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Design of Superstructure
1.0 Design Data
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Page 1
1.1. Materials and its Properties:
M25
Fe415
Characteristics Strengthof Concrete fck = 25 MPa
Permissible direct compressive stress, σ
c
= 6.2 MPa
Permissible flexural compressive stress, σ
cbc
= 8.3 MPa
Maximum Permissible shear stress, τ
max
( 0.07*fck) = 1.75 MPa
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Maximum Permissible shear stress, τ
max
( 0.07 fck) 1.75 MPa
Basic Permissible Stresses of Reinforcing Bars as per IRC : 211987, Section III:
Permissible Flexural Tensile stress, σ
st
= 200 MPa
Permissible direct compressive stress, σ
co
= 170 MPa
Self weight of materials as per IRC : 62000:
Concrete (cementReinforced) = 24 kN/m3
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Macadam (binder premix) = 22 kN/m3
1.2. Geometrical Properties:
Effective Span of Bridge = 24.00 m
Total length of span = 24.56 m
Numbers of span = 2
Width of expantion Joint = 40 mm
Total length of Bridge = 49.2 m
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
g g
Nos. of longitudinal Girder = 3
Spacing of Girder = 2.4 m
Rib width of main girder = 400 mm
Overall depth of main girder = 2000 mm
Depth of kerb above deck slab = 225 mm
Nos. of cross girder = 6
Spacing of cross girder = 4.8 m
Rib width of cross girder = 300 mm
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Rib width of cross girder = 300 mm
Overall depth of cross girder = 1500 mm
Deck slab thickness = 220 mm
Deck slab thickness at edge = 150 mm
Thickness of wearing coat = 80 mm
Fillet size (horizontal) = 150 mm
Fillet size (vertical) = 150 mm
Bridge Width:
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Carriageway width = 6 m
Footpath width = 0.45 m
Kerb width Outer = 0.15 m
Kerb width Inner = 0 m
Total Width of Deck Slab = 7.2 m
Total depth of Kerb Outer = 0.375 m
Total depth of Kerb Inner = 0 m
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
Page 1
2.0 Design of Slab
h il l b i d i d b i id h h d
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
Page 2
2.1 Design of Cantilever slab: The cantilever slab is designed by effective width method.
300 mm at junction with rib
150 mm at free end
0.5 kN/m (assumed)
Impact factor = 54 % (for IRC class A loading)
25 % (for IRC class AA loading)
Thickness of slab =
Self weight of Railing =
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
( g)
Dead Load Bending Moment and Shear Force:
S.No. Item Width Depth Unit Wt
1 Railing/Parap
et
0.5 kN
1.5250.100=
0.9 m 0.45 kN.m
2 Kerb (outer) 0.2 0.225 24 1.08 kN
1.5250.100=
0.9 m 0.97 kN.m
3 Kerb (inner) 0 0 24 0 kN
0.15+0.175/2=
0.2375 m 0 kN.m
4 Wearing Coat 0.4 0.08 22 0.704 kN
0.150/2=
0.075 m 0.05 kN.m
Assumed
Load / m run
(kN)
Moment Distance
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
4 Wearing Coat 0.4 0.08 22 0.704 kN
0. 50/
0.075 m 0.05 kN.m
5 Slab 1 0.15 24 3.6 kN 1.525/2= 0.5 m 1.8 kN.m
1 0.075 24 1.8 kN 1.525/3= 0.3333 m 0.6 kN.m
Total kN kN.m
= 7.684 kN
= 3.875 kN.m
7.684
Dead load Shear force at theface of rib
Dead load Bending Moment at the face of rib
3.875
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
Live Load Bending Moment and Shear Force:
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
IRC Class AA will not operate on the cantilever slab that shown in fig 2.b & 2.c above and Class A
Loading is to be considered and the load will be as shown in fig 2.a above.
Effective width of dispersion be is computed by equation
be = 1.2X+ bw
Here
X= 0.125 m
bw= 0.41 m
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
bw= 0.41 m
Hence
be= 0.56 m
IRC Class A Loading Load = 28.5 kN
Live Load per m width including impact = 76.339 kN
Maximum Moment due to live load = 9.5424 kNm
Average thickness of cantilever slab = 225 mm
Taking pedestrain load (LL) = 5.0 kN/m
2
Eff ti idth f l b 0 45
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
Effective width of slab = 0.45 m
Cantilever length of slab = 1 m
Maximum Bending moment = 1.406 kN.m
Shear force at the face of slab = 2.250 kN
Total Design Shear Force = 86.3 kN
Total Design Bending Moment = 14.82 kN.m
Design of Section:
Modular Ratio, m = = 11.245
cbc
σ 3
280
Fig 1.BRIDGE CROSSSECTION
57KN
350KN
37.5KN
IRC Class AA Track Loading IRC Class A Loading IRC Class AA Wheel Loading
Fig. 2.a, 2.b & 2.c
Page 2
Neutral axis factor, k = = 0.3182
Lever arm factor, j = = 0.8939
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
Page 3
Moment of resistance coefficient, R = = 1.1804
Therefore, required effective depth of slab=
d = = 112.06 mm
Effective depth of slab, provided = 254 mm > d reqO.K.
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
p , p q
Area of steel required, Ast = 326.42 mm
2
Provide φ 10 mm bars @ 200 = 393 mm
2
> required, Ok.
Distribution Steel:
Distribution steel is to be provided for 0.3 times live load moment plus 0.2 times dead
load moment.
mm c/c, giving area of steel =
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
load moment.
Moment = 4.06 kN.m
Effective depth 244 mm
Area of steel required, Ast = 93.057 mm
2
Half reinforcement is to be provided at top and half at bottom.
Provide ø 10 mm bars 200 mm c/c at both top and bottom, giving area of
t l 392 5 mm
2
> required OK
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
steel = 392.5 mm
2
> required, OK.
Check for min. area of Steel:
Min. area of steel @ 0.12 % = 360 mm
2
< Provided. O.K.
Design for Shear:
Dead load shear = 7.68 kN
Live load Shear = 2.250 kN
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
Total = 9.93 kN
tanβ = 0.150
Shear stress, = 0.005 N/mm
2
Percentage area of tension steel, pt = 0.13 %
Allowable shear stress as per code is given by
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
( d being in m)
= 0.986
(where )
= 0.500446 1.00
Ad t
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
Adopt 1
Value ot = for M25 grade of concrete from code = 0.4 N/mm2
Allowable shear stress
= 0.3944 N/mm2 > , Hence Safe
cbc
σ 3
280
st
σ
cbc
m σ
cbc
m σ
+
3
1
k
−
st
j k σ × × ×
2
1
Rb
M
d j
M
st
.
.
σ
=
d j
M
st
. . σ
=
bd
d
tan M
 V
β
τ
×
=
v
co c
k k τ τ . .
2 1
=
5 . 0 7 . 0 14 . 1
1
≥ × − = d k
1 25 . 0 5 . 0
2
≥ + = ρ k
bd
A
s
= ρ
≥
=
2
k
co
τ
4 . 0
2 1
× × = K K
c
τ
v
τ
Page 3
2.2 Design of Interior Panels: The slab panel is designed by Pigeaud’s method.
D
Page 4
B
C
Short span of slab, Bs = 2 m
Long span of slab, Ls = 4.5 m
A
Fig : 3 Bridge Plan
Calculation of Bending moments
a) Due to Dead load:
Self weight of wearing coat = 1.76 kN/m
2
Self weight of deck slab = 5.28 kN/m
2
Total = 7.04 kN/m
2
Since the slab is supported on all four sides and is continuous, Piegaud’s curves are used to
calculate bending moments.
Ratio k = Bs/Ls = 0 44 Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
As the panel is loaded with UDL,
u/Bs = 1
v/Ls = 1
Where, u & v are the dimensions of the loaded area.
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.0457
m2 = 0.0086
Total dead load W = 63.36 kN
Moment along short span, M1 = W (m1 +0.15m2) = 2.98 kNm
Moment along long span, M2 = W (0.15m1 +m2) = 0.98 kNm
Considering effects of continuity, 0.8
Moment along short span, M1 = 2.38 kNm
Moment along long span, M2 = 0.78 kNm
b) Due to Live load: Class AA Tracked Vehicle b) Due to Live load: Class AA Tracked Vehicle
For maximum bending moment one wheel is placed at the center of panel.
Tyre contact length along short span, x = 0.85 m
Tyre contact length along long span, y = 3.6 m
Loaded length, u = 1.034 m
Loaded width, v = 3.766 m
Wheel load, W = 350 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
/B 0 517 N u/Bs = 0.517
v/Ls = 0.837
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.0813
m2 = 0.0147
Moment along short span,
= 29.227 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 9.413 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
W
1
=
3
5
0
k
N
Fig: 4
Page 4
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 29.227 kNm
M2 = 9.413 kNm
Fig: 4
Page 5
c) Due to Live load: Class AA Wheeled Vehicle
CaseI: When two loads of 37.5 kN each and four loads of 62.5kN are placed such that two loads of
62.5kN lies at center line of pannel.
Tyre contact width (along short span), = 0.30 m
Tyre contact length (along long span), = 0.15 m
Disperced width along short span, u = 0.510 m
Disperced width along long span, V = 0.380 m
K = 0 44 K = 0.44
6
2
.5
k
N
6
2
.5
k
N
6
2
.5
k
N
6
2
.5
k
N
W1 W4
W2 W5
Y
X X
Bending moment due to load W1: 62.5 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
Fig: 5
3
7
.5
k
N
W3
3
7
.5
k
N
W6
Y
Ratio, k Bs/Ls 0.44
u/Bs = 0.255
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1965
m2 = 0.1383
Moment along short span,
= 13.578 kNm
Moment along long span
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Moment along long span,
= 10.486 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 13.578 kNm
M2 = 10.486 kNm
Bending moment due to load W2: 62.5 kN Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the XX
Intensity of loading, q = 322.45 kN/m2
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Considering loaded area 2.000 x 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.760 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 245 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 1.000
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve, From the Pigeaud s curve,
m1 = 0.0935
m2 = 0.0742
Moment along short span,
= 25.650 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 21.628 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 25.650 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Page 5
M2 = 21.628 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 1.490 m X 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.566 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 183 kN
Page 6
Total applied load q x area 183 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.745
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1157
m2 = 0.0944
Moment along short span,
= 23 718 kNm M1= W(m1+0 15m2) = 23.718 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 20.412 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 23.718 kNm
M2 = 20.412 kNm
Final Moment
M1 = 0.966 kNm
M2
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2 = 0.608 kNm
Bending moment due to load W3: 37.5 kN Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the XX
