CHAPTER 7: PHILOSOPHY AND LEADERSHIP

INTRODUCTION GENERAL OUTLINE DETAILED OUTLINE KEY TERMS ANSWERS TO “QUESTIONS FOR DISCUSSION AND REVIEW” MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS ESSAY QUESTIONS TEACHING SUGGESTIONS ONLINE SELF-ASSESSMENT TOOL SUGGESTED READING Introduction This chapter examines thoughts on leadership from a historical context, beginning with the views of the Greeks and continuing through a discussion of the views of Thomas Hobbes and John Locke. Why are the views of pre-industrial theorists important? As we progress on our journey to form our own conception of leadership, we can learn from the ideas of philosophers throughout the ages, whose thoughts on leadership continue to shape the modern debate. General Outline The Greeks- The Leader as Harmonizer and Teacher Plato’s Republic- Ideal Leader in the Ideal City The Leader as Provider of Resources and Guide to Others Niccolo Machiavelli- The Pragmatic Leader Thomas Hobbes- The Leader as Enforcer John Locke- The Indirect Executive Leader Leadership Profiles Niccolo Machiavelli- The Pragmatic Leader Mahatma Gandhi -The Father of a Nation Detailed Outline The Greeks: Leader as Harmonizer and Teacher Homer's The Iliad, written during the time of the Trojan War, examines leadership through the depiction and analysis of a warrior. The warrior is distinguished from the farmer by virtue of his serving a different function. Different characters in this text represent different components of the ideal warrior. Writes Werner Jaeger, "the ideal of decisive action and physical prowess belongs to Ajax, cunning and warrior's guile to Odysseus, the unity of both of these qualities, as well as the possession of many other attributes belonging to the ideal warrior, are found in Achilles."

Plato’s Republic – Ideal Leader in the Ideal City Plato's views were unlike earlier approaches in that they were not driven by wars or other external threats. His focus was on morality and politics. In describing the political status quo, Plato's fundamental premise was that it is human nature to be selfinterested. Citizens can be divided into those who are strong and those who are weak. Those who are strong take advantage of opportunities and obey the law only when they fear the consequences of being caught. Leaders are the people who possess strength, cunning, and the ability to cultivate a believable facade that they are looking out for the interests of others. The public is thus duped into trusting the leader and believing that the leader is looking out for them, but ultimately the leader is only looking out for himself. Plato's ideal leader is thus one who is able to rise above these tendencies and act for the benefit of the whole. While Plato tended to see leadership qualities as innate, Socrates was more of the view that, through the proper education, one can gain the wisdom needed to become a leader. This wisdom was not the sort of wisdom used in day-to-day decisions, but rather was the wisdom "about the city as a whole and the betterment of its relations with itself and other states." The other primary distinction between Socrates and Plato concerns the role of the leader. To Socrates, the leader most closely resembled a physician, in that the leader possesses special knowledge or skills from which the populace can benefit. Plato views the ideal leader as a person with rare intellectual qualities who is able to act as a harmonizer and as an improver of those whom he or she leads. The Leader as Provider of Resources and Guide to Others St. Thomas Aquinas lived in the thirteenth century, an era dominated by the Church. Accordingly, leadership theory at that time was linked to the notion of a hierarchical structure, with God resting at the top. This view was developed and articulated by early Christian authors such as Augustine, Anselm, and Bonaventure. Aquinas's primary contribution was to integrate these ideas with the newly-recovered works of Aristotle. His "ideal monarch" was a person who best represented the virtues of the divine: namely, a concern for the quality of life and the virtue of one's subjects. The "ideal monarch" is the embodiment of the highest standards and serves to inspire those subjects who are loyal to him to reach a higher level of happiness and being. The Leader as Mediator of Individual Self-Interest Thomas Hobbes and John Locke lived during an era of great political upheaval in England, both domestically and abroad. Accordingly, their views on leadership were shaped by an emphasis on legitimate and effective political leadership. Thomas Hobbes

