You are on page 1of 324

TESS expert Physics

TESS expert Physics
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 About PHYWE Mechanics Oscillations and Mechanical Waves, Acoustics Thermodynamics Electricity and Magnetism Light and Optics Quantum Physics Atomic Physics Molecule and Solid State Physics Nano Physics Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity Particle Physics X-ray Physics Laser Physics - Photonics Indices 2 25 57 81 111 157 189 207 217 237 243 259 263 295 307

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
1

1 About PHYWE

excellence in science
2

1 About PHYWE

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
3

1 About PHYWE
1.1 How to use

excellence in science
4

com 5 .1 How to use PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.1 About PHYWE 1.phywe.

2 Computer Assisted Measurement excellence in science 6 .1 About PHYWE 1.

2 Computer Assisted Measurement PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.phywe.com 7 .1 About PHYWE 1. KG · www.

1 About PHYWE 1.2 Computer Assisted Measurement excellence in science 8 .

2 Computer Assisted Measurement PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 9 .phywe. KG · www.1 About PHYWE 1.

1 About PHYWE 1.3 Curriculum excellence in science 10 .

3 Curriculum PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.1 About PHYWE 1.phywe. KG · www.com 11 .

complete set (interface version) P6000560 Centripetal acceleration with Cobra4 P6000660 Centripetal force with Cobra4 29 29 29 29 29 P2131800 Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell's wheel P2131900 Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope P2132000 Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope P2132801 Moment of inertia / Steiner's theorem P2132860 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner's theorem with Cobra4 34 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 36 36 37 38 39 40 40 2. s ~ t² with Cobra4 and demonstration track P6000360 Uniformly accelerated motion caused by an accelerating mass with Cobra4 and demonstration track P2130711 Free fall Cobra3 P2130701 Free fall P2130760 Free fall (interface version with Cobra4) .4 Linear Momentum and Collisions P2130505 Laws of collision/ demonstration track with a 4-4 Timer P2130515 Laws of collision/ demonstration track with Cobra3 P2130501 Laws of collision/ air track P2130511 Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra3 P1199560 Impulse and momentum / demonstration track with Cobra4 P1199660 Conservation of momentum during central elastic collision with cobra4 P2130560 Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra4 available 2013 33 33 33 33 33 33 33 2.6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity P2120100 Moments P1253500 Torque P2120200 Modulus of elasticity P2120300 Mechanical hysteresis P2130111 Hooke's law with Cobra3 P2130160 Hooke's law with Cobra4 P2133100 Moments of inertia and torsional vibrations P2132801 Moment of inertia / Steiner's theorem 41 41 42 43 44 44 45 45 2.1 Measurement Techniques P2110100 Measurement of basic constants: length.Overview TESS expert 2 Mechanics 2. weight and time 26 2.3 Motion in two and three Dimensions P2131100 Projectile motion P2131200 Ballistic pendulum 31 32 2.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases P2140100 Density of liquids P2140200 Surface of rotating liquids 48 49 excellence in science 12 .available 2013 P6000460 Free fall with air friction with Cobra4 P6000760 Free Fall: determination of the acceleration of earth (with Cobra 4 Timercounter) P1199560 Impulse and momentum with Cobra 4 P1199660 Conservation of momentum during central elastic collision with Cobra 4 P6000860 Newton's law with Cobra 4 and Timer/ Counter sensor 27 27 27 27 27 30 30 30 2.7 Gravity / Gravitation P2130901 Determination of the gravitational constant / computerised Cavendish balance P6000460 Free fall with air friction with Cobra4 P6000760 Free Fall: determination of the acceleration of earth (with Cobra 4 Timercounter) P2130711 Free fall with Cobra3 P2132200 Reversible pendulum P2132301 Variable g pendulum 46 46 46 47 47 47 2.5 Rotational Motion P2131315 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 with a precision pivot bearing P2131301 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration and with an air bearing P2131305 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with a precision pivot bearing P2131311 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 and with an air bearing P2131360 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra4 P2131500 Moment and angular momentum 27 P2131601 Centrifugal force P2131611 Centrifugal force.2 Motion in one Dimension P2130301 Newton's 2nd law / air track P2130311 Newton's 2nd law/ air track with Cobra3 P2130305 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track P2130315 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track with Cobra3 P1198860 Uniformly accelerated motion on an inclined plane.

Pohl's pendulum with Cobra3 P2132760 Forced oscillations . KG · www. Acoustics 3.determination of wavelength P2151400 Absorption of ultrasound in air P2151800 Ultrasonic diffraction at a Fresnel zone plate / structure of a Fresnel zone P2152000 Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror P2152115 Determination of the ultrasonic velocity (sonar principle) P2152200 Ultrasonic Michelson interferometer P2152300 Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge P2152415 Ultrasonic Doppler effect P2152460 Ultrasonic Doppler effect with Cobra4 13900-00 Ultrasound operation unit P5160200 Basic principles of ultrasonic echography (A-Scan) P5160300 Basic principles of ultrasonic echography (B-Scan) P5160700 Frequency dependence of power in ultrasonic imaging resolution 62 62 62 63 64 3.Pohl's pendulum with Cobra4 P2133000 Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus P2150501 Chladni figures 58 58 59 59 59 60 60 61 P2151200 Temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound in liquids P2151515 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems P2151615 Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple slit systems P2151715 Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole and a circular obstacle P2151915 Interference by two identical ultrasonic transmitters P2151300 Stationary ultrasonic waves .phywe.1 Oscillatory Motion P2132100 Mathematical pendulum P2132200 Reversible pendulum P2132301 Variable g pendulum P2132311 Variable g pendulum with Cobra3 P2132360 Variable g pendulum with Cobra4 P2132511 Coupled pendula with Cobra3 P2132560 Coupled pendula with Cobra4 P2132660 Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs Spring linked in parallel and series with Cobra 4 P2132701 Forced oscillations .3 Sound Waves P2133500 Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank P2150305 Velocity of sound in air with Universal Counter P2133300 Phase velocity of rope waves / waves of wires P2150405 Acoustic Doppler effect with universal counter P2150605 Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube and digital function generator P2150601 Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube 67 68 69 70 71 71 P5160100 Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material P5160800 Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials P5160900 Shear waves in solid state materials PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2 Wave Motion P2133200 Propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave P2133400 Wave phenomena in a ripple tank 65 66 3.Pohl's pendulum P2132711 Forced oscillations .com 13 .Overview TESS expert P2140300 Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) P2140400 Viscosity measurement with the falling ball viscometer P2140500 Surface tension with the ring method (Du Nouy method) P2140700 Barometric height formula P5140100 Mechanics of flow 50 51 52 53 54 P2150702 Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube with a multimeter P2150811 Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 P2150860 Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra4 P2151000 Optical determination of the velocity of sound in liquids P2151100 Phase and group velocity of ultrasound in liquids 72 73 73 74 75 75 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 78 79 79 79 80 80 80 3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves.

and the Second Law of Thermodynamics P2360200 Electric compression heat pump 13715-93 Work and power meter P2360415 Stirling engine with Cobra3 P2360401 Stirling engine with an oscilloscope P2360460 Stirling engine with Cobra4 98 98 99 99 99 P2320115 Equation of state for ideal gases with Co.available 2013 P1350060 Charles' law P1350160 Amontons law P1350260 Boyle's law P2320300 Maxwellian velocity distribution P2340100 Vapour pressure of water at high temperature P2340200 Vapour pressure of water below 100°C molar heat of vaporisation P2140700 Barometric height formula 82 82 82 82 82 82 83 84 84 84 P2360100 Solar ray collector P2360360 Heat insulation / heat conduction P2360415 Stirling engine with Cobra3 P2410700 Semiconductor thermogenerator 96 97 97 97 4. and the First Law of Thermodynamics P2320211 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 P2320201 Heat capacity of gases P2320260 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra4 P2320400 Thermal equation of state and critical point P2320500 Adiabatic coefficient of gases .Overview TESS expert 4 Thermodynamics 4.108 mersfeld oscillator P2330111 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 P2340300 Boiling point elevation P2340400 Freezing point depression 109 109 109 4.Flammersfeld oscillator P2320600 Joule-Thomson effect P2330111 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 P2330101 Heat capacity of metals P2330160 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra4 P2330200 Mechanical equivalent of heat P2330260 Mechanical equivalent of heat with Cobra4 P2340300 Boiling point elevation P2340400 Freezing point depression P1500060 Cooling by evacuation P2350101 Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with an amplifier P2350115 Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with Cobra3 P2350160 Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with Cobra4 P2410800 Peltier heat pump P2320115 Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3 P2350200 Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals P2340100 Vapour pressure of water at high tem.Flam.2 Heat.103 perature P2340200 Vapour pressure of water below 100°C .104 molar heat of vaporisation P2350200 Thermal and electrical conductivity of 105 metals P2360100 Solar ray collector P2360360 Heat insulation / heat conduction P1500060 Cooling by evacuation P2320211 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 106 107 108 108 P2320500 Adiabatic coefficient of gases .4 Thermal Properties and Processes P2310200 Thermal expansion in solids P2310300 Thermal expansion in liquids 85 85 85 86 87 88 89 89 89 90 90 91 92 93 94 101 102 4.100 mersfeld oscillator 4. Work.1 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases P2320115 Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3 P1223200 The gas laws of Boyle-Mariotte.100 bra3 P2320400 Thermal equation of state and critical 100 point P2320500 Adiabatic coefficient of gases . Entropy.Flam.5 Literature 01196-12 Handbook Glass jacket system 110 5 Electricity and Magnetism 94 94 95 96 96 5.3 Heat Engines. Gay-Lussac and Charles (Amontons) P2320160 Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra4 .1 Electric Charge and Electric Field P2420100 Electric fields and potentials in the plate 112 capacitor P2420401 Coulomb's law / image charge 113 P2420500 Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of 114 metal spheres excellence in science 14 .

Dielectrics. with Cobra4 P2430215 Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Sav.140 ductor P2430215 Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Sav.4 Direct-Current Circuits P2410415 Temperature dependence of different 128 resistors and diodes with Cobra3 P2410401 Temperature dependence of different 128 resistors and diodes with a multimeter P2410460 Temperature dependance of different 128 resistors and diodes with Cobra4 P2410500 Kirchhoff's laws P2410200 Wheatstone bridge 129 129 5.electrolysis 126 with the FG module P2411360 Second order conductors.141 holtz arrangement with Cobra3 P2430711 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 141 P2410101 4 Point Method / Measurement of low 130 resistances Ohm's Law P2410115 Ohm's law with Cobra3 130 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.134 holtz arrangement with Cobra4 P2430400 Magnetic moment in the magnetic field 135 P2430605 Magnetic field inside a conductor with 136 digital function generator P2430600 Magnetic field inside a conductor P2260106 Faraday effect with optical base plate 136 137 5.141 art's law with Cobra3 P2430315 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helm. Storage P2411100 Characteristic curve and efficiency of a 116 PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser P2411200 Faraday's law 117 P2420201 Charging curve of a capacitor / charging 118 and discharging of a capacitor P2420260 Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and 118 an inductivity with Cobra4 P2420300 Capacitance of metal spheres and of a 119 spherical capacitor P2420600 Dielectric constant of different materials 120 P2420100 Electric fields and potentials in the plate 120 capacitor 5.electrolysis 131 with Cobra3 and FG module 5.2 Capacitance.133 art's law with Cobra3 P2430201 Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Sav.3 Electric Current and Resistance P2410101 4 Point Method / Measurement of low 121 resistances / Ohm's Law P2410115 Ohm's law with Cobra3 P2410160 Ohm's law with Cobra4 P2410200 Wheatstone bridge P2410500 Kirchhoff's laws P2410901 Characteristic curves of a solar cell 122 122 123 123 124 P2410915 Characteristic curves of semiconductors 125 with Cobra3 and FG module P2410960 Characteristic curves of semicconductor 125 with Cobra4 P2411315 Second order conductors . Electric Energy.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces P2410601 Current balance/ force acting on a 132 current-carrying conductor with an amperemeter P2410660 Current balance / Force acting on a 132 current-carrying cond.138 terferometer P2530111 Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 138 5.137 ductor P2430711 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 138 P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in. Electrolysis 126 with Cobra4 P2410700 Semiconductor thermogenerator 127 P2411100 Characteristic curve and efficiency of a 127 PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser P2420201 Charging curve of a capacitor / charging 127 and discharging of a capacitor P2430100 Determination of the earth's magnetic 137 field P2430500 Magnetic field outside a straight con.134 holtz arrangement with Cobra3 P2430301 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helm. KG · www.133 art's law with Cobra4 P2430315 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helm.com 15 .6 Sources of Magnetic Field P2430100 Determination of the earth's magnetic 139 field P2430500 Magnetic field outside a straight con.Overview TESS expert P2510100 Elementary charge and Millikan experi.phywe.115 ment P2511200 Electron spin resonance 115 P2410901 Characteristic curves of a solar cell 130 P2410915 Characteristic curves of semiconductors 131 with Cobra3 and FG module P2411100 Characteristic curve and efficiency of a 131 PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser P2411315 Second order conductors .134 holtz arrangement with a teslameter P2430360 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helm.133 art's law with a teslameter P2430260 Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Sav.

phase shift and power in AC 152 circuits with digital function generator P2450201 Coupled resonant circuits 153 P2450301 Forced oscillations of a nonlinear elec. diamagnetism paramagnetism 155 and 155 155 P2430760 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra4 P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in.9 Maxwell’s Equitations.7 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law P2440100 Transformer P2440201 Magnetic induction 142 143 6 Light and Optics 6.172 tion with optical base plate P2221100 Refraction index of air with the Mach.156 terferometer excellence in science 16 .2 Geometric Optics P2210200 Law of lenses and optical instruments 163 P2440611 RLC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG mod.Cobra 4 159 P2240405 Lambert's law of radiation on optical 160 base plate P2240400 Lambert's law 160 P2210300 Dispersion and resolving power of a 161 prism and a grating spectroscope P2220100 Interference of light 161 P2230405 Diffraction of light through a double slit 161 or by a grid with optical base plate P2250305 Fresnel's law .chaotic oscillation P2220300 Interference at a mica plate according to 167 Pohl P2220400 Structure of a Fresnel zone / zone plate 168 P2220505 Michelson interferometer with optical 169 base plate P2220500 Michelson interferometer with optical 169 profile bench P2220600 Coherence and width of spectral lines 170 with the Michelson interferometer with optical profile bench P2220705 Refraction index of CO2 with the Michel.154 trical series resonant circuit . AC Circuits P2440311 Inductance of solenoids with Cobra3 P2440301 Inductance of solenoids P2440360 Inductance of solenoids with Cobra4 145 145 145 P2440411 Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra3 and the 146 FG module P2440401 Coil in the AC circuit P2440460 Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra4 146 146 P2440515 Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra3 147 and the FG module P2440501 Capacitor in the AC circuit P2440560 Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra4 147 147 6.148 ule P2440601 RLC circuit P2440660 RLC circuit with Cobra4 P2440700 Rectifier circuits P2440801 RC filters 148 148 149 150 6. Electromagnetic Oscillations. Magnetism.151 gital function generator P2440915 High-pass and low-pass filters with the 151 FG module P2441101 Resistance.High Resolu.Cobra 159 3 P2240201 Photometric inverse-square law 159 P2240260 Photometric invers-square law .171 son interferometer with optical base plate P2220700 Refraction index of air and CO2 with the 171 Michelson interferometer with optical profile bench P2220900 Michelson interferometer .1 Nature and Propagation of Light P2210101 Measuring the velocity of light 158 P2210111 Measuring the velocity of light using the 158 software measure P2240211 Photometric inverse-square law . Electromagnetic Waves P2430711 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 P1221300 Ferromagnetism.Overview TESS expert 5.173 Zehnder interferometer with optical base plate 5.3 Diffraction and Interference P2210300 Dispersion and resolving power of a 164 prism and a grating spectroscope P2220100 Interference of light P2220205 Newton's rings with optical base plate P2220200 Newton's rings with interference filters 165 166 166 P2440905 High-pass and low-pass filters with di.8 Inductance.theory of reflection P2261000 Fibre optics 162 162 P2440215 Magnetic induction with the FG module 143 and Cobra3 P2440260 Magnetic Induction with Cobra4 P2441211 Induction impulse P2441260 Induction impulse with Cobra4 143 144 144 5.

2f arrangement 180 P2261200 Fourier optics .191 certainty principle with optical bench 7.4 Polarization P2250105 Polarisation through quarter-wave 183 plates with optical base plate P2250100 Polarisation through quarter-wave 183 plates with optical profile bench P2250200 Polarimetry 183 P2250305 Fresnel's law .200 onance (NMR) P5942200 Relaxation times in Nuclear Magnetic 200 Resonance P2260100 Faraday effect with optical profile bench 187 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.197 sion) 7.6 Planck's "quantum of action" and photoelectric effect P2510402 Planck's "quantum of action" and pho.filter.phywe. KG · www.com 17 .theory of reflection with 184 optical base plate P2250300 Fresnel's equations .Babinet's theorem with optical profile bench P2261100 Fourier optics .5 Franck-Hertz experiment P2510311 Franck-Hertz experiment with a Hg tube P2510315 Franck-Hertz experiment with a Ne tube 194 195 7.7 Stern-Gerlach experiment P2511111 Stern-Gerlach experiment with a stepper 197 motor and interface P2511101 Stern-Gerlach experiment (classical ver.determina. MRT) Electron spin resonance (ESR) P5942100 Basic principles in Nuclear Magnetic Res.180 ing and reconstruction P2220800 Quantum eraser with optical base plate 181 P2221206 Fabry-Perot interferometer .determina.2 Heisenberg's uncertainty principle P2230105 Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's un.Babinet's theorem with optical base plate P2230600 Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a 179 wire .191 certainty principle with optical base plate P2230100 Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's un.181 tion of the wavelength of laser light with optical base plate P2230105 Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's un.theory of reflection 184 with optical profile bench P2250400 Malus' law P2250505 Polarimetry with optical base plate P2260106 Faraday effect with optical base plate 185 186 187 7.3 Millikan experiment P2510100 Elementary charge and Millikan experi.182 terferometer with optical base plate P2541301 Examination of the structure of NaCl 182 monocrystals with different orientations P2541601 X-ray investigation of crystal structures / 182 Laue method 7 Quantum Physics 7.196 toelectric effect (line separation by interference filters) P2510502 Planck's "quantum of action" and extern 196 photoelectric effec effect (line separation by a diffraction grating) 7.192 ment 7.181 certainty principle with optical base plate P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in.1 Quantum eraser P2220800 Quantum eraser 190 7.Overview TESS expert P2221205 Fabry-Perot interferometer .4 Specific charge of the electron P2510200 Specific charge of the electron e/m 193 7.4f arrangement .174 tion of the wavelength of laser light on optical base plate P2230205 Diffraction of light at a slit and at an 175 edge on optical base plate P2230200 Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge 175 with optical profile bench P2230300 Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole 176 diaphragms and circular obstacles with optical profile bench P2230405 Diffraction of light through a double slit 177 or by a grid with optical base plate P2230400 Diffraction intensity due to multiple slits 177 and grids with optical profile bench P2230500 Diffraction intensity at slit and double 178 slit systems with optical profile bench P2230605 Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a 179 wire .8 Zeeman effect P2511001 Zeeman effect with an electromagnet 198 and optical bench P2511005 Zeeman effect with an electromagnet 198 and CCD camera including the measurement software P2511006 Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic 199 system P2511007 Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic 199 system and a CCD camera including the measurement software 6.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR.

10 Electron diffraction P2511300 Electron diffraction 203 P2511111 Stern-Gerlach experiment with a stepper 216 motor and interface P2511200 Electron spin resonance P2522115 Rutherford experiment with MCA 216 216 7.6 Related Experiments P2260701 Helium neon laser.2 Balmer series/ determination of Rydberg's constant P2510700 Balmer series/ determination of Ry.205 ect measurement P2541701 Compton scattering of X-rays 205 9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9.4 Hall effect P2530111 Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 221 P2530101 Hall effect in p-germanium (with the 221 teslameter) P2530201 Hall effect in n-germanium (with the 221 teslameter) P2530211 Hall effect in n-germanium (with Co.2 Semiconductor thermogenerator P2410700 Semiconductor thermogenerator 219 8 Atomic Physics 8.6 Investigation of cubic crystal structures P2541401 X-ray investigation of cubic crystal struc.221 bra4) 9.Scherrer powder method 9.5 Examination of the structure of monocrystals P2541301 Examination of the structure of NaCl 222 monocrystals with dif-ferent orientations 8.1 Magnetostriction P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in.Overview TESS expert P5942300 Spatial encoding in Nuclear Magnetic 200 Resonance P5942400 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) I 09500-99 200 Compact magnetic resonance tomograph 201 (MRT). software and handbook on USB stick .11 Compton effect P2524415 Compton effect with the multi-channel 204 analyser P2546001 Compton effect .5 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum X-rays P2540701 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum 214 X-rays/ fine structure excellence in science 18 .218 terferometer 7.7 Laue method P2541601 X-ray investigation of crystal structures / 224 Laue method P2541501 X-ray investigation of hexagonal crystal 224 structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method 8.energy-dispersive dir. sample set.3 Beta spectroscopy P2523200 Beta spectroscopy 220 9.1 One and two electron spectra P2510600 Fine structure: one and two electron 208 spectra 9.211 ode materials / Moseley's law P2541201 K and L absorption edges of X-rays / 212 Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant P2530160 Hall effect in p-germanium (with Co. incl.221 bra3) P2530401 Band gap of germanium P2530411 Band gap of germanium (with Cobra3) 221 221 8. in a sturdy carrying case 202 P2540801 K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays / 214 fine structure 8. Hg 8.12 Duane-Hunt displacement law P2540901 Duane-Hunt displacement law Planck's "quantum of action" and 206 9.209 dberg's constant P2510800 Atomic spectra of two-electron system: 209 He. basic set P2260800 Optical pumping P2511001 Zeeman effect with an electromagnet 215 215 215 P2511200 Electron spin resonance 7.4 Characteristic X-rays P2540101 Characteristic X-rays of copper P2540201 Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum P2540301 Characteristic X-rays of iron P2542801 Characteristic X-rays of tungsten 213 213 213 213 9.3 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law P2524715 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law 210 with the multi channel analyser P2541001 Characteristic X-ray lines of different an.223 tures / Debye.

3 Quantum mechanics by STM / AFM P2535000 Quantum Mechanics by STM .com 19 .13 Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials P5160800 Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state 230 materials 11 Nuclear Physics .10 Lattice constants of a monocrystal P2546201 Determination of the lattice constants of 227 a monocrystal 10.11 Duane-Hunt displacement law P2546301 Duane-Hunt displacement law 228 10.1 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium P2520101 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium 244 P2520111 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium 244 with Cobra3 P2520160 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium 244 with Cobra4 9.12 Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material P5160100 Velocity of ultrasound in solid state ma.8 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns P2542101 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of 225 powder samples with three cubic Bravais lattices (Bragg-Brentano-geometry) P2542201 Debye-Scherrer diffractions pattern of 225 powder samples with a diamond structure (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2542301 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of 225 powder samples with a hexagonal lattice structure (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2542401 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of 225 powder samples with a tetragonal lattice structure (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2542501 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns with 225 a cubic powder sample (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2532000 Atomic Resolution of the graphite sur.15 Related Experiments P2120200 Modulus of elasticity P2120300 Mechanical hysteresis P2130111 Hooke's law with Cobra3 P2260900 Nd:YAG laser P2410800 Peltier heat pump P2410901 Characteristic curves of a solar cell 233 233 233 234 234 234 11.1 Atomic Resolution by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) 09600-99 Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope 238 (STM) P2532000 Atomic Resolution of the graphite sur.236 face by STM (scanning tunnelling microscope) 10 Nano Physics 10.2 Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay P2520311 Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of 245 radioactive decay (Influence of the dead time of the counter tube) P2520360 Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of 245 radioactive decay with Cobra4 (Influence of the dead time of the counter tube) P2410915 Characteristic curves of semiconductors 235 with the FG module P2420600 Dielectric constant of different materials 235 P2430711 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 235 P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in.236 terferometer with optical base plate PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.229 terial 9.2 Nanoscale electrical charakteristics by STM P2533500 Nanoscale electrical charakteristics of 240 different samples by STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) 9.239 face by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) P2532500 Investigate in surface atomic structures 239 and defects of diffrent samples by STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) P2533000 Nanoscale workfunction measurements 239 by STS (Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy 9.9 Energy-dispersive measurements P2546101 Energy-dispersive measurements of K.14 Shear waves in solid state materials P5160900 Shear waves in solid state materials P2260106 Faraday effect with optical base plate 231 232 9.phywe.241 ent metal samples using by STM 09700-99 Compact-Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) 242 9.Radioactivity 11. KG · www.Overview TESS expert 9.226 and L-absorption edges 9.Tunneling 241 Effect and Charge Density Waves P2537000 Roughness and nanomorhology of differ.

Compton Effect P2524101 Inverse-square law and absorption of 253 gamma or beta rays with the GeigerMüller counter P2524215 Energy dependence of the gamma ab.262 Kamiocan - excellence in science 20 .Overview TESS expert 11.4 Debye-Scherrer diffraction P2541401 X-ray of cubic crystal structures / Debye.Kamiocan P2520800 Cosmic Muon Lifetime measurement .247 nel Analyser (MCA) P2522101 Rutherford experiment with the digital 247 counter P2522215 Fine structure of the alpha spectrum of 248 Am-241 with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) / alpha spectroscopy P2522315 Study of the alpha energies of Ra-226 249 with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2522415 Energy loss of alpha particles in gases 250 with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) 13 X-ray Physics 13.7 X-ray dosimetry P2541801 X-ray dosimetry with XR 4.278 Scherrer powder method P2541501 X-ray of hexagonal crystal structures / 278 Debye-Scherrer powder method P2542601 Diffraction measurements to determine 279 the intensity of Debye-Scherrer reflexes using a cubic powder sample P2542101 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of 279 powder samples.1 Characteristic of X-rays P2540101 Characteristic X-rays of copper P2540201 Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum P2540301 Characteristic X-rays of iron P2542801 Characteristic X-rays of tungsten 267 267 267 267 P2540401 The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a 268 function of anode current and voltage P2540501 Monochromatisation of molybdenum P2540601 Monochromatisation of copper X-rays 269 269 P2540701 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum 270 X-rays/ fine structure P2540801 K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays / 270 fine structure P2540901 Duane-Hunt displacement law Planck's "quantum of action" and 270 11.2 Cosmic Muon Lifetime .Rutherford Experiment P2522015 Alpha energies of different sources with 246 Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2522115 Rutherford experiment with Multi Chan.4 Beta Particles .3 Alpha Particles .2 Radiography P2540020 Radiographic examination of objects 271 P2541901 Contrast medium experiment with a 272 blood vessel model P2542001 Determination of length and position of 273 an object which can not be seen 13.Energy .3 Absorption of X-rays .Dosimetry P2540030 Qualitative examination of absorption P2541101 Absorption of X-rays 274 275 11. cubic Bravais lattices P2542201 Debye-Scherrer diffractions pattern of 279 powder samples.Energy .6 Counter tube characteristics P2540010 Counter tube characteristics with XR 4.Electron Absorption P2523100 Electron absorption P2523200 Beta spectroscopy 251 252 11.254 sorption coefficient with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) / Gamma spectroscopy P2524515 Internal conversion in 137m Ba with 255 Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2524615 Photonuclear cross-section/ Compton 256 scattering cross-section with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2541001 Characteristic X-ray lines of different an. hexagonal lattice structure 12 Particle Physics 12.0 X-ray expert 258 unit 13.270 ode materials / Moseley's law 13.1 Visualisation of radioactive particles P2520400 Visualisation of radioactive particles 261 with the diffusion cloud chamber PJ45 12.5 Gamma Particles . diamond structure P2542301 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of 279 powder samples.0 257 X-ray expert unit P2541201 K and L absorption edges of X-rays / 276 Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant P2541801 X-ray dosimetry P2540040 Ionizing effect of X-radiation 277 277 11.

High Resolu.284 ray energy detector P2544501 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence spectro.energy-dispersive dir.2f arrangement with op. advanced set 300 300 14.2 Determination of the wavelength of laser light P2221206 Fabry-Perot interferometer .8 Fibre optics P2261000 Fibre optics 303 14. optical baseplate P2220705 Refraction index of CO2.calibration 282 of the X-ray energy detector P2544101 Energy resolution of the X-ray energy de.3 Holography P2260300 Recording and reconstruction of holo.9 Related Experiments P2220600 Coherence.phywe. width of spectral lines.306 tical base plate P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson in. tetragonal lattice structure P2542501 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of 279 powder samples.283 tector P2544201 Inherent fluorescence radiation of the X.Real time procedure 298 298 13. Mach-Zehnder 305 interferometer with optical base plate P2221205 Fabry-Perot interferometer .5 Laue diffraction P2541602 X-ray of crystal structures/Laue method 281 with digital X-ray image sensor (XRIS) P2541601 X-ray investigation of crystal structures / 281 Laue method with X-ray film 14.Moseley's law P2544601 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of 285 alloyed materials P2544701 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of 285 powder samples P2544801 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of 285 solutions P2544901 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of 285 ore samples P2545001 Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis 286 of alloyed materials P2545101 Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis 286 of solutions P2545201 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy / layer 287 thickness determination P2546001 Compton effect .master hologram P2260306 Holography .Photonics 14.280 ments for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets 14 Laser Physics .Overview TESS expert P2542401 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of 279 powder samples.com 21 .4 LDA . Michelson inter.1 Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer P2221000 Doppler effect with the Michelson inter.305 tion with optical base plate P2221100 Refraction index of air.288 ect measurement P2541701 Compton scattering of X-rays 288 P2546101 Energy-dispersive measurements of K.5 Helium neon laser P2260701 Helium neon laser.7 Computed Tomography P2550100 Computed tomography 290 P2541602 X-ray of crystal structures/Laue method 290 with digital X-ray image sensor (XRIS) P2250105 Polarisation through quarter-wave 306 plates with optical base plate P2261100 Fourier optics .8 Related Experiments P2540010 Counter tube characteristics P2541301 Examination of NaCl monocrystals 292 293 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.298 grams with optical base plate P2260305 Transfer hologram .6 Optical pumping P2260800 Optical pumping 301 14.285 scopy of metals .7 Nd:YAG laser P2260900 Nd:YAG laser 302 14.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy P2544001 X-ray energy spectroscopy . cubic lattice structure P2542701 Debye-Scherrer diffraction measure.wavelength 305 of laser light with optical base plate 13.289 and L-absorption edges P2546201 Determination of the lattice constants P2546301 Duane-Hunt displacement law 289 289 14. basic set P2260705 Helium neon laser.wavelength 297 of laser light with optical base plate 14.laser Doppler anemometry with 299 optical base plate 14.Laser Doppler Anemometry P2260511 LDA .296 ferometer with optical base plate 13.306 terferometer with optical base plate 13.304 ferometer with optical base plate P2220800 Quantum eraser with optical base plate 304 P2220900 Michelson interferometer . 304 Michelson interferometer. KG · www.

1 About PHYWE 1.5 Nobel Prize Experiments excellence in science 22 .

KG · www.com 23 .5 Nobel Prize Experiments PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.1 About PHYWE 1.phywe.

1 About PHYWE 1.6 Cooperations excellence in science 24 .

7 2.8 2.6 2.phywe.2 Mechanics Mechanics 2.2 2.1 2. KG · www.com 25 .9 Measurement Techniques Motion in one Dimension Motion in two and three Dimensions Linear Momentum and Collisions Rotational Motion Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Gravity / Gravitation Mechanics of Fluids and Gases Literature and Software 26 27 31 33 34 41 46 48 55 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 2.4 2.3 2.

With the overflow of the display is automatically switched into the next area. weight and time Vernier caliper Principle Caliper gauges. 2. Determination of the thickness of wires. 3. Determination of the volume of tubes with the caliper gauge. ▪ Before the measurement starts it can be manually adjusted to a maximum of 6 decades defined range. pulse rates.1 Measurement Techniques P2110100 Measurement of basic constants: length.2 Mechanics 2. set of 8 13601-99 03017-00 44011-50 44070-20 11207-20 03012-00 03010-00 06270-00 02214-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 26 . periodic times.1mg-200g Light barrier.500g Set of precision weights. pulse counting. set of 4 sheets Cubes. a decade counter is used for accurate time measurements. A mechanical balance is used for weight determinations. cubes and plates with the micrometer. frequency. speeds and velocities. Measuring procedures. diameters and curvatures. accuracy of measurement and reading accuracy are demonstrated. compact Micrometer Vernier caliper Aluminium foil.2 pans. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Length Diameter Inside diameter thickness Curvature Vernier Weight resolution Time measurement Universal Counter Function and Applications The universal counter is used for measuring time. thicknesses. micrometers and spherometers are used for the accurate measurement of lengths. Tasks 1. The required voltage can be changed manually to determine the characteristics of a counter tubes to. Benefits ▪ The device has all the qualities that are expected of a modern universal counter and is also equipped with a number of technical specifics of how it specifically arise from the requirements of science teaching practice. ▪ For the scientifically correct representation of each measurement is shown in principle with the associated unit. eg to suppress is not physically meaningful digits on the display. 13601-99 Main articles Universal Counter Spherometer Precision balance. Determination of the thickness of plates and the radius of curvature of watch glasses with the spherometer. ▪ A special jack for direct connection of a GM counter tube is available for radioactivity experiments.

4.com 27 . acceleration and force are determined with the aid of the air track rail for uniformly accelerated motion in a straight line.phywe. the velocity time law. Distance travelled as a function of time Velocity as a function of time Acceleration as a function of the accelerated mass Acceleration as a function of force. and the relationship between mass.air track 11202-17 13604-99 13770-97 11202-13 11201-02 11207-20 48917-93 11202-19 02006-55 11202-02 1 1 1 1 1 4 1 1 4 1 Cobra4 Experiments -available 2013 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track with Cobra4 P2130360 Uniformly accelerated motion on an inclined plane. Acceleration of gravity Main articles Air track rail. compact Portable Balance. Tasks Determination of: 1. adjustable Barrel base PHYWE Glider f.2 Motion in one Dimension Newton's 2nd law / air track P2130301 The distance travelled s plotted as a function of the time t. KG · www.AC adapter included Stop. OHAUS CS2000 .2 Mechanics 2. s ~ t t² with Cobra4 and demonstration track P1198860 Uniformly accelerated motion caused by an accelerating mass with Cobra4 and demonstration track P6000360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2 meters Timer 4-4 Blower 230V/50Hz Starter system for air track Precision pulley Light barrier. 2. Acceleration ▪ Force. Related Experiments Newton's 2nd law/ air track with Cobra3 P2130311 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track P2130305 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track with Cobra3 P2130315 What you can learn about ▪ Velocity. 3. Principle The distance-time law.

1. Width of track: 105 mm. ▪ Measuring scale on bothsides with mm division in both directions.2 Motion in one Dimension Air track rail.5 m long demonstration track 11305-00. 16001-02 Description Instructions for 17 experiments on linear motion. 2 meters Demo advanced Physics Manual Linear Motion (LMT) Function and Applications Air track rail Benefits ▪ Square Aluminium profile tube adjusted and mounted with 7 screws on a U-shape extrusion profilebeam. Track length: 2 m Square profile: 63 x 63 mm Diameter hose connection: 40 mm Article no. Depth: 100 mm. Mass: 4. Width: 240 mm. opening for pressure hose/tube. Function and Applications Aluminium track for demonstration experiments with scale. levelling with adjustable feeds.2 Mechanics 2. For the measurements and data recording you can use an interface or the 4-4 Timer 13604-99. Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Uniform and uniformly accelerated motion (5 experiments) Free fall (1 experiment) Newton's laws (3 experiments) Inertia and weight (2 experiments) Friction (1 experiment) Elastic and inelastic collisions (5 experiments) 11202-17 Demonstration Track. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Incl. Benefits Usable on small desks due to free positioning of feeds. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Length: 1. Aluminium.5 meters Almost all experiments can be performed either with the 2 m long air track 11202-17 or with the 1.1 kg 16001-02 11305-00 Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra3 .P2130511 excellence in science 28 . with quick lock system for accessories. 2 end holders and 4 knurled screws.53 m.

Velocity-time law for the free fall.2 Motion in one Dimension Free fall Cobra3 P2130711 Height of fall as a function of falling time.com 29 . h is represented as the function of t or t2. l = 1000 mm Right angle clamp PHYWE 12150-50 02502-00 02503-00 02002-55 12151-99 14511-61 02028-55 02040-55 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Distance time law for the free fall. KG · www.2 Mechanics 2. 2. so the distance-time law of the free fall results as h = 1/2 · g · t2. Then the measured values are taken to determine the acceleration due to gravity g. USB Release unit Impact switch Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 Timer/Counter Support rod PHYWE. 3. square. What you can learn about ▪ Linear motion due to constant acceleration ▪ Laws governing falling bodies ▪ Acceleration due to gravity Related Experiment Free fall P2130701 Cobra4 Experiments Free fall (interface version with Cobra4) . Tasks Determination of 1.phywe.available 2013 P2130760 Free fall with air friction with Cobra4 P6000460 Free Fall: determination of the acceleration of earth (with Cobra 4 Timer-counter) P6000760 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Precise measurement of the acceleration due to gravity for the free fall. Principle The fall times t are measured for different heights of fall h.

The momentum is defined here as the product of force and time and is conserved if no friction loss occurs. The momentum p is defined here as the product of force F and time t and is conserved if no friction loss occurs and the collision is elastic.2 Mechanics 2.phywe.com excellence in science 30 . A roller track is hereby used on which a cart is subjected to uniformly accelerated motion.com Newton's law with Cobra 4 and Timer/Counter sensor P6000860 Principle In this experiment.2 Motion in one Dimension Impulse and momentum with Cobra 4 Principle P1199560 An impulse is described as the change in momentum by a force applied upon a body for a small interval of time.phywe. however the total momentum of the system remains temporally and quantitatively constant and the energy is therefore a conserved quantity. however the total momentum of the system remains temporally and quantitatively constant. This means that in a closed system of different bodies the latter can transfer or receive momentum. acceleration and force. For more details refer to www.com Conservation of momentum during central elastic collision with Cobra 4 Principle P1199660 An impulse is a change in momentum caused by a force F in a short amount of time.phywe. For more details refer to www. This means that in a closed system of different bodies the latter can transfer or receive momentum. the distance-time law and the velocity-time law are examined in addition to Newton's second law which gives a connection between mass. For more details refer to www.

phywe. KG · www. demo. ▪ dimensions 60 cm×38 cm 11229-10 Main articles Ballistic Unit Two-tier platform support Speed measuring attachment Power supply 5 VDC/2.25 m Steel ball.2 Mechanics 2. 1%) ▪ set a continuously variable projection angle between 0° and 90°.com 31 .to select three projection speeds ▪ use two balls with different masses but with the same diameter Equipment and technical data ▪ with catapult and fixed storage for two balls d = 19 mm (wooden ball with iron core and steel ball 02502. l=1000mm Recording paper. Tasks 1. d = 19 mm 11229-10 02076-03 11229-30 13900-99 02006-55 03001-00 11221-01 02502-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. To determine the range as a function of the angle of inclination. To determine the maximum height of projection as a function of the angle of inclination.1 mm Barrel base PHYWE Meter scale. Benefits ▪ The catapult included in the extent of delivery can be used to: ▪ achieve reproducible projectile ranges up to 3 m (scatter of the projectile ranges approx. 3.4 A withDC-socket 2. the height of projection.1 m/s Curve 3 v0 = 3.01). The relationships between the range.3 m/s Curve 2 v0 = 4.1 m/s Principle A steel ball is fired by a spring at different velocities and at different angles to the horizontal. in particular for determining the range of a projectile as a function of the projectile angle and the initial velocity of the projectile.3 Motion in two and three Dimensions Projectile motion P2131100 Maximum range as a function of the angle of inclination for different initial velocity v0: Curve 1 v0 = 5. the angle of inclination. What you can learn about ▪ Trajectory parabola ▪ Motion involving uniform acceleration ▪ Ballistics Ballistic Unit Function and Applications For demonstrating projectile motion and for quantitative investigation of the laws of projection.and the firing velocity are determined. 1 roll. 2. To determine the (maximum) range as a function of the initial velocity.

90°) of the pendulum according to formula (3). Give reasons for contingent systematic deviations from the theoretical curve. 2. In the process. direct measurement of the initial velocity of the ball can be made. Plot the measured points in the diagram fromTask 3. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Potential and kinetic energy Rotational energy Moment of inertia Inelastic collision Principle of conservation of momentum Angular momentum Measurement of projectile velocities Main articles Ballistic Unit Speed measuring attachment Ballistic Pendulum.5. If one knows the masses of the pendulum and the projectile.1 mm Steel ball. the following setup is used here: A steel ball is shot at the mass of a pendulum with the aid of a spring catapult. Plotting of the velocity v of the steel ball as a function of the maximum deflection. This is an inelastic collision in which the momentum remains unchanged. If the supplementary devices for the direct measurement of the initial velocity are available. The pendulum mass has a hollow space in which the steel ball is held. Principle A classic method of determining the velocity of a projectile is to shoot the projectile into a resting mass which is large compared to the projectile's mass and hung as a pendulum.4 A withDC-socket 2. Correction of the velocity values from Tasks 2. one can calculate the projectile's velocity. The momentum of the two masses in this phase of the oscillation must thus be equal to the impulse of the projectile before it struck the pendulum. Determination of the correction factor for the utilised pendulum for the conversion of the velocities determined by using the approximation formula into the values obtained from the exact theory.3 Motion in two and three Dimensions P2131200 Ballistic pendulum Diagram on the theory of the ballistic pendulum. Measurement of the oscillation amplitudes of the ballistic pendulum after capturing the steel ball for the three possible tension energies of the throwing device. two light barriers and a time measuring device are available. 3. an independent. taking into consideration the special mechanical data of the experiment.2 Mechanics 2. If the pendulum's mechanical data are known.Ballist.f.Unit Power supply 5 VDC/2. the projectile remains in the pendulum mass and oscillates with it. additionally. If. one can infer the velocity of the pendulum's mass (including the projectile's mass) at the lowest point of the pendulum's oscillation from the amplitude of the pendulum's oscillation. d = 19 mm 11229-10 11229-30 11229-20 13900-99 02502-01 1 1 1 1 2 excellence in science 32 . Calculation of the initial velocities of the ball from the measured oscillation amplitudes and the mechanical data of the pendulum is performed using the approximation formula (3). measure the initial velocities corresponding to the three tension steps of the throwing device by performing 10 measurements each with subsequent mean value calculation. 4. (0. Tasks 1. In order to be able to use this measuring principle without danger.

