Oracle grid interview QsAns

What is component of sag? SGA is a memory structure component of Oracle instance. SGA is system global area is allocated whenever an instance is startedalong with SGA background process also gets started up.the components of SGAa)Shared pool1)Library cache2)Data dictionary cache.b)DBBCdata buffer cachec)RLBC- redo log buffer cached)java poole)Large poolall five components together called as SGA Difference between VIEW and MATERIALIZED VIEW? Views are the latest snapshot of the database at any instance of time. whereas Mat Views are the snapshots of Database at aparticular instance.For E.g.: If there exists a table Imp containing 10 records against which there is a view Like (Select emp, emptied from emp)and there exists a MAT view with the same query( Select emp, emp_id from emp), if you fire a query at let say 10.15 am as SELECT* FROM EMP_VIEW This will return 10 records, If you fire the same query against MVIEw it will return 10 records. If at 10.30 I insertone more record in emp table and then If I fire a query SELECT * from EMP_VIEW it will return me 10 rows but the MVIEW querywill still return me 10 rows as it is the snapshot of the database at 10.15 What is Drawback of cursor? Cursor fetches the record in a row by row process. It takes some more time. so in oracle 8i there is a concept that is bulk into andbulk bind. Why oracle is the best database ? Oracle is best database because it follows more codes rules as compare to other database system . What is place holder column? where we can use other than formula column? Place Holder column is created in reports<bra><bra>A placeholder is a column for which you set the data type and value in PL/SQLthat you define. Placeholder columns are useful when you want to selectively set the value of a column (e.g., each time the nthrecord is fetched, or each time a record containing a specific value is fetched, etc.). You can set the value of a placeholder column inthe following places: the Before Report Trigger, if the placeholder is a report-level column a report-level formula column, if theplaceholder is a report-level column a formula in the

placeholder's group or a group below it (the value is set once for each record of the group)<bra>1)random number located in stochastic by means we can't catch such a number stored procedure .stop the process by function ,atposition {1,1,1,1,1,1,0,-1,-2,-3} stop location zero left counting for example six ,a function create a stored data .At right ascendingorder by start to end position located in variable. in that suited we are easy to get a value from right position of ZERO.<br>ZEROLEFT is called as GROUP.<br>ZERO RIGHT is called as ORDER.<br>BOTH by product is PLACEHOLDER.<br><br>2)(I)critical inend: collection of objects raise error, at THIS. time.<br><br>(ii)normal in front end: if we write sequence, Automatic reply without usemathematical expression. example scroll up and down. What is the difference between groupby and orderby? Group by is used to group set of values based on one or more values. Order by is to sort values either in ascending or descendingorder group by is always used with having clause whereas we do not use having clause with order by.

List out differences between Oracle Server 9i and Oracle Server 10g. 10 G supports grid computing, ASM (Automatic storage management )and Memory management.In 10g there is another pool including java pool and large pool that is pool and oem graphical tool is not automatically built it has tobe created. Explain truncate with restore option with example 12.0pt;margin-left:0in;tab-stops:495.0pt'>TRUNCATE cannot be roll backed i.e. restore cannot work on TRUNCATE.So while truncating a table if u feel you might need the data later use DELETEinstead of TRUNCATE which can be roll backed.E.g. DELETE from table nameTruncate apply on a table when we want the retain storage will be reuse in feature Then apply REUSE TRUNCATE CLUSTER personnel REUSE STORAGE;otherwise its default drops storage. How to get a calendar in date field in oracle forms? 1)Set the LOV of the item for which calendar to be attached as ENABLE_LIST_LAMP LOV, which is included in the TEMPLATEform.2)Set ?Validate from List? to 'No' in the property palette of that item .3)Then in KEY?LISTVAL trigger of that item writecalendar. show; Explain the nvl2 function Syntax:- - nvl2(expr1,expr2,expr3)In nvl2 if expr1 evaluates to NULL then expr3 is returned and if it evaluates to some value itreturns expr2.for e.g. select nvl2(commission_pct,'SAL+COMM','SAL') from employees;if commission_pct is having null value thenSAL will be displayed else SAL+COMM. Which command is used to define CONNECT and RESOURCE as the default roles for user JAMES?a. ALTER USERb. ALTER ROLEc. SET ROLEd. SET PRIVILEGE The ALTER USER command is used to define the default role(s) for a user. Which is not a

system privilege?a. SELECTb. UPDATE ANYc. EXECUTE ANYd. CREATE TABLE SELECT, INSERT, UPDATE, DELETE, EXECUTE, and REFERENCES are object privileges. SELECT ANY, UPDATE ANY, etc. aresystem privileges. Which data dictionary view can be queried to see whether a user has the EXECUTE privilege on a procedure?a. DBA_SYS_PRIVSb. DBA_TAB_PRIVS


you must set the parameter QUERY_REWRITE_ENABLED to TRUE and QUERY_REWRITE_INTEGRITY toTRUSTED. CREATES INDEX? FUNCTION BASED ?D. account status.The DBA_TAB_PRIVS. USER_TAB_PRIVS and ALL_TAB_PRIVS views show information about the object privileges. creation date. and locking date along with the user?s table spaceassignments. andPASSWORD_LOCK_TIME is specified in days. but no DML operations are allowed during the move Which keyword is not valid of the BUFFER_POOL parameter of the STORAGE clause? The BUFFER_POOL parameter specifies a buffer pool cache for the . Queries are allowed onthe table. etc. CREATE FUNCTION INDEX?B. Which dictionary view shows the password expiration date for a user? The DBA_USERS view shows the password expiration date. To enable a functionbased index. None of the above No keyword needs to be specified to create a function-based index other than to specify the function itself. You can specify new table space and storage parameters. CREATE INDEX ? ORGANIZATION INDEXC. What clause is in the ALTER TABLE command is used to reorganize a table? The MOVE clause is used to reorganize a table. Which resource specifies the value in minutes? CONNECT_TIME is specified in minutes. profile. CPU_PER_SESSION is specified in hundredths of a second. Which data dictionary view shows statistical information from the ANALYZE INDEX VALIDATE STRUCTUREcommand? The INDEX_STATS and INDEX_HISTOGRAMS views show statistical information from the ANALYZE INDEXT VALIDATESTRUCTURE STATEMENT Which keyword should be used in the CREATE INDEX command to create a function ?based index?A.

Thisproblem can be avoided by either setting a higher PCTFREE value or specifying a larger block size at database creation. You can remove the bad rows or fix the column valuesand enable the constraint. What is row migration? Row migration is the movement of a row from one block to a new block.table or index. The KEEP pool retains the blocks in theSGA. the ROWIDs of the rows that do not satisfythe constraint are saved in the table specified in the EXCEPTIONS clause. What can cause the Snapshot too old error? Smaller rollback extents can cause Snapshot too old error if there are long-running queries in the database . . and the DEFAULT pool is for objects for whichKEEP or RECYCLE is not specified. This occurs when a row is updated and its new size cannotfit into the free space of the block.. Oracle moves the row to a new block. RECYCLE removes blocks from SGA as soon as the operation is completed. why would you specify the EXCEPTIONS clause? If you specify the EXCEPTIONS INTO clause when validating or enabling a constraint. leaving a pointer in the old block to the new block. When validating a constraint.

INITRANS reserves space for the transactions in the block.What is the minimum number of extents a rollback segment can have? The roll back segment should always have at least two extents. the MINEXTENTS value shouldbe two or more. A transaction slot is used by Oracle when the data block isbeing modified. . When creating a rollback segment. DBA_EXTENTS shows all the extents that are allocated to a segment. Which data dictionary view would you query to see the free extents in a tablespace? DBA_FREE_SPACE shows the free extents in a tablespace. Which parameter specifies the number of transaction slots in a data block? INITRANS specifies the number of transaction slots in a data block.

Fro example. itupdates the . SQL address. How would you determine how much sort space is used by a user session? The V$SORT_USAGE shows the active sorts in the database. where is the before image information (which can be used for undoing the changes)stored? Rollback segment. Oracle updates only the control file. Which operation is permitted on a read ? only tablespace? A table can be dropped from a read-only tablespace. Oracle does not remove the data files thatbelong to the tablespace. When a table is dropped. username.The INCLUDING CONTENTS clause is used to drop a tablespace that is not empty. it shows the space used. Italso provides the number of EXTENTS and number of BLOCKS used by each sort session.the undo information (before-image of data ) is stored in the rollback segments. What are the recommended INITIAL and NEXT values for a temporary tablespace. if you r sort area sizeis 64 kb and database block size is 8KB. and the username.This information is used to undo the changes and to provide a read-consistent view of the data. provide the default storage of the temporary tables as (INITIAL 136K PCTINCREASE 0MAXEXTENST UNLIMITED). you need to do it manually using an OS command. Oracle does not have to update the data file. and hash value. Keep PCTINCREASE equal to zero. to reduce fragmentation? The recommended INITIAL and NEXT should be equal to each other and it should be a multiple of SORT_AREA_SIZE plusDB_BLOCK_SIZE to reduce the possibility of fragmentation. How would you drop a tablespace if the tablespace were not empty? Use DROP TABLESPACE <TABLESPACE NAME> INCLUDING CONTENTS. Before any DML operation .When a table is updated. The V$SORT can be joined with V$SESSION or V$SQL to obtain more information on the session or the SQL statement causing the sort.

you avoid the risk of a single point of failure. When you create a control file. INVALID means the file is not accessible. The MAXLOGMEMBERS database parameter specifies the maximum number of membersper group. the database has to be: Not mounted. DELETED means the file is no longer used. List the steps needed to rename a redo log file . When does the SMON process automatically coalesce the tablespaces? When the PCTINCREASE default storage of the tablespace is set to 0.dictionary tables. 2) use an OS command to rename the redo log file. how many disks does Oracle recommend to keep theredo log files ? You should keep a minimum of two redo log groups. and blank statusmeans the file is in use. Any change to data or creation of new objects is not allowed in a read-only tablespace. or the status can be blank. The maximum number of redo log groups is determined by theMAXLOGFILES database parameter. How many ARCn processes can be associated with an instance? You can have a max of 10 ARCn processes associated with an instance. What are the valid status codes in the V$LOGFILE view? Valid status codes V$LOGFILE views include STALE. STALE means the filecontents are incomplete. What is the biggest advantage of having the control files on different disks? By storing the control file on multiple disks. Oracle recommends that youkeep each member of a redo log group on a different disk. 3) STARTUP MOUNT. with a recommended two members in each group. DELETED. and 6) back up the control file. Which data dictionary view provides the names of the control files? V$CONTROLFILES shows the names of the control files. 4) ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE ?oldfile? TO ?newfile?. Shut down the database. If you have two redo log groups with four members each. . 5) ALTER DATABASE OPEN. If you mount the database it automatically opens the database. INVALID. You can manually coalesce a tablespace by using ALTERTABLESPACE <TABLESPACE NAME> COALESCE.