In Leviathan Hobbes described the natural human condition as being in a state c: war. Drawing on the works of Galileo and Descartes, he envisioned humans as being in constant motion in the political world, frequently clashing in an attempt to obtain power Civil war is seen as the inevitable consequence when a leader is not in control. Hobbes' solution is found in his Laws of Nature. These laws are based on a contractual agreement made between members of a society to put aside self-interest in order to create a peaceful society. The effective leader is thus one who is able to instill sufficient fear in the populace so that they will resist their self-interested tendencies and obey the contract. John Locke While Hobbes's Laws of Nature are based on reason and rationality, Locke points out that people are not always reasonable or rational. Locke promotes a system of government where the executive is subordinate to the legislature. The ideal leader is seen as one who is able to facilitate participation in major decisions and as one who can implement decisions made by the legislature. The leader is thus a moderator, £ protector of rights. Leadership Profiles Machiavelli – The Power of Deceiving Niccolo Machiavelli lived in an era dominated by commercialism and in many ways his views were the embodiment of this era. Machiavelli was not interested in imagining any "ideal" cities or societies. Rather, his focus was on providing advice to leaders in the "real world." His "ideal leader," represented in his text The Prince, is, above all, practical. The Prince is able to examine situations and to adjust his behavior accordingly. Thus, at times the Prince is kind-hearted and at other times the Prince is harsh. In contrast to previous theorists who extolled the "ideal leader" as virtuous, Machiavelli posits that the possession of virtue may be a hindrance to the Prince, as some situations call for vice above virtue. The primary characteristic that the Prince must have, asserts Machiavelli, is an ability to foresee future contingencies in order to bring them under control. Mahatma Gandhi – The Father of a Nation Gandhi was, and still is, respected as one of the greatest leaders of his time. His ideas have influenced several other leaders, including Martin Luther King Jr. The people of India called him Mahatma (great soul) and Bapu (Father). He was willing to stand by his beliefs in withstanding severe criticism, jail time, even physical illness, and was ready to face death rather than give up his ideals. He was truly the father of Indian independence. Key Terms

Ideal leader: The definition of the ideal leader has prompted much thought and debate throughout history. All of the theorists mentioned in this chapter have weighed in on this issue, drawing their inspiration from war, politics, philosophy, religion, and capitalism, among others. This topic is still hotly debated today, with every person having his own conception of an "ideal leader." Plato: According to Plato, it is human nature to be self-interested. The population cad divided into those who are weak and those who are strong. Those who are strong take advantage of opportunities to gain wealth, influence, etc, and only follow laws when the fear of being caught and punished is real. A leader is an individual who is cunning enough to dupe others into entrusting him with power. Thus, leaders tend to be strong, cunning and have an ability to cultivate a believable facade. All of the above describes the political status quo. His ideal city would be led by persons who love unchanging truth, hate untruth, are moderate with money, neither petty nor mean, do not fear death, have a good memory, and have acquired the virtue of wisdom. Socrates: Socrates was Plato's mentor and contemporary. Socrates believed that the truly wise leader was most interested in cultivating the potential of his followers. He used the metaphor of a physician tending to the sick. The physician possesses special knowledge and talents and then uses this knowledge to benefit the rest of the society. Forms: These are defined by Plato as the abstract ideas which are carriers of universal and immutable truth. According to Plato and Socrates, these ideas can only be accessed by learned persons who possess inborn wisdom combined with education in mathematics and philosophy. Thomas Aquinas: Aquinas's primary contribution to leadership theory is an integration of the previously suppressed views of Aristotle with the prevailing Christian philosophy Instead of a hierarchical model, leaders were seen as extensions of God. The role of the king was thus to be a role model to his subjects, working to cultivate virtue and embodying the highest standards. Thomas Hobbes: Hobbes viewed humans as possessing a native desire for power and viewed the natural human condition as one of universal war. These power drives will doom a society to conflict and turmoil unless there is a strong government authority and set of laws to maintain order. His solution is for citizens to form a social contract (Laws of Nature) whereby citizens agree to seek peace and put aside their selfish concerns in order to benefit the society as a whole. The role of the leader in this society is to sufficient fear in the populace, so that they do not break this contract in order to power. John Locke: Locke envisioned a system of government whereby a legislative branch creates laws and a subordinate executive branch is responsible for ensuring that these laws are carried out. Executive leaders are not directly involved either in legislation or in private matters. Rather, they work to ensure that people's rights are being respected and that the interests of the community at large are being served.

Laws of Nature: This is Hobbes' solution for creating peace in a populace innately driven toward war. This proposed document would instruct citizens to put aside their selfish interests in order to live in a more peaceful society. The cost of entering this contract would be a reduction in individual freedoms, but the benefit would be living in a peaceful society, in stark contrast to the great political and social turmoil characteristic of England during Hobbes's lifetime. Answers to "For Discussion and Review" 1. What are some of Plato's views on the nature of human beings and the characteristics of the ideal leader? Plato views people living in the "political status quo" as being primarily motivated by self-interest. "Strong" individuals take advantage of situations that can increase their status, wealth, etc., while "weak" individuals abide by the laws and do not always look out for themselves first- In this view, the "ideal leader" would possess the characteristics of strength, cunning, and the ability to cultivate a believable facade. In contrast, ideal leaders in his ideal city would be persons who have a combination of inborn leadership traits and acquired wisdom. These leaders would love unchanging truth, hate untruth, be moderate with money, neither petty nor mean, would not fear death and have a good memory. 2. How does Socrates' conceptualization of a leader differ from that of Plato? While Plato and Socrates both view leaders as possessing both inherited traits and acquired knowledge, the primary difference in their conceptualization of a leader comes from the role that they ascribe to the leader. Socrates makes the metaphor between the leader and the physician. Both strive to bring out the full potential of the individual person whom they are advising. Plato viewed leaders as serving in a more collective fashion, working to bring people together. 3. How did Thomas Aquinas's work contribute lo our understanding of leadership? What characteristics did he attribute to the "ideal leader"? Perhaps Aquinas's most notable accomplishment was the integration of the ideas of Aristotle (which had previously been suppressed) into the predominant Christian philosophy. He wrote, "the king...is to be in the kingdom what the soul is in the body, and what God is in the world." His "ideal leader" serves as a moral and spiritual role model for the populace, embodying virtue and working to cultivate virtue in his subjects. 4 What are the "Laws of Nature" and how are they beneficial, according to Hobbes? The Laws of Nature call for people to put aside their selfish interests and join in an agreement whereby individual liberties may be restricted in order to maintain peace. Having lived in a particularly turbulent era of England's history, Hobbes believed that it was human nature to be driven toward power and that the best way to avoid civil war was to enter a societal contract, enforced by a strong leader, not to pursue individual goals at the expense of others.

