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Rengasamy Madurai Institute of Social Sciences
Human Resource Development: HRD means optimum utilization of existing human capabilities- intellectual, technological, entrepreneurial and even moral and creation of new ones. HRD Programs in developed countries and in the organized sector of developing countries are mainly meant for satisfying the self actualization needs of the workers employed and raising their productivity level for mutual benefit. Of course there may be a spillover effect on the people at large. But in developing countries it is better to equate HRD with basic needs strategy and is intended for the poor. HRD activities in the context of development in general and particularly to community development (Rural &Urban) may be broadly be classified as 1. Activities meant for the people (individual beneficiary oriented as well as group oriented – Receiving system) Resource: A source of help; means to 2. Activities meant for the people who are support associated with development Human Resource: refers to the people with administration.(delivery system) Human resource in the rural context does not merely refer to the innate and acquired qualities, skills and attitudes of the people, but also, particularly about their “social response to economic opportunity” and “readiness to undergo economic change”. This is necessary because economic development demands certain behavioral patterns 1. Desire to develop fundamental science. 2. To apply science to economic life. 3. To accept the possibilities of innovations. 4. To seek material advance. 5. To consume. HRD for RD means inculcating the above said five behaviors.
capabilities and potentialities to grow and develop. Development: refers to the qualitative growth of resource. Human resource: The sum total of knowledge, skills and aptitudes of the people inhabiting the country is a narrow view of defining human resource or capital. In the wider perspective in includes the initiative, resource fullness, capacity for sustained work, right values, interests, attitudes and other human qualities conducive to higher output and accelerated economic growth.
HRD for RD means to achieve transformation in respect of behavioral pattern which are adverse to economic and social development to those favorable which are positive. Human Resource are the energies, skills, talent and knowledge of the people which can / should be applied to the production of goods or rendering of useful services.
CAPACITY BUILDING Capacity building is defined as the "process of developing and strengthening the skills, instincts, abilities, processes and resources that organizations and communities need to survive, adapt, and thrive in the fast-changing world." Capacity building process will generate: • Greater resources. Increasing the amount of resources (financial, technical, human, and physical) available to the organization and therefore, its ability to provide services and programs. • Greater efficiency. Improving the utilization of resources across the organization and therefore, reducing the relative cost of services and programs • Greater effectiveness. Improving the management and allocation of resources across the organization and therefore, increasing the probability of achieving successful program outcomes Capacity building has fast become a major topic among nonprofits and management support organizations (funders, associations, training centers, consultants, etc.) that provide services to nonprofits. There are a variety of definitions for capacity building. Perhaps the most fundamental definition is "actions that improve nonprofit effectiveness". Some other discussions about capacity building refer to the concept as actions that enhance a nonprofit's ability to work towards its mission. The concept of capacity building in nonprofits is similar to the concept of organizational development, organizational effectiveness and/or organizational performance management in for-profits. Capacity building efforts can include a broad range of approaches, eg, granting operating funds, granting management development funds, providing training and development sessions, providing coaching, supporting collaboration with other nonprofits, etc. Prominent methods of organizational performance management in for-profits are beginning to be mentioned in discussions about capacity building, as well, for example, the Balanced Scorecard, principles of organizational change, cultural change, organizational learning, etc
HRD for voluntary organization: Human Resource Development / Training for voluntary organization should be conceived in the background of the various functions performed by these organizations. Functions complimentary to the delivery system (government) - Supplement its efforts. - Activate the system to respond better to the needs of the people. - Providing feedback. Functions relevant to the receiving system (people) - Organizing them - Training them - Creating awareness Function relevant to administering the voluntary organization: - Efficiency in service quality - Resource mobilization - Developing its own staff - Innovation experimentation.
To carry out these functions personnel’s in V.Os has to perform several roles.