Intensity of loading, q = 193.47 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 1.710 x 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.650 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 126 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.855 u/Bs 0.855
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1036
m2 = 0.08325
Moment along short span,
= 14.598 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 12 423 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0 15m1+m2) = 12.423 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 14.598 kNm
M2 = 12.423 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 0.69 m X 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.262 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 51 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
/B 0 345
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
u/Bs = 0.345
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1765
m2 = 0.1312
= 9.957 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 8.002 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 9.957 kNm
M2 = 8.002 kNm
Final Moment
M1 = 2.321 kNm
M2 = 2.210 kNm
Bending moment due to load W4: 62.5 kN Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the YY
Intensity of loading, q = 322.45 kN/m2
( )
Page 6
Considering loaded area 2.780 x 0.510 m
Loaded area = 1.418 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 457 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
Page 7
Ratio, k Bs/Ls 0.44
u/Bs = 0.618
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1168
m2 = 0.0648
Moment along short span,
= 57.832 kNm
Moment along long span
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Moment along long span,
= 37.628 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 57.832 kNm
M2 = 37.628 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 2.02 m X 0.510 m
Loaded area = 1.030 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 332 kN
R i k B /L 0 44
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.449
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1353
m2 = 0.0712
Moment along short span,
= 48.480 kNm M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Moment along long span,
= 30.386 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 48.480 kNm
M2 = 30.386 kNm
Final Moment
M1 = 4.676 kNm
M2 = 3 621 kNm
( )
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M2 = 3.621 kNm
Bending moment due to load W5:
Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the Both XX and YY
For X X Axis
W = 62.5 kN
Intensity of loading, q = 322.45 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 2.000 x 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.760 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 245 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 1.000
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.0935
m2 = 0.0742
Moment along short span, Moment along short span,
= 25.650 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 21.628 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 25.650 kNm
M2 = 21.628 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 1.490 m X 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.566 m2
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Page 7
Total applied load = q x area = 183 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.745
v/Ls = 0.084
Page 8
v/Ls 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1157
m2 = 0.0944
Moment along short span,
= 23.718 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 20.412 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 23.718 kNm
M2 = 20.412 kNm
Moment Along XX
M1 = 0.966 kNm
M2 = 0.608 kNm
For Y Y Axis
W = 62.5 kN
Intensity of loading, q = 322.45 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 2.780 x 0.510 m
Loaded area = 1.418 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 457 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.618
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve, From the Pigeaud s curve,
m1 = 0.1168
m2 = 0.0648
Moment along short span,
= 57.832 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 37.628 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 57 832 kN m
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M1 = 57.832 kNm
M2 = 37.628 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 2.020 m X 0.51 m
Loaded area = 1.030 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 332 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.449
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1353
m2 = 0.0712
Moment along short span,
= 48.480 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 30.386 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 48.480 kNm
M2 = 30.386 kNm
Final Moment
M1 = 4.676 kNm
M2 = 3.621 kNm
Resultent Moment
M1 = 5.642 kNm
M2 = 4.230 kNm
Page 8
Bending moment due to load W6:
Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the Both XX and YY
For XX Axis
Page 9
For X X Axis
W = 37.5 kN
Intensity of loading, q = 193.47 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 1.710 x 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.650 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 126 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0 855 u/Bs = 0.855
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1036
m2 = 0.08325
Moment along short span,
= 14.598 kNm
Moment along long span,
12 423 M2 W(0 15 1 2)
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
= 12.423 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 14.598 kNm
M2 = 12.423 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 0.69 m X 0.380 m
Loaded area = 0.262 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 51 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Ratio, k Bs/Ls 0.44
u/Bs = 0.345
v/Ls = 0.084
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1765
m2 = 0.1312
Moment along short span,
= 9.957 kNm
Moment along long span
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Moment along long span,
= 8.002 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 9.957 kNm
M2 = 8.002 kNm
Moment Along YY
M1 = 2.321 kNm
M2 = 2.210 kNm
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
For Y Y Axis
W = 37.5 kN
Intensity of loading, q = 193.47 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 2.780 x 0.510 m
Loaded area = 1.418 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 274 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.618 u/Bs 0.618
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1168
m2 = 0.0648
Moment along short span,
= 34.699 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 22.577 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Page 9
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 34.699 kNm
M2 = 22.577 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 2.020 m X 0.510 m
Page 10
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 2.020 m X 0.510 m
Loaded area = 1.030 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 199 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.449
v/Ls = 0.255
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1353
m2 = 0 0712 m2 = 0.0712
Moment along short span,
= 29.088 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 18.231 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 29.088 kNm
M2 = 18.231 kNm
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Final Moment
M1 = 2.806 kNm
M2 = 2.173 kNm
Resultent Moment
M1 = 5.127
M2 = 4.383
Total Moment Due to IRC Class AA Wheeled Vechicle
Moment along short span,M1 = 32.309 kNm Moment along short span,M1 32.309 kN m
Moment along long span,M2 = 25.539 kNm
c) Due to Live load: Class A Loading
IRC Class A Loading: For maximum bending moment one wheel of 57kN should be placed at the
centre of span and other at 1.2 m from it as shown. Neglecting small eccentricity of 80mm.
Tyre contact length along short span, Y = 0.5 m
Tyre contact length along long span, X = 0.25 m
Imaginary load W3 = W2 is placed on the other side of W1 to make loading symmetrical.
Due to loads W2 & W3 Bending moment at center of panel will be that due to load W1 and half. Due to loads W2 & W3 Bending moment at center of panel will be that due to load W1 and half.
Page 10
Y
Page 11
5
7
k
N
W1
W2
Y
X X
5
7
k
N
Fig: 6
Bending moment due to load W1:
Wheel load, W1 = 57 kN
Loaded length, u = 0.696 m
Loaded width, v = 0.465 m
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.35
v/Ls = 0.10
From the Pigeaud’s curve, From the Pigeaud s curve,
m1 = 0.1717
m2 = 0.1245
Moment along short span,
= 10.851 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 8.565 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 10 851 kN m
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M1 = 10.851 kNm
M2 = 8.565 kNm
Bending moment due to load W2:
Wheel load is placed unsymmetrical wrt the YY
Wheel load, W2 = 57 kN
Intensity of loading, q = 176.09 kN/m2
Considering loaded area 2.865 x 0.696 m
Loaded area = 1.993 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 351 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.637
v/Ls = 0.348
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.10843 m1 = 0.10843
m2 = 0.0497
Moment along short span,
= 40.676 kNm
Moment along long span,
= 23.154 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 40.676 kNm
M2 = 23 154 kN m
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
M2 = 23.154 kNm
Next, Consider the area between the real and the dummy load i.e., 1.935 m X 0.696 m
Loaded area = 1.346 m2
Total applied load = q x area = 237 kN
Ratio, k = Bs/Ls = 0.44
u/Bs = 0.430
v/Ls = 0.348
From the Pigeaud’s curve,
m1 = 0.1313
Page 11
m2 = 0.0552
Moment along short span,
= 33.081 kNm
Moment along long span,
M1= W(m1+0.15m2)
Page 12
= 17.751 kNm
Bending moment including impact and continuity,
M1 = 33.081 kNm
M2 = 17.751 kNm
Final Moment
M1 = 3.798 kNm
M2 = 2.702 kNm
M2= W(0.15m1+m2)
Total Bending Moment due to load W1 & W2 will be,
M1 = 14.6 kNm
M2 = 11.3 kNm
Design Bending Moment due to LL:
M1 = 32.3 kNm
M2 = 25.5 kNm
Calculation of Shear Force
a) Due to Dead load:
Dead load shear force = 7.04 kN
b) Due to Live load: Class AA Tracked Vehicle
Load of Tracked Vehicle= 350 kN
350kN 350kN
Dispertion in the direction of span, = 1.45 m
For maximum shear, load is kept such that whole dispersion is in the span. That is at 0.725 m
from the edge of beam. 0.3
Fig 7.a
Effective width of slab =
Span Ratio (L/B) = 2.25
a for continuous slab = 2.60
x = 0.725 m
bw = 3.76
Therefore effective width of slab = 4.96 m
bw
l
x
1 αx + 
.