KG · www. compact 13604-99 11309-00 11305-00 11306-00 11207-20 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Velocity. The impulse values are plotted as in Task 1.4 Linear Momentum and Collisions Laws of collision/ demonstration track with a 4-4 Timer P2130505 Elastic collision: calculated energies after the collision as functions of the mass ratio of the gliders. moving without friction on a demonstration track. Aluminium.1.2 Mechanics 2. What you can learn about ▪ Conservation of momentum.1 2. Their energies.5 m Cart. For comparison the mean value of the impulses of the first glider is entered as a horizontal line in the graph. Conservation of energy ▪ Linear motion. The energy values are plotted as in Task 1. for both elastic and inelastic collision. are measured before and after collision. Length: 1. Elastic collision 1. low friction sapphire bearings Light barrier. in a manner analogous to Task 1. Tasks 1.phywe. Inelastic collision 1. Elastic loss.com 33 . 2. The impulses of the two gliders as well as their sum after the collision.available 2013 P2130560 Main articles Timer 4-4 Starter system for demonstration track Demonstration Track. Principle The volocities of two gliders.2. Elastic collision Related Experiments Laws of collision/ demonstration track with Cobra3 P2130515 Laws of collision/ air track P2130501 Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra3 P2130511 Cobra4 Experiments Impulse and momentum / demonstration track with Cobra4 1 1 1 2 2 P1199560 Conservation of momentum during central elastic collision with cobra4 P1199660 Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra4 .

available 2013 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra4 12150-50 02419-00 02417-03 02417-04 02417-02 11207-20 02002-55 12151-99 02010-00 14512-61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 P2131360 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Cobra3 translat. Tasks 1. 3.5 Rotational Motion P2131315 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 with a precision pivot bearing Angle vs. Rotation angle. the changing angle of rotation increases proportionally to thesquare of the time and the angular velocity proportional to the time. compact Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 12V / 2A Bench clamp PHYWE Softw. 2. USB Precision pivot bearing Inertia rod Holding device w. cable release Turntable with angle scale Light barrier. Principle If a constant torque is applied to a body that rotates without friction arounda fixed axis./rotation excellence in science 34 . Measurement of the laws of angle andangular velocity according to time for auniform rotation movement. is proportional to the time t required for the rotation. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Angular velocity Rotation Moment Torque Moment of inertia Rotational energy Related Experiments Moment of inertia and angular acceleration and with an air bearing P2131301 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with a precision pivot bearing P2131305 Moment of inertia and angular acceleration with Cobra3 and with an air bearing P2131311 Cobra4 Experiment . Measurement of the laws of angle andangular velocity according to time for auniformly accelerated rotational movement. square of time for one turntable.2 Mechanics 2.

3.. 2. the angular acceleration as a function of the lever arm.. Circular motion Angular velocity Angular acceleration Moment of inertia Newton's laws Rotation Light barrier with counter Function and Applications With the function of an electronic time measuring and counting device. The angular acceleration is determined as a function of the moment.01 kg.4 A with 4 mm plugs 13770-97 02417-01 11207-30 02417-04 02417-02 11201-02 02002-55 11076-99 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 11207-30 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.9.015 m. working frequency: 25 kHz External dimensions (mm): 160 x 25 x 105M6 Threaded holes in casing: 7 Stem included: 100 mm. Benefits ▪ 4 figureluminous display.com 35 .5 Rotational Motion Moment and angular momentum P2131500 Angle of rotation as a function of time with uniformly accelerated rotary motion for m = 0. Tasks With uniformly accelerated rotary motion.2 Mechanics 2. cable release Turntable with angle scale Precision pulley Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 5 V DC/2. KG · www. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ the angle of rotation as a function of time. M6 thread What you can learn about Main articles Blower 230V/50Hz Air bearing Light barrier with counter Holding device w... the angular velocity as a function of time. r = 0. 4. the angular acceleration as a function of time. 8 mm Time measurement: 0. Principle The angle of rotation and angular velocity are measured as a function of time on a body which is pivoted so as to rotate without friction and which is acted on by a moment.phywe.9999 Supply voltage: 5 V DC Max. selection switch for 4 operating modes ▪ RESET key ▪ BNC jack for exterior starting and/ or stopping of time measurement ▪ TTL output to control peripheral devices ▪ power supply connector (4 mm jacks) Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fork width: 70 mm Usable barrier depth: 65 mm Sensitivity adjustable LED-Display: 4digits.999 s Counting: 0. the following will be determined: 1.

2. Tasks Determination of the centrifugal force as a function 1. of the mass. complete set (interface version) P2131611 Cobra4 Experiments Centripetal acceleration with Cobra4 P6000560 Centripetal force with Cobra4 P6000660 Main articles Laboratory motor. 3. 220 V AC Gearing 30/1.4 A with 4 mm plugs Cart for measurements and experiments 11030-93 11029-00 11207-30 11008-00 02845-00 11076-99 11060-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 36 . of the angular velocity. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Centripetal force Rotary motion Angular velocity Apparent force Related Experiment Centrifugal force. of the distance from the axis of rotation to the centre of gravity of the car.2 Mechanics 2.93 Light barrier with counter Centrifugal force apparatus Bearing unit Power supply 5 V DC/2. for 11030. The centrifugal force of the body will be measured as a function of these parameters.5 Rotational Motion P2131601 Centrifugal force Centrifugal force as a function of the angular velocity v. Principle A body with variable mass moves on a circular path with adjustable radius and variable angular velocity.

G1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. demo.com 37 . cable release Power supply 5 V DC/2. Equipment and technical data 11207-30 02425-00 02417-04 11076-99 03001-00 39105-18 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ Metal wheel with support rod and adjustable suspension. KG · www. are determined as a function of time. the energy of translation. ▪ Moment of inertia: 10 kg cm². to measure translation velocity. Tasks The moment of inertia of the Maxwell disc is determined. Diameter of shutter: 20 mm. Principle A disc. energy of translation and energy of rotation are converted into one another and are determined as a function of time.5 Rotational Motion Mechanical conservation of energy / Maxwell's wheel P2131800 Distance travelled by the centre of gravity of the Maxwell disk as a function of time.4 A with 4 mm plugs Meter scale. 02425-00 Main articles Light barrier with counter Maxwell wheel Holding device w. l=1000mm Capacitor 100 nF/250V. the energy of rotation. 1.2 Mechanics 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell disc Energy of translation. Cord length: 800 mm. Potential energy. 3. Angular acceleration Instantaneous velocity Gyroscope Maxwell wheel Function and Applications Apparatus for conversion of potential to kinetic energy and viceversa (translation and rotation). which can unroll with its axis on two cords. Two aperatures at ends of axles keep wheel from running off its trajectory and are used. Using the Maxwell disc. ▪ Wheel diameter: 130 mm. together with a light barrier.phywe. Energy of rotation Potential energy Moment of inertia Angular velocity. Mass of wheel: 470g. 2. moves in the gravitational field. the potential energy.

4 A with 4 mm plugs 02555-00 11207-30 02556-00 11076-99 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 38 . Nutation Gyroscope with 3 axes Function and Applications Demonstration and practical set for working up the gyroscope laws. Investigation of the relationship between precession and gyro-frequency and its dependence from torque. Determination of the momentum of inertia by measurement of the gyro-frequency and precession frequency.5 Rotational Motion P2131900 Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope Determination of the momentum of inertia from the slope of straight line tR -1 = f(tP). Benefits The following relationships can be produced: ▪ Precession (influence of torque and rotational frequency) ▪ Nutation (influence of the speed of the disc on the nutational frequency) ▪ Measurement of the moment of inertia of the gyroscope disc from the angular acceleration for a known torque ▪ Investigation of the relationship between the duration of a precession rotation and the rotational frequency of the gyroscope disc. Disc thickness: 25 mm ▪ Disc weight: approx. 1317 g. The relationship between the precession frequency and the gyro-frequency of the gyroscope with 3 free axes is examined for torques of different values applied to the axis of rotation. Sliding counterweight for calibrating the gyro disc Equipment and technical data ▪ Disc diameter: 245 mm. In this experiment. which is wound up by hand with the aid of a thread ▪ Mounted on a metal stand. If the axis of rotation of the force free gyroscope is slightly displaced. c-weight Power supply 5 V DC/2. Determination of the momentum of inertia of the gyroscope by measurement of the angular acceleration. a nutation is induced. What you can learn about ▪ Momentum of inertia. 2. balanced and freely movable via 3 axes. Principle The momentum of inertia of the gyroscope is investigated by measuring the angular acceleration caused by torques of different known values. Investigation of the relationship between nutation frequency and gyro-frequency. two of the axes of the gyroscope are fixed. Counterweight: approx. Tasks 1.2 Mechanics 2. 925 g 02555-00 Main articles Gyroscope with 3 axes Light barrier with counter Additional gyro-disk w. Angular momentum ▪ Torque ▪ Precession. Investigation of the relationship between the precession frequency and the turning moment exerted on the gyroscope axis for constant rotational frequency of the disc ▪ Determination of the relationship between the rotational and nutational frequency of the gyroscope disc ▪ Gyroscope disc with double ball bearings. 3. 4. The nutation frequency will be investigated as a function of gyro frequency.

driven and captive gyro. Storage box (mm): 355 x 380 x 385 ▪ Including manual of 124 pages.5 Rotational Motion Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope P2132000 Precession frequency as a function of the gyro frequency for different additional masses. incl. Additional weights are applied to a gyroscope mounted on gimbals. 1/100 s PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Handb.2 Mechanics 2. The relationship between precession frequency or nutation frequency and gyro-frequency is examined for different moments of inertia. universal gyro for demonstration and quantitative evaluation of gyro laws and their application. Function and Applications Gyro. To determine the nutational frequency as a function of the angular velocity and the moment of inertia.phywe. navigational gyro compass Equipment and technical data ▪ steel gyro disc with reinforced edge suspended in gimbols with bolt bearings. Handb. springs and clamps for restriction ▪ variation of moments of inertia by supplementary steelweights ▪ Disk diameter: 128 mm. a nutation is produced. Benefits Rich accessories to demonstrate the following topics: 02550-00 21809-93 03071-01 1 1 1 ▪ symmetrical and asymmetrical elonged and flattened gyro ▪ force free. 02550-00 Main articles Gyro.Magnus type. Magnus type. Tasks 1. To determine the precession frequency as a function of the torque and the angular velocity of the gyroscope. Magnus type. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Moment of inertia Torque Angular momentum Nutation Precession Gyro. incl. so causing a precession. KG · www.com 39 . Digital stroboscope Stopwatch. digital. 2. Principle If the axis of rotation of the force-free gyroscope is displaced slightly.

Determination of the angular restoring constant of the spiral spring. Tasks 1. Principle The period of vibration of a circular disc which performs torsional vibrations about various parallel axes. Benefits ▪ 4 figureluminous display. Stem included: 100 mm. 2. diametrical holes Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 5 V DC/2. BNC jack for exterior starting and/ or stopping of time measurement ▪ TTL output to control peripheral devices. Determination of the moment of inertia of a circular disc as a function of the perpendicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre of gravity What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Rigid body Moment of inertia Centre of gravity Axis of rotation Torsional vibration Spring constant Angular restoring force Cobra4 Experiment . w.5 Rotational Motion P2132801 Moment of inertia / Steiner's theorem Moment (torque) of a spiral spring as a function of the angle of rotation.9. Time measurement: 0. Threaded holes in casing: 7. 8 mm.. Max. plastic.. M6 thread 11207-30 excellence in science 40 .4 A with 4 mm plugs Barrel base PHYWE Spring balance. 200 mm 11207-30 02415-01 02415-07 02002-55 11076-99 02006-55 03065-03 09937-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Equipment and technical data ▪ Fork width: 70 mm.. selection switch for 4 operating modes ▪ RESET key. is measured.9999 ▪ Supply voltage: 5 V DC. The moment of inertia of the disc is determined as a function of the perpendicular distance of the axis of rotation from the centre of gravity. Counting: 0. LED-Display: 4digits.power supply connector (4 mm jacks) Main articles Light barrier with counter Rotation axle Disk. working frequency: 25 kHz ▪ External dimensions (mm): 160 x 25 x 105M6.999 s. transparent. 2 N Ruler.available 2013 Moments of inertia of different bodies / Steiner's theorem with Cobra4 P2132860 Light barrier with counter Function and Applications With the function of an electronic time measuring and counting device.2 Mechanics 2.. Usable barrier depth: 65 mm ▪ Sensitivity adjustable.

▪ Grid constant (mm): 30 x 30. spring balance) act on the moments disc on either side of the pivot.6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Moments P2120100 Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force. ▪ Number of holes: 64. ▪ One side with auxiliary circles with angular scales. In equilibrium. the moments are determined as a function of the magnitude and direction of the forces and of the reference point. 02270-00 Main articles Moments disk Tripod base PHYWE Spring Balance 1 N Barrel base PHYWE Bolt with pin Fish line. 100m Support rod PHYWE. Moment as a function of the angle between the force and the position vector to the point of action of the force 3. Tasks 1.l 400mm Right angle clamp PHYWE Bosshead. Moment as a function of the force.square. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Moments Couple Equilibrium Statics Lever Coplanar forces Related Experiment Torque P1253500 Moments disk Function and Applications Disk to investigate general equilibrium conditions of a body submitted to forces and supported at its centre of gravity so that it can rotate. Equipment and technical data ▪ Metallic disk.2 Mechanics 2. ▪ Disk diameter: 270 mm.phywe. turnable 02270-00 02002-55 03060-01 02006-55 02052-00 02090-00 02026-55 02040-55 02048-04 1 2 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l.com 41 . Moment as a function of the distance between the origin of the coordinates and the point of action of the force 2. KG · www. white on both sides with a central hole for low friction support on rod with pin. Principle Coplanar forces (weight.

6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity P2120200 Modulus of elasticity Table 1: The modulus of elasticity for different materials.2 Mechanics 2. set Dial gauge 10/0. Determination of the characteristic curve of the dial gauge.01 mm Tripod base PHYWE Holder for dial gauge Knife-edge with stirrup Spring Balance 1 N Vernier caliper Bolt with knife-edge Support rod PHYWE. Tasks 1. l 630mm 17570-00 03013-00 02002-55 03013-01 03015-00 03060-01 03010-00 02049-00 02027-55 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 1 excellence in science 42 . It is bent by the action of a force acting at its centre. 3. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Young's modulus Modulus of elasticity Stress Deformation Poisson's ratio Hooke's law Main articles Flat bars. square. 2. of the width and of the distance between the support points. at constant force: of the thickness. The modulus of elasticity is determined from the bending and the geometric data of the bar. Determination the bending of flatbars as a function of the force. Determination the modulus of elasticity of steel. aluminium and brass. Principle A flat bar is supported at two points.

complete Function and Applications To investigate deformations due to torques. steel. l = 500 mm. 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mechanical hysteresis Elasticity Plasticity Relaxation Torsion modulus Plastic flow Torque Hooke's law Torsion apparatus. KG · www.com 43 .5 N Torsion rod.2 Mechanics 2. Record the hysteresis curve of steel and copper rods. Al. l = 500 mm. l = 500 mm.6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Mechanical hysteresis P2120300 Mechanical hysteresis curve for the torsion of a copper rod of 2 mm dia meter and 0. Tasks 1. The hysteresis curve is recorded. l = 500 mm.phywe. 02421-00 03060-01 03060-02 02421-06 02421-05 02421-08 02421-01 02421-02 02421-03 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 02421-88 Main articles Torsion apparatus Spring Balance 1 N Spring balance 2. l = 500 mm. Al. d = 4 mm Torsion rod. Al. l = 400 mm. d = 2 mm Torsion rod. Principle The relationship between torque and angle of rotation is determined when metal bars are twisted. d = 2 mm Torsion rod. Cu. For demonstration of the combined effects of force and lever. d = 2 mm Torsion rod. Record the stress-relaxation curve with various relaxation times of different materials.5 m long. Al. d = 2 mm PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. d = 3 mm Torsion rod.

3. Tasks 1. Verification of Hooke's law. In comparison. for which there is no proportionality between acting force and resulting extension.2 Mechanics 2.6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity P2130111 Hooke's law with Cobra3 Characteristic elongation curve for a helical spring with D = 20 N/m. What you can learn about ▪ Spring constant ▪ Limit of elasticity ▪ Extension and compression Cobra4 Experiment . Measurement of the tensile force as a function of the path for three different helical springs and a rubber band. USB Newton sensor Movement sensor with cable Measuring module Newton Power supply 12V / 2A Barrel base PHYWE Bench clamp PHYWE Plate holder Stand tube Software Cobra3-Force/ Tesla 12150-50 12110-01 12004-10 12110-00 12151-99 02006-55 02010-00 02062-00 02060-00 14515-61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 44 . 2. 4. Calibration of the system (movement sensor and force sensor). Principle The validity of Hooke's Law is proven using various helical springs with different spring constants. the behaviour of a stretched rubber band is examined.available 2013 Hooke's law with Cobra4 P2130160 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Determination of the spring constant and evaluation of a hysteresis curve.

6 Static Equilibrium and Elasticity Moments of inertia and torsional vibrations P2133100 Moment of inertia of two equal masses. The centre of gravity lies in the axis of rotation. KG · www. The angular restoring moment of the spiral spring.5 N 11207-30 02415-01 02415-02 02415-06 02415-04 02415-03 02415-05 02002-55 11076-99 03060-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. two cylinder. The moment of inertia a) of a disc. as a function of the perpendicular distance to the axis of rotation. 2. a cylinder.4 A with 4 mm plugs Spring balance 2.2 Mechanics 2. Spring constant ▪ Moment of inertia of a sphere.phywe. a sphere and a bar. b) of two point masses. a disc. Principle Various bodies perform torsional vibrations about axes through their centres of gravity.com 45 . Tasks The following will be determined: 1. Angular restoring moment ▪ Axis of rotation. of 0. What you can learn about ▪ Rigid body. Moment of inertia. The vibration period is measured and the moment of inertia determined from this.214 kg each. Torsional vibration. as a function of the distance between them. a long bar and 2 point masses Related Experiment Moment of inertia / Steiner's theorem P2132801 Main articles Light barrier with counter Rotation axle Sphere Rod with movable masses Hollow cylinder Disk Solid cylinder Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 5 V DC/2.

the large spheres are swung so that they are close to the small spheres. d = 36 mm 02540-00 02123-00 1 1 excellence in science 46 . 2. only a recording system (e. which is freely suspended on a thin metal wire. At the beginning the large lead spheres are positioned symmetrically opposite to the small spheres in that way that the attractive forces are eliminated. where the attractive forces are equivalent to the force of the torsion of the wire.7 Gravity / Gravitation P2130901 Determination of the gravitational constant / computerised Cavendish balance Output voltage of the free and damped oscillating Cavendish balance. 3. Determination of the gravitational constant. There after. Calibration of an angular detector. Principle Two small lead spheres are positioned on a beam. The gravitational constant can be determined from the new equilibrium position. As a consequence of the gravitational attracting force the beam with the small spheres now moves in a new equilibrium position. damped. Determination of the oscillation time of a free and damped oscillating torsion pendulum.2 Mechanics 2. forced and torsional oscillations Moment of inertia of spheres and rods Steiner's theorem Shear modulus Cobra4 Experiments Free fall with air friction with Cobra4 P6000460 Free Fall: determination of the acceleration of earth (with Cobra 4 Timer-counter) P6000760 Cavendish balance / computerized Function and Applications For the demonstration of the mass attraction of two bodies and for the determination of the gravitational constant.g. Benefits ▪ Complete and compact system with control unit. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Law of gravitation Free. aninterface-system ) or a multimeter is to be used to get 2% ▪ Accurate results in a single lab period ▪ Short oscillation periods of 2-4 minutes using a 25 µm diameter adjustable length tungsten wire ▪ No more optical lever jitters due to SDC-(Symmetric Differential CapacitiveControl) sensor technology 02540-00 Main articles Cavendish balance/computerized Circular level. Tasks 1.

Variable g pendulum Principle P2132301 Investigate the oscillation behaviour of a pendulum (rod pendulum) by varying the magnitude of the components of the acceleration of gravity which are decisive for the oscillation period. h is represented as the function of t or t2. For more details refer to page 59. Measurement of the period for different axes of rotation. by which the oscillation plane deviates from its normal vertical position. Then the measured values are taken to determine the acceleration due to gravity g. so the distance-time law of the free fall results as h = 1/2 · g · t2.7 Gravity / Gravitation Free fall with Cobra3 Principle P2130711 The fall times t are measured for different heights of fall h. 3. Velocity-time law for the free fall. For more details refer to page 29. knowing neither the mass nor the moment of inertia of the latter. Tasks 1. terrestrial gravitational acceleration g may be determined from the period of oscillation of a physical pendulum. KG · www.com 47 .2 Mechanics 2. 2. Distance time law for the free fall. Determination of terrestrial gravitational acceleration g. The pendulum that is to be used is constructed in such a manner that its oscillation plane can be progressively rotated from a vertical orientation to a horizontal one. Reversible pendulum Principle P2132200 By means of a reversible pendulum. can be read from a scale. For more details refer to page 58. Precise measurement of the acceleration due to gravity for the free fall. Tasks Determination of 1. 2.phywe. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The angle F.

counter weight pieces ▪ tweezers. with height variable support rod ▪ balance bar equipped with 9 positions for counter weight pieces ▪ delivered in wooden storage box. Tasks The density of water and glycerol is measured in 1 to 2° steps over a temperature range from 0 to 20°C. distilled 5 l Sodium chloride. thermometer ▪ glass cylinder. beaker ▪ Weight range: 0.. Principle The density of water and glycerol is determined as a function of temperature using the Mohr balance.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases P2140100 Density of liquids Density of water as a function of temperature. 100 ml. Makrolon External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A Glycerol 250 ml Water. grid basket with hook for density determination of solid state bodies.2 g/ccm. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Hydrogen bond Water anomaly Volume expansion Melting Evaporation Mohr balance Westphal / Mohr density balance Function and Applications Precision balance with balance bar with unequal arm length for determination of densities of liquids and solid state bodies 45016-00 08493-93 08487-02 08493-02 30084-25 31246-81 30155-50 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Equipment and technical data ▪ the bearing of the balance bar consists of a low friction steel cutting edge. Sensitivity: 0. 230 V Bath for thermostat. 500 g excellence in science 48 . Reimann`s bouyancy body with wire.0001 g/ccm 45016-00 Main articles Westphal/ Mohr density balance Immersion thermostat Alpha A..2 Mechanics 2. then in larger steps up to 50°C.

. the location of the lowest point as a function of the angular velocity.. 6 V / 12 V AC Rated current: DC 0. 230 V Function and Applications High quality power supply specially suitable for student experiments in electricity and electronics as well as for demonstration.. the following are determined: 1.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases Surface of rotating liquids P2140200 Location of the lowest point c of the liquid as a function of the angular velocity. The liquid surface forms a paraboloid of rotation.2 A / AC 5 A Ripple: max 1 mV Resistance: 1 mOhm Mains voltage: 230 V Housing dimensions: 194 x 140 x 130 mm Main articles Light barrier with counter Power supply 0. 2. 3. with gearing.alkal.com 49 . Tasks On the rotating liquid surface.. the parameters of which will be determined as a function of the angular velocity.. 12 V AC...phywe.12 V DC/ 6 V. KG · www. Principle A vessel containing liquid is rotated about an axis. the shape...2 Mechanics 2. 12 VDC Bearing unit Power supply 5 V DC/2. the curvature.12 V DC.4 A with 4 mm plugs Bench clamp PHYWE Barrel base PHYWE Methylene blue sol. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Angular velocity Centrifugal force Rotary motion Paraboloid of rotation Equilibrium Power supply 0. 250 ml Driving belt 13505-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Equipment and technical data 11207-30 13505-93 02536-01 11610-00 02845-00 11076-99 02010-00 02006-55 31568-25 03981-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Stabilised Shortcircuit proof Output voltage: 1. 230 V Rotating liquid cell Motor.12 VAC.12 VDC/ 6 V.

Portuguese. 2.000 m Pas in 84 ranges (21 speeds and 4 spindles).2. Benefits ▪ The results are 100% compatible to the Brookfield method ▪ All results (viscosity.240 V Magnetic stirrer MR Hei-Standard Electronic temperature controller EKT Hei-Con Glycerol 250 ml Castor oil 250 ml 18223-99 35750-93 35750-01 30084-25 31799-27 1 1 1 2 2 18223-99 excellence in science 50 . French. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Shear stress Velocity gradient Internal friction Viscosity Plasticity Rotary viscometer. 3.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases P2140300 Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian liquids (rotary viscometer) Moment of rotation as a function of the frequency for a Newtonian liquid (+ Glycerine. liquid paraffin)..5/0. 110.000. Investigate the temperature dependence of the viscosity of Castor oil and glycerine. 15 .5/ 3/ 4/ 5/ 6/ 10/ 12/20/ 30/ 50/ 60/100/ 200 Main articles Rotary viscometer.3/ 0. Tasks 1. Warning. Spanish. Catalan ▪ Visual and acoustic signals at critical measuring conditions. German. Torque (rpm): 0.2. Polish.000. torque in %.speed. Japanese.5/ 2/2.000. 15 . spindle) are displayed on the built-in display. Determine the gradient of the rotational velocity as a function of the torsional shearing stress for two Newtonian liquids (glycerine..1/ 0. if the device is used outside of the permissible measuring ranges.2/ 0.2 Mechanics 2. Dutch. o Liquid paraffin).2.6/ 1/ 1.. Determine the flow curve for a non Newtonian liquid (chocolate). in which a motor with variable rotation speed drives a cylinder immersed in the liquid to be investigated with a spiral spring. multilanguage display: English.. The viscosity of the liquid generates a moment of rotation at the cylinder which can be measured with the aid of the torsion of the spiral spring and read on a scale.240 V Function and Applications Classic rotational viscometer for the viscosity determination according to ISO2555 ("Brookfield method") and many ASTM standards. Italian. optoelectronic torque measuring system with high accuracy and without wear Equipment and technical data ▪ Viscosity range: 15 . 110. Principle The viscosity of liquids can be determined with a rotation viscometer.000 mPas. Digital speed control with "built-in"accuracy through stepping motor ▪ Touchless.000 mPas.

can be experimentally determined. Principle Due to internal friction among their particles.com 51 .+51C..8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases Viscosity measurement with the falling ball viscometer P2140400 Temperature dependence of the dynamic viscosity of water (o) and methanol (+). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Liquid Newtonian liquid Stokes law Fluidity Dynamic and kinematic viscosity Viscosity measurements Falling ball viscometer Function and Applications Falling ball viscometer.f. liquids and gases have different viscosities. by measuring the rate of fall of a ball in a tube filled with the liquid to be investigated.. 2. of water as a function of the temperature and 3. a function of the substance's structure and its temperature. respectively.2 Mechanics 2. of methanol-water mixtures of various composition at a constant temperature.. calculate the energy barriers for the displace ability of water and methanol. 230 V Thermometer. Tasks Measure the viscosity 1.18220.phywe.24. Makrolon External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A 18220-00 08493-93 18220-02 08487-02 08493-02 1 1 1 1 1 18220-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.300 s Fall distance: 100 mm 6 balls Main articles Falling ball viscometer Immersion thermostat Alpha A. for example.00 Bath for thermostat. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Thermometer Diameter of the fall tube: 15. The viscosity. From the temperature dependence of the viscosity.95 mm Initiable fall times: 25. of methanol as a function of temperature.

Range side scale: ±3 mN Raw subdivision: 1 mN. Tasks 1. 0. 2. The surface tension is calculated from the diameter of the ring and the tear-off force. h = 500 mm Ethyl alcohol. distilled 5 l Right angle clamp PHYWE Pipette dish 02416-00 excellence in science 52 . Determine the surface tension of olive oil as a function of temperature. Principle The force is measured on a ring shortly before a liquid film tears using a torsion meter. 210 mm × 130 mm.2 N Scale diameter: 170 mm. 0. absolute 500 ml Surface tension measuring ring Water jet pump. front and side scales ▪ overloadprotection and a stem Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Range front scale: 10 mN. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Surface energy Interface Surface tension Adhesion Critical point Eötvös equation Torsion dynamometer. Length of lever arm: 240 mm Main articles Torsion dynamometer. Fine subdivision: 0.2 Mechanics 2.01 N Magnetic stirrer MR Hei-Standard Electronic temperature controller EKT Hei-Con Retort stand. zero point adjustment ▪ eddy current damping element.01 N Function and Applications Torsion dynamometer to measure small forces or investigate electrostatic and magnetic interactions between bodies Benefits 02416-00 35750-93 35750-01 37692-00 30008-50 17547-00 02728-00 31246-81 02040-55 36589-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ force compensation.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases P2140500 Surface tension with the ring method (Du Nouy method) Temperature dependency of surtace tension of olive oil. Determine the surface tension of water/methanol mixtures as functions of the mixture ratio.1 mN Maximum lever load: 0. plastic Water.

The particle density of the balls is measured as a function of the height and the vibrational frequency of the plate. Supplies unit for continuously adjustable DC and AC voltages & 2 frequently required fixed voltages 09060-00 21809-93 13530-93 11207-30 02002-55 11076-99 03071-01 02026-55 02040-55 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ AC output: 0. power: 150 VA Fuses: one 6 A and two 10 A Supply voltage: 230 V AC dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 Main articles Kinetic gas theory apparatus Digital stroboscope Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Light barrier with counter Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 5 V DC/2. the height. which pass through the volume element V in 30 seconds (vibrational frequency 50 Hz). digital.l 400mm Right angle clamp PHYWE 13530-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. the vibrational frequency of the exciting plate.phywe. 1/100 s Support rod PHYWE. KG · www. at fixed height What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Kinetic gas theory Pressure Equation of state Temperature Gas constant Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Function and Applications Standard heavy duty power supply unit for low voltage.4 A with 4 mm plugs Stopwatch..12 V/5 A Max.square. Tasks Measurement of the particle density as a function of: 1. at fixed frequency 2.034 g).15 V/5 A DC output: 0. as a function of the height h. Principle Glass or steel balls are accelerated by means of a vibrating plate. current (short term): 10 A Max.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases Barometric height formula P2140700 Number of steel balls (m = 0. and thereby attain different velocities (temperature model). current (short term): 10 A Add.com 53 ..2 Mechanics 2.. fixed voltages: 6 V AC/6 A12 V AC/6 A Max..

Benefits ▪ This kit forms a very didactic experimentation system beginning from the basics of sonography and can with accessory kits be extended for the use in specific applications as hydraulics and medical diagnostics (only for training purposes!) ▪ an experimentation manual is included Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 1 x ultrasonic pulse Doppler apparatus. Particular aspects to be studied experimentally include the relationship between the speed of flow and the surface of the tubing (continuity condition) plus that between the resistance to the flow and the diameter of the tube (HagenPoiseuille law). The software displays the measured data from the ultrasonic doppler apparatus. The liquid under investigation flows through a circuit of tubing. Tasks Measure the average speed of 3 different flows using the ultrasonic Doppler sonograph with Doppler prisms. Measure the drop in pressure between the measuring points and determine the resistance to the flow. Laminar and turbulent flow ▪ Continuity equation. Hagen-Poiseuille law.8 Mechanics of Fluids and Gases P5140100 Mechanics of flow Set-up diagram. Bernoulli's equation. 1 x Doppler prisma 3/8 1 x Set of flexible tubes Main articles Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique Extension Set: Mechanics of flow 13923-99 13923-01 1 1 Related Experiment Flow Measurement Ultrasonic Doppler effect P5142100 13923-99 excellence in science 54 . 1 x liquid for sonography (1l) 1 x ultrasonic probe 2 MHz. Determine the nature of the flow. By means of these two laws. Principle The Doppler effect is used with ultrasonic waves to investigate the laws of stationary laminar flow. in realtime on the computer screen.2 Mechanics 2. which underlie a great many technical applications. basic instrument of this kit. Modular and extendable with accessory kits for experimentations in the fields of hydraulics and medical diagnostics. the dynamic viscosity or fluidity can be derived using familiar geometry. Viscosity and fluidity Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique Function and Applications Kit containing instrument and accessories for general ultrasonic sonography experiences. 1 x centrifugal pump 1 x ultrasonic gel. Calculate viscosity and fluidity and compare with those for other liquids What you can learn about ▪ Ultrasonic Doppler effect.

9 Literature and Software Software "Measure Dynamics". coupled pendulum ▪ Dialogue-supported creation of trajectories as well as movement. including several filmed objects simultaneously. All you need is a digital video camera. velocity and acceleration diagrams ▪ Stroboscopic effect for motion sequences (visualization of the entire path of movement) ▪ Easy data transfer of all measured values to MS Excel®. campus licence Function and Application Software "measure Dynamics". compression. The new measurement software "measure Dynamics" provides an inexpensive way to analyze movements and display them in the shape of diagrams. basket-shooting in basketball. for example. ▪ Software-guided modeling for didactical transfers (includinghomework) Possible Applications ▪ Demonstration experiments in the lecture hall. etc. automatic video analysis of movements. display of motion sequences in shot-putting. camcorders or common digital cameras with film mode function are completely sufficient. 14440-62 Speed and acceleration of a car in a roller coaster. The campus licence permits the installation of the software on every PC at the campus and on all personal PCs of the students and teachers belonging to the campus! Benefits ▪ Automatic object recognition and tracing. all types of one-dimensional and two-dimensional movements ▪ "Field studies".com 55 . and other applications ▪ Video processing inclusive of cutting. PHYWE measure. high-jump.g.2 Mechanics 2. EduMedia Award for Didactical Software Possibilities in measure Dynamics for supporting the phenomenological recording of movements. KG · www. e. trampoline jumping. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. for example. and much more.phywe. whereby modern webcams.

P1252500 excellence in science 56 . Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 1 Physics.P1296400 Resolution of forces on an inclined plane .2 Mechanics 2. Topics ▪ Motion ▪ Forms of mechanical energy ▪ Mechanics of gases and liquids 01153-02 01152-02 Energy conversion of a roller coaster . Topics ▪ Forces ▪ Simple machines and pendulums The use of the demonstration board for physics offers the following advantages for the lecturer: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Minimal preparation time Lucid and simple set-up Labelling of the experiment directly on the board Magnet-held arrows. linear and angular scales Stable storage box Both sides of board can be used for mechanics and optics Galvanised sheet steel board in aluminium profile frame Mechanics side: lacquered Optic side: white foil with lined grid Description Instructions for 18 experiments using the magnetic demonstration board.9 Literature and Software Physics. Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 2 Description Instructions for 31 experiments on mechanics using the magnetic demonstration board.

2 3.phywe. KG · www.3 Oscillatory Motion Wave Motion Sound Waves 58 65 67 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Acoustics 3.1 3.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves.com 57 . Acoustics Oscillations and Mechanical Waves.

For small deflections. demo. d 32mm Right angle clamp PHYWE Steel ball with eyelet. Acoustics 3. 100m Steel ball with eyelet.4mm 11207-30 02002-55 11076-99 02029-55 02050-00 03001-00 02090-00 02466-01 02040-55 02465-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 excellence in science 58 . The acceleration due to gravity is determined. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Duration of oscillation Period Amplitude Harmonic oscillation Reversible pendulum P2132200 Principle By means of a reversible pendulum. the oscillation period is determined as a function of the cord length. Tasks 1. considered as of point form. The oscillation period is determined as a function of the deflection. 3. d 25. Principle A mass. suspended on a thread and subjected to the force of gravity. 2. l. The period of the oscillation thus produced is measured as a function of the thread length and the angle of deflection. l=1000mm Fish line.1 Oscillatory Motion P2132100 Mathematical pendulum Period of the pendulum as a function of the angle of deflection.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. is deflected from its position of rest. What you can learn about ▪ Physical pendulum ▪ Moment of inertia ▪ Steiner's law ▪ Reduced length of pendulum ▪ Reversible pendulum ▪ Terrestrial gravitational acceleration Main articles Light barrier with counter Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 5 V DC/2. terrestrial gravitational acceleration g may be determined from the period of oscillation of a physical pendulum. knowing neither the mass nor the moment of inertia of the latter.square.l 1250mm Clamping pads on stem Meter scale.4 A with 4 mm plugs Support rod PHYWE.

On the moon's surface the "lunar acceleration of gravity" gm is only 16.available 2013 Variable g pendulum with Cobra4 P2132360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. can be read from a scale. lower curve: L = 141 mm. Physical pendulum ▪ Decomposition of force. The pendulum that is to be used is constructed in such a manner that its oscillation plane can be progressively rotated from a vertical orientation to a horizontal one. Comparison of this value with the distance between the pivot point of the pendulum and the centre of gravity of the mobile pendulum weight. What you can learn about ▪ Oscillation period. Moment of inertia Main articles Timer 4-4 Variable g pendulum Light barrier. Principle Investigate the oscillation behaviour of a pendulum (rod pendulum) by varying the magnitude of the components of the acceleration of gravity which are decisive for the oscillation period. Acoustics 3. of the oscillation plane. 3.phywe. by which the oscillation plane deviates from its normal vertical position. Graphical analysis of the measured correlations and a comparison with the theoretical curves. Measurement of the oscillation period of the pendulum as a function of the angle of inclination F of the oscillation plane for two different pendulum lengths. Calculation of the effective pendulum length l for the acceleration of gravity. Tasks 1. The measured points are plotted above the corresponding theoretical curve (solid line). 2. Upper curve: L = 270 mm. which is assumed to be known. 4.1 Oscillatory Motion Variable g pendulum P2132301 Oscillation period of the pendulum as a function of the slope . Calculate the angle F and set it on the device such that the pendulum in the laboratory oscillates with the same oscillation period with which it would oscillate on the moon in a perpendicular position.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Compare the measured oscillation period with the calculated one. The angle F. compact Tripod base PHYWE Holder for light barrier 13604-99 02817-00 11207-20 02002-55 02817-10 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Variable g pendulum with Cobra3 P2132311 Cobra4 Experiment . which have been standardised with the measured value at F = 0.com 59 .6 % of the earth's acceleration of gravity g. KG · www. Harmonic oscillation ▪ Mathematical pendulum.

l 630mm Rod with hook Electrol. 4.G1 Right angle clamp PHYWE 12150-50 02816-00 13505-93 12151-99 02010-00 14504-61 02027-55 02051-00 39105-28 02040-55 1 2 1 1 2 1 2 1 2 2 Cobra4 Experiment . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Spiral spring Gravity pendulum Spring constant Torsional vibration Torque Beat Angular velocity Angular acceleration Characteristic frequency Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.capacitor10microF/35V. To determine the coupling factors for various couplinglengths using a) the apparatus constant. To determine the spring constant ofthe coupling spring. To determine and to adjust the characteristic frequencies of the uncoupled pendula. c) the angular frequencies of the beatmode. USB Pendulum w.. The amplitudes of both pendula are recorded as a function of time for various vibrational modes and different coupling factors using a y/t recorder. b) the angular frequencies for "inphase"and "in opposite phase" vibration.1 Oscillatory Motion P2132511 Coupled pendula with Cobra3 Amplitude curves of the vibrations of coupled pendula in the beat case for three different coupling lengths l (30 cm.square.12 V DC/ 6 V. Acoustics 3.available 2013 Coupled pendula with Cobra4 P2132560 excellence in science 60 . The coupling factors are determined by different methods.. 230 V Power supply 12V / 2A Bench clamp PHYWE Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Support rod PHYWE. To check the linear relation between the square of the coupling lengths and a) the particular frequencies of the beat mode. b) the square of the frequency for "inopposite phase" vibration.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. 60 cm and 90 cm) as a function of time.recorder connection Power supply 0. 3. 5. 12 V AC. To determine the pendulum's characteristic frequency from the vibrational modes with coupling and to compare this with the characteristic frequency of the uncoupled pendula. Tasks 1. 2. Principle Two equal gravity pendula with a particular characteristic frequency are coupled by a "soft" spiral spring.

Tasks 1. Principle The spring constant D is determined for different experimental set-ups from the oscillation period and the suspended mass.Spring linked in parallel and series with Cobra 4 P2132660 Parallel connection of helical springs.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. l = 1000 mm Right angle clamp PHYWE Weight holder for slotted weights Slotted weight. Serial springs Use of an interface Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N Function and Applications The Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N contains a bending beam (DMS technology). 50 g. 3 N/m 14550-61 12601-00 12642-00 12600-00 02002-55 02028-55 02040-55 02204-00 02206-01 02220-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 7 2 12642-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. a plate can be plugged in for measuring weights that are placed on it. square.. Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in series. which converts the mechanical load into an electrical signal. 2. 3.+4 N Maximum sampling rate: 16 Hz Measuring accuracy: 0. Determination of the spring constant D for different springs. ▪ On the mechanically secure in take of the Cobra4 sensor unit. Acoustics 3. weight hook operating manual Measuring range: -4. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 100 mm long rod with M6 thread weight plate.phywe.2 mN Dimensions (L x B x H): 64 x 70 x 35 mm Weight: 100 g Main articles Software Cobra4 . force from above or below is applied using a drop rod with a M6 thread. ▪ On the top of the casing.1 Oscillatory Motion Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs . Determination of the spring constant for springs linked in parallel. KG · www. there is a hook on which weights may be hung. the force sensor can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link. Benefits ▪ Depending on the type of application. black Helical spring. ▪ On the bottom of the device.com 61 . the Cobra4 MobileLink or the Cobra4USB-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection..multi-user licence Cobra4 Wireless-Link Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N Cobra4 Wireless Manager Tripod base PHYWE Support rod PHYWE. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Spring constant Hooke's law oscillations Limit of elasticity Parallel springs.

If the oscillating system is stimulated to swing by an external periodic torque.Pohl's pendulum with Cobra3 P2132711 Cobra4 Experiment . the damping constants and the logarithmic decrements are to be calculated. 2. The phase shifting between the torsion pendulum and the stimulating external torque is to be observed for a small damping value assuming that in one case the stimulating frequency is far below the resonance frequency and in the other case it is far above it. Tasks ▪ A. ▪ B. What you can learn about ▪ Angular frequency. 3. Torsional vibration. 25 VAC/ 20 VDC. 3. 1/100 s 11214-00 13531-93 06031-10 07128-00 03071-01 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Forced oscillations . Principle If an oscillating system is allowed to swing freely it is observed that the decrease of successive maximum amplitudes is highly dependent on the damping.available 2013 Forced oscillations .1 Oscillatory Motion P2132701 Forced oscillations . To determine the oscillating period and the characteristic frequency of the undamped case.Pohl's pendulum with Cobra4 P2132760 excellence in science 62 . To realise the a periodic case and the creeping. Aperiodic case. The resonance frequencies are to be determined and are to be compared with the resonance frequency values found before hand. unidirectional maximum amplitudes are to be plotted as a function of time. Free oscillation 1. The resonance curves are to be determined and to be represented graphically using the damping values of A. Forced oscillation 1.Pohl's pendulum Resonance curves for different dampings. Creeping Main articles Torsion pendulum after Pohl Variable transformer. Resonance frequency ▪ Torsion pendulum. Successive.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Acoustics 3. 30V AC/1A DC Digital multimeter 2010 Stopwatch. Characteristic frequency. 12 A Bridge rectifier. we observe that in the steady state the amplitude is a function of the frequency and the amplitude of the external periodic torque and of the damping. The corresponding ratios of attenuation. To determine the oscillating periods and the corresponding characteristic frequencies for different damping values. 2. Torque and Restoring torque ▪ Damped/ undamped free oscillation. digital. Forced oscillation ▪ Ratio of attenuation/ decrement. Damping constant ▪ Logarithmic decrement.

Principle Bars of various materials will be exciting into torsional vibration.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Determination of the dependence of the vibration period on the length and thickness of the bars. Al. from the vibration period.com 63 . copper.1 Oscillatory Motion Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus P2133000 Torque and deflection of a torsion bar. l = 500 mm. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Shear modulus Angular velocity Torque Moment of inertia Angular restoring torque G-modulus Modulus of elasticity Main articles Torsion apparatus Spring Balance 1 N Spring balance 2. Determination of the shear modulus of steel. d = 3 mm Sliding weight 02421-00 03060-01 03060-02 02421-06 02421-05 03929-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. l = 500 mm. 3. Static determination of the torsion modulus of a bar. d = 4 mm Torsion rod. Acoustics 3. Al. aluminium and brass. 2. The relationship between the vibration period and the geometrical dimensions of the bars will be derived and the specific shear modulus for the material determined.phywe. Tasks 1. Determination of the moment of inertia of the rod and weights fixed to the bar. 4. KG · www.5 N Torsion rod.