Roles Human Relation Trainer Social Technologist Social Advocate Problem slower Consultant Methods to be used Education, communication, group organization. Fact finding , analysis, community survey ,etc., Fact finding, analysis, direct action legislative promotion. Mediating , negotiation , planning etc., Process, research consultant .
What the voluntary organization are doing is no doubt a complex task, controlled and governed by multiple factors and actors. Therefore a complete understanding of the rural development process, identification of problems, recognition of the casual factors and explanation of the effects are a precondition to promote and guarantee development. For this updating information base, increasing the efficiency and skill of the person working in V.Os through appropriate training programs are quite important for them to function and interact in an interdisciplinary and multi problem environment. The training ground should be highlighted to provide forum for Exchanging ideas. Sharing experiences Bridging differences Imparting new techniques and methods Enhancing analytical power and finally Deriving consensus to strengthen the functional capabilities of the V.Os personals through mutual co-operation and appreciation.
NEED FOR CAPACITY BUILDING TRAINING IN WELFARE/DEVELOPMENT SECTOR
Employee’s development and training form an essential aspect of the direction of human efforts. Training of staff has become the fastest growing segment of personnel activities. Training enables the employees to improve their knowledge, skills, sensitivity and creativity. It also enables the employees to adjust to the socio-economic environment and there by contributes to the improvement and realization of such environment. The successful implementation of any plan, scheme, project, services of programs by an organization to a greater extent depends upon the availability of qualified and trained manpower. The ideal situation demands that a proper assessment of manpower needed and their training requirements are made before launching any program or activity. This advance planning help in utilizing the services of existing training institutes and their facilities as well as developing and establishment of organization’s own training institutes to meet the unmet needs and requirements of staff engaged in developmental administration. Realizing the very significant role played by institutional building regular training programs, our Five Year Plans have laid strong stress on human resource development and a major component in this is the expansion of the social infrastructure for social welfare skills and social development. During the Seventh Plan Period (1985-1990) emphasis has been laid on consolidation and improvement in supply and quality of services. Personnel engaged in delivery of social welfare services have to play a crucial role for developmental programs. They have to implement the programs with greater vigor and insight so as to achieve the intended results in the field of social welfare and development. The aim is to meet the unmet needs and energy
requirements of the weaker sections of the society coupled with expansion of the existing programs substantially. Areas of Training: All over the country lakhs and lakhs of personnel are engaged in the welfare activities either run directly by the Government or entrusted to the care of voluntary organizations, either at managerial levels, supervisory level or at implementation level. So, our
Definition The lead within the UN system for action and thinking in this area (Capacity Development) was given to UNDP and it has offered guidance to its staff and governments on what was then called institution building since the early 1970s. This involved building up the ability of basic national organizations, in areas such as civil aviation, meteorology, agriculture, health, nutrition to do their tasks well. All UN specialized agencies were supposed to be active in support of capacity building in the areas for which they were technically qualified e.g. FAO for the rural sector and agriculture, WHO for health etc, but they achieved mixed results. USAID UK/DFID and some of the Nordic donors were also active in the area By 1991 the term had evolved and become 'capacity building'. UNDP defined 'capacity building' as the creation of an enabling environment with appropriate policy and legal frameworks, institutional development, including community participation (of women in particular), human resources development and strengthening of managerial systems, adding that, UNDP recognizes that capacity building is a long-term, continuing process, in which all stakeholders participate (ministries, local authorities, non-governmental organizations and water user groups, professional associations, academics and others). By 1998 the UN General Assembly had commissioned and received evaluations of the impact of the UN system's support for capacity building. These evaluations were carried out as part of the UN General Assembly's triennial policy review during which it looks at and provides overall guidance of all UN system development activities. The UNO defines capacity building as "activities which strengthen the knowledge, abilities, skills and behaviour of individuals and improve institutional structures and processes such that the organization can efficiently meet its mission and goals in a sustainable way."It is, however, important to put into consideration the principles that govern community capacity building. Capacity Building is much more than training and includes the following: • Human resource development, the process of equipping individuals with the understanding, skills and access to information, knowledge and training that enables them to perform effectively. • Organizational development, the elaboration of management structures, processes and procedures, not only within organizations but also the management of relationships between the different organizations and sectors (public, private and community). • Institutional and legal framework development, making legal and regulatory changes to enable organizations, institutions and agencies at all levels and in all sectors to enhance their capacities