\

−
Load per meter width = 70.54 kN
Shear force at left edge = 44.97 kN
Shear force including impact & continuity = 44.97 kN
c) Due to Live load: Class AA Wheeled Vehicle
37.5kN 37.5kN 62.5kN 62.5kN
Page 12
37.5kN 37.5kN 62.5kN 62.5kN
Page 13
Fig 7 b
Dispersion width in the direction of span = 0.900 m
Loads are placed such that outermost load is at distance of
x = 0.450 m from edge of the beam.
bw = 0.31
Effective width for first wheel = = 1.217 m
Fig 7.b
Wheel Load = 62.50 kN
But the center to center distance of two axel are 1.2 m, thus effective width will overlap.
Average effective width for one wheel = 1.208 m
Portion of load in span = 1.000 m
Load per meter width of slab = 51.72 kN
For second wheel Wheel Load = 62.50 kN
x = 0.550 m x 0.550 m
Effective width for second wheel = 1.347 m
But the center to center distance of two axel are 1.2 m, thus effective width will overlap.
Average effective width for one wheel = 1.273 m
Load per meter width of slab = 49.1 kN
For third wheel Wheel Load = 37.50 kN
X = 0.050 m
Effective width for third wheel = 0 400 Effective width for third wheel = 0.400
Load Acting on Span = 16.67 kN
Acting at 0.2 m from Support
Effective width for third wheel = 0.918 m < 1.2 m
Load per meter width of slab = 18 kN
Shear force at left edge = 37.3 kN
Shear force including impact and continuity
= 37.318 kN
b) Due to Live load: IRC Class A loading
Fig 7.c
57kN 57kN
Page 13
Shear force due to load W1: 57 kN
Fig 7.c
Page 14
Dispersion width in the direction of short span = 1.1 m
For maximum shear force, the load should be placed at distance of 0.55 m from web
of girder. In this position second load will be as shown.
Effective width for first wheel =
Where, x= 0.55 m
bw= 0.41 m
bw
l
x
1 αx + 
.

\

−
bw 0.41 m
L/B= 2.3 α = 2.6
Therefore, Effective width = 1.447 m
But distance between axels is 1.2 m and hence effective width overlaps.
Average effective width / wheel = m
Load W1 = kN
Load per meter width of slab = kN/m
And shear force = kN
Shear force including impact & continuity = kN
57.00
32 30
43.07
32.30
1.32
Shear force including impact & continuity = kN
Shear force due to load W2:
Effective width for second wheel =
Where, x= 0.350 m
bw= 0.41 m
32.30
bw
l
x
1 αx + 
.