b. Re-create the control file using the new name. What is the default password for the SYS user? The default password for the SYS user is CHANGE_ON_INSTALL.What piece of information is not available in the control file? The instance name is not available. Shut down the database.c. and restart the database after changing theCONTROL_FILES parameter. MAXLOGMEMBERS. Shut down the database. You should change thesepasswords once the database . It specifies the maximum number of archived redo log files for automatic media recovery .MAXLOGFILES specifies the maximum number of redo log groups that can ever be created in the database.MAXDATAFILES ? specifies the maximum number of data files that can be created in this database. most recent checkpoint information. rename the control file by using an OS command.e. Put the database in RESTRICTED mode and issue the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command.If you want to change any of these limits after the database is created. MAXLOGHISTORY. tablespace names. because Oracle pre-allocates space in the control file. data files.MAXLOGHISTORY ? is used only with Parallel Server configuration. MAXDATAFILES.MAXINSTANCES ? specifies the maximum number of instances that can simultaneously mount and open this database. Which clauses in the CREATE DATABASE command specify limits for the database? The control file size depends on the following limits (MAXLOGFILES. What is the best method to rename a control file? Use the ALTER DATABASE RENAME FILE command.MAXLOGMEMBERS ? specifies the maximum number of redo log members (copies of the redo logs) for each redo log group. The control files include the following: Database name the control file belongs to. and for SYSTEM it is MANAGER.MAXINSTANCES). change the CONTROL_FILES parameter. Data files are created when youcreate a tablespace. current logsequence number. database creation timestamp. and start up the database. redo log files . you must re-create the control file. and Recovery Manager‘s backup information. or add more space to a tablespace by adding a data file.d.

bsq. How many data files can be specified in the DATAFILE clause when creating a database ? You can specify more than one data file. The SYS and SYSTEM users are created when the database is created. Which script creates the data dictionary views? The catalog.Optimal Flexible Architecture is a set of guidelines to organize the files related to the Oracle database and software for better management and performance . Which command should be issued before you can execute the CREATE DATABASE command? You must start up the instance to create the database.sql script creates the data dictionary views. The files specified cannot exceed thenumber of data files specified in the MAXDATAFILES clause. Who owns the data dictionary? The SYS user owns the data dictionary. What does OFA stand for? OFA. The base tables for these views are created by the script sql. which isexecuted when you issue the CREATE DATABASE command. . Connect to the database by using the SYSDBA privilege and start theinstance by using the command STARTUP created. the files will be used for the SYSTEM tablespace.

Security Manager allows you to change the security privileges for users and roles.These tools provide complete database administration . age resource allocations and long-running sessions. Storage Manager. Which view has information about users who are ghranted SYSDBA or SYSOPER privilege? A dynamic view of V$PWFILE_USERS has the username and a value of TRUE in column SYSDBA if the SYSDBA privilege isgranted. Using SQL*Plus.Storage Manager allows you to manage tablespaces. and profiles. data files. including advanced queries and Java-stored procedures. and archive logs.via GUI tools (vs.Schema Manager allows you to create. based on thefilenames specified in the CONTROL_FILES parameter of the parameter file Which DB administration tools are included in the DBA Studio Pack? The DBA Management Pack is a set of tools integrated with the OEM . rollback segments. view and change memory allocations.Instance Manager allows you to startup or shut down an instance. alter.You can clone any object. and can be accessed by using the OEM. redo log groups. Schema Manager. if you omit the parameter name. modify parameters. If you provide parameter name. or a value of TRUE in column SYSOPER if the SYSOPER privilege is granted. and Security Manager . SHOW ALL in SQL *Plus will display the SQL *Plus environment . its value is shown. roles.How many control files are required to create a database? You do not need any control files to create a database.through DBA Studio. which helps administrators with their daily routine tasks. and archival status. SQL *Plus). and create and alter users. list two options which show the value of the parameter DB_BLOCK_SIZE? The SHOW PARAMETER command (SHOW PARAMETERDB_BLOCK_SIZE or SHOW ALL) will show the current value of the parameter. all the values are shown. redologs.The DB Studio Pack includes Instance Manager. or by individually accessing each tool. or drop any schema object. the control files are created when you create a database.

he receives an error that his session is terminated. Which parameter in the ORAPWD utility is optional? The parameter ENTRIES is optional. Which role is created by default to administer databases? The DBA role is created when you create the database and is assigned to the SYS and SYSTEM users. This can beaccomplished in one step by using STARTUP OPEN READ ONLY. The password file created willbe used for authentication. User SCOTT has opened a SQL * Plus session and left for lunch. When using SHUTDOWNIMMEDIATE. How do you make a database read-only? To put a database into read-only mode.not the parameters. . You terminated SCOTT?s session in V$SESSION? When you terminate a session that is INACTIVE. the changes are rolled back and an error message is written to the user?s screen. When an ACTIVE session iskilled. you can mount the database and open the database in read-only mode. Oracle waits for the users to either commit or roll back their pending transactions. 13. theSTATUS was INACTVE. You must specify a password file name and the SYS password. Which SHUTDOWN option will wait for the users to complete their uncommitted transactions? When SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL is issued.Once all users have either rolled back or committed their transactions. When SCOTT tries to performany database activity in the SQL *Plus window. SHUTDOWN NORMAL waits for the user sessions to disconnect from the database. the user sessions are disconnected and the changes are rolled back. Which two values from the V$SESSION view are used to terminate a user session? The session identifier (SID) and the serial number (SERIAL ) uniquely identify each session and both are needed to kill a session. the STATUS in V$SESSION will show as KILLED. When you queired the V$SESSION view.settings. the database is shut down.

Finally.) STARTUP FORCE shuts down the instance if it is already running and thenrestarts it. STARTUP NOMOUNT. addingor dropping redo log files . The SCN is a unique number acting as an internaltimestamp. Name the parts of the database buffer pool. the SCN number is assigned to the rollback statement tomark it as a transaction committed.List all the valid database start-up option? STARTUP MOUNT.The keep buffer pool retains the data block in memory. In other words. and STARTUP FORCE. When is the system change numbers assigned? System changed numbers (SCN) are assigned when a transaction is committed. (if you have problems starting up an instance. and the default buffer pool. What is the minimum number of redo log files required in a database ? .STARTUP NOMOUNT is used for creating a new database or for creating new control files.The recycle buffer pool removes the buffers from memory when it?s not needed. STARTUP MOUNT is used for performing specific maintenance operations such as renaming data files. recycle buffer pool.The default buffer pool contains the blocks that are not assigned to the other pools. used for recovery and read-consistent queries. The database buffer pool consists of the keep buffer pool. STARTUP FORCE is used to start a databaseforcefully. enabling or disabling archive logging. renaming. or for performing a full database recovery .

Which component of the SGA contains the parsed SQL code? . PL/SQL procedures. and the column names against the dictionary .Parse also determines theoptional execution plan and finds a shared SQL area for the statement. When a SELECT statement is issued. The library cache contains the shared SQL areas. which stage checks the user?s privileges? Parse checks the user?s privileges. and control structures. Changes are made to the database throughinsert. alter. Which component in the SGA has the dictionary cache? The dictionary cache is part of the shared pool. update. but are not yet written to the disk. and packages. private SQL areas. Which memory structures are shared? Name two. delete.The large pool is an optional area in the SGA.The minimum number of redo log files required in a database is two because the LGWR (log writer )process writes to the redo logfiles in a circular manner. or drop commands. Which memory structure records all database changes made to the instance? The redo log files holds information on the changes made to the database data . create. syntax correctness. The shared pool also contains the library cache and control structures. What is a dirty buffer? A dirty buffer refers to blocks in the database buffer cache that are changed.

The library cache contains the parsed SQL code. During parsing.LGWR. Oracle willuse the parsed code and execution plan from the library cache. and stores its parsed representation there. It is created by Oracle for each individual SQL. The process monitor is a background process (DBWn. . PMON. one shared server process takes requests from multiple user processes List components of an Oracle instance? An Oracle instance is comprised of memory structures and background processes. What is implicit cursor and how is it used by Oracle? Answer: An implicit cursor is a cursor. In other words. The Oracle database consists of the physical components such as data files. If a query is executed again before it?s aged out of the library cache. which is internally created by Oracle. Describe a parallel server configuration. theparallel server option lets you mount the same database for multiple instances. In a parallel server configuration multiple instances known as nodes can mount one database . In a multithreaded configuration.The Systems Global Area (SGA) and shared pool are memory structures. and the control file. redo log files . ARCn. Oracle allocates a shared SQL area for the statement in the librarycache. any others??). What are the various types of queries? Answer: The types of queries are: • Normal Queries • Sub Queries What is a transaction? Answer: A transaction is a set of SQL statements between any two COMMIT and ROLLBACK statements.

