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Compiled by
Madurai Institute of Social Sciences

Human Resource Development:

HRD means optimum utilization of existing human capabilities- intellectual, technological,
entrepreneurial and even moral and creation of new ones.

HRD Programs in developed countries and in the organized sector

of developing countries are mainly meant for satisfying the self
actualization needs of the workers employed and raising their
productivity level for mutual benefit. Of course there may be a
spillover effect on the people at large. But in developing countries
it is better to equate HRD with basic needs strategy and is intended
for the poor.

HRD activities in the context of development in general and

particularly to community development (Rural &Urban) may be broadly be classified as

1. Activities meant for the people (individual beneficiary oriented as well as group oriented –
Receiving system)
2. Activities meant for the people who are Resource: A source of help; means to
associated with development support
administration.(delivery system) Human Resource: refers to the people with
capabilities and potentialities to grow and
Human resource in the rural context does not Development: refers to the qualitative growth
merely refer to the innate and acquired of resource.
qualities, skills and attitudes of the people, but Human resource:
also, particularly about their “social response The sum total of knowledge, skills and
to economic opportunity” and “readiness to aptitudes of the people inhabiting the country
undergo economic change”. is a narrow view of defining human resource
or capital. In the wider perspective in includes
This is necessary because economic
the initiative, resource fullness, capacity for
development demands certain behavioral sustained work, right values, interests,
patterns attitudes and other human qualities
1. Desire to develop fundamental science. conducive to higher output and accelerated
2. To apply science to economic life. economic growth.
3. To accept the possibilities of innovations.
4. To seek material advance.
5. To consume.
HRD for RD means inculcating the above said five behaviors.
HRD for RD means to achieve transformation in respect of behavioral pattern which are
adverse to economic and social development to those favorable which are positive.
Human Resource are the energies, skills, talent and knowledge of the people which can / should
be applied to the production of goods or rendering of useful services.

Capacity building is defined as the "process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts,
abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and
thrive in the fast-changing world."
Capacity building process will generate:
• Greater resources. Increasing the amount of resources (financial, technical, human, and
physical) available to the organization and therefore, its ability to provide services and programs.
• Greater efficiency. Improving the utilization of resources across the organization and therefore,
reducing the relative cost of services and programs
• Greater effectiveness. Improving the management and allocation of resources across the
organization and therefore, increasing the probability of achieving successful program outcomes
Capacity building has fast become a major topic among nonprofits and management support
organizations (funders, associations, training centers, consultants, etc.) that provide services to
nonprofits. There are a variety of definitions for capacity building. Perhaps the most fundamental
definition is "actions that improve nonprofit effectiveness". Some other discussions about
capacity building refer to the concept as actions that enhance a nonprofit's ability to work towards its
The concept of capacity building in nonprofits is similar to the concept of organizational development,
organizational effectiveness and/or organizational performance management in for-profits. Capacity
building efforts can include a broad range of approaches, eg, granting operating funds, granting
management development funds, providing training and development sessions, providing coaching,
supporting collaboration with other nonprofits, etc. Prominent methods of organizational performance
management in for-profits are beginning to be mentioned in discussions about capacity building, as
well, for example, the Balanced Scorecard, principles of organizational change, cultural change,
organizational learning, etc

HRD for voluntary organization:

Human Resource Development / Training for voluntary organization should be conceived in
the background of the various functions performed by these organizations.
Functions complimentary to the delivery system (government)
- Supplement its efforts.
- Activate the system to respond better to the needs of the people.
- Providing feedback.
Functions relevant to the receiving system (people)
- Organizing them
- Training them
- Creating awareness
Function relevant to administering the voluntary organization:
- Efficiency in service quality
- Resource mobilization
- Developing its own staff
- Innovation experimentation.
To carry out these functions personnel’s in V.Os has to perform several roles.