\

−
L/B= 2.4 α = 2.6
Therefore, Effective width = 1.161 m < 1.2 m
Load W2 = 57.0 kN
Effective load = 18.1 kN
15.6 kN
And shear force = 12.89 kN
Shear force including impact & continuity = 12.89 kN
Total shear force = 45.19 kN
Load per meter width of slab =
Design of Section: Design of Section:
Total Design Bending Moments,
M1 = 34.69 kNm
M2 = 26.32 kNm
Total Design Shear force,
S.F. = 52.23 kN
Effective depth required,
d 171 4
M
d = 171.4 mm
Use 30 mm Clear cover & 12 mm dia
Effective depth available = 184 mm O.K.
Area of steel required along short span,
Ast = 1055 mm2
Check for minimum area of steel:
=
Rb
M
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Page 14
264 mm2
Provide ø 12 mm bars 100 mm c/c at both top and bottom, giving area of
steel = 1130.4 mm
2
> required.
Effective depth for long span = 173 mm
Min. area of steel @
Page 15
Area of steel required along long span,
Ast = 851 mm2
Provide ø 12 mm bars 100 mm c/c at both top and bottom, giving area of
steel = 1130.4 mm
2
> required.
Check for shear:
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Check for shear:
Nomin
τ
v = 0.284 N/mm
2
Provided percentage area of tensile steel = 0.51 %
Permissible shear stress, Κ×τ
c
= 1.16 x 0.313 = 0.363 N/mm
2
>
O.K.
=
× d b
Vu
3.0 Design of Longitudinal Girder
Effective Span of Bridge = 24 m
Slab thickness = 0.22 m
Width of Rib = 0.4 m
Spacing of main Beam = 2.4 m c/c
Over all depth of Beam = 2 m
3.1 Calculation of dead load moment and shear force on longitudinal girder:
Let the over all depth of the longitudinal girder be 2000 mm, the depth of its rib will
= 1.78 m
Weight of Rib per m = 17.09 kN/m
Dead load due to deck Dead load due to deck
Dead load from each cantilever portion (refer design of cantilever slab)
= 7.68 kN/m
Dead load of slab & Wearing coat = 7.04 kN/m
2
Total Dead load per m from deck = 51.98 kN/m
This load is borne by all the three girders
Dead Load per girder due to Deck Slab = 17.33 kN/m
Let the Depth of rib of cross girder to be = 1.28 m
let its width be = 0.3 m
Weight of rib of cross girder = 9.216 kN/m
Length of each cross girder = 4 m
It is assumed that the weight of each cross girder is equally borne by the entire three
longitudinal girders. This weight acts as point load on each girder its value being
= 12.29 kN
Total UDL = 34.413333 kN/m
R
A
= R
B
= 449.824 kN
Bending Moment (BM)
12.3 kN
Fig : 8
RA
RB
34.413 kN/m
12.3 kN 12.3 kN 12.3 kN 3 kN 12.3 kN
Page 15
BM at Centre of span = 2654.707 kNm
BM at ¼ th of span = 2064.758 kNm
BM at 3/8
th
Span = 2492.474 kNm
BM t 1/8
th
Span 1157 748 kN
Page 16
BM at 1/8
th
Span = 1157.748 kNm
Shear Force (SF)
SF at Support = 437.536 kN
SF at 1/8th Span = 334.296 kN
SF at 1/4
th
Span = 218.768 kN
SF at 3/8
th
Span = 115.528 kN
SF at Center of span = 0 kN SF at Center of span 0 kN
Distance from Support BM SF
At Center of Span 2654.71 0.00
At 3/8
th
Span
2492.47 115.53
At 1/4th Span 2064.76 218.77 At 1/4th Span 2064.76 218.77
At Support 0.00 437.54
3.2 Calculation of live load moment and shear force on longitudinal girder:
Impact factor for:
0.150
IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle = 0 100
=
+ L 6
5 . 4
IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle = 0.100
IRC Class AA Wheeled Vehicle = 0.215
Distribution of live loads on longitudinal girder for bending moment:
IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle:
All th i d d t h th t f i ti
Reaction on the girder will be maximum when the eccentricity is maximum. Eccentricity will be maximum when the loads
are very near to the kerb. Position of loads for maximum eccentricity is shown in figure.
All the girders are assumed to have the same moment of inertia.
Fig 9
W1 W1
Reaction factor for Outer Girder, RA = 0.81 W
1
Reaction factor for Inner Girder, RB = 0.667 W
1
( )
=
(
¸
(
¸
× ×
×
+ 35 . 0 4 . 2
2.4 2I
I 3
1
3
W 2
2
1
=
3
W 2
1
Fig. 9
If W be the axel load, then wheel load W
1
= W/2
Then reaction factor, R
A
= 0.406 W
RB = 0.333 W
IRC Class A Loading:
Position of loads for maximum eccentricity is shown in figure.
3
W1 W1 W1 W1
Page 16
W1 W1 W1 W1
Page 17
Reaction on Outer Girder RA,
R
A=
1.625 W2
( )
=
(
¸
(
¸
× ×
×
+ 1 . 0 4 . 2
2.4 2I
I 3
1
3
W 4
2
1
Fig. 10
RB = 1.333 W2
If W be the axel load, then wheel load W2 = W/2
Then reaction factor, R
A
= 0.813 W
RB = 0.667 W
Bending Moment due to Live load: IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle
  = + 0 1
3
4W
1
g
The influence line diagram for bending moment is shown in figure.
Effective span of girder, le = 24.0 m
ITC Class AA Tracked Vehicle Load: = 700 kN
Ordinate of Bending Moment at considered section, M
x
=
Calculation of bending moment at L/2.
x
L
x
1 
.

\

−
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 6.0 m 12
Leff= 24 m
5.1 6
Calculation of bending moment at L/2.
Leff
RB
700 kN
3.6m
Bending Moment =
3885.0
kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for outer Girder = 1736 kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Inner Girder = 1425 kNm
Calculation of bending moment at 3L/8. = 9 m Leff= 24 m
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 5.625 m 9
Fig. 11a: ILD for BM at L/ 2
RA
RB
4.5 4.95
5.63
Bending Moment = 1855 7 kNm
Leff
Fig. 11b: ILD for BM at 3L/ 8
RA
RB
700 kN
3.6m
3*Leff / 8
Bending Moment = 1855.7 kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Outer Girder = 829.3 kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Inner Girder = 680.4 kNm
Calculation of bending moment at L/4. = 6 m Leff= 24 m
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 4.500 m 6
Leff
RA
RB
700 kN
3.6m
Leff / 4
Page 17
3.15
4.500 4.05
R
RB
700 kN
Leff / 4
Page 18
Bending Moment = kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Outer Girder = kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Inner Girder = kNm
Calculation of bending moment at L/8. = 3 m Leff= 24 m
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 2.625 m 3
1500.1
670.3460
550.0275
Fig. 11c: ILD for BM at L/ 4
RA
RB
Leff
1.050 2.400
2.625
Bending Moment = kNm 881.2
Leff
Fig. 11d: ILD for BM at L/ 8
RA
RB
700 kN
3.6m
Leff / 8
Bending Moment = kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Outer Girder = 393.792 kNm
Bending Moment including impact and rection factor for Inner Girder = 323.11 kNm
Bending Moment due to Live load: IRC Class A Loading
The influence line diagram for bending moment is shown in figure.
Effective span of girder, le = 24 m
Loads Values Unit Loads
W1 27 kN W5 68 kN
W2 27 kN W6 68 kN
881.2
Values
W2 27 kN W6 68 kN
W3 114 kN W7 68 kN
W4 114 kN W8 68 kN
Distances Values Unit Distances
X
Varies
X5
4.3 m
X1
Varies
X6
3 m
X2
1.1
m X7
3 m
Values
1.1 3 m
X3
3.2
m X8
3 m
X4
1.2
m X9
Calculation of bending moment at L/2 = 12 m, when load W4 is at L/2
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 6 m Leff= 24 m
Ordinate of Bending Moment at considered section, M
x
=
Varies
x
L
x
1 
.

