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(BOOK ON CLEANLINESS)
Prepared by: Moulana YusuI Laher
Lesson One - Types oI Najaasah (Impurities) 03
PuriIication oI Najis things 04
Other liquids besides water 05
Solid objects 05
Najaasah Mughallathah 05
Najaasah MukhaIIaIah 05
Najaasah Mutawassitah 06
Exercise One 07
Lesson Two – Types oI water 09
Exercise Two 13
Lesson Three - Istinjaa 14
Lesson Four - Wudhu 16
Exercise Three 24
Lesson Five – Ten important points 26
Lesson Six – Ghusl (Bathing) 34
Exercise Four 38
Lesson Seven - Tayammum 40
Exercise Five 44
Lesson Eight – Masah Alal KhuIIayn 45
Lesson Nine – The Ma'thoor 48
Lesson Ten – Kitaabus Salaah – An Introduction 52
Salaah Table 59
ٰ-ْ ـ=´ ¸'ا ِ -ا ِ »ْ -ِ - »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ِ ¸
THE BOOK ON CLEANLINESS
ALL PRAISES ARE DUE UNTO ALLAH TA’AALA
who instructed us to be clean and expressed His love Ior those who
love to be clean in the Iollowing words in the Qur’aan ShareeI:
، َ ¸ـْ ,ِ ¸ـ +ـَ =ـَ -ـُ -ـْ 'ا ´ -ـِ =ـُ , َ و َ ¸ـْ ,ـِ -ا´ ,ـ´-'ا ´ -ـِ =ـُ , َ -ا ´ نإ
VERILY ALLAH LOVES THOSE WHO EXCESSIVELY
REPENT AND THOSE WHO PURIFY THEMSELVES.
Rasulullah ρ has said:
ن'ـَ -ْ ,ِ 'ْ 'ا ُ -ْ -ِ - ُ رْ,ُ +´ ='اَ و . ه ل'·و ي--¸-'ا -اور ¸-= -,-= ا- (
Cleanliness is halI oI Imaan.
Cleanliness does not only reIer to cleanliness oI the clothes and
body. Cleanliness (purity) is a very vast subject that includes;
cleanliness oI the Masjid, Madrasa, home, environment,
belongings, mind and heart, thoughts, actions, belieIs, etc.
It is imperative that we learn the Islamic laws regarding all these,
so that we can puriIy all Iacets oI our liIe. May Allah Ta’aala guide
us to His eternal pleasure, Aameen.
TYPES OF NAJAASAH (IMPURITIES)
There are two types oI Najaasah:
a) Najaasah Haqeeqiyyah (b) Najaasah Hukmiyyah.
Najaasah Haqeeqiyyah is divided into three types:
1) Mughallathah (2) MukhaIIaIah (3) Mutawassitah
1) Mughallathah (Major Najaasah). Dogs, swine, and whatever
comes out Irom their bodies.
2) MukhaIIaIah (Minor Najaasah). The urine oI a male baby less
than two years old who has consumed nothing but breast-milk.
3) Mutawassitah (Medium Najaasah). Every other Najaasah
Ialls under this category. Here are a Iew examples:
a) Wine or any other alcoholic beverage.
b) That which comes out oI the bodies oI man and animals,
except dogs and swine, e.g. urine, pus, etc. (Dogs and swine are
c) The urine oI a baby girl who is only breast-Ied.
d) Dead animals that have not been slaughtered according to
e) The hair oI non-slaughtered dead animals and the hair oI
animals that cannot be eaten.
I) The hide oI all non-slaughtered dead animals.
g) The milk oI animals that cannot be eaten.
h) Flowing blood.
1) II a hunting dog or arrow within the Shari’ah laws oI
hunting kills hunted animals, then both the skin and Ilesh oI
such hunted animals are pure.
2) The law regarding hair attached to an animal during its liIe
is the same as the law oI that particular animal. The hair and
wool oI animals that can be eaten are pure, provided that
they have been separated Irom a living animal or remained
on the animal at the time oI slaughtering.
3) The hide oI animals that cannot be eaten is impure even iI
the animal was slaughtered. These skins will only become
pure aIter tanning and washing.
PURIFICATION OF NAJIS THINGS
The laws will diIIer with regard to the puriIication oI water, other
liquids, and solids.
1) II the water is less than two Qullahs, (two Qullahs is
approximately two hundred litres oI water) adding more water
to it can puriIy it until it becomes at least two Qullahs, provided
there is no change in one oI the three qualities. Even iI the two
Qullahs are divided thereaIter, the water still remains pure.
2) The three qualities are; (a) colour, (b) taste, and (c) smell.
3) II the water is more than two Qullahs and has
become Najis due to a change in one oI the three qualities, it
becomes pure iI the change disappears. Removing some
water Irom it can also puriIy it, provided that the remaining
water is at least two Qullahs and the change has disappeared.
The third method oI puriIying it is by adding more water to it
until the change disappears.
OTHER LIQUIDS BESIDES WATER
1) Other liquids besides water, such as oil, vinegar, etc. can
never be puriIied, even iI it is a large amount and even iI the
Najaasah is removed.
2) Oil, Iat, ghee (clariIied butter), or other types oI Iat which is
solid and Najaasah has Iallen into it can be puriIied by
removing the Najaasah and the surrounding Iat. II it is liquid, it
cannot be puriIied.
This will be puriIied according to the Najaasah that it came into
That, which came into contact with dogs or swine or what they leIt
in a container aIter eating, must be washed seven times. One oI the
washes must be mixed with sand. It is recommended that the Iirst
or second wash be mixed with sand. Soap or any other cleaning
substance cannot take the place oI sand.
Thoroughly sprinkling the place with water will suIIice. Water does
not have to Ilow Irom it.
This Najaasah is divided into two types:
a) Ayniyyah (b) Hukmiyyah.
a) Najaasah Ayniyyah (also known as Mar’iyyah). This Najaasah
leaves behind traces, i.e. it has a physical body or Iorm that can be
tasted, smelt or seen. The Najaasah will Iirst be removed and then
the object will be thoroughly washed. II smell and colour remains,
it will not be puriIied. II due to diIIiculty one oI the two remains, it
will be considered puriIied. On the other hand, iI taste remains it
will not be considered puriIied. The taste has to be removed
b) Najaasah Hukmiyyah (also known as Ghayr Mar’iyyah).
This is a Najaasah, which does not have mass, colour, taste or
smell. An example oI this is urine, which has dried on clothes
and cannot be noticed. It suIIices to wash this type oI Najaasah
once. A second and third wash will be Sunnah.
This is divided into two types:
1) Hadath Asghar (lesser impurity. This Hadath is removed by
2) Hadath Akbar (greater impurity). This Hadath is removed by
taking a bath (Ghusl). Ghusl will become necessary Fardh aIter the
emission oI sperm, Haidh and NiIaas.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
1. Does cleanliness only reIer to cleanliness oI the body
2. Name the two types oI Najaasah?
3. In which category is the urine oI a male baby under
two years who has consumed nothing but breast milk.
4. To which category does the Najaasah oI dogs and
5. To which category do wine and alcoholic beverages
FILL IN THE BLANK SPACES
1. The law regarding hair attached to an animal during
its liIe is the ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ as the law oI that particular
2. II the water is less than two Qullahs, adding more
water to it can puriIy it until it becomes at least
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸, provided there is no change in one oI
the three qualities.
3. Other liquids besides water, such as ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸, etc.
can never be puriIied, even iI it is a large amount and
even iI the Najasah is removed.
4. Najasah Ayniyyah (also known as Mar’iyyah). This
Najasah leaves behind ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
5. Najasah Hukmiyyah (also known as Ghayr Mar’iyyah).
This is a Najasah, which does not have ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸,
¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸, ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸, or ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
TYPES OF WATER THAT CAN BE USED FOR
There are Iour types oI waters:
1) Mutlaq Water (pure and puriIying water). This type oI water
is required Ior the removal oI Hadath and Najaasah.
Mutlaq water is water which is in its natural state. This water is
derived Irom oceans, rivers, wells, rain, hail, snow, and springs.
2) Musta’mal water (used water). This is water that has already
been used Ior Fardh Wudhu or Fardh Ghusl and has gathered in
a container. Such water will not be used again Ior acquiring
Tahaarah, even though the colour, taste, or smell has not
changed. One is allowed to use such water Ior acquiring
Tahaarah when such water has gathered in a container that has
two ‘Qullahs’ or more water in it. Two Qullahs or more water
will be considered as Mutlaq water and can be re-used. Two
Qullahs is approximately two hundred litres oI water.