Roles Methods to be used

Human Relation Trainer Education, communication, group organization.
Social Technologist Fact finding , analysis, community survey ,etc.,
Social Advocate Fact finding, analysis, direct action legislative promotion.
Problem slower Mediating , negotiation , planning etc.,
Consultant Process, research consultant
What the voluntary organization are doing is no doubt a complex task, controlled and governed
by multiple factors and actors. Therefore a complete understanding of the rural development
process, identification of problems, recognition of the casual factors and explanation of the
effects are a precondition to promote and guarantee development. For this updating information
base, increasing the efficiency and skill of the person working in V.Os through appropriate
training programs are quite important for them to function and interact in an interdisciplinary
and multi problem environment. The training ground should be highlighted to provide forum for

Exchanging ideas.
Sharing experiences
Bridging differences
Imparting new techniques and methods
Enhancing analytical power and finally
Deriving consensus to strengthen the functional capabilities of the V.Os personals through
mutual co-operation and appreciation.


Employee’s development and training form an essential aspect of the direction of human efforts.
Training of staff has become the fastest growing segment of personnel activities. Training
enables the employees to improve their knowledge, skills, sensitivity and creativity. It also
enables the employees to adjust to the socio-economic environment and there by contributes to
the improvement and realization of such environment. The successful implementation of any
plan, scheme, project, services of programs by an organization to a greater extent depends upon
the availability of qualified and trained manpower. The ideal situation demands that a proper
assessment of manpower needed and their training requirements are made before launching any
program or activity. This advance planning help in utilizing the services of existing training
institutes and their facilities as well as developing and establishment of organization’s own
training institutes to meet the unmet needs and requirements of staff engaged in developmental

Realizing the very significant role played by institutional building regular training programs, our
Five Year Plans have laid strong stress on human resource development and a major component
in this is the expansion of the social infrastructure for social welfare skills and social
development. During the Seventh Plan Period (1985-1990) emphasis has been laid on
consolidation and improvement in supply and quality of services. Personnel engaged in delivery
of social welfare services have to play a crucial role for developmental programs. They have to
implement the programs with greater vigor and insight so as to achieve the intended results in
the field of social welfare and development. The aim is to meet the unmet needs and energy
requirements of the weaker sections of the society coupled with expansion of the existing
programs substantially.

Areas of Training: All over the country lakhs and lakhs of personnel are engaged in the welfare
activities either run directly by the Government or entrusted to the care of voluntary
organizations, either at managerial levels, supervisory level or at implementation level. So, our

The lead within the UN system for action and thinking in this area (Capacity Development) was given
to UNDP and it has offered guidance to its staff and governments on what was then called
institution building since the early 1970s. This involved building up the ability of basic national
organizations, in areas such as civil aviation, meteorology, agriculture, health, nutrition to do their
tasks well. All UN specialized agencies were supposed to be active in support of capacity building in
the areas for which they were technically qualified e.g. FAO for the rural sector and agriculture, WHO
for health etc, but they achieved mixed results. USAID UK/DFID and some of the Nordic donors were
also active in the area

By 1991 the term had evolved and become 'capacity building'. UNDP defined 'capacity building' as
the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional
development, including community participation (of women in particular), human resources
development and strengthening of managerial systems, adding that, UNDP recognizes that capacity
building is a long-term, continuing process, in which all stakeholders participate (ministries, local
authorities, non-governmental organizations and water user groups, professional associations,
academics and others).

By 1998 the UN General Assembly had commissioned and received evaluations of the impact of the
UN system's support for capacity building. These evaluations were carried out as part of the UN
General Assembly's triennial policy review during which it looks at and provides overall guidance of
all UN system development activities.