Principle Square and round metal plates are brought to vibrate through acoustic stimulations by a loudspeaker. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wave length Stationary waves Acoustic vibrations Two-dimensional standing waves Eigen-modes Digital Function Generator. Cobra4 Software Loudspeaker/Sound head Sound pattern plates Support base variable Sea sand. stainless steel. Tasks 1.ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope ▪ Low distortion and signal-to-noise ratio for brilliantly clear signals . l = 250 mm. purified 1000 g Stand tube Boss head Support rod. with help capability ▪ Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability ▪ Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode ▪ Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage . continually adjustable frequency range ▪ Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output ▪ Intuitive. Cobra4 Software Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments. particularly in the disciplines of acoustics. incl. The sand is expelled from the vibrating regions of the plate and gathers in the lines because these are the only places where the amplitude of vibrations is close to zero. Determine the frequencies at which resonance occurs and drive the plate specifically at these frequencies.ideal for acoustics/audio experiments 13654-99 Main articles Digital Function Generator. Acoustics 3. the nodal lines are made visible with sand. electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪ Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface ▪ Universally applicable thanks to broad.1 Oscillatory Motion P2150501 Chladni figures Some Chladni figures with corresponding frequencies. d = 10 mm 13654-99 03524-00 03478-00 02001-00 30220-67 02060-00 02043-00 02031-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 64 . menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons. When the driving frequency corresponds to a given eigen-frequency (natural vibration mode) of the plate. USB.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. incl. USB.

What you can learn about ▪ Periodic motion. Natural frequency. l=1000mm 11027-00 11207-30 11207-20 03076-01 02010-00 03001-00 1 1 1 1 3 1 Power supply -2op-. The frequency of the oscillators 1.2 Wave Motion Propagation of a periodically excited continuous transverse wave P2133200 The resonance frequencies measured with increasing speed of rotation. By means of a path-time measurement the phase velocity of a transverse wave is to be determined. Free and fixed end ▪ Damping of waves Gearing 100/1. compact Stop watch. The number of oscillations carried out by different oscillators within a certain time is determined and the velocity of propagation is measured. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ output voltage 2x0. for 11030..15V nominal current 2A / 1A.phywe. 3.. 2x15V/2A Function and Applications Specially suited for electronics experiments. Phase velocity ▪ Standing waves. For three different frequencies the corresponding wavelengths are to be measured and it is to be shown that the product of frequency and wavelength is a constant..2A internal resistance <= 10m Ohm mains voltage 230V / 50.. Acoustics 3. 30 and 40 is to be determined with the electronic counter of the lightbarrier and the stopwatch for a particular frequency of excitation. for 11030. 20. Wavelength. The formation of standing waves is demonstrated and studied.93 Light barrier with counter Light barrier. current regulation 0. KG · www. harmonic transverse wave generated by a wave machine.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. wavelength and phase velocity is established. power consumption 170 VA housing dimensions 230x236x168mm Main articles Wave machine Laboratory motor. Tasks 1. Frequency. interruption type Bench clamp PHYWE Meter scale. The four lowest natural frequencies with one end of the oscillator system fixed and the other one free are to be detected. demo. 5. The four lowest natural frequencies with two ends of the oscillator system fixed are to be detected.93 11211-00 11030-93 13520-93 11029-00 1 1 1 1 13520-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 10. Principle The periodicity of connected stationary oscillators is demonstrated on the example of a continuous. 2x15V/2A Gearing 30/1..com 65 . 2. 220 V AC Power supply -2op-.60Hz. A relation between frequency.. 4.

With the aid of plane waves the dependency of the velocity of the waves' propagation on the depth of the water can be determined. Tasks 1. The measurement is made for different frequencies. a concave lens and at a convex lens can be clearly demonstrated. amplitude. prism. dispersion. 3. It is shown. By using two barriers show the reflection of waves. By moving the external wave generator the Doppler Effect is investigated. 5. fill with water and start! The Ripple tank provides a demonstration of the general properties of waves and wave propagation phenomena like reflection. The external wave generator is connected to the water ripple tank and circular waves are generated. Use the single dipper to generate circular waves. diffraction. 2. the reflection of waves as well as the refraction of waves at a plate. Circular waves are then used to investigate the dependency of the vibration frequency on the wavelength. Acoustics 3. By using a ruler the wave length can be determined. Moreover.2 Wave Motion P2133400 Wave phenomena in a ripple tank Examination of the behaviour of a concave lens with the ripple tank. Use a plate to simulate a zone of lower water depth and measure the wave length before and above the plate. and Doppler-effect. 4. Benefits ▪ Very easy to operate compact unit for demonstration of wave characteristics such as reflection. interference. a prism. complete Demo set for ripple tank (USB camera. concave and convex lens). that water waves are a proved method to demonstrate the behaviour of waves in general. Principle In the ripple tank water waves are generated by a vibration generator. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Generation of surface waves Propagation of surface waves Dependency of wave velocity Reflection of waves Refraction of waves Concave.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. stand Software "Measure Dynamics". interference. breakage. complete Function and Applications Just remove from the storage cupboard. diffraction and Doppler effect ▪ Reflection-free basin on adjustable feet ▪ 3-point adjustment ▪ Amplitude and frequency variable excitation dipper system ▪ Stroboscope for synchronous and "slow-motion" projection of waves ▪ Simultaneous LED display of: frequency. fixing unit) External vibration generator for ripple tank incl. convex lenses Mirrors Ripple Tank with LED-light source. dispersion. Observe the refraction of water waves at several objects (plate. Plane waves are generated with the integrated wave generator. phase shift and type of illumination ▪ Control of all parameters takes place via the keypad found on the surface 11260-99 Main articles excellence in science 66 . single user license 11260-99 11260-20 11260-10 14440-61 1 1 1 1 Ripple Tank with LED-light source.

form a slit and observe diffraction behind the slit. Acoustics 3. To do so.com 67 . generate two circular waves and observe the interference. the principle of "phased array antennas" can be demonstrated. KG · www. stand 11260-99 11260-10 1 1 External vibration generator for ripple tank incl. By increasing the number of interfering circular waves. Repeat this experiment for a double-slit. 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Diffraction of water waves interference of waves Huygens' Principle principle of "phased arrays antennas" Doppler effect Main articles Ripple Tank with LED-light source. In a further experiment. 3. With the aid of plane water waves. Generate plane water waves and use a barrier to demonstrate diffraction at an edge. Huygens' Principle can be verified. Use the comb to generate two circular waves and observe the resulting interference. Benefits ▪ Settings and power for this dipper come directly from the ripple tank ▪ No additional power supply needed ▪ Stand for the second dipper (padded foam base) is included in the set Equipment and technical data ▪ External vibration generator (dipper) for ripple tank on damped base 11260-10 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. By using the integrated wave generator as well as the external wave generator. Then. diffraction phenomena of waves at different obstacles (slit. double-slit etc. Principle A set of circular water waves is generated simultaneously and the resulting interference is observed.3 Sound Waves Interference and diffraction of water waves with the ripple tank P2133500 Interference with the double slit.) are investigated. two circular waves are generated to interfere and the resulting interference pattern on varying the phase of one of the circular waves with respect to the other one is observed. complete External vibration generator for ripple tank incl. edge.phywe. Increase the number of interfering circular waves up to ten by using all teeth of the comb to demonstrate Huygens' Principle. Vary the phase of the external wave generator and observe the resulting interference pattern to understand the principle of "phased array antennas". Tasks 1. stand Function and applications Optional accessory for ripple tank: second dipper for demonstrating interference patterns from waves that are not in phase.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wave propagation longitudinal wave air pressure variation sound wave impulse of sound Measuring microphone with amplifier Main articles Universal Counter Measuring microphone w. stainless steel. 9 V 13601-99 03543-00 02006-55 09906-00 02036-01 09936-00 07496-10 1 1 2 1 2 1 1 Function and Applications Electret capsule with 1. 20 kHz Sensitivity 6..0 mV/Pa at 1 kHz Gain 0 . Task 1. at 3 Ohm Dimensions: (mm) 120 x 25 x 60 Required accessory ▪ 9 V battery 03543-00 excellence in science 68 . Principle The velocity of sound in air is determined by measurement of sound travel times across known distances. l = 2 m Flat cell battery.amplifier Barrel base PHYWE Support Support rod with hole.3 Sound Waves P2150305 Velocity of sound in air with Universal Counter Propagation time as function of distance: measurements and fitted function.5 m long cable suitable for special investigations. Acoustics 3.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. e. 1000 in phase with sound signal Signal output 4V max. point shaped plotting of soundfields. 10 cm Measuring tape.. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Frequency range 30 Hz . Determine the sound velocity in air for different distances between sound source and microphone.g...

for 11030. Acoustics 3. The quadrant of the phase velocity is plotted as a function of tensile stress. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Variable revolution: 0. Principle A quadrangular rubber rope is inserted through the demonstration motor and a linear polarised fixed wave is generated.93 Grooved wheel. Maximum torque: 6 Ncm Maximum output power: 25 W Dimensions with stem (mm):190 x 180 x 85 Stem length/diameter (mm): 110/10 Support for additional gear box. which depends on the tensile stress on the rope is to be measured. the frequency and the wave length are determined. From this graph. the mathematical relationship between the phase velocity of the rope and the tensile on the rope is examined. 220 V AC Function and Applications Laboratory motor fitted with noise suppression on stem. The phase velocity c of the rope waves. the phase velocity c is determined. allen key ▪ chuck for 6 mm and 10mm stems.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. electronically controlled. The frequency is plotted as a function of 1/λ.com 69 . the frequency f. With the help of a stroboscope. KG · www. Subsequently. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wavelength Phase velocity Group velocity Wave equation Harmonic wave Laboratory motor. 2.9000 tpm Fixed revolution: 13000 tpm Clockwise and anticlockwise rotation. after Hoffmann Spring balance 10 N Bench clamp PHYWE 11030-93 21809-93 11028-00 02860-00 03060-03 02010-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 Accessories: ▪ spanner for pulley. Then the phase velocity of ropewaves with a fixed tensile stress is ascertained. With constant tensile stress. load independant rotation speed. 220 V AC Digital stroboscope Gearing 10/1. Tasks 1. which depends on the wavelength λ of the wave that propagates itself along the rope... Main articles Laboratory motor.phywe.3 Sound Waves Phase velocity of rope waves / waves of wires P2133300 The square of phase velocity depending upon the force F applied on the rope. Power: 220 V AC 11030-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

compact Track. Related Topics ▪ Wave propagation ▪ Doppler shift of frequency Car. Measure the Doppler shift for varying frequencies and velocities for a moving sound emitter.00. Compare the measurements with the values predicted by theory and validate equation (4). forward and backward switches. Acoustics 3. 2. motor driven Measuring microphone w. the frequency of the waves that are emitted or detected is shifted due to the Doppler effect. incl. Equipment and technical data ▪ Same chassis as measurement and experimenting car 11060. motor driven Function and Applications For the experimental investigation of uniform movements and introduction of the concept of speed.00.3 Sound Waves P2150405 Acoustic Doppler effect with universal counter Comparison of the measured values with calculated values for a detector moving towards the emitter. Principle If an emitter of sound or a detector is set into motion relative to the medium of propagation. USB.00 ▪ Eccentric clamps to attach recording tape for recording timer 11607. ▪ Dimensions without wheels (mm): 114×53×64. 4-wheel drive ▪ Recess with clamping spring to attach holding bolt 03949.amplifier Loudspeaker/Sound head Light barrier. Cobra4 Software Car.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Compare the measurements with the values predicted by theory and validate equation (6). l 900 mm Barrel base PHYWE Support Holder for two electrodes excellence in science 70 . Task 1. 11061-00 Main articles Universal Counter Digital Function Generator. Measure the Doppler shift for varying frequencies and velocities for a moving detector. 13601-99 13654-99 11061-00 03543-00 03524-00 11207-20 11606-00 02006-55 09906-00 45284-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Benefits ▪ Drive: integrated battery powered electric motor (with radio noise suppression). ▪ Sliding switch for continuous speed adjustment.

Acoustics 3.3 Sound Waves Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube and digital function generator P2150605 Determination of the velocity of sound at a tube length of L = 615 mm. l 750 mm Universal clamp Cork dust. stationary waves Related Experiment Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube P2150601 LF amplifier.+50 C Screened cable... Signal output for the amplified measured signal. ▪ Power amplifier 12. USB. 220 V Digital Function Generator. 100 kOhm/ D ▪ Input voltage: -10 V. ▪ For signals from frequency generators or computer interfaces. natural frequency wavelength.phywe.10000. KG · www. From the length of the volume and the number of the nodes the velocity of sound in the tube can be calculated for each natural frequency.com 71 . Principle Cork dust in a glass tube is set into tiniest motion by a sound wave... Frequency range: 3..5 W for weak acoustic frequency signals to control low resistance loudspeakers. continuously adjustable ▪ Input impedance: 50 kOhm/ AC. a standing wave will form.200 kHz.. factor: 0.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Tasks Determine the velocity of sound in air using Kundt's tube at different lengths of volume. BNC. Related Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Longitudinal waves sound velocity in gases frequency.+10 V.5 Hz. 220 V Function and Applications For amplifying direct and alternating voltage up to 100 kHz. l = 2 m 13625-93 13654-99 03524-00 02002-55 03475-88 38034-00 07542-11 37715-00 03477-00 09936-00 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 2 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Cobra4 Software Loudspeaker/Sound head Tripod base PHYWE Kundt's apparatus Thermometer -10. incl. 3 g Measuring tape.. The corc dust then assembles in visible patterns that show the nodes of pressure and motion of the standing wave. If the frequency of the sound wave matches the natural frequency of the volume in the glass tube. 13625-93 Main articles LF amplifier. Equipment and technical data ▪ Ampl. Benefits ▪ Effective value output for display of the effective value of the signal output voltage.. Can be used for induction experiments and for examining acoustic and electromagnetic fields.1.. ▪ Amplification is continuously adjustable.

Frequencies: 2. Cobra4 Software Interference tube. 2. l 630mm excellence in science 72 .5 kHz. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference tube with three mounting clamps.. Quincke type Function and Applications To determine sound wave lengths and frequencies through interference of sound waves in air. Length: 300 mm. USB. 03482-00 13654-99 03482-00 03542-00 03524-00 07128-00 03010-00 02027-55 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Main articles Digital Function Generator. Tasks 1. Record the extension of a Quincke tube for given frequencies in the range 2000 Hz to 6000 Hz. it is possible to calculate the wavelength of the sound wave and its frequency from the interference phenomena recorded with a microphone. Quincke type Measuring microphone Loudspeaker/Sound head Digital multimeter 2010 Vernier caliper Support rod PHYWE. Scale with cm-division.3 Sound Waves P2150702 Wavelengths and frequencies with a Quincke tube with a multimeter Sample measurement at a frequency of f = 3000 Hz. for example. ▪ Measuring microphone (03542-00). incl. light waves in an interferometer experiment).square. Principle When a sound wave of a particular frequency is divided into two coherent components (like.. Accessories ▪ Sound head (03524-00).3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Calculate the frequencies from the wavelengths determined and compare them with the given What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Transverse and longitudinal waves Wavelength Amplitude Frequency Phase shift Interference Velocity of sound in air Loudness Weber-Fechner law Interference tube. and if the path of one of the component waves is altered. Acoustics 3.

available 2013 Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra4 P2150860 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. KG · www.diam 12mm l 300 mm Long-neck round-bott. Principle Acoustic cavity resonators posses a characteristic frequency which is determined by their geometrical form.flask 1000ml Universal clamp Boss head Support rod.amplifier Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 . Tasks Determination of different resonance frequencies of a resonator depending on the volume.com 73 .3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. stainless steel.Fourier analysis Glass tube.phywe. What you can learn about ▪ Cavity resonator ▪ Resonance frequency ▪ Acoustic resonant circuit Cobra4 Experiment . Acoustics 3.3 Sound Waves Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz resonators with Cobra3 P2150811 Time signal. In this case the resonator is excited to vibrations in its resonance frequency by background noise. USB Measuring microphone w. 500 mm 12150-50 03543-00 02002-55 12151-99 14514-61 45126-01 36050-00 37718-00 02043-00 02032-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. spectrum and parameter settings for measurements on the empty 1000 ml round-bottomed flask.

3 Sound Waves P2151000 Optical determination of the velocity of sound in liquids Resulting diffraction pattern on the screen. h = 30 mm Base for optical bench. ▪ Robust plastic housing. Tasks To determine the wavelength of sound in liquids.67 kg 13920-99 Main articles Ultrasonic generator Laser. ultrasonic welding. Including: sealed sound head ▪ Frequency range (Sinus): 780. 150x55x100 mm Optical profile-bench..and pulse operation for experimentation with wave phenomena and run time measurements. Principle A stationary ultrasonic wave in a glass cell full of liquid is traversed by a divergent beam of light. 1.. Equipment and technical data 13920-99 08181-93 03504-00 08282-00 08062-00 08256-00 08286-02 08012-00 08286-01 08284-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 ▪ With 3-digit LED for frequency and adjustable frequency for optimisation experiments and exactly determination of wave length under different experimental conditions.. l 1000mm Screen. metal.0 mW.and trigger-outputs with BNC sockets for phase determination with an oscilloscope. 300 x 300 mm Swinging arm Slide mount for optical bench.g. H × W × D (mm): 170 × 232 × 260. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Ultrasonics Sound velocity Frequency Wavelength Sound pressure Stationary waves Ultrasonic generator Function and Applications Ultrasonic generator for sine.. The sound wave length can be determined from the central projection of the sound field on the basis of the refractive index which changes with the sound pressure. Supply voltage: 110. for exemplatory technical applications e. and from this calculate the sound velocity. 230 V AC Glass cell.240 V AC ▪ Dimensions.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Mass: 3. He-Ne. ▪ Monitor. from the structure of the centrally projected image. Acoustics 3. adjustable excellence in science 74 . h = 80 mm Lens holder Slide mount for optical bench.820 kHz ▪ Maximum sound output power: 16 W ▪ Puls repetition frequency: 500 Hz ▪ Puls duration: 3 µs.

2 channels Ultrasonic pickup Glass cell. for water. The wavelength is determined and the phase velocity calculated from the relative phase position of the signals. and to determine the group velocity. The group velocity is determined from measurements of the sound pulse delay time.phywe. Tasks The signals from the ultrasonic generator and the ultrasonic pickup are recorded on the oscilloscope. adjustable Glycerol 250 ml 13920-99 11459-95 13920-00 03504-00 08283-00 08286-02 06024-00 08286-01 08284-00 30084-25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 3 Related Experiment Temperature dependence of the velocity of ultrasound in liquids P2151200 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. glycerol and sodium chloride solution (temperature = 25 °C). 1.com 75 . to record the delay time of the sound pulses as a function of the distance between a generator and the pick-up. h = 80 mm Distributor Slide mount for optical bench. 30 MHz. To measure the relative phase position of the signal from the ultrasonic pick-up as a function of its distance from the ultrasonic generator (which is in the sine mode). and to determine the ultrasonic wavelength and the phase velocity when the frequency is known. 150x55x100 mm Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Slide mount for optical bench. Principle The sound waves transmitted to a liquid by the ultrasonic generator are picked up by a piezoelectric ultrasonic pick-up and the signal from transmitter and receiver compared on an oscilloscope.3 Sound Waves Phase and group velocity of ultrasound in liquids P2151100 Detector displacement l as a function of the number n of wavelengths covered. 2.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. 3. With the generator in the pulsed mode. h = 30 mm Base for optical bench. KG · www. Acoustics 3. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Longitudinal waves Velocity of sound in liquids Wavelength Frequency Piezoelectric effect Piezoelectric ultrasonics transformer Main articles Ultrasonic generator Oscilloscope. To determine the oscilloscope's coefficient of sweep with the aid of the ultrasonic frequency.

BNC. ▪ BNC-socket for input signal. angle velocity and angle stepwidth. 2. swivel ultrasound detector and a PC. l 750 mm excellence in science 76 . with RS232 PC interface.1 mm Software Goniometer Screened cable. ▪ Reproduction of measurements just by pressing one button. Determine the angular positions of the maximum and minimum values and compare them with the theoretical values. ▪ Two up/down buttons. step motor interface DIN socket. ▪ Red 7-segment LED to display goniometer angle. cable included. The intensity of the diffracted and interfering partial waves are automatically recorded using a motordriven. start/stop angle. quick-calbration button. 13903-99 Main articles Goniometer with reflecting mirror Goniometer Operation Unit Ultrasound operation unit Object holder for goniometer Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver on stem Diffraction objects f. Record the intensity of an ultrasonicwave diffracted by various single slits and double slits as a function of the diffraction angle. Principle A plane ultrasonic wave is subjected to diffraction at single slits of various widths and at various double slits.3 Sound Waves P2151515 Ultrasonic diffraction at different single and double slit systems The angular distribution of the intensity of a plane ultrasonic wave diffracted at a slit. programmable and PC-operation.4 A withDC-socket 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Huygens principle Longitudinal waves Interference Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction Related Experiments Ultrasonic diffraction at different multiple slit systems P2151615 Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin hole and a circular obstacle P2151715 Goniometer Operation Unit Function and Applications Microprocessor controlled operation unit for goniometer in failsafe housing to control the goniometer angle and recording of detector signals. 13903-00 13903-99 13900-00 13904-00 13901-00 13902-00 13905-00 13900-99 14523-61 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Benefits ▪ For manual. Tasks 1. Acoustics 3. ▪ 4 mm sockets for xy-recorder connection.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. auto modestart button.ultrasonic Power supply 5 VDC/2.

plug/ socket.3 Sound Waves Interference by two identical ultrasonic transmitters P2151915 Angular distribution of the intensity of two interfering ultrasonic waves having the same phase. l 750 mm Data cable. The sources can vibrate both in-phase and out-of phase. Interference Related Experiments Stationary ultrasonic waves . Longitudinal waves. frequency and direction of propagation. is automatically recorded using a motor-driven. BNC. Principle Ultrasonic waves of the same frequency. Acoustics 3. swivel ultrasound detector and a PC. Determine the angular positions of the interference minima and compare the values found with those theoretically expected.4 A withDC-socket 2.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. 2. 9 pole 13903-00 13903-99 13900-00 13901-00 13902-00 13900-99 02006-55 14523-61 07542-11 14602-00 1 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 3. amplitude.1 mm Barrel base PHYWE Software Goniometer Screened cable. Repeat the measurements with the two sources of ultrasound vibrating out of-phase. which interfere with each other. amplitude and direction of propagation are generated by two sources of sound positioned parallel to each other.phywe. KG · www. Determine the angular distribution of two sources of ultrasound vibrating in phase. What you can learn about ▪ Huygens principle. The angular distribution of the intensity of the waves. Tasks 1.com 77 .determination of wavelength P2151300 Absorption of ultrasound in air P2151400 Ultrasonic diffraction at a Fresnel zone plate / structure of a Fresnel zone P2151800 Interference of ultrasonic waves by a Lloyd mirror P2152000 Determination of the ultrasonic velocity (sonar principle) P2152115 Ultrasonic Michelson interferometer P2152200 Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge P2152300 Main articles Goniometer with reflecting mirror Goniometer Operation Unit Ultrasound operation unit Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver on stem Power supply 5 VDC/2.

12150-50 13900-00 11061-00 13901-00 13902-00 11207-20 11606-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Benefits ▪ Microprocessor controlled quartz-stabilised operation unit for ultrasonic transmitter and receiver. one with 180° phaseshift. Doppler-effect with ultrasound. Acoustics 3. motor driven Ultrasonic transmitter Ultrasonic receiver on stem Light barrier. 13900-00 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. ▪ Overload warning LED allows adaption of ultrasound intensity to the experiment.g. l 900 mm Cobra4 Experiment . e. the frequency of the waves that are emitted is displaced due to the Doppler effect. ▪ Adjustable output amplitude. compact Track.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves.3 Sound Waves P2152415 Ultrasonic Doppler effect Doppler shift of frequency. ▪ 1 synchronous BNC output for delay time measurement. ▪ Fail-safe housing. The frequency changes are measured and analysed for different relative velocities of source and observer. 2 DIN sockets. ▪ Ideally suited for ultrasound experiments with large distances between transmitter and receiver. Principle If a source of sound is in motion relative to its medium of propagation. USB Ultrasound operation unit Car. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Propagation of sound waves Superimposition of sound waves Doppler shift of frequency Longitudinal waves Ultrasound operation unit Function and Applications Ultrasound operation unit. continuous and burst mode operation. ▪ Input signal amplifier with 3 main amplifications and fine adjustment with one BNC-socket for oscilloscope and 4 mm sockets for XY-recorder.available 2013 Ultrasonic Doppler effect with Cobra4 P2152460 excellence in science 78 . Tasks 1.

the distance between ultrasonic transducer and defects(reflector) can be calculated. Measure the longest side of the block with the calliper and the time of light of ultrasound wave for this distance with the 2 MHz probe 2. frequency.g. sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Propagation of ultrasonic waves.3 Sound Waves Basic principles of ultrasonic echography (A-Scan) P5160200 Illustration of the effects of the amplifier or booster settings on the diagram. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. 13921-99 Main articles Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Vernier caliper 13921-99 03010-00 1 1 Related Experiments Basic principles of ultrasonic echography (B-Scan) P5160300 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Calculate the sound velocity. Non destructive testing (NDT) Ultrasonic transceiver Frequency dependence of resolution power in ultrasonic imaging P5160700 Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Function and Applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. Time of flight Echo amplitude.phywe. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. Measure the position and the size of the different defects of the test block with the calliper and the ultrasound echography method.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. Acoustics 3. The knowledge e. From the relationship between the time of flight of the reflected wave and the sound velocity. Terms like amplitude.com 79 . KG · www. Tasks 1. regarding sound velocity will be used to measure the test block. cracks). Reflection coefficient. Principle An ultrasonic wave transmitted in a sample will be reflected at discontinuities (defects. A-scan Flaw detection. 3. Position and size of these defects can be determined by measuring in different directions.

The measurements are done. Shear waves in solid state materials Principle P5160900 An echoscope is used to measure the emergence of longitudinal and transverse waves when sound passes through flat rectangular blocks made of differing materials. For more details refer to page 231. For more details refer to page 230.3 Oscillations and Mechanical Waves. The relationship between amplitude and angle can be used to determine the speed of sound in the blocks in longitudinal and transverse directions and these results can then be used to determine the coefficient of elasticity for those materials. Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials Principle P5160800 The attenuation of ultrasound in solid bodies (polyacrylic) is measured at three different frequencies using a reflection method and by scanning through the bodies with an echoscope. For more details refer to page 229. on three cylinders of different length. excellence in science 80 . The results give an indication of how attenuation depends on frequency. by reflection method.3 Sound Waves Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material Principle P5160100 The velocity of sound in acrylics shall be determined by time of flight reflection technique with an ultrasonic echoscope. Two measurement series are carried out with ultrasonic probes of different frequencies. Acoustics 3.

com 81 .4 4.3 4.phywe. KG · www. Entropy. and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Thermal Properties and Processes Literature 82 85 98 101 110 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2 4.4 Thermodynamics Thermodynamics 4. Work.5 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases Heat.1 4. and the First Law of Thermodynamics Heat Engines.

Universal gas constant ▪ Amontons' law Related Experiment The gas laws of Boyle-Mariotte. USB Glass jacket Measuring module. Tasks ▪ For a constant amount of gas (air) investigate the correlation of 1. Principle The state of a gas is determined by temperature. Volume and temperature at constant pressure (Gay-Lussac's law) 3. pressure and amount of substance. these state variables are linked via the general equation of state. Volume and pressure at constant temperature (Boyle and Mariotte's law) 2. General equation of state for ideal gases. sensor -20.1 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases P2320115 Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3 Dependence of the pressure on the temperature under isochoric conditions. For achange of state under isochoric conditions this equation becomes Amontons'law. Temperature NiCr-Ni. pressure Heating apparatus for glass jacket system Measuring module.110 C 12150-50 02615-00 12103-00 32246-93 12104-00 12120-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 Boyle's law P1350260 excellence in science 82 ..4 Thermodynamics 4. Pressue and temperature at constant volume (Charles' (Amontons' law)) What you can learn about ▪ Thermal tension coefficient.available 2013 P2320160 Charles' law P1350060 Amontons law P1350160 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. In this experiment it is investigated whether Amontons' law is valid for a constant amount of gas (air). 330°C Cobra3. For the limiting case of ideal gases. Gay-Lussac and Charles (Amontons) P1223200 Cobra4 Experiments Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra4 .

KG · www.stainless steel.. Principle By means of the model apparatus for kinetic theory of gases the motion of gas molecules is simulated and the velocityis determined by registration of the throw distance of the glass balls.com 83 .15 V/5 A DC output: 0. fixed voltages: 6 V AC/6 A12 V AC/6 A Max.. Discuss the results. Measure the velocity distribution of the "model gas".210mm 13530-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.phywe. 3. tall.4 Thermodynamics 4. power: 150 VA Fuses: one 6 A and two 10 A Supply voltage: 230 V AC dimensions (mm): 230 x 236 x 168 Main articles Kinetic gas theory apparatus Digital stroboscope Receiver with recording chamber Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Tripod base PHYWE Stopwatch. 50 ml Spoon.1 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases Maxwellian velocity distribution P2320300 Experimental and theoretical velocity distribution in the model experiment. Compare the result to theoretical behaviour as described by the MAXWELL-BOLTZMANN distribution.Molecules Model kinetic energy Average velocity Velocity distribution Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Function and Applications Standard heavy duty power supply unit for low voltage. This velocity distribution is compared to the theoretical MAXWELLBOLTZMANN equation. 1/100 s Glass beaker DURAN®. Tasks 1.12 V/5 A Max. 2. digital. current (short term): 10 A Add. current (short term): 10 A Max.. Supplies unit for continuously adjustable DC and AC voltages & 2 frequently required fixed voltages Equipment and technical data 09060-00 21809-93 09061-00 13530-93 02002-55 03071-01 36001-00 40874-00 1 1 1 1 2 1 5 1 ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ AC output: 0.. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Kinetic theory of gases Temperature Gas.

For more details refer to page 104. For more details refer to page 103. and thereby attain different velocities (temperature model). The heat of vaporisation is determined at various temperatures from the measurement of vapour pressure as a function of temperature.molar heat of vaporisation Principle P2340200 The vapour pressure of water in the range of 40°C to 85°C is investigated. It is shown that the Clausius-Clapeyron equation describes the relation between temperature and pressure in an adequate manner. For more details refer to page 53. For this purpose. water is heated in a closed pressure chamber at constant volume. Barometric height formula Principle P2140700 Glass or steel balls are accelerated by means of a vibrating plate.1 Temperature and the Kinetic Theory of Gases Vapour pressure of water at high temperature Principle P2340100 The high-pressure steam apparatus makes it possible to measure steam pressure in a temperature range of 100-250°C. This allows for investigations to be performed on real gases and vapours. Vapour pressure of water below 100°C . excellence in science 84 . Typical equilibrium states between gas and liquid phases can be set up. The particle density of the balls is measured as a function of the height and the vibrational frequency of the plate.4 Thermodynamics 4. An average value for the heat of vaporization of water is determined.

glass 12150-50 03091-00 04854-00 12126-00 02629-00 02002-55 06034-01 12151-99 14504-61 36732-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Mole volumes Isobars. I = 0.t-sh. Principle Heat is added to a gas in a glass vessel by an electric heater which is switched on briefly. KG · www.3-way. The molar heat capacities CV and Cp are calculated from the pressure or volume change.com 85 . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Equation of state for ideal gases 1st law of thermodynamics Universal gas constant Degree of freedom.43 A..phywe.4 Thermodynamics 4. wireless Cobra3 current probe 6A Mariotte flask.available 2013 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra4 P2320260 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Work. Under isobaric conditions a temperature increase results in a volume dilatation.capil. Isochors and adiabatic changes of slate Related Experiment Heat capacity of gases P2320201 Cobra4 Experiments . USB Precision manometer Weather station. 10 l Tripod base PHYWE On/off switch Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Stopcock.2 Heat. Isotherms. Determine the molar heat capacities of air at constant volume CV and at constant pressure Cp. which can be read from a gas syringe. which is measured with a manometer. and the First Law of Thermodynamics Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 P2320211 Volume change V as a function of the heat-up time t..59 V. U = 4. The temperature increase results in a pressure increase. Tasks 1.

generation.and cooling system... What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Ideal gases.2 Heat. one stage. Tasks 1.2xGl18/8. Real gases Equations of state Van der Waals equation.4 Thermodynamics 4.50 bar. Calculate the constants of the Van der Waals equation.55 °C 04364-10 02740-95 08493-93 34170-01 02752-16 08487-02 02657-00 02002-55 08493-02 41772-21 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ Pressure range: 0. The critical point is determined graphically from a plot of the isotherms... Determine the critical point and the critical quantities of ethane. and the First Law of Thermodynamics P2320400 Thermal equation of state and critical point p-V-isotherms of ethane. 0.. Measure a number of p-V isotherms of ethane. Principle A substance which is gaseous under normal conditions is enclosed in a variable volume and the variation of pressure with the volume is recorded at different temperatures. 2. sulphur hexafluoride excellence in science 86 . the radius of the molecules and the parameters of the interaction potential.1x25/12 Oil mist filter.4 ml. Equipment and technical data ▪ Temperature range: 0.bottle500ml. pressure measurement-. 3.05 ml division 04364-10 Main articles Critical point apparatus Rotary Vane pump. Boyle temperature Critical point Interaction potential Molecule radius Critical point apparatus Function and Applications Critical point apparatus with transparent compression chamber on three legged base. DN 16 KF Bath for thermostat. 115 V / 230 V Immersion thermostat Alpha A. the Boyle temperature. Work. two gas valves. 230 V Sec. Makrolon Adapter for vacuum pump Tripod base PHYWE External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A Compressed gas.5 bar division ▪ Volume range: 0.. 0.

com 87 . KG · www. 101 g / 0. Precision tube diameter: 12 mm. and the First Law of Thermodynamics Adiabatic coefficient of gases . 10l. The oscillationis maintained by leading escaping gas back into the system. The adiabatic coefficient of various gases is determined from the periodic time of the oscillation. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Equation of adiabatic change of slate Polytropic equation Rüchardt's experiment Thermal capacity of gases Gas oscillator. Work. Glass vessel capacity: 1 l. if available) from the periodic time of the oscillation T of the mass m on the volume V of gas. Kern 150-23. full Steel cylinder.4 Thermodynamics 4. full Light barrier with counter Gas oscillator. Flammersfeld Main articles Steel cylinder. Oscillating body.10l.nitrogen. Determine the adiabatic coefficient of air nitrogen and carbon dioxide (and also of argon.phywe. each of about n = 300 oscillations. 04368-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Gas oscillator. Experimental conditions: Ten measurements. Principle A mass oscillates on a volume of gas in a precision glass tube.CO2.01 g Reducing valve for CO2 / He Reducing valve f. Flammersfeld Sliding weight balance.2 Heat.Flammersfeld oscillator P2320500 Sample resultsfor the adiabatic coefficients.nitrogen Micrometer Tripod base PHYWE Aneroid barometer 41761-00 41763-00 11207-30 04368-00 44012-01 33481-00 33483-00 03012-00 02002-55 03097-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Function and Applications For determination of the adiabatic coefficient with Rüchardt's method.

10l. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Real gas Intrinsic energy. 10l. ▪ Plastic-coated glass tube with a throttle body and 2 measurement points for Pt-100-temperature sensor. immersion type. -20. full Steel cylinder. Tasks 1. 2..2 Heat. Work. where the gas (CO2 or N2) undergoes adiabatic expansion. Gay-Lussac theory Throttling Van der Waals equation. Benefits ▪ Frame with pressure gauge and a spiral of coppercapillary tube.+300°C 13617-93 04361-00 41761-00 41763-00 41790-20 11759-01 1 1 1 1 1 2 04361-00 excellence in science 88 .. (Mm): 250/46 Copper coil 37. stainless steel.5 m / 132 coils 1 m pressure hose. Determination of the Joule-Thomson coefficient of N2. Temp. Hose clamps Main articles Temperature meter digital.4 Thermodynamics 4. Division 5 kPa Tube length / diameter. Van der Waals force Inverse Joule-Thomson effect Inversion temperature Joule-Thomson apparatus Function and Applications Joule-Thompson apparatus.CO2. The differences in temperature established between the two sides of the throttle point are measured at various pressures and the Joule-Thomson coefficients of the gases in question are calculated. Determination of the Joule-Thomson coefficient of CO2.nitrogen. probe. 0. Principle A stream of gas is fed to a throttling point. Pt100.. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pressure range 0 .1 MPa. and the First Law of Thermodynamics P2320600 Joule-Thomson effect Temperature differences measured at various ram pressures. 4-2 Joule-Thomson apparatus Steel cylinder. full Gas-cylinder Trolley for 2 Cyl.

For 180 g Iron (100 °C) and 200 g water (room-temperature). The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water. To verify Dulong Petit's law with the results of these experiments. -50. 500 ml Function and Applications 12150-50 12104-00 04401-10 32178-00 13615-03 12151-99 14503-61 03071-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 E. ▪ The calorimeter vessel with thermal conductivity connection sleeve has a cylindrical recess at the bottom which can receive a thermal conductivity rod. USB Measuring module. iron and brass.2 Heat. digital. Temperature NiCr-Ni. steel. To determine the specific heat capacity of aluminium.phywe. height: 120 mm. 1/100 s PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Labogaz 206 type Immersion probe NiCr-Ni. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mixture temperature Boiling point Dulong Petit's law Lattice vibration Internal energy Debye temperature Related Experiment Heat capacity of metals P2330101 Cobra4 Experiment .com 89 . 2.. Principle Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature. Equipment and technical data ▪ Aluminium vessels imbedded in plastic.. Work. g. 500 ml Butane burner. for determining thermal conductivities of solid state bodies. 330°C Calorimeter vessel.400°C Power supply 12V / 2A Software COBRA3 Temperature Stopwatch.available 2013 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra4 P2330160 Calorimeter vessel. 04401-10 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. ▪ Dimensions: diameter: 130 mm. KG · www. Tasks 1. and the First Law of Thermodynamics Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 P2330111 Course of temperature in the calorimeter.4 Thermodynamics 4. ▪ Containers with Styrofoam thermal insulation.

4 Thermodynamics 4.The mechanical equivalent of heat for problem 1 is determined from the defined mechanical work and from the thermal energy increase deduced from the increase of temperature. Determination of the mechanical equivalent of heat.available 2013 Mechanical equivalent of heat with Cobra4 P2330260 Main articles Mechanical equiv. m 1. Friction cylinder CuZn.28 kg Spring balance 100 N Friction cylinder Al. 2000 g Commercial weight. 1000 g 04440-00 04441-02 03060-04 04441-03 03060-03 02010-00 44096-78 44096-70 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 90 .39 kg Spring balance 10 N Bench clamp PHYWE Commercial weight. a metal test body is rotated and heated by the friction due to a tensed band of synthetic material. and the First Law of Thermodynamics P2330200 Mechanical equivalent of heat Temperature-time diagram for a measurement example. Work. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical work Thermal energy Thermal capacity First law of thermodynamics Specific thermal capacity Cobra4 Experiment .2 Heat. Determination of the specific thermal capacity of aluminum and brass. the specific thermal capacity of aluminium and brass is determined. 2. Principle In this experiment. Assuming the equivalence of mechanical work and heat.of heat app. Tasks 1. m 0.

▪ Tare function (set 0. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Raoult's law.. 250 ml. + 300°C.com 91 . Exercises 1.+300°C Pellet press for calorimeter 13617-93 49542-93 36820-00 32288-93 11759-01 04403-04 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 230 V.of boiling point Power regulator Temp.with saftey switch Appar. ▪ Measurements of temperature difference between two probes in any combination.50 . Pt100. ▪ RS 232 interface for simultaneous display and evaluation of the measured values from all four measuring points with a computer. and the First Law of Thermodynamics Boiling point elevation P2340300 Example of a measurement: boiling point increase as function of concentration of table salt in an aqueous solution.4 Thermodynamics 4. immersion type. with 20 mm high digits for presentation of the values measured at the selected measuring points. Henry's law Ebullioscopic constants Chemical potential Gibbs-Helmholtz equation Concentration ratio Degree of dissociation Temperature meter digital. 4-2 Heating mantle for roundbottom flask.2 Heat.. Equipment and technical data ▪ Measuring range: . probe. user-friendly designed instrument for measuring temperature and temperature differences at four different measuring points. ▪ Automatic compensation of probe differences with an adjust function..00) with a ten times better resolution in a wide range on each side of the newly set zero. Resolution: up to 0. ▪ Recorder output can be switched for output of the measured values of one of the digital displays to a tY recorder. Probe connection: 4 diode plug. 4-2 Function and Application Modern. Investigate the relationship between the increase in boiling point and the number of particles. 3. urea and hydroquinone. 2. Determine the molar mass of the solute from the relationship between the increase in boiling point and the concentration. KG · www.60 Hz ▪ Casing dimensions (mm): 270 × 236 × 168 13617-93 Main articles Temperature meter digital.phywe. -20. 5 pin ▪ Interface: RS 232 C. Probe type: Pt 100. Benefits ▪ Two demonstrative 4 digit LED display (+ sign). Mains supply: 230 V / 50. stainless steel..01°C. Measure the increase in boiling point of water as a function of the concentration of table salt. The dependence of the temperature difference (elevated boiling point) on the concentration of the solute can be determined using a suitable apparatus.. Work.for elev. 9600 Baud. Principle The boiling point of a solution is always higher than that of the pure solvent..

determine the number of ions into which the electrolyte dissociates. and the First Law of Thermodynamics P2340400 Freezing point depression Cooling curve of water/table salt (NaCI) mixture.for freezing point depr. Degree of dissociation ▪ Van't Hoff factor. 2. Principle The freezing point of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. Pt100. stainless steel. Work. By comparing the experimental value with the theoretical one predicted for this concentration. Temp. The depression of the freezing point can be determined experimentally using a suitable apparatus (cryoscopy). Concentration ratio.. Determine the apparent molar mass of a non-electrolyte (hydroquinone) from the value of freezing point depression. Determine the degree of freezing point depression after dissolving a strong electrolyte (NaCl) in water. -20. 4-2 App. Cryoscopic constants..2 Heat. probe.4 Thermodynamics 4.+300°C Magnetic stirrer Mini / MST Retort stand. immersion type. h 1000 mm Pellet press for calorimeter 13617-93 36821-00 11759-01 47334-93 37695-00 04403-04 1 1 2 1 1 1 excellence in science 92 . Chemical potential ▪ Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. What you can learn about ▪ Raoult's law. the molecular mass of the dissolved substances can be determined. Cryoscopy Main articles Temperature meter digital. Exercises 1. If the cryoscopic constants of the solvent are known.

4 Thermodynamics
4.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Cooling by evacuation

P1500060

Temperature curve of the water during pumping. The boiling temperature of water is dependent on the pressure of the air that burdens it.

Principle When the air pressure above a watersurface is reduced, the water begins to boil at a certain temperature. The temperature of the water is hereby reduced and further evacuation can finally bring it to 0°C and even lower. Tasks 1. Determine the temperature curve of water during pumping. What you can learn about ▪ air pressure ▪ kinetic gas theory ▪ supercooling

Cobra4 Wireless-Link

Function and Applications Interface module for the radio-based transmission of sensor measuring values in conjunction with the Cobra4 wireless manager. Benefits ▪ All Cobra4 Sensor-Units can be quickly connected using a secure and reliable plug-in / lockable connection. ▪ All Cobra4 measuring sensors are easy to plug in and automatically detected. The radio network with the Cobra4Wireless Manager is established automatically and is extremely stable, as it uses its own radio protocol ▪ Up to 99 Cobra4 Wireless-Links can be connected to one Cobra4 Wireless-Manager, no more cable mess, thanks to radio measuring.With radio transmission, moving sensors offer completely new experimentation options, e.g. the measurement of acceleration of a student on a bicycle etc. ▪ The use of high performance batteries means that no external power supplyis required. 12601-00

Main articles
Rotary Vane pump, one stage, 115 V / 230 V Software Cobra4 - multi-user licence Pump plate, complete Cobra4 Wireless-Link Bell jar, with knob and sealing ring Manometer -1.0...0.6 bar Oil mist filter, DN 16 KF Cobra4 Wireless Manager Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Temperature, semiconductor -20...110 °C Protection cylinder for bell-jar 02740-95 14550-61 02668-88 12601-00 02668-10 03105-00 02752-16 12600-00 12640-00 02668-14 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
93

4 Thermodynamics
4.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

P2350101

Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with an amplifier

Thermoelectric e. m. f. of thermopile as a function of the filament's absolute temperature.