3) Mutaghayyar water (changed water). This is water that has
been mixed with a clean substance, e.g. saIIron, syrup, etc. This
water can be used Ior drinking and cooking but not Ior
4) Najis water (impure water). Any water which is less than two
Qullahs and impurity has Iallen in it, even though the colour,
taste or smell has not changed, or two Qullahs or more water
into which Najaasah has Iallen and changed the smell, taste or
colour, will be considered as unclean water and cannot be used
Ior acquiring Tahaarah, drinking or cooking, etc.
1) Very hot water. It does not remain Makrooh aIter it is cooled
to a useable temperature.
2) Very cold water. This water also does not remain Makrooh
aIter reaching a normal temperature.
These two waters are Makrooh because it is diIIicult to wash
the body parts thoroughly with them.
3) Water that has been excessively heated by direct sunlight and
kept in containers made oI metal besides gold and silver.
* Two Qullahs is approximately two hundred litres oI
* The three qualities oI water are smell, taste, and
* Mutaghayyar water, which has been changed by a
clean substance, cannot be used to acquire
Tahaarah, but iI it Ialls on clothes, the clothes will
not become Najis. Such clothes do not necessarily
have to be washed beIore perIorming Salaah.
* II a clean substance, e.g. Iragrant oil Ialls into
water and does not dissolve in the water, this
water can be used Ior Tahaarah even iI one oI the
three qualities changes.
* II water has been stored or kept standing Ior a Iew
days resulting in sand, moss or algae to settle in it,
or leaves Iell in it, this water can still be used Ior
Tahaarah. Water does not lose its puriIying ability
iI it changes due to long storage.
* Any other liquid besides water, such as milk,
vinegar, etc. will become Najis when something
Najis Ialls into it, irrespective oI whether it is two
Qullahs or less, this should not be consumed.
* It is Iorbidden to use utensils made oI gold and
* The Iollowing do not make the water Najis:
a) Such a Iine spray oI Najaasah, which the eye cannot see, gets
in the water.
b) Dead creatures without Ilowing blood, iI they Iall into the
water oI their own accord, or because oI the wind, or they grow
in water, provided they do not change one oI the three qualities
oI water. II these are thrown into the water, or they are so many
that one oI the qualities oI the water has changed, then this
water becomes Najis, irrespective oI whether the water is a
small or large amount.
c) II a cat whose mouth has become Najis (e.g. due to eating a
mouse) goes away Ior a while and thereaIter drinks Irom the water,
the water will not become Najis. II it drinks immediately aIter
eating the mouse, the water will become Najis iI it is less than two
Qullahs, or iI it is two Qullahs but one oI the qualities oI the water
THE LAW REGARDING DOUBTFUL WATER
II one is certain that the water was originally pure, but wonders
whether it has become impure, then this water can be used Ior
Tahaarah because oI being certain oI it being pure originally.
II one is certain that the water is impure but wonders whether it has
been puriIied, then this water cannot be used Ior Tahaarah because
oI being certain oI it being impure originally.
II one does not know whether the water is pure or not, then
consider the water as pure and use it.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
1. What kind oI water can be used Ior puriIication?
2. Where is Mutlaq water derived Irom?
3) Explain Musta’mal water?
4) What can Mutaghayyar water be used Ior?
5) Can Najis water be used Ior any purpose?
MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B
COLUMN A COLUMN B
1 Use oI very hot water A Two hundred litres water
2 Two Qullahs B Does not make water Najis
3 Fine spray oI Najaasah C Forbidden
4 Gold and silver utensils D Can be used
5 DoubtIul water originally
1 2 3 4 5
1) Istinjaa means to clean the private parts aIter passing urine or
2. Istinjaa can be made with water, lumps oI soil or toilet paper.
3. Istinjaa should not be made with printed-paper (e.g. newspaper),
paper that is meant Ior writing, impurities, glass and bones.
4. Cover the head with a Topi (KuIiyyah) or scarI and wear shoes
beIore entering the toilet.
5. Enter the toilet with the leIt Ioot and recite the Iollowing Du’aa
before entering the toilet.
، ِ -ِ -'َ -َ =ـْ 'اَ و ِ -ُ -ُ =ـْ 'ا َ ¸ِ - َ =ِ - ُ ذْ,ُ =َ أ ْ_ِّ -ِ إ ´ »ُ +'ّٰ 'َ ا
6. Do not sit longer than necessary in the toilet.
7. Leave the toilet with the right Ioot and recite the Iollowing
Du’aa after leaving the toilet:
َ = َ و ىٰذَ `ْا _ّ ِ -َ = َ -َ هْذَ أ ْىِ -´ 'ا ِ ª'ِ ' ُ -ْ -َ =ـْ'َ ا ، َ =َ -اَ ¸ْ -ُ = ' ، ْ_ِ -'َ ·
8. Remove rings, badges, etc. which have the name oI Allah Ι and
His Rasool ρ or a Qur’aan Aayah on it beIore entering the toilet.
9. Do not Iace the Qiblah when relieving oneselI or Iace the back
10. Do not relieve yourselI where others can see you.
11. Do not speak or reply to a Salaam while in the toilet.
12. Do not relieve yourselI under a tree, in a river or dam, pool or
where people walk or sit.
13. DO NOT RELIEVE YOURSELF WHILE
14. Wash your hands with soap and water aIter relieving
Wudhu means to wash certain parts oI the body in the manner
shown to us by the Qur’aan ShareeI and the Hadeeth.
Salaah and TawaaI oI the Ka’bah are not valid without Wudhu.
A person is not allowed to touch the Qur’aan ShareeI or make
Sajdah Tilaawah without Wudhu.
A person who makes Wudhu is called a Mutawadh-dhi.
FARAA`ID OF WUDHU
There are six Faraa`id in Wudhu:
1. The Niyyah (intention oI Wudhu). The Niyyah should be made
when Iirst washing the Iace.
2. Washing the entire Iace i.e. Irom the top oI the Iorehead to below
the chin and Irom one ear lobe to the other at least once.
3. Washing both hands and arms including elbows once.
4. Masah oI the head i.e. to pass a wet hand over the head. The
Masah should be at least done on one strand oI hair. The hair on
which Masah is made should be part oI the head and not on the
Iringe or on hair hanging at the nape.
5. Washing both Ieet including the ankles once.
6. Tarteeb i.e. order. This means to do the Iive Faraa`id in the exact
order mentioned above.
SUNAN OF WUDHU
There are sixteen Sunan in Wudhu:
1) To recite Ta’awwuth:
، ِ »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ِ ن'َ =ْ ,´ -'ا َ ¸ِ - ِ -'ِ - ُ ذْ,ُ =َ ا
، »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ِ ¸ـٰ-ـْ =´ ¸'ا ِ -ا ِ »ْ -ِ -
ThereaIter the Iollowing Du’aa:
، ِ -ِ ُ -ْ -َ =ـْ 'ا َ و ِ -ا ِ »ْ -ِ -
2. To wash the hands till the wrists.
3. To brush the teeth with a Miswaak.
4. To rinse the mouth.
5. To gargle the throat, iI one is not Iasting.
6. To pass water into the nostrils.
7. To make Khilaal oI the beard iI it is thick.
8. To make Masah oI the entire head thrice and not only just a Iew
strands oI hair.
9. To make Masah oI the ears.
10. Tathleeth i.e. to wash each part thrice.
11. Tayaamun i.e. to wash the right Iirst and then the leIt.
12. To wash more than the required amount, e.g. to wash the arms
higher than the elbows, to wash the Ieet above the ankles, etc.
13. To wash one part immediately aIter the other, beIore the Iirst
washed part dries.
14. To perIorm Wudhu by yourselI, without taking assistance Irom
anyone, unless necessary.
15. To recite the Kalimah Shahaadah while washing every part.
16. To Iace the Qiblah aIter completing Wudhu and to recite the
Kalimah Shahaadah and Du’aa aIter Wudhu.
The Du’aa aIter Wudhu:
َ =َ -'َ =ْ -ُ - ، َ ¸ْ ,ِ ¸ +َ =َ -ُ -ـْ 'ا َ ¸ِ - ْ_ِ -ْ 'َ ·ْ =ا َ و ، َ ¸ْ ,ِ -ا´ ,´ -'ا َ ¸ِ - ْ_ِ -ْ 'َ ·ْ =ا ´ »ُ +ّٰ ''َ ا
، َ =ْ ,َ 'ِ إ ُ بْ,ُ -َ أ َ و َ كُ ¸ِ -ْ ·َ -ْ -َ أ ، َ -ْ -َ أ '´ 'ِ إ َ ªٰ'ِ إ '´ ' ْنَ أ ُ -َ +ْ -َ ا ، َ كِ -ْ -َ =ِ - َ و ´ »ُ +ّٰ ''ا
The Iollowing Du’aa can be recited during Wudhu:
ا ْ_ِ ·ْزَ ر ْ_ِ · ْ_ِ ' ْكِ ر'َ - َ و ، ىِ راَ د ْ_ِ · ْ_ِ ' ْ_ -َ و َ و ، ْ_ِ -ْ -َ ذ ْ_ِ ' ْ¸ِ -ْ =ا ´ »ُ +ّٰ '' َ
The Iollowing can be said at the time oI Khilaal oI the beard:
ْ_ -َ ر ْ_ِ -َ ¸َ -َ ا اَ -َ ´ٰه
AADAAB AND MANDOOB ACTS OF WUDHU:
The seven Mustahabbaat oI Wudhu:
1) To Iace Qiblah during Wudhu.
