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Modals that express speculation and deduction

A. Speculation and deduction about the present Modal verb COULD MIGHT MAY MUST Idicates certainty It cant be her birthday, she had a Indicate certainty, in relation party in August. to impossible ideas and They couldnt possible be here situations before lunchtime. It couldnt possibly be a case of mistaken identity, could it? Couldnt it be a comuter error? Explanation Example It could be a sea eagle, though the feathers look too dark. That star you are looking at might in fact be Jupiter. The solution may be to readvertise the job.

COULDNT/ COULD NOT

B. Speculation and deduction about the past Modal verb COULD HAVE MIGHT HAVE MAY HAVE MUST HAVE CANT HAVE COULDNT HAVE Expresses near-certainty about something in the past Explanation Example It could have been Greg you saw on the bus. That dinosaurs might have survived without the meteor impact. I think I may have met you before.