The UNO defines capacity building as "activities which strengthen the knowledge, abilities, skills and
behaviour of individuals and improve institutional structures and processes such that the
organization can efficiently meet its mission and goals in a sustainable way."It is, however, important
to put into consideration the principles that govern community capacity building.
Capacity Building is much more than training and includes the following:
• Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills
and access to information, knowledge and training that enables them to perform effectively.
• Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures, processes and
procedures, not only within organizations but also the management of relationships between the
different organizations and sectors (public, private and community).
• Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and regulatory changes to enable
organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities

five Year Plans emphasized and therefore, been stipulated that there is a need to induct
professionally trained technical manpower (delinked with degree) at decision-making and
supervisory levels. Functionaries engaged at different levels in the ongoing schemes would have
to be suitably trained to make them acquire the basic knowledge and skills required for program
management and development. Community support and co-operation and their involvement as
well as generating awareness are of utmost necessity in identification of local needs; prospective
beneficiaries; delivery of services and program supervision. Considering the very importance of
training, including orientation courses for personnel in Social Welfare and Development, Five
Year Plan documents has demanded and added a new dimension on the social welfare
organizations to provide training constantly to all concerned for effective and efficient
management and its processes, induction of specialized staff and expansion of the service
training programs for improving the technical skills and knowledge for project identification,
program formulation, program implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The expenditure on
training, therefore, has to be considered an investment and necessary input and it should invariably form
as an integral part of any program.

To harness the human potential and give expression to their creative urges, the main areas in
which training is provide are:
1 Knowledge: The training in this area aims at helping the trainee learn to understand and to
remember facts, information and principles.
2. Technical Skills: The trainee is taught physical acts or actions like operating a machine,
working with a computer, using mathematical models to take decisions, etc.
3. Social Skills: The employees are provide opportunities to acquire and sharper such
behavioral and human relations skills as are necessary for improved interpersonal
relationship, better team work and effective leadership.


Having identified the training needs, the next step is to set training objectives in concrete terms
and to decide on the training strategies to be adopted to meet these objectives. The training
needs basically highlight the gap between the existing and desired repertoire of knowledge,
attitude and skills at individual, group and organizational level to enable the employees to
contribute towards the realization of organizational objectives at optimum efficiency. As the
training objectives are related to organizational objectives, the involvement of the top
management will be necessary to ensure that the two sets of objectives are integrated.

It will be desirable to use the following criteria in setting training objectives:

1. Specific requirements of individuals and organizations so as to achieve integration of the
2. Roles and tasks to be carried out by the target group.
3. Relationship with other positions vertically and horizontally and technological imperatives.
4. Relevance, applicability and compatibility of training to work situations.
5. Training as a means of bringing about a change in behavior back or the job.
6. Behavior including activities that can be observed measured and recorded.
7. The expected change in behavior must be useful, closely related to and subject to
maintenance in the work environment.
(Training objectives to achieve organizational goals)
1. To transfer required expertise and skill to prepare, execute and evaluate development programs and
schemes, more specifically at the micro level,
2. To create adequate trained personnel to fill the existing vacuum without much additional cost,
3. To share, exchange and consolidate the development experiences of the trainees by taking
advantage of the trainers (professionals) in the training forum,
4. To provide additional inputs in the areas of development concepts, planning principles, techniques,
creating data base, methods of project management and evaluation,
5. To bridge the gap between the theory and practice of development planning and development
6. To initiate and identify new mechanism and principles of development programs and schemes
based on the experiences, of the field unit officers, promote and strengthen the development practices
7. To provide knowledge on the development informatics to match with the changing requirements,
8. To orient and encourage the participants for working with and development of, the rural poor, and
9. Finally, to sensitize the development personnel to work in an interdisciplinary team with multi-
problem framework.