five Year Plans emphasized and therefore, been stipulated that there is a need to induct professionally trained technical manpower (delinked with degree) at decision-making and supervisory levels. Functionaries engaged at different levels in the ongoing schemes would have
to be suitably trained to make them acquire the basic knowledge and skills required for program management and development. Community support and co-operation and their involvement as well as generating awareness are of utmost necessity in identification of local needs; prospective beneficiaries; delivery of services and program supervision. Considering the very importance of training, including orientation courses for personnel in Social Welfare and Development, Five Year Plan documents has demanded and added a new dimension on the social welfare organizations to provide training constantly to all concerned for effective and efficient management and its processes, induction of specialized staff and expansion of the service training programs for improving the technical skills and knowledge for project identification, program formulation, program implementation, monitoring and evaluation. The expenditure on
training, therefore, has to be considered an investment and necessary input and it should invariably form as an integral part of any program.
To harness the human potential and give expression to their creative urges, the main areas in which training is provide are: 1 Knowledge: The training in this area aims at helping the trainee learn to understand and to remember facts, information and principles. 2. Technical Skills: The trainee is taught physical acts or actions like operating a machine, working with a computer, using mathematical models to take decisions, etc. 3. Social Skills: The employees are provide opportunities to acquire and sharper such behavioral and human relations skills as are necessary for improved interpersonal relationship, better team work and effective leadership.
TRAINING OBJECTIVES AND STRATEGIES
Having identified the training needs, the next step is to set training objectives in concrete terms and to decide on the training strategies to be adopted to meet these objectives. The training needs basically highlight the gap between the existing and desired repertoire of knowledge, attitude and skills at individual, group and organizational level to enable the employees to contribute towards the realization of organizational objectives at optimum efficiency. As the training objectives are related to organizational objectives, the involvement of the top management will be necessary to ensure that the two sets of objectives are integrated. It will be desirable to use the following criteria in setting training objectives: 1. Specific requirements of individuals and organizations so as to achieve integration of the two. 2. Roles and tasks to be carried out by the target group. 3. Relationship with other positions vertically and horizontally and technological imperatives. 4. Relevance, applicability and compatibility of training to work situations. 5. Training as a means of bringing about a change in behavior back or the job. 6. Behavior including activities that can be observed measured and recorded. 7. The expected change in behavior must be useful, closely related to and subject to maintenance in the work environment.
Objectives (Training objectives to achieve organizational goals) 1. To transfer required expertise and skill to prepare, execute and evaluate development programs and schemes, more specifically at the micro level, 2. To create adequate trained personnel to fill the existing vacuum without much additional cost, 3. To share, exchange and consolidate the development experiences of the trainees by taking advantage of the trainers (professionals) in the training forum, 4. To provide additional inputs in the areas of development concepts, planning principles, techniques, creating data base, methods of project management and evaluation, 5. To bridge the gap between the theory and practice of development planning and development administration, 6. To initiate and identify new mechanism and principles of development programs and schemes based on the experiences, of the field unit officers, promote and strengthen the development practices further, 7. To provide knowledge on the development informatics to match with the changing requirements, 8. To orient and encourage the participants for working with and development of, the rural poor, and 9. Finally, to sensitize the development personnel to work in an interdisciplinary team with multiproblem framework.
