. Application of this construction is generally
to feeder circuits, though light-duty bus duct is available for branch circuit use
as well (see sections.18, 19 and 20).
7. CONDUCTORS
Electrical conductors (wiring) are t he means by which the current is conducted through
the electrical system, corresponding to the piping in t he hydraulic analogy. By conven-
t ion, a single insulated conductor No. 6 AWG (American Wire Gauge) or larger, or
several conductors of any size assembled into a single unit, are referred to as a cabte.
Single conductors No.8 AWG and smaller are called wire.
The standard of the American wire and cable industry for round cross-section conduc-
tors is the American wire gauge (AWG). All wire sizes up to No. 0000 (Also written
4/0) are expressed in AWG. The AWG numbers run in reverae order to the size of the
wire, that is, the smaller the AWG number, the larger the size. Thus, No. 10 is a heavier
wire than No. 12 and lighter (thinner) than No. 8 the 4/ 0 size is the largest AWG desig-
nation, beyond which a different de!lignation called MCM (thousand circular mil) is us-
ed. In this designation, wire diameter Increases with number; thus 500 MCM is a
heavier wire (double the area) than 260 MCM.
A circular MU is an artificial area measurement, representing the square of the cable dia-
meter (diam2) when the diameter is expressed in mils (thousandths of an inch). Thus a
solid conductor Y2 inch in diameter is 500 mils in diameter, or 250,000
circular mils in area (500)2 or
250 MCM
CM diam2 ( 500)2
MCM = 1000 = 1000 = 1000 ~
250,000 = 250 MCM
1000
In Metric System, conductor sizes are given si mply as the diameter in millimeters (mm).
43
44
METRIC ENGLISH
SIZE
d-e Resistance
CROSS
Diameter Diameter Ohms/1000 It
SECTIONAL Size Area jlnches) { Milimeters) at TF F. 25°C
AREA mm
2
(Circular Mils) Solid Stranded Solid Stranded (Bare Copper)
1.3 16 2580 0.0508 - 1.29
-
4.10
2.0 14 4109 0.0641
-
1.63
-
2.57
3.5 12 6530 0.0808 - 2.05
-
1.62
5.5 10 10,380 0.1019 - 2.59 - 1.02
8 8 16,510 0.1285
-
3.26 - 0.64
14 6 26,240 0.162 0.184 4.11 4.67 0.41
22 4 41,740 0.204 0.232 5.18 5.89 0.26
,..
30 2 66,360 0.258 0.292 6.55 7.42 0.16
38 1 83,690 0.289 0.332 7.34 8.43 0.13
50 0 (1/0) 105,600 0.325 0.373 8.26 9.47 0.10
60 00 (2/ 0) 133,100 0.365 0.418 9.27 10.62 0.081
eo 000 (3 / 0) 167,800 0.410 0.470 10.41 11.94 0.064
100 0000 {4 f 0) 211 ,600 0.460 0.528 11.68 13.41 0.051
125 250MCM 250,000 0.500 0.575 12.70 14.61 0.043
150 300MCM 300,000 0.548 0.630 13.92 16.00 0.036
200 400MCM 400,000 0.632 0.728 16,05 18.49 0.027
250 500 MCM 500,000 0.707 0.813 19.56 20.65 0.022
8. CONDUCTOR AMPACITY
Conductor current carrying capacity or ampacity is explained above by the maximum
operating temperature that it s insulation can· stand continuously. Heat is generated as
a result of the current flowing and the conductor resistance (12R). This head is dis-
sipated into the environment. The operating temperature therefore depends on the
amount of current, the wire resistance, and the environment. Thus for a given environ-
ment (open-air or enclosed), ampacity increases with increasing conductor size. If more
than three conductors are placed in a conduit, the increase in temperature requires that
the conductors be derated in the amount as shown in this Table.
CURRENT-CARRYING CAPACITY
DERATING FACTORS
Number of Conductors
In Raceway
4 to 6
7 to 24
25 to 42
43 and above
Derating
Factor
0.80
0.70
0.60
0.50
When conductors are placed in an enclosed raceway. The heat generated is not as easi-
ly dissipated as it would be if the conductor were in free air and the temperature rise is
greater. Thus, t he current rating in free air is much higher that for the same were in con-
duit.
9. CONDUCTOR INSULATION AND JACKETS
Most conductors are covered with some type of insulation that prevents them from
contacting other wiring or the grounded raceway, and also prevents accidental contact
with the wiring lnaulatlon also serves as a physical shield to the conductor against

RA11N6 l.ES$,
TEMPERATURE RISE
IS6REATER.
FR'EI: AIR WIRE eXR:lSEO.
RATING l5 HIGHER
TEMPERATURE RISE IS LESS
heat, water and so on, although outer jackets usually accomplish this function. Using our
hydrauiic analogy, conductors are analogous to pipes; when pressure is high, pipes are
heavier; when voltage is high; insulation must be thicker.
Insulation is rated by voltage for example, 300,600, 1 ,000, 3,000. 5,000, and
15,000v. If insulation is used above its rating. it may break down causing short circuits
and arcing with the possibility of fire. Ordinary building wiring is usually rated for 300v
or 600v. The common types of building insulation are listed below:
INSULATORS-used as supports and for additional protection for wires.
General Wiring
Maximum
Trade Type Operating Application
Name Letter Temperature Provisions
Moisture- and
75" c Dry and wet
heat-resistance RHW
rubber
16JO F locations
Thermoplastic T
60° c
Dry locations
140" F
Moisture-resistant
TW
60° c Dry and wet
thermoplastic 140" F locations
Heat-resistant
THHN
90" c
Dry locations
thermoplastic 194° F
Moi.sture- and
75° c Dry and wet
heat-resistant THW
thermoplastic
167° F locations
Moisture- and
75° c Dry and wet
heat-resistant THWN
thermoplastic
167" F locations
Moisture- and 90° C
Dry locations
heat-resistant 194° F
cross-linked XHHW
thermosetting
75° c
Wet locations
polyethylene 167° F
Silicone-asbestos SA
90° c
Dry locations
194°.F
Asbestos and
110" c
Varnished AVA
230° F
Dry locations only
cambric
45
)j:>.
en

Size Type RHWb Types T, THW•, TW Types THHN, THWN Typ,e AVA Type XHHW
--
Approx. Approx. Approx. Approx. Approx.
Approx. Area Approx. Area Approx. Area Approx. Area Approx. Area
AWGC Diameter ($quare Diameter (Square Diameter (Square Diameter (Square Diameter (Square
MCM (Inches) Inches) (Inches) Inches) (Inches) Inches) (Inches) Inches) (Inches) Inches)
14 0.204 0.0327
14
- - 0.162• 0.0206• -
-
0.245 0.047 0.129 0.0131
12 0.221 0.0384
12
--
- 0.179• 0.0251•
- -
0.265 0.055 0.146 0.0167
10 0.242 0.0460 0.168 0.0224 0. 153 0:0184
10
- -
0.199• 0.0311•
- -
0.285 0.064 0.166 0.0216
8 0.311 0.0760 0.226 0.0408 0.201 0.0317
8 - -
0.259• 0.0526• -
-
0.310 0.075 0.224 0.0394
6 0.397 0.1238 0.323 0.0819 0.257 0.0519 0.395 0. 122 0.282 0.0625
4 0.452 0.1605 0.372 0.1087 0.328 0 .0845 0.445 0.155 0.328 0.0845
2 0.513 0.2067 0.433 0. 1473 0.388 0.1182 0.505 0.200 0.388 0.1182
1 0.588 0.2715 0.508 0.2027 0.450 0.1590 0.585 0.268 0.450 0.1590
1/0 0.629 0.3107 0.549 0.2367 0.491 0.1893 0.625 0.307 0.491 0.1893
210 0.675 0.3578 0.595 0.2781 0.537 0.2265 0. 670 0.353 0.537 0. 2265
3/0 0.727 0.4151 0.647 0.3288 0.588 0.2715 0.720 0.406 0.588 0. 2715
4/0 0.785 0.4840 0.705 0.3904 0.646 0.3278 0.780 0.478 0.646 0.3278
,250 0.868 0.5917 0.788 0.4877 0.716 0.4026 0.885 0.616 0.716 0.4026
300 0.933 0.6837 0.843 0.5581 0.771 0.4669 0.940 0.692 0.771 0.4669
350 0.985 0.7620 0.895 0.6291 0.822 0.5307 0.995 0.778 0.822 0.5307
400 1.032 0.8365 0.942 0.6969 0.869 0.5931 1.040 0.850 0.869 0.5931
500 1.119 0.9834 1.029 0.8316 0.955 0. 7163 1.1 25 0.995 0.955 0.7163
Source. Extracted from the National Electrical Code.
•Dimensions of THW In sizes Nos. 14 to 8. No. 6 THW and larger Is the same dimension as T.
of AHW without outer coveri ng Is the same as THW.
l
•No. 14 to No. B, solfd; No. 6 and larger, stranded. Refer to Table 15.1 for equivalent sizes In mi llimeters.
Various materials are utilized for outer coverings as wire and cable. Lead provides
moisture protection. Neoprene gives moisture, corrosion and abrasion protection.
Metal wire or Tape coverings of bronze or steel protect against rodent attack or
physical damage. ·
10. COPPER AND ALUMINUM CONDUCTORS
The use of aluminum wiring has increased because of its inherent weight advantages
over copper, with concomitant lower installation cost. However, it is not so much re-
commended because it forms an oxide, which is an adhesive and poorly conductive
film, within minutes on any exposed aluminum surface. If ever aluminum conductor is
used, it should be restricted to sizes not smaller t han #AWG. Copper conductors are
preferred in all references.
11 . FLEXIBLE METAL CLAD CABLE CBX)
Among the most common types of cable run without raceways-is the NEC type AC
metal clad cable, commonly known by the trade name "BX". It is an assembly of wires,
normally plastic insulated, bound together with a tape or braid and then wrapped with a
spiral-wound interlocking strip of steel tape. Such cabl e must have an internal metallic
bonding strip in contact with the armor for its entire length. The assembly is installed as
a unit, usually by simple U-clamps or staples holding it againts beams, walls, ceilings
and columns. This type of installation is frequently used in residences and in the rewir-
ing of existing buildings. Such armored cable can be pulled into place through existing
spaces in back of plastered surfaces, under floor joists or between studding in the
walls. Special couplings, box connectors, and other fittings are made for BX and to in-
terconnect BX with rigid conduit systems.
GOLOFf cooeo
RUBeEROR
THemAOPVGnt.

eusHING (TO
Wl25 r:R()M THJ:
TYPE AC FLEXJBLE
ARMORED CABLE (BX)
SHARP ME"D\l
OF T1iE' aJT
47
12. NON-METALLIC SHEATHED CABLE (ROMEX)
In application, the NEC types NM and NMC, also known by the trade Name " Romex"
are similar to type AC (BX). However, not having the physical protection of metallic ar-
mor, use is restricted to small buildings, that is, residential and other structures not ex-
ceeding. three floors above grade. This cable type comprises an assembly of two or
more plastic-insulated conductors and a ground wire, all coyered with a flame-
retardant, moisture-resistant plastic jacket. In the case of type NMC, the jacket is also
corrosion resistant. The plastic jacket, in Ueu of the armor on type AC, makes type NM
easier to handle but more vulnerable to physical damage.
MOISTlJRE RESJS T.-\NT
FLAME' - TlG JACKET
lq/2 WITH GROUND 600YOLTS
11
OBTAINED lN
SEc.nONSCP

CABLE IDENTlACATION i
2 NO.IO AW6
UNcoATED
CONOUC.TOR
F1BER COATED
WIRE
48
13. CONDUCTORS FOR GENERAL WIRING
The most common "building wire" types are listed in the Table under Sec. 9 and 10.
These type of wires consist of a copper conductor covered with insulat ion, and in some
instances with a jacket. Thus type TW wire concise simply of the metal conductor with
a thermoplastic (pvc) insulating covering.
UNJAC.KETEO BUILDING WIRE
TYPES T and TW
NYLON JAC,KETED CABLE
sUGh as THWN ot" THHN
Q

.5oltd- 9, 10, Nq 1(.
StranMd-

N0-2, Mo.-()0
(and

!MOISTURE ANDHI:AT-
I2e$1STANT THERMOPtAsnc
N
NYLON
HEAT RESISTANT
THERMOPLASTIC.
14. SPECIAL CABLE TYPES
a) Mineral Insulated (MU Cable
This construction, comprises an integral assembly of copper conductors, mineral in-
sulation, and outer copper jacket that serves as a'water and gas seal and continuous
ground. Because of its unique construction, it requires special fittings for termina-
tions. Despite its relatively high cost, it is often the best solution to a difficult pro-
blem. The mineral insulation is flame proof and cold resistant, and the entire con-
struction is explosion proof, lightweight, non-aging, and self-contained-making
raceways unnecessary. (No application limitations).
MINERAL INSULA TED CABLE
This 600v self-contained wiring system finds its best _application in adverse condi -
tions where conventional wire and conduit systems are not adequate. These include
extreme of heat and cold, and moisture-laden or explosive- gas environments.
Ml CABLE TERMINATION
To maintain the integrity of the Ml cable. Terminations are made with compression
rings, glands, and sealing compound. Sleeves are installed on the exposed bare con·
ductors to provide insulation between the wires and metal box.
bl Jacketed Cables
These cables comprise an assembly of two or more individually insulated conduc-
tors, cabled together and covered with a plastic or metal jacket. Metal clad cables,
due to inherent rigidity, may be installed with cable clamps. Plastic jacketed cables
require continuous support. The nature of the jacket material is determined by the
cables application. Cables intended for underground use must be designated type
UF
49
so
COlOR COoED ECO'(
FILLER MATERIAL.
BINDING TAPE
Type UF
Type TC
Type AlS
Type CS
- Plastic
- Plastic
-Aluminum
- Copper
... I"U.:::l'-.:= DESI6NA110f.JS
OUTER JAC.KET MATERIAL
The outer jacket material determined the type of support necessary metal jacketed
cables may be clamped at appropriate intervals; plastic jacketed cable must be con-
tinuously supported by tray, a messenger cable or the earth.
r----l CONDUCTOR
SHIELDJN6 TAF'fS-
!(ED PoLYETHYlENE
1N$UlATION
COI...a? -COOED TAPE
.'BINDER TAPE
c) Service Entrance Cables
HIGH VOLTAGE, 3 CONDUCTOR
INTERLOCKED STEEL-ARMORED CABLE
(This type of construction carried its own
race way and finds application indoors, in in-
dustrial and large commercial facilities.
To be discussed next chapter, which cover electric service.
15. BUSWAY
When it is necessary to carry large amounts of current (power) the usual alternatives
are to use several conductors in parallel or a single large conductor. The former solution
becomes expensive· with the increasing size and number of parallel cables, particularly
where tap offs are necessary. However the single large cable becomes increasingly in·
efficient in wire sizes above 750 MCM, large cables require more cross sec-
tion per ampere than small ones. This is not the case with flat conductors -(called
BUSBARS), leading to their use for high-current-carrying application.
Busbars are described by dimensions; thus a bar may be .!' in. x 4 in., (0.64 x 1 0) em),
5/16 in. x 6 in. {.8 x 15 em) and so on. As a rule of thumb, the current-carrying capaci-
ty of copper bus is 1000 amperes/sq. in. of cross 1 50 amperes/sq. em). Thus
a .!' in. x 2 in. copper bar is sq. in. in area and will safely carry 500 amperes. Bus is
normally constructed of solid copper and, when assembled with other bars in a metal
housing, it is referred to as busduct or busway.
The bars in a busduct, whether bare or insulated, are rigidly assembled by bolting them
to insulating supports that are then connected to a stiff metal housing. A wide variety
of fittings and joints are available to enable buswork to be installed with angles, bends,
tap-offs, and curves.
1-Line Busduct is an assembly of mold-
ed and insulated conductors rigidly
fastened in an alurrinum housing.
Housing is sectional and of aluminum
to reduce hysteresis and eddy current
losses. Design is inherently weather-
proof. Heat loss is by contact radiation
and conduction.
}
/
.... _ _,.-/'
T
A TYPICAL INSTALLATION OF
COMPAC.T DESIGN BUSDUCT
INSULATIN6 AND
PRoTEc.nve W1fN'S
CONDUC.TOR

SUPPORT HUN6
PROM CEU.IN6
I -ll Nf' BUSOOC.T
BUSDUCT is specified by material, number of buses, (normally three or four, plus
ground bus is required). current capacity, type, and voltage. In addition, maximum
voltage drop is often specified. Thus, a typical brief description of a busduct would be:
copper busduct .... 4-wire, 1 000 amp, low-impedance type, 600r; or aluminum
busduct, 3 wire, 2000 amp. plug-in type, 600v-both with a maximum fall-load.
Voltage drop of 2.5, per 100ft. at 90, power factor.
'Plug-In' refers to a design that allows devices such as switches, circuit breakers, and
so on, to be directly plugged into the busduct, similar to a common plug insertion into a
receptacle low impedance refers to a design that is specifically intended to give
minimum voltage drop.
51
52
plugs are spaced every 12. in. (0.30) on
alternate sides to facilitate connection of
plug-in breakers, switches, transformers,
or cable taps- Bars are insulated over
their enti re length.
COMPARISON
16. CABLEBUS
A Sectional View of this type of busduct
shows the ·tight assembly of conductors
within the metal Housing. This design can
be mounted in any posit ion, since heat
dissipation is by radiation this is compared
to the 8 sets of cable shown which have
the same current-carrying capacity.
This construction is similar to ventilated busduct, except that it uses insulated cables
instead of busbars these cables are rigidly mounted in an open space-f rame. The advan-
tage of this construction is that it carries the ampacity rating of its cables in free air,
which is much higher than the conduit rating, thus giving a high amperes- per
pesos/dollar first cost figure. Its principal disadvantage is bulkiness. The figure shows a
construction with 6 cables. Units are available with 3 to 18 cables sizes 250 through
1500 MCM. Corresponding· electrical ratings are from approximately 400 to 6000
amp in voltage with ·ratings of 600, 5000, and 15,000v.
When considering first cost alone, the advantage lies in cable by adding the energy- less
consideration shifts, the advantage to cable tray and interlocked armor cables. A dif·
ferent system is used to advantage by considering the change in feeder ler,gth, the
number of taps, hours of operation, energy rates, etc.
L-OWER SUPmP.'r
SLOCI<
JN,T,A.I..U:D

:NSULATED tA131,.gS
AAVt:; A FIU!E- AIR
1'2'AnN6,
YIELPIN6 A
AMPE'i:E- PIOR PcUAI't
OR. Pfi!'.SO FM.TOR. AR
THIS' ASS'E:MCJI.Y.
TYPICAL CABLEBUS CONSTRUCTION
FLAT CABLE ASSEMBLIES AND LIGHTING TRACK
Two special construction assemblies that act as light duty (branch circuit) plug-in bus-
ways are widely used.
1st " FLAT CABLE ASSEMBLIES" - is field constructed;
2nd "LIGHTING TRACK" -is factory prepared and field mounted.
a) Flat Cable Assemblies
A specially designed cable consisting of two, three or four conductors, No. 10
AWG, is field installed in a rigidly mounted standard 1 5/8 in. Square structural
channel. Power tap devices, installed where required, puncture the insulation of one
of the phase conductors and the neutral. Electrical connection is then made to the
pigtail wires that extend from the tap devices. This connection can extend directly
to the device or to an outlet box with a receptacle, which then acts as a disconnect -
ing means for the electric device being served. In this fashion lights, small motors,
unit heaters, and other single-phase, light-duty devices can be served without the
necessity of " hard" (conduit and cable) wiring.
53
PLASTIC BOOYWITH
ANO
PINS AT TOP
T/GI4TENIN6
FLAT CABLE ASSEMBLY INSTALLATION
The unit illustrated is a 4 conductor, Fe
cable. Only a single phase may be tapped,
thus limiting the application to single-
phase t20v or 277v d_evices. If the top is
removed the ·pin holes in the pvc insula-
tion "heal" maintaining the integrity of
the insulation.
..---t GAeLE - - - - --- - ---"11
t+---! NEUTRAl.
TAP BOOY PHASE z. W1r;?E
.5rRUC:TURAL.
f'leSSUrtS P't.ATB
M---f HOLt>lNG- So\DOLE
f-----{ NlpPl..E
I COUBLE La:I<NUTS.
ounET eQ<
a) Can energize a receptacle in an outlet
box.
SUSPENDED FlXTURE
b) A lighting fixture can be hung from
the Fe cable channel with a Fixture &
Hanger.
STRUT

Til..OCJ<N UT
COMBINATION OF TAP & HANGER
b) lighting Track
This is a factory- assembled channel with conductors for one to four circuits per-
manently installed in the track. Power is taken from the track by special tap-off de-
vices that contact the tract's electrified conductors and carry the power to the
attached lighting fixture the tracks are generally rated 20 amperes, and unlike Flat
Cable (Fe) assemblies. they are restricted to 120v.

LIGHTING TRACK,
The electrified conduc-
tors are permanently
installed in the alumi-
num track, which is
grounded for safety .
Tracks and insert
plugs are available in
single circuit design
(a) and multiple circuit
design.
55
18. CABLE TRAY ..... OPEN RACEWAY
Is a continuous open support for approved
cables. When used as a general wiring sys-
tem the Cables must be self-protected, jacket-
ed types, type TC. The advantages of this
system are free-air rated cables, easy installa-
tion and maintenance, and relatively low cost.
The disadvantages are bulkiness and the re-
quired accessibility.
CABLE mAY
SUPR>Rl'EO FH\?M
11-U:;: CEILING 6Y

GABLES WITH
\...-----1 INTl'!eRAL. ME£HANICAL
PROTEcTION
19. CLOSED RACEWAYS
Included here are conduit pipes, surface raceways and underfloor ducts which are first
installed, then t he wiring is inserted and pulled in later .

A) Steel Conduit
The purpose of conduit is to:
al Protect t he enclosed wiring f rom mechanical and corrosion.
b) Provide a grounded metal enclosure for the wiring in order to avoid shock
hazard.
c) Provide a system ground path.
d) Protect surroundings against firehazard as a result of overheating or arcing of
the enclosed conductors.
el Support the conductors
This rigid metallic conduit or raceway must be corrosion resistant. There are four
(4) ways in which steel conduit is manufactured.
a} Hot-d.p. galvanized (dipped into molten zinc}.
b) Enameled (coated with a corrosion - resistant enamel).
c) Sherardized (coated with zinc dust).
d) Plastic covered.
There are three (3) types of steel conduit that differs basically only in wall thick-
ness.
a) Heavy-walt steel conduit or simply called " Rigid Steel Conduit".
!>liT =Q i .. SIDE <OA><ElER -
b) Intermediate Metal Conduit, usually referred to as IMC.
a r : = ~ A M · -
c) Electric Metallic tubing, normally known as EMT or thin-wall conduit.
- - ~ - - ..
---
GALVANIZeD, HE!AVY WAL.L, Rl610 CONDUIT
·-- ------------- . )
J. ----=--=-----
EMT THIN WALL
PLASTIC COATED CONDUIT FOR
USE IN HIGHL'I' CORROSIVE ATMOSPHERES
Rigid Steel conduit and intermediate metal conduit use the same fittings and are
threaded alike.
As a result of its thin walls, EMT is not threaded instead it uses set screw and pres-
sure f itting not recommended for imbedding in concrete and not permitted in
hazaradous areas.
IMC yield a larger ID or inside diameter for easier wire pulling and is lower in weight
than the rigid steel conduit.
57
58
The nominal trade sizes of conduits are
00000000000
Vz", 3/4", 1", , Vz", 2", 2Vz, 3" , 3Vz", 4", 5", and 6"
Standard length is 10 feet (3.00 m) with couplings.

When steel conduit is installed in direct contact with the earth! it is advisable to use
hot-dip galvanized type and to coat the joints with asphaltum.
The selection of conduit size depends on the number and diameter of the wires that
may be drawn into the conduit without injuring the wire. The number and radius of
bends in the conduit, as well as its total length, affect the degree of abrasion to the
wiring insulation.
Long, straight pulls may be through as much as 200 feet (up to 64 meters) of con-
tinuous conduit without bends. The NEC states that no wire shall be spliced, con-
nected, or tapped then drawn into the conduit so that the connection is within the
conduit itself. All such connections shall be made within connection boxes .
. .
. ......
. . ..

....
•. .. . •<.
TYPICAL OVERHEAD CONDUIT INSTALLATION
PUll BOXES, CONNECTION BOXES
In order to provide access to the conduits for installing the necessary wires and for
making connections to them, the continuous conduit runs are interrupted at fre-
quent intervals by sheet-metal or cast-metal boxes. These boxes are usually of a
rectangular, Octagon, or round form having punched holes to fit the conduits which
.terminate in them. The threaded ends of the conduit are held rigid in the holes by
means of a bushing on the inside and a locknut on the outside of the box. The bush-
ing is tapered and rounded to provide a smooth entrance to the inside of the con-
duit.
La.KNU1 '
SUSHING-
WIRE --
METAl. BOX - ·
CONPUt,.
J ---
. --
...
. J- ---- -- --
-< __
·····
0:
!c
\C) l. __ ..

. . 0 I
,,
0 jl
,•
!I o
··-P
,_- ·-·-·-:..::-;;..:.· :::;_j-:;;;.
59
60
For structural reasons, conduit in concrete slabs are run close to the bottom surface
(in the portion of the slab in Tension) or near the Central portion. In many instances,
the structural slab is covered with a concrete topping, in whi ch conduit may be in-
stalled without affecting slab integrity, In any event the top of any conduit shall be
at least 3/ 4 inch below the finished floor surface in order to prevent cracking.
In general, the following rules should be observed and included in all spedfit:ations
for conduit work in concrete slabs.
1) Conduits shall have an outside diameter (00) no greater t han 1/3 of the slab
thickness as measured at its thinnest point.
2) Conduits running parallel to each other shalt be spaced not less than three times
the OD of the largest conduit center-to-center .
31 Conduits running parallel to beam axis shall not run above beams.
4) Conduit crossing shall be as near to a right angle as possible.
5) Minimum cover over conduits shall be 3/4".
B) Aluminum Conduit
The use of aluminum conduit has increased greatly in recent years because of the
weight advantage that aluminum has over steel, being even lighter than EMT. The
savings in laborcost more than offsets the additional cost of the material it self . In
addition, aluminum has better corrosion resistance in most atmospheres. It is non-
magnetic, giving lower voltage drop; it is nonsparking; and generally, it does notre-
quire painting.
Its major drawback is its deleterious effect on many types of concrete, causing
spalli ng and cracking when embedded. It is also inadvisable to bury aluminum in
earth because of the rapid corrosion often encountered.
C) Flexible Metal Conduit
This type of conduit construction- which consists of empty spirally wound inter-
locked armor raceway-is known to the trade as ''Greenfield." It is used principal-
ly for motor connections or other locatiors where vibration is present, where move-
ment Is encountered, or where physical obstruction make its use necessary. The
acousti c and vibration isolation provided by flexible conduit is one of its most im-
portant applications. It should always be used in connections to motors, trans-
formers, ballasts and the like. Flexible conduit is available in galvanized steel. brass,
bronze, and aluminum, in all standard trade diameters and with requisite fitings.
Dl Liquid- tight Flexible Metal Conduit
This conduit is of the same construction as flexible conduit, except that it is
covered with a ·liquid- tight jacket. It is not intended as a general purpose conduit,
its use being restricted to connections where flexibility and imperviousness to li-
quid is required. The trade name "sealtite" is most often applied to this product.
E) Non-Metallic Conduit
A separate classification of rigid conduit covers raceways that are formed from
such! materials as fiber, asbestos-cement, soapstone, rigid poly-vinyl chloride (pvc).
and high density polyethylene. These materials when utilized as an electric raceway
must be so labeled and must be resistant to moisture and chemical corrosion .
....
For use above ground. this conduit must be flame retardant, tough and resistant to
heat distortion, sunlight, and low temperature effects. For use undergound the last
two requirements are waived. Due to physical limitations, pvc conduit is the
material of choice for indoor exposed used and asbestos cement, fiber and pvc
plastic for outdoor and underground use.
Fl Metal Surface Raceways
Surface metal raceways and multi outlet assemblies may be utilized only in dry, non-
hazardous, uncorrosive location and may generally contain only wiring operating
below 300v. Such raceways and normally installed in exposed condition and in
places not subject to physical injury. The principal applications of surface metal
raceways are:
a. Where the architecture does not permit recessing.
The exposed wood mem-
bers require the use of an
unobtrusive surface race-
way. A small flat race-
way feeds receptacle out-
lets into which the ela-
borate hanging fixtures
are plugged.
b. Where economy in construction weighs very heavily in favor of surface race-
ways.
c. Where outlets are required at frequent intervals, and where rewiring is required
or anticipated.
d. Where access to equipment in the raceways is required.
e. Where rewiring existing installations to avoid the extensive and expensive cut-
ting and patching required to "bury" a raceway.
61
62
Wireways and troughs are sheet metal enclosures with hinged or removable
covers, which may be utilized to carry up to 30 conductors. rated 600v maximum
in dry, non-hazardous, noncorrosive locations and where not subject to physical
abuse. Splices and taps are permitted in such raceways, making them particularly
useful for feeding groups of starters, switches and other equipment that may be
nippied into the trough and its wiring spliced at that point. Another advantage of
this type of raceway is that the hinged or removable cover exposes all the conduc-
tors to full view and access for replacement, inspection, addit ion of other wiring,
and so on.
Available in 2 W' x 2 .W' 4" x 4"
4" x 6" and 6" x 8"
and in 1·, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 10 ft. lengths .

.··"' /' _____... ·
1CJ==- .. ·- ---·-· n

lj
! j
! .
·No.aooo
_ .........
i)4''
NOT DI?..A.WN 7t> SCALE
20. FLOOR RACEWAYS
The NEC recognizes three types of floor raceways
' underfloor raceways
' cellular metal floor raceways
'cellular concrete floor raceways
A) Underfloor Ducts . . . . UF
These raceways which may be installed beneath or flush with the floor, are covered
find their widest application iri office spaces, since their use p€rmits placement of
power and signal outlets immediately under desks and other furniture, regardless of
furniture layout. Where such underfloor raceways are not employed, and it is
desired to place an outlet on the floor, one of the following methods is necessary.
a. Channel the floor and install a conduit in the chase, connecting it to the nearest
wall outlet. Patch the chased portion.


b. Drill through the floor and run a conduit on the ceiling below to an outlet below.
c. Drill through the floor twice and connect the new outlet to an existing outlet via
a conduit on the ceiling below, (This is expensive and disturbs the occupant
below)
CSIL\NG3'
d. Install a surface floor raceway.
Underfloor duct systems are available in two basic designs-single level and two
level.
63
64
puq
\ 'ILA1Efl.AL
I TAl<J!!OFF
• Ft..COIZ ELff.l\N
In a single-level system all the system components are on the same level-the
feeder ducts from the panels, the ducts with inserts for floor outlets
and, most important. The junction boxes. As the number of parallel distribution
ducts grows with the size of the open floor area and the density of the furniture
layout, the need for more feeder ducts and consequently larger and more complex
junction boxes also grows.
A modern office floor layout almost invariably requires a triple duct system (Power,
Telephone, and signal). Since power and Telephone wiring most be separated by
metal barriers, the junction boxes becomes complex and consequently large and
deep. The depth of these boxes obviously controls the amount of concrete fill re-
quired. A simple single-level system requires a minimum concrete fill of 2 .1-S in.,
while a complex one can easily require an inch more. With such a concrete fill re-
quirements, a two-level system with its flexibility becomes desirable.
WAL.L ·.__..
ELE!CtYV ;
SJN6LE LON
1
OUTLET h
I
'
/
I
I 001.J8LE.
r: TEN$lON c:)U'llJ:f
The two-level system has its Feeder and distribution ducts on different levels thus
eliminating the necessity for complex junction boxes. This gives the system un-
limited feeder capacity and thereby obviates the necessity for supplementals con-
duit feeds, as in the single-level system. The drawback of this sytem is the conduit
fill required. A minimum of 3 5/ 8 in. is required through additional slab thickness
throughout can be avoided by depressing part of the slab to accomodate the feeder
ducts.
65
66
DUCTS
• f

. 4
JOISTS
INSERTS TO BE
2EMDVED LATeR ON
r
ceNTER 1lfE
STEEL OF t.£A."'-'M
A TYPICAL TWO·LEVEL JUNCTION BOX
Underfloor duct systems are expensive. They add 50% to the buildings electric
system cost, without consideration of the construction costs involved. To justify
their use, the buildign should meet these criteria.
a. Open floor areas, with a requirement for outlets at locations removed from walls
and partitions-:·
b. Outlets from ceiling systems unacceptable.
c. Frequent rearrangement of furniture and other items requi ring electrical and
signal service.
Example of facilities that may meet these criteria are prestige office buildings,
museums and galleries, high-cost merchandising areas, and selected areas In in·
dustrial facilities.
8) Cellular Metal Ftoor Raceway
Random arrangements, such as these found in office landscaping, require a fully ac-
cessible floor- if indeed the floor is to be used for electrification. (The underfloor
duct system described in A) is best applied to known furniture. Layouts and the rec-
tilinear arrangements).
This is best provided by a cellular (metal) floor that. is integrated structural/electrical
system. The floor can be fully or partially electrified. A floor designed with two or
three electrified. A floor designed with two or three electrified cells adjacent to
several cells of structural floor, will give sufficient coverage for all purposes. Fur-
thermore, the electrified ceUs can be arranged to feed lighting outlets in the floor
t)elow.


IN f!LEC'f'Rli-I!.P
RlcSET INSERT CAN ae.'"
TO PROv"'tE R:IWER AND PliCJE.
CN 80TH SIDES PARTITIONS fll,Aa! a-1
THE MODULE LINE· BE
f'U)Jc:H IN S'OV;.'-f!RE D
a: u.s .-J--· ...
IS JIVI(.S). F'GU.QV
A PRE£lt!Tl:JtMIN&f> MI:O-
ll.E . SOME ARe. AG11\Im!P
JNI1WJ. Y, Cmt:'l?$ Ql N BE
,I,S WNI:lJ
t>ITU£ N«'".
POWER.
SlpNAL. WUtiNG
f'l..OOFf CEU$

Art!) -'"NAt. 'Jt) nf r: f'Ra:eT .....__./
67
DETAIL t>
• SEE PET.-\tL C
PRESET I ~ T ;
SEE ~ T ..... Il-,S
( ~
68
DeTAIL C.
C) Precast Cellular Concrete
The structural concrete system is similar to cellular metal floor in application. A cell
is defined as a "single, enclosed, tubular space in a floor made of precast cellular
concrete slabs, the direction of the cell being parallel to the direction of the floor
member. Feed for these cells is provided by header ducts, which is normally install-
ed in concrete fill above the hollow core structural slab, although feed from the ceil-
ing below is also practicaL The cells can be used for air distribution and even for
piping.
... ; . ,-- PE'RMA.NENT
/. FINISH P1a:R 1'1LJIL
GelLING ADOPTER
IXTlJRES
fViT'E
'·· · 'TRI5Nc:H . H""""'""
FLUSH CEl JN& CUTLET
C.Ell.ING -
-=r
. .. : .•
. . . ..
.. . ..
....... : .
Of?II..L z)i HOLE lN THE. FlEL.O. --
•;. FIRST, j, •;;.
TOP
...... .. , ....... , ...... .
; -· ..


•.:
toNNEtT/DN
FOR t'ONDUIT
• ' . ) • 4
/
;;.;.:
' s:ECc:N D :>c eE W
BoTTOM PL4n=.
Tt>f'
APAf'feR
..... $ our
LCNI>\Jt / \ ··,.," SCREW
f"lX'Tl.J!ZS. BAit
69
21. CEILING RACEWAY SYSTEMS
The need for electrical flexibility in facilities with limited budgets coupled with the high
cost of underfloor electrical raceway systems encouraged the development of equi-
valent over-the-ceiling systems. These systems are actually more f lexible than their
underfloor counterparts, since they energize lighting as well as provide power and tele-
phone facilities; Furthermore they permit very rapid changes in layouts at low cost.
This last characteristics is particularly desirable in stores where frequent display
changes necessitate corresponding electrical facility changes.
It is now allowed by NEC, wireways to be run inside hung ceilings, fixtured be fed by
lengths of unsupported raceways (Floor-to-ceiling system}, splices inside wireways,
and plug-in type connections in accessible ceiling spaces. (Hung ceilings with lift-out
tiles are classified in this respect as accessible spaces). An additional advantage is that
it itself can be altered at will since it is not cast in concrete. Thus, not only layout
changes in the utilization of existing spaces can readily be accommodated.

/VI::SWA'f TEUimoNiii.
1'ltLe m.a
FOR DETAILS SEE
FIGURE ON NEXT
PAGE

PERMIT
1CL.. t.-\St.Es

WlTitDUT

70
G- 4fOO 1.1\ lt=l?AL
TgLEPI'!ONE
PlJJGMOlP, W1nt
SJ'W>'-0\L IN 6 ·"tOOo LA "lt=lq\L

Header dum (wireways) connect to electrical panels and telephone cabinets in the
and telephone closets, respectively. Telephone headers are normally of larger
size than the power header and .can carry other low-voltage signal equipment as well
Distribution ducta (laterals) tap onto the headers. These laterals may act as subdistribu-
tion wireways (foreground) or may feed fixtures and poles directly. Power feeds f rom
these laterals are made by means of plugs and receptacles, thus eliminating the cost in-
volved in the "hard" wiring of fixtures; this allows the desired flexibility.
Poles carrying telephone and. i 20v power <.fawn to the desk level can be fed from
laterals above, below, in, or on the ceiling as desired. (Good for big office spaces,
libfaries).
0054 /
SERlE$ r/
.,
KA IZSY f?Ea:?TA·
eLf! r
126 FO<.U:;::

[1]}
fr- f
SECTION A
TELE- POWER. POLE
(of different dimensions, outlets, bases and colors)
71
cEILING
G·40X>
FEEDER

-+---.
z l.i- S"
Tf!.IJ!. R:>'NEfl 1-r--··-----.3)11
POL..S
72
T. 1--- - ---
SUSPENPP.D
c.elLING l----=-::no
f--- ---- r _ _...,......
PIVIDEI<.

G'ASL.a
iEl.E fti£ !---·
22. PREWIRED CEILING DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
In an effort to·reduce the on-site labor cost of systems such as those described earlier,
a number of manufacturers have produced pre-wired plug-i n t ype equipment that re·
duces the field assembly time drastically. The reasoning behind this is that factory labor
cost is considerably lower than field labor cost, and therefore a considerable
savings can be effected. An ancillary benefit is that a plug-in type system is simply and
rapidly altered if required.
This f igure shows schematically how such as system yould be employed t o feed a
group of necessed f lourescent troffers i n a typical hung ceiling installation.
See illustrations on next page.
23. BOXES AND CABINETS
In this category are included pull boxes. Splice boxes are placed in raceway runs at
points where splices or taps must be made; the NEC prohibits having splices inside con-
duits. (Splices are permitted in wireways and troughs with removable covers). Pull
boxes are placed in conduit runs where it is necessary to interrupt the raceway for a
wire pulling point. This depends on the pulling friction in the system. The size of the pull
boxes depends on the number and' size of incoming conduits, the direction in which
conduits leave, and whether or not splices will be made i n the box.
When a box is equipped with a hinged door and contains some equipmef!t other than
wiring, such as terminal board, it is referred to as a cabinet. All boxes must be equipped
with tightly fitting, removable covers.
,. CF
' 6l1X CONNEC'Tt>R 'Wi-+I C.
INn> ne
S.)fft=.l21orz. .ss-cneti

IN BJV<NcH Sj;T
SttE£:T M=r-,A.L
. PIJLL BoX
73
...
ELECTRICAL
chapter SYSTEMS and
MATERIALS
SERVICE and
UTILIZATION
ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS
AND MATERIALS
SERVICE AND UTILIZATION
76
1 . ELECTRIC SERVICE
Service is normally tapped onto the utility lines at a mutually agreeable point at or
beyond the property line. The service tap may be a connection on a pole with an
overhead service drop to the building, an underground service lateral to the b_!l ilding, or
a connection to an underground utility line with a service lateral to the building.
Servi ce from the utility line to the building may be run overhead (OH) or underground
(uG). depending on the following condit ions:
a, Length of service run
b. Type of terrain
c. Budget limitations
d. Utili ty company voltage
e. Site and nature of electric load
f. Importance of appearance
g. Local practices and ordinances
h. Maintenance and service continuity
i . Weather conditions
2. OVERHEAD SERVICE
Depending on terrain and other factors, the cost of overhead as compared to
underground installation is in the range of 10% to 50%.
Overhead cables are of several types: bare, weatherproof or preassembled aerial cable.
Bare copper cable supported on porcelain or glass insulators on crossarms is normally
used for high voltage !2.4 kv and higher) lines. Secondary oircuits at 600v and below
are generally run on porcelain spool secondary racks with 1/c weatherproof cable as
the conductor. Preassembled aerial cable consists of three or four insulated cables
wrapped together with a metallic tape and suspended by hooks from the poles. This
type of construction may be used up to 1 5 kv. (more economical).
STe:'EL- I..ABL.e.
Preassembled aerial messenger cable
(carried by steel messenger cables clamped to the wall)
A typical detail of an overhead electrical service entrance to a multiple is
shown in the following Figure.

...,------·····-·-··--····--·---


::;,
:E




Cl


It!
0,
"'
r-
Y.ETER sua<ET -·l .
l""--·-·--··--··--·--- ',4'
.
!
!.') .
(.'..;
'jl
' ,.-·-
·t--·------··--··-···-:
!
t.n I
\'I
6AL
1
/.41'JIZED
F .. TTT:NG ___, . .,
;:_..,ROUND
LLAM?
r--....................
tJ '
E;"-H"R.a..NCE OR( WEATHERHEAD
-=oR ,.:0!-JOUiT)
.3- 0.")\:[.X.J::;-r:;:;< ,c.;:: EN-:" RANCE
".:.ABLE, .;l: 8MIN. cr ( 6'\LVANIZED (
- MiNf'}
WATERTIGHT CONNt:.LTC'R
(()111:tted :1 (..on.durt
.lrcc
.. ··-t/:'TCH
3. UNDERGROUND SERVICE
78
advantages- attractiveness (lack of overhead visual clutter)
-service reliability and long life
disadvanta9es- high cost
-To eliminate high cost, utilities frequently use direct burial techniques
which, by eliminating the raceway, reduce costs considerably, since
di rect buried cable cannot be pu11ed out if it faults, as would be the
case with a raceway installed cable.
4. UNDERGROUND WIRING
Methods available
a) Direct Burial
al low cost and ease of
installation.
c) offers high strength
and permanence, ex-
pensive.

SLAB
CT2S?SOTE
rlll PLANic.
b) IT!edian cost but little
strength
., • "'"." . ..it 7·. 4 ··'ff' : "CC' .... ". :
. i· b .• 4 . . • . •
.. . .
CABLE SHALL BE. LAID WITit
A Ll Tll-E SMKING TDALLOVY
Fz:>R. EARTH 5'ETTliNG AND
6-\BI..E I= X PANS"ION..
When underground electric wiring is duct installed and the run extends over several
hundred feet.
A pulling handhole or manhole is necessary. This is often used for high voltage cable.
Cable usually used is theSE Type U, or Use.
5. SERVICE EQUIPMENT
a.rr"ER R-AME'
MCISTJ.m:E= RE.s1>rANT
GLA$- COTIDN/ WHll ALUMINJJ.,
tcWlX:l'Z>R

"Transformer" between the high voltage incoming utility lines and the secondary ser-
vice conductors is required whenever the building voltage is different from the utility
voltage. It may be pole or pad-mounted outside the building, or installed in a room or
vault inside the building.
6. TRANSFORMERS
Are devices that changes or transforms alternating current of one voltage to alternating
current of another voltage. Transformers cannot be used on d-e Transformers may be
pole or pad mounted outside the building, or installed in a room or vault inside or out-
side the building.
Step up -a transformer rated 120/480v transforms lower volt, 120v acto 480v
a-c bigger load.
79
80
Step down- to transform a bigger load to lower voltage.
12ov
---7 To Rt:cc -
TI'\Cl.J:: P.
Sf:l'?v/CE
120v, 208v, 240v, 277v. and 480v-secondary voltage
2400v, 4160v. 7200v. 12,4 70v, l3.200v are primary voltages
If the voltage coming in is Low, that is if a l20v outlet gives only 95v, then a step up
still can be used to maintain the same 11 Ov but this time, the equipment is a direct
plug-in to·the receptacle.
f10
DlRECT PLU6
IF95V
~
- ~ ,.
tl:<--9sv
IF l1:JN VOLTAGE
GOMES lN
REAVDUT MU BE
110V PUIG TQ 110V
STEP UP U ~ A5 A
8005TER
200V
IF \,
~
DIRECT A..UG
IF LOW VOLTAGE
COlV1ESIN
200V
READ oor
220
<E,TEP DOWN USED AS A
BOOSTER
Transformers are available in 3-phase construction or single-phase construction.
Transformer power capacity is rated in kva (kilovolt-amperes).
For a single-phase unit, this figure is the product of the full load current and the voltage
thus a 1 OOkva transformer will carry at full load; 2400/1 20v.
W va
1=-orl=--
v v
Primary current 1 =
1
00,000va = 41.6 amperes
2,400v
Secondary current 1
1
OO,OOOva = 832 amperes
120v
VOLTAGE- V A ~ lEe;.
AMPERES- VARIES
81
82
UTILIT'1' PCLE WITH
HIGH-VOLTAGE 93<V'ICE

EXTERIOR
10 1W/W&Y
ST'EP-UP
1W/W8 to v
\20/ZOS
NOTE: There are appliances manufactured now which has an automatic switch
transfer at inside such that the appliances, example is a t.v. can be switched
directly to either a 11 Ov outiet or 220 v outlet.
7. SERVICE EQUIPMENT ARRANGEMENTS AND METERING
GONNCC110N
poiNTS
GERVIGE.
CONDUCTORS
0METERIN6

SERVICe TJ<AN5FOR'MER
TRANSR)RMER
£ERVICE SWITCHES
Meteri ng must be provided at either the utility or the facility voltage, and at either the
service point or inside the buildings which must be accessible to the utility meter
reader. Generally, for a single-use or a building where electric energy is in-
cluded in the rental charge, only a single meter is necessary.
see illustration on next page figure a
To discourage energy waste in apartments, master metering is forbidden. Where sub·
metering is required, such as apartment houses, banks of meter sockets are installed to
accommodate the multiple meters.
see illustration on next page figure b


\
SINGLI::. LINE DIAGR4M
INCOMING,
LOAD

IN

LIRCUJT S'R!::AK
l=R.
-
(

TRAN5Fa<MeR

...
Sa<'JIC.E
LOW V<?L 1Aa:: -
6ERVIL.E oF 4® '
l..AI<G!==R
FIGURE .A.

0

..
0 0
• •

B.

ciJCUIIT BR£51\KER OR
_,.......,., t/IAIN Pr<OTFCTION roR
THE INVOLvt=O
0

8. SERVICE SWITCH
The purpose of the electric service switch is to disconnect all the electric service in the
building except emergency equipment. Thus in the event of fire, no electrical hazard
will face f ire fighters. It is therefore obvious that this disconnecting apparatus must be
located at a readily accessible spot near the point the service conductors enter the
building. The service switch or "service disconnecting means" may comprise one to
six properly rated switches. These are frequently assembled into a switchboard.
83
84
9. SWITCHES
An electrical switch is a device intended for on/off control of an electrical circuit and is
rated by current and voltage, duty, poles and throw, fusibility and enclosure. The cur-
rent rating is the amount of current that the switch can carry continuously and interrupt
safely, Switches are rated as 250v, 600v, or 5kv as required. Switches intended for
normal use in light an power circuits are called general-use safety switches and are
rated NO for normal duty. Switches intended for frequent interrupting are rated HD tor
heavy duty. Switches intended to be opened load only occasionally, such as service
switches, are rated LD for light duty .
. . ···. · : : : · : ~ : · ~ \ · . · ..:· .. ' .. ·: ::.:_. .... ·.

..
·.
' ,.
,;
..
· .
..
..
·:.:
..
· .
..
·.
TYACAL HEAVY DUTY Oi.D) I 3 POLE
FUSIBLE SWITCH IN INDUSTRIAL
TYPE NEMA ENCLOSURE
(J)
NUMBER OF POLE& AND THROWS OF A SWrTtH
--o '-NOCDNTAGT
·----r

NO-NORMALOPEN I
L ____ j
a) POLE. $INGLE-THI<?OW 9/VITCH
r----,

I
GOURGE 1

.b.) IWO- POLE: <;.tNGLE-THROW
c) THREE-FOLE anJ WLID NEUTRAL
( 3 P .ar0 GN ) >'r'VITC H
r---
l': TO LDAD
to
6CURCE it 2. I I
...;:......,:;;;;.... _ ___..,I..OO I
L---..J
J) - POLE DOUBI-t rHROW GWITCH
WITH a:NTER ''a:F'' pa61110N (IN ca-IT!iWL
W(J;!.I< A n. 'INt> AUTOMAIIC )
TO I...OAO
-
e) RJLE lXlJBLE
( ALGOCALLEDA
85
t-TO'T
NEUTRAL
Example a Stairway
86
I
L- ---.1
U£,E OF 1WO(Z.) .SINGLE- OOUE3LE-
(3 -W"-Y) f,WJTCHING OF A UGifTING
C:.IRCUlT IWO LaAl"!CNS
THlS IS IN •OFF" A)SITIOH
f( NO
T'O RJT IT ON {;a
ntEIC'E WU...L Be
AND 1ltE UwHT WJU..
GO ON
A
Unless otherwise noted, a switch is assumed to be single throw. Since the NEC states
generally that the grounded neutral conductor of a circuit should not be broken, most
switches carry the neutral through unbroken, by means of a solid link within the
switch. This gives· rise to the term Solid Neutral ISNI Switch. Switches are available in
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5-pole construction. Poles are indicated by a "P"; thus 3-pole is written
"3P", and so on.
A switch may be constructed with or without provision for fusing. If provided, the
switch is fusible; if not, the switch is nonfusible.
...
S.P. SlN6LE RX..E SWlTCH
GR00t-ID6".D L INii
+
SPOT SINGLE R:>l.E.
DOUBLE llROW
87
88
A
B
A
SWtT<:H
JS ON
fROM B
OR
s
.....
'' OFf'
FR0"'1 A
Mt=ll-iOD RUNNING ONE L\\.E WIRE INTO 60TH
SWI-n::HE!S. I3Y 11-US TAP
LAMP CAN BE tv1.AJ:e.
THREE WAY SPOT ONE LAMP t.ONlROLLED
FRDM TWtJ Pl.k:E -
USE lWO(t.) WAY SNAP
'
' •
I
,
s
"
I
I
AF'TE'R SWITCHJN& FROM A'
ON J AND c. G OR S.V\Tu-i
7o oFF FRoM' a', You MAY
ALSO SWITCH ON FROM B
eur s,WlT<=t-t OfF
SWffCH Off fROM 'f5
A
$3'-...
,...,
t-
l..--' -

7
7
..
\

-
.SWITCH ON S
f'ROM
+-
A 8
SWITCH ON FROM A'
OA ..
89
+
90
'iDW A 3· ""R>GGI..E WORKS
( lltE A AND B IS SHUNTED
Ttti!:JlE-BY BEa>MING Tlic a:>MMON OF
1l+E IWO KNlVES).
SWITlH I>
LINE I .CONNEl.fS Tb L.tNc 2.
+
J3ETTEJ:\
(+
"
'
....
...
' _,
_ __..__:::.a....._.. I
.....
'
"
\
\

Sot...... . /
..... ._
---
-:-.
' ...
OFF
HeRE. THE 5AAP HA5 1WO KNlVES
K- 1, WH1tli a:>NNEc15 THE CF THE

ON
HERE TliE SNAP S'NITl::H K- 1 lONNE,TS
LINE$ AND· REO ANt> K-2
BLACK AND R'ED
-
91
HOW A FOUR-WAY SWJTCH WORKS
r-- ---------,
I I
UtE1 A
\
t
92
I
I
I
I
*' NOll:
THERE ARE BINOtNG
I 0 H
I I
Tt:RMINAL SGREWS AND
INSIDE TMe sa< ARE
(a,) toNTACT FOIN1'S A -tz, H.
L----------J
HE.RE POINTS A AND 0 ARE
SHUNTED AND LIKEWISE 5ANDC.
TH 1$ SWITCHE'S OR K-1 l.ONNECTS l..INE'S 2.
TD LINE 3 AND K-2 a;Nt.lEtT LINE 1 TD
LINE 4 .
.
r------------,
UE1 I I
I
I
LINE t G._...__..........,_;;;=.,
r
I
l
I o H I
I I
I . !
------------
11ERE <::ONTACT FOINTS A .and 6 .and C ARE.
.SHUNTED THEREBY BEa>MING THE a.-\SE
0.,.. THE TWO KNIVfS A$ SHCWN WHEN 'THE >WtTCtt
OPEJQ\TeD,
L.INS 1 .and LINS 3 ARE (t)NNECTI:D AND LlNES
2. .and 4 AIZE
s. ~ . ~ ~
CIRCUIT LAYOUT WITH CONDUIT OR BX
OR
SINGLE RX.e
3 ~ N G .SWITlH
93
LIVE "'---"""'
94

] l
I I
I
I l
I
L---....J.
SPbT
L-- -'
A LAMP CAN ALSO BE' WITH TWO
SPOT pOLE. PQUBI..E l'Hfi'OW A
DPD T .SWlTai. ( p:>" ihrow).
r - - - - - - - l LINE. I
I 1
4
LINE"*
LINE Z
OPOT
I
I
I
L_J
WliEN SWITiH lS THE RIGHT, LINES I attd 4
I"!ND LINE'S 2.. .al\:i 3 L:bNNt:L"$D.
LINE 1
LINE ?>
LINE4
LINE 2
WHEN SWITCH IS ON THE LEFT
LINE$ 1 and 3 Afte C::ONNECT'ED
1-JNE$ Z:W41 ARE
I
1 SPDT
I SINGLE POLE
l __ j DOUBLE THROW

DOUBLE POLE-DOUBLE THROW SWITCH DPDT
SWITCHES
r 1 r 1
oPEN I(NIFE SWITCH
'TUMBLER
GURFACE T'(P£
TUMBLER
FLUGH "'TYPE
H.J5T.ALLATION Of KNIFE
.SWITt.H - DaJBL E F'OL5
SWITCH
... .
ENCLOGED KNIFE
(BOX' iYPE)
Fus.;e
<;!NGL E PDLE GWITO-lEf;
95
96
10. CONTACTORS
A contactor is a switch. Instead of handle-operated, movable blade and a fixed grip •. a
contactor uses two contact blocks of silver coated c::opper, which are forced together
to make (close) or are separated to break (openl the circuit. The common wall light
switch is a small mechanically operated contactor. A relay is ~ small electrically
operated contactor. (See switch device). Most contactors are operated by means of an
electromagnet that causes the contacts to close or open. The reverse action is by spr·
ing and/or gravity.
The great advantage of contactors over switches is their facility for remote control.
Switches must be manually thrown-o.r at best with a motor. However the magnetic
contactor is inherently a remotely cont">lled device, making it ideal for a myriad of con·
trol functions. They are controlled by push-bunon or automatic devices such as float
switches, thermostats, pressure switches, and so on since control can be both remote
and automatic, the application of relays and contactors is universal in remote control of
lighting; ·heating, air conditioning, all motor control. sequence switching, automatic
load transfer etc.
11. SPECIAL SWITCHES
a) Time Controlled Switches
Thts device comprises a precision low speed miniature drive motor (timer) to which
some type of electric contact-making device is connected. It is useful in areas sub-
ject to power out ages, since outage will show up directly as a switch delay.
b) Remote-Control (RCI Switches
A contactor that latches mechanically after being operated. These devices are ex·
tremely useful in lighting control and energy-conservation techniques.
c) Automatic Trenafer Switch {ATS)
This device which is an essential part of all standby power arrangement, is basically
a do_uble throw switch-generally 3· pole-so arranged that on failure of normal service
is restored. it automatically retransfers to it. The control devices are voltage sensors
that sense the condition of the service and operate the· switch accordingly. Auxiliary
devices can be built on to the basic switcll, the most common of which are emer-
gency generator starting equipment.
(see inustrations on next page).
12. CIRCUIT -PROTECTIVE DEVICES
In order to protect insulation, wiring, switches, and other apparatus from overload and
short circuit currants, it is necessary to provide automatic means for opening the cir-
cuit. The two most common devices employed to fulfill this function are the fuse and
the olrcult breaker. {C/8).
ConGC1S-
normal
Manual-
operwting
handle
Motor
openrtor
AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCH
Tf8flsfer switch,
oontrol and
wnsing devices
In a NEMA I wall-mounted enclosure. 1.47 high, 0.81 m wide and 0.432 depth.
This unit is rated 400 amp. 3-poJe, 600v, ac, which corresponds to 150 kva at
208v, 3-phase.
97
.98
a) Fuses
The fuse is a simple device consisting of a fusible link or wire of low melting
temperature that when enclosed in an insulating fiber tube is called a cartridge fuse,
and when in a porcelain cup is known as a plug fuse. When a fuse is subjected to ex-
cess current, the energy loss in the link generates heat and melts it.
Plug fuses, such as those normally used in a residence all rated 5 to 30 amp. car-
tridge fuses are made in sizes 5 to 600 amp.
00 NOT U!a ABOYE ItS \tll.TS.
b) KNIFE BLADE FUGE
J)
THERMAL aJTa!T
I
DUAL-ELEMENT
A
in ftgure (b); (c) and (d), the dual elemef)t fuse allows the heat generated -by temporary
overloads to be dissipated in the large center metal element, preventing fuse blowing. If
the overload reaches dangerous proportions the metal will melt, releasing the spring and
opening the circuit
High capacity faults are cleared by the melting of the two end elements.
hve
10, 15,20, 25,30,35, 40, 45, 50,60,amp.
cartridge type-single and dual element 250v and 600v
TEST lAMP. NO UGUT
FUSJ: AT :;..,·
IS OPEN 012 BUSTED
0
cartridge type knife blade con-
tacts 2 50 and 600v.
,./"
-0-
'/ l "'
I
J'\:;ST OF LAMP" U GI-ffe'D''
ruSE AT 'g' G<X:>D .
Thermostat- an instrument which
responds to the changes in tem-
perature. It consists of a sensitive
elements which expands and con-
tracts according to the degree of
heat. The movement of the ele-
·ment may close or open a $1Tlall
port in a air line or
may make or break an electric
current.
70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 125, 150, 175, 200, 225,
250, 300, 350, 400, 450, 500 and 600 amp.
cartridge type knife blade contacts 600v.
800, 1 ,000, 1 ,200, 1 ,600, 2,000
2,500, 3,000·, 4,000, 5,000, 6,000 amp.
b) Circuit breakers
This is an electromechanical device that per-
forms the same protective function as a fuse
and, in addition, acts as a switch. Thus it can
be used in lieu of a switch-and-fuse com·
bination to both protect and disconnect a
circuit. Most ci rcuit breakers are equipped
with both thermal and magnetic trips. The
Thermal Trip, which acts on overload, is
similar in action to a thermostat. Heat gene-
rated by excessive current causes an ele-
ment to move and trip the latching mechanic
of the breaker, thus opening the breaker con-
tacts and thereby the circuit.
99
,100
The megnetlc trip comprises a coil with a
moveable core. On short circuits, magnetic
forces actuate the core which ttips the cir-
cuit breaker latch. Both the thermal arid the
magnetic action have inverse time
characteristics, that. is, the heavier the
overload the faster the trip action.
TRIP INOCCAllNG FOR IMMEDCATE
Of f"AULTY
POL YSTER MOL£%0 PRbVIDE
STRENeTH
PUSH TO 1l!ST BUTTON TO INSURE
PROPER
COPPER PI6TAIL
UNIT DESIGNED TO FIT A PHYSICAL
SPACE. Known as CFGI (ground
Fault circuit interrupters) or GFI.
TRIPS' INOtt'.A-
TION WHEN
MElHANtSM
TRIP,S,HAN
TO
MIDDLE
QU"I' - MA"'E
- .P .....
·iRlP·F2EE

( BilEAKE.R
TlliPS EYSN i).tOUQi
'J)IJ; OPSRI\l1N6o
I) IN lliJ:' PQ)ITJON)
ADJlJSljb.Sl£

/NSTANTANE'DU.S 'TRIP
IN n-u= E'vt;NT
OF A
f'R"OM o TO ZS'OOAMPSRES

A BlMcrALLIC
ACTIVATING 1HE
TIZIP ME,HPNl5M ANP
ntE 'IJU:lltT JN
OVER.l.OAPS.
CONNECi10NG
ARC: CHUTE
-1-<'UAADS
P'MMe TO THE
.. eRE.AKeR
-1 SILVERED


iRIP t'.lNITS
"""oi;Jftn.,'-""'- rRfP- !!tAR:
D!Sa>NNa:llON ct-
ALL WliJ;N AN
atlfZT
I
ON ANY
tN THE
CUTAWAY VIEW OF A 3 R:>LE 600 Ampfr.ame
CONVEtJ11 O"lAL .C\RCU'T BREA\-<ER
Two types of circuit breakers are the molded case breaker and the "Large air
breaker.''
Although fuses and circuit breakers are circuit-protective devices their characteris-
tics differ markedly. Fuses are inherently instantaneous operating devices. Time
delay is provided by a second element. Due to the rapidity of operation, fuses are
energy-limiting devices. The inherent characteristics and advantage of the breaker
over the fuse lies in the' fact that it can be reset after tripping by merely operating its
handle and is not self-destructive on operation, as in the fuse.
101
TYPICAL MOLDED CASE CIRCUIT BREAKERS
FRAME SIZE TRIP SETTING Voltage
Remarks
(Amperes) Amperes (Volts)
50 A 15 20 30 40 50 240 1-3 poles
100 A 15 20 30 40 240 1-3 poles
50 70 90 100 600
225 A 70 90 100 125 600 1-3 poles
150 175 200 2255
..
400 A/600 A
125 150 175 200 225 600 1-3 poles
250 300 350 400 500 600
800 A/1 ,200 A
250 300 350 400 500 600 l-3 poles
600 800 1,000 1,200
1,600 a
400 600 800 1,000 600 2-3 poles
1,200 1,600 3 poles
Can be available up to 2500 amp.
13. SWITCHBOARDS AND SWITCHGEAR
These are free-standing assemblies of switches, fuses, and/or circuit breakers, which
normally provide switching and feeder protection to a number of circuits connected to
a main source. A switchboard may be represented in a single line Diagram.
Incoming Service Conductors
<::URReNT
TRANSFORMER
MAIN SWITCHBO-\RD
102
In a typical Switchboard, switches are normally shown in the open position. The NEC
allows up to six switches in parallel as service entrance equipment. Switches must be
on the line (supply) side of fuses. Metering is normally placea on the service conduc-
tors, and the metering equipment is built into the main switchboard. Each line in a
single-line diagram represents a 3-phase circuit.
GIRCU&T BRE.At<ER
L.CW- VOLTME .SWITCHBQA.RD5
NEMA- I PANEL "f'YPE FgeESTANDIN6
FRONT· Aa:eSSIBLE UNIT Willi LAR'E
AIR MAIN ClRC.UIT BREAKER AND
CASE Cltz.GUIT 81lEAKeRS .
...._ _ _ _ 59'aS ME'TE[UNG ""'ND CURRENT t\NP

14. UNIT SUBSTATIONS
(Transfer Load Centers)
An assembly of primary switch-and-fuse or breaker, step-down t ransf ormer, meters,
controls, buswork, and secondary switchgear is called a unit substation. It is .available
for indoor or outdoor use, to supply power from a primary voltage line to any large
facility. (usu!.lly located at the Basement)
(see illustrations on next page) .
103
104
t-
z
ffiDIIIIIIIIIIIIIIU UJ


1-
DS!Y
ell
SINITCH



751(YA
13$ KvjteoV

:z.
3 PIYISE

0
F
v;

illiDDIIIIIIIIII ITI
03b
UNIT SUBSTATION
fNCOMlN6
L.INe
ISO





lt>OC>A
M-\ 11-J
A.
C/6
&>
>Ma:

METERS
t MAIN CJAQJIT
D--t) EI.EGTRIGAU.Y ,.., ..... n;o
+. t f l
480V
) :) ) ) )
t f t f f
OUT601NG FEEoeRS
SINGLE LINE DIAGRAM
MANUAL
[)RAWOUT
SE0NMRY
SWin::HGEAR
I
lSl


..