2.BEGINcur := DBMS_SQL.g. public synonyms. . implements a binary wrapper for PL/SQL programs to protect the source code.You can runthe following select statement to query the size of an existing package or procedure.The language includes object orientedprogramming techniques such as encapsulation. function overloading. Just be careful.. all your PL/SQL is send directly to the databaseengine for execution. The syntax is: wrap iname=myscript.sql oname=xxxx. the maximum parsed/compiled size of a PL/SQL block is 64K and the maximum code size is 100K. • What is implicit cursor and how is it used by Oracle? Answer: An implicit cursor is a cursor.BEGINfile Handler := UTL_FILE.FCLOSE(fileHandler).CLOSE_CURSOR(cur). Thisis done via a standalone utility that transforms the PL/SQL source code into portable binary object code (somewhat larger than theoriginal).EXECUTE(cur).OPEN_CURSOR.DBMS_SQL. tables.FOPEN('/home/oracle/tmp'.UTL_FILE.Before Oracle 7.'W').DECLAREfile Handler UTL_FILE.SQL*Plus and SQL*DBA will still understand and know how to execute such scripts. there is no "decode"command available.UTL_FILE.parameter). The directory you intend writing to has to be inyour INIT. which is internally created by Oracle.PUTF(file Handler. available with Oracle7.This way you can distribute software without having to worry about exposing your proprietary algorithms andmethods.2.PARSE(cur. and so. Is there a PL/SQL Engine in SQL*Plus? Answer: No.END. information hiding (all but inheritance).1 one can use the DBMS_SQL package to execute dynamic SQL statements. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).. SQL*Plus does not have a PL/SQL engine.E.3 is a UTL_FILE package that can read and write files. 'Value of func1 is %sn'. Thus. SQL> select * from dba_object_size wherename = 'procedure_name' Can one read/write files from PL/SQL? Answer: Included in Oracle 7. How can I protect my PL/SQL source code? Answer: PL/SQL V2. brings stateof-the-art programming to the Oracle database server and a variety of Oracle tools.3 the only means of writing a file was to use DBMS_OUTPUTwith the SQL*Plus SPOOL command. Unlike Oracle Forms.'CREATE TABLE X (Y DATE)'.: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DYNSQL AScur integer. triggers and packages? Answer: Public synonyms What is PL/SQL? Answer: PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL. DBMS_SQL. It is created by Oracle for each individual SQL.END. 'myoutput'.yyy Can one use dynamic SQL within PL/SQL? ALTERNATIVELY. func1(1)).ORA file (see UTL_FILE_DIR=. This makes it much more efficient as SQL statements are not stripped off and send to the databaseindividually.FILE_TYPE.Which of the following is not a schema object: Indexes.rc integer. Can you use a DDL in a procedure? How? Answer: From PL/SQL V2.rc := DBMS_SQL. Is there a limit on the size of a PL/SQL block? Answer: Currently.

'Value of func1 is %sn'.sql oname=xxxx.END.2.You can runthe following select statement to query the size of an existing package or procedure. there is no "decode" commandavailable.FILE_TYPE. triggers and packages? Answer: Public synonyms What is PL/SQL? Answer: PL/SQL is Oracle's Procedural Language extension to SQL.parameter).ORA file (see UTL_FILE_DIR=. the maximum parsed/compiled size of a PL/SQL block is 64K and the maximum code size is 100K.DBMS_SQL.DECLAREfileHandler UTL_FILE. information hiding (all but inheritance). public synonyms. The syntax is: wrap iname=myscript.BEGINfileHandler := UTL_FILE.3 the only means of writing a file was to use DBMS_OUTPUTwith the SQL*Plus SPOOL command. and so. Is there a limit on the size of a PL/SQL block? Answer: Currently. Just be careful.BEGINcur := DBMS_SQL. func1(1)). DBMS_SQL..3 is a UTL_FILE package that can read and write files.1 one can use the DBMS_SQL package to execute dynamic SQL statements.'W'). brings stateof-the-art programming to the Oracle database server and a variety of Oracle tools.CLOSE_CURSOR(cur).PUTF(fileHandler.The language includes object orientedprogramming techniques such as encapsulation.EXECUTE(cur). Thisis done via a standalone utility that transforms the PL/SQL source code into portable binary object code (somewhat larger than theoriginal). Unlike Oracle Forms. How can I protect my PL/SQL source code? Answer: PL/SQL V2. What are the various types of Exceptions? Answer: User defined and Predefined Exceptions.. Can we define exceptions twice in same block? . Is there a PL/SQL Engine in SQL*Plus? Answer: No. available with Oracle7.UTL_FILE.PARSE(cur.yyy Can one use dynamic SQL within PL/SQL? ALTERNATIVELY. SQL> select * from dba_object_size wherename = 'procedure_name' Can one read/write files from PL/SQL? Answer: Included in Oracle 7. This makes it much more efficient as SQL statements are not stripped off and send to the databaseindividually.Before Oracle 7. 'myoutput'.rc := DBMS_SQL.'CREATE TABLE X (Y DATE)'.: CREATE OR REPLACE PROCEDURE DYNSQL AScur integer. tables.FOPEN('/home/oracle/tmp'. all your PL/SQL is send directly to the databaseengine for execution. The directory you intend writing to has to be inyour INIT.END.rc integer.OPEN_CURSOR. function overloading. This way you can distribute software without having to worry about exposing your proprietary algorithms and methods.g.UTL_FILE. Can you use a DDL in a procedure? How? Answer: From PL/SQL V2.2. SQL*Plus does not have a PL/SQL engine.FCLOSE(fileHandler). implements a binary wrapper for PL/SQL programs to protect the source code. Thus.Which of the following is not a schema object: Indexes. DBMS_SQL.NATIVE).SQL*Plus and SQL*DBA will still understand and know how to execute such scripts.E.

Can you have two functions with the same name in a PL/SQL block? Answer: Yes. OUT AND INOUT. What is the difference between a procedure and a function? Answer: Functions return a single variable by value whereas procedures do not return any variable by value. Can you have two stored functions with the same name? Answer: Yes. What is Over Loading and what are its restrictions? Answer: Overloading means an object performing different functions depending upon the no. Can 2 functions have same name & input parameters but differ only by return data type Answer: No. You can pass parameters to procedures or functions in a package. Rather they returnmultiple variables by passing variables by reference through their OUT parameter. What are the parts of a database trigger? Answer: The parts of a trigger are: • . of parameters or the data type of theparameters passed to it. Can you pass parameters in packages? How? Answer: Yes. Can you call a stored function in the constraint of a table? Answer: No.Answer: No. What are the constructs of a procedure. function or a package? Answer: The constructs of a procedure. function or a package are: • variables and constants • cursors Why create or Replace and not Drop and recreate procedures? Answer: So that Grants are not dropped. What are the various types of parameter modes in a procedure? Answer: IN. Can functions be overloaded? Answer: Yes.

A triggering event or statement • A trigger restriction • A trigger action What are the various types of database triggers? Answer: There are 12 types of triggers. What is the advantage of a stored procedure over a database trigger? Answer: We have control over the firing of a stored procedure but we have no control over the firing of a trigger. old = old value What are cascading triggers? What is the maximum no of cascading triggers at a time? Answer: When a statement in a trigger body causes another trigger to be fired. • Before and After Triggers. of statements that can be specified in a trigger statement? Answer: One. the triggers are said to be cascading. they are combination of: • Insert Delete and Update Triggers. Describe Oracle database's physical and logical structure ? Answer: • . • Can views are specified in a trigger statement ? Answer: No What are the values of :new and :old in Insert/Delete/Update Triggers ? Answer: INSERT : new = new value. What are mutating triggers ? Answer: A trigger giving a SELECT on the table on which the trigger is written. What is the maximum no.Max = 32. old = NULLDELETE : new = NULL. • Row and Statement Triggers. old = old valueUPDATE : new = new value. What are constraining triggers ? Answer: A trigger giving an Insert/Update e on a table having referential integrity constraint on the triggering table.

Table spaces. Redo Log files. Can you increase the size of a table space ? How ? Answer: Yes. by adding data files to it. Control file. Can Check constraint be used for self referential integrity ? How ? Answer: Yes.3 by using the Resize clause ) What is the use of Control files ? Answer: Contains pointers to locations of various data files. etc. Table spaces.extents allocated to a rollback extent ? Answer: Two What are the states of a rollback segment ? What is the difference between partly available and needs recovery ? Answer: The various states of a rollback segment are : • . etc. we can reference some other column of the same table and thusenforce self referential integrity.Physical : Data files. datafiles. What is the use of Data Dictionary ? Answer: It Used by Oracle to store information about various physical and logical Oracle structures e. What is the min. Views. What are the disadvantages of clusters ? Answer: The time for Insert increases. Can Long/Long RAW be clustered ? Answer: No. normal index ? Answer: Yes. Can you increase the size of data files ? How ? Answer: No (for Oracle 7. Can null keys be entered in cluster index. In the CHECK condition for a column of a table.0)yes (for Oracle 7. redo log files. Tables.g. • Logical : Tables. etc What are the advantages of clusters ? Answer: Access time reduced for joins.

What is the maximum no. An insert statement followed by a create table statement followed by rollback ? Will the rows be inserted ? Answer: No. as the example below shows. of columns a table can have ? Answer: 254. Can you Rollback to any savepoint ? Answer: Yes. What are the various types of RollBack Segments ? Answer: The types of Rollback segments are as follows : • Public Available to all instances • Private Available to specific instance .CURSOR c1 (median IN NUMBER) ISSELECT job. What is the significance of the & and && operators in PL SQL ? Answer: The & operator means that the PL SQL block requires user input for a variable. What is the difference between unique key and primary key ? Answer: Unique key can be null.The && operator means that the value of this variable should be the same as inputted by the user previously for this same variable Can you pass a parameter to a cursor ? Answer: Explicit cursors can take parameters. Primary key cannot be null. Can you define multiple savepoints ? Answer: Yes.ONLINE • OFFLINE • PARTLY AVAILABLE • NEEDS RECOVERY • INVALID. A cursor parameter can appear in a query wherever aconstant can appear. ename FROM emp WHERE sal > median.

or first record ? Answer: Last Record • A table has the following data : [[5. 10]]..What will the output be ? . ename Into x From emp Where ename = 'KING' (Where x is a record of Number(4) and Char(15)) Answer: Yes Is the assignment given below allowed :ABC = PQR (Where ABC and PQR are records) Answer: Yes Is this for loop allowed :For x in &Start. Null. Answer: No rows Which symbol precedes the path to the table in the remote database ? Answer: @ Are views automatically updated when base tables are updated ? Answer: Yes Can a trigger written for a view ? Answer: No If all the values from a cursor have been fetched and another fetch is issued.5 Is Sysdate a system variable or a system function? Answer: System Function Consider a sequence whose corral is 1 and gets incremented by 1 by using the nextval reference we get the nextnumber 2. last record.Suppose at this point we issue an rollback and again issue a nextval.Can you use %RowCount as a parameter to a cursor ? Answer: Yes Is the query below allowed :Select sal.&End Loop Answer: Yes How many rows will the following SQL return :Select * from emp Where rownum < 10. the output will be : error.What wills the average function return ? Answer: 7. Answer: 9 rows How many rows will the following SQL return :Select * from emp Where rownum = 10.

