In research we quite often face measurement problem (since we want a valid measurement but may not obtain it), specially when the concepts to be measured are complex and abstract and we do not possess the standardised measurement tools. Alternatively, we can say that while measuring attitudes and opinions, we face the problem of their valid measurement. Similar problem may be faced by a researcher, of course in a lesser degree, while measuring physical or institutional concepts. As such we should study some procedures which may enable us to measure abstract concepts more accurately. This brings us to the study of scaling techniques.

Meaning of Scaling
Scaling describes the procedures of assigning numbers to various degrees of opinion, attitude and other concepts. This can be done in two ways viz., (i) making a judgement about some characteristic of an individual and then placing him directly on a scale that has been defined in terms of that characteristic (ii) Constructing questionnaires in such a way that the score of individual’s responses assigns him a place on a scale. Important Scaling Techniques 1. Rating scales: The rating scale involves qualitative description of a limited number of aspects of a thing or of traits of a person. When we use rating scales (or categorical scales), we judge an object in absolute terms against some specified criteria i.e., we judge properties of objects without reference to other similar objects. These ratings may be in such forms as “like-dislike”, “above average, average, below average”, or other classifications with more categories such as “like very much—like some what—neutral—dislike somewhat—dislike very much”; “excellent— good—average—below average—poor”, “always—often—occasionally—rarely—never”, and so on. There is no specific rule whether to use a two-points scale, three-points scale or scale with still more points. In practice, three to seven points scales are generally used for the simple reason that more points on a scale provide an opportunity for greater sensitivity of measurement. Rating scale may be either a graphic rating scale or an itemized rating scale. (i) The graphic rating scale is quite simple and is commonly used in practice. Under it the various points are usually put along the line to form a continuum and the rater indicates his rating by simply making a mark (such as ü) at the appropriate point on a line that runs from one extreme to the other. Scale-points with brief descriptions may be indicated along the line, their function being to assist the rater in performing his job. The following is an example of five-points graphic rating scale when we wish to ascertain people’s liking or disliking any product:

they may also be used with a large number of properties or variables. Analysis of data is not complete. such as social acceptance (i. The error of central tendency: When raters are reluctant to give extreme judgements.  He sometimes gets involved in friction. This form is relatively difficult to develop and the statements may not say exactly what the respondent would like to express.The itemized rating scale (also known as numerical scale) presents a series of statements from which a respondent selects one as best reflecting his evaluation. Also. Example: Suppose we wish to inquire as to how well does a worker get along with his fellow workers? In such a situation we may ask the respondent to select one. After collecting the data. But their value for measurement purposes depends upon the assumption that the respondents can and do make good judgements. This sort of error takes place when we conclude For example. The chief merit of this type of scale is that it provides more information and meaning to the rater. 2. They require less time. Sociometric techniques are methods that qualitatively measure aspects of social relationships. to express his opinion. The error of hallo effect: The error of hallo effect or the systematic bias occurs when the rater carries over a generalised impression of the subject from one rating to another. Besides. are interesting to use and have a wide range of applications.  He almost never gets involved in friction with fellow workers. The next job of the researcher is to analyze and interpret the data. If the respondents are not very careful while rating. Three types of rating errors are 1. Interpretation of data is a method for deriving conclusions from the data analyzed. There are two parts in processing the data.  He infrequently becomes involved in friction with others..  He is often at odds with one or more of his fellow workers.e. Data Processing Processing data is very important in market research. errors may occur. The results obtained from their use compare favourably with alternative methods. These statements are ordered progressively in terms of more or less of some property. In other words. The purpose of analysis is to draw conclusion. (1) Data Analysis (2) Interpretation of data Analysis of the data involves organizing the data in a particular manner. . from the following:  He is almost always involved in some friction with a fellow worker. how much an individual is liked by peers) and social status (ii) PILOT STUDY A pilot survey is very useful when the actual survey is to be on a big scale as it may provide data which will allow costs to be trimmed. and thereby increases reliability. that a particular report is good because we like its form or that someone is intelligent because he agrees with us or has a pleasing personality. The error of leniency: The error of leniency occurs when certain respondents are either easy raters or hard raters. a pilot survey will give an estimate of the non-response rate and it will also give a guide as to the adequacy of the sampling frame chosen. unless it is interpreted. on a number of which he has no evidence for judgement. Rating scales have certain good points. hallo effect is likely to appear when the rater is asked to rate many factors. the result is the error of central tendency 3.