This unit would supply a building with a maximum demand of 7 50 kva. The incoming
13,800v cables enter cubicle. A and connect to the switch and fuses connects to the
switchgear. Thi s main secondary switchgear in turn. Feeds various switchboards, and
panelboards distributed through the building.
15. PANELBOARDS
T.
!5'
A panelboard serves basicaliy the same function as a switchboard, except on a smaller
scale that is, it accepts relatively large blocks of power and distributes it in smaller
blocks. Like the switchboard. it comprises main fuses to which ar€ connected circuit·
protective devices (breakers or fuses), which feed smaller circuits. The paneiboards
level of the is usually the final distri bution point, feeding out to the branch ci r-
cuits that contain the electrical utilization apparatus and devices, such as lighting,
motors and so on.
SWITCH BOARD
[

c, Cz c., c., Cs
The panel components-that is, the buses, breakers, are mounted on an insulating
board that i n turn is mounted inside an enclosing cabinet. The line termi nal of each ci r-
cuit-protective device (breaker or fused switch) is connected to the busbars of the
panelboard. The load Terminal of the device then feeds the outgoing branch circuit.
O:::IRCUI"!)
c::J Cl

t:::J t::l
... s

LtGHTINcS
PANEL.
. 10
Sf"Ac:E TD .AUJ)W
(}It'

to. 75
105
SlN6la ,DL&
C/B -· ·-··
106
.;-!
. ·i
'
WIRE.D ~ N E L AND BAC.KBOX
CIRClilT
NUMBER$
4JT A 'IN""(
VIISW Tb
lN.Sli:>E
PAN,;=L F't?c.NT MOIJNTSP
ON 1liE BOX
107
108
r z..
.--...
3
"t
.--...
5 <D
.............
7
1p,
9 ............... 9 10
s ~ E
II IZ
SP.ACE
_.....13 14
II
15
I ~
17 18
SPACE
....--...
19 2D
13
....--... 2.1 22
..........
Z3 Z't
A
B
(.
,,
3 PHASE, 4WIRE PANEL
10-SP I 2-2P I z- 3P
( 10 SINGLE R::>LE I 2-2 f'OLES, 2 -3 FOL.ES)
TYPICAL SCHEMATIC DIAGRAM
When panels are stacked one above the other (on succeeding floors) and are fed from
the same riser cable, a special construction panel known as a riser panel may be used.
(mult i-storey apartments)
(see illustrations on next page).
Panelboarda are described and specified by type, bus arrangement, branch breakers,
main breaker. voltage and mounting. A typi.cal description might be:
Lighting and Appli ance Panel. 3-phase, 4-wire; 200 A mains; main C/8, 225 A
frame, 1 50A Trip.
Branch Breakers- All framel sea. SP-20A, 4 ea 2P-20A. 4 ea. 3P 20A; Flush with
hinged locked door.
a) Panel Type:
A lighting and appliance panel is one having more than 1 0% of its overcurrent
devices rated 30 amp. or less, for which neutral connections are provided (single-
phase loads). All other nomenclature, such as lighting panel, power panel, distribu-
tion panel, with the commonly used abbreviations of LP. PP, OP, is entirely unof-
ficial.
For identification purposes, letters could be used such as KP for kitchen panel, BP,
basement panel, ELP the emerge'1cy lighting panel, etc. To identify floor location,
numbering is used such as LP3A means lighting panelboard " A" on the third floor.
b) Panel Electrical Description
This item gives the number of buses, their ampere rating, the panel voltage, and a
complete description of the circuit-protective devices contained in the panel.
BeLT r(PE
TAP C::ON-

RIQ::R
f<ISt=: R NEUIRAL Cj-\BJ..E.
R'l SER CONDUI T
PHASE
CABLE S
jGROUND EIJS
I
( INTENCED fVR.
GREEN -6Rbi.NO
¥.;1 IJSS)
TWELVE FOLE 'ZO/Z40 V
RISER PANEL
109
c) Panel Cabinet and Mounting
Panel boards are classified as Flush-Type or Surface-Type. Flush type panelboards
are those that have the trim and doors practically flush with the finished surface of
the wall.
Surface-type panelboards project into the room. the cabinets being bolted to wall
surfaces or columns. (used in industrial plants)
FLUSH
TYPE
SUF?FACE
TYPE
TRIM
BODY
16. ELECTRIC MOTORS
110
Motors convert electrical into mechanical energy. It is supplied as adjuncts to specified
driven equipment, such as fans, blowers. and so on, within the constraints of the volt-
age and enclosure.
al Direct Current Motors- d-e, As a result of the high cost and relative rarity of direct
current, these motors are only used where continuous fine speed control is re-
quired, as in the case of elevator drives.
b) Alternating Current Motors
Three General Classifications:
1. polyphase induction motors- either squirrel cage or wound motor.
2. polyphase synchronous motors- either brush or brushless.
3. Single-phase motors- either split phase, repulsion-induction, capacitor, shaded
pole, etc.
c) Squirrel-Cage Induction Motors
So called because of the rotor which consists of a group or bars welded together in-
to a cylindrical cage-type shape. It is manufactured in four different NEMA designs
to meet different application requirements.
see illustrations on next page.
STATOR WINDIN6S
CLASS'S' INSULA-rEO
17. MOTOR CONTROL
WTALLY ENCLDSED, FAN-ca:x.er> IC> HP
pOL YPHAre INDlU.TlON MDTOF(
An a-c motor controller is basically a contactor designed to handle t h ~ heavy brush
currents encountered in an a-c motor starting. Its function is to start and stop the motor
and to protect the machine from overload. These two separate and distinct functions
. are accomplished by combining a set of contacts for on/off control with a set of ther-
mal overload elements for overloaq protection in a single unit.
When the contacts are operated by hand, the controller is called a manual starter; when
the contacts are operated by a magnetic coil controlled by push buttons, thermostats,
or other devices, the unit is known as magnetic controller or simply and more com-
monly-a starter.
18. WIRING DEVICES
This include all devices that are normally installed in wall outlet boxes, including recep-
tacles, switches, dimmers, and pilot lights. Attachment plugs and wall plates are also
included.
111
19. RECEPTACLES
Receptacles are identified by the number of pol es and wires, and whether or not the
device is designed for connection of a separate grounding wire. The equipment ground-
ing pole is not counted in the number of poles but is counted in "wires". The equip-
ment grounding pole must not be confused with the system ground (neutral). Recep-
tacles are avai lable from 10 to 400 amp., 2 to 4 poles and 125 to 600v.
POLE., 3 WIRE
IS Amp, IZSV
2-R::li..E- Z-WIRE
(SIN.;U:)
(DUPlEX) . GROUNOir-.6 iYPE
Z· POL.I! 3-WIRE

112
[!HITH!]
TRIP\.. EX
'ONVENIE.NCE OUTl..ET
QJPL5.X CONVENIENCE OUTLET
OUTDOOR WeATHER Pf1\'X)f=' RE<:EPTACLES
DUPLEX OUTLET
20. SWITCH DEVICES
RISCEPTACLE. (z.qov.) fM HORIZONTAl-
AND VE2TIGAL BL.AL'ES AND U SHAFEP

These are switches up to 30 amperes that can be outlet-box mounted. A typical speci-
fication grade Toggle-Type wall switch is showZ'I below.
arn-E I
BOX MOWfTlNG
SGIZ.EWS
ltA11NG JNC:ISet>
lkTO ME-pt.L STRAP I
MOI.JEP PlASTIC S0t>Y
SILVER
RATED 30Amp 11.0jt.77V
SIN6L.e FOLE, THIC!OW
The usual a-c switch rating is 15, 20 or 30 amp. at 120 or 120/277v. Normal con-
structions are single-pole, 2-pole, 3-way, 4-way, momentary-contact, 2-circuit, main-
tained contact SPOT. Operating handles are toggle-type, key, push, rocker,
rotary, and tap-plate types.
see illustrations on next page.
113
KEY

u n n
0 0
3 .:;A,NG
114
AUTOMA"T\C. 0Ct>R c;w\TC.H
BUTTCN IS Wt+EN
QXR \S J. IS
0PF BU'TTON A:»P.s ClJT
THE ON WHEN DDOfllS
OPEN
ROTARY .SWJT(H
IS lZOV
SPECIFICATION sWITCHES
J>; '2.0 AlllP 30 MiPEREG
0 0
o o on
0
In areas, where the easily defeated normally switch is inadequate, a
tumbler lock controlled unit can be used, as in fig. {a). Loads that can be timed-out.
such as bathroom heat ers and ventilating fans can be controlled by the unit illustrated
in Fig. b.

\
21 . OUTLET AND DEVICE BOXES
These boxes are generally of galvanized st amped sheet metal with multiple inch., -%
in., and severall in., conduit knockouts conveniently placed around the peripherv. and
on the back. The most common sizes are the 4 in. square and the 4 in. octagonal boxes
used for fixtures, junctions and devices.
JUNC TIOf'.l BOXE 5
1.. USEP FOR
CJf" WIRES)
,
1 PEPENDING Qi WHAT
I (.CNDUIT pt Pfl Slcai'S
IS USOI!P.
115
116
A cle1:erly designed telescopir'lg floor bo.t locks in the positior'l during 11se and rests ftu.sh
in the floor during periods of inadicity atlll tchen flnMs clen>l('d. Crmrtesy of .\foxirom Corp.
/
Protrusioll$
tS·
do not
requott added
protection
C.W. pipe
oonnected to
loop or
electrode
Ground plate or
lrenclled conductor
lor rocky base
Typical lightning-protection diagram.
Nonmet.lllit
Ughl gauge metal
gravel slop or
gllilet
\

Nute·
Eiectrodes and
loop
min from
fdunda!ions
loop (counteJJ)Oise) conductor:
tor dry oocky base soil.
with electrodes as required
to attain good gtijvnd
Small in. sq X in. deep) lightning
arrester/ surge protectur rs.Yeful in protecting electri-
cal equipmt.'flt from the destructi!:eness of electrical
t:oitage surges. It alluu;.s the surge to hyposs the
protected Courtesy of Approt:ed Liglt!-
ning 1'rotection.
INSULATORS - used as supports and f or adamonal protection for wires.
BALL STRAIN
R:>RC.ELA\N
BAL.L KNOB
INSULATOR
A:>RCELAI N
( HAN6lN6
(Rllt $1JPR)RT (f Wlil£5)
CIRCULAR LOOM
FLEXJ81..f. LOOM
(.USE AS APDlTIDNAL INSULA
WHEN CRo"Jt-16
.EA!H OTHER,eiC)
TAPE - RUBBER, FRI CTIDN AND
(US.E TO INSULATE SKINNED
t
INQJlATlON
SOL.II) WI lUI
OR PI.ASllC INSULATOR

I=ORCEH.AIN TUBE
(A.PDinllNAL
WIRES Wttl CH PASS
THMJctH STUDS,
JOISTS.
Ft:lRCSL.AtN $PUT K.Nt"e
( USE!> AS SUProRT R)R Wli?ES
IN KNOB AND
BRACKET INS'UlATm
ft)JUELAIN SOME-TIMES
CALLED .ffiRYICE
t2 SECONMRY RACK$
(LISE TO MAN6 SSI<:VlGE
WIRE)
117
BOXES -used as junction boxes
as outlets
118
as attachment for switches
RECrAN<;ULAR.
!=OR OUTLETS,
S'W\"T'Q-Ie$, FIXTUilE.S
GelLING OUTLET
esc>>< ClRCULAR
6U5HtNG
RIGID CONDUIT CONNECTORS
OCTAGON BOX
LOCKNUT
SURFAcE TYPe
SOCKET
TYFE
$0C.KET

METAl. OR
&AKEUTE
RUBBER
SOCKET OUTSIDE' USE
11
SOCKET
c:)(fTl.ET
--· ·---,

w
q)


11 ' ,. / 1
J._
OUTlET
FL..USt-! IYF£
22. EMERGENCY/STANDBY
POWER EQUIPMENT
120
The Equipment involved in both Emergency and Standby is similar, however, the use is
-different.
Emergency Systems provide "power and illumination essen-for safety to life and pro-
perty, for instance, emergency power for exit lighting and egress lighting in places of
assembly, plus power for equipment necessary for safety such as elevators, fire alarm
systems, fire pumps, and extensive systems in health-care facilities.
Standby System provide power to "selected loads in the event of failure of normal
source. These systems are primarily intended to protect against property damage of
financial loss and are not involved with safety considerations. Water and sewage treat-
ment plants use this. Private owners on the other hand do install standby systems
when power interruption would cause serious damage to an industrial process or
research project.
TWO PRtNCIPAl CATEGORIES:
1 . Engine-Generator Sets
This installation comprise basically three components:
a) The fuel system including storage. ·
b) The set itself plus exhaust facilities.
c) The space housing the unit.
The principal advantages of the engine-generator set are unlimited kva capacity,
duration of power limited only by size of fuel tank, and if properly maintained, inde-
finite life.
Disadvantages are noise, vibration, nuisance of exhaust piping, need for constant
maintenance and regular testing, and difficulties with fuel storage.
2. Battery Equipment
Storage batteries are often used to supply limited of emergency power,
primarily for lighting. Such units are mounted in individual cabinets or in racks for
larger installations and are always provided with automatic charging equipment.
The distinct advantage is that batteries can be installed either in central system
with distribution feeder of the battery power, throughout the facility, or they can be
installed in small package units around the building.
The great disadvantages of battery systems is limited duration of power . Only up to
1 % hour minimum.
121
..
chapter
ELECTRIC
WIRING DESIGN
ELECTRIC WIRING DESIGN
1 . GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
124
Experience guides the designer to a solution that best suits the job since it is his respon-
sibility to establish the most economical design within the framework of the design
criteria.
a) Flexibility
Every wiring system should incorporate sufficient flexibility of design in-branch cir-
cuitry, feeders, and panels to accomodate all probable patterns, arrangements, and
locations of electric loads. The degree of flexibility to be incorporated depends in
large measure on the type of facility. Thus laboratories, research faciliti es, and small
educational buildings require a great deal more flexibi lity than residential, office,
and fixed-purpose industrial installations.
As part of the design for flexibility, provision for expansion must be provided as ex-
perience has demonstrated that most faci lities will grow, both physically and in
electrical demand. It must, however, be emphasized that over design is as bad as un-
derdesign, being wasteful of money and resources both initially and in operation.
b) Reliability
Is determined by t wo factors, the utility's service and the building's electrical
syster:n. The service record of the utility should be studied along with the economic
impact of a power outage to determine whether, and to what extent standby power
equipment is justi fied . Emergency equi pment, being concerned with the safety of a
building's occupants, is determined by national building codes and is largely inde-
pendent of the electric service arrangements. Beyond the service point, the reliabi-
lity of power is entirely dependent on the wiring system. Here, too, economic
studies must be made to determine the quality of equipment and the amount of
redundancy !duplicate equipment) to be installed.
c} Safety
The designer must be constantly alert to such factors as electric hazards, caused by
misuse or abuse of equipment or by equipment failure. Also a t horough acquain-
tance with the size of equipment used will eliminate the oft-encountered physical
hazard caused by obstruction of access spaces, passage, closets, and walls with
electric equipment . Finally, lighting protection can be subsumed under the heading
of safety.
d) Economic Factors
This item is divided into two frequently interrelated items; First Cost and Operating
Cost
The first cost depends in large measure on whether the constructor is interested in
minimum owning cost. Low-cost equipment generally results in higher energy cost,
higher maintenance cost, and shorter life.
The decision is not purely an economic one, inasmuch as the electrical energy cost
factor in the operating-cost equation is directly related to energy consumption, with
one excep.tion which is the utility's demand charge. Here t!'lere occurs an ope-
rating costs. Load level ing equipment permits the electrical distribution system to
be sized without consideration of coincident load peaks, thus resulting in small er
equipment, operating more efficiently-near its full-load capacity.
e) Energy Considerations
1 . Energy CodtJs end BudgtJts
Buildings constructed with governmental participation will increasingly be sub-
ject to energy budget limitations expressed in BTU/square foot/year.
2. EntJrgy Control
This item consists largely of providing facilities for metering current flow, volt-
ages, power and energy consumption. These may take the form of built-in
metering and/or meter points at selected locations throughout the electrical sys-
tem, to permit accurate load analysis. Meters both instantaneous. reading and
recording types, can provide data on equipment loading, .load patterns. load
coincidence, power factor. load voltage, power demand, and energy consump-
tion.
3. Ene1gy Conservation TechniqutJs
These can effectively and economically be built into the design rather than being
applied to any existing design. Thus, a study of the intended building use pat-
tern may lead to a design that utilizes separate systems for daytime use and for
night/weekend use.
Such a design permits shutdown of whole systems rather than operate at very
low load with concommitant high losses and low power factor. Also, providing
relatively small items such as coffee-vending machines and eleminating coffee-
pot) outlets, connecting water coolers to time clocks, and the like, are included
in this category and at this stage.
f) Space Allocations
The general impression that electrical equipment is small and easily concealed is ac-
curate only for wire and conduit. Panels, motor control centers, busduct, distribu-
tion centers, switchboards •. transformers. and so on can be large, bulky, noisy and
highly sensitive to tampering and vandalism. Thus space allocations must be con-
cerned with maintenance ease, ventilation, expandability, centrality (to omit length
of runs) limitation of access, and noise, in addition to the basic item of space ade-
quacy.
g) Special Considerations
These depend on the specialized nature of certain facilities and may include items
such as security, central and/or remote controls. interconnection with other
facilities, and the like.
2. LOAD ESTIMATING
When initiating the wiring design of a building it is important to be able to estimate the
total building load in order to plan such spaces as transformer rooms, chases, .and
closets. Such an estimate can be made from the figures given in the table shown here.
These figures are average. Where it appearnhat the building will have heavier or lighter
loads because of lighting levels or other factors, the figures should be modified accord-
ingly.
125
126
Electric Load Estimating
I II Ill fV v
Volt-Amperes per Square Foot"
Misc. l
Air Conditioningt
Type of Occupancy
I
Lightingc,g
Powerd
1
Electric
Nonelectric
Auditorium
General 1.0-2.5 0
Stage 20-40 0.25
Art gallery
4-6 0.5
Bank 2.5-4.5 2.0
Cafeteria
3-5 0.5
Church
I
1.5-3.0 0.5
i
Computer area
I 3-6 1.5•
Department store
I
Basement i
4-6 1.5
Main floor
I
2.5-4.5 1.0
Upper floor
I
2-4 0.5
Dwelling 0-3000 sq tt
3.0 0.5
(not hotel)
3000-120.000 1 2.0 0.25
above 120,000
1.0 0.15
Garage (commercial) 0.5 0.15
Hospital
2-3 1.0
Hotel
Lobby
6-8 0.5
Rooms (no cooking) 1.0-2.5 0.5
Industrial loft building 1.5-2.5 1.0
Laboratories
3-5 5-20
Library
2.5-4.5 0.5
Medical center 2.5-4.5
, .. 5
Motel
1.0-2.5 0.5
Office building
2.5-4.0 2.0
Restaurant
1.5-2.5 0.25
School
2-4 1.5
Shops
Barber & beauty
3-5 1.0
Dress
2-5 0.5
Drug
3.0 0.5
Five and ten 3.0 0.5
Hat, shoe, specialty
3.0 0.5
Warehouse (storage) 0.25-1.0 0.25
In the above except
single dwellings:
Halls. closets, corridors,
0.5 -
storage spaces
0.25
-
'"Figures assume energy-conservation techniQues applied.
~ > T h e s e figures do not include allowance for future loads.
12-20 5-8
I
S.-7 2.0-3.2
5-7
I
2.0-3.2
6-10 2.5-4.5
5-7
I
2.0-3.2
12-20
I
5-8
5-7 2.0-3.2
-
-
- -
- -
-
-
5-7 2.0-3.2
5-8 2.0-J.S
3-5 1.5-2.5
-
-
6-10 2.5-4.5
5-7 2.2-3.2
4-7 1.5-3.2
- -
4-7 1.5-3.2
6-10 2.5-4.5
3.5-5.0 1.5-2.2
5-9 2-4
4..,.7 1.5-3.2
- -
-
-
-
-
VI
Ten Year
Percent
Load Growth
20-40
20-40
I
30-50
20-40
10-30
I
50-200
I
50-100
50-100
10-30
40-80
30-60
50-100
100-300
30-40
50-80
30-60
40-80
20-40
50-80
40-80
10-30
j
<The figures given in Article 220 of the NEC are minimum figures for calculation of elec1ric feeder sizes.
dThese figures are based on experience and must be applied judiciously.
• This figure does not include the power used by the computer.
r Includes loads of air-handling equipment and pumps.
'See Figure 20.3 for luminous efficacy of various systems of illumination.
Having established the figures in the individual categories, they should be added toge-
ther without application of demand or diversity factors in order to obtain the maximum
demand load for which the building service equipment must be sized, in the absence of
electric load control (load leveling) equipment. At this point, an analysis must be made
to determine the feasibility of incorporating such equipment into the facility. Input to
this study includes the utility's complete rate of schedule, _including all penalty clauses,
a detailed analysis of the building's equipment load patterns, and any external con-
straints such as maximum loads imposed by power and energy budgets.
Equipment load patterns must be carefully analyzed because they determine a loads
"sheddability". Thus for kitchen equipment, load interruption may be undesirable but
shifting of cooking time by a half hour is entirely feasible.
The Electrical loads in any Facility can be Categorized as follows:
a. Lighting
b . Miscellaneous Power- which includes convenience outlets and small motors
c. Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVACl
d. Plumbing or sanitary equipment
e. Vertical transportation equipment
f . Kitchen equipment
g. Special equipment
Category (a) Lighting is self explanatory and is shown in the Table of Electric load esti-
mating column II.
Category (b) is shown in Column til and includes, in addition to receptacles and
small meters, such items as small busi ness machines, plug-in heaters, water fountains,
and so on.
Category (c) Column IV includes all loads imposed by the HVAC equipment. Included
therefore are fuel pumps, boiler motors, condensate pumps, all heaters, blower motors,
exhaust fans, and so forth.
Also included in Column IV for airconditioning loads, is refrigeration compressors.
When airconditioning is not anticipated, only heating and ventilating (HV). a rough esti-
mate for this load would be% or 65% of the loads in Column V.
Category (d) includes all loads associated with the water and Sanitary systems, includ·
ing house water pumps air compressors and vacuum pumps, sump pumps and ejec-
tors, well pumps and fire pumps, water heaters and pneumatic tubes, plus such special
items as display fountain pumps.
If actual data cannot be used, it is helpful to remember that plumbing loads are relative-
ly small, rarely exceeding 20% of the HVAC load.
Category (e) Vertical transportation, is also obviously unrelated to square footage and
therefore cannot be tabulated in tl'le Table earlier. These loads, including elevators,
moving stairs, and dumbwaiters, can be estimated from the data given in the vertical
transportation chapters.
Category (f} Kitchen Equipment, such as dishwashers, is also not included in the Table,
though obviously present in all restaurants, in most hospitals, and in some office and
religious buildings. The reason for this omission is that the primary power for the major
load, the cooking equipment, may be either gas or electric. (When planning kitchen, a
kitchen consultant can usually supply an estimate of an electric power ·requirement.
Category (g) Special Equipment, undet this t itle is subsumed such items as laboratory
equipment, shop loads, display area loads, flood lightings canopy heaters, display
window lighting, and so on. This load data must be gathered for individual items of
e_quipment and added to the foregoing totals.
127
128
The following Table gives a Tabulation of service entrance. Size in amperes, based on
single- and 3-phase service for typical occupancies. These f igures are for quick esti-
mate purposes and should be adjusted after the design is completed.
NOMINAL SERVICE SIZE IN AMPERES
FACILITY
Area in Square Feet
Single-phase, 120/240v, 3-wire
Residence
Store (air-conditioned)
School
Church (air-conditioned)
3-phase 120/ 208v, 4-wire
Apartmen't house
Hospital house
Office (air-conditioned)
Store (air-conditioned)
School
3 WIRE. t2J)Y
L_LV--.uO D
DO
D O
DD
tJ
tlo"'R'S
1000 2000
lOOA lOOA
100A 150A
100A 100A
lOOA 150A
100A
100A
100A
MAIN t:!S'l'RlSI.>nON

M OP
f • l
• FUSES IF SMAlL _j
OR S:!/'olf'I.J!
L __ --- - .
5000
150A
150A
lOOA
200A
400A
400A
100A
10,000
150A
400A
600A
600A
200A
ELEMENTS Of A WIRING SYSTEM
3. SYSTEM VOLTAGE
a) 1 20 v, single-phase, 2-wire. This is also the arrangement of the usual branch cir-
cuit.
SWitCH
\ {SINGLE Poi..E. $ 501..10 NUETRAI..)
--,..---0 d\,S)-
4,' LOAD
l.ZOY
(110
)JUETRAL t.J
Tt> BUJL.DING FANEL
LEG
.DeoP NUE TAAI-
AWG
This is used for the smallest of facilities such as small residences, out-buildings, and
isolated small loads up to 60 kva. load is calculated by multiplying current and volt-
age. For 60-amp service, which this type service is normally limited to, no more
than 50 amp. are usually drawn. Thus
VI = 1 20 x 50 = 600 va = 6 kva
The nominal system voltage is 120v, although it is also referred to as 110 and
115v.
For heavier loads, the system normally used is
b) 120/240v, single-phase, 3-wire.
t


I
I
A
I

8

-
?
4P.
i
112.0¥
lU>Y



i 1
-


EM GRCUND
lll>V
A ---+--+--------"'-J.- J 3 WIRE'
6 SINGLE
N--_... _____
I ZO V (SINGLE)
129
130
The code requires that all residences with five or more 2-wire circuits have a mini-
mum of 1 00 amp. 3-wire service. (see Chapter item on service entrance) Service
disconnect for 1 00-amp. service would be a 100 amp, 2-pole and solid neutral
switch, fused at no more than 80% of rating, or 80 amp.
This is usually written 1 OOA, 2P & SN, 80 AF. This service is used principally for
residences, small stores, and other occupancies where the load does not exceed 80
amp. or 19.2 kva. load calculated thus:
Kva = ~ O ~ ~ =
240
x
80
= 19 2KVA
1000 . .
b) Although it may appear otherwise, the neutral carries no more than full -load cur-
tent. Note that each flhot leg" ot the 3-wire system carries line current. Thus, total
loa.d can also be calcufated:
Load Kva = twice load on each line assuming a balanced 80-amp load
Total Kva = 2 x 80 amp x 120v
= 2 x 9,600 va = 19, 200 va
= 19.2 kva
If load is unbalanced, with say 30 amperes in one line and 50 amperes in the se-
cond, total load is-
30 amp
50 amp
1 20v X 30 + 120 X 50 = 3600 + 600
= 9600 va = 9.6 kva
Depending on the rating of the servic.e transformer, system voltages can be
120/ 240, 115/ 230, or 110/ 220, although 120/ 240 is the accepted industry
standard loads that are 1 20v cause a current only in one line. Loads that are 240v,
such as a clothes dryer, cause current on' both lines. For example, find the line cur-
rents caused by the 3 loads as shown in the figure.
l"fDT LEG
A IZOV
HOT LEG
\'2DV
l J
I12.DOW J
j4800W j L 144-0W 1
1200w, 120v iron on line A
1440w, 120v hair dryer on line B
4800w, 240v dryer on lines A and B
We calculate thus:
v
lA =-
R
Since V = IR
and watt W = 12R
and since W = I IIRl
W =I (v)
or
w
I==-
v
1200
= 10 amperes
120
\ ~ = 12 amperes
4800
lAs =
240
= 20 amperes
R in ohms
(resistance)
Ware watts
(elec. power)
I in amperes
(current)
V in volts
(voltage)
Total current in A = 20 + 10 = 30 amperes
Total current in B = 20 + 12 = 32 amperes
Total Load = 120V 130} + 120V (32)
= 3600 + 3840 = 7440 w
Load are 1200 + 1440 + 4800 = 7440W
A
NE'I.JTRA\.. LEG
f--z.amp
·- -.
Note than the neutral carries the difference in current between A and B legs ( 1 2-1 0)
c) 120/208v, single-phase, 3-wire
This system is really part of a 3-phase system and is most often found within a
building with 3-phase distribution, and is used to serve a small load that does notre-
quire 3-phase, 4-wire. Calculation is more complex than in (b) above because of the
120 ° phase displacement.
(see illustration on next page)
131
132
MJJol. k>OA z. J
'l,. .!1114 SN ( SOUO NSIIJTlll\t..
________
I
I
I I

JUlY IIZJ)'I/
J

PHA.Sl:
FCR.
zos
TO

This arrangement comprises % only of the full 120/208v, (3 phase - 4-wire con-
nection as shown in the next figure).
When feeding large faci,lities, a 3-phase, 4-wire system is normally employed.
d) 1 20/208v 3-phase, 4-wire
This _system is the most widely used 3-phase arrangement and is applicable to all
facilities except the very large ones.
In large facilities, lengths of feeders and sizes of loads become so great that a higher
voltage is required. In t his system, 20v loads such as lighting, small machines,
receptacles, and so on, are fed at 120v by connection between each phase log and
neutral.
c
A
PANELI30X
LOADS SHOWN Schematically
for the 120/208v 3-phase, 4-wire.
Showing its Flexibility and Wide Application.
Motors larger than Ya hp and all 3-phase loads are fed at 208v by connection bet-
ween the 3-phase legs. Single-phase, 208v loads such as heaters are accommo-
dated as in (c) above, by connection between 2 phase legs. Such loads !ire often
referred to as ''2 pole" loads, alluding to the 2-pole current breakers used to feed
them.
Where buildings are large, either horizontally, or vertically, lighting is principally
fluorescent, and 120v load does not exceed of the total load, a more eco-
nomical system of voltages is available. This system is:
e) 277/480v, 3-phase, 4-wire
It utilizes 277v fluorescent lighting, 480v machinery, and small13 to 25 kva) dry-
type closet-installed transformers to step down from 480 to 1 20v for supplying re-
ceptacles and other 1 20v loads. This. system is ideally suited to multistory office
buildings and large single-level or multilevel industrial buildings. Saving are gene-
rated by the smaller feeder and conduit sizes and smaller switchgear, which more
than offset the additional cost of step-down transformers for the 120v load.
As an example of the savings pessible with this system, let us consider the wiring
required for a 15 kw heater.
at 3 6 208 v:
I -
15

000
w = 42 amperes
-fix208v
Requiring No. 8 RHW wire (45 a capacity)
at 208v
at 480v
I - lS,OOOw = 18 amperes
-rax480v
133
134



ZZ7 V



SYS1l!M

4-BOV
3¢ MOm£
NORMAL LOAD ARRANGEMENT
(The lighting can be fluorescent or HID)
(Mercury, metal-halide, sodium transformers,
either single or 3-phase supply 1 20v for
receptacles and 208v for loads requiring that voltage).
f) 2400/4160, 3-phase, 4-wire systems
Are only used in very large commercial buildings or in industrial buildings with
machinery requireing only No. 12 AHW wire (20 A capacity). This system is also
referred to as 265/ 460v and 255/ 440v.
Voltage above 1 50v to ground is generally avoided in residential branch circuits, but
may be used in commercial and industrial facilities.
4. GROUNDING AND GROUND-FAULT PROTECTION
The vast majority of secondary wiring systems are grounded. Some reasons are:
a. To prevent sustained contact between the low-voltage, Secondary system and the
high-voltage primary system in the event of an insulation failure. Such contact
could cause a breakdown of the secondary system insulation and severely endanger
the system' s users.
b. To prevent single grounds from going unnoticed until a second ground occurs,
which will extensively disable the secondary systems.
c. To permit locating ground faults wit h ease.
d. To protect against voltage surges.
e. To establish a neutral at zero potential for safety and for reference this neutral must:
1 . Never be interrupted by switches or other devices.
2. Be connected to ground only at one point-the service entrance.
3. Be color coded white or natural gray for easy recognition.
,
$«-IP
N!I!IJTRAL \ SEevKJ;
f POLE PLUS Sl:U[) NalnAI.
SCi.. I D W 1-JIC
(IC1EMWAQ.E
FtlR. 'I'Erot-IG)
• 0
'
J
t
COlOR Cot-EO WI'I ITE OR
ltC5f I '20 V GIZA Y

WIRING
NOTE ntAr Nt=UTRAL
IS NEVER INn:w.UPTEP
BY f"UgE c-je
f -- :
--. -·c
,....---tCONNECTlOH TO >TRI:E.f SltE IF
'-4 suroEP c.Ct.O PIPE
TYPICAL SERVICE GROUNDING ARRANGEMENT
An accident fault within an appliance can connect the metal case of the appliance to
the line. This may readily occur with such common devices as an electric drill ,
clothes washer, dryer or food mixer. To eliminate this hazard of " Electric Shock",
appliance housing is grounded to a cold water pipe. The plug is 3*wire, two wires,
connected to the appliance and the third wire to the housing.
To eliminate the dangerous situation of current, ground fault leak, the (GFCI or GFI)
Ground fault circuit interrupter was developed. This device compares, with extreme
precision, the current flowing in the hot and neutral legs of a circuit, if there is a dif-
ference, it indicates a ground f ault and the device trips out.
135
N A B
1 1
a)C.IRCUIT AARANGa.ENT <5ROUNO WIRE
g WII?.E MILl'
i---; ;en 1 : h---- l
=_ =_ :;:;;.........lo @ : =J - . : f ® :
1----...l tr. I I I .-
- - - - - - - - - - f- - - - - -- - - -... 1- -- - - J
GI(EEN Gf?OUND RUN GROI.NP FAlll... T 1$ lli!ZN PA. Tli
WITH WIRING r VIA GI<EE'N. GRDUND WIRE
r- - - -- -,
6 REEN GROUN
b) FOR I!Antfl:OOMGt, UX'ATIONS
SWIMMING Pd:>L AHD
.4ReAS TO SZOUND M1WL T
5. DESIGN PROCEDURE
136
The steps in the electrical wiring design of any facility are outlined below. These may in
some instances be performed in different order, or two or more steps may be com-
bined.
a) Make an electrical load estimate based on areas involved building data, and any
other pertinent data.
b) In cooperation with the local electric-utility, decide upon the point of service en-
trance, type of servic-e run, service voltage, metering location, and building utiliza-
tion voltage.
cl Determine with the client the usage of all areas, and type and rating of all client-
furnished equipment including their specific electric ratings and flervice connection
requirements.
dl Determine from other consultants such as HVAC, plumbing, elevators, kitchen,
etc. The exact electrical rating of all the equipment in their designs. This determina-
tion will often result after conferences during which the electrical consultant makes
valuable recommendations to these other specialists about the comparative cha-
racteristics and costs of equipment.
e) Determine the location and estimate the size of all required electric equipment
spaces including switchboard rooms, emergency equipment spaces, electric
closets, and so forth. Panelboards are normally located in closets but may be
located in corridor walls or elsewhere. This work is necessary at this point to en-
able the architect to reserve these spaces for the electrical equipment.
f) Design the lighting for the facility. This step is complex and involves a continued in-
teraction between the architect and the lighting designer.
g) Depending on the type of Facility, it may be necessary to separate the lighting lay-
out from the receptacle and signal device. layout for the sake of clarity of the
plans. Once the decision has been made as to how this is to be handled, the lighting
fixture Layout can be made.
h) On the same plan, or on a separate plan, as decided, locate all electrical apparatus
including receptacles, switches, motors, and other power consuming apparatus.
Underfloor duct and ceiling track systems would be shown at this stage.
i) On the plans, locate signal apparatus such as phone outlets, speakers, micro-
phones, TV outlets, fire and smoke detectors, and so on.
j) Circuit all lighting devices, and power equipment to the appropriate panels, and
prepare the panel schedules. Included in this step is the separate circuitry for
emergency equipment.
k) Compute panel loads.
I) Prepare the riser diagram. This includes design of distribution panels, switch-
boards, and service equipments.
m) Compute feeder sizes and all protective equipment ratings.
nl Check the preceding work.
o) Coordinate the electrical work with the other trades and with the architectural
plans.
6. ELECTRIC SPACES
A minimum of 42 in. ( 1 .05ml of clear working space should be maintained in front of
panels, switches, and other electrical apparatus.
al Residences
In private residences, the service equipment and'the building panelboard are incor-
porated into a single unit. The main disconnect is usually installed as the main
switch/breaker of the panel. The panel is normally placed in the garage, utility room,
or basement, since the building is so rarely large that length of branch circuits ex-
ceeds 100ft. (33m) The panel should be placed as close to the load center as prac-
ticable, without sacrificing valuable space or making the panel inaccessible.
Frequently a smaller panel can be subfed from the main panel to feed the kitchen
and laundry loads. In apartments, panels are normally placed in the kitchen or the
corridor immediately adjoining the. kitchen. This location is chosen so that the panel
circuit breaker may act as the required disconnecting means for fixed appliance
larger than 300 volt-amperes cr 1/8 hp.
see illustration on next page.
137
138
ISO A

1>6A

r

12·SP

BR,A!IICH
m::AKSS
PANtsL
Amp MAIN
12 S P S.AANCH 81lfiAI<'.I!IC!.S
"\ - BRANdi
(o)
f"AI'!Irt..- SJ\.IT tll.IS"
1- :l p I z-SP
S- t.P IWJ!.,.\t<.SRS"
1
l>f'Je
(MAX. " JlltAY
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(C:)
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IZ- Sf>
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1- 2.P 5f'Ate
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z J'SIZS
TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL SERVICE ARRANGEMENTS
b) Commercial Spaces
The location of the required panel boards depends on their type and quantity, and
availability of space. In the two stories high research building as shown in this
figure, lighting panels are recessed into the corridor wall, and the panels are verti-
cally stacked and fed by a single conduit.
0
.... 50ft
s.s.

0
(a)
Lighting Pl.n
b 0 --
1
·-
' '
4'14' ....._.,. ...
0 f 10
I' I I I, I I I I I

I. All recopcxles in sui! otticts al 42 • a I t to line
2. All receptacles in e•er.. ottic:H at 12" a fl to c I
3. Sur1- •aceway in labs tn041ntM .t u- at t to c I
4. Sclecial out.et5: Q.. 20 amp. 250 v 3 wire 2 pole oll\let (lOt 206 v Is 1\p otntrilul'!)
30 amp. 250 v 3 wire 2 pole 8fO&>nde<l outlet (tor 208 • 6 IUI11)
50 amp. 2So v 4 wire 3 pole grounded outlet (tor 10 np portable M-G set)
20 atnp. 120 v/ 20 Mnp. 250 v 3 .we 2 polo CJOUnded 011\1«1 (for tleotlil!ll SJ>eCil! ..,.)
17\ , .. ....
__ ... _
D
(b)
If this building were six or more stories high, an electric closet of the type shown
below would be advisable to accomodate the panel and riser conduits. Of course,
when panels are installed. in finished areas such as corridors, flush mounting is re-
quired.
0 0 0

I
139

PANEL
swm:H
I..LJCATED OUTSII:le
INSite, IF t':allSJDE
A !<&Y ()PEitAlEP
UNIT IS AJ)YISA$-E
........., ___
o o
0 0
oo
TYPICAL ELECTRIC CLOSETS
To limit the voltage drop on a branch circuit in accordance with the code require-
ment, panelboards should be located so that no circuit exceeds 100 ft. !33m) to
160ft. {46m) length. If circuits longer than t his are unavoidable, No. 1 0 AWG wire
should be used for runs of 33m-46m and No. 8 AWG for longer circuits. These wire
sizes apply to 1 6 or 20 amp branch circuits, which are normally wired with No. 12
AWG wire.
Panels supplying large blocks of load ' simultaneously switched, such as auditorium
house lights, lobby lights, large single-use office areas, store lighting, and the like,
can be constructed with built-in contactors to switch the entire panel, with control
at any desi red location. These remote-control (RC) swi tches has already been dis-
cussed.
If only part of the panel' s circuits are so arranged, a split bus panel is provided, par-
ti ally contactor controlled. When lighting and appliance panels require more than 42
poles at a single locat ion, a double panel is utilized comprising two paneAs in a singl e
enclosing cabinet with a steel barrier between the t wo units.
(See illustration of split Bus Panel on next page).
7. ELECTRIC CLOSETS
140
In the design of a building electric system it is often advantageous and convenient to
group t he electrical equipment in a small room called an efectric closet. The shape of
this space can be varied to fit the architectural and electrical demands but it should pro-
vide the following: ·
a) One or more locking doors.
b) Vertically stacking, above and below other electric closets and located so as not to
block conduits entering or leaving horizontally (Thus locations on outside walls and
adjoining shafts, columns, and stairs are poor) .
c) Space free of other utilities such as piping or duct, passing through t he closet,
either horizontally or vertically.
d) Sufficient wall space to mount all requisite and future panels, switches transform-
ers, telephone cabinets, and signal equipment.
e) Floor slots or sleeves of sufficient size for aU present and future com;fuit or bus
risers.
f) Sufficient floor space so that an electrician can work comfortably and safely on ini-
tial installation and repair.
g) Adequate illumination and ventilation.
r.------------- - - -. --- --,
NC 0 UTFfAL BUS
I
FeEt>ER
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------------ ------------'-
SPLIT BUS PANEL
}
LODBY ANO
GORR.IOOR L!fiHTINe
Lower Section of panelboard is contactor that is operated in order to accomplish
simultaneous control of the lobby and corridor lighting.
8. EQUIPMENT LAYOUT
Wiring devices, principally comprising receptacles and switches, are located as re-
quired by the known equipment to be served and by the anticipated area use. All 15
amp and 20 amp. Convenience receptacles must be of the providing type.
Switches for control of lighting or receptacles are normally placed on the strike side of
the door. Other devices such as plug-in strip on walls and special purpose receptacles
are shown and identified. Signal outlet locations are often noted but generally remain
uncircuited on floor plans, a riser being utilized to show interconnections. These in-
clude firealarm equipment, telephone and intercom equipment, radio and tv outlets,
thermostats, and so on.
141
It is suggested that lighting fixture outlets are placed on one sheet and the receptacles
on another. Motors, heaters, and other fixed and permanentl y wired equipment are
shown and identified on the receptacle drawings (called power drawings) .
9. APPLICATION OF OVERCURRENT EQUIPMENT
142
The function of an overcurrent device is to open (interrupt) a circuit when the current
rating of the equipment being protected is exceeded. These overcurrent devices are
placed in circuits to protect wiring, transformers, lights and all other equipment that
can be damaged by excessive current.
General Rutes:
..
a) Overcurrent devices must be placed on the line or supply side of the equipment be-
ing protected.
t
t
~
!
WRG>Ne tOiliZEC.T
WAY WAY
b) Overcurrent devices must be placed i n all ungrounded conductors of the protected
circuit.
CGT ...,o C.CT NO
.1
~ .1 2-
~ z
3
.....--. 3
.,.
.
5
,.--...,.
s <o
7
~
7
e
~ , . . . - - . . . . .9 IO ,...--.... IO
N
3- PHASE . 4 - WIRE PANEL
c) All equipment should be protected in accordance with its current-carrying capacity.
CAPAC. IT'(
80 .11'11)
Cr:
NO -. AW& T'YflE RHW lNSULAT16N,
AS A)IIWS AU.DW.ABLE
..,_.-JM
IU
m.ax tmum
'Z

d) Conductor sizes shall not be reduced in a circuit or te1p, unless the smallest size-wire
is protected by the circuit overcurrent devices.
Main Supply
100 Amp
No. 2 AHW (115 amp Capacity)
'):'
1-
25' (8.00 m) Max
% capacity
1
45 amp.
g
Use No.8 AHW, Minimum