Speed.R system • Hierarchical . a) Login attempts. c) Database Action Result of Greatest(1. Which are initial RDBMS. and Load of client server What are the disadvantages of SQL ? . a controlling process that queues request for work thus reducing the databases memoryrequirement and resources.DBTG Difference between Oracle 6 and Oracle 7 Answer:ORACLE 7ORACLE 6Cost based optimizerRule based optimizer Shared SQL AreaSQL area allocated for each user Multi Threaded ServerSingle Threaded Server Hash ClustersOnly B-Tree indexingRoll back Size AdjustmentNo provisionTruncate commandNo provisionDistributed DatabaseDistributed QueryTable replication & snapshotsNo provisionClient/Server TechNo provision What is Functional Dependency Answer: Given a relation R. What is Multi Threaded Server (MTA) ? Answer: In a Single Threaded Architecture (or a dedicated server configuration) the database manager creates a separateprocess for each database user.Answer: 3 Definition of relational DataBase by Dr.Codd (IBM)? Answer: A Relational Database is a database where all data visible to the user is organized strictly as tables of data values andwhere all database operations work on these tables.things to be considered ? Answer: Network Overhead (traffic).NULL) NULL While designing in client/server what are the 2 imp. Hierarchical & N/w database ? Answer: • RDBMS . However. attribute Y of R is functionally dependent on attribute X of R if and only if each X-value has associatedwith it precisely one -Y value in R What is Auditing ? Answer: The database has the ability to audit all actions that take place within it. in MTA the database manager can assign multiple users (multiple user processes) to asingle dispatcher (server process). b) Object Access.NULL) or Least(1.IMS • N/W .

View can be created with many tables. synonym can be on view.Answer: Disadvantages of SQL are : • Cannot drop a field • Cannot rename a field • Cannot manage memory • Procedural Language option not provided • Index on view or index on index not provided • View updation problem When to create indexes ? Answer: To be created when table is queried for less than 2% or 4% to 25% of the table rows. Can you alter synonym of view or view ? Answer: No Can you create index on view Answer: No. What is the difference between a view and a synonym ? Answer: Synonym is just a second name of table used for multiple link of database. What is the result of the following SQL :Select 1 from dual UNION Select 'A' from dual. and withvirtual columns and with conditions. • Use an expression in the Where Clause of the SQL. Answer: Yes. . However. How can you avoid indexes ? Answer: To make index access path unavailable • Use FULL hint to optimizer for full table scan • Use INDEX or AND-EQUAL hint to optimizer to use one index or set to indexes instead of another. Answer: Error Can database trigger written on synonym of a table and if it can be then what would be the effect if original tablewere accessed. database trigger would fire.

You can also do point-in-time recovery.This declaration at the start of a subprogram is called forward declaration. Performance : Speed of a'tuned' Oracle Database and application is quite good.. field||'' Assume that there are multiple databases running on one machine. A forward declaration consists of a subprogramspecification terminated by a semicolon. attribute which refers to another table primary key.. you must declare a subprogram before calling it. Backup and Recovery : Oracle provides industrial strength support for on-line backupand recovery and good software fault tolerance to disk failure.Multiple database support : Oracle has a superior ability to manage multiple databases within the same transaction using a two-phase commit protocol. running on more than 100 hardware platformsand 20 networking protocols. This market clout means that you are unlikely to be left in the lurch by Oracle and there arealways lots of third party interfaces available. index is not used ? Answer: <> .' is NOT functions. What are actual and formal parameters ? . Reference key is the primary key of tablereferred by another table. dropped or altered or updated or inserted ? Answer: Yes If content of dual is updated to some value computation takes place or not ? Answer: Yes If any other table same as dual were created would it act similar to dual? Answer: Yes For which relational operators in where clause. Can dual table be deleted. even with large databases. Oracle can manage > 100GB databases.What's the length of SQL integer ? Answer: 32 bit length What is the difference between foreign key and reference key ? Answer: Foreign key is the key i. field +constant. Therefore.e. How can you switch from one to another ? Answer: Changing the ORACLE_SID What are the advantages of Oracle ? Answer: Portability : Oracle is ported to more platforms than any of its competitors. What is a forward declaration ? What is its use ? Answer: PL/SQL requires that you declare an identifier before using it. like '%. Market Presence : Oracle is by far the largest RDBMS vendor and spends more on R & D than most of its competitors earn in total revenue.

the following procedure call lists two actual parametersnamed emp_num and amount:Eg. The SQLstatement for the cursor is attached dynamically at runtime from calling procedures. In this case will the row be inserted ? Answer: Yes. The initial SGA was around 4MB whenthe server RAM was 32MB and The new SGA was around 13MB when the server RAM was increased to 128MB. amount). 5 & 9MB) open_cursors was changed from 200 to 300 (std values are 200 & 300)db_block_size was changed from 2048 (2K) to 4096 (4K) {at the time of database creation}. What all important parameters of the init. the following procedure declares two formal parameters named emp_id and increase:Eg. then create another table and then say Rollback. db_block_buffers was changed from 60 to 1000 (std values are 60.PROCEDURE raise_salary (emp_id INTEGER.5. Mixed and Restrictions. table already exists error) and not syntactically. The DDL commits thetransaction even if the create statement fails internally (e. For example. What are the types of Notation ? Answer: Position. Named.g.Formal Parameters : The variables declared in a subprogram specification and referenced in the subprogram body are formalparameters. which you declare in the package specification without an SQL statement. Because Create table is a DDL.raise_salary(emp_num.ora are supposed to be increased if you want to increase the SGA size ? Answer: In our case. The variables or expressions referenced in theparameter list of a subprogram call are actual parameters.5MB to 9MB (std values are 3. If I have an execute privilege on a procedure in another users schema. If you insert a row in a table. can I execute his procedure even though Ido not have privileges on the tables within the procedure ? Answer: Yes What are various types of joins ? Answer: Types of joins are: • Equijoins • Non-equijoins • self join • outer join What is a package cursor ? Answer: A package cursor is a cursor. For example.Answer: Actual Parameters : Subprograms pass information using parameters. which commits automatically as soon as it is executed. 550 & 3500) shared_pool_size waschanged from 3. What is an Oracle instance? . increase REAL) IS current_salary REAL.

If a database is open. Referentialintegrity requires that the value of every foreign key in every table be matchedby the value of a primary key in another table.Oracle allocates a memory area called the System Global Area (SGA) and startsone or more Oracle processes. Views present a different representation of the data that resides within thebase tables.The Instance and the Database After starting an instance.Security for database startup and shutdown is controlled via connections toOracle with administrator privileges. users cannot access theinformation that it contains. a view is not allocated any storage space. rather.It is available locally only on CMS and PCs with oracle version 5. The Sql insert command may be used from the SQL * Plus module. Oracle associates the instance with the specifieddatabase. In clustered and massively parallel systems (MPP). These tables arecalled base tables. The database is then ready to beopened. Unlike a table.for . This is called mounting the database.Overview of an Oracle InstanceEvery running Oracle database is associated with an Oracle instance. When a database is closed. the database administrator can shut down the database sothat it is closed. The memory and processes of an instancemanage the associated database‘s data efficiently and serve the one or multipleusers of the database.1. What is a collection of privileges? collection of privileges is role. Views are very powerful because they allow you to tailor thepresentation of data to different types of users.Views are often used to:• provide an additional level of table security by restricting access to apredetermined set of rows and/or columns of a table• hide data complexity• simplify commands for the user • present the data in a different perspective from that of the base table• isolate applications from changes in definitions of base tables• express a query that cannot be expressed without using a view What is referential integrity? Rules governing the relationships between primary keys and foreign keys of tables within a relational database that determine data consistency. Name the data dictionary that stores user-defined constraints? USER_CONSTRAINTS What is a collection of privileges? user_tab_privs_madeuser_tab_privs_recd What is a Snapshot? A snapshot is a read-only copy of a table or a subset of a table. When adatabase is started on a database server (regardless of the type of computer).There are several methods others than using SQL *Loader of inserting data into a table. This combination of the SGA and the Oracleprocesses is called an Oracle instance.Only the database administrator can start up an instance and open the database. Why Use Sql* Loader in Oracle Database? The Sql Loader module of the oracle database Management System loads data into an existing ORACLE table from an externalfiles. Throughout this documentation the CAR database describedin Referance A is used for illustration. nor does a view actually contain data. each accessingits own physical database. What is a sequence? It is database objects to auto generate numbers. which makes it accessible to authorized users. What is a cursor? Cursor is a private sql work area used to perform manipulations on data using pl\sql. Normal users do not have control over thecurrent status of an Oracle database.the Oracle Parallel Server allows multiple instances to mount a single database.Multiple instances can execute concurrently on the same computer. What is a view? View A view is a tailored presentation of the data contained in one or more tables(or other views). a view is defined by a query thatextracts or derives data from the tables the view references.