Due to the pressure of interviewing. Many times this may not be systematic. so that the responses can be grouped into limited number of classes or categories Example: 1 is used for male and 2 for female. Primary data collected by surveys. since editing should be done. 2. interview them and record their responses. Data continues to be in raw form. 5. complete and arranged to simplify coding and tabulation. Coding speeds up the tabulation while editing eliminates errors. Data collection is a significant part of market research. Coding involves assigning numbers or other symbols to answers. The data lying in such a crude form are not ready for analysis. when the study is still under progress. The information so collected by field staff is called raw data. Also the information collected will be scattered in several data collection formats. speed is the main criteria. 6. to filter out the relevant data from the mass of data collected. 3. Keeping this in mind the researcher must take some measures to organize the data.Steps in Processing of Data 1. Coding can either be done on the margin of questionnaire or transcribe the data from the questionnaire to a coding sheet. The main problems faced in field editing are (1) Inappropriate respondents (2) Incomplete interviews (3) Improper understanding (4) Lack of consistency (5) Legibility . Preparing Raw Data 2. unless they are processed and analyzed. Coding helps the researcher to reduce several thousand replies to a few categories containing the critical information needed for analysis. Even more significant is. 1. so that it can be analyzed. In field editing. incomplete and inaccurate to some extent. The information collected may be illegible. Preparing raw data Coding Editing Tabulation of data Summarising the data Usage of statistical tool. the researcher has to write down the responses immediately. consistent with other facts collected. uniformly entered. The purpose of editing is to ensure that the data areAccurate. Coding Coding refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so that responses can be put into a limited number of categories or classes. Coding refers to all those activities which helps in transforming edited questionnaires into a form which is ready for analysis. 3. observations by field investigations are hastily entered into questionnaires. 4. Editing First step in the analysis of raw data – editing detects errors and omissions and corrects them when possible – it involves a careful scrutiny of the completed questionnaire. This can be done in two stages (a) Field editing (b) Office editing a) Field editing A field editing has 2 objectives (a) To make sure that proper procedure is followed in selecting the respondent.

These are known as cross-tabulation. except to conduct office audit. stub.(6) Fictitious interview b) Office editing Office editing is more thorough than field editing. which furnishes answers to questions about one characteristic of the data only – Twoway. three or several interrelated characteristics of the data. Body of the table given full information of the frequency. Tabulation : It is a concise. The results are summarized in the form of statistical tables. The table must have a clear and brief title. body of the table. he said "Bru". Caption indicates that each column is meant for. three-way and manifold tables deal with two. b) A rating scale given to a respondent states. caption. is placed at the top of the table in the right hand corner in a bracket. Stub indicates the row title or the row headings and is placed in the left-hand column. Kinds of Tabulation Simple or one way tabulation . Tabulation involves a) Sorting and counting a) Sorting and counting The tabulation may include table number. The job of office editor is more difficult than field editor. respondents rapport problems are some of the issues which gets highlighted in the office editing. head note. In case of mail questionnaire there are no other methods. 4. Tabulation refers to counting the number of cases that fall into various categories. The head note. logical and orderly arrangement of data in columns and rows – summarising raw data and display them in compact form – it provides a basis for starting statistical comparisons – it could be one way . sub entries. semantic differential scale with 10 items. The respondent has ticked "strongly agree" to all the 10 items. usually the measurement unit. Examples are as below which illustrates the kind of problem faced by office editor. Two respondents answering as (1) LCD TV (2) Trip to USA. Example: a) Respondent indicated that he doesn't drink coffee. The counting and placing of data in particular group and subgroup are done. but when questioned about the favourite brand. Sub entries are sub-group of the stub. Consistency. The following example explains the component of a table. footnote and source. c) What is the most expensive purchase you have made in the last one year is the question. title. The raw data is divided into groups and subgroups.

(b) Multiple response to question (c) Cross tabulation or 2-way tabulation (a) Question with only one response If question has only one answer. Cross tabulation is very commonly used in market research. The data may include 2 or more variable. Suppose 500 families are met and data collected is as follows: Table shows that consumption of a health drink not only depends on income but also on the number of children per family . Example: Popularity of a health drink among families having different income. In this case there will be an overlap and response when tabulated need not add to 100 percent. There may be 2 types of univariate tabulation: (a) Question with only one response. tabulation may be of the following type: (b) Question with multiple response Sometimes respondents may give more than one answer to a given question. The questions are predetermined and consists of counting the number of responses falling into a particular category and calculate the percentage.The multiple choice questions which allow only one answer may use one way tabulation or univariate. (c) Cross tabulation or 2-way tabulation This is known as bivariate tabulation.

It is obvious from the table that. 5. Summarising the Data Before taking up summarizing. During the field study. the data should be classified into (1) Relevant data (2) Irrelevant data. Summarizing the data includes (1) Classification of data (2) Frequency distribution (3) Use of appropriate statistical tool.Health drink is also very popular among the family with no children. the researcher has collected lot of data which he may think would be of use. Table also shows that families in the income group of 2001 to 3000 consume the health drink most. 59 out of 500 families consume health drink even though they have no children. . This shows that even adults consume this drink.

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