2-15amp
ccts
w

No. 10 AHW
in Conduit
Size to protect
'Z r feeder

PERMI55JBL.E TAP
ARRANGEMENT
40 amp.
fuse
Taps may be made if smaller conductor
is protected by main feeder Protection
f, 00 a C/B Protects the No. 2) .
Taps up to 2 5' long are permitted if tap
conductor has min. % ampacity of
main, and terminates in a single C/ B or
set of Fuses, which limits the current
on the tap to the wire capacity.
(40 A Fuse Limits current on 4'> A
capacity wire)
Taps up to 10-0 long are permitted pro-
vided they have suffici ent capacity for
the circuits they feed Ex: if the wiring
feeds 2- 1 5 amp ccts. It must have 30
amp. capacity and should be No. 10
AWG, AHW or equal.
Taps of any length may be made if the
conductor is protected at the tap point
by an appropriately sized overcurrent
device.
143
e) Overcurrent devices shal l be located so as to be readily accessible, protected f rom
physical damage, away from easily ignited materiaL
10. BRANCH CIRCUIT DESIGN
144
This refers only to the circuit conductors but in Trade parlance it includes the protecti ve
device and the outlets served. Such circuits may be (a) multioutlet general purpose type
(b) multioutlet appliance type or (c) single-outlet type intended for a specific piece of
equipment. The multioutlet types are limited to 50 amp in capacity, while the single-
outlet type is governed In size only by the requirement of the item being served, and
may be 200 or 300 amp. in size. ..
a) General Purpose branch Circuit Supplies outlets for lighting and appliances in-
cluding convenience receptacles.
b) Appl iance Branch Circuit. Supplies outlets intended for feeding appliances. Fixed
lighting not supplied.
SIZE R E ~ U I R E D
~ ~
FOR ITEM FED
c) Individual branch circuit , designed to supply a single specific item.
In its simplest form, a branch circuit comprises only two wires. However, multiwire
branch circuits carrying 2 or 3-phase wires plus a neutral are also widely used. General-
ly, each branch circuit should be sized for the load connected to it, plus the load expan-
sion that is expected.
Rules to be followed:
a) In all but the smallest installations, connect lighting, convenience receptacles, and
appliances on separate groups of circuits.
b) General purpose branch circuits should be 20 amp and wired with No. 12 AWG
Wire. Switch legs may be No. 14 AWG if the lighting loads permit.
c) Limit the circuit load on 15 amp and 20 amp circuit loads as shown in this Table.
RECOMMENDED BRANCH CIRCUIT LOADS
Maximum Continuous
Load (80% of Rating)
Volt Volt
Anticipated 5 to 10 Year- Load Growth
(A) 0 to 30% Expansion
(B) 40% or more
Expansion
Volt Volt Initial Volt Volt
Size amperes amperes
Initial
load Amperes Amperes
at 120v @ 227v
(Approximate)
Load Amperes Amperes
@ 120v @ 277v
(Approximate}
Circuit Amperes at 120v at 277v
15A
20A
12
16
1440
1920 4440
9.6
12.8
1150
1520 3600
8
11
960
1300 3000
A) Loading gives approx. 25% spare
capacity.
B) Loading gives approx. 50% spare
capacity.
15 amp cct at 120v:
1440·1150
11 50 = 11 50 =
2 5
%
20 amp cct at 1 20 v:
1920-1 520 400
1 520 = 1 520 =
26
%
1 5 amp cct at 1 20v:
1440- 960 = 50%
960
20 amp cct at 1 20v:
1920- 1300
1300
at 277v:
620
= _....;...._.....;__ = 47%
1300
=
3000
1440
= __ --=..,_ = 48%
3000
d) Use only grounding type recep'tacles on 15A and 20A branch circuits.
Since lighting and specific devices are circuited according to their nameplate rating, the
only circuitry item left to the judgement ·of the designer is the number of convenience
receptacles per circuit (cct) . The NEC specifies that plug outlets (convenience recep-
tacles) be counted, in totaling loads, at 1. 5 amp each unless included in the load for
general lighting. Thus following the guidelines stated in the Table below, of 9 and
Ramp loading on 15 and 20 amp circuits, respectively, we would have qy the method:
1 5 amp circuit ___!!_ = 6 outlets per cct
1.5
20
. . 12 8 I
amp Circuit TI = out ets per cct
145
146
These figures must be used judiciously. The devices to be energized are small, these
quantities may be used. Such would be the case in a drafting room where only erasing
machines (50va) or a desk lamp ( 1 OOva) would be plugged in. However, for laboratory
tables, office machine, or assembly benches, no more than two or three receptacles
should be used or a 20 amp. circuit.
Receptacles should be arranged, if at all possible, so that the loss of a single circuit
does not deprive an entire area of power.
That is for t he sake of rel iability, circuitry should be alternated to give each space parts
of different circuits.
...
BRANCH CIRCUIT REQUIREMENTS
BRANCH CIRCUIT SIZE
15 amp 20 amp 30 amp 40 amp so amp
Minimun Size Conductors No. 14 (2.0) # 12 (3.5) # 10 (5.5) # 8 (8.0) # 6 (14)
Minimun Size Taps No. 14 {2.0) # 14 {2.0) # 14 (2.0) # 12 (3.5) # 12 (3.5)
Overcurrent Device Rating 15 amp 20 30 40 50
Lampholders Permitted Any Any Heavy Heavy Heavy
type type duty duty duty
Receptacle Taring Prermitted
7
15 amp 15 or 30 40 or 50 amp
20 amp 50
Maximum Load
6
15 20 30 40 50
NOTES:
1. Wiring shall be types RHW, RHH, T, THW, TW, THWN, THHN, XHHN.
2. On lS amp ci rcuit, maximum single appliance shall draw 1 2 amp. on 20-amp, cir-
cui t maximum single appl iance, shall draw 1 6 amp. If combined with lighting or
portable, appliances any fixed appliance, shall not draw more than 75. an1p on a 15
amp circuit, and 1 0 amp on a 20-amp circui t.
3. On a 30-amp circuit, maximum single appliance draw shall be 24 amp.
4 . Heavy-duty lampholders are units rated not less than 750w.
5. 30, 40 and 50 amp circuits shall not be used for fixed lighting in residences.
6. When loads are connected long periods, actual load shall not exceed 80% <>f the
branch circuit rating. Conversely, continuous type loads shall be figures at 1 25% of
actual load calculations.
7. A single receptacle on an individual branch circuit shall have a rating not less than
t he circuit, for example 1 5 amps on a 1 5-amp circuit, etc. 1 5-amp receptacles on
20-amp circuit shall not suppl y a load greater than 12 amp for appliances. 20 amp
receptacles on 20 amp circuit shall be limited to a 16-amp load.
11. ALTERNATIVE WIRING TECHNIQUES
The usual wiring system· is a radial or ''Tree" type system in which conductors of prog-
ressively smaller size emanate radially from distribution points. These distribution
points are the switchboards and panelboards throughout the system. which provide
overcurrent protection for each of these radiats. Note that at each step, power is tap-
ped off in a smaller " package" and in accordance with the principles of overcurrent
protect ion an appropriately sized protective device is placed at the point of tap.
CONVENTIONAL RADIAL WIRING SYSTEM
(branch circuits radiate from the panel to the loads
and are protected at the panel by the the panel circuit
breakers) The panel itself is protected by a main C/ 8.
LOAP I TEMS
TT
c.JB IN SWITaieoAf<!D tAAJN c/8
- - - - - ~ ~ $ ~ - - - - . _ - - - - ~ - - ~ ~ - - ~ - - - - ~ ~ - - ~ ~
C/8 MOONTED IN ~ ~ A A Y
IN THIS ARRANGEMENT, THE HEAVY SWITCHBOARD FEEDER is tapped at each
load, thus eliminating a concentrated panelboard and almost all branch circuit
wiring) . The purpose of this second arrangement is to eliminate the branch circuit
wiring by placing the protective device at the load.
147
148
Such an arrangefl'!ent is shown below. The advantage of this system, in addition to
the advantages inherent in a surface raceway wiring system, is that by eliminating
branch circuit wiring, installation costs are reduced, voltage drop and energy losses
in branch circuit conductors are negligible, and loads are individually protected.
To
Lightin!) SWI!CheS
~ 200amp
,.- I m;11n
1
1 I' disconnecl
_.. I I
. I
. l I
)
II
I .
~
I
Ma1n feeder
in concrete
slab
II
II
11
II
Unit heater
ceiling
Power hand.
tool ori separate
breakers
Typical room layout using the feeder tapping wiring technique. The room feeder is tapped
from the main feeder and protected by the 200 amp main disconnect that is either a circuit
breaker or a fused switch. Beyond this point, t f l E ~ room feeder is run in surface raceway and
is tapped at each device with a circuit breaker, which feeds an individual outlet. Overhead
loads- such as the heater (shown} and lighting (not shown)-are fed from raceway circuit
breakers.
12. BRANCH CIRCUIT DESIGN
GUIDELINES-RESIDENTIAL
a) The NEC requires for residences sufficient circuitry to supply a load of 3 W/sq.ft. in the
building, (30 w/sq.m.) excluding unfinished spaces such as porches. garages, and
basements. This requirement of 3 W/sq.ft. works out to 800 sq. ft. per 20-amp circuit
(2400W) or 600 sq. ft. per 15 amp circuit (1800W}. 80 sq.m per 20-amp circuit (2400W) or
60 sq.m per 15 amp circuit {1800W).
w .. vJ
w
I= --amp
v
W = 20 (120) = 2400 watts
= 15 (120) = 1800 watts
Good practice, however dictates a load of not more than 1600w for a 20-amp cir-
cuit or 1 200w for a 1 5-amp circuit. This gives 1 5-amp circuit, 1 200w max. 400
sq.ft. max.
(40 sq .m.)
20-amp ci rcuit , 1600w max. 530 sq. ft . max.
(53 sq.m. )
bl The NEC requires a minimum of two 20-amp appliance branch circuits. To feed all
the small appliance outlets in the kitchen, pantry, dining room, and family room,
and only these outlets. Furthermore, all kitchen outlets must be fed from at least
two of these circuits.
These receptacles should be circuited with preferably two, but no more than four,
such outlets on a 20-amp. circuit, and the circuits should be arranged so that the
kitchen has part of at least two circuits feeding its outlets.
149
150
c) Additional circuits similar to appliance circuits should be furnished to supply one
outlet in each bedroom of a house that is not centrally air-conditioned. Such outlets
are intended for window air conditioners.
.for Ac.
d) The NEC requires that at least one 20-amp. circuit supply the laundry outlets. This
requirement satisfies good practice. If an electric clothes dryer is anticipated an in-
dividual branch circuit should be supplied to serve this load, via a heavy-duty recep-
tacle.
.LAUNDRY
OUTLET
e) Lay out convenience receptacles so that no point on a wall is more than 6 ft. from
an outlet. Use 20 amp. grounding-type receptacles only. Do not combine recep-
tacles and switches into a single outlet except where convenience of use dictates
high mounting of receptacles, as above counter spaces.
cs f ) Circuit the lighting and receptacles so that each room has
parts of at least two circuits. This includes Basement and
garages.
g} Avoid placing all the lighting in a building on a single circuit.
h) Supply at least one receptacle in the bathroom and one outside the house. Both
must be GFCI type as (Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter). An additional conveuience
is switch control of the outside receptacle from inside the house
i) In rooms without overhead lights, provide switch control for one-half of a
strategically located receptacle that is intended to supply a lamp.
HDT
WALL SWITCH
Safe way since the receptacle is mounted with the grounding pole at the top
151
152
j} Provide switch control for closet lights. Pull chains we a nuisance (cheaper) . .
k) In bedrooms supply two duplex outlets at each side of t he bed location to ac-
comodate electric blanket, clocks, radios, lamps and other such appliances.
I) Since receptacles are counted as part of general lighting and no additional load is
included for them, no limit is placed on the number of receptacle outlets that may
be wired to a circuit.
For good practice they should be limited to 6 receptacles on a 1 5-amp circuit and 8
on a 20 -amp circuit .
c - ~ IS amp
C-7 Zi>.amp
m) Kitchens should have a duplex appliance outlet every 36 in. (0.90m) of counter
space, but no less than two in addition to the normal wall outlets.
n) A disconnecting meahs readi ly accessible, must be provid-
ed for etectric ranges, cook tops and ovens. It is better
practice to utilize a small kitchen panel recessed into a
corner wall to control the large kitchen appliances and to
provide completely safe, accessible disconnecting means.
o) Perimeter lighting, inside switch controlled, can do much to lessen vandalism and
discourage prowlers, in addition to illuminating the house of night .
.---------
-¥:_ _____________ --;;r
I
I
I I
1 I
I I
\1
It
II
1\
I \
I. \
l-?-
1
I
I
p) A tabulation of residential electrical equipment. including recommended circuits
and receptacles is shown in the Table at the next page. A complete residential wiring
system is also shown for a small house.
153
.......
~
Living Areas
-------------------------------------------------
Workshop (P) 1 500
Portable (P) 1300
heater
- - - - - - ~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Television
Portable
lighting
Fixed
lighting
Air conditioner
t hp
Air conditioner
1 ~ hp
Central air
conditioner
Sump pump
Heating plant.
i.e., forced-air
furnace
Fixed bath-
room healer
(S)
(P)
(F)
(F)
(F)
(F)
(F)
(F)
(F)
-----------------·
Attic fan (F)
300
1200
1200
1200
2400
5000
300
600
1500
300
115
115
115
115
115
115
2 # 12 20A 1 or more 5-20A Separate circuits recommended.
- - "
2 #12 20A 1, 5-20A Should not be connected to circuit serv-
2 #12 20A or more
2 #12 20A 1 or more
Fixed Ulllltlss
2 #12 20A 1 or more
2 #12 20A or
30A
1
5-20A
5-20A
5-2 0R
ing heavy-duty loads.
Should not be connected to circuit serv-
ing appliances.
Separate circuit recommended.
1151230 3 #12 20A or 1 Connect through disconnect switch.
30A
1151230 3 #10 40A
115 2 # 12 20A
115 2 #12 20A
115 2 #12 20A
115 2 #12 20A
1 or more 5-20A
1
1
or more 5-20A
Connect through disconnect switch.
Use of 1 pole thermal disconnect rec-
ommended.
---------------------
Direct connected. Some local codes
require separate cire\Jit.
Direct connected.
Connect via thermal element 1 pole
switch.
•Appliance types: (F) Fixed; (S) Stationary; (P) Portable.
'Number of wires does not include equipment gro•Jnding wires. Ground wire is #12 AWG for 20A circUit and #10 AWG lor 30A and SOA circuits.
• Equipment ground is provided in each receptac!G.
• For a discussion ol disconnect requi rements. see NEC Article 422.
•Heavy duty ap;:>liances regularl y used at one location should have a separate ci rcuit. Only one such unil should be attached to 'tl single circuit at the same
time.
LIVING ROOM
&ASIC HO\JSE -FIRST FLOOR
ELECTRIC PLAI'i;
EOUII'MEI<lT ANO Oi:VICE LAYOVT
BASIC 1<0\JSE PLAN - IIASlMEt(T
ELECTRIC PLAN;
EOUIPMENT AND DEVICE I.AY()VT
K
(o)
Symbol Lost
See Fog. l7.16d
(b)
B.R. fl
1. Swirch and outlet for t:ld\turt ten, s-,..,Stch
WRfl mld. above lJnk btkk.$1)11111h. Outltt
With b'1nk (0\.ot!r mounted idjaceont to
t-.n ..... u OCM"nKl;. bt
ornitt-cl if fan is WPOtted with ln1-or•1
h'lilC'h.
2. Oi-Ulwasher tt«<tiiC't wall m,Cf, behet\d
unH, 6" AFF.
3. A¥tqt and 0¥1'0 ourltf boxes w-alt mcd .•
35- AFF. F'-ldblt " O,I"teCtion l D unefl.
• . Surbe. outlet boJIIft to bt lly,lh
mounted w'th 11uill OOYtt,. suhaOI• for
e»tntif1g or Oth•r wall
S. hL of tog c/b IO be 78" Aff.
8. Wi rH'II 'lh.own a-s run «•PQtoed indic.ltn
of finished ce•hn; in t.nem.nt
..._ •. All BX to c. run through framtng
members.. Att.chmttlt <:eiling io i"'ts
not prr"'in<ld.
7. 10 2-Tvof G ceiling
mounted at ) 13 potnrs.
8. Connect to 1-Type G f1xturt itt 11
'ent•r.
e. ConnKt to shtn-down nritl;ft 11 U)P
of Boiler controt wmng bv otherl .
S.. Nole 10.
tO. 8oi1t f' • safety d•"Onoect. Ptov•de
RED w•ll plart . Clt•rlv ""'kod ""BOI LER
ON-OH··
ELECTRICAL PLAN OF A SMALL HOUSE. OEVICES ARE
SHOWN ON MAIN FLOOR AND BASEMENT PLANS
155
'f'rpE
A
B
c
D
F
G
H
I(
L
156
LIGHTING f'lXTUI'E SCHEDULE
DESCRIPTION MANUFACTURER REMARKS
48" L X 12" W X 4" DEEP ·NOMINAL, 2 LAMP/FLUOR€5- 8RifE-LITE CO. DEPTH MAXIMUM
CENT, ...CRVI.IC LENS. f 40 WW/l.AMPS. CAT. #2140/ KfF
SURI'...CE MTD. OR EQUAL
24" L. t LAMP 20W FLUOR. FIXTURE, WI'AP-AROUNO BRITE-LITE CO. MAX. MTG. HT.
Wl-11TE DIFFUSER. WITH SINGLE-SWITCHED RECEPTACLE. CAT. #l1201BFF 78'" TO'(;
MOUNT ABOVE MEDICINE CABINET. OR EQUAL
ADJUSTABLE HEIGHT PENDANT INCANDESCENT,
HOMELAMP CO.
3-75 W MAX., 8UI L T-I N 3-POSI TION SWITCH.
.CAT. #3/75/DRP
OR EQUAL
.£...
H)" 0. DRUM- TYPE FIXTURE, WHITE GLASS DIFFUSER.
BRITEI.ITE CO. 6"' MAX. DEPTH.
CENTER LOCK-IJP, 2-$lW INCAND. MAX., SURF. MTD.
CAT. #2/60/HF
OR EQUAL
12" D. ORUM FIXTURE. CONCEALED HINGE ON OPAL DENMARK LIGHTING NO SUBSTITUTION
GLASS DIFFUSER FOR RELAMPING WITHOUT GLASS SPECIAL UNIT WILL BE ACCEPTED.
REMOVAL. 2- 75W INCAND. MAX. SURFACE MTD. m..a21
PORCELAIN LAMPHOLDER, PULL CHAIN WITH WIRE GUARD,
IOOW. INCAND. SURf. MTD.
SAME AS TYPE G. EXCEPT W/0 GUARD.
OECORATIVf OUTDOOR LANTERN, MAX. ISOW INCAND .. TO BE CHOSEN 8Y
WALL MTD. 114" AFF TO '-·
OWNER
UTILITY OVTOOOR LIGHT, ANODIZED M.UMINUM BODY UTIL-LITE CO. IF VANDALISM IS
AND CYLINDRICAL OPAL GLASS DIFFUSER. 1-IOOW CAT. #11100/IIP OF CONCERN, SUBST.
INCAND. MAX. AFF TO <t_. OR EQUAL PL-'STK: DIFFUSER.
(c}
SYMBOLS AHO
BX CABLES RUN CONCEALED; TICS
INOI<;ATE. NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS
EXCLUDING GROUND WIRES. 2 112 +
BARE GROUND, UON
SAME AS ABOVE EXCEPT RUN EXPOSED.
- --<1 WIRING RUlli TURNING DOWN; WIRING
TURNING UP
HOME RUN TO PANEL; ARROWS AND
NUMERALS IDENTIFY CIRCUI TS; TICS
INDICATE WI RING- AS NOTED ABOVE.
OUTLET BOX AND FINAL CONNECTION
TO EQUIPMENT WITH FLEXIBLE CONDUIT
(OR BXI.
OUTLET WITH SECTION OF SURFACE
RACEWAY, 2 WiRE, SINGLE CIACUlT, AHO
SE"ARATE GFIEEN GND. ISA. 2f>, l WIRE,
AECEI"T ...CLES ON 12'' CENTERS.
CLG.' OUTLET WITH INCANDESCENT LTG.
FllC'I'UfiE D, SWITCK CONTROL - 'a'.
WALL OUTL.ET WllliCANO. FIXT. ' H', M.HT.
SHOWN.
CI.G. OUTLET WIFLUOR. FIXT. 'A'.
OUTLET WfFLUOR. FllC'I'. ' 8'. M.HT.
SHOWN.
JUNCTION lOX
DUPLEX CONVENIENCE RECEPTACLE.
15A, 2P, JW. t25V. GROUNDING, WALL
MTD., VERTICAL, £ 12'' AFF NEMA
15 R.
A,.F
MHT
T
UON
GFCI
WP
NO
DUPLEX CONVENIENCE RECEPTACLES, ISA, 2P,
t25V, GROUNDING. WIINTI:GfiiAL GFC) AND
GASKETEO W.P. SELF-cLOSING COVER.
SINGLE I'ECI!PTACLE. 20A, 2,, lW, GNO'G ..
NEMA 5-201'1.
SINGLE RECEf'TACL£, JOA. 1251250V. 3
POLE--4 WIRE GROUNDING NEMA 14-36 R;
{NOTE 11
SINGLE POLE SWITCH. 15 A, 12'5 V, It SO''
AFf, UON . CONTROLLING OUTLETfSI

SWITCH, 3 WAY, 15A, 125V, <; !0'' AFF,
UON , CONTROLLING OUTlet!; ·a·.
MANUAL TIMER SWITCH. 1 SET 15 /UAP
N.O. CONTACTS.
OUTL.ET BOX MTO. SWITCH AND DIMMER.
INCAND. LOAD ONLY, 1100 WATTS MAXIMUM.
A.FF.
FLUSH MTO. f'AHEL.o.t.ftO;
ABOVE FINISHED FLOOR
MOUNTING HEIGHT
THERMOSTAT
UNLESS OTHERWISE NOTED
GROOHO FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTER
WEATHER-4'ROOF
MORMA.lL Y ClnN
NOTE 1. CONTRACTOR l'O $UPI't.V MATCWING CN.
IASIC HOUSE - 8-"SEME"'T
CIACVtTlD ElECTRIC PlAH.
m
157
Load, Circuit and Receptacle Chart for Residential Electrical Equipment.
NEMA
Typical Circuit Outlets Devicec and
Connected Breaker on Configuration
Appliance Type Volt:Amperes Volts Wiresb or Fuse Circuit See Fig. 16.41 Remarks
.Kitchen
Range IF) 12,000 1 15/230 316 60A 14·60R
Use of more than
one outlet is not re-
commanded .
..
Oven
4,500 115/230 3110 30A 14-30R
May be direct con-
(built in}
IF)
nectad.
Range top !Fl 6,000 115,1230 3 110 30A 14-JOR May be direct con-
nected.
Dishwasher
(F) 1,200
1, 6 1 112 20A 5- 20R May be direct con-
nected.
Range top IFI 3,300. 115/230 3 #12 20A 14-30R May be direct con-
nected.
Waste
(F) 300 115 2 112 20A 5-2 0R
May be direct con-
disposer nee ted
Broiler (Pl. 1,500 1 15 2 #12 20A 1 or mora 6-20R See note e.
Fryer (PI 1,300 115 1 #12 20A 1 or more 5-20R See note a.
Coffemeker !PI 1,000 115 2 #12
~ O A
1 or more 6-20R See note e.
Refrigerator lSI 300
, 1 5
2 112 20A 1 or more 5-2 0R Separate circuit
serving only refri-
gerator and
freezer is recom-
mended.
Freezer !Sl 350 115 2 112 20A 1 or more 6-20R Separate circuit
serving only refri-
gerator and
freezer is recom-
mended.
Laundry
Washing lSI 1,200 115 2 112 20A 1 or more 5- 2 0R Groooding-type
Machine receptacle on cir-
cuit is reQuired.
Dryer !Sl 5,000
11 5/230 3 110 30 14-30R Appliance may be
directly con-
nected-must be
grounded.
Hend iron;
(PI 1,650 115 2 112 20A 1 or more 6-20R
Ironer
Water
IFI 2 110
May be direct con-
Heater
4, 500 116/ 230 30A
nected.
158
HOUSE WIRING SYMBOLS
... 1;11
FEEDER
BRANCH CIRCUIT-CEILING & WALL
BRANCH CIRCUIT -FLOOR
3 & 4 WIRES CIRCUIT NO.
MARK INDICATES 2 WIRES
+- CROSSING WIRES
~ ~ 1 ~ - - CONNECTED WIRES
-(>- LIGHTING OUTLET CEILING
RECESSED CEILING OUTLET
LA\ DASHES INDICATE SHAPE
LY... OF FIXTURE
. t--¢- LIGHTING OUTLET WALL
~ FLUORESCENT LAMP
(9 LAMP HOLDER
C4s LAMP HOLDER WITH PULL SWITCH
@ CLOCK OUTLET
@ DROP CORD OUTLET
-® FAN OUTLET
fmD RADIO OUTLET
0 FLOOR OUTLET
~ DUPLEX CONVENIENCE OUTLET
-=0' CONVENIENCE OUTLET-SPLIT WIRED
=@:..., WEATHERPROOF OUTLET
~ OUTLET AND SWITCH
~ RANGE OUTLET
~ SPECIAL PURPOSE OUTLET
'e' I Indicated Function on Plan}
~ ... REFRIGERATOR OUTLET
SIGNAL SYSTEM
t!J PUSH BUTTON
[)J BELL
0 BUZZER
~ CHIME
<>-ANNUNCIATOR
SWITCHES
S1 SINGLE-POLE SWITCH
S2 DOUBLE-POLE SWITCH
S4 THREE-WAY SWITCH
Scs CIRCUIT-BREAKER
$wp WEATHERPROOf SWITCH
SWCB WEATHERPROOf
CIRCUIT BREAKER
t:;2:J DISCONNECT SWITCH
MISCELLANEOUS
- LIGHTING PANEL
POWER PANEL
FUSE
WAIT-HOUR METER
TRANSFORMER
0 JUNCTION BOX
• GROUND
159
,ANEL SCHiOUt.£ FOR I ASIC HOUSE
CIRC.
DESCRIPTION
LOAD
CI AQJI T 8REAAERS OESCRIPTIOIII
LOAD C!RC.
NO. V4. VA. NO.
LTG l i(IT.
010
·· "'· • •
8"20
20 20 OUTLETS - LR. &. OR. + EXH. FAN
J(j •
2 1
- OUT$1 DIE, IATM .. 0
JR
1 1
6R
3
LTG - IOUUIOI
LA •. "':l.l. Ut. •2. UMT. +.
935
.CR
) .
OUTLETS - SR. I & 2 6R 4
s 1500 """LIANCE OUTtETS - KIT., OR.
-
6
5 •
7 APPLIANCE OUTLETS - KITCHEN, LR.
-
OUTLETS - 8A TH, 8R'o. - 8
1 •
fl LAUNDRY OUTLET - BSMT.
-
' 10
OUTLETS - 8Sio!T.
-
10
11 HOT WATER BOI LER 1300
1 1 .
SPARE 12
13

30A 1l ••
JOA
1

ELECTRIC CLOTii ES DRYER RA!'«iE 14
21'
IS •• 2 P
IS SI'ACE FOR 2- 1 P
- u ,. JOA OVEN
--
{
16
OR t-2P
- 11 10
2 P
.PANEL OATA
MAINS, GNO. 8US: 150A loi NS., OOA GHO. SUS VOLTAGE 120/240 I Pli.
150/100
BRANCH C/9 INT. CAP. 5000 AMP.
MOUNTING
REMARKS: FRONT SUIT ABLE FOR PAI NT ING
i6J
Average Voii-Amper. Ratings lor Reslclenflal Appliance•
WATTS
Item Volt-Amperes
Item Volt-Amperes
Air conditioners (room)
Heating pad
60
880 Heater
up to 1650
i ton 1200 Ice cream freezer 115
1 ton
1540 Iron 1320
Blanket 175 Knife sharpener
-so
Blender 275 Odorizer
11
Bottle warmer
«O Power tools up to 1000
Casserole
510 Projector
up to 1000
Clock
2
Radio
30
Corn popper
440 Recorder
95
Dehumidifier
185 Record ptayer
50
Door chime 15 Roaster
1320
Egg cooker-
4-w s·andwich grill
960
Fans
Sewing machine
75
Floor cif'culator 120 SBNing tray
600
Atti<:
3-15 Shaver
11
Kitchen exhaust
75 Sunlamp
275
Portable
50 Tea kenle
550
Floor polisher
.475 Toaster
1130
Food warmer 310 Trivet
50
Frying pan
1085 Vacuum cleaners
Food mixer 130 Bag type
340
Hair dryer
415 Canister type
725
Heating equipment Tank type
555
Warm air furnace fan
320 Hand type
310
011 burner 230 Vaporizet"
385
Humidifier 185 Waffle baJGer
960
Heat lamp 250
All theM items utillze a- 5-20R receptacle.
160
13. LOAD TABULATION
( ~ )
(1>1
While circuiting the loads, a panel schedule is drawn up which lists the circuit numbers.
load description and wattage (actually volt-amperes) and the current rating and number
of poles of the circuit-protective device feeding each circuit. Spare circuits are included
to the extent that the designer considers them necessary and consonant with econo-
my, but normally no less than 20% of the number of active circuits. Finally, spaces are
left for future circuit breakers, in approximately the same quantity as the number of
spare circuits but always to rounci off the total number of circuits.
Panels are normally manufactured with an even number of poles. Thus for a 21 pole
panel with spares, designer would probably require 3 spaces to give a 24-circuit box .
205
16'
~ typeG
lOOw
' .
..
207
20'
All type f, 150w

a) Here alternative methods of circuiting are shown in a). Room 205 shows the actual
junction box location, with flexible connections 'to the box at each fixture. Room
207 shows circuit numbers and switch, designations only; the placement of junc-
tion boxes is understood, and conduit runs are omitted for clarity, and because they
most often are not representative of actual installation. From 209 shows an outlet
box at each fixture, with schematic conduit connections. All these systems are in
common use.
- ... ,
" ---
)!1;-Cl
I
1 Exec. office
11 __ n
~ - - - ~
.._'-Q;-_-f/11"
b) Typical circuiting of several rooms in an office-lab building. Lighting and power {re-
ceptacles are shown on separate plans Ia) amd (b) to avoid crowing. Lighting in offices is
recessed; lighting in labs is surface mounted for flexibility. Note the double circuiting of
the Type 0 receptacles.
161
162
ELECT. PANEL- LP - 1 120j208 v Js*
l.OAO IN WATTS BRANCH CARCUIT
"""
S£RVES ..... .8
•c
Pales Frame Trip
I l.iqhtino ! OSO
I 50 20
2 Liohtino /OSO
3 Liahtina 1450
4 .l.i_qjlting IOSO
5 Lighting 1100
6 Liqhtinq 1200
7 Liohtina 800
8 Liqhtinq 1100
9 Liah!ifl(l - Corri dor 700
10 Liqhting JOSO

11 liqhtinq 1000
12 liqilting
13 Recept o ck: s S@t.S omp 900
. 14 Reaptacfe - Corridor ( sinqle pole) 900
15 Receptacle 900
16 Receptacle 900
17 .Span: 1200
18 1200
19
1200
20
\. Recept acle -Corridor
1
1000 1 2
!J
2•pole port ion) /000 I}
21
i
1200 2
y
22
l
1200
0!3-26 Spaces on ly I 50
Phase totals 8260 8 250 7901)
.
Panel tota l
24
350
MaY._¢_ current 70crma
25% spore catJOcitY
....,
20 . i{FuhJre lcadsl
70tal f 90 OnlLS
Main b<uket 2?5A 3 (}. Qlt1
Trip IOOA
Feeaersi:e -:1.:.*2


Schedule for lighting panel LP-1.
Note in Room 207, t here are 5 fluorescent No. @ 15.Qw = 750w and 2 @ 150w· =
300w totals 1 050w No. 1.
Here, in No. 1 3 5 x 1.5 amp == 7 .5 amp (I)
w
I == - W == l (v)
v
(see page 12)
W == 7.5 ( 120v) == 900 watts
~ A '"" 8,200 watts
1 =
8

2
00 = 69 or 70 amp each (more or less equal}
120 .
In calculating panel loads, the following rules apply
a) Each specific appliance, device, lighting fixture, or other load is taken at its name-
plate rating, except certain kitchen and laundry appliances for which the NEC
allows a demand factor.
b) Each convenience outlet, other than residential spaces is counted as 1.5 amp.
(180w)
c) Loads for special areas and devices such as show window liQhti ng, heavy-duty
lampholders and multi-outlet assemblies are taken at the f igures given in NEC article
220.
d) Spare circuits are figured at approximately the same load as the average active cir-
cuits ( 1 200 to 1 SOw)
e) Spaces are not added into the load.
NOTE in the Schedule for lighting Panel LP-1 that 2-pole loads (208 single-phase) ap-
pear in two columns. Similarity, 3-phase loads would appear in three columns. Also
note that the phase loads are not equal. It is the responsibility of the designer to circuit
the loads so that the phases are as closely balanced in load as possible. If this is not
done, one phase will carry considerably more current than the others. Since the panel
feeder must be sized for the maximum phase current this may lead to an oversized
feeder and therefore a waste of money:
Having tabulated and balanced the loads and totaled them by phase, the maximum cur-
rent is calculated. A portion of the spare capacity available in the branch circuits is add-
ed to the above total, as the basis for the calculation of the feeder load. (something bet·
ween 25% to 50%).
14. PANEL LOAD CALCULATION
Assume a single floor of an office building 100ft. x 200ft. (32 x 64m). Assume also
that 15% of the area is corridor and storage. Calculate the required number of panels,
circuits and feeder size. Assume a good grade speculative construction venture, uti-
lizing code minima, consistent with good practice.
Solution: Office Space = 85% of 20,000 sq.ft.
Storage:
= 17,000 sq.ft.
Corridor and Sto.rage
= 15% of 20,000 sq. ft .
.,. 3000 sq.ft.
17,000 sq.ft.@ 5 w./ sq.ft. = 85,000
(1700 sq.m.) (@50 w/ sq.m.) = 85 kw
3000 sq.ft.@ 0.5 w/sq.ft. = 1,500 watt
300 sq. m.@ 5 w/sq. m. = 1500w = 1.5 kw
Total Load = 86.5 kw
Minimum ·Feeder capacity 100% + 25% = 1.25
125 x 86.5 = 108.125 kw
163
Size
Circuit
15A
20A
Looking at the Table of Recommended Branch Circuit load. Column B, we utilize anini-
tial branch circuit loading of 1300w per cct, since the building is of good grade office
construction, and we anticipate 40 to 80% expansion.
Number of cct =
86
·
5
= 68
1300
RECOMMENDED BRANCH CIRCUIT .. LOADS
Maximum Continuous Anticipated 5 to 10 Year Load Growth
(B) 40% or more
Load (00% of Rating)
(A) 0 to 30% Expansion Expansion
Volt Volt Initial Volt Volt Initial Volt Volt
amperes amperes load Amperes Amperes Load Amperes Amperes
Amperes at 120v at 2nv at 120v @227v @ 120v @ 277v
(Approximate) (Approximate)
12 1440 9.6 1150 8 960
16 1920 4440 12.8 1520 3600 11 1300 3000
Because of the size of the building, three panels are required to keep branch circuits
.below 100ft. in length in practice, additional circuits are provided for receptacles and
spares.
Receptacles:
First at 400 sq. ft.
next 16,600
@ 110 sq.ft. per
1 0 receptacles
1 51 receptacles
161 receptacles
circuited at 6o per 20A cct
No. of ccts = 1
1
:
1
= 27 ccts.
Lighting plus receptacles 68 + 27 = 95 ccts
20
Total ) .1 5 ccts
each panel would then have 115/3 or 38 circuits plus 4 spaces, for a maximum 42
poles.
164
Thus with initially three (3) panel locations, we proceed to circuit the lighting and
receptacles according to the actual tenant requirement in this case use 108 kw. as
solved.
Assuming even distribution of load, and actual load greater than minimum
Panel load: 38 cct' 1300w = 49.5 kw
25% future = 12.5
----
Feeder load = 62 kw
Use 4# 2/0 THW, 2 Y2" in c (in conduit)
The feeder current is calculated in terms of the panel ~ p h a s e kva thus .
...
Thus above feeder current is
kva
I = 0.360 amps
I=
62
kw = 172 amps
0.360
CURRENT AND WATTAGE RELATIONSHIPS
LOADS 120V 120/240/ 120/208V 120/208V 277/480V znv
(wo tt.s) sinqle phase S.P. 3-w:re 3-P 3-P 3-P S-P
r---
100 0.83 0.41 -
- - !
0.36
-
200 1.60 0.80 - -
-
0.72
500 4.20 2.10 -
- -
1.80
1,000
8.30 4.20 4.80 2.77 1.20 3.60
2,000 16.60 8.30 9.60 5.50 2.40 7.20
5,000 41.70 20.80 24.0 13.90 6.00 18.00
10,000 83.70 41.60 48.0 27.70 12.00 36.00
.
20,000 -
-
9G.O 55.60 24.00 72.00
-
50,000
-
- 24000 139.00 60.00 180.00
.. - .....................
100,00(
- -
480.00 271.00 120.00 362.00
OR l
_w
1
w
-ffi; = ~
165
SIZES MAXIMUM NUMBER OF CONDUCTORS IN TRADE SIZES OF CONDUIT
Metric English 117 . 314" 1" 1 1/4" 1112"
2" 2112" 3" 3112" 4"
mm
2
AWG TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW TW THW
MCM
2.0 14 9 6 15 10 25 16 44 29 60 40 99 65 142 93
.
143
.
192
-
-
3.5 12 7 4 12 8 19 13 35 24 47 32 78 S3 111 ·76 171 117
.
157
- -
5.5 10 5 4 D 6 15 11 26 19 36 26 60 43 85 61 131 95 176 127
- 163
8 8 2 1 4 3 7 5 12 10 17 13 28 22 40 32 62 49 84 66 108 85
14 6 1 2 4 7 10 16 23 36 48 62
22 4 1 1 3 5 7 12 17 27 36 47
30 2 1 1 2 4
5 9 13 20 27 34
38
•1
-
1 1 3 4 6 9 14 19 25
50 0 1 1 2 3 s
8 12 16 21
60 00 1 1 1 3 5 7 10 14 18
80 000 1 1 1
2 4 6 9 12 15
100 0000
.
1 1 1 3 5 7 10 13
125 250
150 300
175 350
200 400
250 500
300 600
380 750
500 1000
166
PtNSICAL PROPERTIES OF BARE CONDUCTORS
SIZE AREA DIAMETER DIAMETER DIAMETER
A.WG« MCM
C1RCVLAR MILS) IN INCHES
INCHES mm.
SOLID STRANDED SOLID STRANDED
1.32" I
i
18
32 32
0.041 1.016
·...---
16 2,580 .!&ar H
0.050 1.291

32 16
14 4,.109 ..2..ar
i..
0.062
1628
32 16
t2 6,530 ..L.i. 0.080 2053
16

!!'
2" ......
0.101 2.588 10
11'
·- ----
0·125
-
2.-f Of
l2"
8 16.510
0.150 3.708
16 16
6 26,240
_:i_•
0.187 4.674
16
4 41.740
3.8
0237 5.843
16
- .
_£' f , ..
16 Of «-;r
0.250
-
2 66,360
.U" ¥'
0.293 7.417
16 or
I 63,69Q
¥"
or


0.332 8-433
()
ct>
I
105,600
6" 3''
0. 375

16 T
9.447 l
00
<i>
133,100
0412 10.617
1
l
8
000
( .!.)
167,600
u·« or-L 0.475 \1,938
0 8 8 2
oooc 211,600 0.528 13.411
!
I
150 MCM
I
250,CIXJ
I
4.0" I" 4.6"
e or 2 ClllCI--8
0500 0.575 14-605
-
300 MCM 300,000 £
8
0.548 0.625 16002
..
350 MCM 3'!:0,000
I
5845 0.681 17.297
I--·
-
,
400 MCM
!
400,000

0632 0.725 18 491
I
j
-
450 MCM 6" 3"
450.000
19.609
i
8()(
4
.... -...,-.t .. n-·----.-
·----·-
.§2: o. 813 20.650
500 MCM 500.000
-nsc:lMCM 750po0
e"T.
1.000

T or I"
looO MCW. 1,000.000 .!:5" ..3.."
8 Ofjl6
1.187 29<!10
EXAMPLE •
MCM: (<'i?/lterf 3 t 5001
2
- 2P&W'O : 250 MCM
1000 I 1000-
ln heno:solld -f1n diameter is 500 MILS; sinQt I incb IS IOOOcireulor mils. 167
ALLOWABLE CURRENT
AMPERES
CARRYING CAPACITY
TABLE 1 TABLE 2
not more than three conductors Single Conductor 2
in raceway or conduits Free Air
METRIC ENGLISH
Thermoplastic Type Thermoplastic Type
SIZE SizeA.W.G.
Types T and TW THW Types T and TW THW
mm2 orM.C.M.
2.0 14 AWG 15 15 20 20
3.5 12 20 20 25 25
5.5 10 30 30 40 40
8.0 8 40 45 55 65
14 6 55 65 80 95
22 4 70 85 105 125
3 80 100 120 145
30 2 95 115 140 170
38 1 110 130 165 195
50 1/0 125 150 195 230
60 210 145 175 225 265
80 3/0 165 200 260 31 0
100 4/0 195 230 300 360
·125 250 MCM 215 255 340 405
150 300 240 285 375 445
175 350 260 310 420 505
200 400 280 335 455 545
250 500 320 380 515 620
300 600 355 420 575 690
350 700 385 460 630 755
380 750 400 475 655 785
400 800 410 490 680 815
450 900 435 520 730 870
500 1,000 455 545 780 935
1,250 495 590 890 1,065
1,SOO 520 625 980 1,175
1,750 545 650 1,070 1,280
2,000 560 665 1,1 55 1,385
60°C 75°C
15. RISER DIAGRAMS
When all devices are circuit ed and panel s are located and scheduled, we are ready t o
prepare a riser diagram. This show the vertical relationships. All panels, feeders, s w i t ~
ches, switchboards, and major components are shown up t o, but not including, branch
circuiting. This diagram i s an electrical version of a vert ical sect ion taken through t ~ : ~ e
building .
. 168
ELEVAmR5 MA(; HINe R<»M
LP
..
4th
TYPICAL POWER RISER DIAGRAM
169
170
EXAMPLES:
Feeder F-1 o serves lighting panels 1 A, 2A, and 3A. Calculate the required feeder size,
considering loads, future expansion-and voltage drop.
SOLUTION:
Taking into consideration that the loads on these panels per f loor have been already
computed individually, and are:
Connected load LP - 1 A - 1 2 5 amp
LP - 2A - 1 50 amp
LP - 3A - 140 amp
415 amp
(includes connected load, spares and 25 % future factor)
Diversity Factors used in Office Work
Lighting panels fed
from a single feeder
11 2,
3, 4,
5, 6, or 7
8,9,0r10
Diversity
Factors
1.00
1.09
1.18
1.33
Thus the load on Feeder F·1 0, using 1 00% demand per panel and 1 . 09 diversity bet-
• ween panels, would be 415 x 1.0/109 = 380 amps
See Table on allowable current carrying capacity
Use 4·500 MCM THW
and 3 Ya" conduit (see table on number of conductors in conduit) 4 " o can
be used.
16. SERVICE EQUIPMENT AND
SWITCHBOARD DESIGN
In the Figure riser Diagram, the service equipment portion of the board comprises the
metering and the 4 main switches feeding ( 1) mcc machine control center (2) MC
Machine room (3) Elevators and (4) Risers to all floors. The feeder board comprises
switches 5 through 12. The NEC' permits or allows up to 6 fused switches or circuit
breakers to serve as the service disconnect means. This arrangement was chosen in
order to separate to the largest extent possible the motor loads (Elevators, air-condi-
tioning equipment, basement power, etc.) from the lighting. Such a procedure mini-
mizes lighting fluctuations resulting from motor starting and yields simpler main-
tenance. Also the size of the main switch is reduced. This switchboard would be of
the metal clad dead-front type with switches or circuit breakers, as desired.
For protection of feeder F1 0, shown as an example above, an 800-amp circuit breaker
or 600A switch, with 400-amp trip or fuse, respectively, would be chosen, assuming
the initial installation to be a set of No. 500 MCM cables.
Other considerations and general rules affecting service equipmenJ. are listed below.
a) A building may be supplied at one point by either a single set or parallel sets of ser-
vice conductors.
b) Service drops may Qf$nerally be not less than No.8 AWG and service entrance con-
ductors or underground service conductors not less than No.6 AWG.
c) All equipment used for service including cable, switches, meters, and so on, shall
be approved for that purpose.
d) It is recommended that a minimum of 1 00-amp. 3-wire, 1 20/240 service be pro-
vided for all individual ret¥dences.
e) No service switch smaller than 60-amp or circuit breaker frame smaller than 50 amp
shall be used.
f) In multiple occupancy buildings, tenants must have access to their own disconnect
means.
g) All building equipment shall be connected on the load side of the service equipment
except that service fuses & metering, fire alarm, and signal equipment serving emer-
gency systems may be connected ahead of the main disconnect. (see typical power
riser diagram).
17. EMERGENCY SYSTEMS
Or "Standby" Systems. This is study of or possible arrangements of emergency power
supply. In general, when emergency power is discussed it is assumed to be replacing
"normal" power; that is, the assumption underlying governmental codes and or-
dinances is that power must be supplied to selected loads within the building because
of a utility outage or brownout. (Notfrom equipment failure).
The emergency system includes all devices, wiring raceways, and other electrical
equipment, including the emergency' source that is intended to supply electric power to
the selected loads. These loads normally include egress lighting (stair, corridor, and exit
and lobby lights); signal equipment such as public address and fire alarm that must re·
main functional during an emergency, and one or more elevators as required by Code.
RECOGNIZED ARRANGEMENTS:
1. When loads are light, a storage battery arranged to be connected automatically on
power outage is used:
(See diagrams on next page).
171
172
a) Where all emergency loads can be supplied with d-e direct current, this arrange-
mentis used.
tENTRAt..
1---484-TTERY
TS AUT<>MATIG
TRA.NSFER SWITCH
LJ6HilNG AND Oll(ER
OP
a'ERATIN6 c:lN O.c:.
b) If ac is required, the arrangement in this figure is utilfled.
NORMAL AG
I i \ I
PC..
GA.N
OPEAATE ON A<:.
c) When the emergency Equipment is entirely separate from the normal equipment
and is normally deenergized, the system below is used. (For egress lighting
only). The contactor is activated when it senses power loss.
NORMAL- t
, ------+-r ---r l-.--..I 1
l
l 1
1
N<'N SMER6ENC't
: PANEL
I I
L--...
CONTACT OR
2) When Emergency loads are larger than can be supplied economically by batteries,
and where the 8 to 1 5 sec. start-up time is tolerable, a generator set is employed.
(Hospitals} The prime mover may be gasoline, diesel, steam or gas.
The system can be arranged with a single transfer switch that senses normal power
loss as in fig. (2al or it can use multiple switches, each one of which will sense
power loss at its downstream location as in (2-b).
Al A single transfer switch serves the
normal power and transfers to the
generator on power failure.

NCaW..
)
/ B) The transfer switches are smaller,
thus reducing the chance of a single
equipment. Failure faulting out the en-
tire emergency power system.
173
174
3) Many codes permit use of two separate electric services in lieu of a normal ser-
vice plus an emergency source provided that the two sources are independent, that
is, come from different utility transformers or feeders, enter the building at dif-
ferent points and preferably from different directions, and use separate service
drops or laterals. The point is, of course, that the type of reliability desired can only
be obtained by minimizing the possibility of a single event interrupting both ser-
vices.
The usual arrangement is for one service to be "normal" and the other " standby"
as in 3-a figure. A much less frequent case utilizes both feeders as "normal". each
carrying part of the normal load and each as a standby for the other, as in
3-b.
NORMAL
c """'0--- ----+-0
STANDBY

i r r r r
EMERGENCY POWER IS SUPPLIED BY DUAL SERVICE
4) The least reliable arrangement is one in which the emergency loads are connected
ahead of the main disconnects and are so arranged that a downstream fault within
the building will not affect these items. This situation as shown in this figure, where
) )
MAIN
-..---.IIIII----...
FA I
.,._ __ l LPSE= .,
INCOMING SERVtCE
STAIR/. OIT
PANEL
the stair and exit panel, whi ch supplies egress lighting, and the fire alarm panel are
connected ahead of the building main disconnect and protected with their own
fuses. Thi s arrangement can do nothing in the event of a power outage (brownout) .
A portion of a typical stair and exit riser is shown below. Circuits connected to this
panel are not switched, being of the constant burning type. Emergency system Wir-
ing must be kept entirely independent of all other wiring and equipment and should
not occupy the same enclosure or conduit as normal system, except in dual fed
units such as transfer switches.
(
LIGHTIN6 )
86.SEMENT EMERGE.'NC)'
175
I
L. - - - --- ------· - -r
!

d
.,
;
i ~
,.
•·
(•
~ - ~ '
y -.:·
·-··· ·· · ... .. - . . .. . - ··- · . ... .... _/
L_ --4 - -- - ---··- - -- - ---. -- - -- -- -- -.. ------- · ... _ -- _.,_ _
•,
LIGHTING LAYOUT PLAN
SCALE I:SO
176
:------------ - - - - - - - - - ~ - - - · · - - - - - - ----------------.
I ;
! BALCONY II
u--
; :
LtVIN$
POWER LAYOUT PLAN
SCALE 1:60
177
ELECTRICAL LBEND
POWER SERVICE ENTRANCE CAP
TELEPHONE SERVICE CAP
B
CJ

D
MAIN KILOWATT HOUR METER
® ELECTRIC KILOWATT HOUR METER
(SU8- Nf'1'EIII)
MAIN DISTRtBUTION
AUTOMATIC TRANSFER SWITCH
?WIER AND LIGHTiNG PANELBOAAD
SAFETY SWITCH RATING AS
INDICATED
f=:t8= COIERED
LIGHT FIXTURE
t::().::l c 1-40 watt FU>URESCENT COVE
UGHT FIXTURE
100 watt PINUGHT LAMP OUTLET
o.
•Sa
oSab
CEJLif(; MOUNTED
lOOwa" INCANDESCENT LAMP
CEILING MOUNTED
TUMBLER SWITCH SINGLE POLE
TUMBLER SWllCH SINGLE POLE
TWO GANG
•sabc l\JMBLER SWITCH SINGLE POLE
oSSa
TRREE GANG
TRREE-WAV TUMBLER SWITCH
DUPLEX CONVENIENCE oun.ET
WITH ONE OF THE OUTLE'TS ON
SWITCH CCM"ROL AND THE
OTHER OUTLET ON CONSTANT
• 3 PRONG GROUNDING TYPE
DUPLEX CONVENIENCE ••
WAL \U.TAGE
GEABLE PLUG- TYPE WITH PROfER
WL.TAGE MARKINGS
:@CI.. CLOSE TO CEIUNG CONVENIECE
OUn..ET FOR SIGN PROVISION
:§'IP WAlERPRO<F DUPLEX CONVE-
NENCE OUTLET
ELECTRIC RANGE OUTLET, SINGLE
250v, 50a
-@o
SPECIAL PlR'OSE OUTI..ET, SINGLE,
0-DRYER-,TP TRANSFER PUMP,
DEEP WELL PUMP
(i) GB£RAfOR STAND-BY
TEl.EPt«lNE "TERMINAL CAB1t£T,
WITH TERMINAL BLOCK, SIZE
AS INDICATED
o:.Ll IN IEROJM TERMINAL CABINET
SIZE AS INDICATED
-t> -i>
0 I!J ELECTRIC OOOR CHIME OR OOOR
PANEL E£LL 220v/ 12v TRANS-
FORMER
G PUSH BOTTON
I!! FIRE ALARM MANUAL STAllON
® FIRE ALARM BELL
ffie:1 FIRE ALARM OONTR<l... PANEL
WIRING IN Cc:t.IWT CONCEALED
IN WALL, OR CEILING, HASH-
MARKS INDICATES NUMBER
178
-1'-
- IC-
-a-
WtRES IN CONOUfi._t«> HASHMARKS
lNOfCATE TWO Wt<ES
BRANQt QRCUIT TO
PAtEL BOARD
TEl..EPHOt£ CR:UIT, RJN IN CON-
WIT CONCEALED
RUN IN CONDUIT
GROUND WIRES BARE COPPER
STRAND SIZE AS INDICA1E>
ELECTRICAL NOTES
-··-··
I. ALL !LICT!ItiCAL WORKS AND INSTALLATION SHALL COMPLY WITH TME PROVISIONS OF THE
LATEST !DITtoN OF THE PHILIPPINE ELECTRICAL CODE WITH THE RULES AHD REGULATIONS t#
THE NATIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES CONCERNED IN THI INFORCEMEHT otr ELECTRICAL
LAWS AND OP' THI UTILITY COMPANIES CONCERNED.
2 SIRVICI VOLTAGE TO THI 8UILDIN8 SHALL IE 110/220 VOLTt, 410 -ItT%, SIN8LI PHAft •
S THE CONTRACTO!It SHALL VEIUP'Y AND ORIENT n4E ACTUAL LOCATION 0111' CONa.TE Tl:ltMINAL
frOR CONNECTION TO THI POWI!It SUPPLY AND TILIEPHONIE SERVICE.
4 ALL INSTALLATION SHALL II CONCEALED lll'ftOM YEW, WIRINt SHALL K INCAS! IN POLYY!HYL
CHLDRIDI! f PVe, fllll'll!: SCHEDULE 40 EXCEPT POWER AND Tl!:LIPHONE SDVICE WtUCH SHALL
• RIIID I,_.L CONDUIT C RIC) OTtDWISI: NOTED.
t MINIMUM WIRE AND CONDUIT IIZI SHALL • NO. It Mlt8 TYN TW AHD Ua"e PVC TltADIE
SIZI , RISNCTtVELY UNLI .. ontt:RWISI •
8 PULL lOX IS 0, APPROMIATI IIZI SHALL BE PROVIDED • EVEN IP' MOT INDICATED '" DRAWINGS
TO ACCOMMODATE THE NUMBER OF SPLICES OF WIRES.
1 ALL fi'LOURESCENT L.AMPS SHALL. 8E PROVIDED WITH POL VESTER- FILLED PRE-HEAT • THEftMALLY
PROTECTED, HIGH POWER BALLAST.
I ALL MATERIALS TO BE USED SHALL BE IC£W AND APPROVED TYPE APPROfiRIATI FOR BOTH
LOCATION AND INTENDED USE •
9 LltMT CONTftOL SWf'R:HES SHALL BE RATED
8REATER THAN eo omJJ•·
IOo 300 wott• AND SHALL NOT CMRY A LOAD

10 DUPLEX RECEPTACLES SHALL BE RATED IOo • 2:50 volt•, RI)UNDt:D SLOTS Fa. "lt1 ANQ !'OR
PllRALLEL SU>TS FOR 110 AND SPECIAL OUTL£TS SHALL 81 RATED ISo OR 2:50 volta
AS REQUIRED.
IJ. trOR EACH SPARE CIRCUIT JN PANEL. BOARD, PROVIDE EMPTV 3/4"• RISER TERMtNATIN8 IN A
2-1/8" DEEP BY 4
11
OCTAtONAL. BOX A80VE CIJLING .
fl. ILICTIUCAL IMST#ILLATIOMS SHALL IE 'UNDER THE DIRECT SUPDvtSION Otr A DUL't LICENSED
ELICTRfCAL I:NGINEER, OR A REGI8TI!:Iti!:D MASTER ELECTRICIAN.
13 OUTLET BOXES SHALL II AS JfOLLOWS :
LI8HT OUTLETS
RICEPTACLE AND TELEPHONE
OUTLETS
OOOR KU. e CHfME OUTLETS
PUSH IOTTON OUTLETS
SPECIAL PURPOSE OUTLETS
RANGE OUTLET
1-112 "DEEP, 4"0CTA80HAL 80)( I Olt 2 WAY IN11tiEI
2-118"DEEP, 4"0CTAe<>NAL lOX I OR 4 WAY'ENTitiiS.
2-118"DI!:IP, t"X4" UTILITY lOX I OR 2 RACEWAY
IN TRIES
I-112
11
DEEP. 4
11
SQUARI BOX WITH I-GAN8 RAISED
PILASTIC COVER I'OR S OR 4 RACEWAY ENTitiES
1-112
11
DEEP, 4" OCTAGONAL lOX
2-118
11
DIEP • · 2,. X 4" UTILITY BOlt
I-112"DIIP, 4'l SQUARE lOX l-tAN8 RAISED
PLASTIC COVER
2-118"DI!EP, 4-11116" SQUARE lOX WSTH I-GANG
RAISED PLASTIC COVER
14 NO MVISION IN THE DIS18N SHALL BE DONI WITHOUT THE PRIOR !laiOWLEHI AND APPROVAL
Of' THI: DII18NIIt AND lltE OW..:R, ANY SUCH REVISION DONE WITHOUT APPROVAL IHALL CAUSE
ltESPONSIBILITY OP' THE DISI8NIR TO CEASE AS A WHOLE.
179
LOAD SCHEDULE
ce..an LJIHT .J:J/JitY
cmD8
IWtTCH RATING
NO
IOU'n..£'1
... 82W
WATn
I