Principle According of Stefan-Boltzmann's law, the energy emitted by a black body per unit area and unit time is proportional to the power "four" of the absolute temperature of the body. StefanBoltzmann's law is also valid for a so-called "grey" body whose surface shows a wavelength independent absorption-coefficient of less than one. In the experiment, the"grey" body is represented by the filament of an incandescent lamp whose energy emission is investigated as a function of the temperature. Tasks 1. To measure the resistance of the filament of the incandescent lamp at room temperature and to ascertain the filament's resistance R0 at zero degrees centrigrade. 2. To measure the energy flux density of the lamp at different heating voltages. The corresponding heating currents read off for each heating voltage and the corresponding filament resistance calculated. Anticipating a temperature-dependency of the second order of the filament-resistance, the temperature can be calculated from the measured resistances. What you can learn about ▪ Black body radiation ▪ Thermoelectric e. m. f. ▪ Temperature dependence of resistances

Slide mount for optical bench, h = 30 mm Lamp holder E 14,on stem Base for optical bench, adjustable Connection box Shielding tube, for 08479-00

08286-01 06175-00 08284-00 06030-23 08479-01

2 1 2 1 1

Related Experiment
Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with Cobra3 P2350115

Cobra4 Experiment - available 2013
Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation with Cobra4 P2350160

Main articles
Universal measuring amplifier Thermopile, Moll type Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Digital multimeter 2010 13626-93 08479-00 13530-93 08283-00 07128-00 1 1 1 1 3

excellence in science
94

4 Thermodynamics
4.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Peltier heat pump

P2410800

Pump cooling capacity as a function of the operating current.

Principle The (cooling capacity) heating capacity and efficiency rating of a Peltier heat pump are determined under different operating conditions. Tasks 1. To determine the cooling capacity Pc the pump as a function of the current and to calculate the efficiency rating hc at maximum output. 2. To determine the heating capacity Pw of the pump and its efficiency rating hw at constant current and constant temperature on the cold side. 3. To determine Pw, η w and Pc , ηc from the relationship between temperature and time on the hot and cold sides. 4. To investigate the temperature behaviour when the pump is used for cooling, with the hot side air-cooled. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Peltier effect, Heat pipe, Thermoelectric e. m. f. Peltier coefficient, Cooling capacity, Heating capacity Efficiency rating, Thomson coefficient, Seebeck coefficient Thomson equations, Heat conduction Convection, Forced cooling, Joule effect

Thermogenerator with 2 water baths
Function and Applications To commute thermal energy into electrical energy directly and for operation as heat pump. Also been used to demonstrate the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. Equipment and technical data ▪ Generator block consisting of two nickel coated copper plates with hole for thermometer, between these, p- and n-conducting silicon thermocouples, connected thermally parallel and electrically in series. ▪ Two water containers with open sides, which are used as heat reservoirs, are screwed to the generator block. They can be exchanged for flowthrough heat exchanger or air cooler. ▪ Standard accessories: 2 open water containers (brass, nickel coated); 2 rubber gaskets; 2 clamping jaws and 4 knurled screws. ▪ Number of thermocouples: 142. ▪ Permanent operating temperature: approx. 100°C. ▪ Interior resistance: 2.8 Ohm. ▪ Operation as thermo generator: output voltage at T = 40°C: approx. 2 V; efficiency at T = 40°C: approx. 1%. ▪ Operation as heat pump: max. permanent current 6 A. ▪ Dimensions (mm): generator block: 24 × 80 × 126, water container 28 × 70 × 94. 04366-00

Main articles
Thermogenerator with 2 water baths Power supply, universal Rheostat, 33 Ohm , 3.1A Flow-through heat exchanger Air cooler 04366-00 13500-93 06112-02 04366-01 04366-02 1 1 1 1 1

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
95

4 Thermodynamics
4.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3
Principle

P2320115
The state of a gas is determined by temperature, pressure and amount of substance. For the limiting case of ideal gases, these state variables are linked via the general equation of state. For achange of state under isochoric conditions this equation becomes Amontons'law. In this experiment it is investigated whether Amontons' law is valid for a constant amount of gas (air).

For more details refer to page 82.

Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals
Principle

P2350200
The thermal conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined in a constant temperature gradient from the calorimetrically measured heat flow. The electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined, and the Wiedmann-Franz law is tested.

For more details refer to page 105.

Solar ray collector
Principle

P2360100
The solar ray collector is illuminated with a halogen lamp of known light intensity. The heat energy absorbed by the collector can be calculated from the volume flow and the difference in the water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the absorber, if the inlet temperature stays almost constant by releasing energy to a reservoir. The efficiency of the collector is determined from this. The measurement is made with various collector arrangements and at various absorber temperatures.

For more details refer to page 106.

excellence in science
96

4 Thermodynamics
4.2 Heat, Work, and the First Law of Thermodynamics

Heat insulation / heat conduction
Principle

P2360360
A model house with replaceable side walls is used for determining the heat transition coefficients (k values) of various walls and windows and for establishing the heat conductivities of different materials. For this purpose the temperatures on the inside and outside of the walls are measured at a constant interior and outer air temperature (in the steady state). With a multilayer wall structure the temperature difference over a layer is proportional to the particular thermal transmission resistance. The thermal capacity of the wall material affects the wall temperatures during heating up and temporary exposure to solar radiation.

For more details refer to page 107.

Stirling engine with Cobra3
Principle

P2360415
The Stirling engine is submitted to a load by means of an adjustable torquemeter, or by a coupled generator. Rotation frequency and temperature changes of the Stirling engine are observed. Effective mechanical energy and power, as well as effective electrical power, are assessed as a function of rotation frequency. The amount of energy converted to work per cycle can be determined with the assistance of the pV diagram. The efficiency of the Stirling engine can be estimated.

For more details refer to page 99.

Semiconductor thermogenerator
Principle

P2410700
In a semi-conductor thermogenerator, the no-load voltage and the short-circuit current are measured as a function of the temperature difference. The internal resistance, the Seebeck coefficient and the efficiency are determined.

For more details refer to page 219.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
97

4 Thermodynamics
4.3 Heat Engines, Entropy, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics

P2360200

Electric compression heat pump

Temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the vaporiser Vi, Vo and condenser Ci, Co as a function of the operating time; continuous curves: temperature in water reservoirs.

Principle Pressures and temperatures in the circulation of the heat electrical compression heat pump are measured as a function of time when it is operated as a water-water heat pump. The energy taken up and released is calculated from the heating and cooling of the two water baths. When it is operated as an air-water heat pump, the coefficient of performance at different vaporiser temperatures is determined. Tasks 1. Water heat pump: To measure pressure and temperature in the circuit and in the water reservoirs on the condenser side and the vaporiser side alternately. To calculate energy taken up and released, also the volume concentration in the circuit and the volumetric efficiency of the compressor. 2. Air-water heat pump: To measure vaporiser temperature and water bath temperature on the condenser side under different operating conditions on the vaporiser side, ▪ with stream of cold air ▪ with stream of hot air ▪ without blower. If a power meter is available, the electric power consumed by the compressor can be determined with it and the coefficient of performance calculated. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Refrigerator, Compressor Restrictor valve, Cycle Vaporization, Condensation Vapour pressure, Vaporisation enthalpy

Main articles
Heat pump, compressor principle Work and power meter Tripod base PHYWE Hot/cold air blower, 1800 W 04370-88 13715-93 02002-55 04030-93 1 1 1 1

Work and power meter
Function and Applications For AC and DC circuits Equipment and technical data ▪ Two 4-digit, 20 mm LED-displays ▪ Display 1 for real and apparent power,current, voltage, phase difference and freqency ▪ Display 2 for energy and time, Selector for serial display of all units ▪ LED-Status-display and automactic range selection ▪ Power: max. 2400 W, Resolution: max. 0.001 W ▪ Voltage: 0-30V AC/DC, 0-240, Veff- Current: 0...10A AC/DC ▪ Phasen difference: 0...+/- 90 degree, Frequency: 0...10000 Hz ▪ Energy: max. 9999 Wh or Ws, Resolution: max. 0.001 Ws ▪ Analog output for all units of disp. 1, Mains: 110/230V, 50/ 60Hz ▪ Shock-resistant plastic housing with carry handle and base 13715-93

excellence in science
98

pVnT Stirling engine transparent Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 6. Calibration of the sensor unit. are assessed as a function of rotation frequency. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ First and second law of thermodynamics Reversible cycles Isochoric and isothermal changes Gas jaws Efficiency Stirling engine Conversion of heat Thermal pump Meter for Stirling engine. with the assistance of the torque meter. Assessment of the mechanical work per revolution. Tasks 1. and calculation of the mechanical power output as a function of the rotation frequency. Rotation frequency and temperature changes of the Stirling engine are observed. sheathed Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Chimney for stirling engine 04371-97 04372-00 12150-50 04371-00 04372-02 04372-01 13615-01 12151-99 14504-61 04372-04 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Related Experiment Stirling engine with an oscilloscope P2360401 Cobra4 Experiment . The amount of energy converted to work per cycle can be determined with the assistance of the pV diagram.phywe. USB Sensor unit pVn for Stirling engine Torque meter Motor/ generator unit Thermocouple NiCr-Ni. Determination of the burner's thermal efficiency 2. or by a coupled generator. using transparent paper and coordinate paper. KG · www. The efficiency of the Stirling engine can be estimated. and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Stirling engine with Cobra3 P2360415 Pressure as a function of Volume for the Stirling process.com 99 .4 Thermodynamics 4. 3. Assessment of the electric power output as a function of the rotation frequency. Main articles Principle The Stirling engine is submitted to a load by means of an adjustable torquemeter. as well as effective electrical power. Calculation of the total energy produced by the engine through determination of the cycle area on the oscilloscope screen. Efficiency assessment.3 Heat Engines. Entropy.available 2013 Stirling engine with Cobra4 P2360460 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 5. Effective mechanical energy and power. 4.

In this experiment it is investigated whether Amontons' law is valid for a constant amount of gas (air). The adiabatic coefficient of various gases is determined from the periodic time of the oscillation. For the limiting case of ideal gases. The oscillationis maintained by leading escaping gas back into the system. Adiabatic coefficient of gases . pressure and amount of substance. For more details refer to page 82. Thermal equation of state and critical point Principle P2320400 A substance which is gaseous under normal conditions is enclosed in a variable volume and the variation of pressure with the volume is recorded at different temperatures. excellence in science 100 .3 Heat Engines. The critical point is determined graphically from a plot of the isotherms. For achange of state under isochoric conditions this equation becomes Amontons'law. For more details refer to page 87.4 Thermodynamics 4. and the Second Law of Thermodynamics Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3 Principle P2320115 The state of a gas is determined by temperature.Flammersfeld oscillator Principle P2320500 A mass oscillates on a volume of gas in a precision glass tube. these state variables are linked via the general equation of state. For more details refer to page 86. Entropy.

Duran glass and quartz glass as a function of temperature using a dilatometer.4 Thermal Properties and Processes Thermal expansion in solids P2310200 Relationship between length l and temperature . Determine the linear expansion of brass. Investigate the relationship between change in length and overall length in the case of aluminum.01 Lab thermometer.phywe. c) copper. iron. 2.+100C 08493-93 04233-00 08487-02 04231-07 04231-06 08493-02 04231-05 38056-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 101 .-10.01 External circulation set for thermostat Alpha A Copper tube for 04231.01 Aluminium tube for 04231. for a) aluminium. 230 V Dilatometer with clock gauge Bath for thermostat. aluminum. f) quartz glass (lo = 600 mm) Prinicple The linear expansion of various materials is determined as a function of temperature Tasks 1.4 Thermodynamics 4. copper. Makrolon Tube. quartz for 04231. e) duran glass. KG · www. Related Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Linear expansion volume expansion of liquids thermal capacity lattice potential equilibrium spacing Grüneisen equation Main articles Immersion thermostat Alpha A.. d) steel. b) brass.

Tasks Determine the volume expansion of n-heptane (C7H16). c) olive oil.. Makrolon Measuring tube. Temperature accuracy: ± 0. With additional cooling: -25 to 85°C. 100 ml 08493-93 08487-02 03024-00 30084-25 30075-25 30177-10 35811-01 38056-00 36002-00 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 1 1 excellence in science 102 .4 Thermodynamics 4. Prinicple The volume expansion of liquids is determined as a function of temperature. tall. Robust design using high grade stainless steel and temperature resistant polymer. Benefits ▪ Wide temperature range to meet application needs. integrated overload protection Equipment and technical data ▪ Heater capacity: 1.05 K. Digital settings for simple operation. Power supply: 230 V.reliable options for obtaining consistent results.IGJ19/26 Glycerol 250 ml Ethyl acetate 250 ml Olive oil. 50-60 Hz. 230 V Function and Applications Immersion circulator with simple.5 kW. 230 V Bath for thermostat.Working temperature range: 25 to 85°C.300mm.IGJ19/26 Lab thermometer. 100ml. To be used with water as heat transfer liquid.flat bottom. Strong pump for high temperature conformity.4 Thermal Properties and Processes P2310300 Thermal expansion in liquids Relationship between volume V and temperature T of:a) ethyl acetate. Screw clamp for bath walls up to 25 mm.l. b) methylated spirit. Wear-free. Dimensions (WxDxH): 125 x 125 x 300 mm 08493-93 Main articles Immersion thermostat Alpha A. d) glycerol and e) water. Related Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Linear expansion volume expansion of liquids thermal capacity lattice potential equilibrium spacing Grüneisen equation Immersion thermostat Alpha A.+100C Glass beaker DURAN®.pure 100 ml Flask.-10. olive oil and water as a function of temperature. Compact unit can be combined with any existing baths up to 25 mm wallthickness. using the pycnometer.

This allows for investigations to be performed on real gases and vapours. Carnot cycle Heating apparatus for glass jacket system Function and Applications Hot plate.60 Hz dimensions (mm): 160 x 95 x 90 mm Items suitable for heating: minimum length: 130mm.phywe. Measure the vapour pressure of water as a function of temperature. For this purpose. The heat of vaporisation is determined at various temperatures from the measurement of vapour pressure as a function of temperature. Typical equilibrium states between gas and liquid phases can be set up. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ power requirement 500 W max.. Principle The high-pressure steam apparatus makes it possible to measure steam pressure in a temperature range of 100-250°C.. KG · www. 3. For a uniform and hence material protecting heating of cylindrical bodies or devices made of metal. surface temperature 500°C mains supply: 230 V.50 g Boss head Lab thermometer.4 Thermal Properties and Processes Vapour pressure of water at high temperature P2340100 Natural logarithm of vapour pressure p as a function of the reciprocal of the temperature (1/ T): Tb = boiling point at normal pressure. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Boiling point Heat of vaporisation Clausius-Clapeyron equation Van't Hoff law.4 Thermodynamics 4.. water is heated in a closed pressure chamber at constant volume.+250C 02622-10 32246-93 02002-55 03747-00 02043-00 38065-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 Accessories Recommended accessorie to regulate the temperature: ▪ power controller (32288-93) 32246-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. diameter: 36. 50. Determine boiling point at normal pressure by extrapolation.com 103 .100 mm Main articles High pressure vapour unit Heating apparatus for glass jacket system Tripod base PHYWE Heat conductive paste.-10. Calculate the heat of vaporisation at various temperatures from the values measured. Exercises 1. ceramic or glass... 2.

3°C. It is shown that the Clausius-Clapeyron equation describes the relation between temperature and pressure in an adequate manner.GL25/2GL18 02740-95 35731-93 03105-00 02752-16 35677-15 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 104 . weight: 2. p and t are read in steps of 5°C up to a maximum of t = 85°C.... frequency: 50. 1250 rpm ▪ heating power: 600 W. hotplate made from an aluminiumsilicon alloy (AlSi 12) for good heat-transfer.100ml. stirring capacity: 10 ltr. hotplate temperature:regulated 50 .3-n... An average value for the heat of vaporization of water is determined.. one stage.4 Thermodynamics 4.8 kg 35731-93 Main articles Rotary Vane pump. Vaporization Vapour pressure Clausius-Clapeyron equation Magnetic stirrer Function and Application Magnetic stirrer Benefits ▪ because of a pressure moulded aluminium housing which is coated with an electrostatically applied powder the stirrer is excellent corrosion resistant. 325°C.6 bar Oil mist filter. speed-range: 50 . Principle The vapour pressure of water in the range of 40°C to 85°C is investigated.0..4 Thermal Properties and Processes P2340200 Vapour pressure of water below 100°C . Tasks 1. DN 16 KF Round flask. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Pressure.. Temperature Volume.60 Hz. Further heating causes an increase in pressure p and temperature t of water within the round flask. setting accuracy: +/. The 3-neck round flask is filled about three-quarters full with gas-free water and heated.molar heat of vaporisation Semilogarithmic representation of vapour pressure p as a function of 1/T. At 35°C the space above the water within the round flask is evacuated. 115 V / 230 V Magnetic stirrer Manometer -1. The water is then cooled down to room temperature. 2.. M-10 threateded support rod connection integrated in the housing ▪ voltage: 230 V. two seperate switchs with LEDs for heating and stirring Equipment and technical data ▪ max..0. About 250 ml of de-mineralized water are allowed to boil for about 10 minutes to eliminate all traces of dissolved gas. over-heating protection: 350°C. connection for an electroniccontact-thermometer: DIN 5-pins 270°. hotplate diameter: 145 mm.

Measure the calefaction of water at a temperature of 0°C in a calorimeter due to the action of the ambient temperature as a function of time.conn.7A Heat conductivity rod. Tripod base PHYWE 13617-93 13626-93 13533-93 06110-02 04518-11 47334-93 11759-01 04518-12 04518-10 02002-55 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. establish a constant temperature gradient in a metal rod with the use of two heat reservoirs (boiling water and ice water) After removing the pieces of ice. Cu Magnetic stirrer Mini / MST Temp. 10 Ohm . 2.com 105 . 5. KG · www. 3.4 Thermodynamics 4. stainless steel.. Pt100. 14 VAC/ 12 VDC. 5.heat conduct. immersion type. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electrical conductivity Wiedmann-Franz law Lorenz number Diffusion Temperature gradient Heat transport Specific heat Four-point measurement Main articles Temperature meter digital. probe.+300°C Heat conductivity rod.vessel w. The electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined. measure the calefaction of the cold water as a function of time and determine the thermal conductivity of the metal rod. -20. Tasks 1. Determine the heat capacity of the calorimeter in a mixture experiment as a preliminary test. To begin with. 4. Al Calor. Determine the electrical conductivity of copper and aluminium by recording a current-voltage characteristic line.. 4-2 Universal measuring amplifier Multitap transformer.phywe. Principle The thermal conductivity of copper and aluminium is determined in a constant temperature gradient from the calorimetrically measured heat flow. 5 A Rheostat. Test of the Wiedmann-Franz law. and the Wiedmann-Franz law is tested.4 Thermal Properties and Processes Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals P2350200 Diagram: Heat of surroundings over time.

Water temperature Te. 5000 ml Stopwatch. 1/100 s 06753-00 06754-01 08125-93 13505-93 06755-00 06757-00 02002-55 04030-93 36272-00 03071-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 What you can learn about ▪ Absorption. m · = 100 cm3/min.4 Thermodynamics 4. 230 V Heat exchanger Solar collector stand. Collector without glass plate ▪ Illumination with halogen lamp. Energy ceiling excellence in science 106 . cold jet of air impinges. ▪ Absorption of energy from the environment (20°C) without illumination by sun or halogen lamp. Complete collector 2. Main articles Solar ray collector Circulating pump w.flowmeter Halogen lamp 1000 W Power supply 0. 2. 1. Collector equations ▪ Efficiency. short. Greenhouse effect ▪ Convection. Absorber with insulation and glassplate (complete collector) 2. 20°C. A = 0 · 12 m2. qi = 1 kW/m2. The heat energy absorbed by the collector can be calculated from the volume flow and the difference in the water temperatures at the inlet and outlet of the absorber. cold jet of air impinges Collector without glass plate Collector without glass plate. 50°C. The measurement is made with various collector arrangements and at various absorber temperatures. Tasks To determine the efficiency of the solar ray collector under various experimental conditions. 4. Water temperature Te. digital. 1.4 Thermal Properties and Processes P2360100 Solar ray collector Water Temperatures and Collector Efficiency under Various Experimental Conditions. teaching aid Tripod base PHYWE Hot/cold air blower.12 V DC/ 6 V. Complete collector Complete collector. Absorber alone (energy ceiling) ▪ Illumination with halogen lamp. 1. Heat radiation.. 1800 W Glass beaker. Conduction of heat.. water temperature at the absorber inlet Te . The efficiency of the collector is determined from this. Principle The solar ray collector is illuminated with a halogen lamp of known light intensity. 3. if the inlet temperature stays almost constant by releasing energy to a reservoir. 5°C. 12 V AC.

exterior insulation and heating. fixed to the angle pillars of the base rack with 4 knurled screws which cannot be lost. Principle A model house with replaceable side walls is used for determining the heat transition coefficients (k values) of various walls and windows and for establishing the heat conductivities of different materials. ▪ Lid insulated by a 5 cm thick Styrofoam plate. rechargeable batteries. With a multilayer wall structure the temperature difference over a layer is proportional to the particular thermal transmission resistance. ▪ The hole is sealed off with foam material. Styropor or cavity layers. 04507-93 Main articles High insulation house 04507-93 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. ▪ Each of the exterior walls carry a profile and a small eccentric plate to hold supplementary insulating material. The thermal capacity of the wall material affects the wall temperatures during heating up and temporary exposure to solar radiation. 2. Tasks 1. Measurement and interpretation of water temperatures during the heating up and during temporary external illumination of the walls. incl. ▪ Basic rack: ground insulated through a 5 cm thick Styrofoam plate..4 Thermal Properties and Processes Heat insulation / heat conduction P2360360 Heat transition resistance 1/k as a function of the wall thickness d. -50. SD memory card.. KG · www. Heat conductivity Thermal radiation Hothouse effect Thermal capacity Temperature amplitude attenuation Thermal regulation for high insulation house Cobra4 Mobile-Link set. USB cable and software "measure" Cobra4 Sensor-Unit 2 x Temperature. 3. Heat transfer. ▪ Every angle pillar has a hole to introduce temperature probes. Determination of the heat conductivities of wood and Styropor. ▪ Casing dimensions (mm): 400 × 400 × 400 . For this purpose the temperatures on the inside and outside of the walls are measured at a constant interior and outer air temperature (in the steady state).com 107 .. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Heat transition. NiCr-Ni Thermocouple NiCr-Ni.phywe. and of walls with wood. ▪ The measuring walls are set in from the inside and pressed by two screws against the aperture gasket.4 Thermodynamics 4. Determination of the k values of ordinary glass and insulating glass windows and of wooden walls of different thicknesses. ▪ Side walls with square apertures (210 mm × 210 mm). Equipment and technical data ▪ The high insulation house consists of a thermally insulated base rack with removable lid.500°C 04506-93 1 12620-55 12641-00 13615-02 2 2 4 High insulation house Function and Applications Device for quantitative experiments with thermal insulation. measuring walls.

Under isobaric conditions a temperature increase results in a volume dilatation. Adiabatic coefficient of gases . which can be read from a gas syringe. For more details refer to page 85. The temperature of the water is hereby reduced and further evacuation can finally bring it to 0°C and even lower. The molar heat capacities CV and Cp are calculated from the pressure or volume change. For more details refer to page 87. The adiabatic coefficient of various gases is determined from the periodic time of the oscillation.4 Thermodynamics 4.Flammersfeld oscillator Principle P2320500 A mass oscillates on a volume of gas in a precision glass tube. excellence in science 108 . The oscillationis maintained by leading escaping gas back into the system. Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 Principle P2320211 Heat is added to a gas in a glass vessel by an electric heater which is switched on briefly. The temperature increase results in a pressure increase.4 Thermal Properties and Processes Cooling by evacuation Principle P1500060 When the air pressure above a watersurface is reduced. For more details refer to page 93. which is measured with a manometer. the water begins to boil at a certain temperature.

4 Thermal Properties and Processes Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 Principle P2330111 Heated specimens are placed in a calorimeter filled with water at low temperature. KG · www.com 109 . Freezing point depression Principle P2340400 The freezing point of a solution is lower than that of the pure solvent. The heat capacity of the specimen is determined from the rise in the temperature of the water. Boiling point elevation Principle P2340300 The boiling point of a solution is always higher than that of the pure solvent. the molecular mass of the dissolved substances can be determined. For more details refer to page 89. If the cryoscopic constants of the solvent are known. For more details refer to page 91.4 Thermodynamics 4. For more details refer to page 92. The depression of the freezing point can be determined experimentally using a suitable apparatus (cryoscopy). PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The dependence of the temperature difference (elevated boiling point) on the concentration of the solute can be determined using a suitable apparatus.phywe.

Gay-Lussac and Charles(Amontons) P1223200 Determination of molar masses with the vapour density method P1223301 Gay-Lussac's law of volumes P1223351 Law of integer ratio of volumes P1223400 Steam distillation .4 Thermodynamics 4. ethane and propane P1223751 Determination of the heat of formation of water P1223800 Determination of the heat of formation of CO2 and CO and Hess's law P1223900 Determination of the heating values of solid and gaseous fuels in a horizontal calorimeter P1224051 Determination of the calorific value of food stuffs P1224100 Determination of the heating values of liquids in a vertical calorimeter P1224251 Article no. chemistry and biology.5 Literature Handbook Glass jacket system Gay-Lussac's law of volumes P1223551 Avogadro's law P1223651 The empirical formula of methane.P1224551 excellence in science 110 . Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Gas laws Gas reactions Determining molecular mass Calorimetry Gas chromatography Distillation of steam Determination of the heating value of fuel oil and of thecalorific value of olive oil P1224300 Chromatographic separation processes: gas chromatography P1224451 Steam distillation P1224551 01196-12 This system consists of a glass jacket. special inserts and accessories. 01196-12 Description Comprehensive set of 17 experiments using the glass jacket set for various uses. It was mainly developed for experiments with gases and can be used at school for teaching physics. ▪ Demonstrative and transparent ▪ Versatile and easily assembled ▪ Water bath for accurate measurements This documentation contains the following experiments: Gay-Lussac's law P1222900 Charles's (Amontons') law P1223000 The Boyle-Mariotte law P1223100 The gas laws of Boyle-Mariotte.

phywe. KG · www. Dielectrics.7 5. AC Circuits Maxwell’s Equitations. Electromagnetic Waves 112 116 121 128 132 139 142 145 155 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Storage Electric Current and Resistance Direct-Current Circuits Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces Sources of Magnetic Field Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law Inductance.9 Electric Charge and Electric Field Capacitance. Magnetism.4 5.5 5. Electric Energy.8 5.com 111 .5 Electricity and Magnetism Electricity and Magnetism 5. Electromagnetic Oscillations.2 5.6 5.1 5.3 5.

283x283 mm Potential probe Capacitor plate w. 3. Electric field ▪ Potential. with constant voltage.g. 10 MOhm Digital multimeter 2010 Slide mount for optical bench.hole d 55 mm High-value resistor. Voltage. In the plate capacitor.600 VDC Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Plate capacitor. Tasks 1. The relationship between electric field strength and plate spacing is investigated. as a function of position. Equipotential lines Electric field meter Function and Applications For measurement of static electricfields without losses and with the correct sign as well as for electrostatic measurement of voltages in those cases in which normal static voltmeters are not sensitive enough.. Principle A uniform electric field E _ is produced between the charged plates of a plate capacitor. 2. 0. h = 80 mm Base for optical bench. The potentialø within the field is measured with a potential measuring probe. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 11500-10 13672-93 08283-00 06233-02 11501-00 11500-01 07160-00 07128-00 08286-02 08284-00 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 2 2 2 Steel sheet casing on a rod push-button key for measuring range selection rotating knob for electric zero adjustment two pair of 4 mm sockets to connect power supply and measuring instrument gold plated measuring head with gold plated winged wheel voltage measuring attachment gold plated with two 4 mm sockets to connect voltage which is to be measured Every earth and zero potential freesmoothed direct voltage between 14 and 18 V is suited as an electric energy supply (e.1 Electric Charge and Electric Field P2420100 Electric fields and potentials in the plate capacitor Electric field strength as a function of the plate voltage. the potential is measured with a probe. The strength of the field is determined with the electric field strength meter. The relationship between voltage and electric field strength is investigated.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Main articles Electric field meter Power supply. What you can learn about ▪ Capacitor. adjustable ▪ ▪ 11500-10 excellence in science 112 . with constant plate spacing.. as a function of the plate spacing d and the voltage U. from universal power supply 13500-93) Data output (9-pin Sub-D jack) for connection to the serial interface (RS 232) of a computer via the special cable supplied Accessory (not included): Software Electric Field Meter 14406-61.

0.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Establishment of the relation between the active force and the charge on the ball. 0-25 kV Torsion dynamometer.0.01 N Plate capacitor. Determination of the electric constant. 283x283 mm PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 113 .0. high voltage. range selection buttons Current measurement ▪ Measurement range: 0.1 mA in 8 decade ranges. Tasks 1. Equipment and technical data ▪ 8 current measurement ranges with very low voltage drop ▪ 6 voltage measurement ranges with extremely high input resistance.001 mAs in 5 decade ranges ▪ Accuracy: 3%. button for reversing output voltage ▪ Selection of measurement modes using push-button ▪ Diode indicators for active measurement range ▪ Zero point adjustment.. Establishment of the relation between force and distance.1 nAs.10 V in 6 decade ranges ▪ Input resistance: 10 gOhm 13620-93 13671-93 02416-00 06233-02 1 1 1 4 Charge measurement ▪ Measurement range: 0. Input: BNC socket.1 Electric Charge and Electric Field Coulomb's law / image charge P2420401 Relationship between electrostatic force F and the square of the charge Q for various distances (a) between ball and plate. The surface charge on the plate due to electrostatic induction together with the charged ball forms an electricfield analogous to that which exists between two oppositely charged point charges.1 mV.phywe. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electric field Electric field strength Electric flux Electrostatic induction Electric constant Surface charge density Dielectric displacement Electrostatic potential DC measuring amplifier Function and Applications Versatile measuring amplifier for measurement of very small direct currents.. KG · www. Voltage drop: 1 mV Voltage measurement ▪ Measurement range: 0.01 nA. ball to metal plate.. 3.. discharge button. 2. Overload protection: 250 V 13620-93 Main articles DC measuring amplifier Power supply.. electrical charges and for quasi-static measurements of DC voltages. Principle A small electrically charged ball is positioned at a certain distance in front of a metal plate lying at earth potential. 5 charge measurement ranges ▪ Analogue output for connection of demonstration measurement instruments/ pen recorders.. The electrostatic force acting on the ball can be measured with a sensitive torsion dynamometer.

For a conducting sphere of diameter 2R = 12 cm. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electric field.1 Electric Charge and Electric Field P2420500 Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of metal spheres Field strenght as a function of voltage. r1 = 25 cm. d 40mm 11500-10 13670-93 13505-93 06238-00 07028-01 11501-00 11500-01 07160-00 02002-55 06237-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 114 . as a function of position and voltage. For the conducting spheres of diameters 2R = 12 cm and 2R = 4 cm.hole d 55 mm High-value resistor. electrostatic potential is determined as a function of voltage at a constant distance from the surface of the sphere. r2 = 50 cm.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Electric charge Gaussian rule Surface charge density Induction. Tasks 1. 0-10 kV Power supply 0. Field intensity Electric flow. For the conducting sphere of diameter 2R = 12 cm.. electricfield strength is determined as a function of charging voltage at three different distances from the surface of the sphere. 230 V Conductor ball. r1 = 25 cm. 12 V AC. 3. electric field strength is determined as a function of the distance from the surface of the sphere at constant charging voltage. 2. 10 MOhm Tripod base PHYWE Conductor ball. analogue Potential probe Capacitor plate w. d 120mm Multi-range meter. 4. Induction constant Capacitance Gradient Image charge Electrostatic potential Potential difference Main articles Electric field meter High voltage supply unit.12 V DC/ 6 V. graph 4: sphere with 2R = 4 cm. r3 = 75 cm. Principle Conducting spheres with different diameters are charged electrically. The static potentials and the accompanying electric field intensities are determined by means of an electric field meter with a potential measuring probe.. electrostatic potential at constant voltage is determined as a function of the distance from the surface of the sphere. Graphs 1-3: sphere with 2R = 12 cm. For both conducting spheres.

Equipment and technical data ▪ It supplies 3 continuously variable DC voltages isolated from earth and ground. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The physical background of ESR is similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).com 115 .1 Electric Charge and Electric Field Elementary charge and Millikan experiment Principle P2510100 Charged oil droplets subjected to an electric field and to gravity between the plates of a capacitor are accelerated by application of a voltage. Selectable positive and negative polarity.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Electron spin resonance Principle P2511200 With electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy compounds having unpaired electrons can be studied. ▪ 3-figure LED display.5 MOhm. Special safety sockets. ▪ Internal resistance: approx. KG · www. The g-factor of a DPPH (Di-phenylpikrylhydrazyl) and the halfwidth of the absorption line are determined. 0-10 kV Function and Applications 13670-93 For electrostatic experiments and for operation of spectral and gas discharge tubes.phywe. but with this technique electron spins are excited instead of spins of atomic nuclei.Outputs short-circuit proof. High voltage supply unit. For more details refer to page 192. using the ESR apparatus. For more details refer to page 202. The elementary charge is determined from the velocities in the direction of gravity and in the opposite direction. Two of the voltages are connected in series 0-5 kV DC = total of 0 -10 kV DC.

rechargeable batteries. Air pressure. the Cobra4 USB-Link oder the Cobra4 Junior-Link using a secure and reliable plug-in/ lockable connection. To determine the efficiency.2 Capacitance.Exchange-Membrane). 2. Electric Energy. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. Altitude Gas bar Digital multimeter 2010 Connection box 12670-00 40466-00 07128-00 06030-23 1 1 2 1 Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity. Dielectrics.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.Temperature.Temperature. the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM fuel cell. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Recording the characteristic line of the PEM electrolyser. the Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather can be connected to the Cobra4 Wireless-Link. USB cable and software "measure" PEM fuel cell 13500-93 06748-00 1 1 Function and Applications Depending on application type. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. Altitude What you can learn about Main articles Power supply. Tasks 1. Storage P2411100 Characteristic curve and efficiency of a PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser Volume of the hydrogen generated by the PEM electrolyser as a function of time at different current I. the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton. Determination of the efficiency of the PEM electrolysis unit. Principle In a PEM electrolyser. Air pressure. Light intensity. Light intensity. 12670-00 12620-55 06747-00 1 1 excellence in science 116 . hydrogen and oxygen are formed. 3. Recording the characteristic line of the PEM fuel cell. SD memory card. universal PEM electrolyser Cobra4 Mobile-Link set. incl. When an electric voltage is applied. the Cobra4 MobileLink. 4. Electrolysis Electrode polarisation Decomposition voltage Galvanic elements Faraday's law Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity.

5 A ▪ LED display for constant current operation..com 117 .8mm Stopwatch..05 K and p = 100. digital. universal Function and Applications Versatile heavy duty power supply which can also be used as a constant current supply in schools.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.4 kPa) Principle The correlation between the amounts of substances transformed in the electrode reaction and the applied charge (amount of electricity) is described by Faraday´s law. Tasks 1. laboratories or workshops. 1/100 s 13500-93 44518-00 87997-10 07128-00 06034-01 37694-00 45206-00 03071-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. which appears as a proportionality factor.18 V ▪ Adjustable current limit between 0. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electrolysis Coulometry Charge Amount of substance Faraday´s law Faraday´s contant Avogadro´s number General equation of state for ideal gases Power supply.phywe.2 Capacitance. Determine Faraday´s constant from the dependence of the volumes of hydrogen and oxygen evolved on the applied charge in the hydrolysis of diluted sulphuricacid. 13500-93 Main articles Power supply. Permantely shortcircuit proof &protected against exterior voltages ▪ Alternative voltage output: Multitap transformer 2.. KG · www. Storage Faraday's law P2411200 Correlations between the transferred charge and the evolved volumes of hydrogen and oxygen in the electrolysis of diluted sulphuric acid (T = 296. can be determined experimentally from this dependence. Dielectrics.electrode in prot.. regulated output direct voltage.tube. 6 lines LCD Digital multimeter 2010 On/off switch Retort stand. outputs galvanically separated from mains grid ▪ Full load capacity (5A). Electric Energy. even if direct current is supplied simultaneously ▪ Short-circuit protection through overcurrent circuit breaker ▪ All output voltages available at 4 mm safety plug sockets... h 750 mm Platin.15V. Faraday ´s constant. Equipment and technical data ▪ Direct current source: Stabilised. continuously adjustable from 0. universal Electrolysis apparatus-Hofmann Weather monitor.

from the values measured. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Charging Discharging Time constant Exponential function Half life Cobra4 Experiment .. voltage and resistance are constant (U = 9 V.2 M).2 A / AC 5 A Ripple: max 1 mV Resistance: 1 mOhm Mains voltage: 230 V Housing dimensions: 194 x 140 x 130 mm Main articles Power supply 0. Storage P2420201 Charging curve of a capacitor / charging and discharging of a capacitor Course of current with time at different capacitance values.12 V DC. Tasks ▪ To measure the charging current over time: 1.. 12 V AC.. NiCr-Ni thermocouple Two-way switch.12 V DC/ 6 V. 230 V Function and Applications High quality power supply specially suitable for student experiments in electricity and electronics as well as for demonstration. R = 2... resistance and the voltage applied are determined. single pole Connection box Capacitor 1 microF/ 100V.2x30 micro-F DMM. using different resistance values (C and U constant) 3.2 Capacitance. Dielectrics..available 2013 Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an inductivity with Cobra4 P2420260 Power supply 0... auto range. To determine the equation representing the current when a capacitor is being charged. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Stabilised. using different capacitance values C. 230 V Capacitor.12 V DC/ 6 V. Principle A capacitor is charged by way of a resistor. Electric Energy.7microF/ 100V. Shortcircuit proof Output voltage: 1. G2 13505-93 06219-32 07123-00 06030-00 06030-23 39113-01 39113-03 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 13505-93 excellence in science 118 . G2 Capacitor 4. The current is measured as a function of time and the effects of capacitance. 6 V / 12 V AC Rated current: DC 0. 12 V AC. using different voltages (R and C constant). with constant voltage U and constant resistance R 2.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.

Storage Capacitance of metal spheres and of a spherical capacitor P2420300 U1 (measured voltage) as a function of U2 (charging voltage) measured on conducting spheres with three different diameters. What you can learn about ▪ Voltage. Charge. 0-10 kV Universal measuring amplifier Conductor ball. Principle Metal spheres with different radii and a spherical capacitor are charged by means of a variable voltage. Tasks 1. Potential. Determination of the capacitance of three metal spheres with different diameters. Electric field ▪ Electrostatic induction. 60 mm ▪ Dimensions (mm): 360 x 190 x 450 07616-00 Main articles High voltage supply unit. Electric Energy. analogue High-value resistor. 160 kV ▪ Length spark gap: ca. The corresponding capacitances are deduced from voltage and charge values. 10 MOhm Digital multimeter 2010 Conductor ball. Determination of the capacitance of a spherical capacitor. 3. Determination of the diameters of each test body and calculation of their capacitance values. Capacitor. d 120mm Hemispheres.Cavendish type Multi-range meter. 2. KG · www. Electrostatic induction constant ▪ Capacitance. Dielectrics Wimshurst machine Function and Applications 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Historical device for generation of highvoltage to carry out many impressive electrostatic experiments.2 Capacitance. The induced charges are determined with a measuring amplifier. d 40mm Conductor ball.com 119 .phywe. Equipment and technical data: ▪ manually driven plastic discs and adjustable spark gap connected in parallel to two integrated Leiden bottles (high voltage capacitors) ▪ Diameter of disc: 30 cm ▪ Voltage: max. d 20mm 13670-93 13626-93 06238-00 06273-00 07028-01 07160-00 07128-00 06237-00 06236-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Dielectrics.

4. under constant voltage. The corresponding dielectric constants are determined by comparison with measurements performed with air between the capacitor plates.3-300VDC. between the plates of which different solid dielectric media are introduced. Free charges Dielectric displacement Dielectric polarisation. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured using a plate capacitor. d 260mm Universal measuring amplifier 13670-93 06220-00 13626-93 1 1 1 excellence in science 120 . with plastic or glass filling the space between the plates.98 cm) Principle The electric constant is determined by measuring the charge of a plate capacitor to which a voltage is applied. Dielectrics. Electric Energy.0. 10 MOhm Glass plates f.2 Capacitance.current conductors 07035-00 06233-01 07160-00 06406-00 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Electric fields and potentials in the plate capacitor P2420100 Main articles High voltage supply unit. The dielectric constant is determined in the same way. 0-10 kV Plate capacitor. 3. Dielectric constant Voltmeter. with and with out dielectric (plastic) between the plates (d = 0. The electric constant is to be determined from the relation measured under point 1. The relation between charge Q and voltage U is to be measured by means of a plate capacitor. Storage P2420600 Dielectric constant of different materials Electrostatic charge Q of a plate capacitor as a function of the applied voltage Uc.10-300VAC / Plastic plate 283 x 283 mm High-value resistor. The charge of a plate capacitor is to be measured as a function of the inverse of the distance between the plates. 2. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell's equations Electric constant Capacitance of a plate capacitor Real charges.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.

100 kHz. Suitable for practical exercises. V=10(4) 0.5 kHz. dimensions: 194 x 140 x 126 mm 13626-93 Main articles Universal measuring amplifier Power supply 0. To determine the resistance of various connecting cords by plotting their current / voltage characteristics and calculating the contact resistances.. Al Digital multimeter 2010 Connection box PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 75 kHz. 12 V AC. V=10(2) 0. Principle The resistances of various DC conductors are determined by recording the current / voltage characteristic..phywe. To plot the current / voltage characteristics of metal rods (copper and aluminium) and to calculate their resistivity..12 V DC/ 6 V.com 121 . Tasks 1.input voltage: -10 to + 10 V. Cu Heat conductivity rod. The resistivity of metal rods and the contact resistance of connecting cords are calculated..5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 6 kHz.. 2.... V=10 0... 230 V Heat conductivity rod. mains voltage: 230 V AC. 2 kHz..output voltage: -10 to + 10 V frequency ranges: V=1 0.. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Ohm's law Resistivity Contact resistance Conductivity Four-wire method of measurement Universal measuring amplifier Function and Applications Universal measuring amplifier for amplification of AC and DC voltages.. 10 kHz. Equipment and technical data input impedance: 13626-93 13505-93 04518-11 04518-12 07128-00 06030-23 1 1 1 1 2 1 electrometer: > 10 (13) Ohm low drift: 10 kOhm.2. V=10(3) 0.3 Electric Current and Resistance 4 Point Method / Measurement of low resistances / Ohm's Law P2410101 Current/voltage characteristics of a copper rod and an aluminium rod. V=10(5) 0. KG · www..

3 Electric Current and Resistance P2410115 Ohm's law with Cobra3 Current. 3. G1 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 12151-99 06030-23 17049-00 39104-63 39104-64 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 122 . 1W. Principle The electrical resistance of pure metals increases with increasing temperature. Determine the work and power of an incandescent bulb. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Ohm's law Resistivity Contact resistance Conductivity Power and Work Cobra4 Experiment . To determine the work and power of an incandescent bulb as a function of the applied voltage.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.and dependent resistors. case G1 Resistor 100 Ohm. 2. Power and Work of an incandescent bulb. To plot the current/voltage characteristics of Ohm's resistors and of pure metals and to calculate their resistivity. G1 Resistor 220 Ohm. The correlation between voltage and current is to be measured using temperature-in. To determine the resistance of various connecting cords by plotting their current/characteristics and calculating the contact resistances. Tasks 1. 1W.available 2013 Ohm's law with Cobra4 P2410160 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 Power Graph Power supply 12V / 2A Connection box Lampholder E10.