OBJECTIVES Training objectives to bring change in the behavior 1. Increased confidence in one’s own ability, 2. Deeper appreciation of human & social problems as well as identification of problem areas, 3. Enhancement of ability to look at older problem in newer ways, 4. Wider tolerance of difference of opinion, 5. Enlargement and improvement of participant knowledge in the techniques, methods and tools of social welfare administration so as to deal with, the improvement of beneficiaries based on human approach theory, 6. Creation of awareness and awakening towards improving administrative capacity and capability of the personnel, 7. Extension of help in reaction (i.e., satisfaction in turn favorable interaction to environment), Behavior (i.e. change in outlook) and Attitudes, learning (i.e. development of skills and work-kits) and results i.e. , effectiveness and efficiency), 8. Personal growth (i.e. improvement, consolidation and expansion of skills to do a particular social welfare job in scientific manner based on system approach and staff development), 9. Understanding of environmental or ecological intricacies and linkages to avoid duplication efforts, 10. Development of (a) rational thinking, (b) objective thin king, (c) social understanding and, (d) aesthetic responsiveness and practical abilities, 11. Role performance and last but not the least to up-to-date the knowledge through motivation, life situations and self-development.
FOCUS OF TRAINING
In Indian situation, no doubt a number of institutions have specialized in specific areas of training and they are providing services to meet the demand from time to time, right from the local to the national level. However, they are still not adequate in terms of specialized fields, content and frequency. The important observation is that, most of the institutions are within the folds of government control and naturally oriented to meet ad-hoc situation on tailor made basis. This is definitely very much required, but adding new dimensions would help meeting crisis in a better way than leaving unattended. As the development paradigms are getting changed significantly over past few decades, the focus should also be updated and modified to accommodate maximum possible changes other than the traditional and regular routine activities to make use of training more effective and operational. Therefore, the following aspects must be taken into account while framing the training modules for rural-regional development practitioners. It may, however, be noted that the intensity and magnitude will vary depending on the level of practitioners. The aspects are as follows: 1. Looking beyond: In general, major of the training programs are conducted under a given rigid framework by the sponsors of the training to fulfill the immediate needs, which is quite reasonable and justified. But, at the same time, it is desirable to open up and widen the planning and development horizon beyond the directives of the planning commission, 2. Generating local resources: The current development at the local level is seen mostly as donor driven either by the national/central government at the apex or by the international development and donor agencies. Emphasis on local resources, potential and problems in framing the development programs and also supporting at the local level is definitely considered as the strongest achievement to break through the barriers of dependency. The crucial factor for this is to mobilize and generate revenues and financial resources to support the programs. This is the missing link in the development planning cycle in the country. Therefore, the importance to this aspect will provide orientation to explore the possibilities in this direction. 3. Question of sustainability: Emphasis on self-reliance and sustainable development is the preset key word frequently referred and used in planning exercise. The conceptual clarity, potentials, limits and usefulness of the sustainable development should be reflected in the training modules for the development planners and practitioners. The important element should be ‘to bridge the gap between theory and practice’.
4. Environmental management: The environmental components are the concurrent and unending issues in the whole framework of economic, social and development planning. The threats due to natural calamities, environmental degradation and overuse of resources as a consequence of rapid population growth, uncontrolled urbanization and polluting industrialization in a way have paralyzed the process of development at the local level. Hence the environmental conservation and management components need to be integrated with the training programs to safeguard against the environmental consequences. 5. Computerized information system: In a gradual process, the use of computerized information system for creating database and administering, monitoring and evaluating rural development programs is getting popular and considered as the efficient mechanism of handling day to day problems. The training provision for organizing computerized database, analysis, planning administration and management could be strengthened taking the advantage of the available wide network of the National Informatics Center (NIC) with the co-operation of the participating State Governments as the local level. The NIC has the right and tremendous potential, which should be fruitfully used for the purpose. 6. Project management: (Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation) All the development programs are translated into different projects for action. The success of projects is linked to the initial conceptualization, design, resource mobilization, implementation and various aspects of project management. It is a common observation that the personnel involved in the implementation of various rural regional development programs have deficiency in project management and they usually operate with the help of manuals and guidelines provided by the line ministries which are not enough to handle the day today complicated problems. Therefore, it is strongly desired to equip the officials with project management skills and techniques through training. Training for whom, where and what? There are some basic questions that need to be addressed carefully to make the training effective. The first is related to the identification & personals to be trained.