IOOW
2

s I eoow
I

.oow
.. ltANeE eooow
"tt1aL Ia

I II I 8,100W
LOAD COMPUTATION
CIRCUIT- I 8 CONVENiENCE QYTL.ET
CIRCUIT -2 6 OUTLET
CIRQIIT -3 6 WALL OUTLET AT
CIRCUIT --4 f RANGE AT
TOTAL
TOTAL COMPUTED LOAD
8100WATTS .;.
RATitUr WlltE CoetDUIT
fi'ROT&CTION
VOLTS 81ZI: AT AI'
IJOY l s.oMalTw ISIIIM • 15 100
dOY
IJjljlljl ...
ISMN

tS ...too
2
118/dOV s.eMMTW
,,., ...
IS 100
I
115/ZSOV t.OMMTW IOIIIN. 40 too
IIS/UOV
..14:.);:
·-·
aew• to 100
Iff' 100 WATTS • 115/230 • 2.60 A .. PS
AT 100 WATTS • 115 /230 • 2.60 AMPS
I :SO WATTS • U:S /230 • 3.91 AMPS
6000WATTS • 115/230 •26.08AMPS
8100 WATTS 35.19 AMPS
)( 80% O.F. IW:TOR). 28.16AMI8
MA'N BREAKER RATtNG
USE
SIZE ENTRANCE WtRES
2-14m!.'ITHWJ in 25mm e CONDUIT
1-emm THW
J1 !-.COMING SERVICE
f -
1
11&/2SO VOLTS, I Pti4SE,3 WIRES
1
Tli W
: KIL.OWATTHOOR METER
CLASS 100 , 240 VOLTS,
5 'K.RE
1M PUn
Z..OAMPS
I.IO.U.S
.........
a.DeAMf'S
...... "
CKT I WIRE FtUN UNOER CEILII'iG
l r-CI<T 2 WIRE RUN UNDER CEIUNG
CI<T I
lcKT2
CKT. BREAKER PANEL
.__ Q<T 5 WIRE RUN \JNI:)ER FLOOR
CKT4 WIRE RUN UNO£R FLOOR
RISER DIAGRAM
180
CI<T 3
L _ ___ _j
CIRCUIT BREAKER
.. .
HEATING
chapter VENTILATING
AIR CONDITIONING
COOLING
HEAT AND MOISTURE IN THE
ATMOSPHERE AND HUMAN
COMFORT
1 . METABOLISM
182
Food taken into the body may be thought of as fuel that is subject to a low-grade burn-
ing process sufficient to maintain a body temperature of 98.6 °F (37 ThP.re is a
wide variation in metabolic rates, dependent on physical activity. For an average size
man, the met unit corresponds approximately to 360 British Thermal units per hour
t8Tuh); women tend to have maximum levels about 30% lower.
METABOLIC RATE at Different Typical Activities:
ACTIVITY
Resting
Walking-2 to 4 mph
Miscellaneous Occupations
Bakery, Lab. work
Carpentry Machine
Sewing by hand
Planning by hand
Garage work
Light Machine work
Heavy Machine work
Car driving
Heavy Vehicle
Oomestic Work
Cooking
Washing and Ironing by hand
Office Work
Leisure Activities
Calisthenics exercise
Tennis
Basketball
Golf
METABOLIC RATE IN
MET UNITS
0.7 to 1.2
2.00 to 3.8
1.4 to 2.0
1.8 to 2.2
4.00 to 4 .8
5.6 to 6.4
2.2 to 3.0
2.0 to 2.4
1.6
1.5
3.2
1.6 to 2.0
2.0 to 3.6
1.1 to 1.4
3 .0 to 4.0
3.6 to 4.6
5:0 to 7.6
1.4 to 2.6
Example-for a person sleeping, the heat given off is 0 . 1· x 360 = 2 52 Btuh. A basket-
ball player in action generates and loses 7.6 x 360 = 2136 Btuh. Heat- is lost from the
body by several different methods. They vary in rate, dependent largerly on dry-bulb
(air). temperature. The temperature of surrounding surfaces, mean radiant temperature
(MRT). Relative {RH), and air motion.
2. THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM AND COMFORT
It becomes apparent that the thermal environment may be regulated to permit an easy
and comfortable rate of loss for the heat that is generated by humans for any given ac-
tivity to avoid body chill in one case and heavy respiration in the other.
The term Environmental comfort has taken on a broad meaning. they include items
such a$ aesthetics and acoustics. Factors that can be controlled by air-conditioning
systems include:
a. Temperature of the surrounding air.
b. Mean radiant temperature of the surrounding surfaces.
c. The relative humidity of the air.
d. Motion of the air.
e. Odors.
f . Dust
3. REGULATION OF THE
THERMAL ENVIRONMENT
AIRTEMP. '
7S.'F ~
Heat loss by convectfon. Differential between the average skin and clothing tempera-
ture and the room air temperature is usually about 1 0 °F at any selected air temperature
in a space, with fixed air motion, air particles in contact with the body, are warmed.
They become less dense and r!Je:'to be replaced by cooler particles that follow in turn.
If the air temperature ris..H" as a result of this, the optimum, then the selected
temperature must be restored within limits of 1 or 2 degrees. In the cold season, this
may be done by controls that reduce the output of the heating system. In mild weather
cool outdoor air may be introduced. In summer, mechanical cooling may be necessary.
The most recent standards call for a temperature related to the activity but not to the
season. For this reason, year-room air conditioning is essential under conditions of
dense occupancy and significant activity.
Heat loss by r•dlatlon is the transmission of energy through the air from the warmer
human body or its clothing to the cooler surfaces that are "seen" by the warmer
sources. This expression is chosen to emphasize that the energy cannot go around cor-
ners or be affected by air motion. The surface temperature of the human body and its
clothing less to MAT of the surrounding surfaces is the determining differential in this
radiant transmission.
183
184
Mean radiant temperature MAT, reflecting the thermal nature of people's indoor sur-
rounding environment is usually between 70 and 80 °F. Since either is less than the
usual average of skin and clothing temperature of about 8 5 °, heat radiates frorn the
body to its surroundings. In the (winter) cold condition as illustrated. Surfaces (a) (c)
and (d) are about at room air temperature 172 °F). The mean however, is affected by a
higher temperature (b) due to lights, and a lower one (e) reflecting outdoor conditions.
Although the MAT usually lies between 70 and 80 °F and tends to stablize at the room
lJit t emperature, it is someti mes affected by large glass areas, degree of insulat ion,
lights and so on. Recent trends have tended to stabilize the MAT at a temperature close
to that of the air in the spaces. These trends include more insulation, lower lighting
levels, and smaller glass areas.
The use of ·ci rculated air brings several advantages to occupied rooms. The motion
tends to unify the thermal conditions necessary for·comfort. Also as air gently passes
the occupants, it carries away accumulated warm air and the humidity given off by the
body. This results in a feeling of freshness, and comfort by assuring uniform conditions
in the space by clearing out stuffy spots.
~ F!El.A TIVEL Y STILL A I ~
~ A I ~ IN MoTION
The rate of circulation relates principally to the heat to be carried to or from the room
and it generally results in air speeds that lie between 70 and 1 0 feet per minute {fpml.
In setting dry-bulb standards it is usual to take into account the slightly cooling effect
of moving ai r.
4. CRITERIA FOR THERMAL COMFORT
ASH RAE Standard 90-7 5 was adopted by the American Society of Heating, refri-
gerating and air conditioning engineers in 197 5 with energy conservation as its prin-
cipal t heme.
Indoor design Conditions
Winter (cold December) 72°F {22°C) dry bulb . . up to 30% maximum relative
humidity if humidification is provided.
Summer 78%F (25.5 °C) dry bulb where comfort air condi-
tioning is required or used.
5. INDOOR HUMIDITY IN WINTER
For many reasons other than thermal comfort. The RH should not fall below 20%. One
of these reasons is that humidity has a strong effect on the wood of furniture, paneling
and other interior equipment and finishes. The shrinkage of wood lateral to the direc-
tion of the grain often results in unsightly cracks and the loosening of furniture joints.
Another reason is that skin becomes rough and dry in low humidities.
Without humidif icat ion, the RH in houses is generally low in winter, but sel dom below
20%. The RH is found to be 30 or 30%. Architects someti mes feels that humidification
to raise the RH above these levels i n winter is undesirable f or t wo reasons.
a. Condensation on glass, especially on single glass, can occur. Introducing heat
below the glass reduces this possibility but there are practical limits to the humidity
that can be tolerated by cold surfaces.
b. The second reason is that vapor barriers, despite efforts toward the best work-
manship, are not always completely impervious. Vapor pressure at the higher
humidity levels often causes moisture to get through barriers and condense within
exterior walls in winter.
Modern houses are increasingly air tight and the moisture produced by domestic opera·
tions is usually retained in the building to afford a reasonable humidity. This is em-
phasized by the fact that exhaust fans are often used in bathrooms while showering,
their purpose being to reduce concentrations of moisture that cause copious condensa-
tion or mirrors and other glass
Moisture Production for various Domestic Operations
Operation
Floor mopping (7 .2 sq. m. kitchen, 0.03 psf)
Clothes drying indoors
Clothes Washing
See continuation on next page.
Pounds of
Moisture
2 .40
26.40
4.33
185
Cooking
Breakfast
lunch
Dinner
Dishwashing
Breakfast
Lunch
Dinner
Bathing
Shower
Tub
From Food
0.34+
0.51 +
1.17
Human contribution, family of four/hr.
Gas Refrigeration per hour
House Plants, each per hour
Humidifier, when used per hour
From Gas
0.56
0 .66
1.52
0.90
1., 7
2.69
0.20
0.15
0.65
0.50
0:12
0.46
0.12
0.04
2.00
Source: From research in Home Humidity Control , by S.C. Hite and J.L. Bray.
DEALING WITH OUTDOOR CONDITIONS (WINTER
IS INEVITABLE. IT CAN WDRt< FOR OR AGAINST YOU.
<$. TJ-+E STOVE IS NOT MERELY J('i
THE WRONG PLACE. IT ACCEL-E·
RATES 1li E '' OOWNS up"' CF COLD
b) THE CON\t€CTOf? STRIP MOVES
.AIR UP TO WARM THe GLASS
AND PROVIDE$ LOCAL RADIANT
WARMTH.
186
AIR F="ROM iHE GLASS.
6. COPING WITH SPECIAL CONDtTIONS
Of the numerous building materials, glass is the most to weather changes and
poses some of the major problems in maintaining thermal standards. It has taken some-
trme for architects and .air-conditioning engineers to develop solutions to the problems
that large glass areas can create in winter and In summer.
d) 6<X>D FACING.
SOUTH
6000 FACING
EASTOR WEST
.., 6000 F'ACIN6 EAST,
WEST Off SOUTH
INDOOR COMFORT IN SUMMER
HI&HANDLOW


, ..
A sudden increase in the number of people occupying a space already adjusted to pro-
per thermal conditions can put a tax on sluggish air-conditioning systems. it is essential
that installations be arranged to prevent the uncomfortable temperature increase caus-
ed by sudden increase in population density.
Finally it is important to know that building, have a large thermal lag. If the temperature
in a building that is normally maintained at 70°F, it may be days before the MAT
returns to its former (higher) value. During that period the occupants will experience a
radiant chill that may not be compensated for by an even further rise in air
temperature.
7. THE RECYCLING OF AIR
Air is a reusable commodity. lt has long been the custom to add outdoor air to the air
that is circulated within a house or building for heating or cooling purposes. But out-
door air is not always the "fresh" air.that is used to be.
Outdoor air must conform to the requirements of ASHRAE (American Society of Heat-
ing, Refrigerating and air conditioning Engineers).
187
When within tl'le prescribed levels, the air i s termed acceptable outdoor air. In many
major cities those levels are met when this outdoor air is subjected to the minimal treat-
ment, including such processes as seen in this figure.
DRY MAT
AIR
(b) SPRAY WASHER
(SPRAY M- HUMictFfE.R)
WIFE NC> INT'ERM11Pl41"£
HlGH I"'SITIVE POTEN,AL..
---+
---·

q ELECTROSTATIC AIR
CLEANER

Al.. TERNATE NEGA"TlVt:!
PI..A TeS <9ROUNt>EO
188
(PRE C. I Pl TATORS)
DETAIL OF C
AIR FILTRATION
DEVICES
In recirculated air systems, the requirements for quality apply to the air entering the oc-
cupied space. When air in that part of the system qualifies and has had additional
special treatment, the actual rate of outdoor air can be reduced to as little as 15% (If in
addition to temperature control, high efficient absorption or other odor and gas removal
equipment is employed) to 33° of the specified required ventilation air quantity (if ade-
quate temperature control is provided, in addition to filtering equipment, so that the
maximum allowable concentration of particulates entering the space is less than:
Specification
72_F DBT (30_) wi nter
7B_ F DBT, summer
i
lNF\l .. TRATION

SUPF\.Y

DIAGRAM OF A RECIRCULATED SYSTEM
INDICATING LOCATION AND ALTERNATE
LOCATIONS OF AIR- CLEANING EQUIPMENT
large savings in energy accrue from such reduction in the use of outdoor air. In winter,
to quote approximate values, outdoor venti lation air at a low (0°F) temperature would
need at 120°F rise to join the 120°F air delivered to heat the space. In contrast, recir-
culated at leaving the space at 75°f would require a rise of only (120-75°F). a 45°F
differential .
In summer, if indoor cooling were provided, outdoor ventilation air at 95°F would re-
quire cooling to 60°F for delivery to the conditioned space, at differential of 35°F.
Recirculated air would only require cooling from 75 to 60°F a 15°F differential.
In mild seasons, densely occupied buildings tnat require cooling can be cooled by high
flow rates of the relatively cool outdoor air. Quality of the ai r entering the occupied
space is still a matter of concern. Air-cleaning equipment, must "Quality condition" the
air to t he requi rements of standard 62-73.
8. HEAT LOSS. THERMAL VALUE
OF WALLS AND ROOFS
For energy conservation, walls and roofs, and sometimes floors- if there is outdoor
space below- must be resistant to the rapid transmission of heat. Slow passage of
heat also results in warmer, more comfortable inside surface temperatures. Insulation
is highly essential. Vapor Barriers are needed to prevent colder parts of roofs and
walls where it condenses or freezes. Tight Construction retains warm air and resists
the entry of col d air during windy times. Finally the proportion of gl•u to insulated opa-
que walls and roofs should be studied if fuel economy and human comfort are to be
achieved.
189
9. IMPORTANCE OF HEAT CONSERVATION
190
One of the requirements for t he comfort of people occupying indoor spaces during cold
weather is a const ant temperature of room air reasonably higher than that of the out·
door air. Heat supplied to the room for this purpose is constantly dissipated by
Transmission losses through the surfaces of the enclosure. It is lost also by the escape
of warm air through minute openings, such as the cracks between window sash and
frames. The air is forced out by cold outdoor air infiltrating through similar openings on
the opposite (windward) side of the room. Loss of warm air may occur also when con·
trolled ventilation operates to change the air in the room at establi shed rates. Since
valuable energy must be used to offset these losses, a careful study if infiltration, ven·
t il ation, and transmission rates is part of every architectural design. ....
Among t he criteria for the selection of exterior construction, t hermal t ransmission is
one of considerable importance because every square foot of material carries a perma-
nent upkeep cost for fuel over the years. The index for comparison is t he u-coefficient
of transmission. The method of establishing this value for selected walls in developed
in the following sections in the following figures, u-coefficient is defined here as the
number of British thermal units per hour that pass through 1 sq. ft. of wall , floor. or roof
under actual conditions at the building when the difference between the inside and out-
side air temperature is 1 °F under a steady rate of heat flow.
WOOO SIDING.
\VOOO
5)2'' 1NSULATJ6N
Te R ( .1'37)
(A)
c
,,
10
r o.zs
B
8 9)2 TIMES
FAST AS A .
1.),-------. _ _, .ot" 6RJ'K
t" PlAS"TlC
,1NSIJLATJ6111
FliER CEMENT
0
8::\ARO
t.J .'11'\'ANSMIT HeAT
4 TIMES FAST
A.S D.
U::.1.13
E
F
GLASS SINtae MUl.TIPI..S
WITH A I R S ~ E ' S
c. TRANSMITS HS.:AT
3 TtMES AS FAST
AS e.
Approximate comparison by U-Coefficients
of the HEAT- TRANSMITTING RATES OF SOME OPAQUE and
Transparent Enclosing Walls
It should be pointed out that while glass is quick to lose heat under critical conditions,
including the absence of sunshine, it is most receptive, when correctly oriented, to the
passage of solar energy into the building during sunny hours.
191
192
1 0. NATURE OF HEAT FLOW
Beginning with the combustion of fuel in boilers or furnaces, heat flows by various
methods to warm the occupied spaces and hence minimally to outdoors by transmis-
sion through exterior room surfaces or by the loss Of' expulsion of warned air through
openings in the building.
The analysis and evaluation of the transmission through a combination of bui lding
materials leads to the finding that the rate of heat flow is related to the passage of heat
through these assembled materials by:
a. conduction
b. convection
c. radiation
d. combinations of them
It is evident that a reduction in the rate of heat loss can be achieved by the use of in-
sulating materials having slow conduction rates and conversely. high thermal re-
sistance.
11. HEAT FLOW THROUGH
HOMOGENOUS SOLIDS
.3 Ways wherein heat is transferred:
a. Conduction - the inside of a concrete watt which has one side exposed to outside
winter temperature feels cold to the touch. Heat is being conducted from the side of
higher temp. to that of lower temp. to prevent heat loss by conduction, we must use
materials that are poor conductors.
~ -
..
'<!) . •.
COLO OUTSIDE
b. Radiation-from this point it is transferred to the outside air by radiation. To prevent
loss by radiation, materials must be used which will reflect rather than radiate heat .
.... .
... ;_. 4:
;., , • .L
c. Convection-when air is heated, it expands and begins to circulate. During the cir-
culation, it comes in contact with cooler surfaces, some of its heat is given up to
them. It is therefore important t.r:v prevent air (convention currents)
from being set up in the walls and ceilings of our building.
To prevent heat from the inside to escape to the cold climate outside, or to prevent the
transfer of hot out side temperature In summer to the Living space within the building
we use THERMAL INSULATION MATERIALS such as: blankets and batts, boards and
slabs, loose fill.
lii6HER
TEMPERAlU
ANY SOl..ID MATE"RlAL
WALL, I""L.L.f'\ OR ROOt=·
AN ,S.l>ACE IN
A WAl-L...
HI6HE:rn TEMP.
AN AIR SPACe I N
A ROOF.
A single solid materials illustrate the
transfer of heat from the warmer to the
cooler particles by conduction. I 11
As air is warmed by the warmer side of the
air space, it rises. As it falls down along the
cooler side, it transfers heat to this sur-
f acesl21. Radiant energy! 31 is transferred
from the warmer to the cooler surface
always. The rate depends upon the rela-
tive temperature of the surfaces and the
emissive and absorptive qualities.
The radiant transfer is upwards because
its direction is always to the cooler sur-
face.
193
194
LOWe"" "TEMP
AN AIR 5"PAGe' IN A FL..Oefl
When the higher temperature is at the Top
of a horizontal air space the warm air is
trapped at the top and, being less dense
than the cooler air at the bottom, will not
flow down to transfer its heat to the
cooler surface. This results in little flow by
convection.
..
LOWER

A ASSEMBLY
OF 6UILDIN G MATERIALS
IN PLACE AT SlTE.
NATURE OF HEAT FLOW
Example of Heat Loss:
( 1 a) ( 1 b) ( 1 c) - by conduction at varying
rates in different mate-
rials.
(2) by convection currents
{3) by radiation carry the heat across
the air space.
(4) Heat is conducted from the room air
by warm air currents that strike the
inside wall.
{ 5) Heat is conducted away from the ex-
terior surface of the wall by the ac-
tion of the wind.
Conductivity (unit conductance), is designated as K and defined as the number of
British thermal units per hour that flow through 1 sq. ft. of materials, 1 inch thick,
when the temperature drop through the material under condition of steady heat flows
1 °F. Conductivity is established by tests and is the basic rating for a material. When
conductance Cis preferred to, in a homogenous material , it is for a thickness other than
1 inch. The other conditions remai n the samE?.
The following figure compares the of a dense and a light material. It also
shows the method of computing the thermal resistance, R of an inch of material. A is the
reciprocal of conductivity. This is LIK and is stated as the number of hours needed for 1
BTU tQ flow through the material. For thickness other than 1 inch, the conductance C
decreases (K/ X) as the t hickness increases.
( R
\IN
The resistance R increases directly with the
increase in thickness. In each case X stands for the
thickness of the material in inches.
( 1 IM. IN Tt-ltS
EJ.AMPLE)
..
GONOUCT,...KCe 0.0636TIJH
RF.SI ST-'NCS"" R • .!L • 16.0
K 0 .2.5"
CONDUCTIVITY I K ::O.Z5 STiJH I
R£.SISTANCE ... ..L :..!.. ,. -4 .0
K 0.25'
1-- 1 Itt.
GLASS FIBER INSULATION BOARD
(A Mat erial of Low conduct lvitvl
( -4 IN . IM 1lUS

c =i- ... T --= a-rutl
11:1i".SISTAttc e • .... o. 3.3
K 12.
I -.<,. G l :t I
• f.i_ ,.
GRAVEl CONCRETE
SAND AND GRAVEL CONCRETE
(A Material of High conduct ivi ty)
195
EXAMPLE OF CONDUCTIVITIES (K)
THERMAL PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL BUILDING
AND INSULATING MATERIALS-(Design Values)
DESCRIPTION CONDUCTIVITY CONDUCTANCE RESISTANCE
IK) (Cl per inch thickness
1 /K
1 . BUILDING BOARD
Asbestos/Cement 4.0
0)5
board
Gymsum or Plaster
Plywood 0.80 1.25
Tile and Lay-in Panels 0.40 2.50
Hardboard (lawanit) 0.82
0.73- 1.00 1 .37, 1. 22, 1.00
Particle Board 0.94
0.54-1. 18 1.85, 1.06, 0.85
2. BUILDING MEMBRANE
Vapor-Permeable
Feet
Vapor -seal, Plastic 16.70
Film 8.35
3. FINISH FLOORING
MATERIALS
Carpet and Fibrous 0.48
Carpet and Rubber 0 .81
Cork Tile 3 .60
Terrazzo 12.50
Vinyl Tile, etc .( 20.00
Wood 1. 47
4. INSULATING
MATERIALS
Blanket and Batt from 0.143
f rom 2" to 8" to 0.033
Board and Sl abs
Cellular glass 0 . 38 2.63
Expanded
polystyrene 0.20 5.00
Mineral Fiberboard 0.29 3.4 5
Wood or cane Fiber- 0.80
board
Loose Fill
Cellulosic Insulation 0.27
(Paper or wood pulp) 0.32 3.1 3-3.70
Sawdust 0.45 2.22
Wood Fib.er 0.30 3 .33
Perlite 0.37 2.70
Mineral Fiber
(rock, glass)
;..._
Vermiculite 0.44 2.27
196
5. MASONRY
MATERIALS
Cement Mortar 5.0 0.20
Sand and gravel 12.0 0.08
Stucco 5.0 0.20
6. MASONRY UNITS
Brick common 5.0 0.20
Clay tile, hollow from
3 inch to 1 2 inch from 1 .25 to
0 . 4 0
Concrete blocks
4" 1.40
8" 0.90
7. PLASTERING
MATERIALS
Cement Plaster 3/8"
, 3. 3
3/4" 6.6
8. ROOFING
Asbestos- Cement 4 .76
Shingles
Asphalt roll 6.50
Asphalt Shingles 2.27
Built-up Roofing 3.0
Slate 20.00
Wood Shingles 1.06
9. SIDINGS
Shingle (same as
above)
Wood 1.27
Aluminum 10.00
Arch'l glass 10.00
1 2. AIR SPACES
Air spaces may be introduced into the structure to reduce the U-coefficient and to aid in
retarding heat flor from the building. Unlike conventional batt of "fill" insulation, the
resistance of an air space is not related primarily to thickness, but is determined by
many factors including position of the space, direction of heat flow, and the nature of
the surfaces lining the space. Radiant transmission across the space is much reduced
by the use of shiny material such as aluminum foil. It is sufficient to use such material
on only one of the sides. Using it on both makes for very little improvement because the
reflective material will accept or emit only a small amount of heat relative to that
transmitted by the common rough bui lding materials. Thi ckness of the air space are
generally evaluated for 0.5 and 0. 75 inch.
to I
HEAT FLOW
197
198
13. EFFECTS OF AIR MOTION
When a wall or roof is in place to enclose a room under conditions resulting in heat loss
from the space, the gentle motion of the nominally still air within the room and the more
active motion of the wind outside of the room both act to increase the rate of heat loss.
The room air is of course, higher in temperature than the inside surface of the room.
The convection currents within t he room cause the warmer air particles to collide with
the cooler surface. The resulting surface conductance, called hi (i for interior), is least
on the floor and increases slightly for the walls and ceiling. The outdoor air temperature
~ s less than that of the outside surface of the structure. When the wind blows these
cooler air particles against these warmer exterior surfaces, the heat loss rat e is increas-
ed. This conductance factor is called ho (0 tor outside). The factors are for the number
of Brit ish Thermal units per hour passing through 1 sq. ft. of surface f or 1 °F difference
in temperature. Thickness is not involved.
1 4. TRANSMISSION THROUGH BUILDING UNITS
It is only coincidental when building materials or products are produced in exactly
1-inch thickness. Determining the conductance factor C of homogenous materials not
1 inch thick is shown in the following figure and example. (see Table on Thermal pro-
perties).
-:z. '' LOW
8(WW
,. = t) • .s;
Total Resistance At
= = 0.04
= =
At= 3.74
Conductance C = =

= 0.27 Btuh/sq. ft./1 °F
15. RESIDENTIAL HEAT GAIN
For heat gain, the process of calculation is the same as for heat loss. It begins with
areas, linear footage (edges). and cubic feet per minute (for infiltration). These values
are multiplied by the heat transfer factors for the corresponding items.
However, a number of differences must be noted.
a) The heat gain is based upon a temperature difference of 25 °F, since summer indoor
air is designed for 75 °F and outdoor air is 100 °F. The loss is related to a winter in-
door temperature of 7 5 °F and outdoor temperature of plus °F (70 °F different heat
transfer factors.
7S°F

/
I00°F
+.SoF
INDOOR
IN POOR.


SUMMER
WINIER
HEAT TRANSFER FACTORS (HTF)
HEAT LOSS HEAT AGAIN
75° 70° 65° 60°
30o
25° 20°
Windows, single
pane 84.8 79.1 73.5 67.8 31.8 26.5 21.2
single pane and storm 47.5 44.3 41.2 38.0 98.0 15.8 12.7
windows
insulating glass 45.8 42.7 39.7 36.6 18.3 15.3 12.2
Doors (weather stripped)
Hollow core 84.8 79.1 73.5 67.8 31.8 26.5 21.2
199
200
Hollow core & storm 47.5 44.3 41.2 38.0 19.0 15.8 12.7
door
Solid core ( 1 3/4" l 36.0 33.6 31.2 28.8 14.4 12.0 9.6
Soli d core & storm 23.3 21.7 20. 2 18.6 9.3 7.8 6 . 2
door
Walls
Frame- no insulation 18.2 16.9 15.7 14.5 7.3 6 .1 4.9
Brick- no insulation 20.0 18.6 17.3 16.0 8.0 6. 7 5.3
-with insulation 2" 8.6 8 . 1 7. 5 6.9 3.5 2. 9 2.4
3" 6.1 5.8 5.3 4.9 2.5 2.1 1.7
6" 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.1 1.6 f.3 1.1
6" aggregate con-
cret e
block no insulation 42.6 39.8 36.9 34.1 17.1 14.2 11 .4
with veroniculite 27.0 25.2 23.4 21.6 10.8 9.0 7.2
Ceiling
Pitched roof
6" insulation 3.9 3.6 3.4 3.1 2.1 1.8 1 .6
8" insulation 3.0 2.8 2.6 2.4 1.6 1 .6 1 .4
1 0" insulation 2.4 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.3 1 . 1 1.0
1 2" insulation 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.7 1 . 1 1.0 0.8
Hipped or Flat
6" insulation 3.4 3.2 2.9 2.7 3 . 1 2 .6 2.1
8" insulation 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 2.4 2.0 t .6
1 0" insulation 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.9 1.6 1.3
1 2" insulation 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.5 1:7 1.4 1. 1
FLOOR:
Double Wood and
Crawl Space
2" insulation 4.8 4.5 4.2 3.9 1.5 1.2 1.0
3%" insulation 3.3 3.1 2.9 2.6 1 .3 1.3 1.1
6" insulation 2.0 1 .8 1.6 1.5 0.8 0.6 0.5
Slab on Ground
1" insulation standard duct system
66.8 62.3 57. 9 53.4
000000000000000000000000000000000
35.8 33.1 32.6 31.8
ooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo
b) The cooling load is burdened in summer by a minimum of five occupants each of
whom gives off about 65.0 Btuh.
c) Solar effect in summer is two-fold. In addition to the 25 °F transmission gain, the
direct rays of lhe sun on glass, sometimes reduced by a shading coefficient of 35%
constitute an extra gain.
d) Because humidity builds up from cooking, bathing, clothes washing, and perspira-
tion from people, 30% is added to the sensible gain. This is an approximate value.
Sensible gain relates to air temperature. latent gain relates to moisture that must be
condensed to prevent uncomfortable increase of indoor humidity.
e) It is assumed that there is no edge-gain of heat through the insulated slab-edge.
16. NON-RESIDENTIAL HEAT GAIN
CALCULATIONS
The previous sections discussed the application to a rather special problem-the cool-
ing load for a residence. The cooling load for a residence is by no means typical of the
diverse problems in heat gain that would be encountered by the average architect or
consulting engineer. It has been been stated that the major components of the cooling
load include:
1. Transmission through walls and roof
2. Transmission through glass
3. Occupants
4. Infiltration or ventilation
5. Appliances
6. Lights
Transmission through structure and shaded or unshaded glass is determined by a
number of f.;;ctors.
EARTH'S
SOLAR RADIATION AND TRANSMISSION
Approximate value of solar radiation impringement Approximate
on 1 sq. ft. of surface normal to the sun's rays Btuh/sq. ft.
A Outer Space
450
B Earth's Surface {or roofs). 12 noon 40°N latitude
midsummer 250
c1 Earth's surface; 4 p.m. 40°N latitude
midsummer 240
c2
West Wall (not quite normal), 4 p.m. 40°N latitude
midsummer 210
201
202
17. REFLECTIVE INSULATING GLASS
The solar ban 490, window unit by PPG industries has attained a high degree of perfor-
mance. It is a double glazed unit said to have the highest energy saving potential of
their extensive inventory. It consists of two panels of clear glass separated by a dry air
space. A gold-toned, metallic-reflective coating is applied to the inner surface of the
outdoor glass panel. Transmitted light is a soft bluish-gray. On a typical summerday,
the assembly is said to reduce the peak solar heat gain by 86% compared with the con-
ventional 1/8 inch clear glass.
TRMIS MlTTED
RERADIATED ANO
(.ONVEC.TED
COMDUCTED
RELA.TIVE H E ~ i GAIN, 200 STU
.!
GOLD TONeD MeT'ALUC
REFlECTIVE' COATIN'
~ - . : : - . . ~ - DRY AIR S' RI\CE
RELATIVE HEAT GAIN ,40 STU
SOLAR ENERGY AND ENERGY
CONSERVATION
The growing popularity and respectability of solar-energy systems stems in part from
the price of oil which goes higher every year. The prices of natural gas and coal have
also increased, and reserves of all t h r ~ e fuels have dwindled, forcing economists to
look ahead to the day when they might be unavoidable at almost any price. "We even-
tually will have very little left but solar energy". Therefore we must learn to be frugal
and convert solar energy into every kind of energy we use in our daily lives .
..
Solar power has many attractions. 11 produces neither pollution not radioactivity. It is
inexhaustible; the sun is expected to burn with undiminished brightness for Billi on of
Years. Finally, it is abundant, though diffuse and difficult to collect. The amount of
solar energy reaching the earth averages 126 watts per sq. ft. or about 1,260 watts
per sq. m. Even in a northerly location, the amount of solar energy is equivalent to 10
bbl. of oil per day, while that hitting a roof is in most cases more than enough to meet
the energy needs of the building below.
Solar Energy is being tapped in many strange and wondrous ways. However, there are
two ways of heating or cooling a building utilizing the solar heat.
1. The " PASSIVE" Solar design is so called because it employs no sophisticated col-
lectors and no expensive technology to harness the sun's energy.
2. The "ACTIVE" SYSTEMS require expensive and energy consuming equipment to
operate Electric water heaters and air conditioners. In short they are techno-
logically designed solar buildings. The awesome energy of the sun's radiation is
harnessed, absorbed, transferred and stored for building heating and cooling. Us-
ing this system, the temperatures inside a house will stay at 68° to 70°F during
even the coldest days.
"PASSIVE" Solar Oeaign
This is used for an " energy-conscious" building. It is low-energy consuming build-
ing which uses solar power for air conditioning and other methods which use little
or no energy at all, and at usually low cost.
"ACTIVE" Solar Design
In addition to the thousands of ways in which the sun's energy has been used by
both nature and man throughout time-to grow food, to see by, to get a sun tan,
to dry clothes- it has also been deliberately harnessed to perform a number of
other 'chores'.
Solar energy is used to heat and cool buildings, to heat water and swimming
pools; to power refrigerators"; and to operate engines, pumps and sewage treat·-
ment plants. It powers ears, ovens, water stills furnaces, distillation equipment,
crop dryers, and sludge dryers. Solar system in a house meets most of the houses'
space and hot water needs and cuts energy bills by about 75°. Powered by solar
energy, wind is used' to generate electricity and mechanical power, and solar con-
verted, eletricity is used both on earth and in space. Stoves and cars run on solar-
made methane gas, power plants operate on organic trash, and sewage plants
produce methane gas.
The sun powered evaporation/rain cycle, in combination with gravitv. powers
machines and electric turbines. Solar electrolizers convert water to clean hydro-
gen gas (a Fuel).
To comprehend these uses we shall study the basic principles of solar energy.
203
204
Most of the energy we receive from the sun comes in the form of light, a short-
wave radiation, not all of which is visible to the human eye. When this radiation
strikes a solid or liquid, it is absorbed and transformed into heat energy; The
material becomes warm and stores the heat, conducts it to surrounding materials
(air, water. other solids or liquids), or reradiates it to other materials of lower tem-
perature. This reradiation is a long-wave radiation.
Solar energy systems normally consist of the following components:
1. An insulated, heat-absorbent surface.
2. A circulation and distribution system for the heat transfer
medium.
3. A heat storage facility.
SO
5aAA AAOIATION AND
WAn=R IN PIPE.
r-- - IGLASS (USLt.A.LLY OOJBLE INSLJLATION TYPE
r AI5SC:;ftPTivE WITH INTEGRAL ilJBING
I
l L..-JINSUL.ATED B'ACKJN6 AND :; IDES
L .... __...JVAR:JR BARRIER (Ftt.YTriEt..ENE.srtEETS)
(OR ASPHALT FELT J=l.o\PER).
SECTION THROU6H TYPICAL PANEL
OP JS. UPWARD
AS 1.5 t-\'E-ATED.
HOT WATER TO.
RAAAn>RS
I
I
I
I
I
C:::ONTltOL .i
Pl.lMP TD ( rl.i
G li<a.J L.A'TE I
WATER I
A SOLAR HEATING S¥STEM
Glass easily transmits short-wave radiation, which means that it possess little inter-
ference to incoming solar energy. but it is a very poor transmitter of long wave radia-
tion. Once the sun's energy has passed through glass windows and has been absorbed
by some material inside, the heat will not be reradiated back outside.
Glass, therefore, acts as a heat trap, a phenomenon which has been recognized for
sometime in the construction of greenhouses, which can get quite warm or sunny
days, even in t he middle of ' winter; solar collectors for home heati ng, usually called
" Rat plate collectors".
205
Almost always have one or more glass Covers, although various plastic and other
transparent materials are often used instead of glass.
Beneath the cover plate, collectors commonly have another plate which absorbs the sun's
rays hitting it. This absorber plate is usually made of copper, aluminum, steel, or another
suitable rr.aterial and is usually coated with a substance - black paint or one of the more
sophisticated selective coatings available-that will help it absorb the most heat, rather than
reflect or reradiate it. Once the heat is absorbed, it can be picked up and used. The glass
cover plates help to reduce the loss of heat through the front white insulation reduces heat
loss through the back.
GLASS AS A HEAT TRAP
AND A BLACK SURFACE
AS AN ABSORBER
206
From the absorber plate, heat is transferred by conduction to a transfer fluid usually a liguid
or air, which flows by the absorber plate, often with the help of a pump or blower. The
liguids (water or a non freezing fluid such as ethylene glycol) flow over the back surface of
through tubes. Incorporated into the absorber plate. If air is used it is blown across the sur-
face of the absorber plate, which should have many small irregular surfaces with which the
air can come in contact.
Because most systems cannot handle long·periods of cold, sunless days, a solar heat-
ing system therefore, almost always requires a full-sized, standard heating system as a
back-up. The same is true fOf solar cooling systems.
In most cases, the conventional system and the solar system can be efficiently integ-
r a t e ~ . To do so may require some rather unconventional adaptations of the conven-
tional system. For instance, solar systems are most efficient at low operating tempera-
ture: The collectors ·gather more heat, and losses from the heat storage and transfer
luids are lower. A conventional hot water heating system, however, operates at
relatively higher temperatures. The optimum system, then will require an overall lower
operating temperature and a slightly different approach to the whole heating system for
this reason, it is usually difficult to·" plug in" a solar system to an existing conventional
system.
The heat from solar energy can be used to cool buildings, using the absorption cooling
principle operative in gas-fired refrigerators. Presently available equipment, however,
usually requires 'extremely high operating temperatures, far above those for efficient
solar collection.
For solar energy system to be efficient, the building itself must be thermally efficient
and· weiHnsulated. Its siting, orientation, and window openings should take advantage
of the sun's cold and Hot weather sun angles. The solar collector panels should be
oriented to best take advantage of the sun's radiation, and located so as NOT to be
shaded by nearby structures, terrai n, or trees.
Solar collector panels normally are integral parts of a building's roof or wall surfaces,
and therefore strongly influence the building's overall form.
207
The Building as Storehouse
HEAT COLLECTION
INTERIOR FINISH
BERGLA>S
eXTeRIOR FINISH
OUTWARD LOSS, 5<:0 BTU
SOLAR 'HEAT liAIN THROUGoH 'MNOOWS
208
Natural thermosiphoni ng of air
t hrough solar collectors without an
auxiliary source of power such as a
fan or pump.
As the air or water is heated by the sun, it expands and rises through the collector. This
movement draws cooler and denser air or water from the solar heat storage or from the
solar heat storage or from the building.
AIR PLENUM
INTERJOf'\> FINI>}t
GLASS OR PlAnl C
A SECTION a:= A DAMPER
WHSN ClOSED
fl-fON JN6
ST¢MQ::
NM.ll-i SitE OF
nu::

A damper controls overheating of
space during mild and hot weather.
It can be designed to operate
manually or to operate automatically
according to indoor and outdoor con-
ditions.

• • nte NOIZ-1'»
.ilr::E OF THE
209
210
Venetian Blind Solar Control/Collector Device Positions
1
DIRECT 50LAA HEAT
MI\XIMlJM
EX POSlltw..
L.OL.JVeRS ON A VER'nc.AL
CONTINUOUS SURFACE
PREVENTS COMR.El"EL'(
THE. SUN FROM PENET0\-
THR'OU9t TMI! GtASS
FOR ca..o MCNTHS
HEAT STORAGE
TO
L!GHI RAYS.
/
'------
3
L.ET'S SC>ME
LIGHT AND HEAT IN.
;AME: R'SrflCN AG NO 4 BUT
TitE SII>I: IS TD
MEFl.EcnNG THE
HEAT AND K.EEPINW The
SLMMER WAAM WE:ATHI!R
By avoiding transport systems of ducts, pipes, fans, and pumps, as well as heat exchangers
and complicated controls, significant amounts of money are saved, the operation and
maintenance are simplified and reduced in cost, and comfort and efficiency cc:m actually be
incteased .
INSUI.A1lON
(OP1TONAL)
• ....,..,, ... PES8LEP HE.bi.T

..... , .. T ttS'AT WALL
TO SL.I.I>JNG

A ·FAClNG VERTICAL saAR
COL.LEcrOR AtJO HEAT STORAGE WALL
The addition of the heat storage wall to the thermosiphoning, vertical solar collector. As the
sun hits the backened surface of the wall, the concrete in this case absorbs some of the heat
while some of its simultaneously heats the air which rises and enters the room. The heat in
the concrete migrates slowly inward. and when the sun has set, radiates into the building
while warm connection currents continue inside between the black concrete and the
transparent cover.
srx LA)SRS OF
t.il:iT.AL

AIR RETlJeN DlJCT
TIL TED THERMOSIPHONIC SOLAR COLLECTOR
in combination with windows.
211
HORIZONTAL SYSTEM
INS.UI.ATINGo
5I-lUTTER
4•
212
=
-
r
---- --
8UILDIN6
SUMMER C(X)UNG
"BIOSPHERE"
A Biosphere is an integration of a house, a greenhouse, a solar heater, and a solar still.
This was conceptualized by physicist Day Chahroudi. the space between the solar col·
lector and the heat storage wall is large enough to be used tor growing food .
.
HOUSE
G E
,...
lw. :..... c
When the thin membrane is cool, it transmits about 95° of the solar radiation which
strikes it at right angles. When it is a warm, it is almost totally opaque. This results in
high solar heat gain into the greenhouse during sunny, cold water of December weather
and in almost no solar heat gain during excessive summer heat (enough radiation will
penetrate to nurture plants).
The North wall of the greenhouse stores the heat and serves as the south wall of the
House.
By using many additional layers of Transparent membrane, each spaced an inch or so
apart, the "wall" is also a good insulator.
SOLAR HOT WATER ..... SHW
The heating of water for domestic uses (bathing, cleaning, etc.) presently accounts for
about 1 2..,. of the energy consumed nationally for residential and commercial pur-
poses.
An average person consumes from 28 gallons to 41 gallons if with a bath tub. So that
the use of solar energy for heating w·ater involves several specific issues. On of the first
concerns variations in the amount of water to be heated. In general one third of total
daily water consumption in a home will be hot water and the maximum probable hourly
demand will usually be one-tenth of this total.
A c:orollary to the issue of hot water. consumption is that of conservation. Even though
a SHW heater is an energy conservation device in itself, resources are r e q u i r e ~ for its
manufacture and for auxiliary heat. Additional savings, however, can result from the
prudent use of hot water, in contrast to the more common use patterns of waste and
causal consumption.
Simple changes, in habits can produce significant reduction is demand: using a basin of
hot water rather than a steady flow from the top to rinse dishes; taking showers rather
than baths; providing spray nozzles on faucets rather than the conventional steady
stream nozzles; washing clothes in warm (or cold} rather than hot water; or using
"suds saver" washing machines that recirculate hot wash water rather than disposing
of 1t. These and other methods used by water-and-energy conscious individuals will
reduce hot water demand, .simplifying the cost and design problems of SHW systems
and saving both water and energy.
213
214
Another aspect of SHW heater use is that of user participation. For example, a simple
and satisfactory solar hot water consists of a shallow through of water with a
transparent cover sitting in the sun. But this heater has to be filled in the morning and
drained in the afternoon or early evening. Someone has to fill the tank to cover it if the
sun clouds over, to decide when the water is sufficiently hot, and to drain the hot water
tor use.
oPEN THROU6H SOlAR
WATER HEATER
TYPfCAL DESIGN R:f'( COMMERCIAL SOLAR HOT
WAlER HEATER (PRESf.UR.IZED)
VENT
NON PRESSURIZED SOLAR WATER HEATER
215
HEATING
COOLING
VENTILATION
1 . ENERGY SOURCES
216
a} Natural Materials-
Wood can be a renewable energy source as a product or by-product of the proper
management of our forests. Peat from the bogs of Ireland, through not renewable,
is still a prime source for heating in that country. Natural oils such as whale oil and
seal oil served earlier generations in Alaska.
b) Fossil Fuels: Gas, oil and coal
These fuels are the sources where the greatest change in availability and use is
most evident.
c) Hydroelectric power
Within limits this could be considered a renewable source.
d) Nuclear Plants
However, environmentalists, and the general public, largely oppose the rapid in-
crease in nuclear installations. Fusion looms as a future possibility.
cl The Heat Pump
This popular energy saver is not new. Developed many years ago, it was not fre-
quently adopted during the years that provided us with cheap energy sources. Most
suitable in moderate and warmer climates, it is, at 40 °N
1
Latitude, about twice as it
refrigerate cold outdoor air in winter to an even lower temperature. It steps up to a
higher temperature, by means of a refrigeration cycle, the heat that i s drawn from
the outdoor air. It is a low-cost operation.
f) Solar Energy
The use of Solar energy is our great hope for the future. For houses, where the
energy demand for heating is relatively light, it can replace 40% to 60% of the
energy required for a season' s heating.
g) Geothermal Energy
The earth's crust is must thinner than most of us realize. Whether or not the enor-
mous heat of the earth's center can be trapped and utilized on a large scal e is not
yet established. Steam can be piped from a geothermal plant at 6 70 °F, 7 500 ft.
below the surface.
h) Trash-
Type of trash from incinerators has a heating value of 8,500 Btu/ lb. This value is
58% of the comparative value of anthracite coal.
Values of Trash and rubbish range between 8, 500 and 6,500 Btu/lb. Recovery of a
large porti on of this energy is now a possibility. Recovery plants are now in opera-
tion. The following figure shows an adaptive design which can retrieve much of the
heat of the trash and rubbish by recovery in a heat exchanger that produces steam.
STEAM
OAUhl
t-·-
PLAN VIEW
A80RT



' "Aniline

- - ·- -·j
,----·--· STeAM -:-o
NOi' M-'l. f l< ,.;AU$T
·'er- •c!l'
I)K A f f f ·'\N
SfJt 10
;: 70FIAC(
':.<
ME'f FI , INI_;
o<vL L •
I NC!Nf F'ATOFl
(;1<.4.HGI I'oll,;
v
INCINERATION WITH HEAT RECOVERY
(by Syska & Hennessy, Engineers no West 50t h
Street, Ne York, N.Y., 1 0020}
-


217
For use in univers1t1es, hospitals, large offrce buildings, and residential complexes.
Where it is feasible, it will save fuel and pay for itself in a short time.
The feasibility i n each individual case must be demonst rated by a detailed study which
includes among other parameters; a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the
waste, collection methods and costs, heat load profiles of the complex including re-
coverable heat integration into them, equipment location, as well as all pertinent labor
and environmental factors, legal codes and ordinances.
2. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS
for Heating Commercial
and lnstitutionat buildings
A few items that make the requirement s different from that of houses can be noted.
Dense human occupancy often provides body heat that is much more than that re-
quired to heat a space, even in critically cold weather. By means of heat pumps, ther-
mal gain is frequently interchanged with the lesser energy content of cooler areas. It is
nonetheless a credit item in the annual heating fuel bilL Computers and other business
machines are simil ar credits. Until recently, high foot-candle levels of general office
lighting had effects that displ aced some of the f uel that would otherwise operate heat-
ing units in such buildings.
Smaller windows and the effective heat barrier of reflective insulati ng glass are again
changing the scene. Fossil Fuel heating now becomes only one item in the general
energy picture. The yearly energy study in commercial and institutional buildings has
eecome a trade-off budget in which each item must justify its value and cost in Energy.
3. COMBUSTION, CHIMNEYS
AND FUEL STORAGE
218
As fuels burn to produce heat, they require oxygen to support the combustion. Since
oxygen is only about 1/ 5 of the volume of air, reasonably large rates of air flow are re-
quired. The air should be drawn in from outdoors at a position close to the fuel burner or
led to this location by a duct. For residences and other small buildings a lower about
twice the cross-sectional area of the flue should prove satisfactory. It should be arrang-
ed to remain open at all times. If an attempt is made to draw this air from the general
space of the house, modern tight construction may retard the effort. If the air rate is
sufficient by the use of this scheme, it i s likely to result in undesirable acceleration of
cold infiltrati on flowing in to replace the air that is used.
The most important combustible element in t he chemical make up of fuels is carbon. It
may be burned well or poorly, when burned poorly it can cause great energy losses and
sooty operation. For success, much depends upon the proper selection of well-de-
signed boilers, furnaces and burners. This, however, is only part of the story. Ad-
justments of primary and secondary air rates of flow and of draft (flow of air and gases
through the boiler) are important responsibilities of the engineer and the heating con-
tractor. Carbon may burn to carbon monoxide {CO) or more completely to carbon diox-
ide (C0
2
) with greather heat production.
It is important that chimneys with their high-temperature flue gases be safely isolated
from combusti ble construction to prevent the possi bility of fire. Conventional stan-
dards for houses call for a terra cotta f lue lining surrounded by 8 in. (. 20 m) of brick,
with an additional 2 in. (0. 5 m} of space between t he brick and any wood. The space is
usually filled with incombustible mineral wool. The size of the flue will be dictated by
the specification for the boiler or furnace selected for use. Its height had been tradi-
tionally 35 to 40 feet ( 10 to 12 meters).
C.0MBU5T\O
A\R IN,(OPE
aASEYIENT
WINDOW
rrrrf
rrrr
E8
ROOF - HUNG
PREFA8
@5-IO FT
The function of providing a draft, for which chimney height was an important con-
sideration, is no longer as necessary as it previously was- because fans are used now.
For example, oil is injected under pressure, accompanied by air, and forced in by a fan.
Often a draft adjuster in the Breaching (smoke pipe} that carries the flue gases to the
chimney is arranged to open slightly to reduce the normal stack draft. If increased draft
should ever be required, an induced draft fan that puts a suction on the flue side.
Of the fire is usually chosen instead of greater stack height. Draft hoods above gas
burners prevent downdraft from blowing out the flames.
Prefabricated Chimneys are replacing wit h increasing frequency the bulkier and heavier
f ield-built masonry. They offer a number of advantages and may be easily supported on
a normal structure.
011
circulating
Oil supply
FUEL OIL STORAGE TANK
Steel "hold-down''
r"""' _ _,....._ __ straps
219
4. WARM AIR HEATING
220
The use of air for hedting has certain advantages. The motion of air in space helps to
assure uniform conditions and reasonably equal temperatures in all parts of the house.
It is possible to clean both the recirculated air and the outdoor air by means of filters
and other special air-cleaning equipment. Air may be circulated in nonheating seasons.
fresh air may be introduced to reduce odors and to make up the air exhausted by fans
in kitchens, laundries and bathrooms. Central cooling can be incorporated or introduc-
ed if ducts are designed originally for this cooling sometimes calls for greater rates of air
circulation. Humidification may be achieved by a humidifier in the air stream and, if
cooling is included in the design, dehumidification is accomplished in summer.
i (fXHAUST FAN
Q
J r=AUIOUT
·--
FRESH AIR It{
KITCHEN
CLEAN AIR
INSIDE ROOM
HOOD
,__..r-
1. •• _, ••
FILTER r f f
NE.W t<trote:N HOOD DESIGN
For both heating and cooling, a good arrangement is to place the supply registers in the
floor, below areas of glass. This is important for winter operation. Return grills should
be on interior walls at high locations. This is especially advantageous if cooling is part
of the scheme. Hlgh Grills pick up the warmer air for recooling at the equipment.
\n• I I Iii!!!!! @lib!!! 'DOW
"
/
WARM AIR I
PLAN

In planning warm air systems, good balance is achieved if the heating furnace is located
reasonably close to the center of the house. After the system is designed, a furnace
must be selected. It should be capable of burning fuel at a rate suitable to make up the
hourly heat loss in the house. The rate of air delivery must be correct to transmit this
heat to the house at the air temperature rise that is planned.
Finally, the motor and blower must be powerful enough to overcome the friction of air
against metal in both the supply and return duct system as well as the friction of air
flowing through the furnace, filters, registers, and grills. Minor adjustments can be
made at the furnace to adapt to the demands of the system and the house.
~ A ~ B
Suction Pressure ~
A + B"' Static head,
inches of water
THE STATIC HEAD IS THE PRESSURE,
MEASURED IN INCHES OF WATER, AVAILABLE
TO OVERCOME FRICTION IN THE ENTIRE SYSTEM.
SOME SYSTEM COMPONENTS
A. FURNACE-a typical furnace as shown below embraces within its housing the fan
(blower). motor, filters, oil burner and heat-transfer surfaces. A humidifier can be
added to this assembly. Arrows indicate the direction of the air. In passing through
the blower the air enters at the end of the cylinder opposite the pulley and is forced
into the warming chamber by a cylindrical impeller unit .
Warm air, out
140f
~ 140" - 65• = 75"
Temperature "rise"
Old principle of the warm-air heating furnace. Or U-path flow of air. Other styles have the
elements "in-line" or "straight-line flow" or vertically upward, norizontal, or vertically
downward (counterflow).
2.21
222
B. DUCTS- constructed of sheet metal or glass fiber- either round or rectangular.
Ductwork will conduct noise unless the following suggestions are followed:
1 . Do not place the blower too close to a return grill.
2. Select quiet motors and cushioned mountings.
3. Do not permit connection or contact of conduits or water piping with the blower
housing.
4. Use canvas-asbestos flexible connection between bonnet and ductwork.
DUCT SIZING
Example: The main duct in the low velocity, warm air system of a residence delivers
1,600 cubic feet per minute (cfml select a size for this duct.
Solution: The table below indicates that 800ft . per minute (fpm) would be an ac-
ceptable velocity. The area of the duct in square inches would be
_ h 6.Q<L ~ ' ! l . ~ !.. 4! ~ 9 . : :ft!.Ls_g ·J!:.L
800 (fpm)
= 288 sq. in.
RECOMMENDED VELOCITIES, Feet per minute
from ASHRAE Handbook Systems
Schools
Designation Residences Theatres Industrial
Public Bldgs. Buildings
OUTDOOR AIR
lntakesa 500 500 500
Filters a 250 300 350
Heating CoiJsa-b 450 500 600
Cooling Coilsa 450 500 600
Air Washersa 500 500 500
Fan Outlets 1 ,000-1 , 600 1,300-2,000 1,600-2,400
Main ductsb 700-900 1 ,000-1 ,300 1 ,200-1 , 800
Branch ductsb
600 600-900 800-100
Branch risersb 500 600..700 800
MAXIMUM VELOCITIES, FEET per minute
Outdoor Air
in
800 900 1,200
F
300 350 350
H 500 600 700
c 450 500 600
A 500 500 500
F
, ,}00
1,500-2,200 1 1700-1 ,800
M
B
b
800- 1,200
700- 1.000
650-800
1 , 1 00-, f 600
800-1,300
800-1,200
1 ,300-2,200
1 ,000-1,800
1 ,000-1 ,600
a These velocities are for total face are, not the net free area; other velocities are for net
free area.
b For low-velocity systems only.
Supply registers in floor
at pen meter
belowgla$$
Controlled /
fresh air
supply
Hi&h mum registers
at interior locations
--
Return nsers
in interior wall
CONVENTIONAL WARM AIR FURNACE AND DUCTS
This system with supply registers in the floor under glass and interior, high return re-
gisters is suitable for heating or cooling.
C. DAMPERS- these will be necessary to balance the system and adjust it to the
desires of the occupants. Splitter dampers are used where branch ducts leave the
larger Trunk ducts. Each riser can have its flow controlled by an adjustable damper
in the basement at the foot of the riser. labels should indicate the room's served.
AIR CONTROLS IN DUCTS
l\1 \11
Plan
- - - - - ·· ~
a. Air Adjustment by Opposed-Blade Dampers
223
224
;
------r--"-- - - - ~ -1-
f I
b. Air adjustment by Splitter damper
r--
_____ _,
(c)
c. Conventional Turns in Ducts
--
(d)
d. Right-angle Turns with turning Vanes (More Compact Method
D. REGISTERS-Supply Registers should be equipped with dampers and should have
their vanes arranged to disperse the air and to reduce its velocity as soon as possi-
ble after entering the room. A common method is to provide vanes that divert the
air half to the right and half to the left. When a supply register is in the corner of a
room, it is best practice for the vanes to deflect all the air in one direction, away
from t h ~ corner. Return grills are of the slotted type in walls and of the grid type in
floors. All registers and grills should be made tight at the duct connection.
a. A 2 Y.." x 12 in. Fl oor register (dif-
fuser). One of many sizes and shapes.
It has diverting vanes for " spread"
and an adjustable damper.
b. Concept of Spread and throw. By As·
piration (suction). cooler room air is in-
duced to join the stream of warm air,
resulting in a bland and pleasant air
stream that crosses the room.
(a)
CHARACTERISTICS OF 2 Y.. x 1 2-i nch FLOOR RESISTER
Heating Btuh 3045 4565 6P90 7610 9515
Cooling Bt uh 855 1280 1710 2135 2670
CFM 40 60 80 100 125
T.P. Loss 0 .009 0 .015 0.027 0.037 0.050
Vertical 3 4 5 6 8
Throw, Ft.
Vertical 6 8 10 11 14
Spread, ft.
Face Velocity, 280 420 565 705 880
fpm
Source: Excerpt from LIMA Register Co. Catalog
(b)
11415
3200
150
0 .080
10
17
1050
Damper
adj ustment

Return
register
Aspiration
13320
15220
3735 4270
175 200
0.105 0.134
12 14
22 25
1230 1400
225
E. CONTROLS-the burner is started and stopped by a thermostat, which !s in
or near the living room at a thermally stable location that is protected from cold
drafts, direct sunlight, and the warming effects or nearby warm air registers. A cut-
in temperature of between 80 and 95 °F is selected for the fan switch in the fur-
bonnet. After the burner starts, the fan switch turns on the blower when the
furnace air reaches the selected cut-in temperature. Burner and blower then con-
tinues to run while heat is needed. When the burner turns off. The blower continues
to run until the temperature in the furnace drops to a level a little below the cut-in
temperature of the fan switch.
If, during operation, the temperature unexpectedly exceeds 200 °F, a high iimit
switch t urns off the burner in the interest of comfort and safety. As in all auto-
matically fired heating units, a stack temperature control in the breaching turns off
the fire if ignition fails.
5. RESOURCEFULNESS IN THE DESIGN
OF WARM AIR SYSTEMS
226
Flexibility and imagination are the key qualities in selecting and developing any
mechanical or electrical system. In the years ahead, frequent changes are always ex-
pected. They include among many others, new architectural trends, a shift in the avail-
ability of energy sources, improved construction methods, and newly developed equip-
ment. These influences apply to warm air heating.
OPeN F\RE
st:FORE J900
In 1900, warm air heating systems began
to supersede the open fire. An Iron fur-
nace stood in the middle of the basement.
DUCT tt was hand-fired by coal . Surroundi ng it
was a sheet metal enclosure. An opening
in its side near the bottom admitted the
cool air that gravitated to the basement. A
short duct from the top of the enclosure
delivered the warm air by gravity to a
large grill in the middle of the Floor to the
parlor.
CMV

JIM \\\'\ 7¥n 11h1
1900 COtt\L FIRED
IRON FURNACE
Very gradual changes had culminated by mid century to produce systems. The improve-
ments included:
Automatic firing of oil or gas Operational
and Safety Control Duc1ed ai r to and·from
each room Blowers to replace gravi ty
f ilters Adjustable registers.
In 1961 ' s t he basement began to disappear. Subslab perimeter systems were popular
·lor basementless houses. In general, t he above features were retai ned and air was
d?.!;vered upward across glass, to be taken back at high-return grills.
SECTION
living Dining
d
c
..