Germany PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Tasks 1. Determination of the resistance of a wire as a function of its cross-section. Determination of unknown resistances. The total resistance of resistors connected in parallel and in series is measured.com 123 . G1 Resistor 2 Ohm 2%. G1 Resistor 10 Ohm. Voltage. of resistors in series and of resistors in parallel. 5V/ 1A. G1 Resistor 100 Ohm. G1 Resistor 5 Ohm 5%. bridge. 1W. simple Resistance board. metal Digital multimeter 2010 Connection box Resistor 1 Ohm 2%. 2W. 2W.phywe. Series connection Related Experiment Kirchhoff's laws P2410500 In Cooperation with: Main articles Power supply.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 2W. Resistance Parallel connection. Determination of the total resistance 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Kirchhoff's laws Conductor Circuit. Principle The Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to determine unknown resistances. G1 13502-93 07182-00 06108-00 07128-00 06030-23 06055-10 06055-20 06055-50 39104-01 39104-63 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Project of: Lower Saxony Education Office. 3. KG · www.3 Electric Current and Resistance Wheatstone bridge P2410200 Resistance of a conductor wire as a function of its radius r. 1W. +/-15 V Slide wire meas.

The dependence of no-load voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined. Principle The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities.5 x 5 cm Tripod base PHYWE Digital multimeter 2010 Hot/cold air blower. the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied. Conduction band Main articles Universal measuring amplifier Thermopile.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 5. 4. and shortcircuit current on temperature. Donors Valence band. Moll type Rheostat. 1800 W Barrel base PHYWE Bench clamp PHYWE 13626-93 08479-00 06116-02 06751-01 06752-04 02002-55 07128-00 04030-93 02006-55 02010-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 1 2 2 excellence in science 124 . To plot the current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities. no cooling. 1. To determine the light intensity with the thermopile at various distances from the light source.0A Ceramic lamp socket E27 with reflector. 330 Ohm . safety plug Solar battery. To plot the current-votlage characteristic under different operating conditions: cooling the equipment with a blower. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Semiconductor p-n junction Energy-band diagram Fermi characteristic energy level Diffusion potential Internal resistance Efficiency Photo-conductive effect Acceptors. To determine the characteristic curve when illuminated by sunlight. Tasks 1. 6. 2. To measure the short-circuit current and no-load voltage at various distances from the light source. shining the light through a glass plate. 3. To estimate the dependence of no-load voltage. 4 cells.3 Electric Current and Resistance P2410901 Characteristic curves of a solar cell Current-voltage characteristic at different light intensities J. 2. switch.

KG · www. base left.G1 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 06033-00 07128-00 39103-04 12151-99 39127-20 39104-38 39106-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 125 . To investigate the dependence of the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode.phywe. Donors Valence band. 1W.4W. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Semiconductor. Determine the collector current with the collector voltage for various values of the base current intensity.3 Electric Current and Resistance Characteristic curves of semiconductors with Cobra3 and FG module P2410915 Collector current/voltage characteristic of BC337 transistor. To determine the variations of the collector current with the collector voltage for varios values of the base current intensity. Operating point Cobra4 Experiment . G1 Semiconduct. Tasks 1.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Principle Determine the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. G3 Resistor 47 kOhm. G2 Power supply 12V / 2A Transistor BC337. Energy-band diagram Acceptors. Conduction band Transistor. 0.4mm plugs Digital multimeter 2010 Potentiometer 1 kOhm. P-n junction.available 2013 Characteristic curves of semicconductor with Cobra4 P2410960 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Plug-in board.diode/si/1 N 4007. 2.

Principle In this experiment a copper(II) sulphate solution is to be electrolysed using two different materials . 250 g Graphite electrode. Measure the correlation between voltage and current on second order conductors(copper (II) sulphate solution using two different materials . distilled 5 l Copper-II sulphate. 30505-88 excellence in science 126 .l=150.3 Electric Current and Resistance P2411315 Second order conductors . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electrolysis Electrode polarisation Conductivity Ohm's law Cobra4 Experiment .availabel 2013 Second order conductors. h = 500 mm Power supply 12V / 2A Holder for two electrodes Water. Electrolysis with Cobra4 P2411360 TESS Electrochemical measurement set Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.graphite electrodes and copper wires. d = 0.5 mm. During the electrolyses the current/voltage curves are recorded.graphite electrodes and copper wires.d=5. Tasks 1.cryst.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 210 mm × 130 mm. All the equipment is contained on a tray with clearly organised compartments.6pc Copper wire. l = 50 m 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 37692-00 12151-99 45284-01 31246-81 30126-25 44510-00 06106-03 1 1 1 Function and applications 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Material to equip school groups for deriving electrochemical fundamentals in an 8-10 hour practical session.electrolysis with the FG module Current/voltage characteristics of an aqueous copper sulphate solution conducted with graphite electrodes and copper wires. USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Retort stand.

the Seebeck coefficient and the efficiency are determined. To determine the efficiency. Charging curve of a capacitor / charging and discharging of a capacitor Principle P2420201 A capacitor is charged by way of a resistor.Exchange-Membrane). the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. For more details refer to page 116. hydrogen and oxygen are formed. When an electric voltage is applied.com 127 . resistance and the voltage applied are determined. For more details refer to page 219. the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton. KG · www. Characteristic curve and efficiency of a PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser Principle P2411100 In a PEM electrolyser. The current is measured as a function of time and the effects of capacitance. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen.phywe. For more details refer to page 118. the no-load voltage and the short-circuit current are measured as a function of the temperature difference. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line.3 Electric Current and Resistance Semiconductor thermogenerator Principle P2410700 In a semi-conductor thermogenerator. The internal resistance. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.

sensor -20. 3. 230 V Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Tasks 1. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the resistance of different electrical components. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Carbon film resistor Metallic film resistor PTC NTC Z diode Avalanche effect Zener effect Charge carrier generation Free path Mathie's rule Cobra3. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the voltage in the Zener and the avalanche effects. blocking voltage) of different components is determined. resistance. To do this. the immersion probe set is immersed in a water bath and the resistance is measured at regular temperature intervals. Principle The temperature dependence of an electrical parameter (e.g. conducting-state voltage.. Measurement of the temperature dependence of the conducting state voltage of semiconducting diodes.110 C Ext. USB Measuring module function generator Immersion probes for determining ct Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Bath for thermostat. 2. circulation set for thermostat Alpha A Connection box Power supply 12V / 2A 12120-00 08493-02 06030-23 12151-99 1 1 1 2 Related Experiment Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes with a multimeter P2410401 Cobra4 Experiment .available 2013 Temperature dependance of different resistors and diodes with Cobra4 P2410460 Main articles Immersion thermostat Alpha A.4 Direct-Current Circuits P2410415 Temperature dependence of different resistors and diodes with Cobra3 Diagram of resistances.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Makrolon 08493-93 12150-50 12111-00 07163-00 14525-61 08487-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 128 .

. Mains voltage: 230 V ▪ Housing dimensions: 194 x 140 x 130 mm 13505-93 Main articles Power supply 0. G1 Resistor 470 Ohm. G1 Resistor 220 Ohm. Output voltage: 1. Shortcircuit proof.. Resistance: 1 mOhm. 12 V AC. 6 V / 12 V AC.. Tasks 1. 12 VAC.. Determine unknown resistances by the use of the Wheatstone bridge circuit. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Kirchhoff's laws induction law Maxwell equations current voltage resistance parallel connection series connection potentiometer Related Experiment Wheatstone bridge P2410200 Power supply 0. 1W. G1 Resistor 1kOhm.2 A / AC 5 A ▪ Ripple: max 1 mV..com 129 .12 V DC. Rated current: DC 0. 1W. 230 V Digital multimeter 2010 Connection box Resistor 100 Ohm. 1W. KG · www. voltage and resistance in series and parallel circuits. G1 Resistor 330 Ohm.phywe. From these measurements calculate the partial and total resistances.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. G1 13505-93 07128-00 06030-23 39104-63 39104-64 39104-13 39104-15 39104-19 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 1W.. 230 V Function and Applications High quality power supply specially suitable for student experiments in electricity and electronics as well as for demonstration. 1W.12 VDC/ 6 V. 2... The Wheatstone bridge circuit is used to determine unknown resistances more precisely. Equipment and technical data ▪ Stabilised. Principle First Kirchhoff's laws are verified by measuring current.4 Direct-Current Circuits Kirchhoff's laws P2410500 Schematic circuit for the Wheatstone bridge. Verify Kirchhoff's laws by measuring current and voltage for series and parallel connected resistors for each resistor as well as the total values.12 V DC/ 6 V.

The correlation between voltage and current is to be measured using temperature-in. The dependence of noload voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Characteristic curves of a solar cell Principle P2410901 The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities. The resistivity of metal rods and the contact resistance of connecting cords are calculated. For more details refer to page 121. Ohm's law with Cobra3 Principle P2410115 The electrical resistance of pure metals increases with increasing temperature. the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied.and dependent resistors.4 Direct-Current Circuits 4 Point Method / Measurement of low resistances Ohm's Law Principle P2410101 The resistances of various DC conductors are determined by recording the current / voltage characteristic. Determine the work and power of an incandescent bulb. For more details refer to page 122. excellence in science 130 . For more details refer to page 124.

For more details refer to page 126. Characteristic curve and efficiency of a PEM fuel cell and a PEM electrolyser Principle P2411100 In a PEM electrolyser. For more details refer to page 125. The electrical properties of the electrolyser and the fuel cell are investigated by recording a current-voltage characteristic line. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. the electrolyte consists of a proton-conducting membrane and water (PEM = Proton. Second order conductors .graphite electrodes and copper wires.Exchange-Membrane).electrolysis with Cobra3 and FG module Principle P2411315 In this experiment a copper(II) sulphate solution is to be electrolysed using two different materials . Determine the collector current with the collector voltage for various values of the base current intensity.com 131 . When an electric voltage is applied. During the electrolyses the current/voltage curves are recorded.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. hydrogen and oxygen are formed. The PEM fuel cell generates electrical energy from hydrogen and oxygen. For more details refer to page 116.phywe. the gases are stored in small gasometers in order to be able to measure the quantities of the gases generated or consumed. KG · www. To determine the efficiency.4 Direct-Current Circuits Characteristic curves of semiconductors with Cobra3 and FG module Principle P2410915 Determine the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode.

2. with sufficient accuray. Principle The force acting on a current-carrying conductor loop in a uniform magnetic field (Lorentz force) is measured with a balance. with Cobra4 P2410660 Main articles Power supply. The direction of the force is to be determined as a function of the current and the direction of the magnetic field. for a conductor loop. with a constant magnetic induction B and for conductor loops of various sizes. and the Lorentz force is determined as a function of the current and magnetic induction. laminated Pole pieces. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Uniform magnetic field Magnetic induction (formerly magnetic-flux densitiy) Lorentz force Moving charges Current Coil. The force F is to be measured. proportional to the coil current IM. as a function of the current IL in the conductor loop. U-shaped.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces P2410601 Current balance/ force acting on a current-carrying conductor with an amperemeter Lorentz force F as a function of the current IL in the conductor loop.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. on rod Ammeter 1/5 A DC 13500-93 11081-01 07038-00 1 1 2 excellence in science 132 . as a function of the coil current IM. 3. The magnetic induction is to be calculated. 1 pair Tripod base PHYWE Bridge rectifier. the magnetic induction B is. The magnetic induction can be varied with the coil current. The uniform magnetic field is generated by an electromagnet.rectangular. 30V AC/1A DC On/off switch Distributor 06512-01 06501-00 11081-02 02002-55 06031-10 06034-01 06024-00 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 Cobra4 Experiment Current balance / Force acting on a current-carrying cond. In the range being considered. 900 turns Iron core. universal Balance LGN 310. Conductor loops of various sizes are suspended in turn from the balance. The force F is to be measured. Tasks 1.

com 133 . To measure the magnetic flux density in the middle of various wire loops with the Hall probe and to investigate itsdependence on the radius and number of turns.phywe.300 turns. lengths l1 = 53 mm. To measure the magnetic flux density along the axis of long coils and compare it with theoretical values. Principle The magnetic field along the axis of wire loops and coils of different dimensions is measured with a teslameter (Hall probe).40mm 13500-93 12150-50 12004-10 12109-00 12126-00 13610-01 11006-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The relationship between the maximum field strength and the dimensions is investigated and a comparison is made between the measured and the theoretical effects of position. universal Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. To determine the magnetic field constant 3. Tesla Cobra3 current probe 6A Hall probe.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Savart's law with Cobra3 P2430215 Curve of magnetic flux density (measured values) for coils with a constant density of turns n/l.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.dia. coils radius R = 20 mm. axial Induction coil. KG · www.available 2013 Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Savart's law with Cobra4 P2430260 Main articles Power supply. USB Movement sensor with cable Measuring module. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wire loop Biot-Savart's law Hall effect Magnetic field Induction Magnetic flux density Related Experiment Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Savart's law with a teslameter P2430201 Cobra4 Experiment . l2 = 105 mm and l3 = 160 mm. 2.

using the rotational symmetry of the set-up: a) measurement of the axial component Bz. b) measurement of radial component Br. axial Power supply 12V / 2A Barrel base PHYWE Bench clamp PHYWE 12126-00 13610-01 12151-99 02006-55 02010-00 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helmholtz arrangement with a teslameter P2430301 Cobra4 Experiment . To measure the spatial distribution of the magnetic flux density when the distance between coils alpha = R. 2. r is the distance perpendicular to the axis of the coils) as a function of z (z is the distance from the center of the coils in the direction of the axis of the coils) with the parameter . The spacing at which a uniform magnetic field is produced is investigated and the superposition of the two individual fields to form the combined field of the pair of coils is demonstrated. one pair Power supply.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Tasks 1. Tesla 06960-00 13500-93 12150-50 12004-10 12109-00 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 134 . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell's equations Wire loop Flat coils Biot-Savart's law Hall effect" Cobra3 current probe 6A Hall probe. To measure the magnetic flux density along the z-axis of the flat coils when the distance between them alpha = R(R = radius of the coils) and when it is larger and smaller than this. universal Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Principle The spatial distribution of the field strength between a pair of coils in the Helmholtz arrangement is measured.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces P2430315 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helmholtz arrangement with Cobra3 B (r = 0.available 2013 Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helmholtz arrangement with Cobra4 P2430360 Main articles Helmholtz coils. 3. To measure the radial components B´r and B"r of the two individual coils in the plane midway between them and to demonstrate the overlapping of the two fields at Br = 0. USB Movement sensor with cable Measuring module.

01 N Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Conductors. of the strength of the magnetic moment. Tasks Determination of the torque due to a magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field. of the angle between the magnetic field in the magnetic moment 3. Principle A conductor loop carrying a current in a uniform magnetic field experiences a torque.00 Digital multimeter 2010 Distributor Support rod PHYWE.phywe. The PHYWE Levitation Tracks use the power of a solar cell panel to propel the PHYWE Solar Cart with the help of a linear motor. 0. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Torque Magnetic flux Uniform magnetic field Helmholtz coils Linear Levitation Track. of the strength of the magneticfield. one pair Power supply. built on 2 pillars and 2 Halogen Lamps 2 carts (1 x solar cart and 1 x graphite cart for manual demonstration) 11330-00 Main articles Helmholtz coils. l 630mm PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 135 .square. set Coil holder for 02416. This is determined as a function of the radius.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. as a function 1. 2. Thereby. KG · www. of the number of turns and the current in the conductor loop and of the strength of the external field. length: 70 cm Function and Applications A magnetic levitation system uses magnetic fields to levitate and accelerate a vehicle along a track. radical-ride roller coasters. 06960-00 13500-93 02416-00 13530-93 06404-00 02416-02 07128-00 06024-00 02027-55 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Equipment and technical data This set consists of: Linear levitation track with a length of approximately 70 cm. Similar systems are in use today as high-speed trains and some of the newer. circular.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces Magnetic moment in the magnetic field P2430400 Torque due to a magnetic moment in a uniform magnetic field as a function of the angle between the magnetic field and magnetic moment. universal Torsion dynamometer. the Solar Cart hovers above the magnetic track.

5000 ml 13625-93 13654-99 11003-10 11004-00 02002-55 07128-00 06024-00 36272-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments. Cobra4 Software Main articles LF amplifier. the current in the conductor and verify the linear relationship. incl.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces P2430605 Magnetic field inside a conductor with digital function generator The linear relationship between current density and magnetic field is obvious. electrical engineering and electronics. incl. the distance from the middle axis of the conductor and determine the position where the field inside the conductor vanishes. 13654-99 excellence in science 136 . USB. particularly in the disciplines of acoustics. Tasks Determine the magnetic field inside the conductor as a function of 1. USB. This magnetic field inside the conductor is measured as function of position and current by determining the induction voltage. Principle A current is passed through an electrolyte producing a magnetic field.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Cobra4 Software Hollow cylinder. straight Tripod base PHYWE Digital multimeter 2010 Distributor Glass beaker. PLEXIGLAS Search coil. 2. short. Related Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell's equations magnetic flux induction current density field strength electrolyte Related Experiment Magnetic field inside a conductor P2430600 Digital Function Generator. 220 V Digital Function Generator.

Determination of the earth's magnetic field Principle P2430100 A constant magnetic field.com 137 . KG · www.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. For more details refer to pages 187. For more details refer to page 139. If linearly polarizedlight passes through a region withmagnetic field the angle of rotation ofthe plane of polarization is altered.phywe.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces Faraday effect with optical base plate Principle P2260106 When the Faraday Effect was discoveredin 1845 it was the first experiment thatelucidated the relation of light andelectromagnetism.This alteration appears to be a linearfunction of both the average magneticflow density and the distance that thewave covers in the magnetic field. Thefactor of proportionality is a mediumspecific constant and is called Verdet's constant. 232. For more details refer to page 140. its magnitude and direction known. Magnetic field outside a straight conductor Principle P2430500 A current which flows through one or two neighbouring straight conductors produces a magnetic field around them. The dependences of these magnetic fields on the distance from the conductor and on the current are determined. The earthmagnetic field can then be calculated from the magnitude and direction of the resulting flux density. is superimposed on the unknown earth magnetic field. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

and the change in the interference pattern is observed. Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 Principle P2530111 The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer Principle P2430800 With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. light is brought to interference. For more details refer to page 221. excellence in science 138 . For more details refer to pages 156. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample. For more details refer to page 155.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Due to the magnetostrictive effect. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared. The field strength Η and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded. 218. The band spacing. 306.5 Magnetic Field and Magenetic Forces Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 Principle P2430711 A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. 182. the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. the specific conductivity.

6 Sources of Magnetic Field Determination of the earth's magnetic field P2430100 Linear function to determine the horizontal component hBE of the magnetic flux density of the earth-magnetic field.com 139 . flux density (5A): 3. is superimposed on the unknown earth magnetic field. one pair to generate a homogeneous magnetic field. Max.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. universal Magnetometer Hall probe. Principle A constant magnetic field. Equipment and technical data 13610-93 06960-00 13500-93 06355-00 13610-01 06114-02 07128-00 02006-55 02060-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ Two identical coils each on standbase with numbered 4mm sockets ▪ Removable busbars with holder for narrow beam tube ▪ Coils can be used indivdually and at any distance. Tasks 1. The horizontal component of the earth-magnetic field is determined through superimposition of the Helmholtz field.5 mT 06960-00 Main articles Teslameter.8A Digital multimeter 2010 Barrel base PHYWE Stand tube PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Helmholtz coils Helmholtz coils. The Helmholtz system calibration factor is calculated from the slope of the line. The earthmagnetic field can then be calculated from the magnitude and direction of the resulting flux density. digital Helmholtz coils. Inclinometer ▪ Magnetic flow density. one pair Power supply. 2. current per coil: 5 A. 3.1 Ohm ▪ Max. ▪ Coil diameter: 400 mm. The angle of inclination must be determined in order to calculate the vertical component of the earth-magnetic field. Isogenic lines. its magnitude and direction known. axial Rheostat. one pair Function and Applications Helmholtz coils. 1. The magnetic flux of a pair of Helmholtz coils is to be determined and plotted graphically as a function of the coil current. Especially with narrowbeam tube for e/m determination. 100 Ohm . KG · www. Number of windings: each coil 154 ▪ Coil resistance: 2. What you can learn about ▪ Magnetic inclination and declination ▪ Isoclinic lines.phywe.

in which the current is flowing in the same direction. digital Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Hall probe. digital Function and Applications For the measurement of magnetic DC and AC fields. of a straight conductor as a function of the current. of two parallel conductors. 3. 2.set of 4 Current transformer/Clamp Ammeter adaptor 13610-93 13530-93 13610-01 06526-01 06400-00 07091-10 1 1 1 1 1 1 13610-93 excellence in science 140 . Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Teslameter with 3 1/2 digit LED display. if the current in both conductors is in the same direction.200 .. Tasks Determination of the magnetic field 1. Main articles Teslameter.6 Sources of Magnetic Field P2430500 Magnetic field outside a straight conductor Magnetic field component By of two parallel conductors on the x-axis as a function of the distance from one conductor. of a straight conductor as a function of the distance from the conductor. as a function of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors. 4. 20 mm high. 3 measuring ranges 20 . For alternating and direct fields calibrated analog output. axial Coil. 6 tappings Current conductors. The dependences of these magnetic fields on the distance from the conductor and on the current are determined. Principle A current which flows through one or two neighbouring straight conductors produces a magnetic field around them. as a function of the distance from one conductor on the line joining the two conductors. 140 turns. of two parallel conductors. in which the current is flowing in opposite directions.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell's equations Magnetic flux Induction Superimposition of magnetic fields Teslameter.1000 m T fsd . sensitivity 10 micro T.

The spacing at which a uniform magnetic field is produced is investigated and the superposition of the two individual fields to form the combined field of the pair of coils is demonstrated. KG · www. Magnetic field of paired coils in a Helmholtz arrangement with Cobra3 Principle P2430315 The spatial distribution of the field strength between a pair of coils in the Helmholtz arrangement is measured. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 Principle P2430711 A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. For more details refer to page 134.com 141 . For more details refer to page 155. The relationship between the maximum field strength and the dimensions is investigated and a comparison is made between the measured and the theoretical effects of position.6 Sources of Magnetic Field Magnetic field of single coils/ Biot-Savart's law with Cobra3 Principle P2430215 The magnetic field along the axis of wire loops and coils of different dimensions is measured with a teslameter (Hall probe). The field strength Η and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded.phywe.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. For more details refer to page 133. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared.

2. 5. of the number of turns in the primary coil. 3. of the primary current. 2. 3. U-shaped. Tasks ▪ The secondary voltage on the open circuited transformer is determined as a function 1. Principle An alternating voltage is applied to one of two coils (primary coil) which are located on a common iron core. the primary current is determined as a function 1. 14 VAC/ 12 VDC. of the number of turns in the primary coil. short. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. laminated 13533-93 06526-01 06110-02 06506-00 06501-00 06032-00 07122-00 06500-00 1 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 excellence in science 142 . 140 turns. 10 Ohm . of the number of turns in the primary coil. 5 A Coil. laminated Two-way switch. 2.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 2. of the secondary current. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. ▪ The short-circuit current on the secondary side is determined as a function 1. double pole DMM with NiCr-Ni thermo couple Iron core. of the primary voltage. 6 tappings Rheostat. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. The voltage induced in the second coil (secondary coil) and the current flowing in it are investigated as functions of the number of turns in the coils and of the current flowing in the primary coil.7A Clamping device Iron core. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Induction Magnetic flux Loaded transformer Unloaded transformer Coil Main articles Multitap transformer. of the number of turns in the secondary coil. ▪ With the transformer loaded. 3.7 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law P2440100 Transformer Secondary short-circuit current of the transformer as a function 1. of the number of turns in the primary coil.

200 turns. 2.25mm Induction coil.dia.7 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law Magnetic induction P2440201 Induced voltage as a function of current for different coils. Tasks ▪ Determination of the induction voltage as a function 1.prot. Magnetic flux Induced voltage Related Experiment Magnetic induction with the FG module and Cobra3 P2440215 Cobra4 Experiment .dia.25mm Induction coil.dia.dia. USB.40mm Induction coil.300 turns.B Induction coil. The voltages induced across thin coils which are pushed into the long coil are determined as a function of frequency. 750 mm. of the number of turns of the induction coil.com 143 .available 2013 Magnetic Induction with Cobra4 P2440260 What you can learn about Main articles Digital Function Generator. incl. Maxwell's equations Electrical eddy field and magnetic field of coils Coil.100 turns. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ of the strength of the magneticfield.25mm 13654-99 11001-00 07026-00 11006-01 11006-02 11006-03 11006-04 11006-05 11006-06 11006-07 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.300 turns.dia. of the frequency of the magneticfield. 4. 3. 75 turns.150 turns.dia.dia.300 turns. diameter and field strength.40mm Induction coil. 485 turns/m Multi-range meter/overl.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.40mm Induction coil.32mm Induction coil. Cobra4 Software Field coil.phywe. Principle A magnetic field of variable frequency and varying strength is produced in a long coil. of the cross-section of the induction coil. number of turns.

compact Coil. Measurement of the induced voltage impulse USS and the falling magnet's velocity. What you can learn about ▪ Law of induction ▪ Magnetic flux ▪ Maxwell's equations Cobra4 Experiment .available 2013 Induction impulse with Cobra4 P2441260 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. d 8mm. l 60mm Glass tube. short Tripod base PHYWE Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Coil holder Magnet. d = 10 mm 12150-50 11207-20 06522-01 02002-55 12151-99 14504-61 06528-00 06317-00 45126-01 02037-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 144 . 3. Evaluation of the induced voltage impulse USS as a function of the magnet's velocity. USB Light barrier. stainless steel. 600 turns. Tasks 1. Additionally the evaluation of the peak-to-peak voltage USS = 2. Principle A permanent magnet falls with different velocities through a coil. The change in the magnetic flux Φ generates an induced voltage impulse. Calculation of the magnetic flux induced by the falling magnet as a function of the magnet's velocity.diam 12mm l 300 mm Support rod. Depending on the polarity of the permanent magnet the induced voltage impulse is negative or positive. The induced voltage impulse USS is recorded with a computer interface system.766 V is shown.7 Electromagnetic Induction and Faraday’s Law P2441211 Induction impulse Measured induction voltage USS versus time. l = 600 mm. 2.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.

dia.dia. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Lenz's law Self-inductance Solenoids Transformer Oscillatory circuit Resonance Damped oscillation Logarithmic decrement Q factor Related Experiment Inductance of solenoids P2440301 Cobra4 Experiment . number of turns) with a known capacitance C to form an oscillatory circuit. to calculate the inductances of the coils and determine the relationships between: 1. Electromagnetic Oscillations. inductance and number of turns 2. inductance and radius. ▪ From the measurements of the natural frequencies. Principle A square wave voltage of low frequency is applied to oscillatory circuits comprising coils and capacitors to produce free.00) and the constitution of magnetic fields within long coils. The values of inductance are calculated from the natural frequencies measured.300 turns.40mm Induction coil.available 2013 Inductance of solenoids with Cobra4 P2440360 Induction coil. AC Circuits Inductance of solenoids with Cobra3 P2440311 Inductance per turn as a function of the length of the coil at constant radius.300 turns. inductance and length 3. Tasks ▪ To connect coils of different dimensions (length. radius.phywe. KG · www. the capacitance being known.32mm 12150-50 12111-00 06515-01 11006-01 11006-02 1 1 1 1 1 Function and Applications To investigate electromagnetic induction together with field coil (11001.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. USB Measuring module function generator Coil.dia.40mm Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Measurement of the oscillation period with the "Survey Function". 1200 turns Induction coil.com 145 . 11006-01 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. damped oscillations.300 turns.8 Inductance.

Determination of the inductance of the coil. Determination of the phase displacement between the terminal voltage and total current as a function of the frequency in the circuit. Electromagnetic Oscillations. 3.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.8 Inductance. Parallel and series impedances are measured. The impedance and phase displacements are determined as functions of frequency. G1 Resistor 100 Ohm.c. 300 turns Coil. What you can learn about ▪ Inductance. impedance. AC Circuits P2440411 Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG module Tangent of the current-voltage phase displacement as a function of the frequency used for calculation of the total inductance of coils connected in parallel and in series. 600 turns Power supply 12V / 2A Connection box Resistor 47 Ohm. Tasks 1. 4. G1 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 06513-01 06514-01 12151-99 06030-23 39104-62 39104-63 39104-64 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 146 . 1W. G1 Resistor 220 Ohm. 2. Kirchhoff´s laws ▪ Maxwell´s equations ▪ a. Determination of the impedance of a coil as a function of frequency. Principle The coil is connected in a circuit with a voltage source of variable frequency.available 2013 Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra4 P2440460 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 1W. 1W. Determination of the total impedance of coils connected in parallel and in series. phase displacement Related Experiment Coil in the AC circuit P2440401 Cobra4 Experiment . USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Coil.

G2 Resistor 47 Ohm.8 Inductance. G2 Capacitor 2.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. G2 Capacitor 4.com 147 .available 2013 Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra4 P2440560 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Parallel and series impedances are measured. Principle A capacitor is connected in a circuit with a variable-frequency voltage source. KG · www. Kirchhoff's laws ▪ Maxwell's equations ▪ a.7microF/ 100V. 2.phywe. Determination of the total impedance of capacitors connected in parallel and in series. The impedance and phase displacement are determined as a function of frequency and of capacitance. G1 Resistor 100 Ohm. 3. G1 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 12151-99 06030-23 39113-01 39113-02 39113-03 39104-62 39104-63 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. AC Circuits Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG module P2440515 Impedance of various capacitors as a function of the frequency. 1W. USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Power supply 12V / 2A Connection box Capacitor 1 microF/ 100V. Determination of the impedance of a capacitor as a function of frequency. Phase displacement Related Experiment Capacitor in the AC circuit P2440501 Cobra4 Experiment .2microF/ 100V. Electromagnetic Oscillations. Tasks 1. impedance. 1W. Determination of the phase displacement between the terminal voltage and total current as a function of the frequency in the circuit. What you can learn about ▪ Capacitance.c.

voltage resonance without damping resistor.2microF/ 100V. current resonance with damping resistor. Main articles Principle The current and voltage of parallel and series-tuned circuits are investigated as a function of frequency. Electromagnetic Oscillations. 3600 turns. tapped Power supply 12V / 2A Connection box Software Cobra3 Universal recorder Capacitor 1 microF/ 100V. Q-factor and band-width are determined. AC Circuits P2440611 RLC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG module Total voltage as a function of frequency in the parallel tuned circuit. G2 Capacitor 4. Curves recorded for different resistors (top down): R =∞ Ω. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Series-tuned circuit Parallel-tuned circuit Resistance Capacitance Inductance Capacitor Coil Phase displacement Q factor Band-width Loss resistance Damping Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. USB Measuring module function generator Software Cobra3 PowerGraph Coil.available 2013 RLC circuit with Cobra4 P2440660 excellence in science 148 . ▪ parallel-tuned circuit for 1.8 Inductance. 2. 470 Ω. 2. G2 12150-50 12111-00 14525-61 06516-01 12151-99 06030-23 14504-61 39113-01 39113-02 39113-03 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment RLC circuit P2440601 Cobra4 Experiment . 3. current resonance without parallel resistor. current resonance without damping resistor. Tasks Determination of the frequency performance of a ▪ Series-tuned circuit for 1.7microF/ 100V. 1000 Ω. G2 Capacitor 2. voltage resonance with parallel resistor.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. voltage resonance without parallel resistor 3.

ID . to measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (Io = constant) 5. 1. UC .8 Inductance. as a function of the output current Io (with the charging capacitor) 3. ▪ To measure the output voltage of a voltage multiplier circuit as a function of the input voltage. to measure the ripple as a function of the capacitance (IO = constant) 5. 470 microF/35V. KG · www.capacitor10microF/35V.s.4mm plugs Digital multimeter 2010 Electrolyte capacitor 2000 µF/35V. to measure the diode current ID as a function of the output current strength IO (with the charging capacitor) 3.phywe. G2 Capacitor. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Half-wave rectifier Full-wave rectifier Graetz rectifier Diode and Zener diode Avalanche effect Charging capacitor Ripple r. and the output voltage of a stabilized voltage source as a function of the input voltage Ui . to measure the ripple of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) 4. ▪ To measure the voltage at the charging capacitor.1mF/35V. The characteristics of a voltage stabilizer and of a multiplier are investigated. AC Circuits Rectifier circuits P2440700 Ripple of the output voltage as a function of the charging current: a) half-wave rectifier.0A Plug-in board. to display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope 2.com 149 .diode/si/1 N 4007. value Internal resistance Smoothing factor Ripple voltage Voltage stabilisation Voltage doubling Main articles Oscilloscope. to measure the current through one diode.electr.G1 Electr. to display the output voltage (without charging capacitor) on the oscilloscope 2. to measure the output voltage as a function of the input voltage.G1 Electrol.m. to measure the ripple component UACpp of the output voltage as a function of the output current (C = constant) 4. Principle The ripple of the output voltage of various rectifier circuits is measured as a function of the load current strength and the charging capacitance. b) bridge rectifier. 14 VAC/ 12 VDC. Tasks ▪ Using the half-wave rectifier: 1. to measure the output voltage UO as a function of the input voltage Ui (IO= 0).G1 11459-95 13533-93 06116-02 06033-00 07128-00 39113-08 06049-09 39105-26 39105-28 39106-02 1 1 1 1 3 1 1 1 4 4 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.capaci. 2 channels Multitap transformer. ▪ Using the bridge rectifier: 1. 30 MHz.G1 Semiconduct. 5 A Rheostat.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 330 Ohm . Electromagnetic Oscillations.

Analyse and verify the measurements using the measure analysis software.100 kHz ▪ inputs A and B: connection 4-mm-pair of sockets ▪ impedance 1 M_/10 pF. Benefits ▪ The high resistance difference inputs can be connected to any point of a circuit.4mm plugs Resistor 500 Ohm 2%. ▪ internal resistance 100 Ohm. a high-pass filter. a parallel-T filter. frequency range for UE 20 Vss 0. USB. point by point and to display the sweep on the oscilloscope. and displayed on the oscilloscope. 3.60Hz ▪ casing dimensions (mm) 190×110×60 11444-93 Main articles Digital Function Generator.70 kHz. ▪ Enables characteristics to be presented in the xy operation mode of an oscilloscope. overload capacity mains voltage proof ▪ outputs A and B: connection BNC-sockets. a Wien-Robinson bridge. an integrating network. The results are plotted and verified using the measure analysis software. a band-pass filter.and low-pass filters.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 7.8 Inductance. 2 x BNC cables l =75 cm incl. a low-pass filter. ▪ Input voltages can be added. for UE 2 Vss 0. ▪ Allows demonstration of the phase shift between voltage and current in alternating current circuits. 2. AC Circuits P2440801 RC filters Example of a measured frequency response of the high. for UE 6 Vss 0. Investigate the step response of. 15 kHz. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ High-pass Low-pass Wien-Robinson bridge Parallel-T filters Differentiating network Integrating network Step response Square wave Transfer function Difference amplifier Function and Applications For the simultaneous potential-free measurement of two voltages when connected to the inputs of a two channel oscilloscope. a differentiating network. Principle Resistor-Capacitor (RC) circuits serve as filters for frequencies. Equipment and technical data ▪ amplification 1 ± 3%. 50. Difference amplifier Plug-in board. Tasks 1. G1 13654-99 11456-99 11444-93 06033-00 06057-50 39105-14 1 1 1 1 1 4 excellence in science 150 . incl. Record the frequency response of the output voltage of 1. external resistance 10 kOhm ▪ overload capacity short-circuit proof. 6. without influencing the electrical behaviour of the circuit. Cobra4 Software 25 MHz Digital storage oscilloscope with colour display. The frequency response of the most commonly used RC filters is recorded by point-by-point measurements as well as the frequency sweep method. 5. mains supply 230 V. Electromagnetic Oscillations. 1W. 4. 2. G1 Capacitor 10nF/ 250V.

The phase displacement of the filters is determined also as a function of frequency. Tasks Determination of the ratio of output voltage to input voltage with the 1. 6. 30 MHz. Resistance Capacitance. G1 06513-01 06030-23 39113-01 39113-02 06056-50 39104-19 1 2 1 1 1 2 Related Experiment High-pass and low-pass filters with the FG module P2440915 What you can learn about Main articles Universal Counter Oscilloscope. AC Circuits High-pass and low-pass filters with digital function generator P2440905 Voltage ratio (left axis) and phase displacement (right axis) of the double CR network as a function of frequency with R1=50 Ω. 1W. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Circuit.phywe. Electromagnetic Oscillations. an ohmic resistance and combinations of these components are investigated for their filter characteristics as a function of frequency. C2=50 µF. RC/CR network. G1 Resistor 1kOhm. 4. Determination of the phase displacement with two CR networks connected in series.2microF/ 100V. G2 Capacitor 2. Inductance Capacitor. R2=1 kΩ and C1=25 µF. G2 Resistor 50 Ohm 2%. KG · www. RL/LR network. 2. 300 turns Connection box Capacitor 1 microF/ 100V.1 Hz . 2 channels Function generator.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Principle A coil. 3. 0.com 151 .100 KHz Difference amplifier 13601-99 11459-95 13652-93 11444-93 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. CL/LC network. 1W. 5. a capacitor. Two CR networks connected in series Determination of the phase displacement with the RC/CR network.8 Inductance. Coil Phase displacement Filter Kirchhoff's laws Bode diagram Coil.

. Measuring the electrical magnitudes with a work or power measurement instrument.. phase shift and power in AC circuits with digital function generator Self-inductance and resistor in series: tan phi as a function of ν.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. Selector for serial display of all units ▪ LED-Status-display and automactic range selection ▪ Power: max.10000 Hz. 50/60Hz ▪ Shock-resistant plastic housing with carry handle and base 13715-93 Main articles Work and power meter LF amplifier. Analog output for all units of disp. phase difference and freqency ▪ Display 2 for energy and time.. Veff.. 1 ▪ Mains: 110/230V. 300 turns Connection box 13715-93 13625-93 13654-99 06513-01 06030-23 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 152 . 0. Energy: max. Cobra4 Software Coil. Resolution: max. 9999 Wh or Ws ▪ Resolution: max.current. Principle Series circuits containing self-inductances or capacitances and ohmic resistances are investigated as a function of frequency..10A AC/DC ▪ Phasen difference: 0. AC Circuits P2441101 Resistance. Tasks Series circuit of self-inductance and resistor (real coil) ▪ Investigation of impedance and phase shift as a function of frequency ▪ Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity ▪ Determination of self-inductance and ohmic resistance Series circuit of capacitor and resistor ▪ Investigation of impedance and phase shift as a function of frequency ▪ Investigation of the relation between real power and current intensity ▪ Determination of capacitance and ohmic resistance What you can learn about ▪ Impedance. Self-inductance Work and power meter Function and Applications For AC and DC circuits Equipment and technical data ▪ Two 4-digit. 0-240. Phase shift. incl. voltage. Phasor diagram ▪ Capacitance.8 Inductance. 2400 W.001 Ws. 20 mm LED-displays ▪ Display 1 for real and apparent power. Electromagnetic Oscillations. 220 V Digital Function Generator. 0. USB.. real power or apparent power can be displayed directly.Current: 0.001 W ▪ Voltage: 0-30V AC/DC.+/.90 degree ▪ Frequency: 0.

ideal for measuring circuit response to frequency ramps using an oscilloscope 13654-99 Main articles Digital Function Generator. 75 turns.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Resonance Q factor Dissipation factor Bandwidth Critical or optimum coupling Characteristic impedance Pauli method Parallel conductance Band-pass filter Sweep Digital Function Generator.1.com 153 . Determine the coupling factor k and the band width of a band-pass filter as a function of the coil spacing s. AC Circuits Coupled resonant circuits P2450201 Reciprocal resonance voltage as a function of the additional conductance. 4. Determine the dissipation factor t and k and the quality factor Q from the band width of oscillating circuits. used to determine Gp. Tasks 1. 75 micro-H HF-coil. particularly in the disciplines of acoustics. Cobra4 Software 25 MHz Digital storage oscilloscope with colour display.150 micro-H HF-coil. continually adjustable frequency range ▪ Usable as programmable voltage source via amplifier output ▪ Intuitive. menu-driven operation using control knob and function buttons.phywe. Electromagnetic Oscillations. USB. 2 x BNC cables l =75 cm incl.350 micro-H Coil. with help capability ▪ Illuminated monochrome graphic display for maximum visibility and readability ▪ Simple setting of voltage and frequency ramps in stand-alone mode ▪ Features V = f(f) output for easy reading of frequency in the form of a voltage . 2. 75 turns. In inductively coupled circuits (band-pass filters) the coupling factor is determined as a function of the coil spacing. 150-turn coil. 50 turns. Principle The Q factor of oscillating circuits is determined from the band width and by the Pauli method. 3. electrical engineering and electronics Benefits ▪ Can be used as universal stand-alone device or controlled via a USB interface ▪ Universally applicable thanks to broad. 35 turns.8 Inductance. incl. short 13654-99 11456-99 06915-00 06916-00 06917-00 06520-01 1 1 2 2 2 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Cobra4 Software Function and Applications Digital signal generator for use as a programmable voltage source in practical or demonstration experiments. KG · www. HF-coil. 150 turns. HF coil. incl. 2. Analyse and verify the measurements using the measure analysis software. Determine the dissipation factor and Q factor of oscillating circuits from the resonant frequency . the capacitance Ctot and the parallel conductance Gp by the Pauli method. USB.

8 Inductance. incl. The oscillating circuit. Principle A sinusoidal voltage is applied to a non-linear circuit with a silicon diode functioning as voltage-independent capacity. Related Topics ▪ oscillating circuit. i. 18 V ▪ Power: 10 W. 2 channels Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT.2%) 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Power output: ▪ Max. 10 Hz . Fourier spectrum. 2. USB Coil.1 and 15 V at frequency of 35 kHz. Show that period multiples and regions of chaotic oscillatory amplitude occur with increasing amplitude. The circuit is oscillating chaotically. Electric strength: Up < 30V ▪ Input resistance: 50 kOhm.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. l 750 mm 13654-99 11459-95 12150-50 06515-01 12151-99 06030-23 14514-61 07542-21 07542-11 07542-11 excellence in science 154 . output voltage Upp: approx. Required power: max.e. diode ▪ period multiples.1 MHz Function and Applications Sinus and rectangular signal generator with signal and power output for optimal adaptation to different experimental circuits. AC Circuits P2450301 Forced oscillations of a nonlinear electrical series resonant circuit .Fourier analysis Connector..1V. 30 MHz. Tasks 1. BNC. l 750 mm Screened cable. forced oscillation. Benfits ▪ Large frequency range. Power: 1 W ▪ Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm ▪ Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0. Cobra4 Software Oscilloscope. USB.. output voltage Upp: approx. Study the oscillatory behavior of the non-linear circuit for an exciting signal with amplitudes between 0. 1200 turns Power supply 12V / 2A Connection box Software Cobra3 . the occurrence of chaotic oscillatory behavior with increasing amplitude is studied. 6 V. Investigate the oscillatory image and the Fourier spectrum as functions of the excitation amplitude. BNC Screened cable. 70 VA ▪ Dimensions (mm): 370 x 236 x 168 13650-93 Main articles Digital Function Generator. Electromagnetic Oscillations. chaotic oscillation Power frequency generator. T type.chaotic oscillation Voltage tapped off the diode at Uss=9V. frequencies can be continuously adjusted to five decade areas ▪ Output for sinus and regtangular signals. BNC.3%) Input: ▪ Input voltage range: Up = 0. Nominal final resistor: 4 Ohm ▪ Distortion factor: < 1% (typically < 0. Power output for sinus Equipment and technical data ▪ Demonstative frequency display with 4 digit LED display ▪ Supplementary headphone and loudspeaker connector jack Signal output: ▪ Max.

universal. Principle A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. USB Measuring module. protection cap Rheostat.9 Maxwell’s Equitations. paramagnetism and diamagnetism P1221300 Cobra4 Experiment . solid Commutator switch Iron core.phywe. 600 turns Iron core. analog display Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. Tesla Hall probe.available 2013 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra4 P2430760 Main articles Power supply. U-shaped. U-shaped. Record the hysteresis curve for a massive iron core and for a laminated one. Tasks 1. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared. tangential.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5.7A Coil. laminated Iron core. Electromagnetic Waves Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 P2430711 Hysteresis for a massive iron core. Magnetism. KG · www. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Induction Magnetic flux coil Magnetic field strength Magnetic field of coils Remanence Coercive field strength Related Experiment Ferromagnetism. 10 Ohm .com 155 . 5.solid 13501-93 12150-50 12109-00 13610-02 06110-02 06514-01 06501-00 06491-00 06034-03 06490-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The field strength Η and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded.

g. and the change in the interference pattern is observed.9 Maxwell’s Equitations. Equipment and technical data ▪ With programmable timer for selection of exposure time of holograms between 0.5 Electricity and Magnetism 5. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Power supply. 08702-93 Main articles He/Ne Laser.opt. Rods for magnetostriction. ▪ Incl. ▪ Dimensions of plastic housing (mm): 184 x 140 x 130. universal Optical base plate with rubberfeet Faraday modulator f. the 5 mW laser (08701.base pl. ▪ Shutter control via time select. Magnetism. 2. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components. Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material (copper). Tasks 1. light is brought to interference. ▪ Rod diameter: 10 mm. new start. ▪ Digital display for preset shutter times as well as those which have already occured.set Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08701-00 08702-93 13500-93 08700-00 08733-00 08733-01 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 excellence in science 156 . with regard to their magnetostrictive properties. e. shutter with fixed connection cord with unit plug on holding rod... Electromagnetic Waves P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer Measuring results of the magnetostriction of nickel with the relative change in length l/l plotted against applied field strength H.00). ▪ With acontrollable shutter.1 . Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Ferromagnetic material Weiss molecular magnetic fields Spin-orbit coupling Power supply for laser head 5 mW Function and Applications High voltage power supply for lasers. stop and shutter open (permanent open). 99 s. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample. Due to the magnetostrictive effect.