ODL is available on all versions of ORACLE . In this case.For all the exceptions raised oracle fills in sqleerm and sqlcode variable which provide the error message and error code for theexception raised. Sql*Forms allows you to add rows interactively using forms. • What is a co-related sub-query? It is very similar to sub-queries where the parent query is executed based on the values returned by sub-queries. after delete. before delete. The forms may contain default values and checks for invalid data. What are pseudo-columns in SQL? Provide examples? A pseudocolumn behaves like a table column.2. before updateafter insert.3. we can add a new column . before updateafter insert. What is a synonym ? A synonym is an alternative name for tables. What is an exception ? Exception is an event that causes suspension of normal program execution.1) row level trigger before insert. we can define co-related sub query as for every record retrieval from the sub query is processed and based on result of process the parent record is displayed. SQL *Loader is much more flexible than ODL and will eventually supersede it on all systems. but when comes toco-related sub queries for every instance of parent query subquery is executed and based on the result od sub-query the parentquery will display the record as we will have reference of parent queries in sub-queries we call these as correlated subquries. Dates and Characters data must beSurrounded by single quotes. when the constraint was disabled the index was dropped and theinformation is gone What is the difference between rowid and rownum? .If. Exceptions that are defined and raised in the server by the programmer. after delete. It is used prevent the invalid entries of the data. In oracle there are several types of exceptions1) Pre-defined exceptions like NO_DATA_FOUND.before delete. or delete their values. What happens if a primary key constraint is disabled and then enabled without fully specifying the index clause? The index is created in the user‘s default tablespace and all sizing information is lost. after update3) INSTEAD OF trigger 4) Schema level Triggers5) System level Triggers Can we delete column? yes we can delete a column in a table.LEVEL What is a schema ? A database user account is called a schema. but is not actually stored in the table. but youcannot insert. You can select from pseudocolumns.Therefore..the programmer provides both an error number (between -20000 and -20999) and an error message. update. and raises that exception witha call to RAISE_APPLICATION_ERROR.ROWID. What is trigger? Trigger is an event. views.Example :insert into CAR values(…)where the values to be inserted into a row of the table are listed inside the parentheses. procedures and other database objects generally when we have more than oneschema and we wish to access an object of a different schema then we create synonyms for that object in the schema where wewish to access the object. but only as part of the index definition.but we can not change the column_name.NEXTVAL. ODL loads the table from a control file and separate fixed format data file.Examples:CURRVAL. items are separated by commas.TOO_MANY_ROWS2) User-defined exceptions which would validate the business logic3) unnamed system exceptions which are raised due to errors in the application code . Oracle doesn‘t store this information as a partof the constraint definition. after update2) statement level trigger before insert . Therehas a different types of trigger are available. If we want to changethe column name delete that column and add with new column name. you can name these exceptions usingPRAGMA EXCEPTION_INIT4)Unnamed programmer-defined exceptions.

The null values in the commission column will be replaced by 0 and added to salary.e. How you will avoid your query from using indexes? SELECT * FROM emp where emp_no+‘ ‗=12345.This displays the total salary of all employees.Procedure runs only when you call them manually or from any forms or other procedure/functionsTrigger:If you want to perform any action when there is any insert update or delete on any database table. delete) on table on which that trigger is written. a parent table can be dropped even when a child table exists. ‗!‘). ‗**‘). validations etc then create a function or procedure. update.i.‘*'.rowid is an internal representation of a row in a table. payments. rowid is a function of the table. What will be the output of the following query? SELECT REPLACE(TRANSLATE(LTRIM(RTRIM(‘!! ATHEN !!‘. What is the function of instead of trigger? You can create an INSTEAD OF trigger on any view to make it updatable. it is effectively the primary key and can be used for fast access to the rowrownum is a function of a result set of your query:select * from emp where rownum = 1 will get the first row of your result set. you have to concatenate the column name with space within codes in the where condition. Here the table name starts with an ‗&‘ symbol. rownum is a function of the result set What is difference b/w trigger and procedure? Procedure:.What are cursor attributes?%ROWCOUNT%NOTFOUND %FOUND%ISOPEN What is the use of CASCADE CONSTRAINTS? When this clause is used with the DROP command. Trigger will run whenthere will be any activity(insert.IN or EXISTS? EXISTS is faster than IN because EXISTS returns a Boolean value whereas IN returns a value.TROUBLETHETROUBLE Which system table contains information on constraints on all the tables created? USER_CONSTRAINTS Which system tables contain information on privileges granted and privileges obtained? USER_TAB_PRIVS_MADE.Delete from emp where rowid not in (select distinct(duplicate_field) from emp) Which is faster . Which command executes the contents of a specified file? . payments from customer C1WHERE 3‗col_name‘)group by level.When you want to perform any activity such as calculation.Example:Given a table called emp with the following columns: – id number – name varchar2(20) – sal number – – For the second highest salary: – select level. max(sal) from emp – where level=2 – connect by prior sal > sal – group by levelselect level. What is the advantage of specifying WITH GRANT OPTION in the GRANT command? The privilege receiver can further grant the privileges he/she has obtained from the owner to any other user.Therefore.Suppose a customer table is having different columns like customer no.'!‘). USER_TAB_PRIVS_RECD Why does the following command give a compilation error? DROP TABLE &TABLE_NAME.Variable names should start with an alphabet. What does the following query do? SELECT SAL + NVL(COMM.‘TROUBLE‘) FROM DUAL. min(‘col_name‘) from my_table where level = ‗&n‘ connect by prior (‘col_name‘) 1.0) FROM EMP. ‗AN‘. What will be the query to select top three maxpayments?SELECT customer_no.

What operator performs pattern matching? LIKE Which date function is used to find the difference between two dates? MONTHS_BETWEEN What will be the output of the following query? SELECT DECODE(TRANSLATE(‘A'.sal = 11000. Which command displays the SQL command in the SQL buffer. the WHERE clause of the SELECT command should contain a FALSE statement as in the following. CREATE TABLE NEWTABLE AS SELECT * FROM EXISTINGTABLE WHERE 1=2.. ‗1′. Will the outputs of the above two commands differ? Both will result in deleting all the rows in the table EMP.1. then all the rows or rows satisfying the condition will be copied to the new table.‘1234567890′.Delete is DML where as rollback is DDLtruncate will release the storage space where as delete won‘t release storage space. Which is the subset of SQL commands used to manipulate Oracle Database structures. and then executes it? RUN What is the value of comm and sal after executing the following query if the initial value of sal is 10000 UPDATE EMP SET SAL = SAL + 1000.NOExplanation :The query checks whether a given string is a numerical digit. AS SELECT command To copy only the structure. comm = 1000 Which function is used to find the largest integer less than or equal to a specific value? FLOOR What is the parameter substitution symbol used with INSERT INTO command? What are the wildcards used for pattern matching? _ for single character substitution and % for multi-character substitution What is the output of the following query SELECT TRUNC(1234.‘1111111111′).If the WHERE condition is true. What operator tests column for the absence of data? IS NULL What is the use of the DROP option in the ALTER TABLE command? It is used to drop constraints specified on the table.However.5678. we can‘t rollback after truncating a table where as we can rollback after delete.1200TRUNCATE TABLE EMP.-2) FROM DUAL.DELETE FROM EMP. COMM = SAL*0.‘YES‘. What command is used to create a table by copying the structure of another table?CREATE TABLE . including tables? DDL What is the use of DESC in SQL? . ‗NO‘ ).START or @.

hiredate)) JAN. Change SQL prompt name SQL> set sqlprompt ―Manimara > ―Manimara >Manimara > Switch to DOS prompt SQL> host How do I eliminate the duplicate rows ? SQL> delete from table_name where rowid not in (select max(rowid) from table group by duplicate_values_field_name).DESC has two purposes.ename = b.‘JAN‘. like SQL> SQL> select rownum.‘MON‘).dv). DIRTY (transaction is completed butblocks are waiting to be written on the disk by DBWn).‘APR‘.———.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.Empno Ename101 Scott102 Millor 103 Jiyo104 Smith How do I display row number with records? To achieve this use rownum pseudocolumn with query.sal)) DEPT30. empno.Output:1 Scott2 Millor 3 Jiyo4 Smith Display the records between two ranges.‘DEC‘.hiredate)) MAR.‘AUG‘.‘MON‘).‘FEB‘.How to display 100 as ―ONE HUNDRED‖?select to_char(to_date(100. It is used to describe a schema as well as to retrieve rows from table in descending order.The output like.dv=tb.‘MON‘).———. ename from emp.Explanation :The query SELECT * FROM EMP ORDER BY ENAME DESC will display the output sorted on ENAME in descending order.‘SEP‘.20. To see current user name Sql> show user.hiredate)) FEB.Output:1 Scott2 Millor 3 Jiyo4 Smith Display Top n rows? SELECT * FROM (SELECT * FROM my_table ORDER BY col_name_1 DESC) WHERE ROWNUM SELECT *2 FROM (SELECT job.hiredate)) SEPfrom emp)output—– DEC FEB MAR APR JAN AUG SEP3 2 0 2 1 0 2 What is a database buffer cache? Database buffer cache is one of the required SGA component.ANALYST 6000CLERK 1300 1900 950MANAGER 2450 2975 2850PRESIDENT 5000SALESMAN 5600Oracle reserved wordsSELECT * FROM V$RESERVED_WORDS.‘MON‘). CLEAN(instance is just started so it is empty or it has been flushed to the disk and can be reused) .‘MON‘).10.———. It caches recent accessed data. Blocks in database buffer cache can be in the any of the following state: PINNED(it is an active transaction).‘MAR‘.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.hiredate)) APR.‘MON‘).5 sum(decode(deptno.sal)) DEPT407 FROM scott.Example.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.sal)) DEPT20.‘MON‘).emp8 GROUP BY job)9 ORDER BY 1.JOB DEPT10 DEPT20 DEPT30 DEPT40——— ———.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.ename).hiredate)) DEC.Matrix report————select * from (selectcount(decode(to_char(hiredate.6 sum(decode(deptno.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.‘jsp‘). ename from emp where rowid in . It keeps the entry (transaction) in thebuffer cache till it is written on the disk (which is done by DBWn background process) at a scheduled time or when ever possible byOracle.Table EmpEmpno Ename101 Scott102 Jiyo103 Millor 104 Jiyo105 Smithdelete ename from emp a where rowid < ( select min(rowid) from emp b where a.40.count(decode(to_char(hiredate.or SQL> delete duplicate_values_field_name dv from table_name ta where rowid <(select min(rowid) from table_name tb whereta.hiredate)) AUG.‘j') from dual. How do I display row number with records? select rownum.4 sum(decode(deptno.3 sum(decode(deptno. select rownum. ename from emp.30.sal)) DEPT10.