Level NGOProject holders Training of Trainers NGO-Staff / field workers Training for beneficiary Target group Duration Short term Short / long term Short / long term Short term Resource persons Belonging to the same group senior and experienced professionals Professionals / senior and experienced Project officials Professionals / senior and experienced Project officials. Selected professionals/ experienced NGOS
The next question is related to the content of the program. Preparing the syllabus (module) for the Training. Based on the objectives and focus, the modules will differ.eg.
a) Identification of projects b) Project finance c) Identification of target groups d) Project design. e) Project management(implementation, monitoring and evaluation) f) Sustainability of projects and recycling. a) Environment values and their implications for development. b) Environmental issues, components and management. c) Environment impact assessment of different development project. d) Environment conversation economy / ecology and ethics. e) Sustainable development.
The other questions related to this area are whether the training is residential, non residential , part time etc., Evaluation of the training: Finally each and every training should be evaluated based on its objectives to understand whether it has achieved its intended purpose.
Knowledge i) Programmatic ii) Strategic thinking iii)Environmental Skills i) Leadership &Team Building ii) Gender Sensitivity iii) Program design and implementation iv) Time Management v) Personal attitude vi) Relationship development
Individual Organization Sectoral Organization i) Organizational renewal i) Capacity for capacity Forums for shared iii) Program Management perspective Capacity ii) Capacity to iii) Project Monitoring promote & Evaluation Capacity mechanism iv) Resource Management iii) Capacity to build a) Human sectoral human b) Knowledge & Information resource c) Financial v) Networking & Partnership. vi) Networking & Partnerships vii) Rigorous competency assessment
Voluntary organizations could be Associations, Civil Society Organizations (CSOs), Non Governmental Organizations, People’s Movements, Citizen Groups, Consumer Associations, Small Producers’ Associations, Youth Groups, in Indian context Bhajan Mandlis ( group of men or women or only men or women who sing together devotional songs) , Residential Welfare Associations etc. These, in other words, “Capacity building” means different things to could be both indigenous and modern form different organizations. Originally it was meant as of associations. “technical assistance,” then “institutional building” Capacity building is the development of an Meaning of Capacity: organization’s core skills and capabilities, such 1. In Civil Society Organization’s context as leadership, management, finance and capacity is the elaboration of the identity fundraising, programs and evaluation, in order of an organization - the purpose, mission, to build the organization’s effectiveness and rationale for its startup and continuity of sustainability. It is the process of assisting an that particular organization. It is important individual or group to identify and address to look at the capacity in relation to its issues and gain the insights, knowledge and mission and purposes. experience needed to solve problems and 2. The second component of `capacity’ is implement change. Capacity building is the capacity to act independently and facilitated through the provision of technical autonomously, to be able to pursue its support activities, including coaching, training, mission and purposes without specific technical assistance and resource compromising its principles or scarifying networking. its autonomy. 3. A third component in defining `capacity’ is the question of intellectual and analytical abilities of an organization. It may seem as an intangible capacity. Clarifications of its perspective, its vision of a desirable society, its moral and ethical base, its analyze and articulate its independent thinking and position on issues of contemporary concern – all these constitute a major and perhaps more significant component of such capacity. In fact this capacity creates the basis for its independent, autonomous functioning and clarifies its identity, not only to itself but to others around it. Deriving from the above, it is also to look at the capacity for self-reflection and learning. Capacity for systematizing its own experiences and drawing lessons from the same, capacity to monitor its activities and review its purposes in light of the changes taking place in the wider society, capacity to document, synthesize and articulate its own learning in the course of its ongoing activities become important elements of the capacity for self-reflection and continuous learning by Civil Society Organization. 