2) To say the Niyyah verbally, not only in the heart, and to say it
right at the beginning oI Wudhu.
3) To use only the required amount oI water and not more.
4) Not to speak worldly aIIairs during Wudhu.
5) II one is wearing a ring, bangle, etc. to rotate them so that the
water reaches beneath them. II they are tight and water cannot
reach beneath them, it will be compulsory to remove them.
6) To make Khilaal oI the Iingers and toes.
7) To begin Irom the top when washing the Iace without
splashing the water on the Iace.
8) To let the body parts that were washed during Wudhu dry
naturally, without using a towel, unless one Iears becoming sick.
* Khilaal oI the beard means to pass the Iingers through
the beard iI it is a thick beard. Khilaal is Sunnah iI one
has a thick beard. Masah oI the thick beard will also
be made. II the beard is thin and the skin underneath
can be seen, then the skin has to be washed. II the
beard is thin and water cannot reach the skin without
Khilaal, then Khilaal will be Waajib.
Khilaal will be done immediately aIter washing the
* Khilaal oI the Iingers means to pass the wet Iingers
through each other. This will be done once, aIter
washing both arms.
* Khilaal oI the toes is made by passing the small
Iinger oI the leIt hand between the toes, starting
with the small toe oI the right Ioot and ending with
the small toe oI the leIt Ioot. First wash the right
Ioot and then make Khilaal. ThereaIter wash the
leIt Ioot and make Khilaal.
* II one is Iasting then do not gargle, just rinse the
mouth, and do not sniII the water high up into the
* When Iasting, the Miswaak can be used up to the
time oI Zawaal i.e. till the beginning oI the time oI
MAKROOHAAT OF WUDHU
The Iour Makroohaat oI Wudhu:
1. To wash the leIt beIore the right.
2. To let someone else wash your parts oI Wudhu,
unless you have a valid reason.
3. To waste water even iI there is plenty available.
4. To wash any part more or less than three times.
THE FACTORS THAT BREAK WUDHU
The Iactors that break Wudhu are called Nawaaqidh. The
singular is Naaqidh. II any one oI them occurs then Wudhu
breaks and has to be repeated Ior Salaah, etc.
The seven Nawaaqidh oI Wudhu:
1) When anything comes out oI the private parts such as urine,
stool, pus, stones, etc.
3) Becoming insane.
5) Becoming unconscious.
6) Touching the Iront or hind private parts with the palm or inside
oI the Iingers, even iI it is the private parts oI another person or
7. Touching oI the skin oI a strange man by a woman or woman by
a man, even iI it is husband or wiIe.
SUNNAH METHOD OF WUDHU
a) The Mutawadh-dhi should sit on a raised place and Iace Qiblah.
b) Recite Ta`awwuth, Tasmiyah and the Du’aa beIore Wudhu.
c) Make the Niyyah. The Niyyah can be made in the Iollowing
، ِ ءْ,ُ -ُ ,ْ 'ا َ ضْ¸َ · ُ -ْ ,َ ,َ -
(O Allah!) I intend to perIorm the Fard oI Wudhu.
d) Wash the hands till the wrists thrice.
e) Use a Miswaak to brush the teeth.
I) Wash the mouth and nose in the Iollowing manner: Take a
handIul oI water. From the handIul, take some oI that water into the
mouth and gargle, and Irom the same handIul, take the rest oI the
water into the nose and clean it with the little Iinger and the thumb
oI the leIt hand. Repeat this another two times i.e. altogether three
g) Repeat the Niyyah then wash the Iace thrice. The beard must
also be washed. II the beard is thick then the top oI the beard
should be washed. II it is thin then the skin underneath the beard
must also be washed.
The eyebrows, moustache and sideburns must also be thoroughly
washed. Khilaal oI the beard should be made with Iresh water.
h) Wash the arms beginning with the right and then the leIt, thrice.
Begin washing Irom the Iingertips till above the elbows. Make
Khilaal oI the Iingers.
i) Make Masah oI the head. Wet both hands and place them on the
Iront oI the head. Pull the hands Irom the Iront to the back and back
to the Iront again. This should be done thrice.
j) Wet the hands and make Mash oI the outside and inside oI the
ears thrice. Use the IoreIinger Ior the inside oI the ears and the
thumb Ior the outside.
k) Wash the Ieet beginning with the right and then the leIt, thrice.
Wash till above the ankles. Make Khilaal oI the toes.
l) Recite the Kalimah Shahaadah and the Du’aa aIter Wudhu.
This is the Sunnah method oI perIorming Wudhu.
A FEW IMPORTANT LAWS REGARDING WUDHU
II one sleeps in such a manner, that the buttocks remain Iixed to the
ground and wind has not been passed, then Wudhu does not break.
II a male has touched a strange Iemale or a Iemale has touched a
strange male with a material covering, Wudhu does not break.
‘Strange’ means such a person whom one is allowed to marry
immediately or in the Iuture. This strange person is called a ‘Non
II one touches a Mahram, the Wudhu does not break. Mahram are
those people whom one can never marry e.g. mother, daughter,
Iather, brother, nephew, niece, aunt, uncle, etc.
Cousins are Non Mahram.
II one is sure oI having made Wudhu, but doubts whether the
Wudhu broke or not, the Wudhu is still valid.
II one is sure the Wudhu broke but not sure whether a new Wudhu
was made aIter that, Wudhu will have to be made again.
II one Iorgot to wash a part in Wudhu and realized it aIterwards,
the entire Wudhu has to be repeated.
It is preIerable to be in the state oI Wudhu on the Iollowing
1. BeIore learning or teaching lessons oI Deen and beIore touching
2. BeIore entering the Masjid.
3. When carrying the Janaazah.
4. It is best to be in the state oI Wudhu at all times. Wudhu is a
means oI protection Irom Shaytaan and all types oI evil.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
1. Name the two types oI Najaasah Hukmiyyah?
2. How is Hadath Asghar removed?
3. Can a person touch the Qur’aan ShareeI without Wudhu?
4. Name the seven Mustahabbaat oI Wudhu.
5. What is the meaning oI Tarteeb?
CHOOSE THE CORRECT WORDS IN BRACKETS.
1. There are (Iive, six, seven) Faraa’id in Wudhu.
2. The Niyyah Ior Wudhu is (Sunnah, Fard).
3. To recite Tasmiyah at the beginning oI Wudhu is
4. Sleeping is Irom among the (Nawaaqidh, Mustabbaat) oI
5. The Kalimah Shahaadah is recited (beIore, aIter) Wudhu
COMPLETE THE FOLLOWING
1. Khilaal oI the Iingers means to pass ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
2. When Iasting, the Miswaak can be used up to ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
3. The Iactors that break Wudhu are called ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
The singular is ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
4. ‘Strange means such a person whom one is allowed to
marry ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸. This strange person is called a
5. II one Iorgot to wash a part in Wudhu and realized it
aIterwards, the entire ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸.
TEN IMPORTANT POINTS REGARDING TAHAARAH
NATURAL ACTS OF CLEANLINESS
ْ-َ 'َ '· '+-= -ا ¸-ر َ ªَ --ِ 'َ = ْ¸َ = : و ª,'= -ا _'- ِ -ا ُ لْ,ُ -َ ر َ لَ '·
»'- : و ُ كا, -'ا و ِ ª,ْ =''ا ُ ء'-ْ =إ و ِ بِ ر'ّ -'ا ´ ¸َ · ،ِ ةَ ¸=ِ -'ا ¸ِ - ٌ¸-َ =
'ا ُ ق'-ْ -ِ --ِ ا ـ - ـ و ِ =-`ا ُ -ْ -َ - و ِ »ِ =ا¸-'ا ُ .-َ = و ِ ر'-ْ =`ا ´ ¸َ · و ِ ء'
'ا ُ ص'-ِ --ا و ِ ªَ -'·'ا ُ ¸'َ = ـ - ـ ُ يوا¸'ا ل'· و ،ُ ء'=---ِ `ا _-·, ِ ء' ُ -,--
'ا َ ن,´- نأ 'ّ 'إ َ ة¸-'·'ا ـ ،ُ ª---- ) ص ة,´-- ،»'-- -اور 44 (
Hadhrat Aa’isha ) ﺎﻬﻨﻋ ﷲﺍ ﻲﺿﺭ ( narrates that Rasulullah ρ said: “Ten
things are Irom ‘Al-Fitrah’ – natural or inherent qualities; clipping
the moustache, lengthening the beard, using the Miswaak, taking
water into the nose, clipping the nails, washing the knuckles
(Iinger joints), plucking the arm-pit hairs, shaving the pubic hairs
and the pouring oI water i.e. Istinjaa.” (Use oI water aIter relieving
oneselI in the toilet).