cursor_name%ISOPEN Implicit Cursor attributes Same as explicit cursor but prefixed by the word SQLSQL%Found.: 2. Three Thousand only. cursor_name%NOTFOUND. All are Boolean attributes. 'jsp'))from emp. Eight Hundred only. SQL%ROWCOUNT.e. instead of blank space.2) from emp). SQL%ISOPENTips : 1. cursor_name%ROWCOUNT. mod(rownum.--------.PL/SQL construct to identify each and every work are used.----------1 7782 CLARK2 7788 SCOTT3 7839 KING4 7844 TURNER I know the nvl function only allows the same data type(i.0) in (select rowid. Find out nth highest salary from emp table SELECT DISTINCT (a. How do I write the query? SQL> select nvl(to_char(comm. 'Jsp'))|| ' only.(select rowid from emp where rownum <=&uptominusselect rowid from emp where rownum<&Start). mod(rownum.'j'). No_Data_Found.'J').1600 Rs.'j'). Display the number value in Words SQL> select sal. if commission isnull then the text “Not Applicable” want to display.-----------------------------------------------------800 Rs. Display Odd/ Even number of records Odd number of records:select * from emp where (rowid. '|| (to_char(to_date(sal.-----------------------------------------------------800 eight hundred1600 one thousand six hundred1250 one thousand two hundred fiftyIf you want to add some text like.sal<=b. One Thousand Six Hundred only. because oracle automatically closed the implicit cursor after executing SQL statements.1) in (select rowid. One Thousand Two Hundred Fifty only.For SQL queries returning a single row.(' Rs. Invalid_Cursor Other way to replace query result null value with a text . Value_Error.1250 Rs.Rs. Others What are PL/SQL Cursor Exceptions? Cursor_Already_Open.For queries that returning more than one row.the output like. Zero_Error. 0)).2) from emp)246 Which date function returns number value? months_between Any three PL/SQL Exceptions? Too_many_rows. the cursor needs to be explicitly declared.'JSP'))-------.SAL (TO_CHAR(TO_DATE(SAL.sal).'NA')----------------------NA300500NA1400NANA Oracle cursor : Implicit & Explicit cursors Oracle uses work areas called private SQL areas to create SQL statements.sal)) FROM EMP B WHEREa.Output :NVL(TO_CHAR(COMM).sal) FROM EMP A WHERE &N = (SELECT COUNT (DISTINCT (b.'))"Sal in Words" from emp/Salary Sal in Words------.135Even number of records:select * from emp where (rowid. SQL%NOTFOUND. PL/SQL declares all implicit cursors.SQL> select sal "Salary ". Here SQL%ISOPEN is false.'NA') from emp. Explicit Cursor attributes There are four cursor attributes used in Oraclecursor_name%Found. number or char or date Nvl(comm. (to_char(to_date(sal.Enter value for upto: 10Enter value for Start: 7ROWNUM EMPNO ENAME--------.Enter value for n: 2SAL---------3700 To view installed Oracle version information SQL> select banner from v$version.). is called as Cursor.

While aprocedure does not have to return any values to the calling application. They are typically used in data warehouse or decision support systems. Buffer Cache Advice. USER . Table functions are designed to return a set of rows through PL/SQL logic but are intended to be used as a normal table or view in aSQL statement. Name three advisory statistics you can collect. What command would you use to encrypt a PL/SQL application? WRAP Explain the difference between a FUNCTION. ROWNUM What is the output of SIGN function? 1 for positive value. When a user process fails. a function will return a single value. Materialized views are objects that are reduced sets of information that have been summarized. & Timed Statistics Where in the Oracle directory tree structure are audit traces placed? In unix $ORACLE_HOME/rdbms/audit. How would you determine the time zone under which a database was operating? select DBTIMEZONE from dual. in Windows the event viewer Explain materialized views and how they are used. Explain the use of table functions. grouped. Segment Level Statistics. A package on the other hand is a collection of functions and procedures that are grouped together based on their commonality to a business function or application.-1 for Negative value. What is the maximum number of triggers. They are also used to pipeline information in an ETL process. NEXTVAL.SQL> Set NULL ‗N/A‘to reset SQL> Set NULL ‗‘ What are the more common pseudo-columns? SYSDATE. How would you determine what sessions are connected and what resources they are waiting for? Use of V$SESSION and V$SESSION_WAIT Describe what redo logs are. Explain the use of setting GLOBAL_NAMES equal to TRUE. what background process cleans up after it? PMON What background process refreshes materialized views? The Job Queue Processes. or aggregated from basetables. UID. ROWID. A function and procedure are the same in that they are intended to be a collection of PL/SQL code that carries a single task. can apply to a single table? 12 triggers. Setting GLOBAL_NAMES dictates how you might connect to a database.0 for Zero. CURVAL. This variable is either TRUE or FALSE and if it is set toTRUE it enforces database links to have the same name as the remote database to which they are linking. . PROCEDURE and PACKAGE.

When creating a user. How do you add a data file to a tablespace? ALTER TABLESPACE <tablespace_name> ADD DATAFILE <datafile_name> SIZE <size> How do you resize a data file? ALTER DATABASE DATAFILE <datafile_name> RESIZE <new_size>. what permissions must you grant to allow them to connect to the database? Grant the CONNECT to the user. What view would you use to look at the size of a data file? DBA_DATA_FILES What view would you use to determine free space in a tablespace? DBA_FREE_SPACE How would you determine who has added a row to a table? Turn on fine grain auditing for the table. Give two methods you could use to determine what DDL changes have been made. more manageable pieces. You have just compiled a PL/SQL package but got errors. How can you enable a trace for a session? . Explain what partitioning is and what its benefit is.Redo logs are logical and physical structures that are designed to hold all the changes made to a database and are intended to aidin the recovery of a database. The SYSTEM tablespace. How can you rebuild an index? ALTER INDEX <index_name> REBUILD. How would you force a log switch? ALTER SYSTEM SWITCH LOGFILE. Partitioning is a method of taking large tables and indexes and splitting them into smaller. how would you view the errors? SHOW ERRORS How can you gather statistics on a table? The ANALYZE command. Name a tablespace automatically created when you create a database. What is the difference between a TEMPORARY tablespace and a PERMANENT tablespace? A temporary tablespace is used for temporary objects such as sort structures while permanent tablespaces are used to store thoseobjects meant to be used as the true objects of the database. You could use Logminer or Streams What does coalescing a tablespace do? Coalescing is only valid for dictionary-managed tablespaces and de-fragments space by combining neighboring free extents intolarge single extents.

ORA and SQLNET. edit and delete files and subdirectories in the directory. . disk and tape I/O activity. What is the difference between the SQL*Loader and IMPORT utilities? These two Oracle utilities are used for loading data into the database. The questions here are relatedto UNIX but you should equally be able to answer questions related to common Windows environments. TNSNAMES.Netstat reports on the contents of network data structures. and execute permissions on a UNIX directory.Execute gives you the previous read/write permissions plus allows you to change into the directory and execute programs or shellsfrom the directory. How would you change all occurrences of a value using VI? Use : %s/<old>/<new>/g Give two UNIX kernel parameters that effect an Oracle install SHMMAX & SHMMNI Briefly.Write allows you to create. df -lk Explain iostat. Read allows you to see and list the directory contents.Use the DBMS_SESSION. Give the command to display space usage on the UNIX file system. disk. The difference between a soft link and a hard link? A symbolic (soft) linked file and the targeted file can be located on the same or different file system while for a hard link they must belocated on the same file system. vmstat and netstat. How do you list the files in an UNIX directory while also showing hidden files? ls -ltra How do you execute a UNIX command in the background? Use the "&" What UNIX command will control the default file permissions when files are created? Umask Explain the read. Vmstat reports on virtual memory statistics for processes. Name two files used for network connection to a database. tape and CPU activity. how do you install Oracle software on UNIX.SET_SQL_TRACE or Use ALTER SESSION SET SQL_TRACE = TRUE. write.UNIX Every DBA should know something about the operating system that the database will be running on. The difference is that the import utility relies on the data beingproduced by another Oracle utility EXPORT while the SQL*Loader utility allows data to be loaded that has been produced by other utilities from different data sources just so long as it conforms to ASCII formatted or delimited files.ORA Technical . Iostat reports on terminal.

For instance. Its parent process has been killed abruptly. there is no relation ship concept inDBMS.c 1. what is sanity test sanity testing is a 0 level testing or initial testing or smoke testing. My machine is running half duplex mode how to change half duplex to full duplex? [root@ns2 ~] mii-tool -Vmii-tool. What is memmove? "memmove" can safely handle the situation where the sourcestring overlaps the destination stringan exampleptr = memmove( s1. link ok some one is asking my machine is slow what are your steps? The increase in the size of SWAP partition may show you thelittle effect in increasing the system speed and better runin Single user mode rather than GUI mode.DBMS requires less software andhardware.9 2000/04/28 00:56:08 (David Hinds) eth0: 100 Mbit. Take a close look at the requirements for any job and try to extractquestions that interviewers may ask from manuals and real life experiences. How to display 1 to 10 numbers using one select statement.c 1.I hope that these interview questions were not too hard.In RDBMS every data stored in the form of tables.after matching with po u can validate the invoice and paythem.c 1. Select level from dual connect by level<=10 what is the difference between RDBMS and DBMS In RDBMS main objects to establish the relationshipbetween the objects.When the po matched to the po status is changed to billedin addition. set up disks. why use cursors? Cursor is used to process multiple rows using pl/sql. Remember these are "core" DBA questions and not necessarily related tothe Oracle options that you may encounter in some interviews. half duplex. How to remove records from table? delete From <table>.9 2000/04/28 00:56:08 (David Hinds)eth0: 100 Mbit. N ). the balance in the accrued payable a/c transferred toaccounts payable account. and run orainst."memmove" copies exactly N characters from the string "s2"into the area of memory pointed to . link ok[root@ns2 ~] ethtool -s eth0 duplex half autoneg off [root@ns2 ~] mii-tool -Vmii-tool.RDBMS requires hugesoftware and hardware. This would allow you to brush up on particular environments and not be caught off-guard. We can create Public and Private Synonyms on Triggers. then u can finally close the po so that it will notappear in the list of value again what is jumbi process? It is a dead process. half duplex. in DBMSevery data stored in the form of files.9 2000/04/28 00:56:08 (David Hinds)eth0: negotiated 100baseTx-FD flow-control. what will be happen if invoice match with po? Before matching the status of the po is unbilled or accrued. s2. It is done to test that whether the build isstable for further testing or not. Can We Create a Synonym On Trigger? Yes.Basically. you should try to determine what hardware and software they are using BEFORE you get to theinterview. if they are looking for a DBA to run their databases in RAC environments. no link[root@ns2 ~] mii-tool -Vmii-tool. kernel parameters.