5. How do Hobbes and Locke differ in terms of their views on the amount of control people have over their lives? Hobbes and Locke both envision leadership as involving keeping the peace among the populace. However, Hobbes takes a more cynical view as to how much control people have over their own lives. He sees a "natural" drive for power which is so strong in people that the leader must resort to fear in order to keep these power drives in check. Locke, however, believes that people are more in control of their lives and thus leaders do not need as much direct involvement in maintaining order. The leader's role is to ensure that people's rights are being respected. Beyond that, the leader should let people manage their own affairs. 6. How are the views of each of the individuals presented in this chapter reflective of the culture and historical time period in which they lived? This question has no right or wrong answer and is also included as one of the recommended essay questions for this chapter. Each of the theorists discussed in this chapter was both shaped by and a changer of history. For example, would Hobbes have viewed people's inherit tendencies to be warlike if he had not lived in an era of civic and political turmoil in England? To what extent were Machiavelli”; views shaped by the mercantile values of the Renaissance and vice-versa? Strong answers to this question will attempt to place the view of each theorist in its historical context. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not a characteristic ascribed to the ideal warrior (Achilles), as represented by Homer in The Iliad? a. cunning b. morality c. decisive action d. physical prowess Answer: b 2. According to Plato, it is human nature to be: a. self-interested b. generous c. weak d. religious Answer: a 3. Which of the following theorists were contemporaries? a. Plato and Socrates b. Hobbes and Locke

c. Homer and Machiavelli d. a and b e. none of the above Answer: d 4. In describing a "truly wise leader," Socrates compares the role of this leader to the role of a(n): a. manager b. administrator c. physician d. lawyer Answer: c 5. Whose previously suppressed ideas were used by Aquinas to expand upon the prevailing Christian Platonism? a. Caesar b. Socrates c. Alexander the Great d. Aristotle Answer: d 6. According to Aquinas, a king should be to his kingdom what: a. a manager is to his/her employer b. God is to the world c. a parent is to his/her child d. a captain is to his/her ship Answer: b 7. Which theorist would be least comfortable describing an "ideal leader?" a. Machiavelli b. Socrates c. Hobbes d. Aquinas Answer: a 8. Mary Smith is a manager who always seems able to anticipate situations and bring them under her control. At times, her employees find her to be ruthless. At other times, she is seen as tender. She best exemplifies the qualities of an effective leader suggested by which of the following? a. Aquinas b. Conger

c. Machiavelli d. Locke Answer: c 9. The person who is identified with the belief that human beings are like material bodies in motion, with a native desire for power is: a. Machiavelli b. Socrates c. Hobbes d. Plato Answer: c 10. When the founding fathers of the United States organized a government based on the structure of a strong legislature responsible for enacting legislation balanced by an executive branch whose responsibility it was to enforce legislation, they were following a tradition laid out in this textbook by: a. Locke b. Plato c. Caesar d. Hobbes Answer: a Essay Questions 1. Compare and contrast the conceptualization of an "ideal leader" proposed by three of the following theorists: Socrates, Plato, Aquinas, Machiavelli, Hobbes, and Locke. 2. How are the views of each of the individuals presented in this chapter reflective of the culture and historical time period in which they lived? 3. Imagine Machiavelli as a political consultant in an American presidential race. What advice might he give to an aspiring candidate? 4. How have some of our conceptions of the “ideal leader" changed over time and in what ways have they stayed the same? Teaching Suggestions How would Plato, Socrates, Hobbes, and Locke describe President Bush, or any contemporary leader? Ask the class to debate this issue in groups of four with each student role playing one of these philosophers. An alternative is to ask these groups to discuss how corporate (or military or church) leaders function in our society. They might also debate the leadership styles of the two people profiled in the chapter. (Machiavelli, Gandhi)

Suggested Reading Koestenbaum, P. (2002). The philosophic consultant: Revolutionizing organizations with ideas. New York: Pfieffer.

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