The narrator says he Iorgot the tenth point, most probably it is
“rinsing oI the mouth.” (Mishkaat)
Rasulluah ρ described the Iollowing actions as “being Irom Al-
It means that even iI the Islam did not command us to do them, it
should be our natural desire to do so. However, since all the
Ambiyaa م`-'ا »+,'= have carried out these acts, and Rasulullah ρ
has told us to do them, we should Iollow in their Iootsteps.
THE TEN ACTIONS ARE:
1. TRIMMING THE MOUSTACHE
َ و َ = ِ - ْ , ُ - َ ز ْ , ِ - ِ ¸- َ ا ْر َ · َ ر » ِ - َ ¸ ا ْ -= - َ · ª َ ل' َ · َ ل' َ ر ُ - ُ ل, ِ -ا ´ '- ُ -ا _
َ = َ و ª,' ´ '- َ » َ ' ¸- ـ ْ» َ , ْ' ُ = ْ- ْ¸- َ - ِ -ر' َ · ª َ ' ْ , َ ¸ ِ - ´ - ' ) ¸· ي--¸-'ا -اور
_,=- ¸-= -,-= ل'·و ª·-'= ¸- نا----`ا ب'-آ (
Sayyidina Zayd ibni Arqam τ narrates that Rasulullah ρ said:
“Whoever does not trim the moustache is not Irom among us”.
This is a very severe warning Irom Rasulullah ρ. We should not be
neglectIul in this regard.
The moustache should be trimmed in such a manner that it does not
grow over the top lip-line. It is sinIul to let it grow over the lip-line.
2. LENGTHENING THE BEARD
َ = ِ - ْ , ِ ¸-ا - ُ = َ - َ ¸ َ ر ِ - َ _ ُ -ا َ = ْ - َ -+ ـ َ ا ' ´ ن ´ -'ا ِ - ´ ¸ ´ '- ُ -ا _ َ = ْ ,' ِ ª َ و َ - ´ ' َ »
َ · َ ل' : ِ ا ْ = ُ - ´ -'ا ا, َ بر' َ و ْ =ا ُ - ´ ''ا ا, ٰ= _ ) »'--و ير'=-'ا -اور (
Sayyidina ibni Umar τ narrates that Rasulullah ρ said: “Trim the
moustaches and lengthen the beards.” (/Muslim)
Keeping oI the beard was a practice oI all the Ambiyaa
(Alayhimus Salaam). It is the hallmark oI a Muslim. By
shaving or trimming, one deprives oneselI oI great reward.
All Sunnahs are valuable and important, but the
Miswaak holds a very great and sacred position, so
much so that there was a great likelihood oI it becoming
The Noble Rasool oI Allah ρ is considered to be the
Iirst dental educator in proper oral hygiene. He took
care Ior his own teeth and had the concern Ior the oral
hygiene oI others.
The Miswaak is a Sunnah of the Ambiyaa
· ª-= -ا ¸-ر ب,ّ ,أ _-أ ¸= ل' : و ª,'= -ا _'- -ا ُ ل,-ر ل'·
»'- : ْ 'ا ِ ¸َ -ُ - ¸- ٌ_-رأ ـ ْ 'َ ا ،َ ¸,'-ْ¸ُ - ـ 'ا ىو¸ُ , و ُ ء',َ = ـ ُ ¸´ =·´ -'ا و ُ ن'-=
،ُ ح'´ّ -'ا و ُ كا, -'ا و ) ص ة,´-- ي--¸-'ا -اور 45 (
Sayyidina Abu Ayyoob τsays that the Prophet oI Allah
ρ said: “Four things are Irom the Sunnah oI the
Ambiyaa: modesty, (in some narrations circumcision
comes instead oI modesty), applying oI Itar (lawIul
perIumes), to use a Miswaak and Nikaah - marriage.”
From among its major virtues, is the Iact that it (the
Miswaak) is the Sunnah oI the Ambiyaa. Fortunate and
blessed are those who use the Miswaak, IulIilling the
Sunnah oI the Ambiyaa. UnIortunate are those who
neglect this Sunnah. They are depriving themselves oI
practicing on the Sunnah oI not only one or two but oI
many Ambiyaa. Imagine the reward Ior an act that was
adopted by the chosen ones oI Allah!
Use of the Miswaak is a means of earning the Pleasure of Allah.
»'- و ª,'= -ا _'- ّ ¸--'ا ِ ¸= ª-= -ا ¸-ر َ ¸-= ِ ¸-ا ¸= :
,=- ªّ -'· ِ كا,-'ِ '- »´ْ ,'َ = ،_''َ ·َ - و َ كَ ر'-- ب¸'' ٌة'-¸َ - ِ »َ -'' ٌ ª-
) - ي--¸- ح¸- ـ ج ىد,=`ا ª-= 1 ص 35 (
Sayyidina Abdullah ibni Umar τ narrates Irom Rasulullah ρ:
“Make compulsory upon yourselves the use oI the Miswaak, Ior in
it lies the cleanliness oI the mouth and the Pleasure oI the Lord.”
The reward of Salaah after using a Miswaak is increased.
ْ-''· '+-= -ا ¸-ر َ ª--'= ¸= : ' ُ ك'--ُ , _-'ا ُ ة`-'ا ُ .--ُ - ـ '+
،ً '-·ِ - ¸َ ,·-- '+' ُ ك'--ُ ,` _-'ا ِ ة`-'ا _'= ) ج ى¸-´'ا ¸--'ا 1
ص 38 (
Hadhrat Aa’isha ) ر '+-= -ا ¸- ( says: “A Salaah perIormed aIter
using the Miswaak is seventy times superior to the Salaah
perIormed without Miswaak.” (As Sunanul Kubraa)
* Miswaak is a Sunnah oI Salaah, so should be used just
prior to Salaah.
* When Iasting, it should not be used aIter Zawaal –
aIter the sun passes its zenith, i.e. till the beginning oI
the time oI Thuhr Salaah.
* According to the narration oI Sayyidina Abdullah
Ibni Mas’ood τ, the method oI holding the
Miswaak is to place the small Iinger at the bottom
towards the end oI the Miswaak and the thumb at
the bottom towards the Iront (the brushing part) oI
it. The rest oI the Iingers should be placed on top.
The right hand should be used.
* Begin with the Miswaak on the right oI the top
teeth going towards the leIt and back towards the
right. ThereaIter clean the bottom teeth in the same
manner. The teeth can be brushed lengthwise or
breadth wise. It is preIerable to clean the teeth
breadth wise and the tongue lengthwise. The gums
should also be brushed. Also the back oI the teeth.
* Miswaak is a Sunnah Ior both men and women.
* It is Haraam to use a toothbrush made oI pig
bristles. It will be permissible to use one made oI
nylon. A toothbrush does not replace a Miswaak.
The virtues and reward oI Miswaak is not gained
when using a toothbrush.
4. CLEANING THE NOSTRILS WITH WATER
َ ªَ -'َ -ُ أ _ِ -َ أ ْ¸َ = τ 'ً `,ِ -َ = َ ¸َ آَ -َ · ´ _ِ -َ '´ -'ا َ ªَ -َ -َ = ُ ¸ْ - وُ ¸ْ -َ = َ ل'َ · َ ل'َ ·
_ِ -´ -'ا _َ 'َ = ِ ªِ -وُ -ُ · _ِ · ً `,ِ ,َ = ρ َ ل'َ · ، ِ ªَ -,ِ -ـَ -ـْ ''ِ - ِ ªْ ,َ 'َ = ِ ªِ -وُ -ُ · ´ »ُ ` ، َ ª´ ´َ -
ُ -ْ 'ُ · : ُ ªْ -َ = _ِ -ْ ` -َ = ؟ُ ء,ُ -ُ ,ْ 'ا 'َ - ِ ª´ ''ا َ ل,ُ -َ ر 'َ , . َ · َ ل' : ْ¸ِ - ْ»ُ ´ْ -ِ - 'َ -
ْ-َ =َ ¸َ = ´ `ِ إ ُ ¸ِ `ْ -َ -ْ -َ ,َ · ُ ¸ِ -ْ -َ -ْ -َ ,َ و ُ ¸ِ -ْ -َ -ُ ,َ · ُ -َ ء,ُ -َ و ُ ب ¸َ -ُ , ٍ .ُ =َ ر
ِ ء'ـَ -ـْ 'ا َ _َ - ِ ªِ -,ِ -'َ ,َ =َ و ِ ªِ -َ · 'َ ,'َ =َ = ) ى¸-´'ا ¸--'ا (
1. This Hadeeth mentions that the sins oI a person
emerge Irom him with the water that is used to clean the
nose in Wudhu. Thus, besides the physical cleanliness, a
spiritual cleanliness is also being achieved.