Clos.
Bedroom
d
-tr
t Kitchen
c
Bath
PLAN
Plrimew llld
.....
Division of heat losses,
basementtess house
on slab
Ternce
Garage
e

(no return)
FORCED WARM-AIR, perimeter loop system adaptable for cooling. (No returns from
kitchen, baths, or garage).
227
228
legend:
a. Downflow air furnace (see detail next figure)
b. Supply plenum
c. Eight-inch (plus) subslab supply ducts (encased in concrete)
d. Eigth-inch perimeter duct (encased in concrete)
e. Floor register (adjustabl e for direction and flow rate)
f. Return gri ll
g. Return plenum
Retum air in
Filter
Blower
Oil burner
t
Heat
transfer
~ 6*
wrlace
AIRFLOW PATTERN
Lennox
Supply air out Industries
Inc
DOWNFLOW (Counterflow)
Furnace and its relation
to the perimeter system
Warm air\ t
diffuser
I
In the 1970's oil and gas became scarse. The adoption of electricity resulted ir.
numerous changes. Necessities such as combustion, chimneys and fuel storage be-
came nonessential . Horizontal Electric Furnace• began to appear in shallow attics or
above furred ceilings. Air was delivered down from ceilings to warm exterior glass and
taken back through door-grills and open plenum space (see next Figure, zone C Duct lay-
out) .
There are no f ixed rules about designs. The principles of efficiency, comfort, cost and
conformity to the architectural design are paramount.
Classroom 1
18 X 18 Tr. G<.
l0111in door
2 12· " s·
rectsters
2 12· x s·
registers
ZONE C DUCT LAYOUT
VJtW 10 photo.
Ftg. &.25 (bl
.......--..
' . ...__._
\
Hall
18 x 18 Tr. Gr.
low 1n door
2 12· " s-
••aist•rs
Classroom 2

'/Jew lfl photo, ' ............
Fia. 6.25 (a I \ ' ........ ,.
\ .... ,
\ ........
\ ................
\
z 12". \
\

\ lfl1t o-f
10•1 , •• ,. .., e·.o· ... lumne
Heating-ventilating unit C serves classroom 1 and 2. In each room, warm air is de-
livered down across cool glass through two 12 x 6 in. registers. Warm air is also de-
livered horizontally into the space through two 1 2 x 5 inch registers in the face of the
common duct. Return air leaves through 18 x 18 Inch grills in the classroom door and is
drawn into the unit through the 30 x 24 inch grill flush with the furred ceiling.
6. HOT WATER AND
STEAM BOILERS
Types of Steel and CAST IRON BOILERS
1. Oil-FIRED Steel boiler- A refractory chamber receives the hot flame ot the 011 fire.
Combustion continues within the chamber and the fire tubes. Smoke leaves through
the breeching at the rear. Water, outside the chamber. receives the heat generated in
the combustion chamber. If the domestic hot water coil is connected for use, a larger
capacity boiler is selected. An aquestat (water thermostat) turns on the burner
229
230
whenever t he boiler water cools off. Thereby maintaining a reservoir of hot water
ready for heating the house.
. .. ..
...: .. .
-:- •. ·...:.·r:..
....


..
.... ........ ·
i.lu<r ..... ..JC W'l;sf
'
·· .. · ..... _, ..
.. .....

· ..
..... · . ,·
2. GAS-FIRED, Cast iron hot water boiler Cast iron sections contain water that is heated by
gas from below the unit. Output is related to the number of sections. It may be con-
si dered a "package" unit because the connected circulating pump stands ready to move
water through convectors or baseboards.
3. Oil-fired Cast iron hot water boiler primary and secondary air for conbustion may be
regulated at the burner unit. Flame enters the refractory chamber and conti nues around
the outside of the water-filled cast iron sections.
4. HIGH-OUTPUT, package-type sell boiler. For large buildings using steam as a
primary heating medium, one or several such boilers may be used. The relative ligtlt-
ness of this boiler type makes this package type suitable for use on upper floors of taU
buildings.
S k l d ~
PACKAGE TYPE, FIRE TUBE STEAM BOILER.
Capacity is 600,000 to 3,000,000 Btuh.
5. CONVERTOR, STEAM TO HOT WATER -When. in a building rising primary steam
boilers. secondary circuits using hot water for heating are required, a convertor is used.
It is considered a heat exchanger. A convertor may also be used to transfer heat from
steam to domestic water.
Section illustrating the Principle of Heat Transfer from Steam to Water
231
·:..
6. ELECTRIC BOILERS - For hot water heating are of high capacity output. Electric steam
boilers are also commonly used in large buildings.
.·.·.
........ ·· ..
·' .
.
. . ·:' .....
M•IIP water iblet-""'·. ,... ,. ·--....
.. :;: : .
.. ': .
..
". ··.• ' · .
· .. ·· .·
·. ·.
... ....... ' ·. - ............... _ ...... _._., ..... , ... .
••. ··· · , .·· ... .. • ':
7 .COAL-FIRED STEAM BOILER- As less polluting use of coal is achieved, a return of
this variation of equipment is seen.
7. HOT WATER HEATING SYSTEMS
232
A. CIRCUIT TYPES
There are four (4} principal methods of arrapging t he piping for the ci rculation of hot
water to the heating elements located in the spaces to be heated.
1 . Series Perimeter Loop
Boiler
3
t
4
,•:
This series loop system usually run at the perimeter of the house. The... water
flows to and through each baseboard or intube in turn. Obviously the water at
the end of the circuit is a little cooler. Values at each heating element are not
possible since any value would shut off the entire loop. Adjustment is by a
damper at each baseboard, which reduces the natural convection of air over the
fins. For long runs or lengths of water circuit, the pipe size can be increased.
2. One-Pipe System
This is a very popular choice. Special fittings, act to divert part of the f low into
each baseboard. A value may be used at each one to allow for reduced heat or a
complete ~ h u t - o f f to conserve energy, an advantage that the loop system does
not provide. However, this one pipe system uses a little more piping and is thus
not as economical to install as the loop system in which piping is minimal.
Legend
(a} Boiler
(b) Compression tank
(c} Circulator {pump)
{d) Hot water main ·
(e) Runout (branch)
(f } Control valve
(g) Air vent
3
(h) Baseboard heating unit
(i) Special return fitting
233
234
3. Two-Pipe Reverse-Return
Considered the classic method, though not too often employed and indeed not
always necessary. Water nearly at boiler temperature is supplied to each base-
board without being cooled by passing through a previous baseboard as in ( 11
or accepting the cooler return water as in {21 equal friction, resulting in equal
flow, is achieved through all baseboards Nos. 1 to 5, by reversing the return in-
stead of running it directly back to the boiler. This equality is affected by equal
lengths of water flow through any baseboard together with its lengths of supply
and return main. More pipe is required for this than for system (1) and {2).
2
•·
. .I
l (: I &oiler #I ~ ~
3
''T . Jrl
L .. , - - · · - ~ - - · T · - · - · .

1
s r . 4
·-r...::.-:=:=.:.J-1-- 4:==:::..
4. Two-Pipe. Direct Return
* (Not Favored, Unequal Distribution}
This system is not favored because the path of water through baseboard No. 1
is much shorter than that through the others, especially No. 5 baseboard No. 5
could easily be undesirably cool, since it is short-circuited by the others.
B. SPECIAL FITTINGS
Fin-tube
element
t
Supply
branch
Cabinet
convector
(or baseboard)
Air w:nt
Return I
branch t
Special fitting for one-pipe systems. Venturi-type jet tee used here. In the return
branch connection to the main it induces flow through the convector by retarding
the flow to force water into the supply branch and producing a jet to reduce the
pressure in the main following the return branch.
C. AIR VENTS AND WATER DRAINS
Except for the necessary air cushion in the upper part of the compression tank
above the boiler, air must not be allowed to accumulate at high points in the piping
or at the convector branches. These air vents relieve these possible air pockets.
which would otherwise make the system air-bound and inoperative.
If a system is to be drained and left idle in a cold house, water trapped in low points
could freeze and burst the tubing or pipings. Operable drain values must be provid-
ed at such locations and, of course, at the bottom of the boiler.
Automatic, for convectors Manual, for convectors
Automatic,for piping
235
D. HYDRONIC AND ELECTRICAL CONTROLS
Hot Water heating systems are fully automatic and operate as controlled by
methods described i n the fi gure. Makeup water is added as required, the air level in
the tank is regulated by the air control, fittings, and the circulator and burner
operate as controlled by the aquastat and thermostat. If the air vents in the piping
are not automatic they will require periodic manual "bleeding" of unwanted air.
H
-===-Watpr
-"m'- Electficity
HYDRONIC AND ELECTRICAL CONTROLS;
An Oil-fired boiler for heating by hot water
236
LEGEND
A. Compression Tank- Accommodates the expansion of the water in the system.
B.
c.
D.
E.
F.
G.
Air Control Fittings- Vent out unwanted air in the boil er and maintain the level
in the compression tank.
Pressure Relief Valve- Usually set for 30 psi. Initial cold pressure about 1 2 psi
relieves excessive system pressure.
Ott Burner-Responds to acquastat or thermoastat.
Stack Temperature Control- Senses stack temperature and stops oil injection
if ignition has not occured.
Dra'n Valve-At low point in the water system.
Aquastat- Maintains temperature of boiler water by starting the oil burner
when temperature of water drops below the acquastat' s setting set at 1 80 °F.
H. Remote Switch-At a safe distance from the boiler so that the plant can be
turned off in case of Trouble during which the boiler cannot be approached.
I. Junction Box and Relays- General control center.
J. Thermostat- When the room temperature drops below its setting, it turns on
both the oil fire and the circulating pump.
K. Electrical Power Source-Operator from a separate individual circuit at the
power panel.
L. Hot Water Supply-Copper Tubing to convectors or baseboards.
M. Hot Water Return-Copper Tubing from convectors or baseboards.
N. Draft Adjuster-Regulates the draft (combustion air) over lhe fire.
0. House Cold Water Main-From which water is fed automatically into boiler.
P. Flow Control Valves-Prevent Casual flow of water by gravity when the c i r ~
culator is not running. •
Q. Temperature/Pressure Gauge-Indicates water temperature and pressure.
Sometimes supplemented by immersion tnermometers in supply and return
mains.
R. Pressure Reducing Valve- Admits water into the system when the pressure
there drops below about 12 psi. Has a built-in check valve to prevent backflow
of boiler water into the water main.
S. Shutoff Valves- Normally open. Can be closed to isolate the system and per-
mit servicing of components.
T. Circulator-Centrifugal circulating pump that moves the water through the
tubing and heating elements.
E. CtRCULA TING PUMP
A centrifugal pump is selected to overcome the friction-of-flow in the piping and fit-
tings and to deliver water at a rate sufficient to offset the hourly heat loss of the
house or buildings.
Motor
Electronically
hardened
thrust
collar
237
FIREPLACES
238
A home without a fireplace does seem to lack something a certain something, that
is the heart of the home. There is always an element of security in known you
could have a fire if necessary. Although fireplaces are no longer necessary for survival, a
working fireplace with a cheerful fire blazing away exudes an atmosphere of happy con-
genital living and contributes to the feel ing that this ls the good life. The mind always en-
visions the image of a crackling f ire and enjoys the atmosphere of hospitality. rest and
repose that is in the mind's eye. A fireplace suggests the comfort and contentment of
quiet evenings before a blazing hearth. ..
TYPES OF FIREPLACE
1 • CONVENTIONAL MASONRY FIREPLACE
This is often used where there is wide space and you can afford it. But conven-
tional fireplaces are about 10% efficient. That is, 90 percent of the fire's heat
goes up the flue.
i
['-
+ ] .
' . .907. HeAT
'· 60ES UP
( ,
\.... ....... - ~ ~ - ~
101. HEAT GOES tN
/ CORNER
FIREPLACE
I L ~
6 _ . - - - - - - - - · - ~ - ~ - - - ~~ ...
~ - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - · - · _· ·_·· :J .
1- SHAPE.
BARBECUE
UN IT
RAlSEO HEARTH
PROJECTED MANTLE.
FREESTANDING
SAo\Ce
HOrAlR
UP
2. HEAT CIRCULATING FIREPLACE
This give off as much radiant heat as conventional
types, but to this they add circulating air warmed by
convection.
These fireplaces have a double or triple·wall fire box with
an intervening air space several inches wide. Vents at
the bottom of the fire box draw cool air into this space
between the inner and outer walls, where it is warmed.
The heated air rises by convection to be expelled
through vents located aboye the firebox opening or far·
ther away-even to other rooms through ducts.
Heat circulating fireplaces provide at least twice as
much heat well-<lesigned conventional fireplaces. or are
25 to 30 percent efficient.
239
'

OU(:.T TO
OTHJ;R ROOM5

GCOL AIR JNLET5
( LOMES FROM BELOW)
BLACK -WROUGHT IRON PRE FAB
3. PRE-BUlL T FIREPLACES
This type of fireplace makes it possible to install a wood burning fireplace with-
out concrete footings, without a masonry chimney, at lower cost, and in a room
where structural considerations would otherwise rule out a fireplace. (usually
for apartment dwellers, vacat1on homes, or remodelled and additional rooms).
HOI.... LOW WHERE .C:::OLD AIR
IS HeATEO
·-lSINQ..E SOUD STCEL EtPY

There are two basic types of pre-built
fireplaces:
a. The " BUILT-IN PRE-BUlL T" -
which is a conventional appearing
fireplace usually built into a wall,
with a brick or wood paneled wall,
and a stone, concrete or tile hearth.
(This is difficult to identify as metal
or pre-built.)
11\\5 RePLACE THE
DOME AND DAMPER. MAYBE ...... , ... :·----..
VENTIONAL OR A HEAT- C.\R- ·· ...
CUlATIN6 ONE BY PROVIDING
GRILLS.
240
b. "FREESTANDING METAL FIREPLACE" this is an obviously attractively
metal, with striking an unusual shapes available. (Wrought iron or copper is
preferred).
DESIGNS IN METAL
HOW A CONVENTIONAL FtREPLACE WORKS
Masonry Fireplaces are about 5,000 pounds (227 kilos)-usually are found on the
ground floor, through can be stocked one above the other in two storey buildings.
241
.242
.SIDe SPLAYED 3•TO.S
11
~ EAat FOOT OF DePTH
OR AT ABOUT 15•
L..
PROPER FIREl30X ANGLES MAXIMIZE REFLEC.TED
HEAT TO ROOM
-
RAINWATER WILL
AL!UMULATE
HERE
A SADOL..E WILL
DIS Pf!.R5E T H ~
W A T e ~
FIREPLACE FURNISHINGS AND ACCESSORIES
)
CRIGKET OR SADlLE-
SD THAT RAINWATER
WILL NOT AC.CUMUlATE
· AT THE SACK OF T*"iE
F1Re Pl..AC.E.
1. FIRE BASKET or LOG GRATE-to support the burning fuel.
2. COAL HOD OR WOOD CARRIER-to carry and hold fuel.
BRASS C0"\1- HOP
3. FIRE LIGHTER-to start a fire
(small pieces of pine resin wood or "saleng" is effective)
!Sometimes thick newspaper rolled like a log will do) avoid gas.. 1t
will smell and is dangerous.
4. TONGS, LOG FORK, and SHOVEL-feed the fire poker- stirs the Fire.
5. Bellows-useful in stimulating the air Flame.
Ell-OW

ORDINARY PIPE WILL DO
METAL HOODS: Decorative and Functional
Copper sheets joined with standing
seams make up. This attractive fire-
place hood. Steel-lined but uninsulated,
the warm metal effectively improves I the
fireplace's heating efficientv
Prefabricated metal hood makes for
easy installation.
245
246
GOOD PROPORTIONS:
Size of
Room (M)
3.00 X 4 .20
3.60 X • 4. 80
3.60 )( 6. 00
3.60 X 7.20
4.20 )( 8.40
4.80 X 9 .00
6.00 X 10.80
0.60-24"
0.70-28"
0.80-32"
0.90-36"
1.00-40"
SUGGESTED WIDTH OF FIREPLACE
OPENING APPROPRIATE TO A SIZE
OF A ROOM
Width of Fireplace Opening
If in Short Wall If in Long Wall
0.60 0.60 to 0.80
0.70 to 0 .90 0.80 to 0 .90
0.80 to o.9o 0.90 to 1.00
0.80 to 0 .90 0 .90.to 1.20
0.80 to 1.00 1.00 to 1.20
0.90 to 1.00 1.20 to 1.50
1.10 to 1.20 1.20to 1.80
1.10-44" 1.50-60"
1.20-48" 1"6()..64"
1.30-52" 1.7Q-68"
1 :40-66" 1.80-72"
STAGKito.ICS FIREPLAC.E6
...
1 [
[\
OPE!N
R.ACe

OUTSIDE FCRM0
VIEW FROM THE' BACK
OF THE A.. YV\1000 FORM
247
PLYWOOD FORM A5 SEEN
IN PRONT
ALWAYS
VERTICAU..Y
AL.I6NEO b
SlOt: ELEVATION
I"'UTURI!
Pt..YWOOO
I"''RM -ro
I I(ONCfU:Tf!
\
The"
WALL.
FORMWORK - the plan by using 1 %" x 2" wood. Then by consulting
the dimension table next page, use plywood to encase the form.
When in place wrap around with Firebricks.
·rr ·
i
I 'I
l I
II f
r-"
I
I
i
I
:
i
i
248
k
PLAN
/ '
I '
I '
,' '
( f\ - - - - --- --·- - -- - i! ;
I \ I I I
I ' '
•'
.'
I
1-
D

.. I

..
I CONCRETE.
HOLLOW
Bl...OCKG
"
PLYWOOD
FORM
A

-j5RlC.KS
OF COH VENTIONAL FIRI!PL.Ace
A B
Wtdth Ho;ight
0.60 0.70
0.70 0.70
0 .110 0 . 75
0 .90 0.775
1.00 0.775
1.10 0 .80
1.:20 0 .1:10
1.30 0 .825
1.40 090
1.50 0.90
0 .60·24"
8 . 70-28"
o. 7n :w"
U.UO· :S2"
0.&5-34"
PLAN 0,..
1
BUlL T IN": PftE l!tUU .. T
PI RE! Pl.ACe
DIMENSIONS
Finished Oponu1y Rouoh Masonry
c D E F G H K
Depth Back TllfOCit Width D&pth Smoke Smoke Vertical Standard
Shelf Chamber Bac;k flue Lining

0.4.0 0.40 0.225 0.75 0.475 0 .&0 0 .275 0.35 .211 X .211
0.40 0 .50 0.225 0.85 0 .475 0.80 0 .275 0.35 .211 X .2 11
0.40 0 .60 0.225 0.475 0.85 0.27b 0.3'/6 .211 )( .325
0.45 0 .675 0.225 1.05 0 . 625 0.90 0 .275 0.40 .325 X .325
0.45 0 .775 0.225 1.15 0 . 525 0.90 2 . 275 0.40 . 325 X .32 5
0.45 0.875 0.225 1.25 0.525 0.925 0.275 0 .425 . 325 )( . 325
0.50 0 .95 0.225 1.35 0.575 '0.925 0.375 0.425 .325 x ·0.45 5
O.!iO 1.05 0.225 1.45 0.575 0.9'/5 0.380 0.45 325 X 0.45 5
0.50 1:15 0 .225 1.55 0.575 1.025 0 .380 0.475 0 .475 X 0.45
0.55 1.225 0.225 1.60 0 .625 1.025 0.380 0. 475 0 .45 X 0.45
0 . 2112-S!h" 0 .90-36" 1.20-48" 0.45-18"
0.225 -9" 0 .95· 38" 1.25-50" 0.50· 20"
o.:nt> . ' 1 fl 1.00 40'' 1.10 &2" 0. 55 22"
O.:SO -12" 1.LH>-4:.l''
0 .325 · 13" 1.10-44" 1.40-56"
0.40· 16" 1.15·46" 1.4 5-SH"
1.50·60"
1.55-62"

Flue Lining
.20 X . 30
.30 X .30
.30 )( .30
.30 X .40
. 30 l( .40
. 30 X .40
.40 x . 50
.40 X .50
.50 l( .50
.50)( .50
249
8. HYDRONIC HEATING DESIGN AND ZONING
250
For hot water (hydronic) heating systems the following design concepts are recommend-
ed.
Total equivalent length. The length of the longest circuit through which the water is cir-
culated plus a length equivalent to the resistance offered by the fittings, boiler, etc.
Pressure drop in the pipe. This drop due to f riction expressed in mil-inches of water per
foot of pipe, is the difference in pressue caused by friction in 1 ft. of pipe and re-
presents the static height of water in thousand of an inch capable of being sustained by
this difference in pressure.
Total Friction Head. Expressed in feet, this head is the column of static wat&f'that could
be sustained by the difference in pressure in the entire system owing to friction. Thus if
a system were 300 ft. long and had a unit frictional resistance of 300 mil-inches/ft.,
the total friction head would be ; , ~ ~ ~ ; ~ ~ = 7.5 ft.
Required Flow. The water flow in gallons per minute to be circulated to make up the
hourly heat loss and the selected drop in the water temperature.
Required Volume of Expansion Tank. This is related to t he volume of water in the
system and the over-all rise in temperature from cold water supply temperature to
boiler water operating temperature.
Pump rating. The pump size is selected on the basis of the required flow and the total
friction head.
Flow-control valves
Based on the one-pipe principle in multiple circuits, each having its own pump and f low-
control (check) valves, hot water systems are very well suited to zoning. This in-
stallation comprises three separately heated areas, 1st, 2nd, 3rd floors. Each can be
heated to different temperatures as called for by thermostats in each separate apart-
ment. For example, if the thermostat serving the second floor (Zone B) calls for heat, it
turns on pump B. Flow-control valves B open, admitting hot water from the boiler
header to main B. Flow-control valves A and C remain closed, preventing flow in mains
A and C. Any or all of the zones may operate at one time.
The boiler keeps a supply of hot water continually ready to supply any zone upon de-
mand. This is achieved by an aquastat immersed in the boiler water. When the boiler
water drops below the prescribed temperature it turns on the f iring device, such as an
oil burner or gas burner, which brings the water up to temperature. If an overhead main
supplies downfeed, as in the first floor of this installation, special downfeed supply and
return fittings are necessary. For the second and third floor zones, one special return
Tee is sufficient.
9. ELECTRIC RESISTANCE HEATING
Each system in the following figures can be operated by thermostat in each room. This
procedure permits a method of operation that can contribute to the saving of energy.
Temperature in rooms that are not in use, can be lowered or the room units turned off
by means of a switch. Thus the rooms actually occupied would be the only ones to
draw full energy. Baseboard and drop-in-units have a fast response.
The electric-radiant-ceiling method in this figure has largely supplanted the earlier ra-
diant heating that employed hot water coils in ceilings or floors. The radiant-heating
cable is installed ready for completion of plaster ceili ng.
Bottom of
junction boA
for thermostat
52 .. to 60 ..
above floor
Clear space, 8'"
minimum between
metal'cutlet box
and heating wire
Staple 3• from turn,_,/ -... _ _ ,_., \Staple not
then staple at bend · ~ · more than
16" apart
CEILING METHOD
White coat
plaster
~ .. brown coat
of plaster
251
Floor-Type
Drop-in convective Electrical Resistance Units
RATINGS
WATTS BTuh Width Length
350 1194 7 3/4 inch 14 inch
750 2559 7 3/4 in. 30 in.
2000 6824 7 3/4 in. 62 in.
FLOOR
Baseboard Type
DETAILS OF HEATING BASEBOARD
252
1 . REFRIGERATED COOLING FOR HOUSES
a. AIR-TO·AIR COOLING
Unlike the technique in large buildings and in district cooling. where distance makes
tne use of chilled water most convenient for thermal transmission. houses are cool·
ed by .a rather simple arrangement of the refrigeration cycle. The circuit of a
refrigerant in compression, condensing, and evaporation, in which the condenser
heat is carried away by water and the evaporation process draws heat out of water
in another circuit to produce chilled water.
Thus the heat is moved to a heat rejection location outdoors. In t he following figure,
is shown a schematic diagram of an air-to-air (in distinction to a water-to-water) re·
frigeration device.
OUTDOORS INDOORS
1_ .............. - .............................. _., .... .............. ·--·--·· ... - .. - --:
; CONOf:.NSER COtL (HOT) NEE. OS .
r---··· ·····- --
! COOLINO BY OUTSIDE A IR
[. ............ ........ ·--·-·· -··. ····-·
· CIRCULATING rAW '
AND MOTOR J
_ ..,._ _ .. __ , _ _ .... .................. _, .• ___..,i

!"''-···- --·--··········--···- ............. ., .. ....,_,, __ - .
AND HUMID AIR
1
- ·:
! (SOME FRESH) SERVES !
I THE ROOM ----J
---·--···-
0\SCHA RGE D
254
r·····------·· -······-······-· ....... ---- --··-·-
. COMPRESSOR AND MOTOR
i REFR16E.R<\NT FLOW JNDI-

L. - ... ·---·--·---- ---- - - --- . •. .
WINDOW
\"AN AoJUSIABLE AIVIOUNT -OF.FRESH AIR

UNIT
Air instead of water can be used to cool the condenser, and indoor air can be cooled
directly by passing it over the evaporator coil in which the refrigerant is expanding
from a liquid to a gas. Thus heat is moved from the indoor air to the outdoor air by
the step-up action or heat pumping, nature of the refrigeration cycle. When indoor
air is cooled directly in this manner by the expanding refrigerant, the process is
usually known as direct expansion. One recognizes this assembly as the conven-
tional window (or through the wall unit}.
Cooling
coil
Return air
To allow more flexibility in the placement of the heat rejection side of the cycle, air-
to-air equipment is now obtainable in which the condenser and its somewhat noisy
companion, the compressor, can be placed in a remote location outside of the
house and beyond the exterior wall.
1
<>=
Usual distance limitations 50- GO':!:
- - ---v'---- - - · · - ~
1 Outdoors
:o
Freon
Heat Rejection
Compressor
Air-cooled condenser
~ ~ 0 Gas
Liquid
~ ~
,
•• $;.
I
Indoors r-=-1
~ ~ t ~
l...:.-- J
Cooling
Evaporator
..
(Direct expansion)
The compressor-condenser unit is placed on a concrete slab. This arrangement
allows the placement of the evaporator (direct expansion) coil in the air stream of
the warm heating system.
t
Air to system
warm or cool
A.H.U- Air- Handling Unit Cooling/Heating
Removal of front panel reveals up-flow
circuit. At lower left is air intake and filter
adjacent are far and motor. Above these
are seen gas-burning elements. At the top
is a direct expansion cooling coil.
255
; ..
;
\ '
l
I
I
·!
I
F11ter and
blower
An evaporator in the duct circuit of a warm air system employing horizontal, in-line
stowaway heating elements that can be used compactly in basement or attic. ·
--
--------- --
---
Gas burner and
1\eat exchanger
---
b. Cooling/Heating by a combi ned Hydronic and Air System
This new system combines a perimeter hot water heating pipe with an overhead air-
handling system. A boiler having a tankless coil supplies domestic hot water. The
heat output supplies both the perimeter loop and a coil in the air-handling unit of the
duct system. The total heating load is met by the combination of radiant heat gene-
rated by the perimeter loop and heated air from the overhead air-handling system.
The perimeter loop consists only of 1/ 2 or 3/4 inch copper tubing imbedded 4 inch
below the top f loor slab to kill the cold slab effect. It has the capacity to mai ntain a
35 °F differential between inside and outside temperature at the perimeter.
The air-handling unit and overhead duct system with supply outlets in each room
and central return, is used throughout the year. Its cooling coil is connected to an
adjacent outdoor, condensing unit.
See illustration on next page (figure a).
2. CENTRAL-STATION AIR CONDITIONING
256
In large, densely occupied buildings, crit ical conditions may obtain that would require
relief. An example would be a very large theater for the performing arts. In solving such
problems, a knowledge of the classic methods of air conditioning is essential, to be
used with energy-conscious discretion. Complete air conditioning requires a source of
heating such as boiler or furnace, a method of cooling such as the refrigeration cycle,
equipment for introducing moisture and for removing it, filters or airwashing devices to
clean the air and, for proper air distribution, flowers, ducts and registers. Fresh air is in-
traduced on the intake side of the conditioning equipment so that it may be treated
before entering the space. An equal or slightly smaller amount of indoor air is ex-
hausted from points of odor concentration such as kitchens, toilets and smoking room.
f=lfUV4 Q .
(a)
Typical supply grille
%"' perimeter copper
loop-underslab
a. COOUNG by COMPRESSIVE REFRIGERATION
After discussing the principles of heating. it is now necesssary to consider the
means for producing cool air, or the chilled water by which air may be cooled. Occa-
sionally ground water is obtainable at temperature low enough for direct use, but
generally the use of a refrigeration machine or other special cooling device is
necessary. As shown in the figure below, the compressive refrigeration cycle is a
scheme for transferring heat from one circulated water system (chilled water) to
another condenser water.
Low pressure
Warmer water vapor
returns --
Chilled w•tor ~ J
Discharge valve
Q:lmpressor
Suction
valve
High pressure liquid
High pressure
vapor
Q:lndenser
-
Closed refrigerant cycle
SCHEMATIC ARRANGEMENT
The means for doing this is the liquification and evaporation of refrigerant, usually
Freon, during which processes it respectively gives off and takes on heat. The heat
257
258
that it gives off must be disposed of (exposed in the heat pump) but the heat that it
requires is drawn out of the circulated water known as the chilled water, which is
the medium for subsequent cooling processes.
Freon, a gas at normal temperatures and pressures, must be compressed and li-
quified to be of service later as a heat absorber. In order to liquify it, (as shown in
the figure above), it is first compressed to a high-pressure vapor; then, by means of
cool water, latent heat is extracted from the Freon, which condenses it to a liquid.
This product, high-pressure liquid Freon, is a potential heat absorber since, when it
is released through an expansion valve, it springs mechanically to gaseous form. In
this change of state it must take on latent heat, by drawing heat out of the cir-
culated that the refrigeration cycle pumps the heat out of the chilled water. systems
into the condenser water system, indeed, by special (Reverse Cycle) arrangements
of the water systems, a heat pump is the result.
The piston in the figure suggests a reciprocating compressor, type often used in
smaller compressor sizes. Larger chilled water "packages" usually employ cen-
trifugal compressors such as shown below.
Centrifugal Compressive Refrigeration
Machine (Water Chiller)
{see previous schematic arrangement)
b. UNIT OF REFRIGERATION
Centrifupl
compressor
A ton of refrigeration is the cooling effect obtained when 1 ton of 32 °F 16 melts to
water at 32 °F in 24 hrs. Since the latent heat-of-fusion of 16 is 144 Btu/lb, the
cooling effect or rate of ton of refrigeration (200 lb) is'taken as 144 x 2,000 =
288,000 Btu/day of 24 hr. or 12,000 Btuh. The requisite capacity of a refrigera-
ting machine in tons may therefore be found by dividing the total heat gain in a
building in Btuh by 12,000.
c. COOLING by ABSORPTION
Another form of water chiller is the refrigeration absorption machine. Suitable for in-
stallations up to 1,000 tons capacity, the external connections of this device are
similar to the centrifugal-refrigeration. It produces chilled water and has a cycle, of
the condensing water that must be cooled. Its motive power is steam, but instead
of driving a turbine to run a compressor, the steam is used in regenerative process
to strengthen a salt solution.
Although similar in external connections, its interior functioning is very different
from the compressor-type refrigeration machine and the steps of the process is
sl'own in the following figure. The absorption machine has become very popular. It
::· often economically tompetitive with the compressive machine, has few moving
parts, is quieter, and demands somewhat less attention.
PROCESS/ ABSORPTION-REFRIGERATION CYCLES
1. Just as common table salt ab-
sorbs water on a damp day, the
salt solution in the absorber
soaks up some of the water in
the evaporator. The water re-
maining is thereby cooled by eva-
poration.
259
2. EvapOrator coli and Pump Added-This refrigeration effect is utilized by putting
a coil in the evaporator tank. Water from this tank is pumped to a spray header
which wets the coil. The spray's evaporation chills water in the coil as it cir-
culates to the refrigeration load. Solution pumped ·to spray in absorber raises et-
ficienty.
3. Solution Pumps and Generator Added-In an actual operating cycle, the salt so-
lution is continuously absorbing water vapor. To keep the salt solution at proper
concentration, part of it is pumped directly to a generator where excess water
vapor is boiled off. The reconctentrated salt solution is returned to the absorber
tank where it mixes with the solution sprayed to absorber in step 2.
4. Condenser and Heat Exchanger Added-Water vapor boiled off from the weak
solution is condensed and returned to the evaporator. A heat exchanger uses
the hot, concentrated salt solution leaving the generator to preheat the cooler,
weak solution coming from the absorber. Finally, condensing water circulating
through the absorber and condenser coils removes the waste heat.
d. PRINCIPLES OF CENTRAL COOUNG
In larger buildings and those with varied and diverse occupancy, it is usually prefer-
red to centralize the refrigeration plant. The condenser is cooled by water circulated
to an outdoor cooling tower and the evaporator produces chilled water. The latter is
then pumped to wherever it is needed in the building.
Heat Gain
Solar and
transmiSiiion
Exhaust
Some heat
lost llefe
Cooling Tower
Major heat
di:.posal here
Air and
vapor
Air-Handling
Coolin& and
detMI m i<fifiation
etcoils ~
260
611
Water
Chilled Water
Serves the air
"'n<flin& unit
Ventilation
Heat and moisture
gain here
Evaporator Compressor Condenser
COmpressive refriteratiOn cycll
(could be an absorption maclllne)
Waw
pump
'
Condenser Water
Carries the helt tD
tbe cooUrc m-
In this illustration, chilled water is pumped to one air-handling unit where the cir-
culated air for one room is cooled and its moisture partially condensed. In practice,
the water is usually pumped to many air-handling stations, each serving many
rooms.
The most important single factor affecting SIJCh designs is the feet that air ducts are
very large and water piping for the same thermal flow is very small. For this reason,
the air-handling centers are located as close to the serviced areas as poss101e. A
balance must be achieved, however, and ducts from a single air unit may serve
several stories. Advantages of central cooling conclude the significant one that fan
and compressor noise does not enter the space.
e. CENTRAL STATION CONDITIONING
When heat is needed in winter the air circulated through the room or other spaces
must be heated. This figure shows a somewhat more developed the position of the
cooling coil in the air stream and the addition of the preheating and reheating coils,
supplied with steam from a steam boiler. Automatic controls start the steam flow
or, by dampers, place the heating coil in the air stream. The reheat coil is available to
raise the air temperature if required without increasing the absolute humidity.
Filter
Refrigerant
Cycle
Room
Conditioned
air
Compresst»r Condenser Evaporator
(chiller)
Roaf
I
I
I
I Condenser
1 water
I
t
I
I
I
J
/
Flue
The function of the cooling tower is to dispose of the heat carried away from the
condenser. The condenser- cooling water is pumped to the tower where it is drop-
ped through a rising current of air. This effects a vaporization of some of the water.
Latent heat necessary to this change of state is drawn from the remaining water,
261
cooling it for reuse in the condenser. Makeup water must be added to the tower
since some of the water is lost in vapor.
A cooling tower serving a large building. Condenser water ~ delivered to this untt by pumps.
3. PSYCHROMETRY
262
a. AIR MOISTURE, AND HEAT
Air and water vapor are the media by which air-conditioning systems operate.
Water vapor in varying amounts always exist in air, and the regulation of this
moisture content and of the temperature of the vapor-air mixture is the problem
posed to the designer of air conditioning.
Dry-bulb Temperature 108}. The temperature of the air-water vapor mixture
measured in the normal way with a Fahrenheit thermometer.
Wet-bulb Temperature (WB). The temperature shown by a thermometer with a wet-
ted bulb rotated rapidly in the air to cause evaporation of its moisture. In dry air the
moisture evaporates and, in acquiring latent heat, draws heat out of the ther-
mometer to produce a large wet-bulb depression {diffEtrence between dry-and wet-
bulb temperatures) This is an index of low relative humidity. Slow evaporation
when the air is alfeady moisture·taden results in a small wet-bulb depression and·in-
dicates a condition of high relative humidity.
.: ...
··: .
......
', .

.· ·: ·M otc; r aorH
.....
<· &n.a
Relative Humidity (RH). The ratio of the partial pressure of the actual water vapor in
a mixture to the pressure of a saturated mixture at the same temperature. The quan-
tity of moisture showing 40% RH at 40 °F would only produce about 13% at 75 °
Dew POint (D.P.}. The temperature at which an air-water vapor mixture will become
saturated and begin to yield drops of condensed water. The moisture collecting on
the exterior of an uncovered cold-water pipe indicates that the pine surface tempe·
rature is below the dew point of the surrounding mixture. This phenomenon usually
called sweating would more correctly be called condensing.
Humidity Ratio (HR). The weight of the actual water vapor in a mixture per pound of
dry air.
Enthalpy. The total heat in the mixture measured above 0 °F and including the latent
beat of the water vapor .
Speclflc Heat. The number of british thermal units required to raise 11 b of a
substance 1 °F. For air 0.241 Btu may be used and for water vapor. 0.444.
Latent Heat. A term used to express the energy involved in a change of state.
Density. For approximate calculations 0.075 lb. per cu. ft. may be used as the den-
sity of air.
b. THE PSYCHROMETRIC CHART
The qualified of mixtures of air and water vapor are summerized graphically in the
psychrometric chart. This chart is the working diagram oJ the air-conditioning
engineer. Its use can show the typical indoor and outdoor conditions in summer or
the process of cooling and dehumidifying outdoor.
See psychometric chart on next page.
263
lit
1\ )
i
.. ~
!
!!!
8
II
Ill
'
i
...t:fj
t;.

'
~
I
a ~
. ~


• ;,

~
I
s;- ,
.
"'
I
...
/
LAo

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(r
li!
~
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,
i
~
~
~
-"
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c
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PSYCHROMETRY CHART
264
c. COOLING SYSTEM DESIGN
The use of the psychrometri c chart in computing the relationships of heat and air
flow when planning the cooling processes of a central station air conditioner is very
useful and is best left for problem solving by the air-conditioning engineer.
4. THE HEAT PUMP
Without the onsite use of fossil fuels, flame or combustion, the heat pump can heat a
house of building in winter and cool it in summer by means of a reverse-cycle, elec-
trically pered, refrigeration system. In the air-to-air cooling or (window unit) figure pre-
viously discussed, it showed the method of conventional cooling il).summer by an out-
door evaporator coil and the disposal of the heat to the outdoors by the process of con-
ensi ng the refrigerant . It is only necessary to reverse this process to provide i ndoor
heating. The heating can be by circulated water.
SUMMER
II Jl
•l n
tt .,
II
r : d ~
~
1\
COM PRESsa"t
WINTER
u
Q
COMPRESSOR
CHILLED WATER
~ s .. t=
265
266
An air-source heat pump that produces chilled water or hot water for indoor cooling or
heating. By an arrangement of values not shown in this imple diagram, tha routing of
the refrigerant can be reversed to switch the evaporative and condensing processes
between coils that remain f ixed.
By Air to Air heat pump with controls
'TEMP
CD
a panel set forward of the exterior wall
line allows the pump to inhale and exhale
outdoor air around the panel edges. In
summer it discharges warm air and, in
winter, cool air.
or by a Series Single Package Heat Pump- Horizontal, CHP 9
Installed . on the roof-
top or at ground htvel out-
doors.
23,000 to 56,000 Btuh Cooling Capacity
26,000 to 63,000 Btuh Heating Capacity
OptJonal Electrical Heat
5. THE INDUCTION METHOD
A small amount of outdoor air, representing the required air ventilation, is tempered
{cooled or heated, humidified or dehumidified, depending on the season. and delivered
at high velocity through a small circular duct. At the cabinet it is attenuated (slowed
down and silenced) and blown through jets to induce room air into the flow pattern.
The fresh air plus the recirculated air then passes over finned tubes within which is cir-
culated cool or hot water as required. The water, heater can be a conversion unit that
warms the water by heat transfer from the building steam.
Humidifier or
dehumidifier
Central primary air conditioner
Main chilled
water pump
APPARATUS ROOM
·secondaty
room air
Automatic
retripration machine
• General distribution Systems of the High-Velocity
pump
Induction Method of air conditioning. Conditional fresh air (once-through, not recir·
culated) provides ventilation, control s air quality and humidity, and induces, through
jets, the secondary circulation of room air. The air flow at the cabinet is warmed or
cooled to selected temperature by hot or chilled water at controlled rates.
267
ASSEMBLY
ROOM UNIT
can installed as part of book-
shelf arrangement
UNIT REMOVABLE.
PANt; I-
( JN.tlPE- 1511iE
6. INCREMENTAL HEATING-COOLING UNITS
268
Perhaps the simplest of all air-conditioning devices is the through-the- wali conditioner
shown in the figure window unit lAir to air cooling in No. 1). It uses non-conducted air
taken from the room and blown over the evaporator coils and returned directly to the
room, passing up across the glass or generally upward toward the ceiling to avoid caus-
ing draughts on occupants. Air for condensing the refrigerant is taken from outdoors
and blow across the coils where it picks up the heat rejected by the unit and is then
returned to outdoors.
A baffle separates the two circuits except for a small opening to admit fresh outdoor air
for ventilation. Through-the-wall units have largely replaced window units, which
operate on exactly the same principle. With the addition of a back-up heating coil , they
are now adopted for use in large buildings and are known as incremental units.
Continuous
Fimshed
floor
Adjustable
discharge
grille
Opaque glass
3
Insulated
panel
Aluminum
frame and
louver
assembly
4
Marine
caulking
compound
5
Uo{SIVE' iHIS ROOM "'R
(
CJRC.VL-"'T\ON AND 'ELE.CTFt.IC.

G"l..eME"NT
OVTSIPE
LOUVER
WALL &OX
IN.S!OE 'Tlil$ IS
COO\...ING CHASIS
3
1. Clear glass. 2. Inside sill. 3. Insulated
black glass. 4. Outdoor louver. 5. Floor line.
INCREMENTAL (Terminal) Air-conditioning Unit.
269
7. DUAL-DUCT. HIGH-VELOCITY SYSTEMS
270
If an air is delivered at a velocity of 3,000 or more fpm (Feet per Minute} instead of the
more usual 1 ,000 to 1,500 fpm, ducts can be much smaller. Obviously fans must be
more powerful and problems are faced concerning noises that could be caused by this
fest-moving air. These are solved by routing the air through a box performing a function
similar to an automobile muffler. These units lined with acoustically absorbent material
reduce the sounds to acceptable levels before the air is discharged into the room.
The dual-duct high velocity system solves a lot of general problems that had existed in
tall buildings as well as in building of moderate size. In addition to the much smaller size
of ducts, it has the unique characteristic of making both heating and cooling available in
different (often closely adjacent) parts of a building. The need for this can octur when,
on a reasonably mild day of about 40 °F, sun through East or West glass can make
cooling necessary while the north (sunless) glass can lose heat so rapidly that heating
will be required.
Another instance is at midwinter on a very cold cloudy day. All perimeter elements are
providing heat. Concurrently, in a crowded interior conference room or auditorium, the
heat and moisture gain from people can require cooling to maintain comfortable condi-
tions. These selections can be made when cool air is delivered at all seasons together
with warm air at room temperature in summer and warmer than this in winter. This is
done by a Thermostat and implemented by the high-velocity attenuation and blending
units, each of which delivers air at a temperature called for by the local tht;rmostat that
controls it. Thus small zones are created that deal with localized heat gains or losses.
High Velocity, dual-duct. unit, Terminal
mixing and attenuation (pressure and
sound reduction) unit for dual-duct, high·
velocity systems. Pneumatically con-
trolled from a thermostat. it blends and
delivers all at a selected temperature.
These constant volume units provide ac·
curate constant columetric delivery at
each outlet of the system, even though
the pressure in the hot and cold ducts may
vary widely. The units have simple
automatic controls. consisting of a ther·
mostat and a pressure sensitive mem-
brane, both ac ting through a system of
simple mechanical linkages.
The small high-velocity ducts are a great advantage in tall buildings, permitting vertical
risers of many stories without excessive bulk. Return air at normal velocities and
pressures is often exhausted through ceiling and the floor structure above it, or by
systems of return ducts of conventional size.
Vertical return ducts, also of conventional size, carry the air, usually through the build-
ing core, to the return air fan. From there it is recirculated or exhausted. A characteris-
tic of modern air-conditioning systems is the flexibility possible in the flow rates of
fresh outdoor air, recirculated air, and exhausted air.
Round ducts offer small frictional resistance and are commonly used in this system.
The flexiJ>ility of those serving the interior areas allows for office-t:hanges with easy
relocation of ceiling diffusers. Two common methods of air delivery are the ceiling dif-
fuser, which creates a plane of conditioned and induced air at the ceiling without
draugths on occupants, and the floor registers near exterior glass for delivery of air to
cope directly with solar heat gains or losses.
: . ~ Jtner
¥ e a ~
Low velOCity
air in duels
All of these are controlled and checked by a central control panel, which interrelates the
various elements. These parts include boiler, refrigeration, cooling tower, and air handl-
ing, as well as the controlling elements in and near the conditioned spaces.
See illustration on next page.
271
LEGEND:
1 . Exchaust Fan Controls
2. Pump Controls
3. Cooling Tower Controls
4. Refri gerant Circuits
5. Compressors
6. Chilled Water Circuits
7. Fans
8. Heating Coils
9. Hot Air
10. Cooli ng Coils
11. Cold Air
12. Air Blending
13. Fuel Oil System
14. Fuel Oil Gauge
15. Draft Over the Fire
16. Flue Temperature
17. Automatic-Damp Controls
18. Lights come on to indi cate operation of Major Air Zones
19. Temperatures - (Outdoor Air, Recirculat ed Air, Hot Air, Cold Air, Chilled Air, Con-
densed Water I
20. Switches: Water-Summer
21 . Chilled Water Temp. Regulator
22. Blower Control
23. Air-Compressor Pilot Lights
272
VENTILATION
a. Etimination of Negative Pressures
Buildings that house Industrial processes often have exceedingly high exhaust rates
that make the buildings difficult to heat because of high negative pressures and the
resulting, high rates of cold air infiltration. The figure below illustr()tes a makeup
unit that supplies warm air in sufficient quantit ies to cancel this effect. The unit
shown is obtainable in ratings of 6,000 to 50,000 cfm and input gas ratings of
360,000 to 7,800,000 Btuh.
~ I f'?
Typical rooftop installation ........_ ............___ ~ ~ >;;.
of outdoor model ~ · · ~ "t ,,/
......... ~
/
Indoor heaters or weatherproof outdoor heaters can be install ed for warm·air de·
livery to balance the exhaust rates and thus cancel the effect of infiltration, permit·
ting the buildings' main heating system to maintain comfortable air temperatures
throughout the building.
b. Energy Transfer
The mechanism shown in the following figures has function to recover the sensible
and latent energy of air exhausted from heated buildings and to cool and dehumidify
the fresh air entering a cooled building. Seals and laminar flow of air through the
wheels prevent mixing of exhausted air and incoming air . A further precaution in the
process purges each sector of the wheel briefly, by using fresh air to blow away any
unpleasant residual effects of the exhausted air on the wheel surfaces. Fresh air
qualities, except those of heat and moisture, is negligible. This system offers great
economies in the conditioning of makeup air.
273
274
Supply air
Exhaust air
Small heating coil
(if required)
Energy Conservation. By rotating a heat (and moisture) absorbing wheel (cylinder)
between the hot and moist exhaust air and the cool and dry fresh air, 70 to 90% of
the energy that would be lost by the exhaust is returned to the heating system
through transfer to the incoming fresh air.
---fl--Air
• I /

;' ·u-· ·--- ' '"'''0'' etail Of COrrugated asbestOS ener-
gy-exchanger "wheel" that con-
stricts air to oxial (laminar) flow.
Angle view
Cold
outside .-,....
air
Edge vi ew
Heat and moisture
Cooled dry -.---......1
Warmed and
humidified
outside air
to room
exhaust
air
Rotation
of wheel
a) Summer Operation
Warm humidi fied
room exhaust
air
Hot moist
outside _,.,
air
Warm moist -T-----i
exhaust
air
I
Rotation/
of wheel
Heat and moisture
exchanger
( {transfer wheel)
Cooled and
dehumidified
outside air
to room
Cool dry
exhaust
air
b) In winter it is the reverse
Energy Transfer wheel acts not only to warm the incoming fresh air in winter but
also to cool the incoming air in summer.
c. lnfiltr!:ltion and Natural Ventilation
Not many high-rise buildings recently constructed are equipped with operable sash
windows that can be opened in summer for natural ventilation. Also concerning
floor levels in these buildings, each level constitutes a sealed fire-barrier to prevent
upward flow, during a fire, of smoke, flame, or superheated air. A few decades ago,
it was customary to compensate for a stack effect- upward flow in winter or nor·
mal indoor heated air through the building. This was done by adjusting for more
heat in the lower stories and less in the upper stories. Since fire-barriers at floor
levels will, of course, be increasingly essential, stack effect will be minimized.
ID
\0
1---------
10
10
tO
-·-·-
10
SAME H ~ T
AOOEO HEAT
GoiNG UP!hlo\RD
(___
3
....
5
'
1
t
-
--1---
We are, however, heading toward natural summer ventilation as cooling and me-
chanical ventilation become greater drains on our energy budgets. Operable sash
permit more air-leakage than sealed glazing. But then in winter or cold season. we
may again need to deal with greater cold infiltration through cracks at the top
stories on the windward faces of tall buildings.
275
chapter
SIGNAL SYSTEM
SIGNAL SYSTEMS
Under this rat her vague tit le is subsumed all signal. communication, and control equip-
ment, the function of which is to assist i n effecting proper building operation. Included
are surveillance equipment such as fire and interior alarm; audio and visual communica-
tion equipment such as telephone, intercom, and television, both public and closed cir-
cuit; time equipment such as clock and program. These systems are no longer limited in
appli cation. Clock and program equipment, which once were the exclusive-i nterest of
schools and some industrial f acili t ies. are now incorporated into building mechanical
equipment control systems. Closed circuit TV, whi ch was once limited to classroom
and coll ege use. is common place in mercantile areas as part of survei ll ance systems.
The hundreds of signals generated throughout a large facility are logged. channeled,
and appli ed by means of specially programmed comput-ers. All the signal systems that
once were sepa rat e and distinct are now frequently combined and serve multiple pur-
poses.
PRIVATE RESIDENTIAL SYSTEMS
1. GENERAL
! :
Modern private residences ut ilize a variety of signal apparatus that greatly enhance
thei r f unct ional value. The following figure shows a residence that has been provided
with what would be considered adequate by no means excessive sound and signal
equipment f or a house of t his size.
14 )
S" .. 80l S FOil EOU"'"'ENT
r ".,.J
'
-<> ANNUCIATOII. CUSr OOA DESIGN.
e ·· ,>.C v·BRATI 'IG 8Ell. CONC.t.a,LEO IN SOX. WITH CR>ll
114-
(£[] CENTRAl PANEl FOR S.D. 6 INTRUSION.
@!) 00011 8ELL
lE) CHrMES SIGNAl.

1
PREWI!I€0 PHO'<E OUTLET: JACK 1z·· AFF.
2 PR( WrA€0 PHONE OUTlET: fi XEO. ·17· AFF.
? lfMP O€TECTO!I. FtXEO TP,1P .. C 3 PREWt!l€0 PHO"E OVTLET. WAll OUTLET 60'" AFF.
275
SMOit.E O€TECTOR ..,,rH ;.xeo TfMP DETECTOR.
CDI INTPUSIOI< DHEcCTOR. T•C DOOR SWITCH
;><TA<.JSION O£HCTOR; I'IAGNEToC I'IIN00\\1 SWITCo<.
l INTRUSION OHECTOR; H 6CTRONIC, MOTION DeTECTOR.
Kitchtn
(<)
(b)
<@
1
IWIERCOM OUTleT. OUTOOOII. W.P .. &0" "''·
2 ' " TERCOM OUTleT, MASTE. R STATION '>0" AFF.
3 INTERCOM OUTlET. S•ATION 60" Af<.
8 PREWIRE:> T\1 OUTlET. 12" AFF.
Diruf'll Aoom
• (a) Electrical plan. lot.er {l(l;el. •ignal de<icn (b) Electrlctll plan. upptr signal det;ir.es.
S!fmbo4 fqr signal equipment. (d) Notes fur •ignal system.;
1. The fire detection, smoke detection, and intrusion alarm device all operate from a
sir>gle control panel, the alarm bell is common. The annunciator indicates the devi ce
operated and its location.
2. The connection between the signal control panel and OLCP !Outside Light ing Con-
trol Panel) activates all .outside lights when a signal device trips. Selected lights in-
side the house can also be connected to go.
3. Two l4 in. empty plastic conduits, extending from 2 to 4 in. boxes in living room wall
down to family room and terminating in 4 in. flush boxes. Boxes to be 18 in. AFF and
fitted with blank covers. Extend a Y• in. plastic EC from one 4 in. box in living room
to 12 in. speaker back box recessed in dining room ceiling locate in the. f ield fr om the
second 4 in. box in living room" extend a l4 in. empty plastic conduit to an empty 4
in. box in the master bedroom. 18 in. AFF finish with blank cover.
4. Provide television antenna amplifir, recessed in wall box with hinged ventilated cover
18 in. AFF. connections to antenna and to all television 9utlets by television and
antenna subcontractor. Provide 1'20 v outlet at the amplifier, with switch to discon-
nect.
279
In general, all signal systems require a source of signal. equi pment to process the signal
including transmitting it, and finally a means of indicating the signal , either audibly.
visually, or on permanent record " hard copy". Circuits vary as to f unctions. but t ne
basic l ine of signal initiation, transmission - and - process, and reception remains un-
changed. The Table below illustrate the three-fold classification of the Lists of equip-
ment and systems found in the sampl e of the residence above . Note that the fire alarm,
smoke detection, and intrusion alarm systems have been combined into a single
system. This simplifies operation and avoids unnecessary equipment duplication.
ELEMENTS OF RESIDENTIAL SIGNAL SYSTEMS
System
Type
Fire alarm
Int rusion alarm
Door bell
• TV antenna
Intercom
Signal
Generator
Temperature and
smoke detectors
Door and window
switches, motion
detector
Signal
Processor *
Control cabinet(s)
Control cabinet
- --- ·---·· ---- -
Push Botton
TV station and
house antenna
Microphone,
speaker-mike
Transformer
- ------- ·
Amplifier
Amplifier
----- --- - ---··-- ---.----- - -
...
Signal
Transducer
Bell s, annunci ator
buzzer
Bell s, buzzer
annunciator
Buzzer, chime
TV Set
Speakers in
vari ous stations
*The proper w iring and switching is included under this title in all cases.
2. RESIDENTIAL FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
280
a) General
If properly designed and functioning normall y. the system should provide sufficient
time for the evacuation of the residents and then for appropriate countermeasures
to be initiated. The elements of the system are the various alarm-ini t iating devices,
the wiring and control panel , and the audible alarm devices. Systems utili zi ng
automatic sensing equipment are ref erred t o as automatic fire alarm systems. even
if manual signal units are also used.
b) Alarm devices
The most common residential alarm initiati ng device is the temperature detect or,
sometimes called a thermostat . These detectors are of two types; the fixed
t emperature unit and the rate-of-rise unit. The former operates a set of contacts
when a present (nonadjustable) t emperature i s reached. The latt er operates when
the rate of ambi ent temperature changes exceeds a predetermined amount, in-
di cative of an incipient fire. The rate-of-rise unit is normally combined with a fixed
t emperature unit in a single housing. The f ixed temperature unit is avail able in a one-
t ime nonrenewable design that utilizes a tow melting point alloy plug and an
automatic resetting unit of design ·simil ar to a thermostat. For most applications. the
resettable unit is preferred. Two typical uni ts are herein illustrated.
FIRE ALARM TEMPERATURE DETECTORS
f
~ S P ~ N 6
FUSIBLE
PLLIG
(a)
a) Fusible plug melts out at predetermined temperature. Unit is indicating and non-
renewable.
(b)
b
b) Bimetallic unit action is similar to thermostat and is self- restoring.
6LE.ED VALVE
IS" MIN.
5EALSO CHAMBER
RATE OF RisE FIXCO
(AUTO -RESET)
c
281
c) Rate-of -rise unit comprises an air chamber wi t h restricted bleed valve. R(!pid
temperature rise unit comprises an air chamber with restricted bleed valve.
Rapi d t emperature rise causes expansion of bellows before loss of air by
bleeding and consequent alarm. Unit is combi ned with bimetalli c fixed
temperature unit.
Illustrated below are two types of residential Alarm Units -both completely self-
contained.
!\II
I r oRfSEl
! @j
14:
~
,...
;;;;_..,
a) contains a photocell det ector con-
t rol equipment, and an audible
alarm. It operates from house cur-
rent.
282
c) Control Unit
b) contains an ionization detector con-
trol s, audible device. and batteries
making it independent of wiring
systems.
The function of the central panel is to energize the audible devices (bells, buzzers,
and gongs) upon receipt of a signal from the detector, which will continue to
sound until the emergency condition is cleared or until they are manually silenced
at the control panel. Other functions that the panel may be designed to serve are
shut-off of oil and gas lines, shut -off of attic fan to prevent fire spread, and turn-
out of lights, both inside and outside. In order to assure system operation even in
the event of a power interruption, most systems are provided with a standby bat-
tery.
A single control panel can serve a multiplicity of residential systems. Typ!cal units
of this type are shown in the following illustrations.
..
·[]]]]
1111111
a) typical residential control panel for
fire and alarm systems.
The illustrated unit is 1 5 inch wide,
1 4 inch high. and mounts semi-
flush.
..
[ill]


b) A modern control panel and annun-
ciator unit shows the -zone and ac-
tual device which operated. On a
plan of the house, a light indicates
the location of the tripped device.
(use different color light).
283
284
WP
.-----------------{f ATnc
PANEL
FIRE. SMOKe
INTFIUSION
120 volt
'---a.ninls!Of1
uta.rlotS
det«tots
'-----lf.lllotton
ltvin,g t"l'(Jm
UF"Pef;> LEVEL
J
Sm61(e detu1ots l.o'MI!r
'itmP. ltv•l
t.tmdy
LLMER LeveL
SIGNAL SYSTEM RISER DIAGRAM FOR THE RESIDENTIAL LAYOUT
d) Audible Alarm Devices
The audible devices comprises conventional belts, gongs, buzzers, and horns,
some of which are illustrated below. Most commonly used is the a-c vibrating bell,
since gongs are normally only used in coded non-residential systems. A weather-
proof external bell, to alert neighbors and passersby, is also desirable.
: : : : · ..
• • .. • • .. • • 0 • • • • ,
..... . ... . ........
• • • ' •••• • •••• 0 •••
. . . . . . . . . . - ..
. . . . . .. . . . . . . .
INDOOR TYPE
----- - ------·-
OUTDOOR TYPE
e) System Design
Detectors are rated by temperature and coverage; for example, 135 °F and 200
sq.ft. and are normally located on the ceiling in all rooms and stairwells, including
the attic and the basement. Because of high ambient temperatures, the units install-
ed in the kitchen, attic and the basement. Because of high ambient temperatures,
the units installed in the kitchen, attic, and basement-near the heating unit are nor-
mally rated at 190 to 200 °f, whereas the units in the other rooms are usually set at
135 °f. Smoke detectors are normally placed adjacent to the house heating unit in
the bedroom area, in the kitchen, and occasionally in the garage and in unoccupied
areas such as the attic.
f) Circuit Design
..
A system which is normally deenergized and carries no current except when func-
tioning is called an open circuit system, such a system is the simplest and most
economical type but has the disadvantage of not indicating a broken wire or other
malfunction that will render the system inoperative.
a) Wiring of an Open-ci rcuit fire-alarm system. The figure below shows a closed
circuit system. This arrangement will set off the alarm bells in the event of trou-
ble in the equipment, but since this type of "False Alarm" is to an extent
undesirable, a further refinement in the form of a trouble bell and (or) light can be
added (at approximately 50% cost increase} that will then indicate to the oc-
cupants. an equipment failure without singing the fire alarm bells. This feature is
known as supervision, and such a system is known as supervised system. This
system can utilize open or closed circuit devices. depending upon circui t ar-
rangement. Furthermore, by special wiring and circuit design, the system can be
arranged so that a single break or ground in the wiring to the devices will not pre-
vent the operation of the system.
3. RESIDENTIAL INTRUSION ALARM SYSTEMS
An increasing number of private residences are utilizing intrusion (burglar) alarm
systems, often in conjunction with fire alarm equipment.
Basically, an intrusion alarm system is similar to a fire detection system except that
instead of thermal detection, devices such as metallic tape and micro-and magnetic
switches are used to detect door and window motion, glass breakage, and so on. More
sophisticated devices such as motion detectors are also used occasionally. A manual
switch at the end of a long cord is also often provided so that the resident may at will
set off the alarm in the event an intruder is heard. The system may employ the same
audible signals as the fire system Qr its own components. Although done infrequently,
intrusion alarm systems can be continuously supervised by connection with central
stations of companies whose business such supervision is, and who will either respond
directly to an alarm call or notify local police authorities of any entry.
4. RESIDENTIAL TELEVISION ANTENNA SYSTEMS
The central television antenna system is desirable feature of the modern residence.
Systems with more than two outlets generally require a booster amplifier (except in
strong signal areas). and are known as amplified systems.
The function of the system is to supply a television signal at each wall outlet, so that a
receiver may be operated at any location and so that two or more receivers operate
simultaneously.
The functioning of the system is simply to amplify the signal received by the antenna
and by means of special cable to distribute these amplified signals in a concealed cable
to the various wall outlets. The type and location of antenna, gain (simplification) of the
amplifier, and type of cable are variables that, being dependent on the specific installa-
tion, are best left to a competent and reliable local television company or design
engineer.
5. RESIDENTIAL INTERCOM AND SOUND SYSTEMS
The public demand for step-saving conveniences has resulted in the wide acceptance
of the home " intercom" see Figure.
0 0 0 0
M-\STER
IN HITatEN DJr:

286
. r:lOOA SPeAKER
AT t:« SWE.
IN GAIUil;E.
TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL INTERCOM EQUIPMENT
INSIDE.
IN.