Training objectives to bring change in the behavior
1. Increased confidence in one’s own ability,
2. Deeper appreciation of human & social problems as well as identification of problem
3. Enhancement of ability to look at older problem in newer ways,
4. Wider tolerance of difference of opinion,
5. Enlargement and improvement of participant knowledge in the techniques, methods and
tools of social welfare administration so as to deal with, the improvement of beneficiaries
based on human approach theory,
6. Creation of awareness and awakening towards improving administrative capacity and
capability of the personnel,
7. Extension of help in reaction (i.e., satisfaction in turn favorable interaction to
environment), Behavior (i.e. change in outlook) and Attitudes, learning (i.e. development
of skills and work-kits) and results i.e. , effectiveness and efficiency),
8. Personal growth (i.e. improvement, consolidation and expansion of skills to do a
particular social welfare job in scientific manner based on system approach and staff
9. Understanding of environmental or ecological intricacies and linkages to avoid
duplication efforts,
10. Development of (a) rational thinking, (b) objective thin king, (c) social understanding
and, (d) aesthetic responsiveness and practical abilities,
11. Role performance and last but not the least to up-to-date the knowledge through
motivation, life situations and self-development.
In Indian situation, no doubt a number of institutions have specialized in specific areas of
training and they are providing services to meet the demand from time to time, right from the
local to the national level. However, they are still not adequate in terms of specialized fields,
content and frequency. The important observation is that, most of the institutions are within the
folds of government control and naturally oriented to meet ad-hoc situation on tailor made basis.
This is definitely very much required, but adding new dimensions would help meeting crisis in a
better way than leaving unattended. As the development paradigms are getting changed
significantly over past few decades, the focus should also be updated and modified to
accommodate maximum possible changes other than the traditional and regular routine activities
to make use of training more effective and operational. Therefore, the following aspects must be
taken into account while framing the training modules for rural-regional development
practitioners. It may, however, be noted that the intensity and magnitude will vary depending on
the level of practitioners. The aspects are as follows:

1. Looking beyond:
In general, major of the training programs are conducted under a given rigid framework by the
sponsors of the training to fulfill the immediate needs, which is quite reasonable and justified.
But, at the same time, it is desirable to open up and widen the planning and development horizon
beyond the directives of the planning commission,

2. Generating local resources:

The current development at the local level is seen mostly as donor driven either by the
national/central government at the apex or by the international development and donor agencies.
Emphasis on local resources, potential and problems in framing the development programs and
also supporting at the local level is definitely considered as the strongest achievement to break
through the barriers of
dependency. The crucial factor
for this is to mobilize and
generate revenues and financial
resources to support the
programs. This is the missing
link in the development
planning cycle in the country.
Therefore, the importance to
this aspect will provide
orientation to explore the
possibilities in this direction.

3. Question of sustainability:
Emphasis on self-reliance and
sustainable development is the
preset key word frequently
referred and used in planning exercise. The conceptual clarity, potentials, limits and usefulness
of the sustainable development should be reflected in the training modules for the development
planners and practitioners. The important element should be ‘to bridge the gap between theory
and practice’.
4. Environmental management:
The environmental components are the concurrent and unending issues in the whole framework
of economic, social and development planning. The threats due to natural calamities,
environmental degradation and overuse of resources as a consequence of rapid population
growth, uncontrolled urbanization and polluting industrialization in a way have paralyzed the
process of development at the local level. Hence the environmental conservation and
management components need to be integrated with the training programs to safeguard against
the environmental consequences.

5. Computerized information system:

In a gradual process, the use of computerized information system for creating database and
administering, monitoring and evaluating rural development programs is getting popular and
considered as the efficient mechanism of handling day to day problems. The training provision
for organizing computerized database, analysis, planning administration and management could
be strengthened taking the advantage of the available wide network of the National Informatics
Center (NIC) with the co-operation of the participating State Governments as the local level.
The NIC has the right and tremendous potential, which should be fruitfully used for the purpose.

6. Project management: (Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation)

All the development programs are translated into different projects for action. The success of
projects is linked to the initial conceptualization, design, resource mobilization, implementation
and various aspects of project management. It is a common observation that the personnel
involved in the implementation of various rural regional development programs have deficiency
in project management and they usually operate with the help of manuals and guidelines
provided by the line ministries which are not enough to handle the day today complicated
problems. Therefore, it is strongly desired to equip the officials with project management skills
and techniques through training.

Training for whom, where and what?

There are some basic questions that need to be addressed carefully to make the training
effective. The first is related to the identification & personals to be trained.