2. SniII the water Irom the right hand and clean the nose
with the small Iinger oI the leIt hand.
3) Blow the nose aIter entering water into it.
5. TRIMMING THE NAILS
1) It is a Sunnah Ior both males and Iemales to trim the nails oI
the hands and Ieet. Lengthening the nails, or keeping one nail
long should be avoided.
2) Trim the nails oI the right hand Iirst. Begin with the
IoreIinger and end with the thumb. ThereaIter the leIt hand in
the same manner.
3) Begin trimming oI the toenails Irom the small toe oI the right
Ioot and end on the small toe oI the leIt Ioot.
4) The nails will be trimmed as soon as they are long. The time
will diIIer according to the individual.
5) It is Mustahab to trim the nails on a Friday.
6) Do not bite the nails.
6. WASHING THE JOINTS
This is also necessary. Dirt tends to gather in the joints
oI the hands (between the Iingers) and Ieet (between the
toes). Washing them thoroughly will ensure their
7. REMOVING HAIR FROM THE ARMPITS
1) Removing hair Irom the armpits will help in eliminating body
2) It can be removed by plucking, shaving, or by using a
3) Although it should not be leIt Ior more than Iorty days, iI it is
quite lengthy beIore Iorty days, it should be removed. This will
diIIer Irom person to person.
4) First remove the hair Irom the right armpit and then the leIt.
8. REMOVING THE PUBIC HAIR
1) This is also necessary. This should also not be leIt Ior more
than Iorty days. The same as above, iI it is lengthy beIore Iorty
days, it should be removed.
2) Although it is best to remove it by shaving (Ior males), it is
permissible to remove it by plucking and by using a removing
For additional cleanliness, one should also remove the hair that
grows around the anus. This will assist in better cleanliness when
ل'َ · َ ةَ ¸ْ ,َ ¸ُ ه _ِ -أ ¸َ = : ُ -ا _´ 'َ - ِ -ا ُ لْ,ُ -َ ر َ ل'َ · َ »´ 'َ - َ و ِ ªْ ,'َ = : َ -´ -إ ـ 'َ -أ '
َ ªَ 'ْ -ِ -ْ 'ا ِ .ِ -ْ -َ -ْ -َ , `َ · َ =ِ -'َ ·ْ 'ا ُ »ُ آَ -َ =َ أ _ٰ-َ أ اَ ذِ 'َ · ، ْ»ُ ´ُ - 'َ =ُ أ ِ -ِ 'اَ ,ْ 'ا ِ ªَ 'ِ ¸ْ -َ -ِ- ْ»ُ ´َ '
، -,-='ا ، ِ ªِ -ْ ,ِ -َ ,ِ - ْ-ِ =َ -ْ -َ , ` َ و ، 'َ هْ¸ِ -ْ-َ -ْ -َ , ` َ و ) دواد ,-أ (
Sayyidina Abu Hurayrah τ narrates that Rasulullah ρ said: “I am
like a Iather unto you who teaches you. When any oI you relieves
himselI, he should not Iace Qiblah nor turn his back towards it. Nor
should he clean himselI using the right hand...” (Abu Dawood)
The subject oI Istinjaa has already been discussed in this book.
10. GARGLING THE MOUTH
1) As mentioned earlier, rinsing and gargling the mouth in
Wudhu is also a means oI removing sin.
2) Do not gargle iI Iasting.
Ghusl means to wash the entire body in the manner shown to us
by Rasulullah ρ.
At certain times, Ghusl can be Fard (compulsory) or Sunnah.
FARAA`ID OF GHUSL
The two Faraa`id oI Ghusl:
1) To make Niyyah (intention) Ior Ghusl.
2) To wet the entire body at least once.
SUNAN OF GHUSL
The Sunan oI Wudhu apply to Ghusl too, plus the Iollowing:
1) To wash each part oI the body thrice.
2) To perIorm Ghusl without taking help Irom anyone, unless
3) To let the body parts dry naturally without using a towel, unless
one Iears becoming sick.
4) To recite the Kalimah Shahaadah while washing every part. It
can only be recited iI the Satr (private parts) are covered during
THE SUNNAH METHOD OF GHUSL
a) Recite Tasmiyah. Make the Niyyah Ior Ghusl. The Niyyah can
be made in the Iollowing words: “I am perIorming Ghusl to
become Taahir i.e. to become clean and pure.”
b) Wash both hands including the wrists.
c) Wash the private parts and wash oII any impurities on the body.
d) PerIorm a Wudhu.
e) Repeat the Niyyah Ior Ghusl when beginning to wash the body.
I) Pour water over the entire body in the Iollowing manner:
a) pour water over head thrice and rub the hair, head and beard,
b) pour water over the right shoulder thrice and rub the body and
c) pour water over leIt shoulder thrice and rub the body
AADAAB (ETIQUETTE) OF GHUSL
1. Ghusl should be perIormed in a place oI total privacy so that
the private parts cannot be seen by anyone.
2. It is Haraam to expose ones private parts to anyone.
3. It is also Haraam to see the private parts oI another person.
4. Do not Iace Qiblah while perIorming Ghusl.
5. Ghusl can be perIormed while standing or seated, but it is
better to be seated.
6. Do not waste water when perIorming Ghusl.
7. Do not speak, recite Du’aas or Qur’aan ShareeI while naked.
A FEW IMPORTANT LAWS REGARDING GHUSL
1. When in the state oI Janaabah it is Iorbidden to perIorm
Salaah, recite or touch the Qur’aan ShareeI, perIorm TawaaI
and to remain in a Masjid.
2. Make sure that water reaches every part oI the body so that no
part is leIt dry. II any portion oI the body remains dry, the
Ghusl will not be complete.
3. II any portion remained dry during Ghusl and one realized it
immediately aIter the Ghusl, wash the part that has remained
dry. Do not repeat the entire Ghusl.
4. II one realized that a portion has remained dry aIter a long
period oI time has passed, then the entire Ghusl has to be
5. II water has gathered around the Ieet during Ghusl, then wash
them again aIter coming out oI that gathered water.
6. Water that has already been used should not be re-used. The
water should be Ilowing e.g. Irom a jug, shower, tap, etc. One
does not become Taahir by sitting in a bathtub oI water
because that water is not Ilowing away aIter use but is being
re-used. Fill a bucket with water and use a jug to scoop it out
and pour over the body.
7. Make sure that the hair is washed properly. When pouring
water over the head, rub it thoroughly. Rub the entire body to
ensure that no portion has remained dry.
8. When Iasting, make sure that the water does not go down the
throat when rinsing the mouth and it is not taken too high up
the nose when cleaning it.
FARD AND SUNNAH GHUSL
1. Ghusl is Fard when one is in the state oI Janaabah (impure).
Ghusl will become Fard aIter the completion oI Haidh, NiIaas, and
the emission oI sperm.
2. Ghusl is Sunnah on the Iollowing occasions:
1) BeIore Salaatul Jumu’ah.
2) BeIore both Eid Salaahs.
3) For Salaatul Istisqaa. This is a special Salaah perIormed
asking Allah Ι Ior rain.
4) For Salaatul KusooI (Salaah at the time oI the eclipse oI the
sun) and Salaatul KhusooI (Salaah at the time oI eclipse oI the
5) BeIore putting on Ihraam Ior Haj or Umrah.
6) BeIore standing on the Plains oI AraIaat during Haj.
7) On the three days oI stoning during Haj.
8) BeIore TawaaIul Qudoom, TawaaIul IIaadhah and TawaaIul
9) BeIore entering Makkah ShareeI.
10) BeIore entering Madinah Munawwarah.
11) AIter giving Ghusl to a Mayyit (deceased person).
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING
1. What is the meaning oI Ghusl?
2. How many Faraa’id are there in Ghusl?
3. Does the Sunan oI Wudhu apply to Ghusl too?
4. In which condition can the Kalimah Shahaadah be
recited in Ghusl?
5. Can Ghusl be made naked in a place where others can
see the one making Ghusl?