• WI MIL'( t.:R
PJI\TIO
• 5 .f(
Although available with various features, the basic system comprises one or more
masters and several remote stations, one of which monitors the front doqr allowing it
to be answered from various points within the home. In general, master stations allow
selective calling, whereas remote stations operating through the master are non-
selective. The systems are particularly useful when left in the open (monitor} position
for remote "baby sitting". The applicability of such systems to residences without
buildings should be immediately apparent. Since wiring is low voltage and low power,
multiconductor color-coded intercom cable is generally used, run concealed within
walls, attics and basements.
Systems are also available that impose the signals onto the house power wiring. This
has the advantage of eliminating separate wiring and making remote stations portable.
They are connected simply by plugging into a power outlet. Many .manufacturers have
incorporated a tuner (AM, FM, or both) into the home intercom systems so that music
can be "piped" to each of the stations within the home. Since these stations generally
utilize inexpensive 5 to 1· in. speakers, the results can only be construed as high-fidelity
by an unknowledgeable home as a separate entity.
6. RESIDENTIAL TELEPHONE SYSTEMS
In residential work, the telephone company normally follows the route of the electric
service, entering the building overhead or underground as desired. In both cases a
separate service entrance means must be provided; if aerial, a sleeve through the wall;
if underground, a separate entrance conduit.
Wiring of telephone instruments when installed after completion of the residence con-
sists of a single surface mounted 1/ 8 inch diameter, 4-conductor cable that, even if
skillfully installed, is unsightly at best and completely objectionable at worst. Prewiring
consists of running the cables on the wall framing and into empty device boxes. This
results in a completely concealed installation that is desirable from the owner's view-
point and, depending upon the number of outlets, cheaper for the phone company to in-
stall. Instruments can be wall or desk type, the latter also being available for jacking in·
to outlets around the house.
FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
DEFINITIONS AND TERMS:
1 . Alarm Initiating Device, Automatic.
Automati c alarm initiating devices, such as fire detectors, smoke detectors, al'\d
water f low switches, are devices that automatically transmit an alarm signal when
a condition indicative of a f i r ~ to which they respond occur.
2 . Alarm Initiating Device, Manual
A fire alarm station that will transmit an alarm signal when manually operated.
3. Automatic System
A system in which an alarm initiating device operates automatically to transmit or
sound an alarm signal .
4. Auxiliary Fire Alarm System
A system that is maintained and supervised by a responsible person or corporation
and having alarm initiating devices that, when operated, cause an alarm to be
transmitted over a municipal fire alarm system to the fire station or to the fire
alarm headquarters for retransmission to the station.
287
288
5. Bell, Single-Stroke
A device whose gong is struck Or'lly once each time operating energy is applied to
the bell. This item is usually call ed a single-stroke gong.
6. Breakglass
Refers to a false-alarm deterrent available in fire alarm stations; a glass rod is
placed across the pull-lever and breaks easily when the lever is pulled.
7. Coded Alarm Signal
An alarm signal t hat represents a 1, 2, 3, or 4-digit number indicative of the loca-
tion of the fire alarm station operated.
8 . Coded System
One in which not less than 3 rounds of coded alarm signals are' transmitted, after
which the fire alarm system may be manually or automatically silenced.
9. Control Unit (Fire Alarm Panel)
Compromi ses the controls, relays, switches, and associated circuits necessary to
( 1) furni sh power to a fire alarm system (2) receive signals from alarm initiating
devi ces and transmi t them to indicating devices and accessory equipment. and (3)
Electrically supervise the system circuitry.
1 0. Double Supervised System
A system in which the source of power for the trouble signal is supervised in addi-
tion to the circuitry.
11 . Dual-Coded System
A system in which a unique coded alarm is sounded for each separate box or fire
zone to notify owner's personnel of the fire location, while non coded or common
coded alarm signals are sounded on separate signals to notify other occupants to
evacuate the building.
1 2. Local Fire Alarm System
An electricity operated system producing signals at one or more places at the
premises served, primarily for the notification of the occupants.
13. local Noninterfering Coded Station. A fire alarm station that, once actuated, will
transmit not less than 4 rounds of coded alarm signals and cannot be interferred
with by any subsequent actuation of that station until it has transmitted its com-
plete signal s.
1 4. Manual System
One in which the alarm initiating device js operated manually to transmit or sound
an alarm signal.
1 5. Master Coded System
One in whi ch a common coded alarm signal is transmitted for not less than 3
rounds, after which the fire alarm system may be manually or automati cally silenc-
ed. The same code is sounded regardless of the location of the alarm initiating
device. This system can be arranged to ring continuously.
1 6. Noncoded System
One in which a continuous audible alarm is transmit'Ged for a predetermined length
af t ime, after which it may be manually or aut omatically silenced.
1 7. Positive Noninterfering and Succession Coded Station
A fire alarm station that once actuated, will transmit not less than 4 rounds of cod-
ed alarm signals without interference from any other station on the circuit. One or
more of these stations, if subsequently operated, will transmit not less than 4
rounds of their coded signals without interference with each other or with the first
station actuated.
1 8. Presignal System
One in which the operation of an automatic detector or the first operation of a
manual fire alarm station actuates only a selected group of alarm indicating
devices for the purpose of notifying key personnel. A general alarm may be sound-
ed on these some indicat ing devices and on an additional group of devices from
any manual station, to warn all occupants.
1 9 . Proprietary Fire Alarm System
A system with supervision by competent and experienced observers and
operators in a central supervising station at the property to be protected.
20. Recorder (Punched Tape)
A device for tape recording the actuation of a fire alarm initiating device. The sta-
tion or code is punched on the tape may be1used with a TIME STAMP.
21 . Remote-Station Fire Alarm System
A system of electrically supervised devices employing a direct-circuit connection
between alarm initiating devices or a control unit is protected premises and signal-
indicating equipment in a remote station. such as a fire or police headquarters.
22. Selective Coded System
A system in which each manual f ire alarm station and each group of automatic
detectors has its own individual code, which sounds on all alarm indicating
devices in the system when the manual station or automatic detector is actuated.
23. Station. Fire Alarm
A manually operated alarm initiating device; may be equi pped to generate a con-
tinuous signal (non-coded station) or a series of coded pulses (coded station)
24. Supervised System
A system in which a break or ground in the wiring which prevents the transmis-
sion of an alarm signal will actuate a trouble signal.
25. Trouble Signal
A signal indicating trouble of any nature, such as a circuit break or ground. occur-
ing in the device or wiring associated with a fire alarm system.
2 6. Zone Coded System
A system in which the building has been divided into zones. Alarm initiating
devices in each zone activate a zone code that indicates only the location of the af-
fected zone.
289
1 . NONCODED MANUAL STATIONS
290
In contrast to the automatic detectors that constitute the most common alarm initiation
devices in residential systems, the manual station is operated by hand. The detector
monitors automatically and is therefore best applied in buildings with sleeping residents
and in unoccupied spaces in other buildings. Manual station serve to spread the alarm,
which has already been detected by other means, either human or automatic.
A small manual fire
alarm station with
break glass rod and
single set of con-
tacts.
If desired, the sta-
tion can be enclosed
in a cabinet that is
readily opened and
well marked.
If it is desired to know which manual non coded station has been operated, an annuncia·
tion panel can be added to the system. This is equivalent to using each station as a non-
coded indicating zone. Because of wiring costs, such an annunciated system becomes
expensive. Beyond 10 stations, coding should be considered.
IRE Al..ARJ-1 F
PA NEL
ANN.UNCIA'T'l:IR
P-ANEL
I
,l-M ,±-fi
r-±--F
I I
-,
FtA - -..a !,. -- _ ..
L- --- -.J
1

Wiring of noncoded fire alarm manual stations. An additional set of contacts in each
station provides annunciation for that station.
2. CODED MANUAL STATIONS
When the system design is such that immediately aural identification of the operated
station is necessary, a coded station is used. The code sent out by the station is receiv·
ed at the control panel, processed and then transmitted audibly on the system gongs.
Not less than 3 rounds of code, and normally 4 rounds are transmitted.
The. :-;ode usually comprises 3 or 4 digits, for example 2·3·2 with a pause between the
ring1ng groups and a longer pause between the rounds. The first 1"1\Jmber may identify
the building floor, the second digit the wing, and the third digit the individual station.
Establi shment of codes is left to the user. Wiring of coded stations is similar to the non·
coded system. Stations are place in the normal path of egress from a buildi ng so that an
alarm may be turned in by a person as he or she exits.
It is imperative therefore that stations be well marked and easily found. Architects who
place fire alarm stations in nooks and corners and in camouflaged cabinets because,
they spoil the decor of the lobby are defeating the purpose of the system. Similarly,
placement of bells inside hung ceilings because they are unattractive is not only foolish
but dangerous, and should never be done, regardless of the circumstances. Loss of
property and even of life may result from such ill-conceived aesthetic considerations.
3. SPRINKLER ALARMS
Various circuit arrangements are possible by use of water f low switches that are placed
in sprinkler pipelines and operate ....-hen a sprinkler head goes off as shown in the
Figure.
Typical water flow indicator. The unit
bolts onto a sprinkler pipe with the ppd-
dle inside the pipe. Any water motion
deflects t he paddle, causing a signal to
be transmitted from t he microswitch
mounted in the box on top of the pipe.
291
In electrical terms, a water flow switch is a set of contacts, similar to a temperature
detector . It can be used to t ri p a coded transmitter, setting off a sprinkler code to stiow
up on a sprinkler annunciator board called a sprinkler alarm panel, or to act as a zone in
a noncoded system. Wiring of water flow switches is the same as for stations as
shown below.
Commercial grade surface- mount
temperature detector of ..the self-
resetting variety. This unit will alarm at
a preset fixed temperature of 135 ° or
200 °F. This is .1 5 m or 6 in. high
overall, mounts on a standard 4-in.
(.10 m) box, and is equipped with in-
dicating light.
4. FIRE DETECTION
292
There are four (4} basic types of fire detectors; - Temperature, -Photoelectric,
-ioni zation particulate and -Fiamo Type.
a) Temperature Detectors
These devices respond to elevated temperatures that accompany actively burning
fi res. As such they act much like the fusible link in a sprinkler head.
b) Photoelectric Detectors
These detectors react to obscuration of a light beam by smoke. There are several
designs available that vary in sensitivity and applicability. See. Figure.
Smoke detection is useful in spaces
where occupants may be asleep, since
smoke poisoning (asphyxiation) may
occur before temperature-sensitive
detectors operate.
These detectors are best applied where fires, either active or incipient, produce con-
siderable quantities of smoke and gas. This is the case with many types of smolder-
ing fires, such as those caused by burning of plastics and fabrics.
c) tonization Detectors -
These devices all purport to react to "products of combustion." In reality, they
operate by detecting ionized particles in the air, hence the generic name- ioniza-
tion particulate detectors. They do not detect smoke. Fires that produce heavy
smoke but few particles - such as many types of smoldering fires, alcohol fires,
and plastic fires - are not detected by these devices until they are about to enter
the active flaming stage. On the other hand, even very small fires that do produce
particle matter and rapidly detected.
Photoelectric Units and Ionization Detectors are generally classed as early-warning,
smoke-detection d e ~ i c e s .
THIS UNIT IS AF'PffOlQMATEl.Y e 1n. (·:ZO)
IN. CIAME'TEF\'
d) Flame Detectors
APPRDXItvlA1l:l.Y Ssn. (.IU) •n dsa.
These are of two types - Infrared (IR} and Ultraviolet IUV). Infrared reacts to IR
radiations and UV reacts to Ultraviolet radiated from active flames. Applications are
generally industrial and are highly sensitive.
All of these detectors, though complex of themselves, can be used to sound a
general alarm, a coded alarm (by tripping a code transmitter in the panel), and per-
form other functions such as shut down the building fan system.
See illustration on next page.
293
ALARM
BEJ,..L..
CONTROL.


SELL
..-NO Flfre J>EPT.
r------7 FAN toNTJ:IOL
t------+ Ra:l' VENE,
r------7 tnJRS
ELEVATOI't (aNTRa.&
t------__,. laSBY STATlON
TYPICAL CONTROL FUNCTIONS
For a Fire Alarm Panel
5. NONCODED SYSTEMS
These are continuous ringing evacuation types using manual and automatic alarm in-
itiation. If desired, the devices can be zoned and, if sufficiently large. annunciator can
be provided. Audible device are continuous ringing vibrating bells and horns.
jAL..ARM DEVICJ::S ALARM AUDIBLE DEVICES
NON COOED FIRE ALARM
SYSTEM
®@0
r--


[](}

AN,.UNQ4TM
r--
IF DSS.!IZEO
I-IOftN
AND SMOk"&:
DBTSGTION
1
1'11'\AN \JAL
't, ZONe:
STATIONS
IF
294
MOPU'-'=
ALARM ANO l'RbUBUi

TROL MCPULE
seLBc:.,.t<>N OIF' R>INT

LIGHTS

PoWER SUPPL.YANP
AU PIBt.l'i AlA FtM MOIU.ES
CONTROL PANEL FOR A NOW
CODED GENERAL EVACUATION
ALARM-TYPE SYSTEM WITH
FULL ANNUNCIATION
6. MASTER CODED SYSTEMS
This system also called common coded and fixed coded, generates 4 rounds of code.
When any signal device operates. It utilizes a single code transmitter at the panel. Nor-
mally, the system stops after 4 rounds of code, although it can readily be arranged to
sound continuously thereafter. When the code is set to ring the bells at an even 1 08
strokes per minute it is known as "march time" because of the rhythmic cadence. This
beat aids in the rapid panic-free evacuation of a btiilding and therefore is frequently
used in schools.
295
ALARM IN111AT1N.- DEVI$S
7. ZONE CODED SYSTEMS
IFA l
COMMON CODE
TRANCiMITTER
Q
In a system where it is desired to identify a zone, one can do so by utilizing a noncoded
system with zone lights, an annunciator or a coded system. In the first two cases, it is
necessary to go to the panel or annunciator to determine the location of the operated
device entailing possible critical delay. All coded, systems obviate this necessity by
sounding the code on all the group in the building, thus immediately identifying the sta-
tion and permitting the building staff to quickly investigate the cause of the alarm and
take appropriate measures.
Theref ore, if a coded system is desired but by z.one rather than device, noncoded
manual stations are used, along with automatic detectors, grouped by circuit into
zones. These trip zone transmitters in the panel, which in turn ring the zone's code on
the single stroke gongs or chimes.
ALARM INITIATlNG. .AU 0/BlJ; .PE:YlCES
q zaNE COOED FIRe: ALARM
A
e
G
0
296
Q
WATf:R -FLl>W S:WJT(;HS:S
As with all coded systems, 4 rounds of coded signal are sounded after which the
system is silenced. In all coded systems. It is advisable to include a device that records
in plain English all alarms, including time of receipt and the code sounded.
8. DUAL CODED SYSTEMS
This arrangement is a combination of non coded and zone coded systems. When an al8rm
device operates it initiates two separate functions - an identifying coded alarm and a con-
ti nuous ri nging eva<:uation alarm. The alarms are sounded simultaneously; the coded alarm
in t he buil dings maintenance office and the evaluation alarm on separate audible devices
throughout the building. A requisite to the application of this system is continuously manned
office in which the coded indentifying signal can be received and acted upon.
.ALARM INITIATING PEVICE$
SAME AS (c)
9. SELECTIVE CODED SYSTEMS
ALARM PANELS
SAME A$ C
Q
SJN<;LE
FOR
GO.Oe-D SI6NAL.S
GEN.
e YACUATIOt-J
.SI6NAL.
This is a fully coded system in which all manual devices are coded and all automatic
devices are arranged to trip code transmitters at the panel. Each manual station can be
immediately identified by its distinctive code. Automatic devices may be grouped in
any f ashion desired, and annuciated if desired. The combinations and circuitry are en-
tirely in the bands of the designer. In large syst ems, whi ch fully selective coded
systems usually are, sprinkler transmitters and smoke det ectors operate as integral
subsystems of the main fire alarm panel .
9A. SELECTIVE CODED FIRE ALARM SYSTEM WITH ELECTRICALLY
OPERATED CODED STATIONS THAT ACT AS SUBMASTERS TO
DETECTOR CIRCUITS. DETECTORS TRIPPING ELECTAICALL Y
OPERATED STATION SOUND ITS CODE.
297
ALARM CIE.VICI:6
ALARM
e) SJ!LECt'EP COPED AJ21: AI.A2M
EJl:J[;l;
0 0 0 F t-------+-IX-MITTER
® 0 0 F
e e e l---l-----·

WATER
Ft.I:MI
Aua&.E DEVICeS
Q
f)SElECTIV"e coa:t'J 1'"11?1! ALARM &Ys.TJJ"" WITH OPE R'.AlEP C:::OOEO
STATIONS THAT AGT AS. $U8MAS1'fllf<IS TO tr"reCTOR UFTCC.TORS
TRIPPING EL.ECirttGAL..LY
F F F F
L
I
10. PRE-SIGNAL SYSTEM
298
Q
Q}
EJ)J
.SUIGU!'
al C:::HIMI!'.S
a:lPISD

g
seus R:lR
E:V.ACUA.TICN
ALA 2M.
When it is desired to alert only key personnel a system ca11ed presignaling is used. Small
bells or chimes are activated only in ·their vicinity. Since these systems are always
selectively coded. The personnel alerted can immediately investigate and, if necessary,
manua11y t urn in a general alarm by key operation of a station. (See above illustration).
Because of the delay involved, this type of system is used only in buildings where
evacuation is available to immediately investigate the cattse of an alarm.
11. OFFICE BUILDING PRIVATE TELEPHONE AND INTERCOM
SYSTEMS
The usual differentiation between intercom and private telephoJle is interface with
phone company equipment, which is found on the latter and absent on the former.
Masters and remote stations are frequently ca11ed administrative and staff , respective-
ly, and their functions are the same. Instruments may look like telephones in addition to
a number of other functions.
A typical complete system will provide:
1. Direct-dialing, two-way telephone communications between all master stations.
2. Direct communications between all masters and remotes.
3. Staff station call origination to the centrally located LED readout display panels
from which it can be routed by a master station to any other point.
In addition, options are availabl e for conference call capability, all-call mode, and ever
automatic time signaling. Control Equipment is based on integrated electronic circuitry
and is therefore extremely compact, occupying no more space, than a file cabinet.
Power requirements are readily provided by local branch circuitry.
Private Electronic Branch. Exchange Systems (PABX) are like the modern intercom,
based on advanced solid-state technology. Thus, the entire switching system for a
299
system that will handle up to 500 lines and trunks, 4 operator consoles. and 140 +
simultaneous conversations plus full intercom facilities. occupies a cabinet 2 ft. x· 2. 3
ft. x 6ft. high (.60 x . 70 x 1 .80 m) . The controls are completely automated. and at-
tendants do little more than route i ncoming calls and provide information typical of this
type of equipment are the two stations illustrated herein operational features of this
system include:
1. Direct internal and external dialing.
2. Consultation hold, that is, ability to hold an outside call while making an inside call.
3. Conference call capability, includ,ing internal and external units.
4. Call transfer and camp-on feature.
5. Automatic Call back.
6. Call forwarding.
7. Distinctive ringing for different functions.
8. Paging, executive priority, dictation access, personnel location, plus other options
as desired.
CALL
Ttl
TO rOIZWAilP CALL
CAU.Y -ro ANOTHER PHCNE.
OR TO llfE ATTEI"tMNT
CAMP. ON WITH Al.ITOMA"llC 0\U.B-'I'K
YOU TO CAMPwON A BUS'(
AND
BCmt PMONr!S WHEN TMEY Alir Fra:E
PIFFI!RE.I'Ii ToNE SIGNALG
IN.PIG;II(T'E WH61liER AN
GP.LL Ol.ll>lPE. OR
INSIPE'
E)(ECLinVE' PRIORITY FERMITS
KEiY F'f::OI"Lc "TO 81254K
INTO ANY .GOI'NERS;o\TlON
B<mt Me AI.E£1tiP BY
WAIZN IN6
CONS t.n. TA'Tl ON
HOI..P t..E.fS YOU
PVT A ON

CALL 71lANs;FER "rt)lJ
TR'ANSA;Jt JJ'I{.()MIN6 AND
oon;OING G6.U..S TO .ANY
Pt40m: wrrnouT 1-tt::t..P
Am"'lt:?ANT.
300
J;)l REC..T OUnvArzO DIALLN6
l...E.1:\' YOl.l 0\AL '' 9" W BE
Tt> AN OUTCCIN6 1l!lJHK,
Co'\U. PllX UP AUOVVS A R
PHCfle TO Be .ANSWEeEPAT ANY
Ollt&R
i..DCATE - HELP.S YW FINPAND TAU(
TD "'liE YOU WANT IF HE'S
Nor AT HIS STAilON
TOUGH· BOTToN KEYBMRO
":;;-- +t-t--- ---1 INC.REASSS SPEEO ANO
t;y CF ALL 'ALLS.
HA.NtlS • FI<:EE ftiONE
-------+ L..SlS YOU TO INTERCOM
CAU.S .
1..E't3 YOU
TALl< WIT I-t UP lO ID
Pe'oPLE, WE ANP arr-

E.'ft!N F1iWM
THE' IWCJM.
NUMBER a= STATION OR
TRUNK TC WtiiGH ATTEND4NT
IS
ATTe:NI:W'lT CONNeCT
ATTE.NMN\ WlTH AU. TllUNk
AND STAT\ON LINES.
LINE INDlGA.-re>RS GIVE
STAllJS OF" CALL GON-
NECTEO TO .ATTENUANT
KEY BELOW
SR. IT ENABt.e; ATTE'NDI'NT
TO TALK
El-mER Of" 1\tt; 1WO
IN/\ CALL
IS LlSS>
5ETT1 Nc;; UP TH
y.q..y
3
'-
31]
oooo:rno
GEntlE PEil.MilS ATTEND-
ANT TO BREAK INTO A

(OVEIZRIDE AREAl.-
F'REC:Et:ED 13)1' A
CLASS OF CF
SPitTlON OR TYpe OF-
To WHic::H AnliNO-
ANT IS
f34.Q:: lia'lo£S' ATTEN04NT
PlllEGT AC.CESb TOA
VOICE
00
DOD
DOD
DOD
PI...EASE iRAN$FEI2 A CANCEL ANNULS AN
TJ41NI( OtLL TOA >TA'WN
ION.
IOEJilnFY DISFf..AYS "NE
A TTEN l:li.N T TO Sl MU· NLIMBER t::F A f".AifN"
CONN&:rEO TOA
.... L.INE.
12. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING SECURITY SYSTEMS
Among the most important signal functions in this type of facility is the protective one.
Although the control point may be a common one, these systems are varied and per-
form separate functions.
a) Door and Exit Controls.
Outside doors and doors to restricted areas are supervised by electrified security
hardware that triggers an alarm when a door is opened without authorization. The
alarm mechanism may be concealed, or openly displayed to act as a deterrent.
See illustration on next page.
301
302
Typical Security door hardware. Audible
alarm is sounded locally and annunciated
at the control panel.
Annunciation can be provided by a separate panel as shown or -tied into a central
alarm panel.
Central monitoring and control unit for all
types of hazard signal systems. The unit prints
and displays station status on demand. An
alarm or other change of status will cause it to
print location, flash emeunit prints and displays
station status on demand. An alarm or other
change of status will cause it to print location,
flash emergency light, transmit alarm signal,
and sound an audible device if desired.
f. I "9..._c.__,· ...-, l B.-
Li __
Sketch of composite alarm system. All
alarms can be monitored by a single person at
this type of console. These would include fire,
intrusion, and sprinkler alarms, and special
units that detect liquid levels, flame failure, gas
leakage and so on.
bl Personnel Entry Control
Several levels of security are available and
can be applied in accordance with security
needs. Beyond a simple lock, the first level
is an electric card reader, which grants entty
to the card holder.
303
304
. .
. ~ ~ ...... ~ : . ~ ~ ~ ~ ... ;_. ··'··
The next level requires the encoding of a 3-digit number, simultaneously with
presentation of a card, this barring entry to unauthorized card holders (found or
stolen cards)
The third level involves an attendant. In this figure, the attendant compares the card
data and the pElrson' s appearance with stored data displayed on an adjacent screen,
providing a triple check and negating the effect of forged cards.
c) Watchmen's Tour Equipment
When tour equipment is used, it is frequently of the combination - alarm type.
ALARM
u
PVLL FOil
FIRE AV.AM
@
GE"ERAL AI..Allllo1
0
(D TELEPHONE
A Typical combination alarm station
combines fire and general alarm with
an intercom station.
This type of station allows guards to call in, alerts them to waiting calls, permits a
g ~ n e r a l alarm to be turned in by key operation, and is available as a manual fire
aiarm signal may be of several types. An ultrasonic signal fills the area protected (in-
doors) with a standing wave pattern, which when disturbed is detected.
Another variation is a tone radar system utilizing microwave frequencies. Motion
within its antenna range causes a change in reflected signal and trips an alarm.
A third variation, intended for outdoor application, establishes a perimeter fence
comprising an electromagnetic field between antennas. When the field is disturbed
by an intruder, the system unbalances and an alarm is initiated.
13. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING PAGING SYSTEM
Sometimes a design must be reached quickly to avoid costly delay, reruns and so on,
and so the recipient must be informed at once. Paging systems fall into two general
categories and several subcategories: They are either VISUAL, AUDIBLE, or both, and
are either common or selective.
The simplest visual and audiovisual types comprise flashing lights, which may be com-
bined with buzzers or bells, either or both of which are generally coded. Such systems
are nonselective in that they impinge upon the senses of all the building occupants -
an obvious disadvantage.
More sophisticated systems utilize a small pocket device that is carried by each person
likely to be paged; maintenance personnel, plant engineers, executives, and so forth.
By means of either direct radio transmission or of electric fields induced by induction
loops installed throughout the building, an INDIVIDUAL POCKET DEVICE can be alerted
by a BUZZ. In some systems, the alerted person then listens to the message directly.
On others, it is necessary for this person, once having been paged, to go to a phone and
call in to a central paging desk to receive the message.
Others utilize small hand-held, two-way radio transmitters with paging, to enable con-
versation between the page originator and the recipient. In any of these systems, it is
necessary to have a paging operator and a coding device at which the paging calls
originate. Often, in a small factory, paging is handled by the regular phone operator.
14. INDUSTRIAL BUILDING FIRE ALARM SYSTEMS
Industrial building systems are normally selective coded and fully supervised. Presignal-
ing is utilized in structures where for any reason evacuation alarm is undesirable. In ad-
dition to manual stations at points of egress, these devices may be used:
1. Temperature and smoke detectors in storage areas and laboratories.
2. Smoke and flame detectors in record rooms and continuous laboratories .
3. Waterflow switches or all sprinklers.
Annunciators, control panel. and alarm registers are best placed in the guard-room. If
none is available, an auxiliarized circuit should be added to allow remote supervision.
Because of high ambient noise level in many plants, horns are substituted in such areas
for bells and gongs which might be inaudible.
305
306
chapter
TRANSPORTATION
TRANSPORTATION
VERTICAl TRANSPORTATION
1. PASSENGER ELEVATORS
These are normally subdivided by application into four general classifications:
a. General purpose or commercial
b. Residential
c. Institutional
d. and Store
Ideal performance of an elevator installation provides minimum waiting time for a car at
any floor level, comfortable acceleration, rapid transportation, smooth and rapid retar-
dation, automatic at all stops. Furthermore, the system must provide quick and quiet
power operation of doors, good visual floor indication both in the cars and in landings,
easily operated car and landing call buttons, smooth quiet and sate operation of all
mechanical equipment for all conditions of loading, comfortable lighting and generally
pleasant car atmosphere.
The elevators have architectural aspects as well. The cars and shaftway doors must be
treated in a manner consonant with the architectural unity of the building. More impor-
tant though, the shaftway are major space elements whose integration into the building
is' a prime factor in composition.
2_ ELEVATOR EQUIPMENT
The car, cables, elevator machine, con1rol equipment, countryweights, shaft of
hoistway, rails, penthouse, and pit make up the principal parts in any traction elevator
installation. An idea of the functioning and orientation of these units of equipment can
be obtained from an inspection of the following figure: (see illustration on next page).
The "CARs,·: .with their equipment for safety, convenience, comfort, and furnish, are
the only items with which the average passenger is familiar. Indeed some of the
buildings' prestige depends on proper design of the car. Essentially the car is a cage of
some fire-resistant material supported on a structural frame, to the top member of
which the cables are fastened. By means of guide shoes on the side members the car is
guided in its vertical travel in the shaft. _The car is provided with safety doors,
operating-control equipment, floor-level indicators, iiiiJmination, emergency exits, and
ventilation. It is designed for long life, quiet operation, and low maintenance.
"(he "CABLES" raise and lower the car. Four to eight cables, depending on car speed
and capacity, are placed in parallel, the weight of the car being equally distributed
among them. The cables that are fastened to the top of the car pass over a motor-
driven cylindrical sheave at the traction machine (grooved for cables) and then
downward to the counter weight.
The ''ELEVA TOR MACHINE" turns the sheave and lifts or lowers the car. It consists of
a heavy structural frame on which are mounted the sheave and driving motor, the gears
(if any}, the brakes, the magnetic safety break, and certain other auxiliaries. The Gover-
nor that limits the car to safe speeds is mounted on or near the elevator machine. In
most installations the elevator-driving motor receives its energy from a separate motor-
generator set (m-g-set), which is in operation during the period that the· particular
elevator is available for handling traffic.
Control end
ae1acw penel
(com!Kiblr end
lotlc pe11el)
100m
level
S.COndaty
ltwl
Qodcle reila
Slowdown
switch cam
Roller
shoes
Cab
Ttetllc:
Oil buffers

Components of a Typical Gearless
elevator installation. (Courtesy
of Westinghouse Elevator Co.)
GO¥amor
cables
Umit
switches
and cam
l.oad
eompensatlna
cables
Holttcablea
Sling
Staples.
landllll
ttentduc:er
S.fety edp
Sat.t,
tension

309
The "CONTROL EQUIPMENT", is the combination of push buttons, contacts, elec-
tronic equipment, relays, solid-state switching, cans, and devices that are operated
manually or automatically to initiate t he door operation, starting, acceleration, retarda-
tion, leveling, and stopping of the car. These auxiliaries are interrelated in such a way
that the major apparatus functions to produce the maximum of safety comfort and con-
venience. Electrical limit switches, automatically stop the car from overrunning at the
top and bottom of the hoistway. The well-known floor indicators, floor pilot lights, car
panels, lobby control panel, call bottons at floor levels, floor-leveling devices, and up
and down indicating lamps are all parts of the coordinated control equipment.
, The "COUNTERWEIGHTS" are rectangular blocks of cast-iron or cut steel plates stack-
ed in a frame that is supported at the opposite ends of the cables to which the car is
fastened. The counterweight is related to t he weight of the car and its load so that the
required energy input to the elevator machine (which moves the car) is relatively low.
The counterweight is guided in its travel up and down the shaft by two guide rails
typically installed on the back wall of the shaft. Obviously the counterweight travels in
the reverse direction to the car.
The "SHAFT" is the vertical passageway for the car and counterweights. On its side
walls are the car guide rails, door frames, and certain mechanical and electrical aux-
iliaries of the control apparatus. At the bottom of the shaft are the car and
counterweight buffers. At the top is the structural platform on whi ch the elevator
machine rests. The elevator machin.e is room which house the elevator machine is
usually directly above the hoistway. It contains t he m-g set Of solid-state control that
supplies energy to the elevator machine, the control board, and other control equip-
ment. All machinery and control equipment are designed for quiet operation.

----SUSVA"TDR MACH•NE
...... FLOOR
'T'RAGTlot-1 SH&AW!



---•FIFTH P'L..OoR
I
I
._f----t-- CO&JN11!!1R
• I
THIRD FlOOit
PLAN Of SHAFT
I
J
I
I
I
... ---
C.,.o\BL&S
310
(
: 3CrONO
.. GAR.---·&JIIOUND J"'UllOt
I
I
g PIT
8Uf'PI!JtS
3. GEARLESS TRACTION MACHINES
This consist of a d-e motor, the shaft of which is directly connected to the brake wheel
and driving sheave. The elevator hoist ropes are placed around t h i ~ sheave. The
absence of gears means that the motor must run at the same speed as the driving
sheave. Since it is not practical to build d-e motors for operation at very Jow speeds.
this type of machine is utilized for medium- and high-speed elevators, that is, speeds
above 350ft. per min (fpm). Gearless machines are generally utilized for passenger ser-
vice, with minimum speed of 400 fpm and normal capacities of 200 to 4000 lbs.
In the range of 400 to 700 fpm, a 2:1 roping is generally used. (see Sec. 5) in the next
pages. Thus reduces motor size and increases sheave speed, thus reducting the cost.
Above 600 fpm, motor speed is high enough for 1 : 1 roping to be applied economically.
The GEARLESS traction machine is generally superior to the geared machine. Since it is
more efficient, is quiter in operation, requires less maintenance, and has longer life.
Generally, a gearless machine is chosen where rise is more than 150ft. and smooth,
high-speed operation is desired.
4. GEARED TRACTION MACHINES
This type of traction machine employs a worm and gear interposed between the driving
motor and the hoisting sheave. The driving m o ~ o r can therefore be smaller high-speed
unit, running at speeds of 600 to 1800 rpm, depending on the elevator speed and gear
ratio. The motor itself is either a-c and d-e, in contradistinction to the gearless unit
which is always d-e. The a-c unit is usually used on lower-speed applications of 25 to
150 fpm, utilizing single or two speed a-c motors with rheostatic control.
The a-c traction elevator has only limited application since, unlike the d-e multivoltage
machine, speed cannot be varied smoothly - this results in rough operation. On in-
stallations of 150 to 350 fpm, unit multivoltage control tUNVl is preferable. utilizing a
d-e motor. The GEARED Traction machine is used for some passenger and most freight
elevators, with motor-power ratings ranging from 3 to 1 00 hp.
Autocnatic position
brake solenoid
!>pring and arm
311
5. ARRANGEMENT OF ELEVATOR
MACHINES, SHEAVES AND ROPES
The simplest method of arranging vertical travel of a car is to pass a rope over a pulley
and to counter-balance the weight of the car would move up or down and require very
little energy to move it. This is. essentially the scheme that is used on a majority of high-
speed passenger elevators. The pulley is made· in the form of a cylindrical sheave con-
taining grooves for the several ropes that support the weight of the car.
5 • SHeAVE
1.1 ROPING (SINGLE WRAP)
When the supporting ropes merely pass over the sheave (in the grooves) and connect
directly to the counter-weights, the lifting power is exerted by the sheave through the
traction of the ropes in the grooves. Thfs system is referred to as the " SINGLE-WRAP"
traction elevator machine.
The function of the sheave S is merely that of a guide pulley: usually it is called the
deflector sheave. Each of the four or more supporting ropes lies in a groove cut parallel
to all other grooves on the sheave.
In this next figure, the ropes from the car are first wrapped over the traction sheave T,
then around the secondary or idler S, once more around Sheave T. and back over S to
the counterweights. This arrangement is characteristic of the one-to-one, double wrap
traction machi ne. It provides greated traction than the single-wrap machine and is used
in many automatic high-speed installations.
T
PeNTHOUSE UlVEL
GW
1.1 ROPlNG (OOUBLE WRAP)
The 2: 1 roping in the next figure has a mechanical advantage of 2, which results in a
high- speed, low-power and therefore, low-cost traction machine. This arrangement is
used for a wide variety of installations varying of installations varying from medium-
speed (500 to 700 fpml gearless passenger elevators to low-speed, heavy-duty freight
units.
T
..
ZJ ROPING (OOUeLE ~ )
cw
The three types shown above have the elevator machines located at the top of the
hoistway. When the elevator machines are placed in the BASEMENT, a very different
arrangement of cables and sheaves must be utilized te secure the same results. Much
more rope is required when elevator machines are located in the basement, and conse-
quently the problems of rope maintenance are increased. These systems, however, ob·
viate the necessity for a tall penthouse; and where this is desirable for architectural or
other reasons, a basement machine is used.
l r
~ 1 3
1 %
2: l ROPlNG I UNDERSLUNG
c.w
T c M s i ' E M ~ T f"LOOR
This arrangement uses geared traction equipment, with speeds up to 400 fpm. The
above figure is unusual and finds application where lifting the car from the top is not
desirable. This system may be used in residential or commercial application with limited
rise (100ft. or 33 meters} and speed (200 fpm or about 66 m per minute). All the il-
lustrated ropings are applicable to full range of car capacities up to 4000 lbs. or 1,814
kg.
6. SAFETY DEVICES
The main "BRAKE" of an elevator is mounted directly on the shaft of the elevator
·machine. (See illustration of Sec. 4). When d-e machines are used. the elevator is first
slowed down by dynamic braking action of the motor and the brake then operates to
clamp the brake drum, thus holding the car still at the floor.
A safety is designed to stop an elevator car automatically before the car's speed
becomes excessive. The action of one such device is controlled by a centrifugal
"GOVERNOR". which is independent of the other elevator machinery. At normal
speeds the safety system has no effect on the operation of the elevator. On the
overspeed the governor will cut off the power to the d-e motor and set the brake. This
usually stops the car. but, should the speed still increase, the governor actuates the
two safety rail clamps, which are mounted at the bottom of the car, one or each side.
These devices clamp the guide rails by wedging action, bringing the car to a smooth
stop.
(a}
~
Governor rope-(
f
.
/ Oil or spring "BUFFERS" are usually placed in the elevator pit. Their purpose is not to
stop a falling car but to bring it to a partially cushioned stop if it would overtravel the
lower terminal.
(c)
Electrical "FINAL-LIMIT SWITCHES" are located a few feet below and above the safe
limits of the elevator car. If the car overtravels (down or up), these switches deenergize
the traction motor and set the main brake. Safety arrangements under emergency con-
dition of fire or power failure are discussed in the section of Emergency power sec.
7. ELEVATOR DOORS
The choice of car and hoistway door affects the speed and quality of elevator service
considerably. Doors for the most modern passenger elevators are power operated and
synchronized with the leveling controls so that the doors are fully opened by the time a
cab comes to a complete stop at the landing. The closing time, however, varies with
the type of door and size of opening. To provide fastest closing within 7 lb. Kinetic
energy limitation, a center - open.ing door is used.
.::
~ · ZA CAR Wlt)Tfof
: ~ .,.,___ __ .,
..
..
~
..
1 : : . ~
~
SlNGLE SLIDlN$
31-5
3)6
Also, in order t o reduce passenger transfer time and avoid discomfort, a 3 ft . E? in.
(106.7 em) clear opening is used in most commercial installations, which permits
simultaneous loading and unloading without passenger contact. When a narrower
opening is used, loading will be delayed until unloading is complete;. therefore, speed
and quality of service will be markedly reduced. Such small doors are applied only in
residential or small, light-traffic buildings.
A two-speed door design is used where space conditions dictate or where a wide open-
ing is required. The two-speed nomenclature results from the fact that the two halves
of the door must travel at different speeds in order to complete their travel
simultaneously. (see f ig. c).
al· single slide door 24 to
, 7
36 in. wide (.60 t o
.90) for SITlall com-
mercial building or
residential use.
(4)
b) st,dard commercial
dOor, 42 in. (1.05)
center opening for of-
fice building use.
d) 48 to 60 in. (1.20 to
1 . 50) Center opening .
for hospital or service
car.
~ two-speed 42 in.
(1.05) general com-
mercial use.
(41}
, e) two speed center
opening, 60 in. (1.50)
department store
door. ffeight and
passenger, nonauto-
matic service.
~ 1 7
Detection of passengers on the car threshold can be accomplished electrically by
beams across the doorway. Interruption of these beams will prevent a door from dos-
ing or will cause a door to reopen which has begun to close. All automobile elevators,
whether equipped with detection beams or not, are required by ANSI (American Na-
tional Standard Institute) to have a safety edge device on-the caF doors that will cause
the car and hoistway doors, which operate in synchronism, to reopen when the safety
edge meets any (or when the hand pushes it).
·., ... .
.: .. ... ·
. '
·· .. ,..
Electric Eye Door Protection
is used to avoid the annoyance
of being bumped by the door's
safety edge.
8. CABS AND SIGNALS
.318
Possibly the only area in which the Architect has a free hand in selection of equipment
is in the decor of the cabs and the styling of halfway and cab signals. A normal elevator
specification is a functional one that describes the intended operation of the equip-
ment, and normally includes an amount to cover optional decor of the cabs. The type
and functional of signal equipment is also specified, but finish and styling are optional.
Cab interiors may be finished in wood paneling, plastic, (Micarta or Formica), stainless
steel, or almost any material desired. Floor may be woodtile, vinyl tile, or carpeting as
selected. Illumination may be from ceiling fixtures, coves, or completely illuminated
luminous ceiling of standard or special design.
The purpose of the hallway lantern is to signal the approach of a car. This is normally
accomplished by a two-color lantern to which may be added an audible signal, to draw
the attention of waiting persons. If desired, the hallway lantern can be equipped with
indication as well, which will visually show the exact position of the car in the
hoistway, and the direction of travel.
The hallway car-call device, normally a push button, serves to signal the car and, when
furnished with illumination, also can indicate the direction of car motion if the lantern device
is not so equipped. Although many designs are commercially standard, architects may be at
their discretion to design the lanterns, indicates, and push-buttons to complement the building
architecture.
l1I
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9. ELEVATOR SELECTION
The selection of elevators for any but the simplest buil<{ings requires the simultaneous
consideration of several factors: adequate elevator service for the intended building
usage, the economics of elevator selection, and the architectural integration of spaces
assigned to elevators, including lobbies, shafts, and machine rooms. All three of these
factors are interdependent; therefore, in large complex buildings, dozens and even hun·
dreds of combinations are possible. For most buildings, certain guidelines can yield en·
tirely satisfactory results with hand computation instead of a computer. The criteria of
elevator service quality are:
1. Interval and average waiting time
2. Handling capacity
3. Travel time.
A. Interval or Lobby Dispatch Time, and Waiting Time. This is the average time bet-
ween departure of cars from the lobby. In an ideal installation, at least from the
riding public's point of view, a car would be waiting at the lower terminal on the
rider's arrival or would be available after a short wait. Since cars leave the lobby
separated in time by the "INTERVAL" and passengers arrive at the lobby in random
fashion, the average waiting time in the lobby should be half the interval. The figure
most used in the industry is 60%; that is,
Average waiting time = 0.61
Excellent Office building design provides a 1 5 to 18 Sec. average wait during up-
peaks, with 22 sec. considered good and 26 borderline. With Elevator intervals in
range below, riders will not be conscious of any irksome delay in elevator service,
which is a major drawback in rental desirability.
320
Table EL-1 SUGGESTED ELEVATOR INTERVALS
Facility
Office Building
Center City
Investment
Residential
Prestige Apartments
Middle- income apartments
Low-income apartments
Dormitories
Hotels - 1st quality
Hotels - 2nd quality
B. HANDLING CAPACITY
Interval lin seconds)
25 to 30
30 to 40
50 to 70
60 to 80
80 to 120
60 to 80
40 to 60
50 to 70
The frequency, or interval, with which a car appears at the lobby is one of the two
factors that determine the passenger capacity of an elevator system. The other is
obviously the size or capacity of the elevator car . The system's handling capacity is
completely determined by these two factors - car size and i nterval, and is indepen-
dent of the number of cars. This can be best understood by visualizing the system
as a single set of doors that opens periodically (interval) to remove a given number
of passengers (car capacity) from the waiting group whether that set of doors
represents a single car which returns quickly or many cars which take turns is im-
material. The only factors that fix handling capacity are passenger load (car capaci-
ty) and frequency of loading (interval).
Table EL-2 CAR PASSENGER CAPACITY
Elevator
Capacity
(In Pounds)
2,000
2,500
3,000
3,500
4,000
(Kilograms)
907.02
1,133.78
1,360.54
1,587.30
1,814.05
Maximum
Passenger
Capacity
12
17
20
23
28
Normal
Passenger
Load (80• of
Peak Load)
Per Trip
10
13
16
19
22
As a convenient measure of capacity, the handling capacity of a system for 5 min.
is taken as a standard. This is due to a 5-minute rush period being used as a
measure of a system' s ability to handle traffic. This may be exposed thus
5
· 60 sec x Passengers
Handling capacity (HC) = mm. x mm car
- - - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - - - - - - ~ ~ - - - -
Interval
He =
300 p
Where p is individual car leading. When the interval is 30 seconds, the system
handling capacity is 10 p.
In order to relate system capacity He to the building size, to establish a criterion of
merit of service, we establish a minimum percentage of building population that the
system will handle in 5 minutes. Thus a good system will handle in 5 minutes. Thus
a good system for a diversified office building will handle t 10 than 17% of the
buil ding population.
Table El-3 Minimum Handling (HC}
Facility
Office Buildings
Center City
Investment
Single Purpose
Residential
Prestige
Other
Dormitories
Hotels - 1st quality
Hotels - 2nd quality
Percent of Population
To be carried in 5 minutes
13 to 15
12 to 14
1 5 to 18
5 to 7
6 to 8
10 to 11
12 to 1 5
10 to 12
In planning a building the population must, of course, be estimated. Th1s is par-
ticularly difficult in speculative - type, diversified - use buildings, where the oc-
cupancy can only be guessed. However, based on rental cost, area, and building
type, a fair estimate can be made. Population estimates for office buildings are bas-
ed on net area, that is, actual available area for tenancy. Table EL-4 gives sug-
gested density f igures whi le Table EL-5 gives average office buil ding efficiency
figures for use in calculating Net Area.
Table El-4 Population of Typical Buildings for Estimating Elevator and Escalator
Requirements
OFFICE BUILDINGS
Diversified:
Large Lower Floors·
Upper Floors
Average U.se
Single Purpose
HOTELS
Normal Use
Conventions
NET AREA
Square Foot
per Person
110- 120
120- 145
130
120
Square Meter
per Person
9 .9-10.80
10.80-13.05
11.70
10.80
Persons per Sleeping Room
1.3
1.9
321
.
HOSPITALS
General Private
General Public
APARTMENT HOUSES
High Rental
Moderate rental Housing
Low-Cost Housing
Visitors per Bed
1.5
3 to 4
Persons per Bedroom
1.5
2.0
2.5 to 3.0
Accordi ng to Density, Clerical areas may have a population density as high as 50
sq. ft. per person.
NOTE: For Office Building efficiency, use approximately 85 % of gross"iuea as the
Net Rentable Area.
85%
r---
ss.t
r--


BI'S 75S



75l
Applicable to buildings with 1,350 to
1,800 sq. m. gross sq. m. per floor.
Table EL-6 Net Rentable Area as Percent of Gross Are
C. TRAVEL TIME OR AVERAGE TRIP TIME'
The average trip time or time to destination is the sum of the lobby waiting time
plus travel time to the median floor stop. In a commercial atmosphere a trip or less
than 1 minute is highly desirable; a 75-second trip acceptable, a 90-second trip an-
noying, and a 120-second trip (2 minutes!) The limit of toleration.
From Figure El-l we see that t he 2,000 lb and 2, 500 lb car used in residential
buildings can have a 17-story rise, even with 60 second interval without excessive
trip time. On t he other hand the 3,500 lb car, which is almost universal in Office
buildings (figure EL-2d). is limited to a maximum of 1 Q floors local run before ex-
ceeding the 90-second limit and about 8 to 10 floors to stay within the 75-second
criterion. This of course, is for the lower zone, which does not include any time for
express run. Upper zones must be smaller.
D. ROUND TRIP TIME
The figure for round trip time is composed of the sum of four factors, t.hat is, time to
accelerate and decelerate, time to open and close doors at all stops, time to load
and unload, and running time. Csee figure EL-3, Fig. El-4 and Fig. EL-5). It is
physically the time consumed by a car from door opening at the lower terminal to
door opening at the same terminal at the end of a round trip. Since the actual
number of stops made by a car is unknown a statistical probability figure is used,
based on the passenger capacity of the car and number of local floors above the
lower terminal.
In calculating this round trip time (RTI it is assumed that a car will depart the lower
terminal or upper terminal. The RT thus calculated is a Median figure, with any
single actual round trip taking more or less time. In detail, round trip time consists
of the time expended in:
a. loading at the lobby
b. Door closing at the lobby
c. Accelerating from the terminal
d. Decelerating at each stop
e. Passenger transfer at each stop
f. Ooor operation at each stop
g. Running time at rated speed between stops
h. Return express run from the last stop
80
75
70
65
60
55
50
45
1---
t--
~
t-A ..
verace tnp trme as a funct•on of
..
no. of local floor$
--·-
--·
9' 6' lloor to floo•
2000 lb car
f- 30 sec interval
I
-
1----
t::: ~
~ ~
\::::::
J::-::::
......
__.,...
~
~
~
~
1--
~
~
t--r-·· .. t-··-
~
250
......
...-
~
300
_.
1--
~ 350
t:: -
400
- 500
--
t- .....
5 6 7 8 9 10. 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(a)
lpm
tpm
fpm
fpm
lpm
FIGURES EL-1 Plots of Average Trip Time for Various Car Speeder and Capacitors
with 9ft. 6 m. floor height (2.85 mt.
3.23
324
85
I I I I I I
trip time illS a function of
t--
no. orloors
t-9' 6" floor to ffoor
80
75
2500 lb car
-
-
v
v
::::::::
F-


p



55
-
v
v
v
t::
-
v

t::::
1--"





250 f
300 I

350 I

500 f
- --··-
pm
pm
pm
pm
pm

j
50
"' "0
90
95
so
75
§ 70
J;
65
55
100
95
90
85

8 80
J!
75
70
65
' 5 . 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(b)
Average trip time as a function of
1--
no. onocal
9" 6" floor to floor -
250 fpm
fpm
f11m
lpm
fpm
1--
L--

300
3000 lb car
-
-
L--
350
l
--





400
-
...- 500
T
v
k C::::::
:::::::
1::::;
I=-
1--

..... ::::
I
.---



'
5 6 7 8 9 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floor-s
lei
_1
_1
Averaae trip time as a function of I
no. of local floors
-r--
250 9' 5· floor to floor
f-· .• 1
··-
t::-
v
l.:-::::
p
lpm
JOO r pm
rpm
1-- i
v
_.
I--
400
I
t:-
t::::
v



500 I
v L--
pm
l.-::::


1--

-
:..-


I--
.........:::
'

-T
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(d)
"'
"'0
c
0
...
~
105
100
_l
i I I I
H Average trip time as a function of
no. local floors _I 1
9 · 6 · floor to floor I
95
4000 lb car
90
85
80
75
~
,.....
.......
~
~ ~ ~
::;;:::::::
.........:
~ ~ ~
~
¢P
70
.
i
I
~ - - -
~
__....
~ ~ ~
~
;-::::
--
~ r.:-
F"-
i
-
.
-
·-
:::::
r--
250 f pm
300 I
350 f
pm
pm
pm
pm
400 t
500 t
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(c)
In calculating round trip time for cars ir:1 upper zones, it is necessary to know the
time required to t ransverse the express floors. This may be obtained from figure
El-5. The t imes given therein are for one-way express runs. Thus to calculate RT
for an upper zone car, take the RT corresponding to the upper floors and add twice
the figure obtained for express run time from figure EL-5.
E. SYSTEM RELATIONSHIPS
The symbols that will be used in all elevator discussions are:
p = Individual car capacity, equal to 80% of maximum during peak hours.
h = 5 minute capacity of a single car
N = Number of cars in a system
HC "" System 5-minute handling capacity, expressed in number of persons
RT = Round trip time, in seconds
AVTRP
I
D
PHC
=
=
=
,_
Average t rip time, in seconds
Interval :n seconds
Population density in square feet per person (sq. misused when con-
verted)
Percent of population to be moved in 5 minutes, expressed as a
percentage figure.
Having considered the definition of interval, handling capacity, average and round
trip time, it is well to demonstrate at this point the interrelationships between the
quantities, and the other equations governing the remaining factors that define
elevator systems.
Since HC =
300
P
I
In a system comprising a single car the interval (I) is obviously equal to the round
trip (RTL In a system with more than one car, the interval will be reduced in proper·
tion to the number of cars.
Thus I =
RT
N
325
326
The 5-min. handling (h) of a single car is then
h =
300 p
AT
If we remember that for a single car, its interval is its round trip time. It follows then
that if the handling capacity of a single car ish, then the handling capacity of N cars
is N times as much.
thus HC
or N =
N X h
HC
h
FIGURES El-2 Plots of average trip time.for various car speeds and capacities with 12ft.
0 in floor height (3.60 m).
80
E '""" "'' • " • '"'''"" ot
1\0. of local noor,
12' o· fiOOf to lloor
2000 lb car
30 sec interval
I ! I
,.,.,
.......
70
--
v

....-
v

--
..-
v
250
--
300
350
400
lpm
tvm
tpm
fpm
fpm
"' -c
65 i . _,
I i
1

-- v ::::::::
:::::
--
v
-
--
500
t:::
1--


£
55
50
45
90
85
80
75
"'
"' 70
v• 65
60
55
50
-
.........


p

!--


;;o-
··-
! !
I
'
.s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of loc:al floors
{CJ)
Average trip time as a function of
no. onocel floor
12" o· floor to floor
2500 tb car
-
I-- 30 sec i nierva 1
I
.........-

v
....-VL..---

v
--:::::
.-:;:::.
8



.........-
-

::;:




'

-;::::;-
- - - .
-·--
r--·
!
!
-
v
v


--

l.,....---
:::::
--
t:::

--
250 f pm
300
350
400
500
fprn
fpm
fpm
fpm
-·-
• . .I .
5 6 7 8 9 10 ll 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floor
(bl
95
90
85
70
65
60
100
95
90
85
"'
eo
"'
e
0
...,
.X 75
'10
65
60
llO
105
100
95
i 90
~ 85
80
75
70
Average trip time as a funcrn of
no. otfloors
12' o· floor to floor !
3000 lb car . V
jo sec inte V
v _.v
!
v
~
~
~
r;:::
v
_.
~
v
......
~
v
....
;::::::
-
~
v
t--
~
r--
I
250
300
350
400
500
-
fpm
fpm
fpm
fpm
fpm
v
k:::: ~ ~
~
I
/
- r ~ -
~ ~ ~
~ ~
I
I
I
~ i
5 6 y 8 9 10 II l2 I ~ 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(c)
t- Averaae trip lime as a function of
--
250
no. of local fioor$
y
- 12' o· floof to flool
............
·--
300
3500 lb car
~
v 350
~ 30 sec interval
....
v
v
v
--
v
~
~
400
_...
_..
~ 500
v
I-"
~
t::;;
~
f====
~
./ v
~
P ,
--- r--
I
fpm
trm
fpm
fpm
fpm
~ ~
r:::;
./
I
~ ~
~
~
I I
·-r--
1--
t--·
~
I
·- -··-
l
s 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(d)
Avtrase trip time as a function of
l
·-
iio. of JocalfiOOi
i
250
12 • 0' floor to floor
/ 4000 lb car
............
300

30 sec inttNa I
1--- """'-
v
v
v
--
v
350
.....
_.
~ 400
v
v ~ ~
r:::
~
~
500
..,.......
l,../
~ ~ ~ ~
~
~
~
~
~ ~
~
.-
~ ~
~
.......
·-
..
F-"'
I
5 6 7 8 9 10 1l 12 13 14 15 16 I 7 18
No. of local l1oof
(e )
fpm
lpm
fpm
fpm
fpm
327
328
F. CAR SPeEDS
Th will in turn give an .acceptable interval. However in order to establish a strating
point, it has been found that a minimum car speed corresponding to a given buildi ng
height, or rise,. can be established. This recommendations are tabulated in Table
EL-6 below.
Table EL-6 ELEVATOR EQUIPMENT RECOMMENDATIONS
Minimum
Car Capacity Car Speed• Car Travel
U$age
(Pounds) (Feet per Minute) (Feer)
-
Office buildings 350 to 400
~
0 to 125
Small building 2500 5.00 to 600 126 to 225
Medium building 3000 700 226 to 275
Large building 3500 800 276 to 375
1000 Above 375
Hotels 2500
3000 As above As above
Hospitals 150 0 to 60
200 61 to 100
3500 250 to 300 101 to 125
4000 350 to 400 126 to 175
500 to 600 176 to 250
700 Above 250
f,partment houses•
[ 100
0 to 75
2000 200 76 to 125
2500 250 to 300 126 to 200
350 to 400 Above 200
Retail stores
3500
[ 200
0 to 100
4000
250 to 300 101 to 150
5000
350 to 400 151to200
500 Above 200
FIGURES EL-3 PLOTS OF ROUND TRIP FOR VARIOUS CAR SPEEDS and
CAPACITIES WITH 9 ft. 6 in. (2.85 m) floor height.
_I
JIU
160
lSO
' I 1 1 I J
Round l r ~ lime as a tuncllou of - +--+--t----1 1
M. loca oors 1 _1 ....--1 250 fpm
1-t-+--1--+-Fioor to floor 9' 6• f---!,!---+--+-+----b-'-1
i ./ !!
2000 lb car i ' v
./
140
130
llO
"'
..
....
110
0
<.>
...
(j')
100
90
80
70
60
I
-
I I
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(cd
190
t- t;ip as a fundtion
no. of floors
180 9 ' 6' floor to floor
250 fpm
2500 lb car
170
160
300 fpm
150
··-t· ··-+-t-
350 fpm
· i : I
400 fpm
140
+-+-· 1 I
·soo tpm
"'
130
"

0
v
120
..
<f)
5 5 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 1(:. 17 18
No. of local floors
tbl
5 6
a 9 to 11 12 13 14 1s 16 11 18
No. of local floors
(c)
329
330
t 1 I I I •
210 t- Round trip time as a function of
no. of local flOOrs i i 1 ./
200 f- 9 ' 6' tloor to floor 1 ! I T /
3500 tb c:ar + . . :
190 1 ! -----1- ·
tao V
170 v
160 I ./v / v
j tso r+ [ V
.x. 140 t - T· v
I SOO !pm
130:
120 f-1--· 1 ·-t--
!
110 !
... ! : : , I
90
1 I l t ;--r J
210
200
190
ISO
170
160
1 150
J 140
130
120
110
100
90
5 6 7 8 10 II 12 13 14 15 16 17 \ 8
No. ot local floors
! d )
I I I I I I I I
Round trip time as a function of
I
no. of local floors
*-
9' 6• floor tc floor
4000 lb car
/
v

..... L+

v

?! .
/v /v ......
v


l

I
V/VV/
/

...,......

v
v v
v k
c(
/
t/ v


800 fpm/
/

td:





P'
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. ol local floors
w)
FIGURES EL-4
200
190
180
170
160
150
140
110
100
90
80
70
60
PLOTS OF ROUND TRIP TWO FOR VARIOUS CAR SPEEDS AND
CAPACITIES WITH 12 FT. 8 in. (3.60 m) FLOOR HEIGHT.
's 6 1 s 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1s
No. of local floors
Ia I
I I I I I I I
l _ __j_ I
I ~
t-
Round trip time as a function of no. of
local floors
I
t- r-}2' o· floor to floor
2500 lb ear
IL
~
v
L
v
v
~ ~
L
v v v
~
v v
/
v
v
_./ / /
/
V"
/
/
v
/
~
~
"""'
.,...,..
L /
v..,....
~
v .,..,.
~
v
~ \ ~ \ "
v / ~
v
~
~
...-
~
v;
y
"' ~
~ !
~
;
~
v
,
:;>"'
!
J/1 I
~
~
l
.
t
i
I
I I
I I
~ I
i
j_ _i
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 IS 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(bl
331
332
220
210
200
190
180
170
"' 160..
..,.
J 150
140
130
120
110
100
90
80
'"""
I I
I I
I I
I I
Round trip time as a function or no. of
leal floors 1
*
- 12' o· floor to floor 1 .
4>
3000 lb car · ·
'
' v

J
L
'
/
v
.
'
/

'
v v
.....