Level Duration Resource persons

NGO- Project Short term Belonging to the same group senior and experienced
holders professionals
Training of Trainers Short / long term Professionals / senior and experienced Project officials
NGO-Staff / field Short / long term Professionals / senior and experienced Project officials.
Training for Short term Selected professionals/ experienced NGOS
Target group

The next question is related to the content of the program. Preparing the syllabus (module) for the
Training. Based on the objectives and focus, the modules will
Project Module a) Identification of projects
b) Project finance
c) Identification of target groups
d) Project design.
e) Project management(implementation, monitoring and evaluation)
f) Sustainability of projects and recycling.
Environment Module a) Environment values and their implications for development.
b) Environmental issues, components and management.
c) Environment impact assessment of different development project.
d) Environment conversation economy / ecology and ethics.
e) Sustainable development.

The other questions related to this area are whether the training is residential, non residential ,
part time etc.,

Evaluation of the training:

Finally each and every training should be evaluated based on its objectives to understand
whether it has achieved its intended purpose.

Capacity Building
Individual Capacity Institutional Capacity
Knowledge Skills Individual Organization Sectoral Organization
i) Programmatic i) Leadership &Team i) Organizational renewal i) Capacity for
ii) Strategic Building capacity Forums for shared
thinking ii) Gender Sensitivity iii) Program Management perspective
iii)Environmental iii) Program design and Capacity ii) Capacity to
implementation iii) Project Monitoring promote
iv) Time Management & Evaluation Capacity mechanism
v) Personal attitude iv) Resource Management iii) Capacity to build
vi) Relationship development a) Human sectoral human
b) Knowledge & Information resource
c) Financial
v) Networking & Partnership.
vi) Networking & Partnerships
vii) Rigorous competency
Voluntary organizations could be Associations, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Non
Governmental Organizations, People’s Movements, Citizen Groups, Consumer Associations,
Small Producers’ Associations, Youth Groups, in Indian context Bhajan Mandlis ( group of men
or women or only men or women who sing together devotional songs) , Residential Welfare
Associations etc. These, in other words,
“Capacity building” means different things to
could be both indigenous and modern form
different organizations. Originally it was meant as
of associations. “technical assistance,” then “institutional building”
Meaning of Capacity: Capacity building is the development of an
1. In Civil Society Organization’s context organization’s core skills and capabilities, such
capacity is the elaboration of the identity as leadership, management, finance and
of an organization - the purpose, mission, fundraising, programs and evaluation, in order
rationale for its startup and continuity of to build the organization’s effectiveness and
that particular organization. It is important sustainability. It is the process of assisting an
to look at the capacity in relation to its individual or group to identify and address
mission and purposes. issues and gain the insights, knowledge and
2. The second component of `capacity’ is experience needed to solve problems and
the capacity to act independently and implement change. Capacity building is
autonomously, to be able to pursue its facilitated through the provision of technical
mission and purposes without support activities, including coaching, training,
compromising its principles or scarifying specific technical assistance and resource
its autonomy. networking.
3. A third component in defining `capacity’ is the question of intellectual and analytical abilities
of an organization. It may seem as an intangible capacity. Clarifications of its perspective, its
vision of a desirable society, its moral and ethical base, its analyze and articulate its independent
thinking and position on issues of contemporary concern – all these constitute a major and
perhaps more significant component of such capacity. In fact this capacity creates the basis for
its independent, autonomous functioning and clarifies its identity, not only to itself but to others
around it.
Deriving from the above, it is also to look at the capacity for self-reflection and learning.
Capacity for systematizing its own experiences and drawing lessons from the same, capacity to
monitor its activities and review its purposes in light of the changes taking place in the wider
society, capacity to document, synthesize and articulate its own learning in the course of its on-
going activities become important elements of the capacity for self-reflection and continuous
learning by Civil Society Organization.
4. The next component in defining ` capacity’ is to understand the social context in which a
Civil Society Organization operates. It is important to recognize the contextually specific
meaning of capacity. Each CSO operates in a local context through a network of relationships
with other actors, which not only provides the basis for its pursuit of purposes and missions but
also provides the basis for legitimacy. The primary arena for examining the meaning of capacity
of a local CSO, therefore, is this web of relationships in its immediate social context. Its ability
to function effectively in that social context provides the underlying clues about its capacity
requirements and challenges. The external relations of Civil Society Organization with
resource providers and regulators are also an arena to define the meaning of its capacity. Those
who provide funds and other kind of resources for continuous functioning of the Civil Society
Organization expect certain kinds of actions from the Civil Society Organization. These
expectations set the stage for understanding the meaning of capacity of a CSO vis-a-vis resource
Individual capacities:
§ new ways of thinking Socio-political context:
§ awareness and perceptions § society’s vision
§ ability to adapt § formal and informal values, norms
§ skills(leadership, negotiation, problem-solving) and standards
§ motivation, attitudes, values § democratic processes
§ ability for critical analysis § power relationships
§ solidarity, identity and cohesion § consensus and conflict