\

−
x1= 6.5
6.00
X= 12
Position from
Maximum
Load Values kN Moment Component Load Nos. IL Ordinate
Fig. 12a: ILD for BM at L/ 2
RA RB
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN
Total = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Outer Girder = kNm
57.80
68
10.30 0.850
114 5.400
114
68
W1 27 87.75
W2 102.60
5.50
27
615.60
7.30
W5
W3
4.40
3.250
3.800
1969.35
1840.11
684.00
261.80
W4 6.000
3.850
W7
W6
68
1.20
0.00
4.30
2.350 159.80
Page 18
Total Bending Moment including impact for Inner Girder = kNm
Calculation of bending moment at 3L/8 = 9.0 m, when load W3 is at 3L/8
Maximum Ordinate of Influence line = 5.625 m Leff= 24 m
1509.84
Page 19
x1= 4.7
5.625
X= 9.0
IL Ordinate Position from Load Nos Load Values kN Moment Component
Fig. 12b: ILD for BM at 3L/ 8
RA RB
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
114
3.625
5.625
1.20
5.50
97.88
79.31
IL Ordinate
641.25
242.25
2.938
Position from
Maximum
4.30
89 25
3.20
0.00
Load Nos.
W1
W4 589.95 5.175
Load Values kN
W3
W2 27
114
Moment Component
165.75
27
68
W7 11 50 1 313
8.50
W5
W6 2.438 68
3.563
68
Total = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Outer Girder = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Inner Girder = kNm
W8
1918.39
1792.49
14.50 68 12.75 0.188
89.25
1470.76
W7 11.50 1.313 68
Calculation of bending moment at L/4 = 6 m, when load W3 is at L/4
Maximum Ordinate of Influence line = 4.500 m Leff= 24 m
X1= 1.7
4.50
X= 6
Fig 12c: ILDfor BM at L/ 4
RA RB
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
W4 68 1 20 4 200 285 60
3.20 2.100 239.40
W3 114 0.00 4.500 513.00
Moment Component
W1 27 4.30 1.275 34.43
Load Nos. Load Values kN Position from
Maximum
IL Ordinate
W2 114
Fig. 12c: ILD for BM at L/ 4
Total = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Outer Girder = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Inner Girder = kNm
W8 68 14.50 0.000 0.00
W6 68 8.50 2.375 161.50
W7 68 11.50 1.625 110.50
W4 68 1.20 4.200 285.60
W5 68 5.50 3.125 212.50
1556.93
1454.75
1193.64
Calculation of bending moment at L/8 = 3 m, when load W4 is at L/8
Maximum Ordinate of Influence line = 2.625 m Leff= 24 m
2.625
X= 3
Fig. 12d: ILD for BM at L/ 8
RA RB
W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
Page 19
Load Nos. Load Values kN Position from
Maximum
IL Ordinate Moment Component
Fig. 12d: ILD for BM at L/ 8
Page 20
68 1.20 2.475
114 0.00
8.50 1.563
68 11.50
O di t
299.25
W1 27 0.00
0.000 0.00
114
W6
68 5.50 1.938
68
1.188
68 14.50 0.813
168.30
131.75
0.000 0.00
W2
W5
W3
W4
0.00 2.625
55.25
80.75
W8
106.25
W7
Total = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Outer Girder = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Inner Girder = kNm
Absolute Maximum BM
841.55
Calc lation of bending moment at the load point hich is eq idistance from res ltant
786.32
645.19
Ordinate of Influence line at mid span = 6 m Leff= 24 m
6
x= 12
C.G of the Load system from outer 27 kN Wheel Load
Calculation of bending moment at the load point which is equidistance from resultant
Fig. 12e: ILD for BM at L/ 2 / Absolute Maximum BM
RA RB
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN
R
C.G of the Load system from outer 27 kN Wheel Load
= 6.420 m
The heavier wheel load near C.G. of load System is 114kN which lies at a distance of
6.42(1.1+3.2+1.2)= 0.92 m from CG
X = 0.46 m
6.04
7.14 3.570 406.98
Load Values kN Position from Left
support
IL Ordinate
27 3.020
114 W2
W1 81.54
Load Nos. Moment Component
Total = kNm
Total Bending Moment including impact for Outer Girder = kNm
392.36
277.44
7.14 3.570
0.00 0.000 0.00
406.98
114 10.34 5.170
2.580
68
68
68 11.54 5.770
68 15.84
68 18.84
0.000
W3 589.38
W4
W6 175.44
0.00
4.080
W7 21.84
1796.93
1923.14
114
W8
W2
W5
g g p
Total Bending Moment including impact for Inner Girder = kNm 1474.41
Page 20
Page 21
Shear Force due to Live load: IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle.
At Support
Effective span of girder, le = 24 m
Load Class AA Tracked vehicle W1= 350 kN
For maximum shear at support, load should be as near the support as possible.
The length of the load is 3.6m, the SF will be max. when the C. G. of the load is placed at a distance of 1/2*3.6=
1.8m From the support along its length, thus the load will lies between the support & the Ist Intermediate
Xgirder, the width of track being 0.85m, the CG of load will thus lie at a distance of 1.2+0.85/2=1.625 m
from kerb of footpath Load act at a distance of 1.8 m from support A, B and C
L= 4.8 m C/C Distance of L Girder= 2.4 m
X= 1.8 X1= 3.0 a= 0.6 b= 1.025
C= 1.625 d= 2.05 f= 2.050 e= 0.35
g= 1.375 h= 0.675 i= 1.725
Loads on Girders,
P
A
=
0.573 W1
kerb Line
a
RQ'
L
P
B
=
1.146 W1
P
C
=
0.281 W1
Reaction at support,
R
A
=
0.358 W1
R
Q
=
0.215 W1
R
B
=
0.716 W1
R
R
=
0.430 W1
R
C
=
0 176 W1
A
B
CL of outer L Girder
CL of inner L Girder
a
c
C
/
C
d
I
s
t
X