/v
v
/
v
/

// v
.....
/
v
io'
;:;_
./
/
v
v
k--:'
,
v
r:-
,..,-
.,.

/ ::::--
v
/


_,;

1--.
v
P<
'iJ1l
v
I"
I
i
'
J
I
l

I
i
-

I
I
I
I
u
l l
I
' - 5 6 7 8 , 10 ll 12 l .j 14 15 ,6 17 18
No. of • !loors
(c\
100 i
'5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
No. of local floors
(d)
FIGURES EL-5
48
~
1--
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18
le)
ONE-WAY EXPRESS RUNNING TIME NOT INCLUDING
TERMINAL TIME
I I I I
I I
~
r- M ...,_ Mllliq lillie • a fundioft
· ~
e»r ......_ DoeliiOt iPdude time for
v
slops at llnninl1s. for nud trip.
double timt fipns shllwn.
I J I v
I-'
/
I I J
/
~
1'--r- Lo-s peed ears
v
I
.,....,..
v
!-"
L_
v
~
~
-
v
v
~ ,.,... r--
~ / ....
/
/
t:--
,.,...
,.,...,. v
~
......
"""
~
8
v
~
v
,.
_.,..
.--
t::::
~
~
~
/ /
_..
-
I---
....
~
V'
:=:;
c::::
;::::..
~
f.-
p-
~
l,...-o-"
--:::::
-
~
...-::"' ~ - ~ - -
...-::.
-- 4
J.
5 6 7 . 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 1& 19
No. of ppress ~
(CI)
333
10 20 30 40 50 60
No. of express floors
(b)
10. SINGLE ZONE SYSTEMS
3.34
Determine a workable elevator system for an Office building, downtown, diversified
use, 14 rentable floors above lobby, each 12,000 sq. ft. net ( 1,080 sq. m.) Floor to
floor height- 12ft. or 3.60 meter.
Solution: From table El-3 Minimum He is 1 3% from table EL-1 maximum
interval is 30 sec. from Table EL-4 average population density is 1 30 sq. ft.
per person ( 11 . 70 sq. m.)
Due to rise only gearless units are considered.
Building Population =
14 floors at 12,000 sq. ft.
130 sq. ft. per person
or
= 1292 persons
== 14 ftoor at 1 ,080 sq. m.
1,080 sq.m .•
== 1292 persons
Minimum Handling Capacity PHC = 13%
HC "" 0.13 x 1292 = 168 persons
Rise = 14 floors at 1 2 ft. = 1 68 ft.
or 14 floors@ 3.60 = 50.4 meters
from Table El-6 we select a recommended size of 3000 lb. at 500 fpm.
from figure EL - 4 (cl AT = 143 sec.
from figure EL - 2 (c) AVTRP = 76 sec.
Single Car Capcity h =
h =
300 c
RT
300 C16)
143
see table EL-2 for p)
= 33.5 persons
N = ~ =
168
= 5 0 cars
h 33.5 .
Interval I = ___.!!!.__ = ~ = 28.3 sec.
N 5
To try other solutiOf1S, we can also try faster cars in order to reduce ~ h e number of cars,
or slower cars to reduce car cost we may select 600 fpm.
11. THE PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND SPATIAL
REQUIREMENTS OF ELEVATORS
A. Shafts and Lobbies
The elevator lobbies and shafts form one of the major space factors with which the
architect is concerned. The elevator lobby on each floor is the focal point from
which the corridors radiate for access to all rooms, stairways, service rooms, and
so forth. Such lobbies must be located one above the other. The ground-floor
elevator lobby (also called the lower terminal) must be conveniently located with
respect to main entrances. The modern equipment within or placed adjacent to this
area should include public telephones. building directory, elevator starter service,
elevator indicators, and control panels.
All lobbies should be adequate in area for the peak-load gathering of passengers to
ensure rapid and comfortable service to all. The number of people contributing to
the period of peak load ( 1 5 to 20 min peak) determines the required lobby area on
the floor.
Approximately 4 sq. ft. (0.36 sq. m} of floor space per person should be provided
at peak periods for waiting passengers at a given elevator or bank of elevators. The
hallway leading to such lobbies should also pr.ovide about 4 sq. ft. (0.36 sq. m) per
person approaching the lobby. This required a check of human traffic through all
approaches to elevator facilities.
The main lower terminal of elevator banks is generally on the street-floor level,
although some buildings place this terminal on the basement or mezzanine level,
particularly when the elevations of the street entrances vary around the building so
that one side of the building is on the mezzanine level, while another main entrance
is at a lower level. Such a situation is ideal for the use of escalators, which will
economically and rapidly carry large numbers of persons between levels thus mak-
ing practical and efficient a single main lower elevator terminal. The upper is usually
the top floor of the building. Typical dimensional data and lobby arrangements are
shown in the following figures.
Rough elevator dimensional data to be
used in architectural single line plann-
ing stage.
,335
2500 lb
30001b
35001b
40001b
Cat Size
1133.75 kg.
1360.50 kg.
1587.25 k.
, 814.00 kg.
Depth
7'-6" 2.25 m
8'-0" 2.40
8'-6" 2.55
8'-6" 2.55
Figure for Lobby groupings for Single Zones
" lliRa: GAR GPfOUP

IN LI"NE
rn
Width
8'-6" 2.55 m
9'-0" 2. 70
9'-6" 2.85
1 0' -0" 3.00
LJMIT OF IN L.JNE DUE
I
11
z.co M q: MAY BE CLOSED
TO CffOSS TRAFFJG EXCEPT
IN Sl't)RE
¢ 6- CAR GROUPS
.1
z '3
4

2.obM (

s

,,
m

I
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d) &- CAR GROUPS
1 t. 3
+

MINIMUM
MUST ESC

laollt l=NllS
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s
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1
8
LARGER' BETWEE.N IS REQUIRED
FOR CLOSED I=NO PLAN
FIGURES FOR LOBBY GROUPINGS FOR
MULTIPLE ZONES
d) 6- CAR GROUPS
LOW LOW LCM/
I z
3
9'-Jo'
t.10-3.00M
c.w
HIGH
HI'-H
4
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y.

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MINIMUM •
\0
1
-6' (3a,M)
HI.:;H
H"H
H16H
;-

7 e
SUGGESTED CORES FOR 3-ZONE BUILDING
(Assuming machine room above each Zone)
J
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D D
@
D
®
D
ZONCI! 3
D
p:;;o;=
A
D
D
ZONE 2
D
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31\0 F&..«.
@
ZONE 1 Pio,R.
HIGH-RISE CORE SECTIONS
338
UPPaiOJ\ ZOME
... (. ;·· .. ..... .
...... : ....... .
( M&OIUM) ZONE
Sa.
EILlLJ
t1LTL up
1+!1{ Hl
T
ttiH
Mj .....
u
MIM

SE'COM'O THROUGti
LOW ZONE
LOBBY
B. DIMENSIONS AND WEIGHTS
Manufacturers will supply. standard layouts for elevators including dimensions.
weight and structural loads. One such layout preengineered 2500 lb geared unit is
shown in figure EL-6. The major manufacturers have agreed upon, and publish a set
of standard Elevator layouts via t heir trade organization, the National Elevator In-
dustry, Inc. (NEll) USA. One such standard, with appli cations, is reproduced in
Figure EL-7 for 500 to 700 to 700 fpm gearless units in the full range of car
capacities. The NEll also publishes a recommendation for Minimum Passenger
Elevator Requirements for the Handicapped, one Section of whi ch is reproduced in
Figure EL-8 which is to be used particularly as regards public buildings.
As may be seen from Figure EL-6, it is necessary, in providing for an elevator in-
stallation, to consider such factors as t he depth of the pit , the dimensions of the
hoistway, the clearance from t he top of the hoistway to the floor of the
the size of the penthouse, and the loads that must be carried by the supporting
beams.
The penthouse floor and secondary level floor (respectively, containing the elevator
traction machine and control panel s, and the secondary sheave and selector tape
drive) are located above the shaft of each elevator and need approximately two
stories of additional height above the top of the support beam of a given elevator
when it is standing at its topfloor location. The actual floor area required by the
elevator traction machine. its motor-generator set, and control panels is roughly
2 .0 times t he area of the elevator shaft itself. The required area of the f loor of the
secondary level is no larger t han the elevator shaft it serves. As seen in Figures EL-6
El- 7. The machine room contains the bulk of the elevator machinery. Since
some of this equipment will have to be moved for maintenance, it is advisable to
furni sh an overhead trolley beam that can be used during installation as well. The
maximum beam load will be supplied by the elevator manufacturer.
When penthouse space is not avai lable and where a hydrauli c unit is not desired, a
basement traction unit , also referred to as an underslung arrangement, can be used.
These units are low speed ( 1 00 to 350 fpm} and are therefore appl icable where rise
is limited and traffic light to medium. Figure EL-9 shows a shaft section wit h car and
dimensional data.
See illustration on next page.
FIGURE EL-6
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'LAN VIEW
340
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Manufacturer' s typical layout drawing.
Shown are machine room (a), hoistway plan
(b) , and hoistway section (c), for one, two,
or three 2500 lb, 200 to 350 fpm geared pre-
manufactured elevator cars. Courtesy of
Montgomery Elevator Co.
341
342
FIGURE EL-7
Passangotr elevator'S,
rated speeds 500-700 fpm

:!
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Min. Machine Room •
Rated w Y (Dttpth) Rated Speeds
Load (Width)
500 600 700
2000 21 ' 6" 18'0" 18'0" 18'0"
2500 21 ' 6" 21'0" 26'0" 26'0"
3000 21'6" 21' 0" 26'0" 26'0"
3500• 21 '6" 21'0" 26'0" 26'0"
4000 24' 6" 26'0" 26'0" 26'0"
sooo 26'0" 26'0" 27' 0" 27'0"
• For department stores, W :.: 24'0"

..
t I J!-'- , ..... , E 1
j • L -c-__j I II I 1-----G- ...J I f t recom.
D 4-o.:;.c;ol-o, ..... ----- A - o L
Refer to table below for max..
car Inside area per ANSI Code.
(11)
Rated SPHd• 50D-700 tpm
- .
Dimensions Entrances Rated
Load
Max. Area
Car
Inside
A B c D F G Type H (Min.)
2000t
2500t
3000
3500
4000
3500
4000
5000
• Application: Office buildings. apartment houses, hotels, banks, etc.
24.2
29.1
33.7
38.0
42.2
38.0
4.2.2
50.0
Dimensions available from
National Elevator Industry, Inc.,
600 Third Avenue, New York. N.Y. 10018
Single slide
Center opening
Single slide
Center opening
Center opening
Center opening
Center openm;
Application: Department and other retaU stores
See note above
Center opening
Two-speed
Center opening
Two-speed
center opening
5
5
5
5
Ho "stlnll bea (not be le ator supplier) l m • v
'.."::\
Notes:
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Midline room
- - ·-·------ .
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level

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Top
lending l
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lnllnt
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,,.,
1. lhown are lor II 1'1. 4 in. C41tl helgl\111. Refer any
apeclal con<lltlona to eleYator luc>PIIer.
2. Support lot e1ev1tor ftlachine bealntl at X-X In e68Yation
.,. to tie tiKIIIIMd by o81en.
S. Machlrle room tloor llab Ia nuah Wilt! lot> of ftlacnlne beam•.
....... -., IIMINmfltoolll"'"' ' '0''
Speed ReftHI Lo.d
fpm 2000 2500 3000 3500 4000 5000
!500 24'4" 24'4" 24'4" 24' 8" 24'8" 24'1"
eoo 25'1" 2!5'1" 2!5'8" 25'8" 25' 8" 25' 1"
700 2&10" 26'10'' 28'10" 28'10" 28' 10'' 21'10''
.,,. , ,.,.. .. ,. ..
SP"d
Rated LOfld
IPm 2000 2500 3000 3600 4000 sooo
500 9'4" 9'4" 9'4" t'4" 9'4" 9'4"
600 9'4" 9'A" 9'5" t'5" 9'8" 9'6''
100· 10'3" 10'3" 10'4" 10'4" 10'5" 10'5"
cteer of M8dllne "-
(.Ill. H.,.,l IIIUiet Holalfltg ••->
Rafed RatHSJ)ftds
500 600 100
2000 8'6''
8f6U
8'6"
2500
a•&H
6'5" t'8"
3000 8'6" 9'6" 9'8"
3500 8'8" 10'8" 10'6"
4000 t'6" 10'1" 10'8"
5000 10'0'' 10'8" 10'8
1
'
343
FIGURE EL-8
2000 and 2500 lbs
Altlmi'Ot locations
for c:ar Ull'ltroll

FIGURE EL-9
344
MACKIN!
100M
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64"t
(:5·1 highest
29''
' 135" t
emergency
buttunt
sitnaing I
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clearllf'lct'
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2:1 ROPING AftRANGEMENT
s-rmlll • minimum ow.I'IINd l"'ttlliti!CIII. a.e-
thea .. • r. -.y 1o "-
1 grul•r pll Cllplh !hen for 1 compartblt I :1
lnataltelian
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C. STRUCTURAl STRESSES
For the purpose of structural design it is necessary to know the footpounds of
Kinetic energy that must be supported by the foundations, by structural columns
extending upward to the penthouse, and the main beams which support the pen-
thouse floor and subfloor. This kinetic energy is given for several elevators in Table
EL- 7. The weight given in columns, D. E, F, G and H include the actual dead
weights of equipment when the elevator is in motion, plus the added weight caused
by the momentum of all moving parts and passengers when the elevator is at top
speed and is suddenly caused to stop rapidly by the safety devices.
Table EL-7
(Kinetic Energy at R11ted Load end s,_ed. In Footpound&)
A 8 c D E F G H
Traction-Machine Type,
Tots! of
Hoist Motor and Rated Rise In Counter- Live Columns D, E.
Control Duty Feet Machine Car weight Ropes Load
F. G. H
Gearless 1: 1 umv, 2500 lb at 420 4200 15,300 18,200 9800 8800 54,300
control 800 fpm
Gearless 2:1 umv. 3000 lb at 200 2950 6875 7975 3925 3250 24,775
control 500 fpm
Geared 1 : 1 umv, 500 lb at 130 6200 1450 1900 320 925 10,795
control 250 tpm
Geared 1: 1 a-c motor. zsno lb at 100 2600 500 600 ) 40 3tcft. 4150
rheostati c control
150 lprn
1 2. SPECIAL ELEVATORS
A. UNIQUE TRACTION DESIGNS:
(a-1} SKY-PLAZA SYSTEMS
For skyscraper buildings such as the World Trade Center and Multiple - use
building such as John Hancock Tower- both are stacked multiple buildings
- t he elevator solution involves transporting large groups of people from the
street lobby to an upper lobby, called a sky-plaza. At this point the passengers
transfer to another elevator to continue their upward journey.
The advantages of this system are:
1 . Reduction in the space occupied by elevators since the shafts do not ex-
tend the entire height of the buildings.
2. Interrupting the otherwise lengthy vertical trip by the horizontal break at
the sky lobby.
345
346


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Offict lobby
(a)
(a-2) Double-Deck Elevators
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1
Offices
Parkinc
Store
...-. Aptttment lobby
ObseMtiOn and
restiurant lobby

This is an old Technique, recently revise to answer the needs of tall buildings
such as the sears and citicorp Towers. The principal purpose is to limit the
otherwise prrohibitively large amount of space occupied by elevator shafts.
The double-deck car increases shaft capacity, decreases the number of local
stop, and increases the rental area available. This technique can also be com-
bined with sky-lobbies for further space economy.
1
_i
i-
--18-
15
14
j
(o)
Splll*i IIYed with
double -de<:k elevators
f
provides 27,227 sq ft
usable area
I
18 26
Number of elewt.ors
(b)
(a-3) Observation Car Elevatore
by placing the traction lifting mechanism behind the car, attaching the car at
the back, and using a glass- enclosed, observation-style, car a spectacular
unit can be constructed that becomes an attraction in itself. If the back
screen is treated properly the car gives the impression of movement without
any apparent motive force or machinery.
347
348
'
(a-4) Slant Elevators
Although elevators are normally conceived as traveling vertically, this is not
necessarily so. Slant or inclined elevators have been constructed in
numerous locations. The design varies depending on the angle of incline.
///
Resultant Ioree
on indi..;dual
w l l ~ ascendiflt
Two-speed
llcistway dOO!ll
(opj)Oliote Sid II
Open
J.+.- - --Requtre<l hoistway
.-- Door operator
Rope deftKlifll rollers
to take saa of rope
NOTE: All the foregoing elevators are traction types, that is, they are raised and
lowered as a result of the tractiye force of cables attached to, or passing
under. the cer.
B .. · HYDRAULIC ELEVATORS
In contradistinction to the traction type, this Hydraulic or plunger elevator is raised
and lowered quite simply, by means of a movable rod (plunger) rigidly fixed to the
bottom of the elevator car. The absence of cables, drums, m-g sets, elaborate con
trollers and safety devices, and penthouse equipment make this system inherently
inexpensive and often the indicated choice for low-speed lup to 200 fpm), low-rise
(up to 75ft} (22.50 m) applications where construction of the plunger pit does not
present difficulties and where absence of penthouse is desiratsTe.
·,''
'- · , . { ~ i ~ .
·' •:
349
SPHCf
Cat»City
'"' in Per
Poundt Atllnur.
lSOO 75
2000 125
2500 t2S
2500 125
3000 100
3SOO f OO
100
SS • SlnOI• llljcM
CO ,. C•nter
This system operates very much the same way as a hydraulic automobile Oil
from a reservoir is pumped under the plunger thereby raising it and the car. The
pumped is stopped during downward motion, the car being lowered by gravity and
controlled by the action of bypass values, which also control the positioning of the
car during upward motion. Control systems normally used are similar to that for
traction types, for example, single push button. collective. and selective collective.
Similarly, door arrangements are the same as in traction types, that is, single slide,
center opening, and two-speed. Typical layout and dimensional data for standard
plunger units are given in the figures below.
Dlm•n•lon•
P'-lform Hoiahny
c D J ltl
Door A 8 CINr 0/Hr Clear Wall to No. of
SYir.m Width Depth Hitch HitCh Opening Wall Pa.,.ngera Application
ss 5'-'''
4' 6.u
6'8" 13'8" 2'8" 5'3" 10 Aaaldentlal
ss 6' 4" 4'5" 7'8'' 15'8" 3' 0" 5'2" 13 Aealdentlal, 1111111 office bldg.
co 7'0" 5'0" e••"
17'0" 3'6" 5'9" 17 Aeatdentlat, hotel, amall office bldQ.
ss 7'0" 5'0" 8' 4" 17'0" 3'6" 5'9" 17 Resldantlat, hotel. arnall ofllce bldg.
co 7'0"· 5'6"
.... ,
17'0" 3'6'' 8'3" 20 Store. smau office bldg.
co 7'0" 6'2" 8'4" 17'0'' 3'8" 6'11" 23 Store, •mall office bldg.
co 8'0" 6'2" 8'4" 19'0'' 4'0'' 6'11" 27 Store, t mall office bklg.
Where drilling a plunger hole presents difficulties, a hydraulic installation using a
telescoping plunger can be installed. These cars are very limited in rise and speed
and are applicable only to small two to three story bui ldings. A cutaway for this
type of unit is given below.
1500 lb, automatic
car; selective
collective, single
Of duplex
Tele1e0ping
r----,
i I
plunger ..
i . Max.: 3 door
• -- openings; max.
i l i rise: 22 ft
on tank __ r:: ..... ___ --···.--_

and pump
350
" Holeless" hydraulic elevator
is similar in construction to the
standard plunger-type, except
limited to 22 ft rise, 1600 tb
car, and 75 fpm. Courtesy of
Otis Elevator Co.
From the point of view of the construction, the major inherent advantage of
hydraulic units is the absence of overhead traction equipment. In the figure on p. 4 7
we see that only the guide rails project above the car and, if these are camouflaged,
the impression of a free-standing elevator car is given. This effect can be used to
good advantage inside large, open spaces such as exist in shopping mall s and
stores; when combined with glass-enclosed, observation-type cabs, the effect is
striking.
(a) This hydraulic untt IS more decorative than
utilitarian, particularly, if we consider that it is
bracketed by two sets of moving stairs. The design is
especially interesting and attractive in that the
elevator seems to rise out of a fountain.
351
352
C. RESIDENTIAL ELEVATORS AND CHAIR LIFTS
Although recognition of the special needs of the handicapped has only of late been
made official through legislation, and only for public buildings, the elevator industry
has been providing for the handicapped for years, on a private basis. Chair lifts,
wheel chair lifts and private elevators as shown in the figures herein are widely used
to overcome the stair barrier in private homes. All units operate on household elec-
tric current and require minimal maintenance.
Power unit containing
motor and winding drum
Typical layout for a single seat, folding chair
lift. The seat is rigidly attached to a rolling truck
mounted inside an enclosed steel track. The
track is pulled by a steel cabl e operated from a
winding drum in the power unit at the top of
the stairs. Courtesy of the lnclinator Company
of America.
~
: ·
.
.
f
A wheelchair lift installed relatively unob-
trusively on a stair. The platform forms of bot-
tom, step, leaving the stair open for normal
use.
... . -··-a,;·
- . · · - ... ···-·· . ,..
:... . - . -- .r
•• JM ?:':
.. • $;, •
( a)

·''
(b)
(a) 450 lb, 30fpm residential elevator in an open
installation. The operating mechanism is si milar
to that of the chair lift in. The cab is ri gidly at-
tached to a rolling truck that is lifted by a win-
ding drum. The track, within which the truck
rolls, 1s readily seen here, although in an enclos-
ed installati on it is concealed. The power unit
and drum can be located at the top, bottom, or
center of the installation. Limit switches pre-
vent overrun. Control is manual or automatic.
as selected. Some equipment detai ls are shown
in (b) (opposite). Courtesy. of lnclinator Com-
pany of America.
.- ............. . .·.-.
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: ; ; . ... $lllll *"C f'f"t
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353
13. FREIGHT ELEVATORS
354
a) General
The prime consideration is the most economical solution to the problem of ver-
tically transporting a given tonnage of freight efficiently, economically and
quickly. If much freight is to be handed, a straight freight car is used. Factors to
be considered in freight elevator selection, in addition to tonnage movement per
hour, are size of load, type of doors, and speed and capacity of cars. These
factors are interrelated to that the actual process of selection involves making
assumptions on the basis of recommendation and then by trial , deciding on a
solution, very much as was done for passenger elevators.
'
Components of a typical freight elevator
installation utilizing a variable voltage,
controlled geared traction machine.
Courtesy of Westinghouse Elevator Co.
--- c .... d machine
b) Freight Car Capacity
There are three load classifications for freight elevators as established by the
ANSI Code for Elevators.
Class "A" General Freight Loading, by hand truck. Single items may not ex-
ceed the car-rated load. Rated load, is based on 50 pounds per
square foot lpsf) of net inside platform area.
Class "B" Motor Vehicle Loading. Car will carry automobiles or automobile
trucks. Rating is based on a load of 30 psf of platform area.
Class "C" trur.k loading. Maximum loading, 1 fi.of rated capacity,
based on a figure of 50 pasf of net inside platform area.
The varying capacities shown for a specific platform size in Tables EL-8 and EL-9
are due to the varying square foot loads that are possible.
Table 24.1 Lo•dlng by H•nd or by Hand Truck Tabla 24.2 Loading by Industrial Trucks
Capacity Platform Size Capacity Platform Size
(Po11nds) (Width) (Depth)
(Pounds) (Width) (Depth )
2500 5'4" 7'0''
10,000 8'4" 12'0' '
3000
5'4'' 8'0"
12,000 10'4" 14'0' '
6'4·• B'O"
16,000 1 0'4" 14'0"
4000 6'4" 8'0''
18,000 10'4" 16'0"
5000
8'4" 10'0"
20,000 12'4" 20'0"
6000
8'4,
1 0' 0"
8000
8'4" 12'0"
10,000• 8'4" 12'0' '
12,000&
, 0' 4,
14' 0''
14. MATERIAL - HANDLING EQUIPMENT
A. MATERIAL HANDLING - GENERAL
The need to transport materials within a building has always existed and until ap-
proximately a decade ago was done largely manually( with mechanical assistance.
Thus Offices used messengers; hospitals used dumbwaiters, service elevators,
conveyors, and chutes. The single exception to this situation was the extensive use
of pneumatic tube systems in large stores. Today's systems accomplish the same
end- that is, the transfer of materials - but automatically and, in general, much
more rapidly. First cost of these systems is frequently high, but the reduction in
labor and increase in speed generally yield a short pay-back period combined with a
marked rise in efficiency.
Modern, commercial material -handling systems can be grouped roughly into three
categories:
1. Elevator-type systems. These are vertical lift car type systems including the
common dumbwaiter and ejection lifts, which are basically automated dumb-
waiters.
2. Pneumatic Systems - These include sophisticated pneumatic tube systems
and pneumatic trash and linen systems.
355
356
3. Conveyor-Type Systems - These include horizontal and vertical conveyors.
4. Other Systems - These do not fit easily in.to any of the above, and include
automated messenger carts and automatic track-type container delivery
systems.
B. MANUAL LOAD/UNLOAD DUMBWAITERS
The use of dumbwaiters in various types of structures often provides the most con-
venient and economical means of transporting relatively small articles between
levels. In department stores such units transport merchandise from stock areas to
selling or pick up countries; in hospitals dumbwaiters are often utili zed for
transporting food, drugs, linens and other necessary small items. In multilevel
restaurants, office dining rooms, and the like, dumb-waiters are almost used
for delivery of food from the kitchen and for return of soiled dishes.
Dumbwaiter cars are limited to a platform area of 9 sq. ft. ( .81 sq. ml a maximum
height of 4 ft. (1 . 20 m). The car may be, and frequently is, compartment by
shelves. Normal speed ratings are 45 fpm to 150 fpm, with a capacity of up t o 500
lb (226. 75 kg. ) Cars may be of the traction (counterweighted! or drum (direct pick
up) type. Control is normally "call and send" between two floors, although
maltibutton select or switch or central dispatching arrangements are available for
applications with more than two floors. Loading may be floor, counter or any other
specified height.
Machine Above Arrangement
lllctior.l
machine
() I
Tt'l ......
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m
... _ .... 1
Normal .&.ppilcahOrt
Speed 41J...l00 !prr:
I! ;
t! 5'
o I
i . i
.. ·r ••
2" )1}'..()"'
_l bi-perti
'1 doo•
for

c. heipt 1
(If) .
-·-t
ll

_l
Cap. !00..500 Ills.
Rise A.' Requi!ed
Nomal Reach-in Unit
Machine Below Arrangement

I
I
I
Under Counter Unit
(ftise i\ to Jl feet
wiltl dllltll-lype madline)
RECOMMENDED SIZES OF DUMBWAITERS
\A.U. DUTY CAR
traction lyDe machine · • machi"e ! ... ) (d) (W') (0) without (D) depth with
i :l roping l :l ropini
y,:dth
deoth Wld\h ca: rate car gate
400 Ill 100 fpm 500 lb 5J fpm @ fpRl l' .Q'' 2' i" 3' 2'' 2' ·II"

f
z·.a·· Hr· J' Z' ' 3'-S"
3'·&i "
- -
2'· 6" t' ·6" 3'-8"
z· , ..
3'-0t"
- -·
1' ·6" 3'.()" 3' ·8'' 3' -5''
3'-St"
3'·0" 7. '·6'' 4' -2" 2' -lt" )'·Of'
-
3' -0" 3' ·0" 4'-2" 3' ·5" ,. 3'-W
m lb (t 100 fpm 500 lb 50fpm 400 lb @ 45 fpm 3'-6'' 2'·6" 4'·8" l'·W J'-ot'·
Under-Counter Dumbwaiter 300 lb tt 50 fpm 2'-6" l"·&io J• .s···
2' -tr' . -····
C. AUTOMATED DUMBWAITERS
These units are also known as "EJECTION LIFTS"because of the met hod of
delivery. They find their best application in institutions and other facilities that re·
quire rapid vert ical movement of relatively large items. Thus the device is
ideally suited for delivery of such items as food carts, linens, dishes, bulk liquids
containers, and so on, t he load can be "CART" (a) and (b) or "BASKET" fig. (c)
containi ng the it ems being t ransported.
a) Open ejection-li f t uni t showing cart ejection mechanism. Shaftway door are
vertical bi-parting.
357
358
b) The unit shown above is being loaded with food carts and dispatched to t he
various floors of the hospitals later the lifts are used to return soiled dishes and
trays.

~ j
'3
Baskets can also be used in a similar system for handling smaller loads.
At the delivery terminal the item must be picked up and transferred horizontally to
its final destination if remote from the delivery point. Payload capacity is available
up to 1 000 lb and car speeds up to 300 fpm. Round trip time for a 200-fpm unit
with 5 loading of stations is approximately 2 min, with 1 0 stations about 2 ~ min.
Major considerations for these units are their relatively high cost and the large shaft
area required.
D. HORIZONTAL CONVEYORS
Although horizontal conveyors find their best application in industrial facilities, they
are also usable in commercial buildings such as mail order houses where there is a
continuous flow of material required. Restrictions in application stem from inflexible
right-of-way requirements, noise generation, and a degree of danger if left un·
protected or exposed to unauthorized persons. Cost in relatively low, and capacity
is virtually unlimited.
E. VERTICAL CONVEYORS
The action of this system is similar to the automated dumbwaiter in tha.t the system
transfers vertically and automatically loads and unloads, but the similarity ends
there. Vertical conveyors are constructed with a moving continuous - loop chain
to which are attached carriages that pick up and deliver tote boxes. At sending and
receiving stations the operator places the items to be moved (up to 40 lb) in the tote
box, "addresses" the box in one of several ways depending on the system, and
places it at a pickup point. The first empty carriage on the chain will pick up the box
and deliver it to its address. Drawbacks of this system are the large shaft required,
noise and cumbersome arrangements when interfacing with horizontal conveyors.
MOVING STAIRWAYS AND WALKS
1. ESCALATOR: General
The escalator not only delivers passengers comfortablv, rapidly, and safely, but it
also continuously receives and discharges its live load at a constant speed with
practically no waiting periods at any landing. The annoying waiting for elevators is
not present on traveling stairways. Also, time is not lost by acceleration, retarda·
tion, leveling, door operation, or operator's reactions, nor by pressing hall buttons,
by passenger interferences in getting in or out of the cars, and so on. One seldom
sees a waiting passenger or congestion of passengers at the lighted comb plate of
en elevator.
Instead of formal lobbies and hallways leading to a bank of elevators on each floor,
the electric stairway is always in motion and inviting passengers to "take a ride".
The corridors, aisles, and other passageways in existing buildings usually provide
space for floor openings adequate for the installation of escalators. In contrast, it
would be in most cases be almost impossible to install an adequate bank of
elevators in an existing building to meet the growing needs for vertical transporta-
tion. Elevator hoistways must be vertical from bottom to top floors; an escalator
installation can be "staggered" at various appropriate locations.
A standard Stairway is assembled from three separate sections of structural truss
-an upper section, a middle section, and a lower section. The middle straight sec-
tion may be any desired length to provide rises for floor heights from 1 0 to 23 ft.
(3.00 to 6.90 m), for example. When the rise is over 20 ft. 16.00 m) an
intermediate support is located between the two end supports of the
stairway.Generally, the upper corners of the bottom and top ends of the truss,
afterassembly, carry the complete weight of the stairway mechanism and its live
load.
359
2. LOCATION
360
Because escalators are constantly moving and are generally part of a horizontal and
vertical trip, they must be placed directly in the main line of circulation. This is i n
contrast to the elevator bank which, being a vertical t ransportation unit, can be set
off as an element of its own, for people to approach and utilize. Escalators must
therefore be place in, and with a total and even dominating view of the area served.
This means that potential riders must be able to immediately:
(a) Locate the escalators
(b) Recognize the individual escalator's destination
(c) Easily and comfortably move toward the escalator
Sufficient lobby space must be provided at the base for queing where antici pated,
and most particularly, at discharge points. A restricted area here, or again a poorly
marked one, will cause passenger hesitation and traffic backup. Since the escalator
discharges continuously, backup of t raffi c is usually dangerous and t herefore in-
tol erable. This is particularly crucial in theatre, stadiums and wherever traffic
backup could be disastrous. To avoid this, three design steps, in descending order
of importance, are taken:
tal Provide escalators with sufficient traffic-carrying capacity.
(b) Provide collecting space at intermediate landings so that pressure can be
relieved.
(cJ Provide a slight setback for the next escalator so that the necessary 1 80_ t urn
can be readily negotiated.
Single, 32 in. crisscross
escalator in an elegant de-
partment store. Note the
setback of the descending
escalator that is helpful in
making a smooth turn to
the next escalator. By se-
parating the two escala-
tors horizontally, an en-
forced walk-through can
be created. Courtesy of
Montgomery Elevator Co.
At ·the bottom landing (or the top) an escalator should discharge into an open area
with no turns or choice of direction necessary . Where such is unavoidable, large
clear signs should make hesitation unnecessary. Landing space in front of an
escalator terminal should be 6 to. 8ft. (1.80-2.40 m) minimum for a 90-fpm unit,
and 10 to 12ft. (3.00 - 3.60 m) for a 120 - fpm unit. ·
3. PARALLEL AND CRISSCROSS ARRANGEMENTS
Escalators may be installed so that the up and down stairs crisscross each other as
in Fig. Ia).
(a) Crisscross Arrangement
Adjacent
Plan
8iE
End Elevation
Side Elevation
Fig. (a) Crisscross Arrangement
or escalators may also be arranged in parallel as in figure (b).
Separated
Separated
End Elevation Side Elevation
End Elevation
End Elevation
Plan
j l l l l ~ l l l l l l l l i
D
2
1 ! ! ! ! ! ! !
1 1
" ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ~ II !!!I!!!!!!! II II!J!III'"!II l
Fig. (b) Parallel Arranngement
361
362
Both arrangements may have the up and down stairs separated by any desired
distance. Separating the stairways gives the advantage of easier mixing of riders
enteri ng at the various levels with riders making a continuous trip. Also, by
separating the escalators in the crisscross arrangement or by stacking them in
parallel arrangement, passengers making a multifioor trip can be forced to traverse
a specific area on each floor. This area can obviously be used to advantage for
display of imptllse-buying merchandise, and this is indeed the major consideration
in favor of these arrangements.
A negative reaction can be produced with these arrangements when:
(a) lnsufficient floor space is provided for the transit between escalators, causing
crowding, pushing and general annoyance.
(b) Insuffi cient elevator service is provided for passengers wishing to travel at least
three f loors. This forces people to make a multi-story escalat or tri p, which i n
itself can be wearying. Particularly when carrying parcels. If such a trip is fur-
ther lengthened by an enforced walk-around at each floor, it becomes a source
of severe irritation; often sufficient to keep customers away from the store.
The crisscross arrangement is generally favored because of lower cost,
minimum floor space occupied, and lowest structural requirements. The
parallel arrangement, being less efficient and more expensive, has as its only
virtue a very impressive appearance which strongly draws people to it. For this
reason it is frequently employed, particularly in,multi ple banks of three or fo.ur,
in transportation terminals. In such installations, flexibility is maintained by
operating all but one escalator in the direction of heaviest t raffic. Reversibility
of escalators provides this most desirable feature.
4. SIZE, CAPACITY and SPEED
Escalators are installed at an angle of 30 degrees from the horizontal. Thus the rise
is equal to 57% of the projected floor area. The Safety Code limits escalator speed
to 1 2 5 fpm along the axis of rise. In actual practice, two speeds are available; 90
fpm and 1 20 fpm. Installations are frequently two-speed, with the higher speed
utilized during rush hours and the lower speed during "OFF" hours. Where no rush
is encountered, the lower speed is utilized since the 120 fpm speed presents some
difficulty to the less agile passenger.
Moving stairways are generally available in widths of 32 in. (0.80m) and 48 in.
(1.20 m) both being measured at the hip level between the balustrades. These two
principal sizes correspond to tread widths of 24 in. (0.60 m). and 40 in. (1.000),
respectively.
All treads have a 16 in. (0.40 m• depth and 8 in. (0.20m) rise. The table below lists
the maximum and actual capacities of escalators.
lable 25.1 EscBistor Psu•ng•r C1tpscity
Step Speed
Passengers per Hour
Width
{fpm) Maximum Actual
32 in. 90 5000 3750
120 6666 5025
48 in. 90 8000 6000
120 10,665 8025
363
The 32 in. (0,80m) unit is rated for 1 Y. persons per step. A more realistic figure
assumes one person per step, or about 75% of the maximum figure. The 48. in.
width {1 .20 ml assumes 2 persons per step, Here also a derating to about 75% of
maximum is more realistic, taking into account empty steps; briefcase and package
carrying persons, and so on.
5. COMPONENTS
364
The major components of a "STANDARD'' (as opposed to a ("MODULAR")
escalator installation are shown in this f igure.
(a) This
tross is o 3-sectWn,
built-up, welded steel
unit tluJt supporl$ the
moving stainwlj
equipment.
The TRUSS is a welded steel frame that support the entire apparatus, The tracks are
steel angles attached to the truss on which the step rollers are guided, thus con1roll-
ing the moti on of the steps. The SPROCKET ASSEMBLY, chairs, and machine pro-
vide the motive power for the unit, much like the simple chain drive of a bicycle. An
EMERGENCY BRAKE located on the top sprocket will stop a loaded escalator safely
in the event of a break in the chain. The CONTROLLER, which consist of contrac-
tors, relays and a circuit breaker, is normally located near the drive machine. An
EMERGENCY stop BUTTON wired to the controller and placed nea1 or on the
escalator housing will stop the drive machine and apply the brake (see lower left of
the figure.)
key-operated control switches at the top and bottom newels will start stop, and
reverse the stairway. The handrail is driven by two shaves and is powered from the
top sprocket assembly. It is synchronized with the tread motion to provide stability
to riding passengers and a support for entering and leaving passengers. Handrails
disappear at a inaccessible points at newels. The balustrade assembly is designed
for maximum safety of persons stepping on or off the escalators.
- - · > · · ~
A particularly attractive desigrt utilizing a transparent balustrade made of tempered
glass is shown here. They are frequently referred to as crystal balustrades. In these
units, the handrail is pinch-driven within the truss. In addition to metal and glass as
balustrade materials, back-illuminated fiberglass and wood are also used.
365
6. STANDARD VERSUS MODULAR DESIGNS
366
In the "CONVENTIONAL· DESIGN" escalator, all the motive power is delivered at
one point, that is, the drive motor drives the main chain, which drives the top
• sprocket which drives the step chains which pulls up the steps, causing the entire
assembly to move. This arrangement is suitable for moderate rises of up to approx-
imately 25ft. {7 .50 m.} Beyond that the design becomes increasingly inefficient.
As the rise increases, the loads on all of the drive components including chains and
sprockets increase sharply. Furthermore, to accomodate the heavier equipment
necessitated, truss with increases as does wellway si2e and balustrade decks.
Aoller chain drive
Top drive
sprocket

brake
Drive

Westinghouse
Electric Stairway
Traditional design 8'--0" to 60'--0" rise
(4)
(a) Operating mechanism of a traditionally designed elect ric stairway. Note that
all motive power proceeds f rom the drive at the top of the stair via main chain,
top sprocket, and stair chain.
(b)
For rises above 25ft. (7.50 m.l the drive motor is too large to fit inside the truss
and requires a separate machine room below the truss with attendant ventilation
problems. All of these factors combine to limit conventional design units to a max-
imum rise of 60 feet (18.30 m.) to overcome these limitations, in the face of
demands for high rises, westinghouse developed a radically new design that was in-
troduced in 1973 under their trade name, "MODULAR ESCALATORS." This
design has unlimited rise capability because it is constructed with additional drive
motors along the length of the unit, in a modular design pattern.
Westinghouse
48" Electric Stairway
Modular System
I
MaMimum rise 40'-0"
two drive1i

Maximum rise 20'-o"
one drive
t
1
Unlimited rise
rise
Number of drives 20' -0"
(b) Schematic sectional drawing showing modularity of the newel design. The drive system
is distributed along the length of the stair, which comprises a top section, a bottom section,
and as many modular int.ermediate sections as are to accomplish the requisite
length and rise.
367

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368
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By spreading the drive load throughout the length of the unit the inherent limitations
listed above, which are caused ty a single drive locations. are eliminated.
roller
track
Handrail and
(c)
Westinghouse
Electtic Stairway
Modular System
Unlimited Rise
(c) Operating mechanism of the modular
escalator. The distributed drive adds motive
power throughout the length of the drive
chain. Courtesy of ·Westinghouse Electric
Corp. , Electric Stairway Division.
Note: That this distributed drive principle simplifies the mechanism considerably
and increases efficiency greatly. Chain loads are constant regardless of length, as is
truss size. The modular drive machine units are all identical and a machine room is
never necessary. Since tensions are held to low levels. Maintenance is low. Further-
more, the helical gear drive in the macular units is 10 to 1 5% more efficient that the
worn gear of the traditional design.
Table 25.2 Modular E•calator Motor Drive•
.. ____ . ______________ ,._ --... .. -..
Escalator Size 32 in. 48 in .
... ·- ·-·-·-- --- - -· - - -·
Speed 90 to 120 90 to 1 20
Motor hp 10 10
One drive,
nominal,
max. rise
Two drives,
nominal,
max. rise
Three drives,
nominal,
max. rise
7. SAFETY FEATURES
30 tt-0 in. 20 ft-0 in.
60 tt-0 in. 40 ft-0 in.
90 ft-0 in. 60 tt-0 in.
Protection to passengers during normal operation is ensured by a number of safety
features associated with moving stairways.
al Handrails and steps travel at exactly the same speed (90 or 120 fpm.) to ensure
steadiness and balance on up or down travel and to aid naturally in stepping on or
off the comb-plates.
b) The steps are large, steady, and are designed to prevent slipping.
c) Step designs and their leveling with the combplates at each landing ensure against
tripping as one enters or leaves the escalator. This is to accomplished with two or
three horizontal steps at each end of the escalator.
d) The balustrade includes all enclosures as furnished by the escalator manufacturer,
including the deckboards, inside panels. skirt guards, handrail. guards and comb·
plates. Details of these parts are designed to prevent catching clothing or packages
being carried by passengers. Close clearances provide safety features near the
combplates and step t reads.
e) Automatic controls of a service ·brake will bring the stairway to a smooth stop if
electric power or mechanical parts should fail. Passengers would then walk the
steps as they would any stationary stairway.
f) In case of overspeed or underspeed and the automatic governor shuts down the
escalator, prevents reversal of direction (up or down) , and operates the service
brake.
g) An emergency stop switch is located near the combplate or i n some unobtrusive
location. Building employees and adult passengers may operate the switch to stop
the escalator . The electri c controls also are arranged to shut down the stairway if by
some accident is caused to reverse its direction.
h) Adequate i llumination must be provided by the building· at all landings, at the comb-
plates, and completely down all stairway. Some designs of escalators are provided
with built-in lighting.
369
8. FIRE PROTECTION
370
Four methods of affording protection in case of fire near escalators are available.
The
a) rolling shutter
b) smoke guard
c) sprinkler vent
One of these methods is required by CODE when more than two floors are pierced.
The figure below illustrates clearly how the wellway at a given floor level may be
entirely closed off by the fire "SHUTTER" thus preventing draft and the spread of
fire upward through escalator wells. The movement is actuated by tempes.ature and
smoke relays that automatically start the operation of the motor-driver shutters.
The shutter in this figure is shown at the third floor level, but other shutters may be
installed at the tops of horizontal wellway openings at any floor.
Rolling-shutter method of wellway fire protection.
The second figure below illustrates the "SMOKE-GUARD", method of protection. It
consists of fireproof baffles surrounding the wellway and extending downward
about 20 in. below the ceiling level. Smoke and flames rising upward to the
escalator floor opening meet a curtain of water automatically released from the
usual type of sprinkler heads shown at the ceiling lewel. The baffle is a smoke and
flame deflector. The vertical shields between adjacent sprinklers ensure that the
spray from one will not cool the· nearby thermal fuses and prevent the opening of
adjacent sprinklers.
(a) Smoke-guard method of
fire protection for a 32 in.
moving stairway, crisscr.oss
type. Approximate dimensions
are shown. The escalator floor
opening {per floor) is approx-
imately 4ft 4 in. by 14ft 6 in.
( Sprinkler heads )
• • • _..... • e apron
llk[::;=' • _ __
. ; . . :

Reflected Ceiling
Showing customary
of sprinklers around opening
Symbolt :
Byo-
---- By esc.lator $Upplier
(b) Reflected ceiling plan and section show-
ing baffle and sprinkler layout . Courtesy of
Otis Bevator Co.
371
372
The "SPRAY -NOZZLE" curtain of water is quite similar to the above smoke-guard
protection. Here closely spaced, high-velocity water nozzles from a compact water
curtain to prevent smoke and flames from rising through the wellways. Automatic
thermal or smoke relays open all nozzles simultaneously.
The " SPRINKLER-VENT" fire control is shown in the next figure. The fresh air in-
take housed on the roof contains a blower to drive air downward t hrough escalator
floor openings, while the exhaust fan on the roof creates a strong draft upward
through an exhaust duct, this ducts in tum draws air from the separate ducts just
under the cei ling of each moving stairway floor opening. Three such parts separate
wellway ducts are shown. Each duct has a number of smoke-pickup relays that
automatically start the fresh air fans. The usual spray nozzles or the ceiliiJ,Q near the
stairway aid in quenching the fire.
4
1
Fresh air intake
Sprinkler-vent fire protection
for escalator openings. An ex-
ception (with control) to the
rule against perforations in
floors.
9. APPLICATION
a) Main floor locations should be chosen in the direct flow of traffic to assume
maximum use.
b) Vertical arrangements should be made to accomplish specific purposes, such as
exposure of merchandise, maximum passenger capacity, maximum accessibility to
various areas, and so on.
c) The aspect of reversibility of an electric stairway should be considered in applica-
tions where major traffic flow is unindirectionallight traffic in the reverse direction
can be handled by a normal fixed stair, adjacent to the escalator.
ESCALATOR
NORMAL STAIRWAY
ESCAL.ATO R
dl Similarly, a bank of two escalators can operate either both up, both down, or one
up and one down to handle variable traffic conditions in such areas as office
buildings and transportation terminals.
e) Exterior escalators can provide an attractive, interesting, and economical solution
to transporting people to selected entry points in a building without the necessity
of extending the building to cover the entrance.
An attractive exterior esca-
lator installation avoids the
necessity of interior stairs
and escalators, while pro-
viding an item of architec-
tural interest. Courtesy of
Montgomery Elevator Co.
373
.