Write a short essay on the Sunnah method oI making Ghusl.
MATCH COLUMN A WITH COLUMN B
COLUMN A COLUMN B
1 Ghusl aIter the state oI
2 Ghusl beIore Salaatul
B Niyyah Ior Ghusl
3 Ghusl beIore both Eid
4 I am making Ghusl to
5 Ghusl aIter giving Ghusl
to the Mayyit
1 2 3 4 5
Tayammum is a means oI achieving Tahaarah through dust or soil.
This method oI Tahaarah is used in place oI Wudhu and Ghusl
when one cannot obtain or use water.
REASONS FOR MAKING TAYAMMUM
1) AIter searching, water could not be Iound in the near vicinity.
2) The use oI water will worsen or cause a sickness.
3) There is water available but it is only enough Ior drinking.
FARAA’ID OF TAYAMMUM
1) The Niyyah (intention oI Tayammum).
2) Wiping the entire Iace.
3) Wiping both hands and arms including the elbows.
4) Tarteeb i.e. order. First wipe the Iace and then the arms.
5) To do the Tayammum with two strikes on the soil. One strike
Ior the Iace and another strike Ior the hands and arms. To use a
single strike Ior both will be incorrect.
THE SHUROOT OF TAYAMMUM
Shuroot is the plural oI Shart. It means conditions. Shuroot reIers
to certain requirements that have to be met beIore Tayammum can
be made. They are as Iollows:
1) Water was searched Ior, but could not be Iound. II on a journey,
the possessions and transport should also be checked Ior water. It
is possible that there is water among the possessions, but one
Iorgot about it. Check on all sides (right, leIt, etc.) Ior water. II
there is a hill close by, climb it and check Ior water. Once the
person is satisIied that there is no water in the vicinity,
Tayammum will be permissible.
1) II there is any Najaasah on the limbs, remove it Iirst.
3) Soil with dust should be used.
4) The soil must be Taahir i.e. clean and pure. The soil should not
be ‘Musta’mal’, i.e. soil that has been previously used Ior
5) The time Ior Salaah should already have commenced. To make
Tayammum beIore the time oI the Salaah has commenced is
NOTE: The Tayammum should be repeated Ior every
THE SUNAN OF TAYAMMUM
1) To recite the Tasmiyah.
2) To wipe Irom the top oI the Iace.
3) To wipe the right beIore the leIt.
4) To make Khilaal oI the beard and Iingers.
THE NAWAAQIDH OF TAYAMMUM
1) Everything that breaks Wudhu also breaks Tayammum.
2) Tayammum breaks when water becomes available.
3) Tayammum also breaks when one becomes cured Irom the
sickness Ior which Tayammum was being made.
THE METHOD OF TAYAMMUM
1) The Mutayammim (one making Tayammum) should Iace
2) Recite the Tasmiyah.
3) Make the Niyyah. The Niyyah can be made in the Iollowing
، ِ ةَ `´ -'ا ِ ªَ ='َ -ِ -ْ -ِ 'ِ ' ُ »´ -َ ,َ -َ أ
I am making Tayammum so that I can perIorm Salaah.
The Niyyah will be made when striking the soil and wiping the
4) Strike the hands on the earth. The hands should be shaken to
remove the extra soil.
5) Wipe the Iace in the Iollowing manner: Place the Iingertips on
the Iorehead and the thumbs next to the ears. Pull the hands
downwards. The two little Iingers should wipe the nose. Wipe
the entire Iace as in Wudhu. This will be done once. Make
Khilaal oI the beard.
6) Strike the soil Ior the second time. Shake oII the extra soil.
7) Wipe the right arm Irom the Iingertips till above the elbow.
8) Wipe the leIt arm Irom the Iingertips till above the elbow.
9) The method oI wiping the arms is as Iollows:
Place the Iour Iingers oI the leIt hand under the Iingertips oI
the right hand. Draw these Iingers oI the leIt hand over the
outside oI the arm. AIter passing the wrist, clasp the Iorearm
with the Iingers oI the leIt hand and wipe till past the elbows.
Now turn the leIt hand towards the inner part oI the right arm
and draw towards the Iingers oI the right hand. Pass the inner
portion oI the leIt thumb over the inner portion oI the right
10) The same method will be used Ior the leIt arm.
11) Make Khilaal oI the Iingers.
The Tayammum is now complete.
The method oI Tayammum Ior Wudhu and Ghusl is the same (as
THINGS ON WHICH TAYAMMUM IS PERMITTED
1. Clean (Taahir) sand with dust.
2. Taahir earth.
THINGS ON WHICH TAYAMMUM IS NOT PERMITTED
7. Anything that burns to ash, melts or rots.
ANSWER THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS
1. What is the meaning oI Tayammum?
2. Will Tayammum be permissible iI water can be Iound in the near
3. Is Tarteeb Fard or Sunnah in Tayammum?
4. Can a single strike in Tayammum be used Ior both arms?
5. What breaks Tayammum?
FILL IN THE BLANKS
1. Tayammum ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ when water becomes available.
2. Shuroot reIers to certain ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ that have to be met beIore
Tayammum can be made.
3. The method oI Tayammum Ior Wudhu and Ghusl is the
4. Tarteeb i.e. order. First wipe the ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸ and then the arms.
5. Strike the hands on the earth. The hands should be ¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸¸
to remove the extra soil.
MASAH ALAL KHUFFAYN
MASAH ON LEATHER SOCKS
KhuII - singular KhuIIayn – dual
1) KhuIIayn is water resistant, durable socks, which Masah can
be made upon. Usually leather socks are used.
2) The KhuIIayn has to be so durable that one can walk with
them Ior the Iull period oI Masah.
3) The KhuIIayn should reach above the ankles.
4) A Muqeem (resident) can make Masah Ior twenty- Iour hours.
5) A MusaaIir can make Masah Ior seventy-two hours.
THE METHOD OF MASAH
1) Make a Iull Wudhu.
2) Put on the KhuIIayn.
3) When the Wudhu breaks and one wishes to make Wudhu
again, make a normal Wudhu. Instead oI washing the Ieet,
make Masah in the Iollowing manner:
(a) wet the hands, place the Iingertips oI the right hand on
the top oI the toes oI the right Ioot. The Iingers should
be spread apart.
(b) Place the leIt hand below the heel oI the right Ioot.
(c) Draw the Iingers oI the right upward towards the
arched instep. Draw the Iingers oI the leIt hand Irom
the heel to the toes.
(d) Wet the hands again and repeat the same procedure
with the leIt Ioot.
A FEW LAWS REGARDING MASAH
The twenty-Iour hours Ior a Muqeem and seventy-two hours Ior a
MusaaIir are counted Irom the time the Iirst Wudhu breaks
aIter putting on the KhuIIayn.
When the time expires and the person has Wudhu, then it will
suIIice to just remove the KhuIIayn, wash the Ieet and wear
the KhuIIayn again. The time will commence again. On the
other hand, iI when the time expires and the person does not
have Wudhu, it will be necessary to remove the KhuIIayn,
make a Iull Wudhu and wear the KhuIIayn again. Washing oI
the Ieet only will not suIIice.
When making Masah, pass the hands once over each KhuII. More
than one time is Makrooh.
It is Sunnah to pass the hand under the Ioot. However, to pass the
hand only under the Ioot without making Masah on the top oI
the Ioot is not enough.
II the KhuII tears or Ialls oII the Ioot, the Masah automatically
expires, even though the twenty-Iour or seventy-two hour
period is not up. II this happens and one has Wudhu, washing
the Ieet will suIIice. II one does not have Wudhu when this
happens, the entire Wudhu will have to be repeated beIore
putting on the KhuIIayn again.
Masah on the KhuIIayn is a substitute Ior washing the Ieet in
Wudhu only and not in Ghusl.
It is not permissible to make Masah on ordinary socks, gloves,
stockings, Topees (kuIiyyas), hats, turbans, etc.
CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER
1. The KhuIIayn has to be so durable that one can walk with them
Ior (the Iull period oI Masah, one week).
2. The KhuIIayn should reach (above, below) the ankles.
3. A Muqeem (resident) can make Masah Ior (twenty- Iour,
4. A MusaaIir can make Masah Ior (seventy-two, twenty-Iour)
5. KhuIIayn is (singular, plural).
A Ma’thoor is a person who, due to an ailment, cannot keep his
Wudhu Ior one Iull Salaah period. Examples oI ailments are;
Ilowing oI pus, breaking oI wind, dripping oI urine, etc.