G
i
r
d
e
r
m
e
d
i
a
t
e
X

G
i
r
d
e
r
Q
R
Q
R
b
RQ'
RR'
C
/
C
C
/
C f
e
g
h
R
C
0.176 W1
R
S
=
0.105 W1
The loads on the cross girder i.e. R
Q
, R
R
& R
S
are to be distributed by normal Courbon's theory.
Total load, ∑W = W1 = 0.750
C.G. of loads from Q = 2.05 m
kerb Line
CL of outer L Girder
C
a
I
n
t
e
r
m
S
S RS'
i
X X1
Fig. 13
Eccentricity, e = 0.35 m
Reaction factor for outer girder,
F
Q
=
0.305 W1
in this case x
i
=2.4 m
and ∑x
i
2
=(2.4)
2
+(0)
2
+(2.4)
2
= 2 x (2.4)
2
Reaction factor for inner girder,
F
R
=
0.250 W1
in this case xi=0 m
R
A
due to F
Q
= 0.24375
W1
R
B
due to F
R
= 0.200
W1
`
Total reaction on outer Girder = 0.602 W1
Total reaction on inner Girder = 0.916 W1
Max shear at support including impact for outer girder = 231.7 kN
Max shear at support including impact for inner girder = 352.7 kN
It may be seen that the reaction F
Q
and F
R
act as load at 1/3 span of outer longitudinal girder and inner longitudinal
girder respectively. The reactions at support A and B due to those loads are
Max shear at support including impact for inner girder 352.7 kN
At Intermediate Section
Effective span of girder, le = 24.0 m
At Left =
At Right =
Ordinate of Bending SF at considered section, SF
x

.

\

−
L
x
1

.

\

− −
L
x
1 1
Page 21
Shear at 1/8th span
Calculation of bending moment at L/8 = 3 m, when load Placed at Just Right of L/8
Ordinate of Influence line at Left = 0.875 m
O di t f I fl li t Ri ht 0 125 L ff 24
Page 22
Ordinate of Influence line at Right = 0.125 m Leff= 24 m
x= 3 a'= 0.125 a= 0.875 b= 0.725
Fig. 14a: ILD of SFat L/ 8 of Span
RA RB
350 kN
3.6m
a
a'
b
S.F. = 280 kN
S.F. including impact for outer girder = 125.13 kN
S.F. including impact for inner girder = 102.667 kN
Shear at 1/4th span
Calculation of bending moment at L/4 = 6 m, when load Placed at Just Right of L/4
Ordinate of Influence line at Left = 0.75 m
Ordinate of Influence line at Right = 0.25 m Leff= 24 m
x= 6 a'= 0.25 a= 0.750 b= 0.600
Fig. 14b ILD of SFat L/ 4 of Span
RA RB
350 kN
3.6m
a
a'
b
S.F. = 236.25 kN
S.F. including impact for outer girder = 105.574 kN
S.F. including impact for inner girder = 86.625 kN
Shear at 3/8th span
Calculation of bending moment at 3L/8 = 9 m, when load Placed at Just Right of 3L/8
Ordinate of Influence line at Left = 0.625 m
Ordinate of Influence line at Right = 0.375 m Leff= 24 m
x= 9 a'= 0.375 a= 0.625 b= 0.475
Fig. 14cILDof SFat 3L/ 8 of Span
RA RB
350 kN
3.6m
a
a'
b
S.F. = 192.5 kN
S.F. including impact for outer girder = 86.023 kN
S.F. including impact for inner girder = 70.583 kN
Shear at 1/2th span
Calculation of bending moment at L/2 = 12 m, when load Placed at Just Right of L/2
Ordinate of Influence line at Left = 0.5 m
Ordinate of Influence line at Right = 0.5 m Leff= 24 m
Fig. 14cILD of SFat 3L/ 8 of Span
Ordinate of Influence line at Right 0.5 m Leff 24 m
x= 12 a'= 0.5 a= 0.5 b= 0.350
Fig. 14d ILD of SFat L/ 2 of Span
RA RB
350 kN
3.6m
a
a'
b
Page 22
Shear Force due to Live load: IRC Class A Load.
The influence line diagram for shear force is shown in figure.
Effective span of girder, le = 24.0 m
Loads Values Loads Values
Page 23
Loads Values Loads Values
W1 27 kN W5 68 kN
W2 27 kN W6 68 kN
W3 114 kN W7 68 kN
W4 114 kN W8 68 kN
Distances Distances Values
X
Varies
X5
4.3 m
1 6
Values
X1
Varies
X6
3 m
X2
1.1
m X7
3 m
X3
3.2
m X8
3 m
X4
1.2
m X9
Varies
At Left = At Right =
Ordinate of Bending SF at considered section, SF
x

.

\

−
L
x
1 
.