...
:i

~
±-
··-'
~
..
374
MOVING WALKS AND RAMPS
1. GENERAL
Moving walks and ramps are different from moving stairways in appli cation, func-
tion, construction and capacity. Escalators have as their primary function the move-
ment of large numbers of people vertically, when such vertical distance does not
exceed approximately five stories.
When vertical transportation of wheeled vehicles and large parcels is required, the
use of an electric stai rway is awkward, if not entirely impossible. For such functions
and others, the moving ramp may be utilized.
Unlike the elevator and escalator, the moving walk or ramp serves a dual funct ion.
that is, horizontal and vertical transportation this is the combined f uncti on. A
" MOVING WALK" is one with an incline not exceeding.5 degrees, where the prin-
cipal function is horizontal motion and inclined motion is incidental to the horizon-
tal. A "MOVING RAMP" is a device with an incline limited to 1 5 degrees. where
vertical motion is as important or more important than the horizontal component.
The moving walks or sometimes call ed moving sidewalks is best used by people
with heavy baggages in transportation terminals. It is also used by big stores with a
parking space extended. The moving ramp is recommended in multi-level stores
where escalator are not feasible for persons with shopping a carts. Such stores may
also utilize roof -top parking that is made accessible to persons with a cart via a
moving ramp.
375
APPENDICES:
LIGHTING
CREATING A MOOD
Apart from its many functional applications, well planned lighting can contribute a great deal
to the atmosphere in your home. The position and style of the lamps and fixtures determines
the kind of light they give. Candle light and oil lamps have long been associated with a warm
and cosy atmosphere, and you can create an almost identical mood with modern lighting
using small spotlights or shaded lamps to make isolated pools of light around the room. The
mood may be enhanced where a dark floor or ceiling absorbs the light rather than reflects it.
If, on the other hand, you want to create a fresh, airy appearance, use reflected light from
pale coloured ceilings and walls. Ideally, lighting should be as
1
flexible as possible so that you
can arrange it to suit the occasion; this cannot be achieved merely by fitting dimmer swit-
ches.
WELL BALANCED LIGHTING
When you plan your lighting, first consider the size and position of the windows and the
amount of natural light they bring to the interior. Some areas may have poor illumination and
will need subsidiary lighting during the daytime. The most efficient method of achieving the
torrect balance is with a light-sensitive switch: When the natural light level falls below a cer-
tain point, artificial light is automatically switched on. This is particularly useful in areas of
potential hazard such as stairway, wh6fe light should be thrown on to the stairs, so that the
edge of the tread is well defined. Ideally, the light source should be to one side so that your
shadow does not obscure the stairs when your are going up or down. Always avoid sudden
changes in light level.
PLANNING INSTALLATIONS
378
Plan your lighting first before you decorate or build any furniture into a room. Position
outlets carefully, to give you as much flexibility as possible. Place lights switches within easy
reach as you enter a room-a point to remember if you intent rehanging a door. Two way
switches are very useful placed at the top and bottom of a staircase, or by the side of the
bed. Bear in mind that light fixtures have to be cleaned and maintained, so if you need a light
in a normally inaccessible area, consider installing a flush-fitting or a recessed light that will
require less cleaning.
1. Creating atmosphere
Create small pools of atmospheric light by strategically positioning lamps at a low level
around the room. (see illustration no. 1).
2. Reeding Lights
Reading lights are provided in this bedroom, by positioning strip lights behind a batten
running across the headboard. Provide a separate light and switch for each side of .the
bed so that one person can read without disturbing the other. (see illustration no. 2).
3. Reflecting light and textures
Position your light fittings to make the most of textural surfaces in the room. Supple-
ment low level lamps by using reflected light from the ceiling. (see illus. no. 3).
379
380
4. Reinforcing natural light
Directional spotlights reinforce natural light from a skylight, while at the same time pick-
ing out pictures hung on the wall.
A GOOD SOURCE OF LIGHT
Plan carefully to create an overall, harmonious effect that will at the same time satisfy in-
dividual activities. You should arrange your light sources so as to avoid throwing shadows
into activity areas while reducing glare from a direct light source.
READING LIGHT
A centrally place ceiling light as in 1 is unsuitable for reading, since it casts shadows on the
page. A better arrangement is shown in 2 where a lamp is positioned behind and to the side
so -that light is thrown on to the page. Another low-level light should be used to reduce con-
trast between the well-lit page and the darkened background.
381
TELEVISION VIEWING
Low-level, indirect light adjacent to the set, 3, reduces eye strain.
LIGHTING A DINING AREA
Avoid light fixtures in which the naked bulb is visible to diners as in 4. If possible, install a
light with a wider shade that can be adjusted up and down thus preventing glare. Additional
lighting may be necessary for tong tables as in 6.
LAMPS FOR WRITING
382
Avoid light that throws your own shadow on to the page as 7. Much better is a concealed
light as in 8, which causes less shadow by partially reflecting on the waH. An adjustable lamp
such as in 9 provides the best illumination and combined with another room light will reduce
eye strain.
BEDROOM LIGHTING
A reading light should be positioned to one side of the bed, or behind it, as in 10, shaded to
avoid glare. Indirect light in child's room can be provided from an adjoining area 11, or a dim-
mer switch 12.
BATHROOM LIGHTING
Position the light to shine on you-not the mirror, 13. Place the light either side of the mirror
or around the perirMter and avoid lights which will reflect in it.
LIGHTING CUPBOARDS AND SHELVES
Interior cupboard lights can be controlled by a switch operated by the opening (lnd closing of
the door. Use as concealed or shaded strip light, as 14. Position a tight above shelves as in
15.
383
SELECTING
KITCHEN
COMPONENTS
Of all the components in your kitchen, lighting is afford to skimp on. Not only can poor light·
ing make the cheeriest kitchen seem dreary. It can also promote fatigue and even cause ac-
cidents. A good rule of thumb; incorporate enough general, task, and accent lighting in your
kitchen so that you're never working in a shadow.
You'll likely outfit your kitchen with a combination of incandescent aml>fluorescent bulbs,
incandescent bulbs (or lamps, as they're known to the trade) are made in a wide range of
wattages, but those in the eo- to 200-watt range are your best bets fo.- a kitchen. Bulbs
typically last from 750 hours (for high-wattage bulbs) to 2,500 hours (for low-wattage and
"long life" bulbs).
Fluorescent tubes give off between two and three times as much light per watt as incandes-
cent bulbs, and are more economical to operate. Though the life-span of afluorescent tube
exceeds that of an incandescent bulh, it's shortened if the tube is frequentfy turned on and
off. Choose. fluorescents for your kitchen caretully; " warm white" tubes (rather than the
harsher "cool white" type) ar.e more flattened to food.
To light an average-size 10 x 12-foot kitchen, you'll need about 250 watts of incandescent
!ight, or 90 watts of fluorescent •ight . To combine the two, allow about 2 watts of incandes-
cent or 3/ 4 watt of fluorescent light for every square foot of kitchen space.
Of course, your particular kitchen lighting requirements depend on a number of things-ceil-
ing height, ceiling color, and your overall kitchen color scheme. Light, pale colors reflect
nearly as much light as deep, dark colors.
YOUR KITCHEN
LIGHTING OPTIONS
384
Since most kitchen chores take place at the sink, you'll want it especially well-lighted. If your
sink is under a window, opt for a recessed downlight that provides at least 150 watts of in-
candescent illumination, or ,fluorescents behind a diffuser panel. For a sink that's under a
cabinet or shell, choose diffused fluorescent tubes, or soffit canister lights recessed in the
soffit bulkhead or upper kitchen cabinets.
A. SOFFIT
CANISTER UQHTS
Of all your kitchen lighting options, track lights offer the most versalility. Fixtures come in
myriad styles, and give the look of built-in lighting without the installation hassle. Tracks
mount on ceilings or walls, for task lighting at work centers or general kitchen illumination.
For task lighting, fit track fixtures with spotlight bulbs; for general illumination, install more
diffuse floodlight bulbs.
A desk light augments your general kitchen lighting at a kitchen office or planning center.
An adjustable reading light fitted with a 50 to 75-watt incandescent bulb is adequate for all
but extended reading.
C. DESK LIGHT
Easy-to-install under-cabinet fluorescent lights are excellent counter-top illumination.
Hide the tubes with a baffle, cornice, or diffuser panel, and let them extend at least two-
thirds of the length of the counter.
385
"".. ~ . . ..
. .
~
· ~ A ..
386
~ - - · · · · · · · ·····--············-------
387
If you use a dropped fixture over your eating area, choose one scaled in size to comple-
ment your table, and in brightness to harmonize with the rest of your kitchen. Plan on
minimum of 150 watts, but also use a dimmer switch or three-way bulb to vary the light
level. Mount a dropped fixture 28 to 36 inches above the table so it doesn' t obstruct the view
of your diners.
E. DROPPED FtXTUR£
Finally, a lighted r3nge ventilating hood, outfitted with at least 60 watts of illumination,
avoids shadows when you work at the range. For a range or cooktop not equipped with a
hood, achieve the same effect with recessed downlights or soft canisters.
F. LIGHTED RANGE
VENTilATING H000
VENTILATING
EQUIPMENT
388
Getting rid of food odors, fumes, and smoke is reason enough to venti late your kitchen. But
removing excess heat and moisture- especially if your home is air conditioned-also saves
on the cost of energy.
Ventilation system are sized according to the amount of air they'll move in one minute. To
determine the capacity you need, measured in cubic feet per minute (CFMI, multiply your
kitchen square footage by two. For example, if you have a 15 x 20-foot kitchen, you'll need a
system with a 600 CFM rating (15 x 20 x 2).
Remember that fans differ in the amount of noise they make. Check the "sene" rating on
each unit you're considering; the lower the rating, the quieter the fan. Centrifugal blowers
usually are quieter than propeller-type fans.
The type and placement of your range hood or fan are just as important as the CFM rating in
getting the most efficient ventilation. Here are your ventilation options.
An exhaust fan, your least exper:tsive choice, simply draws stale air out of the kitchen.
Although not as effective as a range hood for trapping cooking odors and fumes, an exhaust
fan benefits from a wall or veiling installation as close to the range as possible.
WAUFAN
A vented (ducted) hood mounted above the range has a fan that fulls stale air and cooking
odors out of the kitchen and vents them to the outside. The hood should extend across the
full width of the cooking area, with its bottom edge 21 to 24 inches (never more than 30 in-
ches) above the range surface. When placed against a walt, a range hood should have a
minimum capacity of 50 to 70 CFM per linear foot of range. A hood mounted over a surface
unit on an island or peninsula should have at least two or three times that capacity. For max-
imum efficiency, keep ducting distance as short as p;ossible. Too many bends or variations in
duct size wilt allow grease to collect.
A non-vented (ductless) hood should be your choice only if venting to the outside is impossi-
ble. This hood contains a fan that draws air through a replaceable activated charcoal filter,
which absorbs cooking odors. A second washable filter traps some cooking A non-
vented hoods aren't able to remove heat and humidity, however.
DUCTED HOOO DUCTLESS HOOD

390
Self-venting ranges and cooktops don't need an ovemead hood. Instead, they draw odors,
gre88Cl, and moisture down into a built·in vent that' s ducted to the outside.
Some range hoods do more than just vent your kitchen. You'll find models equipped witt-.
built-in warming lamps to keep food hot. A space-saving combination microwave oven anc
range hood gives the convenience of an eye:level -microwave oven and a range hood in the
same space that a conventional 20-inch range hood alone would occupy, Choose either a
ducted or ductless model.
When you shop for kitchen ventilating equipment; consider these additional features:
• A dual-intake system captures smoke and heat at the ceiling as well as over the range.
• A removable filter and fan blade facilitate periodic cleaning grease buildup.
• A hood or fan with a work light adds task lighting to your range top.
• Variable controls give you a.choice of fan speeds.
INSULATING
AND SOUND-
PROOFING
HOW MUCH
INSULATION
DO YOU NEED7
Key questions about insulation are how much do you need and how much can you afford?
One way to answer them is by figuring out the "payback period," which is how long it takes
to get your money back in lower energy bills. With fuel costs still rising, you might think that
any money spent on insulation will be repaid quickly. Not true, installing insulation is some-
times an expensive affair, so it's important to put your money where it will do the most good
in the shortest time.
The tables shown opposite will help you pinpoint the best investments for your particular
use, if you follow this explanation and work through the accompanying examples, you'll be
able to find the answers to those key questions about insulating your home.
The upper tab6e gives individual energy index numbers (energy numbers) for eight different
uses of insulation and two uses of storm windows and doors in homes in 20 cities. Under the
name of the city is the type of heating and cooling system common in that area (New York
City has two listings, for example).
The lower table works with the upper table to give you " energy payback numbers" -the
energy numbers you' ll need to repay an investment in seven years.
The numbers also include the assumption that energy costs will go up 10 percent each year
and that money you use from savings to buy insulation will cost 6 percent in lost interest.
When using the tables, keep this formula in mind: H the pay back number in the lower table
is less than the energy number in the top table, the payback period will be Jess than seven
years. If the payback number is large than the energy number, the payback period will be
more than seven years.
PLAYING OUR NUMBERS
Now let' s look at a couple of examples. Assume you live in cleveland. You use gas heat and
air conditioning and have some insulation in the house. Note that the energy number in the
upper table for ceilings/attics in Cleveland is 2630. Now look at the lower table. The second
category in the first column applies because you have less you deci de to add A -19 insulation
and do the work yourself. In that case, the payback nulllber is 1610. which is a little more
than half Cleveland's energy number of 2630. That means you should easily recope your in-
vestment in less than seven years.
Let's take another example. This time assume an oil -heated, air-conditioned home in New
Yorit. The front door is sol id with no glass. Would it pay to install a storm door?
Look at the first table. The energy number for storm doors in New York is 3290. The lower
table shows that adding a storm door to a single exterior door without glass has a payback
number of ~ if you do the wortc yourself . That new storm door will take nearly 11 years to
pay for itself. Now, compute your own home's energy numbers. Find the City nearest your
hometown. If you're in the middle between two cities, pick the one with climate most like
your own. The formula provides a handy way to determine the value of your investment.
391
INSULATION
PAYOFF INDEX
GH-Gas heat
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GH OH GH GH GH GH DE DE GH GH
& & & & & & & & & GH &
A.C AC I>C AC I>C AC AC AC AC
-
AC
Cetlings/
i4490 4670 3410 2630 3170 2200 2410 2160 1850 3300 1920
a Dies

5410 5600 4020 2980 3760 28'10 3870 2770 2720 2390
allies
I
€X1eriot
nmewaas
4260 4440 32W 2550 3020 2040 2050 2010 1630 1800
('ooood. bnck
siding)
Sgm
windows 01 3800 3980 2950 . 2380 2730 1710 1320 1700 1200 1570
lliple glass
Si:lim
3100 3290 2490 2120 2.290 1210 230 1250 540 1220
dlxn"
floor.;
3100 3290 2490 212.0 2.290 1210 230 1250 540 122.0
aawt 5paces •
Walsof
3100 3290 2490 2120 2290 1210 1250 5410 1220
crawl spaces•
I I
Ducts on venle<l
4440 3260 12550 302012.040 2050 20W 1630 1800
aaw spaoes
l .

3100 3290! 2490 212.0 2.290
1210 230 1250 540 122.0
basements'
'
Oucts in
5410 15600 4020 2980 3760 2870 3870 2770 272.0 3300 2390
basemenl
"
For a payback in S8'lel\ years. I will need an enti!II(,N index number of at least
" I have: ArC I want 1o:
No elOsting ceiling 1nsvladon
l ess than 3' of I!XISllng ceiling
Add R-19 ce<ling insulation
Add R-30 <;e;1ing onwatioo
Add R- 11 insulalio'l
Add A- 19 ce11ing insulaOOI'l
Add R-30 ceoHng insulation
i
GH
&
I<C
2070
2850
1880
1490
910
910
9 10
1880
910
2850
1' a11ic duet insulation Add 1' duct rnsulalion
More than 1· duct insulalion
I
I J .
" I

I
I GH
GH &
!>(;
1610 12170
1830 l 3210
!
1550 1910
1440 1400
620
1280 620
12IJO 620
I
1550 1910
1280 620
3210
Uninsulaled 8l(lefl0r walls Fill cavity wilt'l bloom or toamed insulation
Single exterior windows
DooQie (ins.Jl<Wng glass) w11'ldows
Single eXJenOr doors wolt'IOIJI glass
Floors CM!lf vented crawo spaces wolt'l 1'10 floor rnsulabOn
Vr!vented Cfllwi spaces--<10 waD or floor insulatron
Unonsulaled ductS "'vented crawi s;;.aces
E!are bu«T>ent walls two feel or m01e above exlerior grade
392
Add storm
AOd •. 1 Hoor o11su1011tion
Add q_ !9 1\()()(
Add A-11 wa" •nsulation
Aaa R- 19 waJI ,ns.,iattor>
AOC I' duct •
Add 2' dUct "'sulanon
Add R-3 ..... insolatiOII
Add R- 11 inwlallon
j
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u:

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8
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CJ)
<0
<I)
GH CJi
GH GH GH
CH GH & & & & &
I<C
K; /IC AC /IC
-
1160 710 4500 1980 :2240i:2240
870 o4880 2350 2560 2680
670 4410 1880 2160 2120
600 4230 1100 2010 1900
480 3970 1420 1770' 1570
3970 14:!0 1770 1570
-4110 3970 1<43) 1710 1570
670 4410 1880 2160 2120
480 3970 1420 1770 1570
3480 1160 870 -48110 2350 2560 2680
W I do myself I I C100t81:t the 'WOO<
310 500
390 630
1340
1610 25110
2120 3400
1210 2420
2240 4oC80
No 2960
1930 2890
3520 5270
3150 5360
5380 1.1070
830 1330
2220 3560
1740 2790
4510 7220
3030 0050
3580 1160
1730 2590
3860 5780
2200 4400
2SS)
5100
ff you add insulation to your home, the money you save will depend on the climate, the level
of insulation already in your home and the cost of energy studies show the upgrading an
older house that has inadequate insulation can reduce energy consumption by 50 percent ,
upgrading a newer. partially insulated ~ o r n e may mean saving of 20 to 30 percent.
KNOW WHAT YOU HAVE
Before rushing out to buy insulation, find out how much you already have. The illustrations
below shows those areas in your home most likely to need extra insulation.
Places where you may need insulation are
1) Ceilings and unfinished attic floors, including dormer ceiling
2) Knee walls in a finished attic
3) Between attic collar beams
41 Sloping sections of a roof in a finished attic
51 Exterior walls
6) Floors above cold crawl spaces, over a porch or unheated garage
7) The outside walls of heated basements.
393
394
The easiest place to begin your survey is the attic. Use a ruler to measure the depth of the in-
sulation in an unfinished attic. It maybe stapled to rafters or laid between floor joist; take
care not to compact it.
Inspecting walls is a bittougher. Remove the switch plate from an outlet, and peak into the
wall cavity with a flashlight or make a small hole and patch it if you see any insulation your
house is probably in pretty good shape if it is not, insulating a finished wall is best left· to a
professional (see topic on insulating walls).
In any event don't poke with sharp objects you may puncture a vapor barrier made from
kraft paper, foil, or polyethylene, vapor barriers stop moisture from seeping into the insula-
tion.
If you have vapor barriers, they should be facing heated areas-directly under floors, walls,
and ceiling coverings.
INSULATING
AND SOUND-
PROOFING
Insulating your home will mean lower energy bills and better living. If both are comforting
thoughts into action. Start at the top in your attic. Because warm air rises, uninsulated or
poorly insulated attics allow valuable energy to slip away quickly, more quickly than any
other spot in the house. If you button up your attic first, things will begin to improve im-
mediately.
All attics aren't created equal. The way you insulate yours will depend 9n whether it is finish-
ed.
UNFINISHED ATTICS
In an unfinished attic that you do not intend to use as living space, place insulation in the
floor (for add to it) to prevent losing beat from the rooms below. It spots such as this, use
batts, blankets, or loose-fill insulation. Batts, made of fiber glass or rock wool, usually come
with vapor barriers attached. Spread loose-insulation between joists, but add a vapor barrier
first.
If you're working in an unfinished attic that has no floor, take some precautions. Install tem-
porary lighting so you can see what you're doing, and place boards across the floors joists to
use as a walkway.
FINISHED ATTICS
In a finished attic or in one you plan to finish, use blankets, batts, or loose-fill insulation.
If the attic ceiling is open, add rigid insulation, which consists of boards made from extruded
polystyrene, urethane, or fiber glass. Nail the boards to the undersides of the exposed roof
deck, using large-head, galvanized nails. (Roofing nails work well. I Nail on 8-inch centers in
both directions, penetrating the wood at least 1 ~ inches. Take care not to puncture the
roof.
Because much rigid insulation is combustible, be sure to cover it with gypsum board before
you put up paneling or other materials.
STEPS TO A SNUG ATTIC
Add a vapor barrier when pouring loose-fill insulation or when installing unfaced batts or
blankets on the attic floor. Use 2-mil polyethylene, smoothing it in place between and over
the floor joists. Staple with care, and mend any tears in the barrier should always face the
living area). •
395
396
Adequate ventilation is important. Don't block eave vents when you install insulation. Ex-
tend it far enough to cover the top plate, but stop batts or blankets short of the vents. If you
pour loose-fill insulation, install baffles.
When adding insulatiol" to both walls and floors, try to crate a continuous barrier so heat
doesn't seep out at the eaves. Use a long sti ck to push batts into position. Cover the top
plate with insulation, and keep it under wiring wherever possible.
If you install blankets in the attic floor, unroll the insulation and cut it to the desired length.
Press the blankets between the floor joists, then staple them to the inside of the joists, spac-
ing staples every 6 to 8 inches.
To install blankets so they insulate a finished attic, start at the top plate of the knee wall . Cut
the blankets and fit them between the wall studs. Make sure the vapor barrier is facing you,
then staple the blankets into place. D o n ' ~ try to run a continuous piece of insulation up one
wall, across the collar beam, and down the othe; side, instead, use three separate pieces,
the vapor barriers. If you use batts of unfaced insulation in a attic, cut
them longer than required and wedge them into the stud space. Add a vapor barriAr of
polyethelene film.
Keep insulation away from recessed light fixture and exhaust fans. Covering them may
create a fire hazard, instead, build baffles to keep the insulation at least 3 inches away from
any motors or fixtures.
397
If you use loose-fill insulation in an attic floor, pour it between the joists to the desired depth.
(Line the floor first with a vapor barrier.) level the insulation with a wood slat or a rake as
you work.
If your attic floor already has some insulation, use unfaced batts or blankets {those with no
vapor barriers attached.) But if the 11oor is uninsulated, install faced batts or blankets. Be
sure the vapor barriers point toward the heated areas below.
INSULATING FLOORS
After you insulate the attic, lower your sights and examine another energy-waster at floor
level: your home's crawl space or basement. Once these areas are properly insulated, you'll
warm up considerably. You can do both jobs yourself; they usually don't require the services
of a professional.
BUNDLING UP UNHEATED SPACES
1. Insulate the floors over unheated areas by working from below- in the basement, crawl
space, or garage. You'll need batts or blankets of insulation, a tape measure, a heavy-
duty staple gun and staples, wire mesh or chicken wire, shears to cut the wire, and a
knife to cut the insulation. Staple the chicken wire or mesh to the bottom of the floor
joists, then slide in blankets of insulation, working with small sections, vapor barrier up.
Or you can use the method shown at left. Wedge batts or blankets into the space bet·
ween floor joists. The insulation will temporarily stay in place without support ..
398
2. Beginning at one end, tack the wire mesh or chicken wire across the floor joists, as
shown at left. Staple or nail one roll at a time in place, making sure the insulation fits
snugly up to the band joist and overlaps the bottom plate. To do the same job. You can
cover exposed joists with rigid urethane, polystyrene, or fiber-glass boards. Apply them
with adhesive to the joists. Check the local building code to find out whether you need
to cover the insulation with a fire-resistant material such as gypsum board, if the joists
are covered, as they are in a finished garage ceiling. You best bet is to blow in loose-fill
insulation.
399
400
3. For the walls in a crawl space, use batts or blankets. You'll need a sharp knife, tape
measure, hammer, nails, furring strips or nailers, and gloves. Where joists run at right
angles to the wall, tuck in small sections of insulation against the header . Cut longer
pieces and attach them to the sill with furring strips, as shown at left. Extend insulation
down the wall and 2 feet along the ground. Where joists run parallel to the wall , use
longer pieces of insulation and nail them directly to the band joist.
t
4. After you install the insulation, lay a vapor barrier of 6-mil polyethylene on the ground,
tucking it under the batts to the foundation wall. Tape the joints of the vapor barrier or
lap them at least 6 inches. Finally, secure the polyethylene and insulation with rocks or 2
x 4 studs, as illustrated at left.
INSULATING WALLS
If you're up against a wall that needs insulation, don't despair. It's possible to blow or to
spray insulating materials into finished exterior walls without ripping up those on the interior.
However, doing so is difficult and expensive. In all likelihood, you'll need the services of a
contractor who has special equipment and experience to do the job properly. {Partly for
these reasons, if your walls already have some insulation, it might might not be economical
to add to it).
If you decide to go ahead, search carefully for a reputable professional. Try to get a number
of written bids specifying A-Values, the amount of required, and the overall cost
of the job, in a properly insulated, standard 2 x 4 wall. You can reaSOnably expect R-8 for
fiber glass or rock wool. R-10 for cellulose (both are blown in; see information at right), and
R-11.5 for foam.
(One note of Caution: Don't use urea formaldehyde foam when insulating any area of the
house. Recent studies suggest that the formaldehyde has given off by the insulation can
cause llealth problems. In fact, the sale of urea formaldehyde foam has been banned by the
U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission. If you want the advantage of foam's higher
R-Value, use another kind, such as urethane.)
Don't let insulating basement walls get you down, installing boards of rigid insulation and fit-
ting in soft batts or blankets are two useful methods. The one to use depends partly on
where you live and partly on how much room you're willing to take up with the installation.
THREE ALTERNATIVES
To install insulation in a finished wall, a contractor must reach all the spaces between studs
in the wall cavity. For each space, the contractor removes the siding (he doesn't have to
strip the entire wall) and drills holes, usually in the sheathing of the outside wall, as shown
at left. Don't worry about all the drilling. A good contractor will leave no traces when the job
is completed.
If the home has a brick-veneer exterior, the same procedure is followed except that it may be
less expensive to do it from the inside of the wall.
(Blowing insulation into a vertical space more than 4 feet high requires what is called the
double-blow method. In this case, the contractor cuts two access holes for each stud.)
After drilling the holes, the contractor checks the spaces with a plumb bod, looking for
obstructions below the hole. Then special equipments blows the insulation under air
pressure through a large, flexible hose into the spaces between the studs.
If the contractor is using foam, it is pumped through a hose with an applicator. With both
methods, each wall space is completely filled. When the insulation is in place, the holes are
covered with a rectainer or plug and the siding is replaced.
Frame a stud wall in the basement by nailing the bottom plate to the floor and the top plate
to the joists. Nail in studs 18 or 24 inches on center. Tuck in batts or blankets between the
studs, vapor barrier facing you, and staple them securely. Apply gypsum wallboard or panel-
ing over the insulation, as shown on next page.
If you don't want to frame in a stud, use rigid boards to insulate basement walls. With
masonry nails, attach furring strips to the walls and around windows and doors. Cut the in-
sulation to fit, and apply it directly to the wall with mastic. Then cover the insulation with at
least }'1-inch-thick drywall.
401
402
In regions with mid winters, a rating of R-7 is sufficient. In colder areas, you'll need a
minimum of R-11.
To reach either value using batts or blankets, you first have to frame out 2 x 3 or 2 x 4 stud
walls over the top of the masonry. Then staple the soft insulating material, vapor barrier
facing your, between the studs of the new buff-out walls. Don't be stingy with the staples;
drive one every 10 or 12 inches. To finish, cover the studs with drywall or paneling.
Using rigid-board insulation allows the new wall to be as thin as possible, thereby saving a
space in your basement. Line the walls with furring (to attach the finished wall material),
then glue up or tuck in boards between it. (Rigid insulation often comes with an adhesive
already applied.)
Because much, rigid insulation is combustible, cover it with a minimum of ~ - i n c h drywall,
even if you plan to install wood or hardboard paneling later.
Before starting either project, dry up your basement if it is wet. Moist insulation has no value
at all. However don't be concerned by mind condensation. The insulation and vapor barrier
usually will solve that problem.
Insulation becomes less important below ground level. Although insulating walls to their full
height will provide benefits, you might decide to save money by insulating only down to
ground level).
SOUNDPROOFING
A ROOM
Common household noise can be irritating. Power tools, dryers, diswashers, kitchen
blenders. and others noise-makers disturb the peace in nearly everv American home. Putting
your ear under a pillow or plugging your ears isn't the answer. Your can't eliminate all th
3
noise from your life, but you can reduce it9 impact. By combining common sense with com-
monly available materials, you can sound-condition or even soundproof your rooms.
Although your home may not be as noisy as a factory, the jarring effect of household sounds
can put you in a bad temper or give you a headache. Those reasons.alone are enough to
make you want to out a damper on the noise in home.
403
Start with the basics. Use earplugs when you're working with noisy power tools. Shut win-
dows and doors to keep out the din of passing traffic. Apply weather stripping It needed,
and add double-pane or storm windows to reduce noise from the outside, Landscape· the
grounds to block and absorb sounds by strategically locating trees, berms, and shrul>s.
Indoors, caulk all gaps and cracks with acoustic sealant. Use solid-core doors, acoustic tile,
and soft surfaces (fabric, carpeting, draperies) wherever noise is problem.
The resistance of a wall or floor to the passage of sound is rated by its sound transmission
class (STCl. The higher the STC value, the better a wall or floor blocks out sound.
A rating of 45 is a good level for walls or floors. New or improved insulation can help control
sound dramatically. An uninsulated stud wall covered with gypsum board has an STC rating
of only 32, but a staggered stud walt with 1% inches of insulation and %-inch gypsum wall-
board has an STC rating of 49.
Add fiber-glass or·mineral wool insulation to stud walls. On masonry walls, apply rigid poly-
styrene board insulation over furring strips, then cover with %-inch drywall.
QUIET WALLS AND DOORS
404
Start your attack on noise with the least expensive solutions, then move on to more costly
steps if needed. First, pinpoint the source of noise and try to muffle it there, using carpeting,
heavy draperies, and acoustic or cork tiles. Next, try caulking to block the transmission of
sound from one from to another. If you're building a new wall, apply non-hardening acoustic
.caulk under the plates, at tops and bottoms of drywall panels, and around all receptacles, if
you're trying to button up existing walls, remove the molding around the ceiling and base-
boards and take off the outlet covers. Then apply an acoustic sealant as shown at left.
Weather stripping windows also wilt help keep out noise.
Effectively combining soft and hard materials is a simple way to control sound from loud-
speakers. Fabric, carpets and drapes absorb sound well; wood, metal, and tile do not. Try
the system shown below. Apply semigloss paint or adhesive-backed vinyl to plaster-board
walls on the "hard" sides ot the room to bounce sound. Then cover opposite walls and ceil-
ings with soft, sound-absorbing materials such as carpet, draperies, or fabric. The music will
sound better and will be less audibee in adjoining areas.
hard
Most wood-stud interior walls don't insulate sound well. The ones that do are built for the
job. The drawing below shows an engineered system that substantially reduces the transmis·
sian of sound. It uses a double layer ot drywall applied over 2 x 4 wood studs, fiber-glass in-
sulation, and resilient metal channels. For even better results, stagger 2 x 4 studs to create a
2 x 6 wall cavity, then weave the insulation between the studs horizontally. Finish with dry-
wall. Adding any insulation to the walls will help make a room quieter and cozier.

CAUl.JCJ»t' AT
IZE'CSPTAGLE
--RESILIENT
CHANNEL..
FlBEI'i:,LASS

r- ·-- PIZYWAU.
A(.()UST1t' <'AULK _ ...........
4()5
406
If you invest a few extra dollars in a solid-core door and add weather stripping around·the
door frame, you'll help keep sound from the room. To make a quiet door, follow the
drawings below. Cut four 8-foot 2 x 4s to fit the doorway, allowing Y2 inch for new carpet or
weather stripping. Next, assemble the 2 x 4s as shown. then glue and nail one sheet of
1 Yz -inch plywood to the 2 x 4 frame. Stuff and staple insulatiQn in place. Glue and nail the
second sheet of plywood to the other side. Hinge the door so it opens into the room, then
apply self -stick weather stripping.
I
I
I
}'2" P'I.Ywoop I
·• .
., .. '
METRICATION
120
110
- --212"F
WATER
I.OO't
BOILS
90
80
70
f ahrtnheit140
60
50
40
30
20
10
32.•F
WATER
o·c
freezes
·to
-2o
-3o
~
Temp. at -40°F and ·4ooc
is the same
·5o
·so
CONVERSION, FAHRENHEIT
DEGREES TO CELSIUS DEGREES.
9 X °C
- - - - - ---
5
+ 32
FORMULA
5 (°F - 32)
oc = --- --- - -
9
407
RULES AND GUIDES FOR USAGE OF Sl
EXAMPLES OF Sl DERIVED UNITS EXPRESSED IN TERMS OF
THE BASE UNITS AND OTHER UNITS
Expressed in Expressed in
Quantity Description terms of terms of Base or
other Units Supplementary Units
area square metre m2
volume cubic metre m3
speed-linear metre per
second m/s
-angular radian per
second rad/s
acceleration metre per
-Linear second
squared m/ s2
-angular radian per
second
squared rad/s2
wave number

1 per metre
m-1
density, mass kilogram per
density cubic metre kg/ m3
concentration mole per cubic
(amount of metre
substance) mol/m3
specific cubic metre
volume per kilogram m3/ kg
luminance candela per
square metre cd/m2
dynamic pascal second
viscosity Pa.s m-l.kg.s-2
moment of force newton metre N.m
m2.kg.s-2
surface tension newton per
metre N/m kg.s-2
heat flux water per
density, square W® m2 kg.s-2
irradianc4il metre
heat capacity, joule per
entropy kelvin J/K
m2.kg.s-2.K- 1
specific heat j o ~ per
capacity, kilogram J/lkg.K)
m2.kg.s -2. K - 1
specific kelvin
entropy
specific energy joule per
kilogram J / kg m2.s-2
408
thermal
conductivity
energy density
electric field
strength
electric charge
density
electric flux
density
permittivity
current density
magnetic field
strength
permeability
S<Mar energy
molar entropy
solar heat
capacity
radiant intensity
watt per metre
kelvin
Joule per cubic
metre
V<*lt pef
metre
coulomb per
cubic meter
coulomb per
square metre
farad per metre
ampere per
square metre
ampere per
metre
henry per metre
Joule per mole
Joule per mole
kelvin
watt per
steradian
W/(m.K)
J/m3
V/m
C/m3
C!rrtl
F/m
H/m
J/mol
J(moi.K)
W/sr
m.kg.s-J.K- 1
m-l.kg.s-2

m-J.s.A
m-2 .. s.A
m-J.kg. -t.S4.A2
A.m- 2
A.mt
m.kg.s-2.A·-
m2kg.s-2.mol-1
m2.kg.s-2.K -t.mol-1
m2. kg. s -3. sr-1
• The wave number is the rec1procal of the wave length, expressed in metres, of an
electromagnetic radiation.
NOTE: The values: of certain so-called dimension less quantities, such as ref-
ractice: index, relative permeability or relative permeability are expressed by pure
numbers.
409
HOW TO CONVERT COMMON MEASUREMENTS
FROM ENGLISH TO METRIC UNITS
FOR ORDINARY USE
TO English Units Metric Units
MEASURE TAKE THE NUMBER OF MULTJPLY BY1 EQUALS THE NUMBER IN
Length inches (in) 25.4* millimetres (mm)2
inches lin} 2.54* centimetres (em)
inches (in) 0.025 metres (m)
feet
(ft) 0.305 metres (m)
feet (ft) 30.48* centimeters (cmJ
yards (yd) 0.914 metres (m)
miles (mil 1.609
kilometres (km)
Area square inches (in2) 6.45 square centimetres (cm2)
square feet (ft2) 929.0 square centimeters lcm2)
square feet (ft2) 0.093 square metres (m2}
square yards (yd2) 0.84 square metres 1m2)
square miles (m2) 2.59 square kilometres (km2)
Volume cubic inches lin3) 16.39 cubic centimeters (cm3)
(solids) cubic feet (ft3} 0.028 cubic metres (M3)
cubic yards (yd3) 0.766 cubic metres (m3)
Volume fluid ounces (fl.oz.) 29.57 millilitres (ml)
liquids) pints (pt} 0.47 litres (L)
u.s. quarts (gtl 0.95 litres (L)
gallons (gal) 3.79 Litres (L)
English fluid ounces (fl.oz.) 28.41 millilitres (ml)
pints (pt) 0.57 litres (L)
quartz (qt) 1.14 litres (L)
gallons (gal) 4.55 litres (L)
Mess or ounces (ozl 28.35 grams (g)
Weight pounds (lb) 453.6 grams (g)
A voir short tons (s. t.) 907.18 kilograms (kg)
dupois (2000 lb) 0.907 tonnes (f)
(16 oz - long tons (l.t. ) 1,016.05 kilograms (kg)
1 lbl 1.016 tonnes (t)
Troy ounces (oz) 31.104 grams (g)2
(12 troy
ounces* pounds (lbs) 373.341 grams (g)
1 lb; for
jewelers)
Tempers- degrees Fahrenheit (°F) 5/9 (after sub-degress Celsius (°C)
ture
Time Same units are used in both the Metric and English systems: second (s),
minute (min) and hour (h).
Speed or miles per hour (mph) 1.609 kiJometefs per hour (km/h)
Velocity feet per second (f/sl 0 . ~ metre per second (m/s)
knots 1
Frequency
(Radio, cycle per second (c/s) 1 hertz (hz)
FM,AM,
TV, etc.)
410
Powtlr
Elsctric
Current

Forctt
horsepower (hp) 0.746 kilowatt (kw)
ampere (A) (Some unit in both Metric and English systems)
British Thermal Unit 1.056 kilo joule (kj)
(BTU)
calories, int't table 4.187 joules (J)
(cal. IT)
caloriel, chermcH:hemicat 4.184 (J)
(all.)
pounct..force (lbf)
4.448 newton (N)
kilogram-force (kgf)
9.007 newton ff\1)
pound per square inch 6.895 kilo pascal (kPal
(psi)
pound per cubic inch 27.68:> grams per cubic centimetre
Ub/in3) (g'cml
1 last figure was rounded out, for ordinary uses, except those marked* which are exact.
2 The letter and figures enclosed in parentheses under this column are the symbols of the
measurement wms. Examples of use: 25.4 mm, 9m2, 32.°C, 110 km/h, 7 g/crrtl.
411
RULES AND GUIDES FOR USAGE OF Sl
Conversion Table from English to Metric Units:
LENGTH OR HEIGHT
ft ('I in (H)
=em
ft (')
in t"i =em ft (') in(") =em ft (') in(')
=em
1/8 0.3 1 4 40.6 3 2 99.1 5 0 152, 4
1/ 4 0.6 5 43.2 3 99.1 1 154.9
3/8 1.0 6 45.7 4 101.6 2 .. 157.5
1/2 1.3 7 48.3 5 104.1 3 160.0
5/8 1.6 8 50.8 6 106.7 4 162.6
3/ 4 1.9 9 53.3 7 109.1 5 165.1
7/8 2.2 10 55.9 8 111.8 6 167.6
1 2.5 11 58.4 9 114.3 7 170.2
2 5.1 2 0 61.0 10 116.8 8 172.7
3 7.6 1 63.0 11 119.4 9 175.3
4 10.2 2
66.() 4 0 ·121.9 10 1n.s
5 12.7 3 68.6 1 124.5 11 111>.3
6 15.2 4 71.1 2 127.0 6 0 182.9
7 17.8 5 73.7 3 129.5 1 185.4
8 20.3 6 76.2 4 132.1 2 188.0
9 22.9 7 78.7 5 134.6 3 190.5
10 25.4 8 81.3 6 137.2 4 193.0
11 27.9 9 83.8 7 139.7 5 195.6
1 0 30.5 10 86.4 8 142.2 6 198.1
1 33.0 11 88.9 9 144.8 7 200.7
2 35.6 3 0 91.4 10 147.3 8 203.2
3 38. 1 1 94.0 11 149.9 9 205.7
6 10 208.3 7 8 233.7 8 6 259.1 9 4 284.5
11 210.8 9 236.2 7 261.6 5 287.0
7 0 213.4 10 238.8 8 264.2 6 289.6
1 215.9 11 241 .3 9 266.7 7 292.1
2 218.4 u 0 243.8 10 269.2 8 294.6
3 221.0 1 246.4 11 271.8 9 2SJ7.2
4 223.5 2 248.9 9 0 274.3 10 299.7
5 226.1 3 251.5 1 276.9 11 302.3
6 228.6 4 254.0 2 279.4 10 0 304.8
7 231.1 5 256.5 5 281.9
To find the equivalent of height, length, width or thickness in ·metric unit, convert the
English units of feet (ft) and inches (in) to centimetric (em). The figure under the column
"em" is the nearest metric equivalent of the corresponding figures under "ft" and "in".
Thus, 5 ft. 4 in would be equivalent to 16.2.5 em or, rounded out, 163 em or 1.63 meters
(1 .63). 100 em = 1 m.
41i
Conversion Table from English to Metric Units
for Practical Uses
KNOW YOUR HEIGHT IN METRIC
ftl')
in( .. )
==
centimeters ft(' ) in(*)
=
centimeters
ft(l)
in(=) = centimeters
(em) (em) (em)
6' 11"
=
211 em
41
11"
=
150 em
21
11"
=
89cm
6' 10" 208cm
It"
10"
=
147 em
21
10'
1
=
86em
6' 9'" 206em 4
9 ...
=
145em
21
9"' ..
=
84em
6' 8"
=
203cm 4' 8"
=
142 em 2' 8"
=
a1 em
6' 7" = 201 em
41
7" 140 em 2' 7"
'"'
79em
6' 6"' = 198 em 4' 6"
=
137cm 2' s·
=
76 cm
61
5" = 196 em
4' 5" = 135 em 2' 5'"
=
74cm
6' 4" 193 em 4' 4" = 132cm
21
4" 7lem
6' 3" 191 em
41
3"'
=
130em
21 3H
=
69em
6'
2'" =
188 em
41
2*
.:::
127 em
21 2H
:c:
66 em
6'
, ..
= 185 em
41
1"
=
125 em
21
1"
=
64 em
6' 0"'
=
183 em 4' 0"
=
122 em
21 on
=
61em
5' 11"'
=
100 em 3' 11"'
= 119 em
,I
11"'
=
58 em
5' 10'"
=
178em 3' 10"
=
117 em
11
10"
=
56 em
5'

175 em 3' 9" 114 em
11
9"
=
53 em
5' a·
=
173 em 3' a"
=
112 em
,I
a· ~ 51 em
5' 7"
=
170cm
3' 7"
=
109cm 1' 7" 48em
5' 6"
::::
168cm
3' 6"
::;:
107 em 1'
6 ..
=
46cm
5' 5"
::::;
165cm 3' 5" = 104 em 1' 5"
=
43 em
5' 4"
=
163 em
31
4" 102cm
,.
4"' = 40cm
5' 3"
= 160 em 3' 3"
=
99cm
1 I 3,.
= 38 em
5' 2"
=
158 em 3' 2"'
=
97 em
1 I
2"
=
36 em
5' 1"
=
156cm 3' 1"
=
94cm 1' 1"
=
33 em
5' 0"
==
162cm 3' 0"
=
91 em 1' 0"
=
31 em
NOTE: This handy conversion table is designed to make it easy for a person to know his height or
measu"t the length of a baby in the metric unit, centimetre, which is used in most metric
countries for this purpose. A person 168 centimeters tall may conveniently say, in speaking,
that his height is One Six Eight See Em (168 em). Once metric units are widely used and
English units are no longer used, there will be no need for conversion tables like this one.
Where greater accuracy is needed to the first decimal point .
413
414
Sl PREFIXES
Name Symbol
Factor by which the Meaning
Unit is Multiplied (No. of times multiplied)
exa* E
1018
1 000 000 000 oOo 000 000
peta* p 1015
1 000 000 000 000 000
tera
..
T
1012
1 000 000 000 000
giga G 109 1 000000000
mega M 106 1 000 000
kilo K 103 1000
hecto"* h 102 100
deca
...
da 10 10
deci" d
10-1
0.1
centi c 10-2 0.01
mijli m
10-3
0.001
micro u 10-6 0.000001
nano
..
n
10-9
0.000 000 001
pi co
..
10-12 0.000 000 000 001 p
femto" f 10-15
0.000 000 000 000 001
attom

a
10-18
0.000 000 000 000 000 001
• Rarely used, mostly in highly scientific work.
•• Not preferred.
CONVERSION FACTORS
To Convert
Kip
lb
Kg
Kn
pai
kai
Mpa
ft-Kip
Kn M
Kip/ ft
Kp/ft2
psi
Kn/M
KN/ M2
To
KN
N
N
Kip
mPa
MPa
psi
Kn-m
ft Kip
KN/ m
KN/ m2
N/m2
Kip/ft
Kip/ ft2
Multiply By
4.448
4.448
9.81
0.2248
0.006895
6.895
145.0
1.356
0.7376
14.59
47.88
47.88
0.06852
0.02089
I I II I II
IIOJ: l 'lO ..
t 4CICOIIPLIIIIIIID BY
KAME OP OWl!U:A/APPLlC:AMT
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OFFICE OF THE BUILDING Ol'P'!OAL
IWIUICI Clft'
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APPI.ICATION FH
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DATE OF PIIOPOS&D
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416
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or IS1JI1..t)n;o.
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CHmF, f)J\'./UlC.
BIBLIOGRAPHY
1. National Building Code of the Philippines
Implementing Rules and Regulation
~
2. Mechanical and Electrical Equipment for Building 6th Edition Macguines, Stein Reynold
3. Good Housekeeping Book of Improvements
4. Better homes and gardens your walls & ceil ings
5. Finishing off additional rooms
Patrick J. Galvin
6. Parade Magazine 1979
7. Refrigeration and air conditioning
Richard C. Jordan
Gayle B. Priester
8. Philips Wire and cables- "Phllflex" brand
9. American Wire and Cable Co. Inc ... Duraflex" brand
10. Phelps Dodge Phi ls.lnc.
11. Alcatel Phi ls. Jnc. Telephone Communications
417
A
Air Cooling . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254
Air Conditioning ... .... .... ........ .. ... .. .... ..... .
Central Station .. ... . .. ..... .. .. .. ... . .. .. 256, 261
Air Motion .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 210
Air Spaces . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 210
Alternating Current .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. .. . 9
Alternating Wiring Technique .... ...... .... , .. . , . . 146
Aluminum Conductors .. .. . . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 47
Aluminum Conduit .... ....... , ...... .... .. . .. . , .. .. 60
418
Ampere ....... .... .. .... .. ....... .. .... ... .. . .......... 2
Systems .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 206
Automatic Transfer Switch ..... .. .. .. .. ... ..... .. . 97
Average Trip Time...... ........ .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 322
B
Baseboard Heating . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 252
Bell ..... ...... ... .... .. .. .... .... ..... , . .... ... ...... .. .. 288
Bellows .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 244
Biosphere .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . . .. .. .. .... 201
Branch circuit design . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144
Branch circuit guidelines .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. ... 148
Branch circuit loads .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . 164
Branch circuitrequirement .. ..... .. .. .. 146
Break glass . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 288
Brake ...... .. ...... .. .. .... .. .. ................... .. .. .. 314
Boxes ...... . .. ..... .. .. ... .. . . ... .. .. ... ... .. .... . 118
Busway . .. .......... ..... .. .... ... ..... .... ... 51
c
Cables. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 308
Cabs ...... ... . ... .. ...... ...... .... ... .. ... ... ......... 318
Cable bus .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 52
Cars... .. . .. ... .. ... .. ..... .. ...... ....... .. .. ..... . .... .. 308
Carspeed .... .. .... .... .. .... ........ . ....... ... ... ... 328
Car size . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 336
Car passenger capac·ity.... .. .... .. ... .. ... ... ..... .. 320
Ceiling raceways . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 70
Cellular mete! raceways .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 66
Cemral Cooling .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 260
Chimneys . ... . . .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. 218
Circuit breakers ... .. ... .... ...... , .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 99
Circulating pump .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 131
Circuit Protective devices. .... .... .. . .. ..... ... ..... 96
Circuit arrangements.. ........ ....... ....... .. .. .. ... 4
ClosedTliCIIWays ....... ...... .. .... ... .. . .. ...... .. . 56
Coalfifefumace .............. ....... .. .. .. ........ . 226
Coded system .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 288
Coded Manual Stations .... ............... , .. .. . .. 291
Components ..... .... .............. ....... ............ 364
Conductors .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . 43
general wiring .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 48
Conductor ampacity .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 44.
Conductors in conduit ... . .............. .. .. ........ 166
Conductors physical properties ... . . .. . .. .. .. .. . . 167
INDEX
Connection boxes..... .... .. .. ..... ...... .... ........ 59
Control Equipment .... .... ......... .... ...... .. .. .. 310
Contactors . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . . 96
Cooling .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 216
Cooling by absorption .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .... ,-:....... .. 259
Cooling tower .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 262
Copper conductors ... .. . .. .. .. ...... . .... ..... ..... 47
Convection..... . . . . . . .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. 206
Con1111rt0r .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 131
Convention;il wiring system.. . .... .. .. .... .. .... .. . 147
Conventional fireplace . .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . .. 241, 248
Conventional escalator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306
Counter weights .... .. .. .. .... .. .. .. .. .. ....... .... . 310
Current and wattage relationship ......... ...... 166
D
Device boxes ...... .. .. .. ... ... .......... ... .. ......... 115
Design procedure .......... ... .......... ...... ...... .
loadestimating .. ... ........ .... ......... .. ..... 136
Direct current . ...... ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9
Dimension and w6ights .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 339
Double deck elevator . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. 346
Ouctsizing .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. . .. 222
Dual duct . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. ZlO
Dual systems .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. 288, 297
357
E
Electricity . .... ... .. .. .. .. .... .. .. .. • 2
Electric CUI'rent .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 2
Electric potential .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .... .. .. .. . . . .. . 3
E!ectric Control .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. 306
Electric Closet .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 139, 140
Electric load control . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 13
Electric load estimating. .. ... .. ....... ... ... . ....... . 126
Electrical measurement.. ........ .. ... .... .. ........ . 19
Electric resistance .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 3
heating .. .. .. ... ... .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. ... . .. . .. .. .. 251
Electric Service .. .. .... .. . .... . ...... .. .. . .. ... .. ... 176
Electricspaces .. .. ......... .... .. .................... 137
8ectric 'wiring design .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . ....... .... 124
Electric motors .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 110
Electrical regulations.. ... ....... .... ...... ........... 24
Elevator arrangement .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 312
Elevator doors .... ... .... .. .. ...... ... . ,.. .... ..... 315
Elevator equipment .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 308
Elevator Intervals .......... ........ ... .............. . 320
8evator machine . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . 308
Elevator requirements .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 325
Elevatorselection ...... . .. .... .. .. ... ...... .......... 319
Emergency system .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 171
Energy conservation .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .... .. .. ....... 192
Energy requirements .. ... .. ..... ... ....... . , ....... .. 218
Entry Control .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 308
Equipment layout .... .. ...... .. . ..... .. .. ... . .. .. .. . .
Escalator .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. 359
Escalator arrangementt .. . . . . . .. . . .. .. . . . . . . .. . . . . 361
Size................................................ 363
Capacity .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 363
Speed ............................................. 363
Escalator capacity .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 363
F
Fireplace& .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . .. .. .. 238
Furnishing . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . 242
\'iidth .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 242
di:l'P."'sioos .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 246
F!fe .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 281
Fire .................................. ..
. .. . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. . 305
Fire detection .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 292
Flame detector .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 293
Aexible metal conduit .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . m
Floor raceways .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 63
Floor register . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 225
Floor box outlet....................................... 116
Form work . .. .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. 248
Freight elevators .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. • .. .. .. .. .. .. 254
FU118S ................................................... 98
Fuel storage tank .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 219
Furnece . ............................................... 221
Futible switch ..................................... ..
G
Ga8 fired boil8f .. .. • .. • . • .. . .. • .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 230
Geerteea elevator .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. 309
Geer1eea fraction machine .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. 311
Grounding .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. • .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 134
Groundfaultprotectlon ........................... 134
H
HVAC ................................................... 216
Heating .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 216
Heat Collection . .. • .. • .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 197
Heat conservation .. .. .. .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 190
Heat circulating fireplace . .. ............. .... .. .. .. . .239
Heatlosa............. .... .. •. .. .. .. .. .. ..... . . .. .. .. .... 109
Heat· flow . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. 205
Heattransferfactor .................................
Heat· pump .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . . .. . . . 266
Heat·stonlge . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . • . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 199
High rise core section .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 338
Hot·watef . .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . . .. .. 22i
Horizontal conveyors .. .. .. . .. . • . .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. . .. 369
House wiring svmbols .. .. . .. .. . . . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 159
Hvdronic and electrical contfOie .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 236
Hydraulic elevators .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. 349
Incremental air conditioning........................ .269
Incremental heating .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 268
Induction method .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. 268
Indoor humidity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
Ionization detectors . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 293
Insulators . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 1 17
IRtrusion alarm system . .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. .. .. 286
Intercom .. .. . . .. . . . . . . . . . .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. .. . . .. . 286
Interior wiring system .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. 42
J
Jacketed cables ...............................•.......
L
Lighting track................. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 56
load estimating . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125
load tabulation............................. ......... 161
local fire alarm system .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. .. . .. .. 288
M
Manual system .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 288
Manual stations .............. -:-:.................. . . . . . 290
Master coded system .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 288, 296
Mechanical regulations.............................. 35
Metel surface raceways . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. 61
Metabolism .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. 182
Metal fireplace ................... ... ................ 241
Metal hoods .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . . .. . .. . 245
Mineral insulated cable .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 49
Modular &Scalator . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . 369
Motor control.......................................... 111
Moving stairways .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 359
Moving walks.......................................... 375
N
National electric coda ............................. .
Natural ventilation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271
Non metallic conduit . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61
Non residential heat gain calculation . • . . . . . . . . . . 214
Non coded system . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. 288, 294
0
Ohmsl.aw ........................................... ..
Overhead service ................................... .
Over current equipment .................•.........
p
Panel board
Panel load
4
76
142
105
calculation .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 163
Paging system ..................................... ..
industrial.......................... . .. . . . . .. .. .. .. . 305
Passenger elevator .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 308
Power generation . . . .. .. . . . . . . .. .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to·
Power and energy . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 1 1
Electric circuit .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 11
Equipment .. .. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. .. 120
Precast cellular concrete .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 68
Pre wired distribution system .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. 72
Pre built fireplace .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 240
Pre signal system .. . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . .. . . .. .. .. . . . 288, 298
Psychometry .. .. .. . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. .. .. . . .. .. . . . . .. .. .. . 262
Psychometric chart . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 263, 264
R
Ramp ................................................... 375
Recycling of air .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 187
Receptacles . . . . . . . . .. .. .. .. . . . . . . . . .. . . . .. .. . . . . . . . . . 112
Reflective insulating glass .. .. . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . . . . 215
Refrig8fated cooling .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 254
Refrig8fation unit .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 258
Regiat81' . . . . . . .. .. . . . . . . . .. . .. . . . .. . . . . .. . . .. . . . . . . .. .. . 224
419
Riser diagrams .. .... ...... . .. .. .. ... . .. . ... ..... .. ... 168
Residential alarm ..... .... .... ......... .. .. ... .. ... ..
fire alenn. ....... ...... ... .. ........ . ... ... . . . . . . . . 280
Residential elevators ........ .. ... ..... .... . .. .. .. . .. 352
Residential heat gaix .. .... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 212
Roping .. .. ................... .. .. ....... .. ............ 312
Rolling shutters .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . 370
Romex cable ... .. .. ......... .... ........ . ...... .. .. .. .
Roundtriptime ... .... .... ...... .... ........ .. ....... . 323
s
Safetydevices .. .... . ...... .. .... .... ........... ..... 314
420
features .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. 389
Security system .. ... .. ... .. .. .... .... ..... .... .. .. .. ..
industrial.. ... ... .... .. .. .... . .... .. .. .... .. ... . .. . 301
Selective coded system .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 297
Service equipment .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. ....... ... .. 79
Service switch .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 83
Single zone sys1em .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. • 334
Shaft .... .... ....... .. .. ...... ...... ....... .. ...... ..... 310
Signal system.................... ..... ...... ...... ..... 278
Slant elevatOfs .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. 348
Solar collector .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. 200
Solar hot water .·...... ....... .. ... .. . ............. .... 202
Solar radiation . . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. 214
transmission .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. 214
Smoke guard . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . 370
Sound system ... .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. ... .. .. . .. . 286
Spec;ial switches .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. • .. .. .. 96
Splitbuspanel ...... ... ... ...... .. .. .. ... ...... .. .... 141
Special elevators .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . , .. .. .. 345
Special fittings .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . 236
Sprinkler alarm ..... , .. . .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . 297
Sprinlder vent ....... ... , .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. 320, 372
Spray nozzle .. . .. . .. . .. . . . . . . .. . .. . . . . .. . . .. .. . .. . . .. . 372
Stacking fireplace .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. 248
S t e . ~ m boilers . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . 229
Structural stresses .. .. .. .. .. .. ,. .. ...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 345
Substations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103
Switches .. .. .... .. . . " ..... .......... .. .. ...... .. ....... 84
Single pole .. .. ....... .... ............ .... ..... ~ . 96
Fourway... ........... .. .... .. ...... ...... ........ 92
Switch board . .. .. .. .. . . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. ... .. .. .. .. 170
Switch board & switchgear ........... .. ........... 102
Switchdevice .. .... ......... .... ..... ... .. .. ..... .. . 113
System voltage .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. . .. .. ... 129
System design .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. 286
T
Telephone system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ... . . . . . . . . . '1117, 299
Thermal equilibrium .. .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. .. .. .. . 182
Thermal heat<;iain .... ....... .......... . ..... !... ..... 183
Transformers .. . ...... .. .. ... .. .. .. .. .. ...... . .. .. .. .. . 79
TranSportation .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. . . .. .. .. .. D
Transmission through building . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. 211
Travel time .. .. .. .. .. . .... . .. .. .. .. .. .. ... . .. .. .. ... .. .. 322
Trouble signal . .. ............. .. ..... ......... .. .. ... 289
u
Underground service .. .. ...... . .. .. , . .. ............ , • 78
Wiring...... .... ..... .. .. .. .... ........... ...... ... 78
v
Ventilation .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. . .. . .. .. 216, 273
Vertical tnmsportation .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. .. . 305
Vertical conveyors...... .... .. .... .... ... ... ... .. ..... 359
w
Wann ai r heating . .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. . 220
System ................ .......................... 226
Wiring devioes .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . .. . .. .. . .. .. . 111
Win(jow unit ... . ..... ..... ..................... ....... 2S4
Wood carrier .... .. .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. . .. .. .. . .. .. .. .. .. .. 243
z
Zone coded svstam .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. .. . 286, 296

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