II a person qualiIies as a Ma’thoor, although the person is in the
state oI impurity, he/she has to still perIorm Salaah. Because oI the
helpless condition, the person is excused Irom the normal state oI
Tahaarah. Ma’thoor means an excused person. Remember that the
person is excused Irom the normal state oI Tahaarah and NOT Irom
The following laws will apply to the Ma’thoor:
1) Wudhu will only be made aIter the time oI the particular
Salaah has entered. A Wudhu made beIore the time oI the
Salaah has entered cannot be used aIter the time has entered,
e.g. Wudhu Ior Maghrib Salaah will be made aIter sunset,
because the time Ior Maghrib Salaah begins aIter sunset. II
the Wudhu was made beIore sunset, it cannot be used Ior the
2) Impurities e.g. pus should be washed oII the clothes prior to
making Wudhu, or the clothes should be changed.
3) The wound should be tied with a cloth, etc. to decrease the
4) AIter making Wudhu, perIorm the Salaah as quickly as
possible. Do not unnecessarily delay between Wudhu and
5) Only one Fardh Salaah can be perIormed with a Wudhu.
Even iI a person is perIorming a Qadhaa Salaah aIter making
Wudhu, another Fardh Salaah cannot be perIormed with the
same Wudhu. Yes, aIter the perIormance oI the Fardh Salaah,
one can perIorm as many NaIl Salaah as one wishes, until that
particular Salaah time expires, e.g. during the time oI Thuhr,
Wudhu was made and the Fardh oI Thuhr was perIormed.
ThereaIter NaIl Salaah can be perIormed until the time oI
Thuhr ends. Once Thuhr ends, the Wudhu terminates.
NIYYAH FOR WUDHU FOR A MA’THOOR
، ِ ة'ّ '´ -'ا َ ªَ ='َ -ِ -ْ -ِ ا َ و ِ ثَ -َ =ـْ 'ا ِ _ْ ·َ ر ُ -ْ ,َ ,َ -
GHUSL AND WUDHU WHEN HAVING A WOUND,
BANDAGE OR CAST
II a portion oI the body has wounds and water cannot be used on
those parts, Tayammum will be made Ior those injured parts and
the other parts will be washed. Masah oI the injured parts must also
II the injured person is in the state oI Janaabat, or the injured
person is a Iemale who has completed her Haidh or NiIaas,
Tayammum can Iirst be made and thereaIter the uninjured parts can
be washed, or the uninjured parts can be Iirst washed and thereaIter
Tayammum can be made. Although one has a choice, it is better to
make the Tayammum Iirst.
It will still be Waajib to Iollow Tarteeb. Do not wash the next part
until the Tahaarah oI the Iirst portion is not complete. Example: II
one is washing and making Tayammum on the Iace, complete both
and then wash the arm.
A Tayammum will be made Ior each injury, e.g. iI there are two
injuries on the parts oI Wudhu, two Tayammums will be made, iI
there are three injuries, three Tayammums will be made.
II the injuries are on the Iace and arms, do the Iollowing: wash the
uninjured part oI the Iace and then Tayammum Ior the injured part
oI the Iace or the other way, i.e. Iirst Tayammum and then wash the
uninjured portion. ThereaIter wash the uninjured portion on the
arm, Iollowed by Tayammum Ior the injured part on the arm, or the
other way, i.e. Tayammum Iirst and then wash.
II a person who is in the state oI Janaabat has wounds on the non-
Wudhu parts, he will Iirst wash the uninjured parts and then make
Tayammum Ior the injured portion. When Hadath occurs thereaIter,
he will have to make Wudhu and not repeat the Tayammum that
was made in place oI Ghusl, because the Tayammum was Ior those
parts that are not included in Wudhu.
Wudhu must be made beIore tying a bandage or putting on a cast.
ThereaIter when making Wudhu again, Masah on the cast and
Tayammum will be necessary.
A PERSON WHO CANNOT USE WATER
A person who cannot use water will make Tayammum in place oI
Wudhu or Ghusl.
A PERSON WHO CANNOT USE WATER OR SAND
A person who cannot Iind water Ior Wudhu or sand Ior Tayammum
must perIorm the Fardh Salaah (in it’s proper time) and repeat it
when water or sand is Iound.
STATE WHETHER TRUE OR FALSE
1. A Ma’thoor is a person who, due to an ailment, cannot keep his
Wudhu Ior one Iull Salaah period.
2. Impurities e.g. pus should not be washed oII the clothes prior
Wudhu, or the clothes should not be changed.
3. AIter making Wudhu, perIorm the Salaah as quickly as
possible. Do not unnecessarily delay between Wudhu and
4. II a portion oI the body has wounds and water cannot be used
on those parts, Tayammum will be made Ior those injured parts
and the other parts will be washed. Masah oI the injured parts
must also be made.
5. II a person qualiIies as a Ma’thoor, although the person is in
the state oI impurity, he/she has to still perIorm Salaah.
Salaah is one oI the pillars oI Islam. Salaah is Fardh on every
Muslim, whether male or Iemale, healthy or sick, rich or poor,
young or old, traveller or resident. Regarding the importance oI
Salaah, take note oI the Iollowing Ahaadeeth:
It is narrated Irom Sayyidina Jaabir τ that Nabi Mohammed ρ said:
The barrier between KuIr and Imaan is neglect oI Salaah.
This Hadeeth means that a person who neglects Salaah is close to
Sayyidina Abdullah ibni Umar τ narrates that Rasulullah ρ said:
There is no Deen Ior a person who does not perIorm Salaah.
Verily the position oI Salaah in the Deen is like the position oI
the head in the body. (At Targheeb Wat Tarheeb)
A body cannot Iunction without a head. In the same way, a
person cannot claim to have Deen in him iI he is neglectIul oI
Verily, Salaah is the pillar oI Deen. (Kanzul Ummaal)
Sayyidina Tameem Daaree τ narrates: The Iirst thing that a servant
will be questioned about (on the day oI Qiyaamah) will be
Salaah. ThereaIter he will be questioned about all other
actions. (Kanzul Ummaal)
Sayyidina Jaabir τ narrates: The key oI Jannah is Salaah. The key
oI Salaah is puriIication. (Kanzul Ummaal)
Sayyidina Abu Sa’eed τ narrates: The person’s name who
intentionally neglects Salaah will be written on the door oI
Jahannam Irom which he will enter. (Kanzul Ummaal)
May Allah Ta’aala grant us all the guidance to establish Salaah
and may He accept it Irom us. Aameen.
THE SHUROOT OF SALAAH
These seven Shuroot have to be met beIore perIorming Salaah. II
any one oI them is not met, the Salaah will not be valid.
Islam. A person has to be a Muslim Ior the Salaah to be
The body oI the Musalli (person perIorming Salaah) must
be Taahir (clean).
The clothes must be Taahir.
The place where Salaah is being perIormed must be
It must be the correct time Ior Salaah.
The Aurah i.e. the private portion oI the body must be
covered. The Aurah oI a male is the area between the
navel and knees. To ensure that this area is not exposed,
cover the navel and the knees too. The Aurah oI a Iemale
is the whole body except the hands and Iace.
The Musalli must Iace Qiblah.
THE METHOD OF PERFORMING A
TWO RAKAAH SALAAH
Ensure that all the Shuroot are IulIilled.
Make the Niyyah oI the Salaah that you are about to
perIorm, e.g. I am perIorming two Rakaahs Sunnah Salaah
oI Fajr Ior Allah Ta’aala.
Face the Ieet towards Qiblah with a space oI
approximately 20cm in-between.
LiIt the hands to the ears in such a manner that the Iingers
are slightly apart, the thumbs are near the earlobes and the
palms are Iacing Qiblah. When liIting the hands, keep the
elbows away Irom the sides.
Say the Takbeeratul Ihraam :
ُ ¸َ -ْ آَ أ ُ -َ ا
Fold the hands above the navel but below the chest in such
a manner that the right hand is grasping the leIt Iorearm.
Keep your gaze on the place oI Sujood, i.e. the place
where your head will rest in Sajdah. The gaze should be
kept on the place oI Sujood during the entire Salaah,
whether in the standing or sitting position.