\

− −
L
x
1 1
Page 23
Calculation of Shear Force at Support = 24.0 m, when load W3
Ordinate of Influence line y3= 1 Leff= 24.0 m
W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
Page 24
Load
Values
Position
from Left
Load Nos. IL Ordinate Moment Component
Fig. 15a: ILD for SFat Support
RA RB
Y3
Y4
Y5 Y6
Y7
Y8
Values
kN
from Left
support
114 0 Y3=
114 1.20 Y4=
68 5.50 Y5=
68 8.50 Y6=
68 11.50 Y7=
68 14.50 Y8=
Total = kN
W4 108.30 0.950
W7
W6
1.000
380.97
52.42 0.771
0.646
0.521
0.396
43.92
W3 114.00
W5
35.42
W8 26.92
Total = kN
Total SF including impact for Outer Girder = kN
Total SF including impact for Inner Girder = kN
Calculation of SF at L/8 = 3.000 m, when load W3
Ordinate of Influence line At Right 0.875
At Left 0.125 Leff= 24.0 m x= 3
292.07
355.97
380.97
W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
Load
V l
Position
f L ft
Moment Component Load Nos. IL Ordinate
Fig. 15b: ILD for SFat L/ 8
RA RB
Y3 Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
Values
kN
from Left
support
114 0 Y3=
114 1.20 Y4=
68 5.50 Y5=
68 8.50 Y6=
68 11.50 Y7=
68 14.50 Y8=
Total = kN
94.05
26.92 W7
W5
W4
W8
W3
W6
43.92
300 05
0.875
0.825
0.646
0.521
0.396
35.42
99.75
0.271 18.42
Total = kN
Total SF including impact for Outer Girder = kN
Total SF including impact for Inner Girder = kN
Calculation of SF at L/4 = 6 000 m when load W3
300.05
280.36
230.04
Calculation of SF at L/4 = 6.000 m, when load W3
Ordinate of Influence line At Right 0.75
At Left 0.25 Leff= 24.0 m x= 6.00
Fig. 15c: ILD for SFat L/ 4
RA RB
Y3
Y3'
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
Y2 Y1
Page 24
Load
Values
Position
from Left/
Load Nos. IL Ordinate Moment Component
Page 25
kN Right at X
27 4.3 Y1=
27 3.2 Y2=
114 0 Y3=
114 1.20 Y4=
68 5.50 Y5=
68 8.50 Y6=
68 11 50 Y7=
26.92
18 42
W5
W6
W7
79.80
35.42
W3
W4
W2 3.15
W1 0.071 1.91
0 271
85.50
0.117
0.750
0.700
0.521
0.396
68 11.50 Y7=
68 14.50 Y8=
Total = kN
Total SF including impact for Outer Girder = kN
Total SF including impact for Inner Girder = kN
Calculation of SF at 3L/8 = 9.000 m, when load W3
Ordinate of Influence line At Right 0.625
At Left 0.375 Leff= 24.0 m x= 9.0
250.90
234.44
0.146
18.42
9.92
192.36
W7
W8
0.271
L d P i i L d N IL O di M C
Fig. 15d: ILD for SFat 3L/ 8
RA RB
Y3
Y3'
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN W7=68kN W8=68kN
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y8
Y2 Y1
Load
Values
kN
Position
from Left/
Right at X
27 4.3 Y1=
27 3.2 Y2=
114 0 Y3=
114 1.20 Y4=
68 5.50 Y5=
6.53
71.25 W3
5.29 0.196
W4 65.55
Load Nos. IL Ordinate Moment Component
0.242
0.625
0.575
W1
26.92 W5 0.396
W2
68 5.50 Y5
68 8.50 Y6=
68 11.50 Y7=
68 14.50 Y8=
Total = kN
Total SF including impact for Outer Girder = kN
Total SF including impact for Inner Girder = kN
Calculation of SF at L/2 = 12 000 m when load W3
W6 18.42
W7 9.92
W8 1.42
181.65
169.73
139.27
26.92 W5 0.396
0.271
0.146
0.021
Calculation of SF at L/2 = 12.000 m, when load W3
Ordinate of Influence line At Right 0.5
At Left 0.5 Leff= 24.0 m x= 12.0
Y3
Y3'
W1=27kN W2=27kN W3=144kN W4=144kN W5=68kN W6=68kN
Y4
Y5
Y6
Y7
Y2 Y1
Load
Values
kN
Position
from Left/
Right at X
27 4.3 Y1=
27 3.2 Y2=
Load Nos. IL Ordinate Moment Component
W1
W2
8.66
9.90
0.321
0.367
Fig. 15e: ILD for SFat L/ 2
RA RB
Page 25
114 0 Y3=
114 1.20 Y4=
68 5.50 Y5=
68 8.50 Y6=
W3 57.00
W5 18.42
W6
0.500
0.450
0.271
0.146
W4 51.30
9.92
Page 26
68 8.50 Y6
68 11.50 Y7=
Total = kN
Total SF including impact for Outer Girder = kN
Total SF including impact for Inner Girder = kN
Design of Section:
Total Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Outer Girder:
Section
119.49
Shear Forces (kN) Bending Moment (kNm)
W7 1.42 0.021
W6 0.146 9.92
111.65
91.61
Section
Due to
DL
Due to LL
X = 0 0.00 0.00
X = L/8 1157.75 393.79
X = L/4 2064.76 670.35
X = 3L/8 2492.47 829.26
X = L/2 2654.71 1736.11
Total Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Inner Girder:
111.646
234.439
334.296
Due to DL
111.646
Due to LL
355.966
280.359
169.733
Shear Forces (kN) Bending Moment (kN m)
Total
1551.540
0.000
Total
218.768
115.528
437.536
4390.817 0.000
2735.104
3321.735
793.502
614.655
453.207
285.261
Total Design Bending Moments and Shear Forces for Inner Girder:
Section
Due to
DL
Due to LL
X = 0 0.00 0.000
X = L/8 1157.75 323.111
X = L/4 2064.76 550.028
X = 3L/8 2492.47 680.419 254.796
2614.79 411.128
3172.89 115.53 139.27
352.72 0.000
564.334
Shear Forces (kN)
Total Due to DL Due to LL
437.54
334.30
790.252
Bending Moment (kNm)
1480.859 230.04
192.36 218.77
Total
X = L/2 2654.71 1424.50
Design of Outer Girder:
Overall depth of beam, D = 2000 mm
Rib width, bw = 400 mm
Flange width of Tbeam will be,
bf = bw + 1/5 x lo 2.5 m > 2.4 m
Therefore width of flange, bf = 2400 mm
170 mm from bottom of Tbeam to the centre of gravity of rod
91.607 91.61 4079.21 0.00
170 mm from bottom of Tbeam to the centre of gravity of rod,
d = 1830
Area of steel required,
Ast= 13420 mm2
Provide 16 nos. of φ 32 2000
2 nos. of φ 25
mm bars+
mm bars
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
2 nos. of φ 25
Provided area of steel = 13843 mm2
Total Provided area of steel = 13843 mm2
Number of bars in bottom row = 4 nos.
Width of beam = 400 mm 400
Side and bottom clear cover to bars = 40 mm
C.G. of the bottom row of bars from bottom = 56 mm
Clear distance between vertical bars = 32 mm
C G f th S d f b f b tt 120
mm bars
Fig. 16 : Cross Section of Girde
C.G. of the Second row of bars from bottom = 120 mm
C.G. of the third row of bars from bottom = 184 mm
C.G. of the fourth row of bars from bottom = 248 mm
C.G. of the fifth row of bars from bottom = 308.5 mm
C.G. of the bar group from bottom = 163.1 mm
≤ 170 mm O.K.
Effective Depth = 1830 mm
Df = 220 mm
Page 26
Check for stresses:
Calculation of depth of neutral axis:
Assuming that the
effective area in of compression and tension sides about neutral axis, we get
Page 27
effective area in of compression and tension sides about neutral axis, we get
½ × b
w
× x
a
2
+ (b
f
– b
w
) × D
f
× (x
a
– D
f
/2) = m × Ast × (d – x
a
)
Solving, we get, x
a
= 482 mm
Let compressive stress in concrete at top of flange = σ
And compressive stress in concrete at bottom of flange = σ'
Then, σ’ = 0.543 σ = ×
−
σ
a
f a
x
D x
Position of C.G. of compressive stress in flange from top, x1
= 99.1 mm
Compressive force in flange, C1 = ½ x(σ +σ ')x Bf x Df
= 407402 σ
Compressive force in rib, C2 = ½ x σ 'x (Xa – Df)x Bw
= ×
+
+
3
D
'
' 2
f
σ σ
σ σ
Compressive force in rib, C2 ½ x σ x (Xa Df)x Bw
= 28420 σ
C.G. of compressive force in rib from top, x2
307.2 mm
Total compressive force, C = 435822.3 σ
C.G. of total compressive force from top
112.7 mm
=
+
× + ×
=
C2 C1
x2 C2 x1 C1
Therefore, lever arm, jd = 1717.3 mm
Critical Neutral axis depth, nd = 582.3 mm < x
a
Moment of resistance of the section is given by
Mr = = σ 699626722.86
=
+
c
m
1
d
σ
σ
st

.

\

− ×


.

\
 +
× ×
−
y d d b
f f
2
1
σ σ
Equating Mr to external B.M we get
Mr =
σ = 6.28 < 8.3 O.K.
Stress Developed in Steel Reinforcement is given by
t = = 197.6 < 200 O.K.
4390816575.00
. \
. \


.