4. The next component in defining ` capacity’ is to understand the social context in which a Civil Society Organization operates. It is important to recognize the contextually specific meaning of capacity. Each CSO operates in a local context through a network of relationships with other actors, which not only provides the basis for its pursuit of purposes and missions but also provides the basis for legitimacy. The primary arena for examining the meaning of capacity of a local CSO, therefore, is this web of relationships in its immediate social context. Its ability to function effectively in that social context provides the underlying clues about its capacity requirements and challenges. The external relations of Civil Society Organization with resource providers and regulators are also an arena to define the meaning of its capacity. Those who provide funds and other kind of resources for continuous functioning of the Civil Society Organization expect certain kinds of actions from the Civil Society Organization. These expectations set the stage for understanding the meaning of capacity of a CSO vis-a-vis resource
new ways of thinking awareness and perceptions ability to adapt skills(leadership, negotiation, problem-solving) motivation, attitudes, values ability for critical analysis solidarity, identity and cohesion Socio-political context: society’s vision formal and informal values, norms and standards democratic processes power relationships consensus and conflict
Entity capacities: social capital ability to collaborate and manage external relationships ability to manage change governance and leadership internal management and human resource development innovation and learning organizational values knowledge and evidence-base technical expertise infrastructure policies
Economic context: stable and equitable fiscal and monetary policy management and distribution of resources technology
Institutional context: policies and regulations structures role of State institutions human resources capacity accountability
Broader system capacity: will depend on the level in which capacity building is done. For initiatives at a sectoral level, the system capacity will include only relevant components (i.e. health policies, health and other stakeholders etc).
providers. Likewise, government regulations and other legal context sets up the pre-conditions within which a CSO has to operate and therefore, certain elements of its capacity relate to that.
However, the important points are to recognize that external relations with donors and regulators are not the prime arena for understanding the meaning of capacity. The primary arena for that is the local social context in which a CSO operates. External donor relations become the additive aspect of understanding the defining of capacity. Finally, capacity is not merely a phenomenon of individual CSO. It is increasingly recognized that networks, alliances and partnerships across Civil Society Organizations help to acknowledge and strengthen the capacity of each CSO to operate on its own. Therefore, at this stage of the evolution of civil society actors, sectoral capacity is an important element in our approach to understand the meaning of capacity. Sectoral capacity implies capacity of a sector of civil society actors in a given region. Such a collective approach to understanding the meaning of capacity also acknowledges the diversity and plurality of civil society organizations such that, there is an acknowledgement of the range of capacities associated with this plurality and diversity.
Proposed hierarchy of terms to describe the capacity building process
Capacity Building Approach
Concept: Organisational development
Other concepts Concept: Community building Concept: Citizen engagement
Strategy: workforce development partnership building
Strategy: collaborative action empowering community leaders
Strategy: participation individual behaviour change
Activities: skill building (e.g. courses) networking (e.g. steering committee meetings)
Activities: networking (e.g. community forums to resolve issue) building confidence and skills of community leaders to express systemic concerns
Activities: participation in exercise classes, festivals face to face consultation about importance of physical activity
Strategy – is a strategic action (a long-term plan, a vision for the future) that describes how the program will achieve its objective. Activities – is a specific line of work, process, function, or task that occurs over time and has recognisable results.
Builds capacity for health promotion
Ultimate outcomes Health promoting social
Advocacy/policy dialogue External leadership development
Governance and leadership development
Strengthening internal management
Legislation/regulati on Maintenance of health outcomes
Builds capacity for program
Partnership building and relational contracting Resource allocation
Program maintenance and sustainability
Build capacity for program sustainability
Workforce development and skill utilization Strengthening capacity for innovation and organizational learning Active participation
Build capacity for ‘healthy’ functioning
Health communication/Soci al marketing Skill development and utilisation Empowering community leaders Information sharing
Increased problemsolving capabilities
Changed perception, awareness, attitudes, motivation
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