Entity capacities:
§ social capital system Economic context:
§ ability to collaborate and manage § stable and equitable fiscal and
external relationships monetary policy
§ ability to manage change Organisation § management and distribution of
§ governance and leadership Community resources
§ internal management and human § technology
resource development Individual
§ innovation and learning
§ organizational values Institutional context:
§ knowledge and evidence-base § policies and regulations
§ technical expertise § structures
§ infrastructure § role of State institutions
§ policies § human resources capacity
§ accountability

Broader system capacity:

will depend on the level in which capacity building is done.
For initiatives at a sectoral level, the system capacity will
include only relevant components (i.e. health policies, health
and other stakeholders etc).

providers. Likewise, government regulations and other legal context sets up the pre-conditions
within which a CSO has to operate and therefore, certain elements of its capacity relate to that.
However, the important points are to recognize that external relations with donors and regulators are not
the prime arena for understanding the meaning of capacity. The primary arena for that is the local social
context in which a CSO operates. External donor relations become the additive aspect of understanding
the defining of capacity.

Finally, capacity is not merely a phenomenon of individual CSO. It is increasingly recognized that
networks, alliances and partnerships across Civil Society Organizations help to acknowledge and
strengthen the capacity of each CSO to operate on its own. Therefore, at this stage of the evolution of
civil society actors, sectoral capacity is an important element in our approach to understand the meaning
of capacity. Sectoral capacity implies capacity of a sector of civil society actors in a given region. Such
a collective approach to understanding the meaning of capacity also acknowledges the diversity and
plurality of civil society organizations such that, there is an acknowledgement of the range of capacities
associated with this plurality and diversity.
Proposed hierarchy of terms to describe the capacity building process

Capacity Building Approach

Concept: Other concepts

Concept: Concept:
Community Citizen
building engagement

Strategy: Strategy: Strategy:

§ workforce development § collaborative action § participation
§ partnership building § empowering community leaders § individual behaviour change

Activities: Activities: Activities:

§ skill building (e.g. courses) § networking (e.g. community forums to § participation in exercise classes,
§ networking (e.g. steering committee resolve issue) festivals
meetings) § building confidence and skills of § face to face consultation about
community leaders to express systemic importance of physical activity

Strategy – is a strategic action (a long-term plan, a vision for the future) that describes how the program will
achieve its objective.
Activities – is a specific line of work, process, function, or task that occurs over time and has recognisable results.
Proposed hierarchy

Capacity Strategies Ultimate outcomes

Health promoting
Builds capacity
for health

promotion dialogue Legislation/regulati

Health External leadership
Maintenance of health

Governance and leadership

Builds capacity development
for program Strengthening internal
delivery management

Partnership building and Program maintenance

relational contracting and sustainability

Resource allocation Policy change

Knowledge management
Environmental change
Build capacity for
Workforce development
and skill utilization

Strengthening capacity for

innovation and
organizational learning
Community Increased problem-
members al marketing solving capabilities

Build capacity for Skill development

‘healthy’ Changed perception,
and utilisation
functioning awareness,
Empowering attitudes, motivation
community leaders