4 6. KG · www.3 6.phywe.6 Light and Optics Light and Optics 6.1 6.com 157 .2 6.5 Nature and Propagation of Light Geometric Optics Diffraction and Interference Polarization Literature and accessories 158 163 164 183 188 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

6 Light and Optics
6.1 Nature and Propagation of Light

P2210101

Measuring the velocity of light

Principle of measurement.

Principle The intensity of the light is modulated and the phase relationship of the transmitter and receiver signal compared. The velocity of light is calculated from the relationship between the changes in the phase and the light path. Tasks 1. To determine the velocity of light in air. 2. To determine the velocity of light in water and synthetic resin and to calculate the refractive indices. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Refractive index Wavelength Frequency Phase Modulation Electric field constant Magnetic field constant

Software Speed of Light Meter

The Software for the Speed of Light Meter belongs to the "measure-software" family. This software is charactarisedby easy and intuitive features and is very user friendly. With this software all measured quantities from the Speed of Light Meter can be recorded and graphically displayed. Especially the optical distance measurement lends itself to be recorded via software. This way the dynamics of motion (swinging pendulum, moving cart etc.) can be recorded continuosly (1000Hz) without interfering mechanically with the process. 14411-61

Main articles
Speed of Light Meter Set 25 MHz Digital storage oscilloscope with colour display, 2 x BNC cables l =75 cm incl. 11226-88 11456-99 1 1

Related Experiment
Measuring the velocity of light using the software measure P2210111

excellence in science
158

6 Light and Optics
6.1 Nature and Propagation of Light

Photometric inverse-square law - Cobra 3

P2240211

Luminous intensity as a function of the square of the reciprocal of the distance (lamp - diode)

Principle The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance. Tasks 1. The luminous intensity emitted by a punctual source is determined as a function of distance from the source. 2. The photometric law of distance is verified by plotting illuminance as a function of the reciprocal value of the square of the distance. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Luminous flux Quantity of light Luminous intensity Illuminance Luminance

Related Experiment
Photometric inverse-square law P2240201

Cobra 4 Experiment - available 2013
Photometric invers-square law - Cobra 4 P2240260

Main articles
Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT, USB Movement sensor with cable Power supply 0...12 V DC/ 6 V, 12 V AC, 230 V Distributor Lamp holder E 14,on stem Power supply 12V / 2A Photo diode, G1 Barrel base PHYWE Bench clamp PHYWE Plate holder 12150-50 12004-10 13505-93 06024-00 06175-00 12151-99 39119-01 02006-55 02010-00 02062-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
159

6 Light and Optics
6.1 Nature and Propagation of Light

P2240405

Lambert's law of radiation on optical base plate

Diagram of the principle of measurements with the used magnitudes (with O* as ap-parent magnitude of surface O).

Principle Visible light impinges on a diffusely reflecting surface. The luminance of this surface is determined as a function of the angle of observation. Tasks 1. The luminous flux emitted reflected by a diffusely reflecting surface is to be determined as a function of the angle of observation. 2. Lambert's law (cos-law) is to be verified using the graph of the measurement values. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Luminous flux Light quantity Light intensity Illuminance Luminance

Related Experiment
Lambert's law P2240400

Laser, He-Ne, 0.2/1.0 mW, 230 V AC
Function and Applications Linearly polarised light source, very short design. Benefits ▪ Welded glass tube assures a very long lifetime > 18 000 operating hours ▪ Key switch and integrated greyfilter to reduce radiation power to 0.2 mW. Screw-in release to activate the grey filter. ▪ Anodised aluminium casing with integrated mains power supply,screw in holding stem, signal light and required warnings printed on both sides.Fixed mains connecting cable 140 cm. Equipment and technical data ▪ Wavelength 632.8 nm, optical output power without filter 1.0 mW, with filter 0.2 mW ▪ beam diameter 0.5 mm, beam divergence < 2 mrad. ▪ minimum polarisation500:1, max drift over 8 hours ± 2.5% ▪ oscillating mode TEM00, lifetime > 18000 h ▪ power requirements 35 VA, connectingvoltage 230 V, 50.60 Hz. 08180-93

Main articles
He/Ne Laser, 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Rot. guide rail w. angular scale Photoelement f. opt. base plt. Diaphragm holder f.opt.base plt. Voltmeter,0.3-300VDC,10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08701-00 08702-93 13626-93 08700-00 08717-00 08734-00 08724-00 07035-00 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2

excellence in science
160

6 Light and Optics
6.1 Nature and Propagation of Light

Dispersion and resolving power of a prism and a grating spectroscope
Principle

P2210300

The refractive indices of liquids, crown glass and flint glass are determined as a function of the wave length by refraction of light through the prism at minimum deviation. The resolving power of the glass prisms is determined from the dispersion curve.

For more details refer to page 164.

Interference of light
Principle

P2220100
By dividing up the wave-front of a beam of light at the Fresnel mirror and the Fresnel biprism, interference is produced. The wavelength is determined from the interference patterns.

For more details refer to page 165.

Diffraction of light through a double slit or by a grid with optical base plate
Principle

P2230405

The coherent monochromatic light of a laser is directed to a diaphragm with a varying number of slits. The resulting interference patterns are studied using a photoelement.

For more details refer to page 177.

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
161

6 Light and Optics
6.1 Nature and Propagation of Light

Fresnel's law - theory of reflection
Principle

P2250305
Plane-polarized light is reflected at a glas surface. Both the rotation of the plane of polarization and the intensity of the reflected light are to be determined and compared with Frewsnel's formulae for reflection.

For more details refer to page 184.

Fibre optics
Principle

P2261000
The beam of a laser diode is treated in a way that it can be coupled into a monomode fibre. The problems related to coupling the beam into the fibre are evaluated and verified. In consequence a low frequency signal is transmitted through the fibre. The numerical aperture of the fibre is recorded. The transit time of light through the fibre is measured and the velocity of light within the fibre is determined. Finally the measurement of the relative output power of the diode laser as a function of the supply current leads to the characteristics of the diode laser such as "threshold energy" and "slope efficiency".

For more details refer to page 303.

excellence in science
162

6 Light and Optics
6.2 Geometric Optics

Law of lenses and optical instruments

P2210200

Path of a ray in Galileo telescope.

Main articles
Principle The focal lengths of unknown lenses are determined by measuring the distances of image and object and by Bessel's method. Simple optical instruments are then constructed with these lenses. Tasks 1. To determine the focal length of two unknown convex lenses by measuring the distances of image and object. 2. To determine the focal length of a convex lens and of a combination of a convex and a concave lens using Bessel's method. 3. To construct the following optical instruments: a) Slide projector; image scale to be determined b) Microscope; magnification to be determined c) Kepler-type telescope d) Galileo's telescope (opera glasses). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Law of lenses Magnification Focal length Object distance Telescope Microscope Path of a ray Convex lens Concave lens Real image Virtual image Power supply 0...12 V DC/ 6 V, 12 V AC, 230 V Optical profile-bench, l 1000mm Diaphragm holder Experiment lamp 5, with stem Condenser holder Double condenser, f 60 mm Screen,translucent, 250x250 mm Swinging arm Slide mount for optical bench, h = 80 mm Lens holder 13505-93 08282-00 08040-00 11601-10 08015-00 08137-00 08064-00 08256-00 08286-02 08012-00 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 2

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
163

vernier Power supply for spectral lamps Spectral lamp Hg 100. Determination of the resolving power required to separate the different Hg-Lines. crown glass and flint glass are determined as a function of the wave length by refraction of light through the prism at minimum deviation. Principle The refractive indices of liquids. Equipment and technical data ▪ With magnifying glasses ▪ 60° glass prism ▪ Illumination device and telescope 35635-02 excellence in science 164 . Comparison with theory.pico 9.f. 7. 4. To determine the wave lengths of the mercury spectral lines. pico 9 base Hollow prism Lamp holder. 600 lines/mm 35635-02 13662-97 08120-14 08240-00 08119-00 08546-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 Spectrometer / goniometer with vernier Function and Applications Spectrometer/ goniometer with double vernier. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Maxwell relationship Dispersion Polarizability Refractive index Prism Rowland grating Spectrometer Goniometer Main articles Spectrometer/goniom. To adjust the spectrometer-goniometer.6 Light and Optics 6. Determination of the angular dispersion of a grating. 3. The resolving power of the glass prisms is determined from the dispersion curve. 8. w. To determine the refractive index of various glass prism. Tasks 1. 5. Determination of the grating constant of a Rowland grating based on the diffraction angle (up to the third order) of the high intensity spectral lines of mercury.spectr. 6.3 Diffraction and Interference P2210300 Dispersion and resolving power of a prism and a grating spectroscope Dispersion curves of various substances. 2. To demonstrate the relationship between refractive index and wave length (dispersion curve). 9.lamps Diffraction grating. To calculate the resolving power of the glass prisms from the slope of the dispersion curves. To determine the refractive index of various liquids in a hollow prism.

very short design. Prism table with holder Swinging arm Slide mount for optical bench. He-Ne. Connecting voltage 230 V. using the Fresnel mirror.6 Light and Optics 6.phywe. f +300 mm. 1.com 165 . 230 V AC Function and Applications Linearly polarised light source. with Fresnel biprism. Beam divergence < 2 mrad. h = 80 mm Lens holder Slide mount for optical bench. 50. h = 30 mm 08181-93 08560-00 08282-00 08556-00 08025-01 08254-00 08256-00 08286-02 08012-00 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 08181-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3 Diffraction and Interference Interference of light P2220100 Geometrical arrangement. KG · www.0 mW. Minimum polarisation 500:1.0 mW. with Fresnel mirror. mounted.5 mm. interference is produced.0 mW Beam diameter 0. Max drift over 8 hours ± 2. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wavelength 632. ▪ Anodised aluminium casing with integrated mains power supply. Main articles Laser.achrom.5% Oscillating mode TEM00. The wavelength is determined from the interference patterns. 230 V AC Fresnel mirror Optical profile-bench. Optical output power 1. 2. 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wavelength Phase Fresnel biprism Fresnel mirror Virtual light source Laser.60 Hz. Principle By dividing up the wave-front of a beam of light at the Fresnel mirror and the Fresnel biprism. Lifetime > 18000 h Power requirements 35 VA. ▪ Fixed mains connecting cable 140 cm. He-Ne. l 1000mm Fresnel biprism Lens. Tasks Determination of the wavelength of light by interference 1.8 nm. Benefits ▪ Welded glass tube assures a very long lifetime > 18 000 operating hours.

opt.b.3 Diffraction and Interference P2220205 Newton's rings with optical base plate Generation of Newton's rings. 2.0. 2 holders with three-point bearing and 2 setting collars Main articles He/Ne Laser. determine the radius of curvature for a given wavelength.2mm.6 Light and Optics 6. l = 400 mm Incl.8 nm Modes TEMOO Degree of polarisation 1:500 Beam diameter 0. 15000 h Coaxial cylinder casing Ø = 44. Sliding device. horizontal xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Achromatic objective 20x N. 2. The wavelength is determined from the radii of the interference rings.4 08701-00 08702-93 08700-00 08730-02 08713-00 08714-00 08743-00 08711-00 08711-01 62174-20 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 08701-00 excellence in science 166 . power drift max. 5mW with holder Function and Applications He/Ne laser with fixed connection cable with HV jack for laser power pack. pl.5%/ 8 h Service life ca. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wave length 632. Principle The air wedge formed between slightly convex lens and a plane glass plate (Newton's colour glass) is used to cause interference of monochromatic light. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate with rubberfeet Newton colourglass f. Dertermine the wavelength for a given radius of curvature of the lens. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Coherent light Phase relation Path difference Interference at thin layers Newton's colour glass Related Experiment Newton's rings with interference filters P2220200 He/Ne Laser.81 mm Beam divergence 1 mrad Max. Tasks The diameters of interference rings produced by Newton's colour glass are measured and these are used to: 1.A.

.spectr. Equipment and technical data: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ 13662-97 08120-07 08120-14 08558-00 08283-00 08119-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 voltage without load 230V burning voltage 15. will interfere to form a pattern of concentric rings. 2.3 Diffraction and Interference Interference at a mica plate according to Pohl P2220300 Interference order m as a function of sin2 for Na-light.pico 9.60V power supply voltage 230V/50Hz Dimensions 230x236x168 Main articles Power supply for spectral lamps Spectral lamp Na. The thickness of the mica plate is determined from the radii of the interference rings and the wavelength of the Na-lamp. 1. pico 9 base Spectral lamp Hg 100..phywe.lamps 13662-97 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.6 Light and Optics 6. Tasks The experiment will be performed with the light of a Na-lamp and with the light of different wavelengths of a Hg-vapour tube. Principle Monochromatic light falls on a plane parallel mica plate. KG · www. The radii of the rings depend on the geometry of the experimental setup.com 167 . The light rays. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference of equal inclination Interference of thin layers Plane parallel plate Refraction Reflection Optical path difference Power supply for spectral lamps Function and Applications Power supply for spectral lamps with Pico9 socket and nominal current 1A.f. The different wavelengths of the Hg-vapour tube are determined from the radii of the interference rings and the thickness of the mica plate. pico 9 base Mica plate Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Lamp holder. reflected at the front surface as well as at the rear surface. the thickness of the mica plate and the wavelength of the light.

Zone plates Laser.6 Light and Optics 6. Principle A zone plate is illuminated with parallel laser light. mounted.3 Diffraction and Interference P2220400 Structure of a Fresnel zone / zone plate Geometry of the zone plate. 3. 5x5 cm Lens holder Slide mount for optical bench. Benefits ▪ Welded glass tube assures a very long lifetime > 18 000 operating hours. f +100 mm 08181-93 08577-03 08282-00 08041-00 08012-00 08286-01 08284-00 08018-01 08020-01 08021-01 1 1 1 2 4 7 2 1 1 1 08181-93 excellence in science 168 .0 mW. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Huygens Fresnel principle Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction Interference. The focal points of several orders of the zone plate are projected on a ground glass screen. 230 V AC Fresnel zone plate Optical profile-bench. f +50 mm Lens. Connecting voltage 230 V. ▪ Fixed mains connecting cable 140 cm. The focal lengths to be determined are plotted against the reciprocal value of their order. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wavelength 632. He-Ne. Coherence Fresnel's zone construction. It must be assured that the laser lightbeam runs parallel over several meters. The radii of the zone plate are calculated. 2. Optical output power 1. Main articles Laser. mounted. Beam divergence < 2 mrad.0 mW.60 Hz.0 mW Beam diameter 0. The laser beam must be widened so that the zone plate is well illuminated. 230 V AC Function and Applications Linearly polarised light source. Minimum polarisation 500:1. 1. l 1000mm Object holder. Max drift over 8 hours ± 2. 50. very short design. Lifetime > 18000 h Power requirements 35 VA. adjustable Lens. ▪ Anodised aluminium casing with integrated mains power supply.5 mm. f +20 mm Lens. The focal points of several orders of the zone plate are projected on a ground glass screen. mounted. h = 30 mm Base for optical bench.5% Oscillating mode TEM00.8 nm. Tasks 1. He-Ne. 1.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Refraction index Light velocity Phase Virtual light source Coherence Related Experiment Michelson interferometer with optical profile bench P2220500 Main articles Michelson interferometer He/Ne Laser. a lightbeam is split into two partial beams by a semi transparent glass plate (amplitude splitting). horizontal xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Achromatic objective 20x N.3 Diffraction and Interference Michelson interferometer with optical base plate P2220505 Formation of interference rings.phywe.6 Light and Optics 6.com 169 . 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. KG · www. Tasks The wavelength of the used laserlight is determined through the observation of the change in the interference pattern upon changing the length of one of the interferometer arms.4 08557-00 08701-00 08702-93 08700-00 08713-00 08714-00 08743-00 08711-00 08711-01 62174-20 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Albert A. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.0. These beams are reflected by two mirrors and brought to interference after they passed through the glass plate a second time. Michelson 1907.A. Principle In a Michelson interferometer.

f. l 1000mm Object holder. Main articles Principle The wavelengths and the corresponding lengths of coherence of the green spectral lines of an extreme high pressure Hg vapour lamp are determined by means of a Michelson interferometer. 525 nm Slide mount for optical bench. An illuminated auxiliary adjustable slit acts as a non punctual light source. Different double slit combinations are illuminated to verify the coherence conditions of non punctual light sources. lamp Power supply 230 V/ 50 Hz for 50 W-Hg-lamp Optical profile-bench. are used to calculate the coherence time and the half width value of the spectral line. h = 30 mm 08557-00 08144-00 13661-97 08282-00 08041-00 08045-00 08256-00 08012-00 08414-00 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 5 excellence in science 170 .6 Light and Optics 6. 2. 3. What you can learn about Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction Interference Spatial and time coherence Coherence conditions Coherence length for non punctual light sources Coherence time Spectral lines (shape and half width value) Broadening of lines due to Doppler effect and pressure broadening ▪ Michelson interferometer ▪ Magnification ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Michelson interferometer Lamp.3 Diffraction and Interference P2220600 Coherence and width of spectral lines with the Michelson interferometer with optical profile bench Beam path in Michelson's interferometer. 5x5 cm Iris diaphragm Swinging arm Lens holder Colour filter. Tasks 1. The values determined in 1. Verification of the coherence condition for non punctual light sources. Determination of the wavelength of the green Hg spectral line as well as of its coherence length.50W Hg high press.

Tasks A Michelson Interferometer is set up and adjusted so that interference rings can be observed. Principle Light is caused to interfere by means of a beam splitter and two mirrors according to Michelson's set up.phywe.Coherence Related Experiment Refraction index of air and CO2 with the Michelson interferometer with optical profile bench P2220700 Michelson interferometer Main articles Michelson interferometer He/Ne Laser.5 mm 08557-00 08701-00 08702-93 08700-00 08713-00 08714-00 08743-00 08711-00 08711-01 08625-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Function and Application To measure light wavelengths and refractivity of liquids and gases.6 Light and Optics 6. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Index of refraction Light velocity Phase Virtual light source. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. KG · www. CO2 gas is filled into a measurement cuvette that was filled before with air. Equipment and technical data ▪ Metalbase-plate 120 x 120 mm with removable holding stem and with adjustable surface mirrors 30 x30 mm ▪ Two polarising filters and micrometer ▪ Fine shoots to the tilt adjustment of fixed mirror ▪ Bracket for additional required cell for investigation of gases 08557-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 171 . horizontal xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Glass cell. From changes in the interference pattern the difference of the refraction index between air and CO2 is determined. Substituting the air in a measurement cuvette located in one of the interferometer arms by CO2 gas allows to determine the index of refraction of CO2. diameter 21.3 Diffraction and Interference Refraction index of CO2 with the Michelson interferometer with optical base plate P2220705 Michelson's set up for interference.

diaphr. Phase Virtual light source Interferometerplate with precision drive Function and Applications For precise and reproducible linear shift of optical components e. opt. 2. light is brought to interference. ▪ Shift path: max.High Resolution with optical base plate Experimentally determined contrast function in comparison to the theoretical contrast function K of a 2-mode laser.g. the alterationin the interference pattern is observed and the wave length of the laser light determined. ▪ Set up on base plate. ▪ Wavelength adjustment through lever device with micrometer screw. 3. The interferometer is used to determine the wavelength of the laserlight. While moving one of the mirrors. Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Beam splitter 1/1.non polarizing Holder f. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Interferometerplate w prec. Equipment and technical data 08701-00 08702-93 08715-00 08700-00 08734-00 08711-00 08711-01 08741-00 08719-00 07128-00 1 1 1 1 1 4 4 1 1 1 ▪ Suppression of tilting effects due to traverse construction. 08715-00 Main articles He/Ne Laser.3 Diffraction and Interference P2220900 Michelson interferometer . Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. ▪ Resolution: 500 nm. Tasks 1.6 Light and Optics 6. The contrast function K is qualitatively recorded in order to determine the coherence length with it. in interferometer set ups. ▪ Stiff steel base plate with NEXTEL®-Plastic coating.25 mm./beam splitter Digital multimeter 2010 excellence in science 172 . 0. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate components. ▪ Mass: 5kg.drive Optical base plate with rubberfeet Photoelement f. ▪ Dimensions (mm): 320 × 200 ×14. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference. Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light. base plt.

By changing the pressure in a measuring cell located in the beam path.phywe. one can deduce the refraction index of air. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Collection of interferometers with 1 mW HeNe-Laser.com 173 . Measurement of the refraction index n of air by lowering the air pressure in a measuring cell. KG · www. Construction of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer using individual optical components.6 Light and Optics 6. Tasks 1. 2.non polarizing Holder f.3 Diffraction and Interference Refraction index of air with the Mach-Zehnder interferometer with optical base plate P2221100 Schematic representation of the cell with normal pressure (a) and nearly absolute vacuum (b) Principle Light is brought to interference by two mirrors and two beam splitters in the Mach-Zehnder arrangement. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device./beam splitter 08701-00 08702-93 08700-00 08713-00 08714-00 08743-00 08711-00 08711-01 08741-00 08719-00 1 1 1 1 2 1 4 4 2 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. horizontal xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Beam splitter 1/1. diaphr. 230 V Function and Applications This set contains all the components necessary to build the following five types of interferometer and use them with a 1-mW HeNe laser: ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Michelson interferometer (P13066-00) Sagnac interferometer (P13069-00) Mach-Zehnder interferometer (P13075-00) Fabry-Perot interferometer (P13077-00) Twyman-Green interferometer (P13081-00) 08700-88 Main articles He/Ne Laser.

the change in the interference pattern is studied and the wavelength of the laser's light determined. The interferometer is used to determine the wavelength of the laser light. By moving one of the mirrors. NEXTEL® plastic coating and imprinted grid (5×5) cm./beam splitter Lensholder f. optical base plate excellence in science 174 . 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Interferometerplate w prec. ▪ Base plate size (mm): 590 × 430 × 24 ▪ Mass: 7 kg 08700-00 Main articles He/Ne Laser. Illustration of the principle for deriving the individual amplitudes. 2.6 Light and Optics 6. the multibeam interference of a laser's light beam is investigated. ▪ With corrosion protection. Equipment and technical data 08701-00 08702-93 08715-00 08741-01 08700-00 08711-00 08711-01 08741-00 08719-00 08723-00 1 1 1 1 1 3 3 1 2 1 ▪ Rigid and vibration-damped working base made of steel plate.3 Diffraction and Interference P2221205 Fabry-Perot interferometer . Tasks 1. ▪ With rubber feet for non-slip working. Principle Two mirrors are assembled to form a Fabry-Perot interferometer. diaphr. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Optical base plate with rubberfeet Function and Applications For setting up magnetically adhering optical components. Construction of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using separate optical components. ▪ Three fixed adapter sleeves for laser and laser shutter.drive Beam splitter T=30.R=70. Using them.holder Optical base plate with rubberfeet Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Beam splitter 1/1. w.determination of the wavelength of laser light on optical base plate Multibeam interferometer after Fabry and Perot.non polarizing Holder f.

10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Screen.6 Light and Optics 6. base plt. opt. 230 V AC Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. Tasks 1.com 175 . Measurement of the intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern of the slit and of the edge. Photoelement f. 2. 0. Measurement of the width of a given slit. Principle Monochromatic light is incident on a slit or an edge.3-300VDC. horizontal Slit. f.0 mW. Voltmeter.2/1. KG · www. The intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern is determined.phywe. opt. What you can learn about ▪ Intensity ▪ Fresnel integrals ▪ Fraunhofer diffraction Related Experiment Diffraction of light at a slit and an edge with optical profile bench P2230200 Main articles Laser. normalised according to intensity I0 without slit. metal.0. base plt. adjust. 300 x 300 mm 08180-93 13626-93 08700-00 08713-00 08727-00 08734-00 07035-00 08711-00 08711-01 08062-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3 Diffraction and Interference Diffraction of light at a slit and at an edge on optical base plate P2230205 Intensity distribution for diffraction through a slit as a function of the location along a straight line running parallel to the plane of the slit. He-Ne.

He-Ne. h = 30 mm 08181-93 08735-00 08713-00 08735-99 08281-00 08577-02 08041-00 08062-00 07128-00 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 excellence in science 176 . 230 V AC Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Sliding device. 2. The diffraction peak intensities are compared with the theoretical values. Principle Pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles are illuminated with laser light. The diffraction peak intensities are compared with the theoretical values. 300 x 300 mm Digital multimeter 2010 Slide mount for optical bench. metal.25 mm.5 mm) are determined. The positions and intensities of minima and peaks of a second pin hole diaphragm (D2 = 0. l 1500mm Screen.6 Light and Optics 6.25 mm) is determined by means of a sliding photo diode.0 mW. The resulting intensity distributions due to diffraction are measured by means of a photo diode. with diffracting elements Object holder. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Huygens principle Interference Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction Fresnel's zone construction Coherence Laser Airy disk Airy ring. Tasks 1. 3. The diameter of the pin hole diaphragm is determined. horizontal Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Optical profile-bench. The positions of minima and peaks of the diffraction patterns of two complementary circular obstacles (D*1 = 0.3 Diffraction and Interference P2230300 Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole diaphragms and circular obstacles with optical profile bench Diffracted intensity I vs position x of the photodiode.25 mm and (D*2 = 0. 1. Results are discussed in terms of Babinet's Theorem. The complete intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern of a pin hole diaphragm (D1 = 0. 5x5 cm Screen.Poisson's spot Babinet's theorem Bessel function Resolution of optical instruments Main articles Laser.5 mm) are determined. The diameter of the pin hole diaphragm is determined from the diffraction angles of peaks and minima. using a diaphragm with D1 = 0.

10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08701-00 08702-93 13626-93 08700-00 08713-00 08734-00 08724-00 07035-00 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 08701-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 2. power drift max. The resulting interference patterns are studied using a photoelement.phywe.0. Diaphragm holder f. opt.3-300VDC. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device.6 Light and Optics 6. ▪ The dependence of this distribution from the slit widths. 5mW with holder Function and Applications He/Ne laser with fixed connection cable with HV jack for laser power pack. Principle The coherent monochromatic light of a laser is directed to a diaphragm with a varying number of slits.81 mm Beam divergence 1 mrad Max. the distance x being normalised to /s. base plt. KG · www. the number of slits and the grid constant is investigated. Interference. Voltmeter. Tasks ▪ The intensity distribution of diffraction patterns formed by multiple slits is mesasured using a photoelement. horizontal Photoelement f. What you can learn about ▪ Fraunhofer diffraction.5%/ 8 h Service life ca. 2 holders with three-point bearing and 2 setting collars Main articles He/Ne Laser.base plt.8 nm Modes TEMOO Degree of polarisation 1:500 Beam diameter 0. Huygens' principle. ▪ The obtained curves are compared to the theoretical values. Coherence Related Experiment Diffraction intensity due to multiple slits and grids with optical profile bench P2230400 He/Ne Laser. The intensity distribution of the simple slit has been represented with exaggerated height to give a clearer view.3 Diffraction and Interference Diffraction of light through a double slit or by a grid with optical base plate P2230405 Qualitative intensity distribution of diffraction through 2 and 4 slits. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Wave length 632.opt. l = 400 mm Incl. 15000 h Coaxial cylinder casing Ø = 44.com 177 .2mm.

Determination of the intensity distribution of the diffraction patterns due to two slits of different widths.8 nm).3 Diffraction and Interference P2230500 Diffraction intensity at slit and double slit systems with optical profile bench Diffraction intensity I as a function of location x for the single slit b1 = 0. Slot filter d= 0. Maximum sensitivity 900 nm ▪ Voltage when dark 0. Furthermore. The intensity of the areas next to the central peak is represented enlarged by a factor of 10.75 mV. The x axis of the graph for b1 = 0. Tasks 1. = 632. 230 V AC Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Sliding device.. h = 30 mm 08181-93 08735-00 08713-00 08735-99 08281-00 08041-00 07128-00 08012-00 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 5 08735-00 excellence in science 178 . Principle Slit and double slit systems are illuminated with laser light. What you can learn about ▪ Huygens principle. The corresponding diffraction patterns are measured by means of a photodiode which can be shifted. Sensitivity (900 nm) 860 mV/ µW/cm².=10 mm Main articles Laser. l 1500mm Object holder.. Laser Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Function and Applications Silicon diode with high signal-to-noise ratio for photometric measurements where there is a high degree of interference. Spectral range 390 nm.1 mm is shifted upwards. but different distances between the slits. Widths of slits and distances between the slits must be determined as well as the intensity relations of the peaks. 2.1150 nm. as a function of location and intensity.1 mm and b2 = 0. Determination of location and intensity of the extreme values of the diffraction patterns due to two double slits with the same widths. Removable slot filter ▪ 1. diam. Mounting rod l=110 mm. Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction. Interference. intensity relations of the peaks are evaluated. He-Ne. horizontal Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Optical profile-bench. Band width 65 kHz.0 mW. Coherence. Equipment and technical data ▪ Movable holder for diode on round mounting rod with lens for incoming light.6 Light and Optics 6. 5x5 cm Digital multimeter 2010 Lens holder Slide mount for optical bench.3 mm. 1. (Distance between slit and photodiode L = 107 cm.2 mm.5/m lead with diode plug for connecting to the required control unit.The corresponding width of the slit is determined by means of the relative positions of intensity values of the extremes.

3 Diffraction and Interference Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a wire . 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. KG · www. with diffracting elements Photoelement f. Thatis the pattern produced by a diffracting opening of arbitrary shape is thesame as a conjugate of the openingwould produce. base plt. Diaphragm holder f.Babinet's theorem with optical profile bench P2230600 Main articles He/Ne Laser. Tasks Babinet's theorem is verifid by thediffraction pattern of monochromaticlight directed through a slit and anopaque stripe complementary to thelatter.Babinet's theorem with optical base plate P2230605 Principle of set up for diffraction through a slit and qualitative distribution on intensities () 0 in the detector plane LD. Principle Babinet's Principle states that thediffraction pattern for an aperture isthe same as the pattern for anopaque object of the same shape illuminated in the same manner.0. Voltmeter.10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 08701-00 08702-93 13626-93 08700-00 08713-00 08577-02 08734-00 08724-00 07035-00 08711-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3-300VDC.base plt.opt. opt.phywe. The experiment is also performedwith a circular aperture and anopaque obstacle conjugate to thisopening. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fraunhofer interference Huygens' principle Multiple beam interference Babinet's theorem Coherence Related Experiment Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a wire .6 Light and Optics 6. horizontal Screen.com 179 .

Tasks 1.4f arrangement ./beam splitter 08701-00 08702-93 08700-00 08713-00 08577-02 08714-00 08743-00 08711-00 08711-01 08719-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 Principle The electric field distribution of light in a specific plane (object plane) is Fourier transformed into the 4f configuration by 2 lenses and optically filtered with appropriate diaphragms. Fog technique excellence in science 180 . Huygens' principle. horizontal Screen.2f arrangement Experimental set-up for the fundamental principles of Fourier optic (2f setup). Lenses.6 Light and Optics 6. Reconstruction of a filtered image. Fraunhofer diffraction ▪ Index of refraction. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fourier transform Lenses Fraunhofer diffraction Index of refraction Huygens' principle Fourier optics .3 Diffraction and Interference P2261100 Fourier optics . diaphr.P2261200 filtering and reconstruction Main articles He/Ne Laser. What you can learn about ▪ Fourier transform. Optical filtration of diffraction objects in 4 f set-up. Investigation of the Fourier transform by a convex lens for different diffraction objects in a 2 f set-up. Tasks 1. with diffracting elements xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Holder f. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. 2. Principle The electric field distribution of light in a specific plane (object plane) is Fourier transformed into the 2 f configuration.

For more details refer to page 191. Electromagnetic radiation can be described both in terms of propagating waves. Circular interference fringes appear on the screens behind the interferometer. KG · www.3 Diffraction and Interference Quantum eraser with optical base plate Principle P2220800 A Mach-Zehnder-interferometer is illuminated with a laser beam.com 181 . This is a qualitative experiment. Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle with optical base plate P2230105 Principle The intensity distribution in the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a slit is measured.phywe. Using them. as well as particles (photons). Measurement results are evaluated both in the wave representation through comparison with Kirchhoff's diffraction fromula and in the photon representation. For more details refer to page 297. The experiment illustrates this duality by showing how interference patterns can be explained on the basis of both classical wave mechanics and quantum physics. Placing another polarizer before one of the screens causes the pattern to reappear. On moving one of the mirrors. For more details refer to page 190. Fabry-Perot interferometer .6 Light and Optics 6.determination of the wavelength of laser light with P2221206 optical base plate Principle Two mirrors are assembled to form aFabry-Pert Interferometer. If polarization filters with opposite polarization planes are placed in the two interferometer paths the interference patterns disappear. to study the shape of different lasermodes and compare it with some photos given in this description. in order to verify Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. the multibeam interference of a laser's light beam is investigated. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. the change in the intensity distribution of the interference pattern is studied.

2. Due to the magnetostrictive effect. Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material (copper). The associated ▪ Spin-orbit coupling interplanar spacings are determined based on the Bragg angles of the characteristic lines.6 Light and Optics 6. with regard to their magnetostrictive properties. Examination of the structure of NaCl For more details refer to pages 222. X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method Principle P2541601 Laue diagrams are produced when monocrystals are irradiated with polychromatic X-rays. 293. What you can learn about ▪ Interference ▪ Wavelength ▪ Diffraction index monocrystals▪with different orientations P2541301 Speed of light ▪ Phase ▪ Virtual Principle light source ▪ Ferromagnetic material The spectra of the X-rays that are reflected with various different ▪ Weiss molecular magnetic fields orientations by NaCl monocrystals are analysed. Tasks 1. This pat-tern is photographed and then evaluated. This method is primarily used for the determination of crystal symmetries and the orientation of crystals. When a LiF monocrystal is irradiated with polychromatic Xrays. a characteristic diffraction pattern results.3 Diffraction and Interference Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer with optical base plate Principle P2430800 With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample. excellence in science 182 . and the change in the interference pattern is observed. light is brought to interference. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components. For more details refer to page 224.

opt. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Linearly. circularly an elliptically polarised light Polarizer Analyser Malus' law Plane of polarisation Double refraction Optical axis Ordinary and extraordinary beam Photoelement f. as a function of the analyser position. perpenicularly to its optical axis.base pl. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet 08701-00 08702-93 13626-93 08700-00 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Polarization specimen.The polarisation of exiting light is examined for different angles between the optical axis of the lambda/4 plate and the direction of polarisation of incident light.com 183 .phywe. a phase shift of 90° occurs between the ordinary and the extraordinary beam when the latter leaves the crystal. Voltmeter. Carrying out experiment (2) with two succesive lambda/4 plates.base plt.0. Diaphragm holder f. base plt.4 Polarization Polarisation through quarter-wave plates with optical base plate P2250105 Intensity distribution of polarised light for different angles of the /4 plate.opt.3-300VDC. Principle Monochromatic light impinges on amica plate. Measurement of the intensity of linearly polarised light as a function of the analyser's position (Malus' law) 2. Tasks 1. opt.6 Light and Optics 6. Polarizing filter f. Measurement of the light intensity behind the analyser as a function of the angle between the optical axis of the lambda/4 plate and the analyser. mica 08734-00 08724-00 08730-00 07035-00 08711-00 08664-00 1 2 2 1 1 2 Related Experiments Polarisation through quarter-wave plates with optical profile bench P2250100 Polarimetry P2250200 Main articles He/Ne Laser. 3. If the thickness of the plate is adequate (lambda/4 plate).

The refractive index of the flint glass prism is to be found. 2. Voltmeter. Both the rotation of the plane of polarization and the intensity of the reflected light are to be determined and compared with Frewsnel's formulae for reflection. guide rail w. Reflection factor Brewster's law Law of refraction Polarization.4mm. 3. 4. 5. base plt. It is then to be compared with values calculated using Fresnel's formulae. The reflection factor for the flint glass prism is to be calculated.0 mW. 0. 230 V AC Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Prism.2/1.10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08717-00 08734-00 08730-00 07035-00 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 2 1 2 2 Related Experiment Fresnel's equations .theory of reflection with optical profile bench P2250300 Main articles Laser. h. The reflection coefficients for light polarized perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence are to be determined as a function of the angle of incidence and plotted graphically. Polarizing filter f.opt. Principle Plane-polarized light is reflected at a glas surface. Polarization level Rot. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electromagnetic theory of light Reflection coefficient. He-Ne.0. angular scale Photoelement f.6 Light and Optics 6. The rotation of the polarization plane for plane polarized light when reflected is to be determined as a function of the angle of incidence and presented graphically. The reflection coefficients are to be calculated using Fresnel's formulae and compared with the measured curves.36.flint 08180-93 13626-93 08700-00 08237-00 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 184 .base pl. opt.3-300VDC. Tasks 1. 60 degrees.4 Polarization P2250305 Fresnel's law .theory of reflection with optical base plate Measurement results.

He-Ne. opt. Tasks 1.phywe. Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Polarising filter. ▪ Length: 600 mm.4 Polarization Malus' law P2250400 Corrected photo cell current as a function of the angular position of the polarization plane of the analyzer. ▪ Height: 32 mm. 230 V AC Photoelement f.com 185 . h = 30 mm Base for optical bench. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electric theory of light Polarization Polarizer Analyzer Brewster's law Malus' law Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Function and Applications Profile bench with bore holes on the rear side for mounting adjustable bases. Transmitted light intensity is determined as a function of the angular position of the polarization filter.on stem DMM. adjustable PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The plane of polarization of a linear polarized laser beam is to be determined. base plt. NiCr-Ni thermocouple Slide mount for optical bench. In connection with turning knuckle (08285.00) usable to elbow or extend optical benches. KG · www.6 Light and Optics 6. 1. 08181-93 08734-00 08283-00 08610-00 07123-00 08286-01 08284-00 1 1 1 1 1 3 2 Equipment and technical data ▪ Width: 81 mm.0 mW. 08283-00 Main articles Laser. Malus' law must be verified. 2. 3. auto range. Principle Linear polarized light passes through a polarization filter. The intensity of the light transmitted by the polarization filter is to be determined as a function of the angular position of the filter.

the polarisation direction of the analyser must be corrected by the corresponding angle of rotation of the plane of polarisation in order to obtain an intensity minimum again.0 mW. 50. ▪ Anodised aluminium casing with integrated mains power supply.Fixed mains connecting cable 140 cm. He-Ne. used in this experiment to measure the angle of rotation of the plane of polarisation caused by glucose-water solutions of different concentrations.0 mW. lifetime > 18000 h ▪ power requirements 35 VA.pl.filter halfshade f.b. Screw-in release to activate the grey filter. 230 V AC Optical base plate with rubberfeet Pol.2/1. Key switch and integrated greyfilter to reduce radiation power to 0.screw in holding stem. prism.dir.b.60 Hz 08180-93 Main articles Laser. Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Holder. 0.2 mW.0 mW. Screen. Benefits ▪ Welded glass tube assures a very long lifetime > 18 000 operating hours. 230 V AC Function and Applications Linearly polarised light source. Equipment and technical data ▪ Wavelength 632.8 nm. Tasks 1. which the method of crossed polarisation filters is not strong enough to measure. the direction of polarisation of the analyser is perpendicular to that of the polarizer.opt.2 mW ▪ beam diameter 0. Determine the angle of rotation for sugar solutions of different concentrations.opt.6 Light and Optics 6.base pl. If an optically active substance is placed between them. A stronger adjustment possibility for the determination of the angle is given with the half shadow polarimeter. Polarizing filter f. metal.opt. 0.pl. ▪ minimum polarisation500:1. very short design. with filter 0. 300 x 300 mm Lensholder f.2/1. optical output power without filter 1. He-Ne. With this method. signal light and required warnings printed on both sides. beam divergence < 2 mrad. optical base plate 08180-93 08700-00 08730-01 08730-00 08711-00 08711-01 08726-00 08062-00 08723-00 1 0 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 186 .5% ▪ oscillating mode TEM00. What you can learn about ▪ Lippich polarizer ▪ Malus' law Laser.4 Polarization P2250505 Polarimetry with optical base plate Working principle of the half shadow polarimeter Principle Optically active substances cause very slight rotations of the light polarisation plan. max drift over 8 hours ± 2. connectingvoltage 230 V.5 mm.vis.

incl. Tasks Investigate the Faraday effect qualitatively through observation of the electro optical modulation of the polarized laser light with frequencies in the acoustic range.4 Polarization Faraday effect with optical base plate P2260106 Experimental set up. current 5 A (1min) 08733-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interaction of electromagneticfields Electromagnetism Polarisation Verdet's constant Malus' law Electronic oscillation Related Experiment Faraday effect with optical profile bench P2260100 Faraday modulator for optical base plate Function and Applications Main articles Digital Function Generator.opt. If linearly polarized light passes through a region with magnetic field the angle of rotation of the plane of polarization is altered. base plt.com 187 . clamp screws and fixed connection cable = 1m with 4-mm jacks ▪ number of windings 1200 ▪ inductivity 6.3 mH ▪ ohm's resistance 4 Ω ▪ internal diameter 14 mm ▪ max..opt. Principle When the Faraday Effect was discovered in 1845 it was the first experiment that elucidated the relation of light and electromagnetism. Ammeter 1mA.8 Ohm/5 kOhm Photoelement f.6 Light and Optics 6. 0.base pl. 230 V AC Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Faraday modulator f. KG · www.0 mW. opt. Cobra4 Software Laser. He-Ne. The factor of proportionality is a mediumspecific constant and is called Verdet's constant. This alteration appears to be a linear function of both the average magnetic flow density and the distance that the wave covers in the magnetic field.base pl. USB. Loudspeaker.3 A Polarizing filter f.phywe.2/1. Equipment and technical data ▪ with round stem. Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 13654-99 08180-93 13626-93 08700-00 08733-00 13765-00 08734-00 07036-00 08730-00 08711-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 Copper coil on temperature-stable aluminium winder with insert for holdingglass rods (SF58) for Faraday effect.