Recite the Du’aa ul IstiItaah:
'َ - ´ و 'ـً -ِ 'ْ -´ - ً '-ْ ,ِ -َ = َ ضْرَ 'ْ 'ا َ و ِ تاَ و'ـَ -´ -'ا َ ¸َ =َ · ْىِ -´ 'ِ ' َ ¸ِ +ْ =َ و ُ -ْ +´ =َ و
َ - َ و ْ_ِ ´ُ -ُ - َ و ْ_ِ -َ `َ - ´ نِ إ ، َ ¸ْ ,ِ آِ ¸ْ -ُ -ـْ 'ا َ ¸ِ - 'َ -َ أ ـ - َ و َ ي'َ ,ْ = َ ـ - َ ـ ِ -ِ ْ_ِ -'
َ -َ أ َ و ُ تْ¸ِ -ُ أ َ =ِ 'اَ -ِ - َ و ، ªَ ' َ =ْ ,ِ ¸َ - َ ` َ ¸ْ,ِ -ـَ ''َ ·ْ 'ا ّ ِ بَ ر َ ¸ْ ,ِ -ِ 'ْ -ُ -ـْ 'ا َ ¸ِ - '
Recite the Ta’awwudh and the Tasmiyah Iollowed by
، ِ »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ِ ن'َ =ْ ,´ -'ا َ ¸ِ - ِ -'ِ - ُ ذْ,ُ =َ أ
=´ ¸'ا ِ -ا ِ »ْ -ِ - ْ ـ ، ِ »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ِ ¸ٰ-
Say ‘Aameen’ at the end oI Surah Faatihah. ThereaIter
recite the Tasmiyah Iollowed by a Surah. II you are
reciting Irom the middle oI a Surah, then do not recite the
Now proceed to Ruku’ in the Iollowing manner: LiIt the
hands to the ears, say the Takbeer and go into the Ruku’
position. Hold the knees with your hands, keep the back
and head straight and in line.
Recite the Tasbeeh oI Ruku’ at least thrice:
، -ِ -ْ -َ =ِ - َ و ِ »ْ ,ِ =َ ·ْ 'ا َ ¸ -َ ر َ ن'َ =ْ -ُ -
When standing erect Irom Ruku, say the Tasmee’ oI
Ruku’ while getting up and also liIt the hands to the ears.
When standing erect Irom Ruku’, keep the gaze on the
place oI Sujood.
Tasmee’ oI Ruku’
َ _ِ -َ - = ْ¸َ -ـِ ' ُ -ا َ ـ ، -َ -ِ -
ThereaIter say the Tahmeed oI Ruku’:
، ُ -ْ -َ =ـْ 'ا َ =َ ' 'َ -´ -َ ر
Now, saying the Takbeer, proceed to the Sajdah position.
First place the knees, then the hands and then the nose and
Iorehead on the ground. Keep the Ieet Iirmly on the
ground. Do not liIt them oII the ground during Sajdah.
Keep the arms separated Irom the sides oI the body. Do
not rest the arms on the ground.
Recite the Tasbeeh oI Sajdah at least thrice:
، -ِ -ْ -َ =ِ - َ و _ٰ'ْ =َ 'ْ 'ا َ ¸ -َ ر َ ن'َ =ْ -ُ -
Now get up saying the Takbeer and sit between the two
Sajdahs. Sit with the leIt Ioot under the buttocks and the
right Ioot kept upright in such a manner that its toes are
Iacing Qiblah. This sitting position is called IItiraash.
Place the hands on the thighs just above the knees. Keep
the gaze on the lap.
The sitting between the two Sajdahs is called Jalsah.
Recite the Tasbeeh oI Jalsah:
، ْ_ـِ -ـِ ·'َ = َ و ْ_ِ -ْ -ـَ =ْرا َ و ْ_ِ ' ْ¸ِ -ْ =ا ´ »ُ +ّٰ ''َ ا
ThereaIter saying the Takbeer proceed Ior the second
AIter completing the second Sajdah, say the Takbeer and
sit Ior a short while again. This is called the Jalsatul
Now get up Ior the second Rakaah by placing the
hands on the ground and pushing oneselI upwards.
Begin the second Rakaah with Ta’awwudh and Tasmiyah
but do not recite the Du’aa ul IstiItaah again. Complete
this Rakaah as you had done in the Iirst Rakaah. AIter the
second Sajdah oI this Rakaah, sit in such a manner that the
buttocks are now on the ground, the leIt Ioot pushed out
on the right side and the right Ioot upright with its toes
Iacing Qiblah. This sitting position is called Tawarruk.
The hands will be kept on the thighs near the knees. The
leIt hand will be kept Ilat but the right hand will be held
closed except the IoreIinger. Keep the IoreIinger extended
resting on the thumb.
Recite the Tashah-hud, point the IoreIinger when saying
‘Illallaah’ and keep the Iinger suspended until the end oI
the Salaah. Keep the IoreIinger still and do not move or
'َ +ـ´ ,َ أ َ =ْ ,َ 'َ = ُ مَ `´ -'ا ، ِ -ِ ُ ت'َ - ,´ ='ا َ و ُ تاَ ,َ '´ -'ا َ و ُ ت'َ آَ ر'َ -ُ -ـْ 'ا ُ ت'´ ,ِ =´ -'َ ا
ِ -ا ِ د'َ -ِ = _ٰ'َ =َ و 'َ -ْ ,َ 'َ = ُ مَ `´ -'ا ، ªُ -'َ آَ ¸َ - َ و ِ -ا ُ ªَ -ـْ =َ ر َ و ´ ¸ِ -´ -'ا
ِ ''´ -'ا ـ ْ -َ أ َ و ُ -ا '´ 'ِ إ َ ªٰ'ِ إ '´ ' ْنَ أ ُ -َ +ْ -َ أ ، َ ¸ْ ,ِ = - ´ نَ أ ُ -َ + ُ ـ ، ِ -ا ُ لْ,ُ -´ ر اً -´ -َ =
Recite the Durood (Salawaat):
- _ٰ'َ = ّ ِ .َ - ´ »ُ +ّٰ ''َ ا ُ ـ - ِ لٰا _ٰ'َ = ´ و ٍ -´ -َ = ُ ـ َ »ْ ,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ _ٰ'َ = َ -ْ ,´ 'َ - 'ـَ -َ آ ٍ -´ -َ =
ُ - _ٰ'َ = ْكِ ر'َ - َ و ، َ »ْ ,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ ِ لٰا _ٰ'َ = َ و ـ - ِ لٰا _ٰ'َ = ´ و ٍ -´ -َ = ُ ـ ٍ -´ -َ = 'ـَ -َ آ
َ = َ =´ -ِ إ َ ¸ْ ,ِ -ـَ ''َ ·ْ 'ا ْ_ِ · َ »ْ ,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ ِ لٰا _ٰ'َ = َ و َ »ْ ,ِ هاَ ¸ْ -ِ إ _ٰ'َ = َ -ْ آَ ر'َ - ـ ٌ-ْ ,ِ -
´ - ـ ، ٌ-ْ ,ِ =
Recite the Du’aa aIter Durood:
َ -ْ -َ أ '´ 'ِ إ َ بْ,ُ -´ -'ا ُ ¸ِ -ْ ·َ , 'َ ' َ و ، اً ¸ْ ,ِ `َآ 'ـً -ْ 'ُ = ْ_ِ -ْ -َ - ُ -ْ -َ 'َ = ْ_ -ِ إ ´ »ُ +ّٰ ''َ ا ،
َ =ْرا َ و َ كِ -ْ -ِ = ْ¸ - ً ةَ ¸ِ -ْ ·َ - ْ_ِ ' ْ¸ِ -ْ ='َ · ـ ، ُ »ْ ,ِ =´ ¸'ا ُ رْ,ُ -َ ·ْ 'ا َ -ْ -َ أ َ =´ -ِ إ ، ْ_ِ -ْ -
Make the Salaam to the right and then to the leIt
، ِ -ا ُ ªَ -ـْ =َ ر َ و ْ»ُ ´ْ ,َ 'َ = ُ مَ `´ -'ا
The two Rakaah Salaah is now complete.
DIFFERENCES IN THE SALAAH OF A FEMALE
Females should press their Iingers together when liIting the hands
Ior the Takbeer.
When liIting the hands Ior the Takbeer, keep the elbows to the
sides. LiIt the hands up to the shoulders.
Press the elbows to the sides in Sajdah.
In Sajdah press the thighs against the stomach.
Keep the hands close to the Iace and the knees together in Sajdah.
Fajr 2 2
Thuhr 2 2 4 2 2
Asr 4 4
Maghrib 2 3 2
Eshaa 2 4
Witr 1 to 11
Jumu’ah 2 2 2 2 2
WRITE SHORT ESSAYS ON THE FOLLOWING:
1. The importance oI Salaah
2. The Shuroot oI Salaah
3. DiIIerences in the Salaah oI a Iemale
، ُ »,ِ 'َ ·ْ 'ا ُ _ْ ,ِ -´ -'ا َ -ْ -أ َ =´ -إ ، '´ -ِ - ْ.´ --- '-´ -َ ر
، »ْ ,ِ ¸َ ´ْ 'ا ّ ¸ِ -´ -'ا _'َ = ُ -ا _´ 'َ - َ و
=ا ªِ -ْ =َ - َ و ªِ 'ٰا _'َ = َ و ْ ـ ، ¸ْ ,ِ ·َ -
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