How do you connect to your servers? Local Area Network what difference between extra information type and special information type? Extra Information are normally all descriptive fields andSpecial Information is Key flexfield..e. It depends on Project sizeIn addition.Therefore. insert or delete? insert What is difference b/w Credit memo and Adjustment in "s1". destinations. Unlike thefunction "strncpy"..:segment named 'Account' is qualified as 'Natural Account‘ sothat it identifies Accounts. It does not put a terminating '\0' on the end of string "s1". Both are interrelated.. what is defect life cycle in test director desc.Put_line = To Transfer the data into the File. what is bytecode? What is the difference between machine code and bytecode? JAVAC compiles the java file and converts the program inbytecode(machine independent). Bug: Deviation from requirement is a bug. Validations. similarly a segmentnamed 'Company' can be qualified as 'Balancing Segment'. Basedon that we decide whether the product meet the SRS. Credit Memo is raised to give a credit to the customer &does not require an approvals in Oracle while an adjustmentis done either to increase the invoice amount or decreasethe invoice amount & will require an approval. which statement is to run fast i.Extra Information . what data shouldvalidations would be required etc.severity Difference between validation and regression testing. It includes the approaches you take.fopen = To open (or) Create the file2)Utl_File. Later JVM refers this andconverts the bytecodes in machine code.One more thing in real time people use these both terms asSynonymic words.e. which will cause the softwarefailure.3)Utl_File.Defect: Defect is the one. All this would go into the MD050. pseudocode. what are the functions you are used in utl_file at the time of transferring the data? We will use following three functions to generate the file. Majority of people say both are same.g. it simply copies Ncharacters.fclose = To close the File after Data transfer. Defect status is decided by QA & Dev.status. Interface etc we have to first get the requirementsas to what is the source . Means it works properly after integration. Generally written bynon-technical people like Business Analysts or Functional Consultants. for these segment values B/S can be brought out in Accounting Flexfield in GL. andready for deployment. type and size of the team as well. Bug is Cause for defect.2)Validation is the major thing in the whole process. Defect is effect of the bug. "memmove" does not check for theterminating '\0' of string "s2".1)Utl_File. what is diff.still any one of have doubts regarding this concept feelfree to call or mail me what is the defect status for bugs.1) Regression Testing is a Testing Technique that we use tovalidate/ensure that the earlier tested module doesn't leadto any defects after the integration with other modules. It is not mandatoryto same in all over the industry. what is a flexfield qualifier ? Oracle Applications products use flexfield qualifiers toidentify certain segments used for specific purposes.For any component like Report.Data Sources.MD070 is the technical document that is written to fulfill the functional requirementspecified in MD050. between bug and defect.. e. SQL Statements etc. which stores additional informationwhereas Special Info Identifies the entities. .i.

C.sequence.its uses mainly Load balancing and Fault tolerance.Mysql does not have a language such as PL/SQL. Application Server contains all the databases that holdthe business data.3. An application server handles most. as this is notallowed. The main benefit of an application server is the ease of application development. Store procedure oracle support.6.Oracle is not open source mysql is open source database. What is the difference between 2-Tier architecture and 3-Tier architecture.Oracle is generally use for much larger applications thenmysql. What are Mandatory triggers to write in the block.5. Use PROC SQL.Oracle requires much more setup and tuning then mysql. if not all.Oracle support sub queries. Thus the clients can relatively changedfor other types of clients. what are the main benefits of web-logic(application server). since applicationsneed not be programmed. Assignment6. 2-tier .3-tier architecture where one tier is the backend databaseengine. Mysql does not support subqueries. butinstead allows.B. MYSQL and ORACLE. any other standalone database) and a client application.7. which is created on view? pre_from .when_new_item_instance.4.8. you should stop trying tomodify a system table (table owned by sys). Job3. they are assembled frombuilding blocks provided by the application server what is the difference bet.a. If this is the only error message. Oracle does notsupport auto increment function. Position4.also called client/server applications whichconsist of two separate applications. 1. without need for rememberinghow was the business logic put together. one is the front end client and one is just inbetween them. indexing.Database resides in the application server.. MSSQLalternatively. Contact .centralization). trigger.. how many types of extra information are there? Following Extra Information (EIT) Types are available inHRMS :1. Select * into: macro_variables separatedby ' ' from table.Mysql does not support views. What is the difference between a Application Server and a Database. also named the application server or businesslogic node.Some syntactic differences between Mysql and Oracle. so itsbetter to create a middle layer containing the businesslogic. of thebusiness logic and data access of the application (a. of clients in Siebel applications? Siebel WebClient(using browser we connect to server)Mobile Webclient(local)Hand HeldWireless Webclient(which uses WAP protocol to connect toserver)Dedicated client(which connects directly server Database) what is work structure? work structure is termed as mother route of all modules.Mysql support auto increment function. No.Work structure is the core area where all the setups aredone. one server application (typically a database server like Oracle. instead.Validation is a set of activities carried out to checkwhether we are we building the right system. How will you assign all the variables of an dataset into a macro variableseparated by a space? For example if a dataset has variables A.k. Application servers are distinguished from webservers by the extensive use of server-side dynamic content andfrequent integration with database engines. People5.What is validation and verification Verification is a set of activities carried out to seewhether we are we building the system right. and then let the clients talk with this middlelayer.Assign them to a macro variable X as X=A B C. Element7.. An application server is a software engine that deliversapplications to client computers or devices. Give full details of this ORA-12988: cannot drop column from table owned by SYS. Location2.2. typicallythrough the Internet and using the Hypertext Transfer Protocol.suppose you want to have many different clients for front-end would be unwise to copy all the business logic (all therules of your application) to each client app.

frameworks are set of defined rules for automating a testprocess. .nameHere. playback.Case is replacing the word "testcase" with "TC"1. Summation of 2sides should always greater than third value . Can Action 1 take values from action 2 data sheet or vice versa. Enter 0 0 0 : Error : no triangle can be made2. If so. security means the application has provide the security or not for the customer side data. how? By Parameters. enhancement. Do not enter any values : Prompt to enter valid values5. it could be said as automation test approachLINEAR FRAMEWORK – recording. Corresponding to "Find what?" there exists a edit boxenter "testcase" in that and click "find next" button. Tell me the test cases for a search and replace functionality in a Microsoftdocument (. operation. values are completelypassed only through this data sets. Subscriptions using thischange set cannot be activated or have their subscriptionwindows extended or purged until the capture error is resolved. Enter 1 0 x : Error : no triangle can be made . Consider a scenario where there are two action sheets say action 1 andaction 2.In Reusable Action1-Declare -name=Parameter ("name")In Calling Action2-Call RunAction ["Action1"].ClickFUNCTIONAL/MODULAR – here the actions are declared as user defined functions. data and description . these functions are called wherever needed.‖CAPTION = Login‖). from where a tester involves and from where a developer will involve??? Both developer and tester will involve rite from thebeginning requirement analysis. 1000000000000. 1+2<4 .2. 2 2 2 : Equilateral triangle8. turn on tracing and reexecute the operation. Click OK button on this. Enter -1 -1 1 Error : no triangle can be made -ve values3. depending on complexity of theapplication. Cause: The connect request was denied by the remote user (or TNS software).DESCRIPTIVE PROGRAMMING – it is the concept of execution of scripts without the reference of object DIALOG(―CLASS = DIALOG‖. A pop-up message appears with message "Window finishedsearching the document". Sotriangle can not be made7. The conditions are:Parameter("name"). And the most trickyEnter 1 2 4 : Triangle can not be made .combination of 2 or more points should be considered astest cases and tested.4. Enter 0.for ex:-login screen1)authentication2)access control3)encryption4)copy and paste the pwd not valid5)copy and cut the pwd not valid IN V-Model. Action: Contact the change set's publisher to request thatthe capture error is resolved. A editable window pops up with various tabs on itfind.TNS-12564: TNS:connection refused.000000000000001 . replace and go to(default Find tab will be selected)3. Click Replace tab on this and in replace with edit boxtype "TC" and click "replace or replace all" buttons basedon your case. Assume that the prg takes inputs as 3 sides of triangle :1. do recording based onscenarios.Should be declared in Reusable Action1. For further details. Write the test cases for triangle. VBscripts are automatically generated by QTP. ORA-31514: change set string disabled due to capture error.1000000000000 :Triangle should be made (Boundary value)6. onlynumbers and no alphabets4. How can we do security testing while testing a project. here ucreate scenarios.6.KEYWORD DRIVEN – using the manually entered table thatdefines test object.doc)? Open a already existing document with some content in it. very large values andcombinations of both .5. Action: Not normally visible to the user. Test with very small values . 1 2 2 : Isosceles triangle9. Winbutton(―class= Button‖.‖Text = OK‖). mixes are chosen. Click on Edit menu tab and then click on Find. Could you please explain me about QTP framework. the Action2 will take value of the variable -namefrom Action1. andplayback for executionDATA DRIVEN – here an external database is maintained for passing values to the actions in qtp. A pop-up message appears with appropriate message. enhancement is done for verifications.HYBRID FRAMEWORK – mix of any of the above framework areclassified as hybrid. Cause: This change set has encountered a capture error andwas disabled.

does somethinglook good. Once the user is authenticated he can access shareddrives and printers as if he were physically connected tothe office LAN. what is place holder column? Place holder column is a column for which you set thedatatype and value in pl/sql that you defineyou can set the value of a placeholder column in thefollowing places1. by using automation tools? Testing that cannot be sensibly carried out via automationare those tests relating to subjective measures of quality. is the workflow ergonomic. while doing black box testing??? During black box testingthey r two types of technique levels1)low level2)high levelunder low level1)boundary value analysis2)equivalence class partitioning3)error based4)special valueunder high level1)flow chart2)decision table3)state machine What are the types of testing we cannot do. In response to theprevious answer. How can we serialize a jsp page. Then.See the Server Types page in the Quick Reference section of Webopedia for a comparison of server types.Current version for enterprise guide is 4. while transforming the data into target thattime more than two key not in use so if you use surrogatekey it will identified the duplicate fields in dimensionaltable. The remote accessserver allows users to gain access to files and printservices on the LAN from a remote location. copy the latest versions or open read-only modes. A formula in the placeholders group or a group belowit(the value is set once for each record of the group) . the before report trigger. How the documents send to local folder? copy pasteor any other? please explain about VSS TOOL kit? we need to login to VSS and set to the path where you wouldlike to copy the files from VSS.on a LAN but need remote access to it. what is Enterprise Guide? what is the use of it? Sas enterprise guide is a separate licensed tool for Performing analysis on the data with out writing any code. auser who dials into a network from home using an analogmodem or an ISDN connection will dial into a remote accessserver. UPDATE OPRATION ? Associate portdata from different locations means every one have oneprimary key. stats etc. Do either check outalternatively.3. For example. if the placeholder is areport_level column. A report level formula column.What are the methods you followed.It is just point and click to perform all the tasks likePrint.1 In VSS. of course the GUI can be tested byautomation this type of testing is carried out daily bythousands of organizations.2. If a dimension table isconnected to more then one Fact table is called confirmdimension. We can write a java program and can use in jsp usinguse:bean what is the function to get the ascii value of the character? ascii(char) what are scrubing procedures in SAS? proc sort with nodupkey option. WHICHIS USED FOR INSERT . What is the purpose of using the N=PS option? The N=PS option creates a buffer in memory which is largeenough to store PAGESIZE (PS) lines and enables a page tobe formatted randomly prior to it being printed. As an example when is an image clear enough.coz it will eliminate the duplicate values. if the placeholder is areport_level column. gchart. how can one connect two fact tables ? is it possible ? how? This confirms dimension methodology. WHAT IS THE NAME OF THAT PORT IN DYNAMIC CACHE.