This documentation contains the following experiments: Rectilinear propagation of light P1100000 Shadow formation by a point light source P1100100 Umbra and penumbra with two point light sources P1100200 Umbra and penumbra with an extensive light source P1100300 Length of shadows P1100400 Complete experiment list see www.com 01151-02 excellence in science 188 . shelf with 4 storage boxes 02190-93 The demonstration system presents the following advantages: ▪ simple handling and minimum preparation time through components with magnets ▪ clear length of beams through 50 W halogen lamp with magnet and large model objects ▪ clear and dust proof storage of all components in the device shaped wooden tray ▪ detailed description of experiments with figures. board as projection screen and for the set-up of experiments with magnetic holders ▪ swivel wheels. Beamer. Everything belonging to modern teaching methods is incorporated into this new mobile teacher system. Magnet Board Optics. beamer. set-up of experiments with magnetic holders.phywe. Topics ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Propagation of light Mirrors Refraction Lenses Colours Eyes and optical devices Function and Applications This complete mobile system is designed for teaching natural sciences and is ideally suitable for demonstration experiments. All equipment for the experiments can be organized in 4 storage boxes for a quick and easy set-up. Benefits ▪ flexibly usage in different rooms: no need for a fixed installation of presentation equipment in the rooms ▪ the system combines techniques of the modern multi media presentation methods and modern demonstration experimentation with thousandfold used robust mobile desks ▪ preparation can be done in the seperate preparation room before the lesson starts ▪ minimum preparation time for lessons ▪ ideal for PC based experimentation by using of the Cobra4 interface system ▪ fast and flexible positioning and modification of the experiment set-ups using magnetic holders ▪ easy assembly and clearly visible vertical set-up ot the experiments ▪ frame for chemistry experiments from the PHYWE system complete experiments can also be mounted Equipment and technical data ▪ electric and network connection. It is ideal for all teaching environments and its modular design guarantees flexibility and adaptability for all of your purposes. Manual Multimedia Demo Lab for demonstration experiments with the a magnetic board Article no. teacher desk and laboratory bench are included. two with brakes.5 Literature and accessories Phys. Exp. The vertical board allows writing with a pen and beamer projection.6 Light and Optics 6. 01151-02 Description Instructions for 60 demonstration experiments in optics.

4 7.com 189 .12 Quantum eraser Heisenberg's uncertainty principle Millikan experiment Specific charge of the electron Franck-Hertz experiment Planck's "quantum of action" and photoelectric effect Stern-Gerlach experiment Zeeman effect Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR.7 7.11 7. MRT) .9 7.phywe.10 7.6 7.1 7.Electron spin resonance (ESR) Electron diffraction Compton effect Duane-Hunt displacement law 190 191 192 193 194 196 197 198 200 203 204 206 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 7.7 Quantum Physics Quantum Physics 7.3 7. KG · www.8 7.2 7.

Circular interference fringes appear on the screens behind the interferometer. He-Ne. Change the polarization of the beams with the PF1 and PF2 polarizers and observe the influence on the interference pattern. Use the third polarizer PF3 to cancel the polarization of the light in the two beams. and observe the reappearance of the interference pattern. mica Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm Beam splitter 1/1.opt. 230 V AC Optical base plate in exp. Electromagnetic radiation can be described both in terms of propagating waves. If polarization filters with opposite polarization planes are placed in the two interferometer paths the interference patterns disappear.case Diaphragm holder f. optical base plate 08711-00 08664-00 08711-01 08741-00 08719-00 08723-00 4 1 4 2 2 1 Main articles Laser. Tasks 1. Placing another polarizer before one of the screens causes the pattern to reappear. diaphr. Set up the experiment and observe the interference pattern on the screen. The experiment illustrates this duality by showing how interference patterns can be explained on the basis of both classical wave mechanics and quantum physics.non polarizing Holder f.opt.2/1. 08180-93 08700-01 08724-00 08730-00 1 1 1 3 excellence in science 190 . 3. 2./beam splitter Lensholder f.1 Quantum eraser P2220800 Quantum eraser Pattern seen on the screen when blocking half of the beam. as well as particles (photons). Polarizing filter f.7 Quantum Physics 7.base plt.0 mW. Principle A Mach-Zehnder-interferometer is illuminated with a laser beam.base pl. 0. What you can learn about ▪ Wave-particle duality ▪ Wave interference ▪ Quantum mechanics Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Polarization specimen.

05 mm wide slit.2/1. opt.phywe. He-Ne. and Heisenberg's uncertainty relation is verified. de Broglie's relation.0. Voltmeter. The intensity distribution of the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern due to a simple slit is measured. sharpness Kirchhoff's diffraction formula. horizontal Photoelement f. impulse uncertainty wave-matter duality. 0.3-300VDC. KG · www. Diaphragm holder f. The amplitudes of the peaks and of the minima are calculated according to Kirchhoff's diffraction formula and compared to measured values. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Diffraction. Tasks 1. base plt.7 Quantum Physics 7. Measurement results are evaluated both in the wave representation through comparison with Kirchhoff's diffraction fromula and in the photon representation.opt.2 Heisenberg's uncertainty principle Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle with optical base plate P2230105 Intensity distribution of the diffraction pattern of a 0. 2.base plt. Principle The intensity distribution in the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern of a slit is measured.10-300VAC / Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 08180-93 13626-93 08700-00 08713-00 08734-00 08724-00 07035-00 08711-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Werner Heisenberg 1932. measurement precision local uncertainty.com 191 .0 mW. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. in order to verify Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. Momentum uncertainty is calculated with the assistance of the diffraction patterns of simple slits of different widths. Related Experiment Diffraction at a slit and Heisenberg's uncertainty principle with optical bench P2230100 Main articles Laser. 230 V AC Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. at a distance of 490 mm.

Principle Charged oil droplets subjected to an electric field and to gravity between the plates of a capacitor are accelerated by application of a voltage. 2.. Determination of the radii and the charge of the droplets. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 192 . interruption type Stand tube Object micrometer 1mm i. The elementary charge is determined from the velocities in the direction of gravity and in the opposite direction. Measurement of the rise and fall times of oil droplets with various charges at different voltages. Milikan 1923. Tasks 1.100parts Circular level.. 0.7 Quantum Physics 7.overl.600 VDC Multi-range meter w. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Electric field Viscosity Stokes' law Droplet method Electron charge Main articles Millikan apparatus Power supply. d = 36 mm 09070-00 13672-93 07021-01 06034-07 02002-55 03076-01 02060-00 62171-19 02123-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Robert A.3 Millikan experiment P2510100 Elementary charge and Millikan experiment Measurements on various droplets for determining the elementary charge by the Millikan method.prot. Polarity Switch for Millikan Apparatus Tripod base PHYWE Stop watch.

Observation Chamber Function and Applications Observation chamber for covering the e/m experiment (Helmholtz coils and narrow beam tube). Determination of the specific charge of the electron (e/m0) from the path of an electron beam in crossed electric and magnetic fields of variable strength. Benefits ▪ parallax-free measuring of turning radii of electrons ▪ measuring of any turning radii of electrons.phywe.. the magnetic field strength and the radius of the electron orbit. one pair Power supply. Tasks 1. Principle Electrons are accelerated in an electric field and enter a magnetic field at right angles to the direction of motion.com 193 . Russia e/m . 0. operation under normal lightning conditions. protection of the narrow beam tube due to less intensities required Equipment and Technical data ▪ Covering Box out of hard paper with observation window and connection openings.4 Specific charge of the electron Specific charge of the electron e/m P2510200 Experimental result. Dimensions LxWxH (mm): 550x310x470. Mirror with Scale 06959-01 Main articles Narrow beam tube Helmholtz coils.600 VDC Power supply..Observation Chamber Digital multimeter 2010 06959-00 06960-00 13672-93 13500-93 06959-01 07128-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Cathode rays Lorentz force Electron in crossed fields Electron mass Electron charge In Cooperation with: National University of Science and Technology "MISIS" in Moscow. The specific charge of the electron is determined from the accelerating voltage. universal e/m .7 Quantum Physics 7. KG · www.

5 Franck-Hertz experiment P2510311 Franck-Hertz experiment with a Hg tube Example of a Franck-Hertz curve for Hg-gas recorded with T = 180°C. l 750 mm Data cable. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 194 . Tasks 1. 9 pole Gustav Hertz 1925. BNC. Determine the excitation energy E from the positions of the current strength minima or maxima by difference formation. Record the countercurrent strength Ι in a Franck-Hertz tube as a function of the anode voltage U. plug/ socket. sheathed Connecting cord for Franck-Hertz Hg-tube Software Measure Franck-Hertz experiment Screened cable. Nobel Prize in Physics 09105-99 09105-10 09105-93 13615-01 09105-30 14522-61 07542-11 14602-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Main articles Franck-Hertz control unit Franck-Hertz Hg-tube on plate Franck-Hertz oven for Hg-tube Thermocouple NiCr-Ni. What you can learn about ▪ Energy quantum ▪ Electron collision ▪ Excitation energy James Franck 1925. The excitation energy of mercury is determined from the distance between the equidistant minima of the electron current in a variable opposing electric field.7 Quantum Physics 7. Principle Electrons are accelerated in a tube filled with mercury vapour. 2.

.5 ± 0. Heater temperature: 0....7 Quantum Physics 7. Counter voltage: 0. Determine the excitation energy E from the positions of the current strength minima or maxima by difference formation. The excitation energy of neon is determined from the distance between the equidistant minima of the electron current in a variable opposing electric field. KG · www. ▪ From the recorded anode current as a function of acceleration voltage the excitation energy of the atoms can be determined.5 Franck-Hertz experiment Franck-Hertz experiment with a Ne tube P2510315 Example of a Franck-Hertz curve for Ne-gas.. saw tooth (oscilloscope) and PC-control. Acceleration voltage: 0.phywe. 9 pole 09105-99 09105-40 09105-50 14522-61 07542-11 14602-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.99 V. Principle Electrons are accelerated in a tube filled with neon vapour. housing Connect. 09105-99 Main articles Franck-Hertz control unit Franck-Hertz Ne-tube w.999°C ▪ Anode current: 0.6 V ▪ Heater voltage: 0..12 V.and Ne-tubes.automatic ramp.com 195 .50 nA.1 V ▪ Heater current: 400 mA. 2.. Output 4 mm-sockets: ▪ Acceleration voltage: 0. xyt-recorder.. Ne-tube Software Measure Franck-Hertz experiment Screened cable.. ▪ Power control for heater with safety socket (600 W) and type K socket for thermocouples. Tasks 1. Resolution (all voltages): 0..5 V.. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Energy quantum Quantum leap Electron collision Excitation energy Franck-Hertz control unit Function and Applications Compact operating unit for Franck-Hertz-experiment to be used with Hg.10 V. oscilloscope or PC. Benefits ▪ Automatic detection of tube type and automatic limitation of tube parameter.):6.10 V(10 V ~ 50 nA) ▪ Data output: RS232 SubD-socket. ▪ Socket for 5-pole connection cable for Hg/Ne-tube. l 750 mm Data cable. plug/ socket. ▪ Examination by direct reading of displayed values...10 V(10 V ~ 100 V) ▪ Voltage ß anode current: 0. BNC. Emission voltage: 0. Display: 20 mm 7-segment LED ▪ 4 operation modes: manually.Franck-H.cord f... Equipment and technical data ▪ Heating voltage (const.. In 1913/14 James Franck and Gustav Hertz approved Bohr's model of atoms with this experiment (Nobel Prize: 1925). Record the counter current strength I in a Franck-Hertz tube as a function of the anode voltage U.

set of 3 Interference filters.8A Experiment lamp 5 DMM with NiCr-Ni thermo couple 08461-00 08463-00 13626-93 06779-00 13505-93 06114-02 11601-00 07122-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Max Planck 1918.6 Planck's "quantum of action" and photoelectric effect P2510402 Planck's "quantum of action" and photoelectric effect (line separation by interference filters) Photoelectric current intensity I as a function of the bias voltage at different frequencies of the irradiated light.. and is independent of its intensity. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 196 .12 V DC/ 6 V. The stopping voltage Uo at different light frequencies is determined by the U/I caracteristics of the photocell and plotted over the corresponding light frequency f. with housing Power supply 0. set of 2 Universal measuring amplifier Photocell for h-determination. 1.7 Quantum Physics 7. 100 Ohm . Planck's quantum of action or Planck's constant (h). The maximum energy of the ejected electrons in the photo-cell depends only on the frequency of the incident light. 12 V AC. Principle A photocell is illuminated with monochromatic light of different wavelengths from a filament lamp with interference filters. To determine Planck's quantum of action from the photoelectric voltages measured at different wave lengths What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ External photoelectric effect Work function Absorption Photon energy Anode Cathode Related Experiment Planck's "quantum of action" and extern photoelectric effec effect (line separation by a diffraction grating) P2510502 Main articles Interference filters. 230 V Rheostat. Tasks 1. is determined from this graph ..

Recording the distribution of the particle beam density in the detectionplane in the absence of the effective magnetic field. a parabola. and another straight line.10l. The potassiumatoms are thereby deflected from their path. Fitting a curve consisting of a straight line. Investigating the positions of the maxima of the particle beam density as a function of the non-homogeneity of the magnetic field. 3. Atomic beam Maxwellian velocity distribution Two-wire field Main articles Stern-Gerlach apparatus High vacuum pump assembly. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Magnetic moment Bohr magneton Directional quantization g-factor Electron spin.7 Stern-Gerlach experiment Stern-Gerlach experiment with a stepper motor and interface P2511111 Ionization current as a function of position (u) of detector with large excitation currents in the magnetic analyser. Principle A beam of potassium atoms generated in a hot furnace travels along a specific path in a magnetic two-wire field.7 Quantum Physics 7. set of 6 Matching transformer Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Steel cylinder. Because of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms. to the experimentally determined special distribution of the particle beam density. the nonhomogeneity of the field applies a force at right angles to the direction of their motion.nitrogen. 4. By measuring the density of the beam of particles in a plane of detection lying behind the magnetic field.compact Step motor Stern-Gerlach appartus Electromagnet w/o pole shoes DC measuring amplifier Step motor unit Potassium ampoules. KG · www.com 197 .phywe. 2. it is possible to draw conclusions as to the magnitude and direction of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms. Determining the dependence of the particle beam density in the detection plane with different values of the non-homogeneity of the effective magnetic field. full 09054-88 09059-99 09054-06 06480-01 13620-93 08087-99 09054-05 09054-04 13530-93 41763-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Stern-Gerlach experiment (classical version) P2511101 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Tasks 1.

From the results of point 1. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bohr's atomic model Quantisation of energy levels Electron spin Bohr's magneton Interference of electromagnetic waves Fabry-Perot interferometer Fabry-Perot interferometer Electromagnet w/o pole shoes Cadmium lamp for Zeeman effect Variable transformer. Using the Fabry-Perot interferometerand a selfmade telescope the splittingup of the central line into differentlines is measured in wave numbers as a function of the magnetic flux density. 3.6nm. anomalous Zeeman effect 508. In this experiment the normal Zeeman effect as well as the anomalous Zeeman effect are studied using a cadmium spectral lamp as a specimen.table for heavy loads Pole pieces. l 1000mm Capacitor.8 nm. conical Optical profile-bench. The evaluation of the results leads to a fairly precise value for Bohr's magneton. red light.. 12 A Power supply for spectral lamps Sliding device. drilled. a value for Bohr's magneton is evaluated.7 Quantum Physics 7.22000 µF 09050-02 06480-01 09050-20 13531-93 13662-97 08713-00 02077-00 06480-03 08282-00 06211-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Zeeman effect with an electromagnet and CCD camera including the measurement software P2511005 excellence in science 198 . The simplest is the splitting up of one spectral line into three components called the "normal Zeeman effect".8 Zeeman effect P2511001 Zeeman effect with an electromagnet and optical bench Screenshot of software used to measure the diameters of the interference rings as captured by the CCD-Camera. horizontal Rot. The light emitted within the direction of the magnetic field is qualitatively investigated. 25 VAC/ 20 VDC. The cadmium lamp is submitted to different magnetic flux densities and the splitting up of the cadmium lines (normal Zeeman effect 643. Main articles Principle The "Zeeman effect" is the splitting up of the spectral lines of atoms within a magnetic field. green light) is investigated using a Fabry-Perot interferometer.electrolyt. 2.

l 1000mm Polarising filter. In this experiment the normal Zeeman effect as well as the anomalous Zeeman effect are studied using a cadmium spectral lamp as a specimen.phywe. The light emitted within the direction of the magnetic field is qualitatively investigated.on stem Polarization specimen.com 199 . 2. Bohr's magneton. Interference of electromagnetic waves. Principle The "Zeeman effect" is the splitting up of the spectral lines of atoms within a magnetic field. mica Iris diaphragm 09050-02 06327-00 09050-20 13662-97 08713-00 08282-00 08610-00 08664-00 08045-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Pieter Zeeman 1902. 3. From the results of point 1.8 Zeeman effect Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic system P2511006 Interference rings with the anomalous Zeeman effect. Using the Fabry-Perot interferometer and a selfmade telescope the splitting up of the central line into different lines is measured in wave numbers as a function of the magnetic flux density. Fabry-Perot interferometer Related Experiment Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic system and a CCD camera including the measurement software P2511007 Main articles Fabry-Perot interferometer Magnetic System. variable Cadmium lamp for Zeeman effect Power supply for spectral lamps Sliding device. KG · www. What you can learn about ▪ Bohr's atomic model.7 Quantum Physics 7. Quantisation of energy levels ▪ Electron spin. a value for Bohr's magneton is evaluated. Tasks 1. horizontal Optical profile-bench. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The simplest is the splitting up of one spectral line into three components called the "normal Zeeman effect".

2. Tuning of the system frequency to the Larmor frequency. Improving the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the FID signal.7 Quantum Physics 7. What cou can learn about ▪ Nuclear spins. The adjustment of all parameters in these experiments are inevitable to obtain an adequate MR image. incl. in a sturdy carrying case 09500-99 1 Related Experiments Relaxation times in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance P5942200 Spatial encoding in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance P5942300 Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) I P5942400 excellence in science 200 . Experiments are executed with a MRT training device giving the opportunity to investigate some small probes in the sample chamber. the influence of particular magnetic field inhomogeneities.Electron spin resonance (ESR) P5942100 Basic principles in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spin echo signal of an oil sample occuring 10 ms (echo time) after a 90° HF pulse (FID signal is shown). FID signal (Free Induction Decay) ▪ MR flip angle. MRT) . the determination of the flip angle of the magnetization vector. Effects of the substance quantity on the FID signal (Free Induction Decay) amplitude. Device control is done with the provided software. 6. Retrieving a relaxated FID signal via a spin echo flipping nuclear spins by 180°. samples set. Spin echo. 5. To generate the echo signal a 180° HF pulse has to be switched after half the echo time. T2: transverse magnetization) ▪ Signal-to-noise ratio Main articles Compact magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT). Setting of the HF (High Frequency) pulse duration to determine the flip angle of the magnetization vector. Magnetization ▪ Resonance condition. Tasks 1. software and handbook on USB stick . Relaxation times (T1: longitudinal magnetization. Principle The basic principles concerning the phenomenon of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) are demonstrated. MR frequency. the effects of the substance quantity. Atomic nuclei with a magnetic moment ▪ Precession of nuclear spins. the measurement of a spin echo signal and an averaging procedure to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. 3. Investigations comprise the tuning of the system frequency to the Larmor frequency. 4.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR. Minimizing magnetic field inhomogeneities via a superimposed magnetic field (shim).

The special option to influence experiments on runtime and to directly visualize the results gives users an unprecedented learning experience. and the training software and is optimized for education and training purposes. Connection of the receiver/transmitter unit: BNC. in a sturdy carrying case Equipment and technical Data The system includes the following components: ▪ Control unit: ▪ gradient amplifier and transmitter and receiver unit ▪ PC connection: USB-B. exercises. 2 A.5 kg ▪ Training Software: ▪ Languages: German/English (other languages on request) ▪ Product license: Training version. all MR parameters accessible ▪ experiment is selected from a clearly structured menu ▪ measure a multitude of samples with a diameter up to one centimeter ▪ software perfectly adapts to the operation for study purposes ▪ suitable for a wide range of experiments. from basic understanding of magnetic resonance to complex imaging ▪ literature tailored precisely to the experiments (available with the set "compact magnetic resonance tomograph": 4 TESS experimental units ▪ possibility to select courses in which only the relevant parameters necessary for the findings are adjusted Cross-sectional image of a branch PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. training software. operating manuals Accessories ▪ Computer (min. as for example the tuning of the system frequency to the Larmor frequency or the specification of relaxation times.3 kg ▪ Magnet unit: ▪ high-end gradient system for 2D and 3D images. 50/60 Hz.phywe. 256 MB. of 1 GB hard-disk space. structured implementation plan. Data formats: DICOM. high-resolution tomographic MR images can be produced. students can generate. sample with a particular structure) ▪ 1 empty sample tube. In addition to parameters accessible only through MRT.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR. 10 mm ▪ Sturdy carrying case for safe transport ▪ USB stick incl. software and handbook on USB stick . realtime control of experimental parameters ▪ realistic and practice-oriented training for all fields of science and medicine ▪ T1/T2 measurements. Benefits ▪ easy to connect and immediately operative (USB 2. The training software makes it easy for the users to experience all aspects of magnetic resonance tomography. 1024 x 758 graphics card (min. comprehensive descriptions of the experiments. However.0). analyses with many figures clearly arranged (possibility to extend the basic set). in order to generate a fairly homogeneous magnetic field the sample chamber has to be comparatively small. Power supply unit (external): 100-240 VAC. 16-bit color resolution or better ▪ Soundbox for realistic background noise to connect the experiments with everyday experiences 09500-99 Function and Applications The systems gives you the unique opportunity of offering training at a real MRT machine directly on site. CSV. The MRT compact set consists of the control unit. detailed theoretical background. compatible with DirectX 9. JPEG. TXT.7 Quantum Physics 7. Weight: 17.6 GHz) with Windows XP (32-Bit)/Vista (32-Bit)/7. 3D) ▪ live visualization of data. The system differs from other magnetic resonance tomographs only in the sample size and the fact that it is portable. min. high resolution MR imaging (2D. 2 A ▪ Dimensions (length x width x height):27 cm x 9. System frequency: 22 MHz ▪ Field intensity: 500 mT. processor 1. incl. Field homogenity: < 100 ppm ▪ Sample diameter: max. 1 GB RAM. KG · www.5 cm x 14 cm.com 201 . 10 mm ▪ Connection of the imaging unit (gradient): RJ45 ▪ Connection of the receiver/transmitter unit BNC ▪ Dimensions (length x width x height): 27 cm x 25 cm x 14 cm. Weight: 2.Electron spin resonance (ESR) Compact magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT). In addition to carrying out fundamental and basic experiments on MR technology. export and analyze numerous images with all relevant contrasts in a high spatial resolution. Connection of the imaging unit (gradient): RJ45.0) ▪ new and numerous education experience ▪ training at a real MRT in compact format with clinically relevant measuring procedures. This is the only way to provide for realistic and practice-oriented nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) training for all fields of science and medicine. Media types: USB stick ▪ Sample set ▪ 5 different samples (water and oil samples each of with 5 and 10 mm diameter. USB 2. the magnet unit. min. Power supply: 12 V DC. sample set. Image artifacts found in clinical MRT can be examined directly in a simple process.0 interface. MRT) .

2 channels Hall probe. 146 MHz ▪ Resonator performance approx. protection cap DMM. BNC. NiCr-Ni thermocouple Screened cable. but with this technique electron spins are excited instead of spins of atomic nuclei.7 Quantum Physics 7.Electron spin resonance (ESR) P2511200 Electron spin resonance Resonance signal on the oscilloscope. Coil radius (Helmholz coils) 5. digital Power supply. ▪ Two Helmholtz coils.9 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR. MRT) . tangential.4 cm. Tasks 1. Determine the FWHM (Full Width at Half Maximum) of the absorption line What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Zeeman effect Energy quantum Quantum number Resonance g-factor Landé factor ESR resonator with field coils Function and Apllications ESR resonator Benefits ▪ with field coilshigh quality oscillating circuit. Equipment and technical data ▪ Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl sample 1 g. Principle With electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy compounds having unpaired electrons can be studied. The g-factor of a DPPH (Di-phenylpikrylhydrazyl) and the halfwidth of the absorption line are determined. using the ESR apparatus. Resonatorfrequency approx. universal Oscilloscope. 1000. test specimen. BNC Socket. 30 MHz. Determine the g-factor (Landé-factor) of the DPPH (Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl) specimen 2. The physical background of ESR is similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). tuneable within the 146 MHz Range. auto range. Turns: 250 09050-00 Main articles ESR power supply ESR resonator with field coils Teslameter. l 750 mm 09050-93 09050-00 13610-93 13500-93 11459-95 13610-02 07123-00 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 excellence in science 202 .

To measure the diameter of the two smallest diffraction rings at different anode voltages. 2. 30 kV..phywe. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bragg reflection Debye-Scherrer method Lattice planes Graphite structure Material waves De Broglie equation Main articles Electron diffraction tube High voltage supply unit. 3.7 Quantum Physics 7. plastic 06721-00 13670-93 13672-93 07160-00 07366-00 03011-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 Louis de Broglie 1929. 0-10 kV Power supply.600 VDC High-value resistor. 10 MOhm Connecting cord. The interplanar spacing in graphite is determined from the diameter of the rings and the accelerating voltage. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 500 mm Vernier caliper.com 203 . Principle Fast electrons are diffracted from a polycrystalline layer of graphite: interference rings appear on a fluorescent screen. KG · www.10 Electron diffraction Electron diffraction P2511300 Interference rings of graphite on a fluorescent screen. To calculate the wavelength of the electrons from the anode voltages.. 0. To determine the interplanar spacing of graphite from the relationship between the radius of the diffraction rings and the wavelength.

an Am-241 source (370 kBq) and a Na-22 source (74 kBq). This results in a frequency distribution of detected pulses dependent on the energy of the radiation. 18. Tasks 1. 13727-99 Main articles Gamma detector Radioactive source Cs-137. The analogue pulses from the detector are shaped by the analyser. alpha detector or gamma detector.5 MBq Multi channel analyser Radioactive source Cs-137. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Corpuscle Scattering Compton wavelength g-quanta De Broglie wavelength Klein-Nishina formula Multi channel analyser Function and applications The multi-channel analyser is for analysing voltage pulses which are proportional to energy and for determining pulse rates and intensities in conjunction with an X-ray detector. Principle The energy of scattered gamma-radiation is measured as a function of the angle of scatter. Calibrate the measuring set-up with the aid of a Cs-137 calibrating source (37 kBq). digitised and summed per channel according to pulse height. 370 kBq Operating unit for gamma detector Radioactive source Na-22. Measure the energy of the Cs-137661. 37 kBq Screening cylinder for gamma detector Radioactive source Am-241. 200x100x50 mm Lead brick with hole 09101-00 09096-20 13727-99 09096-01 09101-11 09090-11 09101-93 09047-52 09029-11 09021-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 204 .7 Quantum Physics 7. The Compton wavelength is determined from the measured values.6 keV peaks scattered at different angles and calculate the Compton wavelength from the readings taken. 2.11 Compton effect P2524415 Compton effect with the multi-channel analyser Energy of known peaks as a function of the pulse height. 74 kBq Lead block.

0 X-ray Compton attachment f. Comparison of the measured energy values of the lines of scatter with the calculated energy values.11 Compton effect Compton effect . 2.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. Energy calibration of the multi-channel analyser with the aid of the two characteristic molybdenum X-ray lines. The energy of the scattered photons is determined in an angle-dependent manner with the aid of a swivelling semiconductor detector and a multi-channel analyser.x-rayunit 14452-61 09058-32 09057-01 09057-03 09057-04 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Compton scattering of X-rays P2541701 Main articles XR 4. Tasks 1.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 5 mm XR 4.phywe. 3. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation Compton scattering Compton wavelength conservation of energy and momentum rest mass and rest energy of the electron relativistic electron mass and energy semiconductor detector multi-channel analyser measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm XR 4.7 Quantum Physics 7.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Calculation of the Compton wavelength of electrons and a comparison of this value with the corresponding value of the 90° scattering. Energy determination of the photons of the Mo-line that are scattered through an acrylic glass element as a function of the scattering angle. Compton 1927.0 expert unit XR 4. Principle Photons of the molybdenum K-alpha X-ray line are scattered at the quasi-free electrons of an acrylic glass cuboid. KG · www.energy-dispersive direct measurement P2546001 Molybdenum-Kα-Line of various scattering angles theta. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4. 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube Multi channel analyser 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-60 13727-99 1 1 1 1 1 Arthur H.com 205 .

Determine the short wavelength limit (= maximum energy) of the bremsspectrum for the spectra obtained in (1). Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray tube Bremsstrahlung Characteristic X-ray radiation Energy levels Crystal structures Lattice constant Interference The Bragg equation Main articles XR 4. 15 kV.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 09057-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Max Planck 1918. 2.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. type B XR 4. x-axis: glancing angle ? /° Principle X-ray spectra are recorded as a function of the anode voltage. mounted XR 4. The short wavelength limit of the "Bremsspectrum" is used to determine the agreement with the Duane-Hunt displacement law. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 206 . and to determine Planck's "quantum of action". and to determine Planck's "quantum of action".0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode at various anode voltages as a function of the Bragg angle using an LiF monocrystal. Use the results to verify the Duane-Hunt displacement law.12 Duane-Hunt displacement law P2540901 Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's "quantum of action" Bremsspectrum of copper for three different anode voltages U (15 kV. and 31 kV).7 Quantum Physics 7.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. 3.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.

KG · www.4 8.1 8.phywe.5 8.3 8.com 207 .8 Atomic Physics Atomic Physics 8.6 One and two electron spectra Balmer series/ determination of Rydberg's constant X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law Characteristic X-rays K alpha double splitting of molybdenum X-rays Related Experiments 208 209 210 213 214 215 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2 8.

vernier Spectral lamp He. pico 9 base Lamp holder. pico 9 base Spectral lamp Hg 100. Calibration of the spectrometer using the He spectrum and the determination of the constant of the grating. 4.f.1 One and two electron spectra P2510600 Fine structure: one and two electron spectra Spectrum of sodium. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Diffraction spectrometer Spin Angular momentum Spin-orbital angular momentum interaction Multiplicity Energy level Excitation energy Selection rules Doublets Parahelium Orthohelium Exchange energy Angular momentum Singlet and triplet series Selection rules Forbidden transitions Main articles Spectrometer/goniom. pico 9 base Power supply for spectral lamps Spectral lamp Na. 600 lines/mm Tripod base PHYWE 35635-02 08120-03 13662-97 08120-07 08120-14 08120-11 08120-01 08119-00 08546-00 02002-55 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 208 . 3.8 Atomic Physics 8. Determination of the spectrum of Na. The wave-lengths of the spectral lines of Na. Principle The well-known spectral lines of He are used for calibrating the diffraction spectrometer. 2.pico 9. pico 9 base Spectral lamp Cd. Cd and Zn. Determination of the fine structure splitting. Determination of the most intense spectral lines of Hg. w. pico 9 base Spectral lamp Zn.spectr. Hg. Cd and Zn are determined using the spectrometer.lamps Diffraction grating. Tasks 1.

com 209 . Equipment and technical data ▪ 3 continuously variable DC voltages isolated from earth and ground. 2. Binding energy Related Experiment Atomic spectra of two-electron system: He. of Rydberg's constant and of the energy levels. 0-10 kV Object holder. Tasks 1. Hg P2510800 High voltage supply unit. ▪ 3-figure LED display.2 Balmer series/ determination of Rydberg's constant Balmer series/ determination of Rydberg's constant P2510700 Energy level diagram of the H atom. Principle The spectral lines of hydrogen and mercury are examined by means of a diffraction grating. 13670-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. mercury Diffraction grating. The wave lengths of the visible lines of the Balmer series of H are measured. Determination of the diffraction grating constant by means of the Hg spectrum. The known spectral lines of Hg are used to determine the grating constant.phywe. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Diffraction image of a diffraction grating Visible spectral range. 5x5 cm Spectrum tube. Paschen-. KG · www. Single electron atom Atomic model according to Bohr Lyman-. 0-10 kV Main articles High voltage supply unit. 600 lines/mm Tripod base PHYWE Insulating support Barrel base PHYWE Cover tube for spectral tubes Stand tube 13670-93 08041-00 06665-00 06664-00 08546-00 02002-55 06020-00 02006-55 06675-00 02060-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 Function and Applications For electrostatic experiments and for operation of spectral & gas discharge tubes. Planck's constant. Determination of the visible lines of the Balmer series in the H spectrum. hydrogen Spectrum tube. Brackett and Pfund Series Energy level.8 Atomic Physics 8. ▪ Total of 0 -10 kV DC.

3 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law P2524715 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law with the multi channel analyser Calibration lines of Cs-137 and Am-241 Main articles Principle The irradiation of strontinum (sulphate). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Binding energy Photoelectric eftect Shell structure of electron shells Characteristic X-ray radiation g-spectrometry X-ray spectral analysis Gamma detector Multi channel analyser . After calibration of the spectrometer.6 keV. 2. lead measure Software multi channel analyser High-voltage connecting cable Tin-II chloride 250 g 09101-00 1 13727-99 09096-01 09090-11 09101-93 09029-01 14452-61 09101-10 31991-25 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 210 . indium. cadmium. Recording of the X-ray fluorescence spectra (Ka-lines) of different elements and determination of the corresponding energies. using Moseley's law.8 Atomic Physics 8.extended version suitable also for operation of the X-ray energy detector Radioactive source Cs-137. Calibration of the gamma-spectrometer in the low energy range. Plotting of the measured X-ray energies according to Moseley's law against (Z-1)2 and determination of the Rydberg constant R. The X-rayspectra are recorded with a gamma spectrometer consisting of a scintillation counter. a pulse height analyser and a recorder. 370 kBq Operating unit for gamma detector Absorption material. 3. iodine and barium (chloride) with soft gamma-radiations gives rise to Ka radiations characteristics of these elements. 37 kBq Radioactive source Am-241. from the slope of the resulting lines. Tasks 1. using the Ba-resonance line 137Cs emitter (32 keV) and the gamma-line of 241Am at 59. the Rydberg constant is determined from the energies of the X-ray lines.

2.0 expert unit XR 4. 3. Tasks 1.3 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley's law P2541001 Moseley lines.phywe.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.8 Atomic Physics 8. thereby. Detector rotation range: -10°. Curve b: transition n3 →n1 (Kβ line) Principle Moseley's law describes the relationship between the energy of the Ka lines of characteristic X-ray spec-tra and the atomic number. Rate: 0. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Characteristic X-radiation Bohr model energy levels binding energy Moseley's law Rydberg frequency screening constant Bragg scattering XR 4.com 211 . Mass (kg): 5 09057-10 Main articles XR 4...0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.10°.. Curve a: transition n2 →n1 (Kα line). for protecting the detectors ▪ Intuitive operation directly at the unit or via a PC Equipment and technical data ▪ Angular increment: 0.0 X-ray goniometer Function and Applications Goniometer with two independent stepper motors for the precise angular positioning of a sample and detector.1°. Record the X-ray spectra of the three X-ray tubes.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.100 s/increment ▪ Sample rotation range: 0.+170° ▪ Dimensions (cm): 35 x 30 x 20.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4. KG · www..5..0 X-ray Plug-in Fe tube XR 4... type B XR 4. the characteristic X-ray lines of various different anode materials are determined in order to verify Moseley's law.360°. In this experiment. plug type A/B.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm Data cable USB. Benefits ▪ Self-calibrating goniometer Plug & measure: ▪ Automatic identification of the goniometer ▪ Goniometer block with two independent stepper motors for rotating the sample holder and the detector either separately or coupled in a 2:1 ratio ▪ The detector holder with a slit diaphragm holder for absorption foils can be moved in order to change the angular resolution ▪ Includes a light barrier system for limiting the permissible swivelling range and.8 m 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 09057-60 09057-70 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 09057-02 14608-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. mounted XR 4. 1. Determine the wavelengths and frequencies of the character-istic X-ray lines based on the Bragg angles of the lines..0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Create the Moseley lines and determine the Rydberg constant and screening constant.

0 expert unit. 2.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Cu. the Rydberg constant and the screening constants are calculated from the energy of the absorption edges. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. Tasks 1. Mo.3 X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law P2541201 K and L absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant X-ray spectra of copper without any absorber (top curve) and with the absorption edges of various elements Principle Samples of various elements of different atomic numbers are irradiated with X-rays of a known spectral distribution. 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-04 1 1 1 1 1 1 Benefits ▪ Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W. Subsequently. 4. adjustment free ▪ Complete protection against touching hot part 09057-50 Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube Function and Applications Factory adjusted copper tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. and Fe). type B XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4. Calculate the Rydberg constant and the screening constants from the energy values of the K absorption edges. cryst. Determine the K absorption edges of different absorber materials.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.8 Atomic Physics 8. Find the L absorption edges of different absorber materials. 3.which only operate correspondingly security microswitches of the basic unit when the plug-in module is correcly inserted. mounted XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 5 mm Silver nitrate. mechanical lock and two switching pins. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Bragg equation Bohr's atomic model Atomic energy level scheme Moseley's law Rydberg constant Screening constant XR 4.0 X-ray Chemical set for edge absorption excellence in science 212 . 15 g 09056-05 09057-02 09057-03 30222-00 1 1 1 1 XR 4. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted from the copper anode as a function of the Bragg angle using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. With handle. The energy of the transmitted intensities is analyzed using a monocrystal analyzer.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm XR 4. Calculate the Rydberg constant from the energy values of the L absorption edges.

Calculate the energy values of the characteristic copper lines and compare them with the energy differences of the copper energy terms.phywe.0 expert unit XR 4.8 Atomic Physics 8. plug type A/B. 1.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm Data cable USB. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode as a function of the Bragg angle using a LiF monocrystal as analyzer.com 213 . 2. mounted 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 3. KG · www.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Energy levels Crystal structures Lattice constant Absorption Absorption edges Interference Order of diffraction XR 4. analyser crystal: LiF Principle Spectra of X-rays from a copper anode are analyzed using different monocrystals and the results plotted graphically.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. Step 1 is to be repeated using the KBr monocrystal as analyzer.8 m 09056-01 09057-02 14608-00 1 1 1 Related Experiments Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum P2540201 Characteristic X-rays of iron P2540301 Characteristic X-rays of tungsten P2542801 Main articles XR 4. type B XR 4.4 Characteristic X-rays Characteristic X-rays of copper P2540101 Intensity of the X-radiation of copper as a function of the glancing angle theta.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.0 potassium bromide (KBr) crystal XR 4. The energies of the characteristic lines are then determined from the positions of the glancing angles for the various orders of diffraction. Tasks 1.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.

Zero rate: approx. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Characteristic X-ray radiation energy levels selection rules the Bragg equation energy term symbols Related Experiment K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure P2540801 Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. The separation of the Ka doublet in higher order diffraction is examined.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.und Gamma-radiation. Counter tube length: 76 mm. type B Function and Applications Self recovering Halogenid countertube for detection of Alpha-. mounted XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.8 m excellence in science 214 . Plateau length: 200 V. Beta.8 Atomic Physics 8. Tasks 1. 2.5 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum X-rays P2540701 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum X-rays/ fine structure Splitting of the Kα1 and Kα2 lines of molybdenum (n = 4) Principle The polychromatic molybdenum X-ray spectrum is analyzed by means of a monocrystal. 1.3 mg/cm² ▪ Operation voltage: 500 V.. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode as a function of the Bragg angle using a LiF monocrystal as analyzer. The energy of the characteristic lines is determined from the positions of the glancing angles at various orders of diffraction.0 expert unit XR 4. Plateau slope: 0. Determine the wavelengths and ratio of the intensities of the two Ka lines in high order diffraction and compare your results with the theoretical predictions.. Benefits 09057-99 09057-10 09057-60 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 09057-01 14608-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ mounted in metal cylinder with fixed 500 mm long BNC-cable ▪ Including protection cap for countertube Equipment and technical data ▪ Mica window. 100 µs. Mass: 103 g 09005-00 Main articles XR 4.04%/V ▪ Death time: approx. Diameter of counter tube: 15 mm. type B XR 4. plug type A/B. Density of Mica window:2. 15 Pulse/min ▪ Diameter of housing: 22 mm.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm Data cable USB.

6nm. The power output of the semiconductor diode laser is first recorded as a function of the injection current. Zeeman effect with an electromagnet Principle P2511001 The "Zeeman effect" is the splitting upof the spectral lines of atoms within a magnetic field. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The beam propagation within the resonator cavity of a He. The following items can be realized with advanced set 08656. For more details refer to page 301. Finally you can demonstrate the existence of longitudinal modes and the gain profile of the He-Ne laser provided an analysing Fabry Perot system is at your disposal.8 nm. Conclusively.Ne laser and its divergence are determined. The cadmium lamp is submitted to different magnetic flux densities and the splitting up of the cadmium lines (normal Zeeman effect 643.6 Related Experiments Helium neon laser. The evaluation of the results leads to a fairly precise value for Bohr's magneton. In this experiment the normal Zeeman effect as well as the anomalous Zeeman effect are studied using a cadmium spectral lamp as a specimen. The simplest is the splitting up of one spectral line into three components called the "normal Zeeman effect". KG · www. For more details refer to page 198. Optical pumping Principle P2260800 The visible light of a semiconductor diode laser is used to excite the neodymium atoms within a Nd-YAG (NeodymiumYttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod.phywe.8 Atomic Physics 8. By means of a birefringent tuner and a Littrow prism different wavelengths can be selected and quantitatively determined if a monochromator is available. anomalous Zeeman effect 508.02. red light.com 215 . the mean life-time of the4F3/2-level of the Ndatoms is measured in approximation. its stability criterion is checked and the relative output power of the laser is measured as a function of the tube's position inside the resonator and of the tube current. The fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod is then determined and the maon absorption lines of the Nd-atoms are verified. For more details refer to page 300. green light) is investigated using a Fabry-Perot interferometer. basic set Principle P2260701 The difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission of light is demonstrated.

For more details refer to page 202. Electron spin resonance Principle P2511200 With electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy compounds having unpaired electrons can be studied. so that the number of pulses agrees exactly with the number of alphaparticles striking the detector.6 Related Experiments Stern-Gerlach experiment with a stepper motor and interface Principle P2511111 A beam of potassium atoms generated in a hot furnace travels along a specific path in a magnetic two-wire field. using the ESR apparatus. Rutherford experiment with MCA Principle P2522115 The relationship between the angle of scattering and the rate of scattering of alpha-particles by gold foil is examined with a semiconductor detector. The physical background of ESR is similar to that of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). a measurement geometry is used which dates back to Chadwick. This detector has a detection probability of 1for alpha-particles and virtually no zero effect. For more details refer to page 197. it is possible to draw conclusions as to the magnitude and direction of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms. Because of the magnetic moment of the potassium atoms.8 Atomic Physics 8. For more details refer to page 247. The potassiumatoms are thereby deflected from their path. the nonhomogeneity of the field appliesa force at right angles to the directionof their motion. excellence in science 216 . so that the angle of scattering can be varied over a wide range. The g-factor of a DPPH (Di-phenylpikrylhydrazyl) and the halfwidth of the absorption line are determined. but with this technique electron spins are excited instead of spins of atomic nuclei. It is also possible in this case to shift the foil and source in an axial direction (thus deviating from Chadwick's original apparatus). By measuring the density of the beam of particles in a plane of detection lying behind the magnetic field. In order to obtain maximum possible counting rates.