\
 −
× ×
a
a
x
x d
m σ
Check for minimum area of steel
Minimum area of tension steel in beam @ 0.2 % of web area
1600 mm
2
< Ast provided = mm
2
O.K.
Design for shear:
1.08 N/mm2
13843
=
×
=
d B
V
v
τ
Assuming ####### nos. of φ 32 will be continued up to support, then provided
percentage area of tension steel = 1.00 %
Permissible shear stress, τ
c
= 0.420 N/mm2 < τ
v
Vs = V  tc . bw . D = 457195 N
Assuming φ 12 mm 2legged vertical stirrups having area of steel, Asv = 226 mm2
Spacing, S = 181 mm c/c
Shear reinforcement is required. Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry a shear of,
=
× ×
Vs
d σ Asv
st
Page 27
As per minimum shear reinforcement requirements, maximum spacing,
S
max
= 283 mm c/c.
Vs
=
×
st
Asv σ
Page 28
S
max
283 mm c/c.
Hence provide φ 12 mm, 2legged vertical stirrups @ 100 mm c/c at support.
Design summary:
Tension Reinforcement (Fe 415):
No. Dia.
16 32
Area of Steel Required Section
Area of steel required and provided at different sections of Outer girder are given in below:
Area
BM Area of Steel Provided
×
w
b 0.4
16 32
2 25
3L/8 3321.73
KNm 14 32 mm2
L/4 2735.10
KNm 12 32 mm2
L/8 1551.54
KNm 10 32 mm2
Support 0.00 KNm 10 32 mm2
Shear Reinforcement (Fe 415):
10153
8038
11254
9646
8038
mm2
mm2 0
mm2
mm2 8360
4742
4390.82 13420 mm2 KNm L/2 13843 mm2
( )
Section
L/2 111.646 kN 10 φ @ 1029.4 mm 10 φ @ 250
3L/8 285.261 kN 10 φ @ 402.87 mm 10 φ @ 250
L/4 453.207 kN 10 φ @ 253.58 mm 10 φ @ 200
L/8 614.655 kN 12 φ @ 269.24 mm 12 φ @ 150
Support 793.502 kN 12 φ @ 208.56 mm 12 φ @ 100
Tension Reinforcement (Fe 415):
2legged vertical Stirrups provided
mm
mm
mm
mm
SF 2legged vertical Stirrups required
Area of steel required and provided at different sections of Inner girder are given in below:
mm
Tension Reinforcement (Fe 415):
No. Dia.
16 32
2 25
3L/8 3172.89 KNm 14 32 mm2
L/4 2614.79 KNm 12 32 mm2
L/8 1480.86 KNm 10 32 mm2
Support 0 000 KNm 10 32 mm2
11254
9646
8038
8038 0 mm2
Section BM
7992 mm2
Area of Steel Required
4526 mm2
13843
9698 mm2
Area
Area of Steel Provided
L/2 4079 KNm 12468 mm2 mm2
Support 0.000 KNm 10 32 mm2
Shear Reinforcement (Fe 415):
Section
L/2 91.607 kN 10 φ @ 150 mm 10 φ @ 250
3L/8 254.796 kN 10 φ @ 150 mm 10 φ @ 250
L/4 411.128 kN 10 φ @ 150 mm 10 φ @ 200
L/8 564.334 kN 12 φ @ 150 mm 12 φ @ 150
Support 790.252 kN 12 φ @ 100 mm 12 φ @
100
SF
mm
mm
8038
mm
mm
2legged vertical Stirrups provided
mm
2legged vertical Stirrups required
0 mm2
pp φ φ
Page 28
Page 29
4 0 Design of Cross Girder: 4.0 Design of Cross Girder:
Dead Load
Overall Depth of cross girder = 1.5 m 2.4
Width of cross girder = 0.3 m
Self weight of cross girder= 9.216 kN/m 4.8
Dead load from slab = 20.2752 kN
Thi l d i d if l di ib d l d 8 448 kN/
Fig. 17
This load is assumed as uniformly distributed load per meter run = 8.448 kN/m
Total Dead load per meter run = 17.664 kN/m
Assuming, cross girder as rigid, reaction on main girder = 13.52 kN
Live Load: IRC Class AA Tracked Vehicle
Maximum bending moment occurs when one wheel of a vehicle lies near center of span.
Position for maximum bending moment is shown in figure. Deck Slab is assumed to
be simply supported. The critical supported between two cross girder.
=
−
l
l
W
2 / 8 . 1
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Fig. 19
W1 W1
p y pp pp g
Effective load coming on cross girder = 569 kN
=
−
l
l
W
2 / 8 . 1
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Fig. 19
W1 W1
Reaction on each longitudinal girder = 189.58 kN
Maximum B.M. occurs under the load, = 260.68 kNm
Bending moment including impact = 286.74 kNm
Dead Load Bending Moment at the section, = 1.8876 kNm
Total bending moment = 288.6 kNm
=
−
l
l
W
2 / 8 . 1
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Fig. 19
W1 W1
Total bending moment 288.6 kNm
LL Shear force including impact = 208.5 kN
Total shear force = 222.1 kN
Therefore, Design Moment = 288.6 kNm
Design Shear Force = 222.1 kN
C i d i d i d T B
=
−
l
l
W
2 / 8 . 1
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Fig. 19
W1 W1
Cross girder is designed as TBeam.
Assuming effective depth, d = 1450.00 mm
Area of tension steel required = mm2
Minimum area of tension steel in beam @ 0.2 % of web area =
900 mm2 < 1113.4 mm2
Hence provide 3 nos. of φ 25 mm bars + 0 nos.of φ 20
bars having area of steel = 1472 mm2 .
1113.37
=
−
l
l
W
2 / 8 . 1
=
× × d j
st
M
σ
Fig. 19
W1 W1
Page 29
D i f h
=
× d B
V
=
× ×
Vus
d σ Asv
st
=
×
×
w
b 0.4
Asv 0.87fy
Page 30
Design for shear:
Nominal shear stress, τ
v
= 0.51
N/mm
2
< τ
max
= 1.9 N/mm
2
O.K.
Provided percentage area of tension steel, p = 0.33 %
Permissible shear stress, τ
c
= 0.275 N/mm2 < 0.51
N/mm
2
O.K.
Shear reinforcement is required. Shear reinforcement shall be provided to carry
a shear force of
Vus = Vu tc bw D = 139433 N
=
× d B
V
=
× ×
Vus
d σ Asv
st
=
×
×
w
b 0.4
Asv 0.87fy
Vus = Vu  tc . bw . D = 139433 N
Assuming φ 10 mm 2legged vertical stirrups having area of steel, Asv = 157 mm2
Spacing, S = 327 mm c/c
As per minimum shear reinforcement requirements, maximum spa 10 mm 2 legged
vertical stirrups, 472 mm
=
× d B
V
=
× ×
Vus
d σ Asv
st
=
×
×
w
b 0.4
Asv 0.87fy
Hence provide φ 10 mm 2legged vertical stirrups @ 150 mm c/c through out the length of
end cross girder and 10 mm 2legged vertical stirrups @ 150 mm c/c through out the length
Elastomeric Bearing On Bridge Used
According IRC 83part II it is reccomended use of elastomeric bearins of size (250X400X50 ) mm embedding 5
plates of 3mm thickness and 6 mm clearance in plan G= 1 kN/mm2 For Vertical Load 793 50 kN
of intermediate cross girder.
=
× d B
V
=
× ×
Vus
d σ Asv
st
=
×
×
w
b 0.4
Asv 0.87fy
plates of 3mm thickness and 6 mm clearance in plan G= 1 kN/mm2 For Vertical Load 793.50 kN
=
× d B
V
=
× ×
Vus
d σ Asv
st
=
×
×
w
b 0.4
Asv 0.87fy
Page 30
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