Set Clinic. What are the triggers associated with image items ? WHEN-IMAGE-PRESSEDWHEN-IMAGE-ACTIVATED What is trigger associated with the timer ? when_timer_expired Can a property clause itself be based on a property clause ? Yes a property Clause itself can be based on another property Clause. It is used in slowly changing dimension (scd) What templates used to design the test cases? To design test cases there are templates for writing testcases. and thehardcode that is written today may not be valid in thefuture.stress.Data _null. How experienced are you with customized reporting and use of Data _Null_ features? _Null_ is usefully only When u want to use Datastep withoutactually creating a SAS dataset. expected result.----data often change in a trial over time.php/2175621 How can we take a backup of a mysql table and how can we restore it. not during design. so one should have clear understanding of requirements and functional specificationsto write a test plan. In the Templates there is serial number. How do you optimize SQL queries ? Most often.serverwatch. A set statement specifiesthe SAS dataset that you want to read from. a field can exist in report without it appearing in anydata group. As a general case. The join defined by the default data link is an outer join yes or no ? No its not outer join but it is an equi/natural join Can a field be used in a report without it appearing in any data group? Yes. actual result anddefect id has to be given. The normal forms above 3rd NormalForm are often called de-normalization forms but what thisreally means is that they break some rules to make theDatabase faster. it has both the features of displaying output onreport template and creating datasets. Databases have bad designs and are notnormalized.What I suggest is to stick to the 3rd normal form except if you are a DBA (which means you know subsequent forms andknow what you're doing). functional specificationsinturn depends on "Requirements".This tool helps to take backup and restore which is used to maintainhistory .Surrogate keys usage in Oracle and Informatica? surrogate key is one type of key.For ex: page number can exist in report. ? MySQL provide an UI based tool called 'MySQL Administrator'.for more information go Through below linkhttp://www. action tobe performed. What techniques and/or PROCs do you use for tables? . What do you feel about hardcoding? It‘s better to avoid hardcoding as--it overrides the database controls in clinical datamanagement. This can greatly affect the speed of your Database. Do you prefer Proc Report or Proc Tabulate? Why? Proc report is very flexible to create tables than proctabulate as itIt supports built-in formatsIn addition. How do you write a test plan? Before writing "Test plan" you have to look intoon "Functional specifications" . Normalization after the 3rd NF isoften done at a later time. learn the 3 Normal Forms andapply them at all times. test data.

inhernt4. Name.SIDFROM Student. Cut the cake half way alongthe thickness of the cake." Simply it is a string. Can you write Java code for declaration of multiple inheritance in Java Class C extends A implements B What are the disadvantages of using threads? Because of threading deadlock. That‘s whyit‘s discouraged to use.SID = Level.brk will call internally when u calls malloc function. why because Non-technical peoples understand easily...SHMMAX=Max size of each shared segmentsSHMSEG=specifies the semaphores Can we take report on Excel in Business Objects? . sbrk? These are the system calles used to allocate the memory.Opera. Because in C the contents within "" willtreat as strings.. Race condition may arrived andstarvation may happen.hidden2. I was toldI could assume I had the means to make the cuts.Then Press ENTER.Level = "freshman" AND Student.. And in case of join a query only give the result when the joining condition gets satisfied. Course) and Level(SID.. What is the main diff between Subquery and a Join. SELECT Student.Course = 3. level) writethe SQL statement to get the name and SID of the student who are takingcourse = 3 and at freshman level. There is a rectangular piece missing from theinside of the sheet cake. Student. SHMMNI=Max no of shared segments.enable Give two UNIX kernel parameters that affect an Oracle install. Will Macros support multiple arguments ? Yes they will support multiple arguments Why the use of alloca() is discouraged? If you use alloca inside a function when it returns fromfunction it will be resulting in memory leak.. How to test URl of a website manually? Manual Testing-Start Browser (Anyone.. How do you divide the sheetcake into 2 even proportions with 2 cuts? It can be done in only one cut. Given two tables Student(SID.IE. what about "char *(*(*a[])())(). The location of the missing piece is LevelWHERE Student.Type URL in to addressBar.Makesure Internet is Connected. What is the security level used in BO? They r four 1..Proc contestproc freq by tablesproc tabulate by var proc summary Describe the types of SAS programming tasks that you performedlike Tables? Listings? Graphics? Ad hoc reports? Other? Tables.Netscape.. No matter where ever therectangular cut is two equal proportions are assured.).etc.SID AND Level.. what are brk. Majorly subquries run independently and result of thesubquery used in the outer query(other than correlated subquery). You have a sheet cake.

upper and lower casehandling and so forth.xls file and follow normalreport style. What is the test case. how you test broken link using the automated tool QTP ? Go for Insert->Standard check point->select one object->then select its parent page->therefore. But theadvantage is. Click or Select the others option and it will let u different filesalternatively. turn it so that it restarts.3. when 9 min clock finish. what is internalization? Testing related to handling foreign text and data withinthe program.minutes! please give me the solution. processing server. it displays check point propertiesthen select "Broken link" option from that wizardThis the way we can check the broken links. Out-of-proc server is onethis works outside the client‘s memory thus giving stabilityto the client. and request respond timescomposition. if a table has primary key we can createrelation to child tables. What is meant by the bug state "Reproduce"? Reproduce is nothing but we need to open again the bugwhich we found in testing with steps what we followed toopen the bug in previous time. turn 7 min clocks (It has 2mint only)4. test suit and explain differences between the above ones. What Does SRM Stand For? Supplier Relationship Management. string parsing. unrelated. What is the difference between in-proc and out-of-proc? An in-proc is one. 1. When 7 min clock complete.yes. in which '=' sign isused. Which are both relatedalternatively. extension files. There are two sand clocks(timers) one complete totally in 7 minutes and other in 9-minutes we have to calculate with this timers and bang the bell after completion of 11. This would include sorting.DLL's are In-proc and EXE's are Out-of-Proc servers. when 7 min clock finishes. test scenario. importing andexporting test and data. correct handling of currency anddate and time formats. Union is used to select distinct values from two tableswhere as union all is used to select all values includingduplicates from the tables how to retrieve the top 3 salaries of the table using rownum select salary_column from salary_tablewhere rownum<4order by salary_column desc. what are the advantages of primary key over unique+notnull. The inner join is same as equi join. What is the Symbol use for Inner Join. What is the use of "swing time" in Load Runner? swing time is nothing but a elapsed time this means requesttransmission time. Test Case: It is a condition to test ScenarioTest Scenario: It Is a Sequence of steps To test aparticular transactionTest suit contains Set of test cases. which runs in the same process area as that of the client giving the advantage of speed but thedisadvantage of stability because if it crashes it takes theclient application also with it. Primary key will avoid duplicate and null values in a tablewhich the combination of unique+not null will do.. what is the difference between union and union all. 11 min complete. here select . . but we have to compromise a bit on speed. The business objects separately provided the option of get the report data from universe or others(personal dataoption)in the business objects entered wizard. Start both clocks2.

They are like Functions without arguments. What is an implicit cursor? ..Oracle opens an implicit cursor to process each SQL statement notassociated with an explicit cursor..The physical arrangement of rows of this table changes with the indexedcolumn.It's not a schema object.If this subquery refers to any column in the parent statement. Prior toOracle 8.... What are Nested and Correlated subquries ? .%FOUND. but hasall the capabilities of PARTITION BY and ORDER BY clauses.They are not actual columns. %ISOPEN.What are various joins used while writing SUBQUERIES Outer Join–It‘s a join condition used where One can query all the rows of one of the tables in the join condition even though they don‘t satisfy the joincondition.. Web pages developed in PL/SQL What is an index-organized table? . %BULK_EXCEPTIONS .They typically give a different value for each row. Extended rowid (the default on higher releases) comprises data object number as well (comprising the segment number ).Examples: ROWNUM. something similar. How do you retrieve a dropped table in 10g? . it's a restricted rowid comprising block. What is an inline view? . Can rows from two different tables have thesame ROWID? ..ROWNUM is a pseudocolumn which is the number assigned to each rowretrieved. Name a few implicit cursor attributes.It's a subquery in the FROM clause with an alias that can be used as aview within the SQL statement.. a table stored like an index itself..It's. %NOTFOUND. What is a ROWID composed of ? .ROW_NUMBER is an analytic function.row. if they are in a Cluster What are ROWNUM and ROW_NUMBER ? .The subquery used in WHERE clause is a nested subquery.PL/SQL Server Pages. it becomesa correlated subquery.Shows you the physical arrangement of rows in the table.Also unique identifier for each row.file. in-short. %ROWCOUNT. . NEXTVAL. Triggers are not fired. ROWID..It's a hexadecimal string representing the address of a row.FLASHBACK table <tabname> to BEFORE DROP What are PSPs? .Retrieve data faster with ROWID. %BULK_ROWCOUNT.It deallocates space (Unless REUSE STORAGE is given).Truncate is efficient. Equi-join–Its a join condition that retrieves rows from one or more tablesin which one or more columns in one table are equal to one or more columns inthe second table. VERSION_STARTTIME Why use Truncate over Delete while deletingall rows ? . What is the use of a ROWID ? . which does.Possible.

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