9 Molecule and Solid State Physics Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. KG · www.12 9.10 9.1 9.5 9.6 9.3 9.11 9.13 9.com 217 .9 9.phywe.2 9.14 9.15 Magnetostriction Semiconductor thermogenerator Beta spectroscopy Hall effect Examination of the structure of monocrystals Investigation of cubic crystal structures Laue method Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns Energy-dispersive measurements Lattice constants of a monocrystal Duane-Hunt displacement law Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials Shear waves in solid state materials Related Experiments 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 233 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.4 9.7 9.8 9.

00). Testing various ferromagnetic materials (iron and nickel) as well as a non-ferromagnetic material (copper). Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. g. ▪ Digital display for preset shutter times as well as those which have already occured. and the change in the interference pattern is observed. ▪ Shutter control via time select. 99 s. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Ferromagnetic material Weiss molecular magnetic fields Spin-orbit coupling Power supply for laser head 5 mW Function and Applications High voltage power supply for lasers. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using separate optical components. stop and shutter open (permanent open). ▪ With acontrollable shutter. light is brought to interference. new start. Due to the magnetostrictive effect.base pl. ▪ Incl. with regard to their magnetostrictive properties. shutter with fixed connection cord with unit plug on holding rod. Equipment and technical data ▪ With programmable timer for selection of exposure time of holograms between 0. universal Optical base plate with rubberfeet Faraday modulator f. the 5 mW laser (08701. Tasks 1. Rods for magnetostriction.opt. 08702-93 Main articles He/Ne Laser.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. ▪ Rod diameter: 10 mm. 2..set Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08701-00 08702-93 13500-93 08700-00 08733-00 08733-01 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 4 excellence in science 218 .1 .1 Magnetostriction P2430800 Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer Formation of circular interference fringes. ▪ Dimensions of plastic housing (mm): 184 x 140 x 130. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Power supply. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample.. e.

Thermoelectric e. Principle In a semi-conductor thermogenerator.2 Semiconductor thermogenerator Semiconductor thermogenerator P2410700 Electrical power generated as a function of the temperature difference. Makrolon Ammeter 1/5 A DC Flow-through heat exchanger 04366-00 08493-93 06112-02 07035-00 08487-02 07038-00 04366-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. the Seebeck coefficient and the efficiency are determined. are screwed to the generator block. which are used as heat reservoirs.10-300VAC / Bath for thermostat. Also been used to demonstrate the Seebeck effect and the Peltier effect. Equipment and technical data ▪ Generator block consisting of two nickel coated copper plates with hole for thermometer. 1%. To measure no-load voltage Uo and short-circuit current Is at different temperature differences and to determine the Seebeck coefficient. To measure current and voltage at a constant temperature difference but with different load resistors. ▪ Operation as thermo generator: output voltage at T = 40°C: approx. ▪ Efficiency. Thomson coefficient ▪ Seebeck coefficient. 100°C. 2 V.and n-conducting silicon thermocouples. ▪ Operation as heat pump: max. Direct energy conversion.1A Voltmeter.m. connected thermally parallel and electrically in series.f. p. Peltier coefficient.phywe. 33 Ohm . 04366-00 Main articles Thermogenerator with 2 water baths Immersion thermostat Alpha A. What you can learn about ▪ Seebeck effect (thermoelectric effect). efficiency at T = 40°C: approx. and to determine the internal resistance Ri from the measured values.com 219 .3-300VDC. 230 V Rheostat. the no-load voltage and the short-circuit current are measured as a function of the temperature difference. 3. ▪ Number of thermocouples: 142. Tasks 1. Two water containers with open sides. permanent current 6 A. 3. They can be exchanged for flowthrough heat exchanger or air cooler. Interior resistance: 2. Thomson equations Thermogenerator with 2 water baths Function and Applications To commute thermal energy into electrical energy directly and for operation as heat pump.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. from the quantity of heat consumed and the electrical energy produced per unit time.8 Ohm. 2. To determine the efficiency of energy conversion.0. KG · www. between these. The internal resistance. Permanent operating temperature: approx.

electron capture. β+-decay. using a diaphragm system. Energy calibration of the magnetic spectrometer. Neutrino ▪ Positron. 3. protection cap Clamping device Coil. . What you can learn about ▪ β--decay. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 220 . Decay energy. The relationship between coil current and particle energy is determined for calibration of the spectrometer and the decay energy of the β-transition is obtained in each case from the β--spectra. digital Power supply. Measurement of the β-spectra of 90Sr and 22Na. type A. 2. Determination of the decay energy of the two isotopes. 74 kBq Radioactive source Sr-90. Principle The radiation of β-unstable atomic nuclei is selected on the basis of its pulses in a magnetic transverse field.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. universal Radioactive source Na-22. BNC Hall probe. tangential. Resting energy ▪ Relativistic Lorentz equation Main articles Teslameter. 600 turns 13610-93 13500-93 09047-52 09047-53 13606-99 09104-00 09025-11 13610-02 06506-00 06514-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Carl David Anderson 1936. Decay diagram. 74 kBq Geiger-Müller-Counter Beta-spectroscope Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.3 Beta spectroscopy P2523200 Beta spectroscopy Beta-spectrum of 90Sr. Tasks 1.

Forbidden zone.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. Intrinsic conductivity. Mobility.com 221 . the specific conductivity.phywe. Lorentz force. Hall coefficient Related Experiments Hall effect in p-germanium (with the teslameter) P2530101 Hall effect in n-germanium (with the teslameter) P2530201 Hall effect in n-germanium (with Cobra3) P2530211 Band gap of germanium P2530401 Band gap of germanium (with Cobra3) P2530411 Main articles Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. The Hall voltage UH is measured as a function of the magnetic induction B.p-Ge. 600 turns 12150-50 11801-00 11805-01 13505-93 12109-00 13610-02 06514-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 Cobra4 Experiment . Tasks The Hall voltage is measured at room temperature and constant magnetic field as a function of the control current and plotted on a graph (measurement without compensation for defect voltage). KG · www. The voltage across the sample is measured at room temperature and constant control current as a function of the magnetic induction B. Principle The resistivity and Hall voltage of a rectangular germanium sample are measured as a function of temperature and magnetic field. Conductivity. Conduction band. The band spacing.. Valence band. Band spacing. USB Hall effect module Hall effect.12 V DC/ 6 V. Extrinsic conductivity. at room temperature. 12 V AC. the type of charge carrier and the mobility of the charge carriers are determined from the measurements. 230 V Measuring module.available 2013 Hall effect in p-germanium (with Cobra4) P2530160 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. protection cap Coil. What you can learn about Semiconductor.4 Hall effect Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 P2530111 Hall voltage as a function of temperature.carrier board Power supply 0. Tesla Hall probe. tangential.. Magnetic resistance. Band theory.

0 expert unit XR 4.0 measure X-ray consists of a module for device control and measurement data recording and a module for measurement data processing (main program).0 X-ray NaCl-monocrystals. English.0 measure X-ray is available in more than 20 languages. [110].5 Examination of the structure of monocrystals P2541301 Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with different orientations Intensity of the X-ray spectrum of copper as a function of the glancing angle theta: NaCl monocrystals with [111] crystal orientation as Bragg analyser Principle The spectra of the X-rays that are reflected with various different orientations by NaCl monocrystals are analysed. set of 3 XR 4.0 series. 2. Determine the lattice constant and calculate the interplanar spacing. Tasks 1.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9.0 Expert Unit (X-ray unit). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Characteristic X-radiation energy levels crystal structures reciprocal lattices Miller indices atomic form factor structure factor Bragg scattering XR 4. 3.0 Software measure X-ray Function and Applications Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the XR 4. among them German. and Russian. 4. XR 4. Loading of predefined settings ▪ Working directly without the need for specialist knowledge ▪ The intuitive user concept considerably simplifies the operation of such a complex device and puts the experiment into the focus of attention. Arabic. Double control ▪ Simultaneous operation of the XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. 14414-61 Main articles XR 4. French.0 expert Unit via manual control and via a computer ▪ No restrictions concerning the execution of experiments Multilingual ▪ XR 4. The associated interplanar spacings are determined based on the Bragg angles of the characteristic lines. and [111] as a function of the Bragg angle. Benefits Plug & measure ▪ Automatic identification of the connected devices of the XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. Assign the reflections to the corresponding lattice planes that are given by way of their respective Miller indices. type B 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 09058-01 14414-61 09005-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 222 . Spanish. Determine the intensity of the X-rays that are reflected by the NaCl monocrystals with the orientations [100]. Determine the mass of a cell and the number of atoms in the cell.

1 GB free hard drive space. ▪ Minimum Software Package: LabView Base ™ (2011) National Instruments (not included) 14414-62 Main articles XR 4. Tasks 1.0 expert unit.0 X-ray optical bench XR 4.4 mm.6 Investigation of cubic crystal structures X-ray investigation of cubic crystal structures / Debye.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. The Debye-Scherrer rings are to be evaluated and assigned to the corresponding lattice planes. Exposure time: 2. Debye-Scherrer photographs are to be taken of powdered samples of sodium chloride and caesium chloride. Thickness of the sample: 0. Mo X-ray tube: UA = 35 kV.phywe.0 Software measure LabVIEW (TM) driver V.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4.0 expert Unit (X-ray unit) under LabVIEW ™ (National Instruments).100 pieces. KG · www. ▪ Four sample applications are included.0 X-ray film holder XR 4.0. The number of atoms in the unit cells of each sample are to be determined. wet chemical. ▪ The numerous possibilities of control and visualisation with LabView (™ National Instruments) can be used immediately. Microsoft ®Windows XP or higher. 1. Benefits ▪ The package includes all neccessary drivers for the control of all functions of PHYWE's X-ray unit XR 4. These Debye-Scherrer reflections are photographed and then evaluated.com 223 . 512 MB RAM. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices Crystal systems Reciprocal lattice Miller indices Structure amplitude Atomic form factor Bragg scattering XR 4. 100 × 100 mm² XR 4. IA = 1 mA Principle When polycrystalline samples are irradiated with X-rays a characteristic diffraction pattern results. Requirements ▪ PC with at least a Pentium 3 processor. DVD drive.2 Function and application Software driver package of the "measure" series for developing a control software of XR 4.0 X-ray films. 4. USB 2. 3.0 expert unit XR 4.Scherrer powder method P2541401 Debye-Scherrer pattern of a powdered sample of NaCl.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm Slide mount for optical bench. h = 30 mm 09057-99 09057-60 09057-08 09057-18 09058-23 09057-01 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.5 h. 2. The lattice constants of the sample materials are to be determined.

0 X-ray Crystal holder for Laue-pattern 09057-99 09057-80 09056-05 09057-08 09058-23 09058-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 Max von Laue 1914. mounted XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4. This pat-tern is photographed and then evaluated.7 Laue method P2541601 X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method Laue pattern of the LiF (100) crystal.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. 100 × 100 mm² XR 4. The Laue diffraction of an LiF mono-crystal is to be recorded on a film.100 pieces. Principle Laue diagrams are produced when monocrystals are irradiated with polychromatic X-rays.0 expert unit XR 4. Tasks 1. a characteristic diffraction pattern results.0 X-ray films.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. wet chemical. When a LiF monocrystal is irradiated with polychromatic Xrays. The Miller indices of the corresponding crystal surfaces are to be assigned to the Laue reflections What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices Crystal systems Crystal classes Bravais lattice Reciprocal lattice Miller indices Structure amplitude Atomic form factor The Bragg equation Related X-ray Experiments X-ray investigation of hexagonal crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method P2541501 X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method with digital X-ray image sensor (XRIS) P2541602 Main articles XR 4. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 224 .0 X-ray film holder XR 4. This method is primarily used for the determination of crystal symmetries and the orientation of crystals. 2.

nickel foil XR 4. characteristic X-rays.8 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of powder samples with three cubic Bravais lattices (Bragg-Brentano-geometry) P2542101 Bragg-Cu-Kα and Cu-Kβ-lines of Mo Principle Polycrystalline powder samples.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 31767-10 09058-02 09056-03 09057-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiments Debye-Scherrer diffractions pattern of powder samples with a diamond structure (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2542201 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of powder samples with a hexagonal lattice structure (according to BraggBrentano) P2542301 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of powder samples with a tetragonal lattice structure (according to BraggBrentano) P2542401 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns with a cubic powder sample (according to Bragg-Brentano) P2542501 Main articles XR 4.x-ray-unit XR 4. Powder. simple.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. The Bragg diagrams are automatically recorded. monochromatization of X-rays ▪ Bragg-Brentano Geometry XR 4. their spacings as well as the lattice constants of the samples. Tasks 1.7%. which crystallize in the three cubic Bravais types.0 X-ray Univ.com 225 . 100 g XR 4. A swivelling Geiger-Mueller counter tube detects the radiation that is constructively reflected from the various lattice planes of the crystallites. 2. KG · www. Assign the Bragg reflections to the respective lattice planes. 4. Bravais-lattice. Calculate the lattice plane spacings appropriate to the angular positions of the individual Bragg lines.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube w. type B XR 4. and so also the corresponding Bravais lattice type. Their evaluation gives the assignment of the Bragg lines to the individual lattice planes. Determine the lattice constants of the samples and their Bravais lattice types.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. 3. reciprocal lattice ▪ Miller indices. crystal holder f. atomic scattering factor ▪ Bragg scattering. What you can learn about ▪ Crystal lattices. crystal systems. 99.phywe. mounted Molybdenum. structure factor. Determine the number of atoms in the unit cell.0 expert unit XR 4. are irradiated with the radiation from a Roentgen tube with a copper anode.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Record the intensity of the Cu X-rays back scattered by the four cubic crystal powder samples with various Bravais lattice types as a function of the scattering angle. face-centered and body-centered.

0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4. screening constants. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation absorption of X-rays Bohr's atom model energy levels Moseley's law Rydberg frequency screening constant semiconductor energydetectors multi-channel analysers XR 4.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 226 . Tasks 1. 2. 3. Determination of the energy of the corresponding K. Recording of the energy spectra of the polychromatic X-rays that pass through the powder samples.9 Energy-dispersive measurements P2546101 Energy-dispersive measurements of K. The energy of the corresponding absorption edges is determined. The energy of the radiation that passes through the samples is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multi-channel analyser. and principal quantum numbers with the aid of the resulting Moseley diagrams. set of 7 measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4.and Labsorption edges.0 X-ray Chemical set for edge absorption XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9.0 X-ray Univ. and the principal quantum numbers.0 X-ray goniometer 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 1 1 1 Karl Manne Georg Siegbahn 1924. 4. Determination of the Rydberg frequency. Calibration of the semiconductor energy detector with the aid of the characteristic radiation of the calibration sample.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence. crystal holder f. the screening constant.0 expert unit XR 4.and L-absorption edges X-ray spectra with the K-absorption edges Principle Thin powder samples are subjected to polychromatic X-rays.x-ray-unit 09057-80 13727-99 09056-04 09058-31 14452-61 09058-32 09058-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Main articles XR 4. and the resulting Moseley diagrams are used to determine the Rydberg frequency.

The lattice constant of the crystal is determined with the aid of the various orders of diffraction and the energy of the reflected rays.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) Function and Applications With the new X-ray energy detector you can directly determine the energies of single x-ray quanta. ▪ Directly mountable on the goniometer of the x-ray unit. Energy determination of the X-rays that are reflected at the lattice planes of the LiF-crystal for various glancing angles or diffraction orders. An energy detector is only used to measure those radiation parts that interfere constructively. Principle Polychromatic X-rays impinge on a monocrystal under various glancing angles. Tasks 1.phywe. 2. Mo).9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. Compton effectMosley's law-Energy dispersive Bragg structure analysis 09058-30 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.com 227 . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation energy levels crystal structures Bravais lattice reciprocal lattices Miller indices Bragg scattering interference semiconductor detectors multi-channel analysers XR 4. without loss of functionality of the goniometer ▪ Directly connectable to MCA (USB) without any additional interface on. The rays are reflected by the lattice planes of the monocrystal. Green Operation-LED Typical application laboratory experiments in universities and high schools: Main articles XR 4. KG · www.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4. Calculation of the lattice constant of the LiF-crystal based on the glancing ngles and associated energy values.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ Characterisation of X-rays of different anode materials (Cu.10 Lattice constants of a monocrystal Determination of the lattice constants of a monocrystal P2546201 Bragg reflexes with an increasing order of diffraction at theta = 24°. ▪ Characteristic x-ray lines for all elements of the PSE included in the software. Fluorescence analysis of pure materials and alloys ▪ Determination of the composition of alloys. Benefits ▪ In connection with the multi-channel analyser (MCA) you can characterise the complete x-ray energy spectrum of the analysed material. Fe.

0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Recording of the X-ray spectrum that is emitted by the copper anode for various anode voltages Ua.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. 2. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation energy levels photo energy semiconductor detectors multi-channel analysers Main articles XR 4.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. Calculation of the minimum wavelength of the photons based on the maximum energy of the bremsspectrums. Tasks 1. BNC.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm XR 4. Duane and Hunt's law of displacement is verified with the aid of the maximum energy of the bremsspectrum. Principle X-ray spectra of an X-ray tube are measured in an energy dispersive manner with a semiconductor detector and with various anode voltages.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 5 mm Screened cable. l 750 mm 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 14452-61 09058-32 09057-01 09057-03 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 228 .0 expert unit XR 4.11 Duane-Hunt displacement law P2546301 Duane-Hunt displacement law W-X-ray spectrum with accelerating voltages of a: Ua = 9 kV. 3.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4. Graphical representation of the relationship between the anode voltage and the minimum wavelength of the bremsspectrum.

on three cylinders of different length. Determine the time of flight of the ultrasonic reflection pulses for the three cylinders and the two ultrasonic probes.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. Two measurement series are carried out with ultrasonic probes of different frequencies. by reflection method. ▪ The loss of intensity of the ultrasonic signal from deeper layers of investigation is balanced by a time-dependent amplification (TGC time-gain control). probe delays and use the two mean values obtained to calculate the cylinder length. Principle The velocity of sound in acrylics shall be determined by time of flight reflection technique with an ultrasonic echoscope. 2. ▪ The ultrasonic probes are connected by robust snap-in plugs. The measurements are done. KG · www. RF signal and amplitude signal) are available at BNC outlets. B-scan. Tasks 1. Calculate the sound velocities. start and end point or slope can be chosen freely.12 Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material Velocity of ultrasound in solid state material P5160100 UT probe layout. TGC . 3. amplitude signal. ▪ Threshold. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Sound velocity Propagation of ultrasonic waves Probe delay Time of flight Ultrasonic echography Thickness measurement Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Main articles Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope 13921-99 1 ▪ The Ultrasonic echoscope is a highly sensitive ultrasonic measuring device designed to connect to a personal computer or simply to an oscilloscope ▪ The supplied software enables an extensive signal processing (RF-signal. ▪ By adjusting the power transmission and gain the ultrasonic signal can be tuned to nearly every arbitrary object of investigation. The probe frequency is recognised automatically by the measuring device.com 229 . spectral analysis). 13921-99 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Measure the length of the three cylinders with the calliper. ▪ Important signals (trigger. M-mode.phywe.

▪ All probesare sealed in a robust metal housing andare water proof at the sensor surface. Benefits ▪ The ultrasonic probes are designed to produce high sound intensities and short sound pulses. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Function and Applications The 2 MHz probes are suitable for largerange use. 120 mm. Calculate the attenuation and sound velocity values. the sound velocity in acrylic objects is determined for 2 (or optionally 3) different frequencies in the transmission mode. Frequency: 2 MHz 13921-05 Main articles Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Extension set: Shear waves Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Vernier caliper. What you can learn about Propagation of ultrasonic waves time of flight sound velocity damping of ultrasonic waves (scattering. On the other hand the damping of 2 MHz sound waves in most materials is not too large. the frequency dependence of the damping effect is analysed. Principle The damping of ultrasound in solid objects is determined for 2 (or optionally 3) different frequencies in the transmission mode. Cable length: 1 m. Due to the higher frequency the axial and lateral resolution is better compared to the 1 MHz probes. time-of-flight measurement with zoom ON. Furthermore. Measure the lengths of the three cylinders with the calliper.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. D = 27 mm. reflection. absorption) ▪ transmission coefficient. It makes them particularly suitable for pulse-echo mode. ▪ The probes are delivered with a specialplug for automatic probe recognition. so that they can be used for medium range investigations.13 Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials P5160800 Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state materials 4 MHz probes. plastic 13921-99 13921-03 13921-05 03011-00 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 230 . The resulting values are then compared to the corresponding literature values. cylinder with approx. Determine the amplitudes and times of flight of the ultrasonic transmission pulses for the three cylinders and the two (or three) ultrasonic probes. Tasks 1. Equipment and technical data ▪ Sound impedance adaptation to water / acrylic ▪ Size: L = 70 mm. The 2 MHz probes are suitable for measurements at medical objects and as ultrasound Dopplerprobes. In addition. 3. 2.

shear waves. sound velocity or Time Gain Control TGC will be explained. Task 1. Use the measurement curves to determine the longitudinal sound velocity in aluminium. The knowledge e. Determine the sound amplitude of an ultrasound wave passing through an acrylic glass plate (transmission measurement) as a function of the angle of incidence for the longitudinal and transverse component.14 Shear waves in solid state materials Shear waves in solid state materials P5160900 Schematic set-up with an indication of the angular positions. Terms like amplitude.com 231 . Based on the transverse and longitudinal sound velocities.phywe. frequency.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. propagation of ultrasound waves. Use the measurement curves to determine the longitudinal sound velocity in acrylic glass based on the angle of the total reflection. Principle The aim of this experiment is to study the generation and propagation of ultrasound waves in solid objects. What you can learn about ▪ Ultrasonic transmission measurement. KG · www. 2. 3. based on the angle of the total reflection. 4. In addition. The cylinder set can be used to vividly demonstrate reflection as well as sound velocity and frequency depending on attenuation in solid state materials. and the transverse sound velocity based on the angle of the amplitude maximums and the angle of the total reflection. longitudinal and transverse waves. 5. With the different probes the frequency depending resolution can be evaluated. ultrasound wave modes. The principles of image formation from A-scan to B-scan can be explained. regarding sound velocity will be used to measure the test block.sound velocity Main articles Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Extension set: Shear waves 13921-99 13921-03 1 1 Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Function and Applications With the ultrasonic echoscope the basics of ultrasound and its wave characteristics can be demonstrated. 13921-99 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.g. The relationship between the coefficients of elasticity of the material and its sound velocities enables the determination of the magnitude of the coefficients. calculate the coefficient of elasticity for acrylic glass and aluminium. the additional generation of transverse wave modes (shear wave modes) resulting from an oblique angle of incidence should be identified and the sound velocities for the longitudinal and transverse component should be determined. and the transverse sound velocity based on the amplitude maximums and the angle of the total reflection. modulus of elasticity. Determine the sound amplitude of an ultrasound wave passing through an aluminium plate (transmission measurement) as a function of the angle of incidence for the longitudinal and transverse component.

▪ Three fixed adapter sleeves for laser and laser shutter.opt. NEXTEL® plastic coating and imprinted grid (5×5) cm. incl. Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm 13654-99 08180-93 13626-93 08700-00 08733-00 13765-00 08734-00 07036-00 08730-00 08711-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 excellence in science 232 .2/1.3 A Polarizing filter f.opt. Tasks Investigate the Faraday effectqualitatively through observation of theelectro optical modulation of thepolarized laser light with frequenciesin the acoustic range. ▪ Mass: 7 kg 08700-00 Main articles Digital Function Generator. Thefactor of proportionality is a mediumspecific constant and is called Verdet's constant.14 Shear waves in solid state materials P2260106 Faraday effect with optical base plate Experimental set up.0 mW. Ammeter 1mA..base pl. ▪ With rubber feet for non-slip working. He-Ne. USB. opt.base pl. Principle When the Faraday Effect was discoveredin 1845 it was the first experiment thatelucidated the relation of light andelectromagnetism. ▪ With corrosion protection. Loudspeaker. If linearly polarizedlight passes through a region withmagnetic field the angle of rotation ofthe plane of polarization is altered. base plt.This alteration appears to be a linearfunction of both the average magneticflow density and the distance that thewave covers in the magnetic field.8 Ohm/5 kOhm Photoelement f. Cobra4 Software Laser. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interaction of electromagneticfields Electromagnetism Polarisation Verdet's constant Malus' law Electronic oscillation Optical base plate with rubberfeet Function and Applications For setting up magnetically adhering optical components. 230 V AC Universal measuring amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Faraday modulator f. Equipment and technical data ▪ Rigid and vibration-damped working base made of steel plate. 0.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. ▪ Base plate size (mm): 590 × 430 × 24..

9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. the behaviour of a stretched rubber band is examined. In comparison. for which there is no proportionality between acting force and resulting extension.com 233 . PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.phywe. For more details refer to page 44. KG · www. Mechanical hysteresis Principle P2120300 The relationship between torque and angle of rotation is determined when metal bars are twisted. The hysteresis curve is recorded. For more details refer to page 42. It is bent by the action of a force acting at its centre. For more details refer to page 43.15 Related Experiments Modulus of elasticity Principle P2120200 A flat bar is supported at two points. Hooke's law with Cobra3 Principle P2130111 The validity of Hooke's Law is proven using various helical springs with different spring constants. The modulus of elasticity is determined from the bending and the geometric data of the bar.

a Nd:YAG (NeodymiumYttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod has been selected which is pumped by means of a semiconductor diode laser.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. excellence in science 234 . For more details refer to page 124. For more details refer to page 95. a KTP-crystal is inserted into the laser cavity and frequency doubling is demonstrated. 2. As lasing medium. For more details refer to page 302. The dependence of noload voltage and short-circuit current on temperature is determined. Characteristic curves of a solar cell Principle P2410901 The current-voltage characteristics of a solar cell are measured at different light intensities. To determine the cooling capacity Pc the pump as a function of the current and to calculate the efficiency rating hc at maximum output.15 Related Experiments Nd:YAG laser Principle P2260900 The rate equation model for an optically pumped four-level laser system is determined. Tasks 1. Peltier heat pump Principle P2410800 The (cooling capacity) heating capacity and efficiency rating of a Peltier heat pump are determined under different operating conditions. The IR-power output of the Nd:YAG laser is measured as a function of the optical power input and the slope efficiency as well as the threshold power are determined. To determine the heating capacity Pw of the pump and its efficiency rating hw at constant current and constant temperature on the cold side. The quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave and the beam power for the second harmonic is then evident. the distance between the light source and the solar cell being varied. Finally.

To investigate the dependence of the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode. For more details refer to page 120. KG · www. The remanence and the coercive field strength of two different iron cores can be compared.15 Related Experiments Characteristic curves of semiconductors with the FG module Principle P2410915 Determine the current strength flowing through a semi-conducting diode.phywe. Tasks 1.com 235 . with plastic or glass filling the space between the plates. 2. Dielectric constant of different materials Principle P2420600 The electric constant is determined by measuring the charge of a plate capacitor to which a voltage is applied. For more details refer to page 155. Determine the collector current with the collector voltage for various values of the base current intensity. To determine the variations of the collector current with the collector voltage for varios values of the base current intensity.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9. For more details refer to page 125. Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 Principle P2430711 A magnetic field is generated in a ring-shaped iron core by a continuous adjustable direct current applied to two coils. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The dielectric constant is determined in the same way. The field strength Η and the flux density B are measured and the hysteresis recorded.

and the change in the interference pattern is observed. For more details refer to page 239. light is brought to interference. 218. 182. This so-called tunneling current is used to investigate the electronic topography on the sub nanometer scale of a fresh prepared graphite (HOPG) surface. Due to the magnetostrictive effect. excellence in science 236 . Atomic Resolution of the graphite surface by STM (scanning tunnelling microscope) P2532000 Principle Approaching a very sharp metal tip to an electrically conductive sample by applying a electrical field leads to a current between tip and sample without any mechanical contact. By scanning the tip line-by-line across the surface graphite atoms and the hexagonal structure are imaged.15 Related Experiments Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer with optical base plate Principle P2430800 With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample. 306. For more details refer to pages 156.9 Molecule and Solid State Physics 9.

2 10.phywe.3 Atomic Resolution by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) Nanoscale electrical charakteristics by STM Quantum mechanics by STM / AFM 238 240 241 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.10 Nano Physics Nano Physics 10.1 10.com 237 .

all necessary accessories for a prompt entry into the world of atoms and molecules ▪ Portable and compact: transportable. 1024x758 graphics card. cutter and sample storage box Clear and save storage of samples due to included samples storage box Schnelle Zusammenstellung der Proben und Experimentiermöglichkeiten durch beiliegender Kurzanleitung zur Herstellung. up to 7 measurement channels. case) 6. and maximum scanning speed of 60 ms/ line ▪ Scan head cover with magnif. single molecule contacts. samples supports. two. coining. Nanotechnology and Quantum Mechanics can be performed. Benefits ▪ Out-of-the-box-device incl.) Suitable for preparation of indivdual samples due to included metal foils. imaging of atoms and molecules. analysing and visualization (one. etching..7kg Accessories ▪ Computer with Windows 2000/XP/Vista/7. diameter 0. tong and tweezers Set samples nanomorphology. and outreach ▪ Accessible sample stage and scanning tip: Quick exchange of tip and sample ▪ Low operating voltage: Safe for all users Equipment and technical data ▪ Scan head with integrated control-unit on vibration-isolated experimentation board: ▪ Maximum scan range (XY) 500nm x 500nm ▪ Maximum Z-range 200nm ▪ Resolution in XY better than 8pm ▪ Resolution in Z better than 4pm ▪ Current 0. 16-Bit ▪ DA converter for all three dimensions. USB interface. annealing. tempering. and 4 spare sample supports ▪ Power supply (100-240V. conductive glue. For example: microand nano morphology of surfaces. tantalum. lense:10x ▪ Toolset for preparing and mounting tunneling tips: side-cutter. conductive glue ▪ storage box ▪ table of content ▪ quick introduction guide 09613-00 excellence in science 238 . charge density waves.10 Nano Physics 10. preparing students for their work on high-level research devices. for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Function and Application Universal samples set to investigate the surface morphology of metals at the nanometer scale using the Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope (09600-99). Untersuchung und Erkenntnisse die sich aus der Untersuchung ergeben. 50/60Hz) ▪ USB cable: length 3m ▪ Aluminium case (44cm x 32cm x 14cm) ▪ Software for measuring. Gold(111) films. samples supports (10 pcs). No need for expensive vibration isolation ▪ Easy to use: Ideal for nanotechnology education. conductivity. tin. A variety of experiments in the fields of Material Sciences. rolling. 256MB RAM. 16-bit color resolution or better ▪ other samples ▪ electrical conductive adhesive for mounting own samples ▪ ethanol and cloth for cleaning 09600-99 Function and Applications Easy to use scanning tunneling microscope to image conducting surfaces and to investigate effects and characteritics on atomic and molecular scale. Benefits ▪ Complete set to investigate different production and treatment conditions of different metal surface (polishing.25mm ▪ Sample kit: Graphite (HOPG). and nanostructuring by self organisation (self assembled monolayers).1-100nA in 25pA steps ▪ Tip voltage +/-10V in 5mV steps ▪ Dimensions 21cm x 21cm x 10cm ▪ Constant-Current Mode ▪ Constant-Height Mode ▪ Current-Voltage Spectroscopy ▪ Current-Distant Spectroscopy ▪ Control-Unit with USB socket. aluminum) for more than 10 samples of each ▪ coined sample ▪ cutter. silver. .1 Atomic Resolution by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) ▪ Pt-Ir wire for tunneling tips: length 30cm. Solid State Physics/Chemistry. short description of starting experiments with HOPG and gold films ▪ Quick Installation Guide ▪ Weight (incl. easy to install with a small footprint ▪ Single device for more stable measurements ▪ Quick atomic resolution on a normal table. Technical Data ▪ 7 metal foils (gold. tunneling effect. nano structures.. and three dimensions) ▪ Handbook incl.

Tasks 1. Investigate the topography of clean terraces and the step height between neighboring terraces in constant-current mode. 2. This so-called tunneling current is used to investigate the electronic topography on the sub nanometer scale of a fresh prepared graphite (HOPG) surface. By scanning the tip line-by-line across the surface graphite atoms and the hexagonal structure are imaged. 3. 2D 09600-99 39840-00 09620-00 1 1 1 Related Experiments Investigate in surface atomic structures and defects of diffrent samples by STM (Scanning Tunneling Microscopy) P2532500 Nanoscale workfunction measurements by STS (Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy P2533000 Main articles PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Interpret the structure by analyzing angles and distances between atoms and atomic rows and by using the 2D and 3D graphite model. Measure and compare images in the constant-height and constant-current mode. Image the arrangement of graphite atoms on a clean terrace by optimize tunneling and scanning parameters.phywe. Prepare a Pt-Ir tip and the graphite (HOPG) sample and approach the tip to the sample. KG · www. Principle Approaching a very sharp metal tip to an electrically conductive sample by applying a electrical field leads to a current between tip and sample without any mechanical contact.com 239 .1 Atomic Resolution by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) Atomic Resolution of the graphite surface by STM (Scanning Tunnelling Microscope) P2532000 Atomic resolved image of the graphite surface (5nm x 5nm). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Tunneling effect Hexagonal Structures Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Imaging on the sub nanometer scale Piezo-electric devices Local Density Of States (LDOS) Constant-Height Constant-Current-Mode Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Crystal lattice kit: graphite Graphite model. 4.10 Nano Physics 10.

all necessary accessories for a prompt entry into the world of atoms and molecules ▪ Portable and compact: transportable.10 Nano Physics 10. 3. graphite (HOPG) and MoS2 are investigated. Solid State Physics/Chemistry. Switch to spectroscopy mode. A variety of experiments in the fields of Material Sciences. Low operating voltage: Safe for all users Main articles Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) MoS2 on sample support. easy to install with a small footprint ▪ Single device for more stable measurements ▪ Quick atomic resolution on a normal table.2 Nanoscale electrical charakteristics by STM P2533500 Nanoscale electrical charakteristics of different samples by STS (Scanning Tunnelling Spectroscopy) Topography of MoS2. Investigate the topography of the gold. nano structures. 4. imaging of atoms and molecules. No need for expensive vibration isolation ▪ Easy to use: Ideal for nanotechnology education. Nanotechnology and Quantum Mechanics can be performed. Benefits ▪ Out-of-the-box-device incl. natural. For example: microand nano morphology of surfaces. Interpret the results regarding to the bandstructure. Approaching the tip towards the sample. HOPG and MoS2 sample in constant-current mode. Measure and compare images recorded on the different materials in Tip-voltage mode (I-U spectroscopy). What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Tunneling effect Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) Local Density of States (LDOS) Band structure Band Gap k-Space Brioullin Zone Metal. conductivity. Semi Conductor Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Function and Applications Easy to use scanning tunneling microscope to image conducting surfaces and to investigate effects and characteritics on atomic and molecular scale. Principle The tunneling current between a very sharp metal tip and an electrically conductive sample is used to investigate the currentvoltage characteristics at a nanoscopic scale. Tasks 1. and outreach ▪ Accessible sample stage and scanning tip: Quick exchange of tip and sample. The bandstructure of gold. for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope 09600-99 09608-00 1 1 09600-99 excellence in science 240 . single molecule contacts. Semi Metal. charge density waves. 2. and nanostructuring by self organisation (self assembled monolayers). Prepare a Pt-Ir tip and the sample surfaces. preparing students for their work on high-level research devices. tunneling effect.

coined sample. annealing. quick introduction guide 09613-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. samples supports (10 pcs). KG · www.phywe. Band Structure Related Experiment Roughness and nanomorhology of different metal samples using by STM P2537000 Set samples nanomorphology.10 Nano Physics 10..com 241 . conductive glue. for Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope Function and Applications Universal samples set to investigate the surface morphology of metals at the nanometer scale using the Compact Scanning Tunneling Microscope (09600-99). tempering. Charge density waves are modulated electron waves due to static and periodic lattice distortion and therefore mappable with scanning tunneling microscopy. Clear and save storage of samples due to included samples storage box Equipment and technical data Main articles Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) TaSe2 on sample support for STM TaS2 on sample support for STM WSe2 on sample support for STM 09600-99 09611-00 09612-00 09610-00 1 1 1 1 ▪ 7 metal foils (gold. cutter and sample storage box. samples supports. silver.. 4. storage box. rolling. etching. Current-Distance-Spectroscopy at HOPG and Gold and evaluation of the tunneling effect.Tunneling Effect and Charge Density Waves P2535000 Charge density waves on TaS2. conductive glue. Peierl's Theorem. 2. The lattice distortion is caused by a lowering of the total energy of the system due to a Peierl's transisiton (Nesting of Fermi surfaces). What you can learn about ▪ Scanning Tunneling Microscopy and Spectroscopy ▪ Tunneling Effect. Principle In addition to the tunneling effect measured by tunneling spectroscopy another quantum mechanical effect the charge density waves are investigated for different samples. tin. Peierl's Transition ▪ Charge Density Waves. coining. Suitable for preparation of indivdual samples due to included metal foils. 3. Imaging and characterization of charge density waves at different substrates and interpretation with regards to the band structure.3 Quantum mechanics by STM / AFM Quantum Mechanics by STM . tantalum. Tasks 1. Benefits ▪ Complete set to investigate different production and treatment conditions of different metal surface (polishing. . Incommensorability ▪ Transition Metal Chalcogenide. Local Density of States. Investigating charge density waves at different voltages and interpretation of the imaged states (filled and empty). aluminum) for more than 10 samples of each. table of content. Commensurability. Preparation of Pt/Ir tunneling tips and HOPG surface and approaching. cutter.).

other samples 09700-99 Function and Applications Compact and easy to use atomic force microscope to visualize and image structures on the micro and nano meter scale.5 mm ▪ Sample: max. 60 m m 60μm CD Stamper. chemistry. Benefits ▪ Out-of –the-box device with integrated damping plate and control unit underneath ▪ Complete set. 6 samples.1 M pixels ▪ Modes of operation: Static Force. up to 2048x2048 data points ▪ Scan type (tip scanner): Linear low voltage electro magnetic ▪ Scan Range: 70 micro meter (1.10 Nano Physics 10. material and phase contrast) and for manipulation (e. Sample Set. Developed for educational purposes in practical lab course and pre-research labs in physics.1 nm resolution). Phase contrast. Manipulation (oxidation. oxidation). stiffness. preparing students for their work on high-level research devices. 13 mm in diameter. magnetization. 3 m 3μm excellence in science 242 . Set of 10 Cantilever. charging. 3.g. 09702-00): Additional Operating Modes (Advanced Spectroscopy. cutting and moving/pushing of nanoparticles)). 16 bit DA converter (XYZ). 10 μm and Skin Cross-Section. 16 bit AD converter ( 7 channels) ▪ Max scanning speed 60 ms/line. and outreach Equipment and technical Data ▪ Scan head with integrated control-unit on vibration-isolated experimentation board: 21cm x 21cm x 18cm. USB 2. MFM. set of samples and cantilevers ▪ Spectroscopy and Manipulation upgrade (Art. lithography and advanced spectroscopy modes) ▪ available with upgrade options material and spectroscopy and manipulation ▪ User expandability (scripting) available (upgrade option). Amplitude Distance Spectroscopy Staphylococcus Bacteria. set of cantilevers and samples ▪ Side View Camera System (available 2013). etc. 09701-00): Additional Operating Modes (Phase Contrast. Spreading Resistance). life sciences and material sciences. Micrometer translation stage xy: min. LabView. Camera system for top view: USB digital color.AFM. User expandability (Visual basic. Tools and Consumables ▪ Tip Scanner AFM for standard cantilever ▪ Easy and safe cantilever exchange and use: Flip mechanism with automatic laser switch off. Toolset ▪ Software for measuring.5 nm (static / dynamic). Z noise level (RMS): 0. ▪ no laser alignement. easy to install with a small footprint ▪ Easy to use: Ideal for nanotechnology education.5 mm ▪ Cantilever Aligment: automatic adjustment. Cantilever. 20 μm and Aluminum Foil. mechanical stopper for longer lifetime of cantilevers ▪ Digital top view camera for easy positioning and side view lens for easy and fast approach ▪ Portable and compact: transportable. Dynamic Force. lithography). Lithography (scratching. Force Distance Spectroscopy.1 nm resolution) ▪ Z-range: 14 micro meter (1. 60 m m 60μm PS/PMMA films: Topography and Phase Contrast.0 interface.). alignment grooves from various suppliers. +/. Handbook and Quick Installation Guide Accessories ▪ Material upgrade (Art. Automatic approach: vertical. range 4. EFM. incl.g. Force ▪ Modulation. horizontal mount. manipulation.6 / 0. Also suitable to determine material characteristics (e. LED illumination.3 Quantum mechanics by STM / AFM Compact-Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) ▪ Other modes (MFM. analysing and visualization.

Rutherford Experiment Beta Particles .Radioactivity 11.7 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay Alpha Particles .Energy .com 243 .6 11.3 11.5 11. KG · www.phywe.4 11.Radioactivity Nuclear Physics .11 Nuclear Physics .1 11.2 11.Electron Absorption Gamma Particles .Compton Effect Counter tube characteristics X-ray dosimetry 244 245 246 251 253 257 258 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.Energy .

Counting rate. What you can learn about ▪ Parent substance. 2.1 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium P2520101 Half-life and radioactive equilibrium Logarithmic plot of the counting rate of the eluted daughter substance as a function of time. To record the counting rate as a function of the counter tube voltage (counter tube characteristic) when the isotope generator activity is constant (radioactive equilibrium).11 Nuclear Physics . Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 244 . Principle The half-life of a Ba-137 m daughter substance eluted (washed) out of a Ca-137 isotope generator is measured directly and is also determined from the increase in activity after elution. 370 kBq Pulse rate meter Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. digital.100pc 09047-60 13622-93 09025-11 07128-00 09200-00 09203-00 09201-00 09202-00 03071-01 36307-10 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Marie Curie 1903. To measure the activity of the isotope generator as a function of time immediately after elution. BNC Digital multimeter 2010 Base plate for radioactivity Plate holder on fixing magnet Counter tube holder on fix. Tasks 1. 1/100 s Test tubes 100x12 mm. Daughter substance.FIOLAX.magn. Half life ▪ Disintegration product Related Experiment Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra3 P2520111 Cobra4 Experiment Half-life and radioactive equilibrium with Cobra4 P2520160 Main articles Isotope generator Cs-137. Source holder on fixing magnet Stopwatch.Radioactivity 11. Rate of decay ▪ Disintegration or decay constant. type A.

Source holder on fixing magnet 09090-11 12150-50 09025-11 12106-00 09200-00 12151-99 14506-61 09203-00 09201-00 09202-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Cobra4 Experiment . the fluctuation of the pulses is smaller than in the case of a Poisson's distribution. 370 kBq Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. BNC Counter tube module Base plate for radioactivity Power supply 12V / 2A Software Cobra3 Radioactivity Plate holder on fixing magnet Counter tube holder on fix. 2) Not only the Poisson's distribution. i.magn.available 2013 Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay with Cobra4 (Influence of the dead time of the counter tube) P2520360 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.2 Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay Poisson's and Gaussian distribution of radioactive decay (Influence of the dead time of the counter tube) P2520311 Pulse rate distribution for high pulse rate (248 pulses/s) with an adapted Gaussian curve (left window) and a Poisson's curve (right window).11 Nuclear Physics . e. when (due to the dead time of the counter tube) counting errors occur leading to a distribution which deviates from the Poisson's distribution. type A.Radioactivity 11. In order to demonstrate these facts the limiting value of the mean value (expected value) is compared to the limiting value of the variance by means of a sufficiently large sampling size. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Poisson's distribution Gaussian distribution Standard deviation Expected value of pulse rate Different symmetries of distributions Dead time Recovering time and resolution time o fa counter tube Main articles Radioactive source Am-241. A premise for this is a sufficiently high number of pulses and a large sampling size. the maximum can be found among smaller numbers of pulses than the mean value. 3) If the dead time of the counter tube is no longer small with regard to the average time interval between the counter tube pulses. KG · www. A special characteristic of the Poisson´s distribution can be observed in the case of a small number of counts n < 20: The distribution is unsymmetrical. Principle 1) The aim of this experiment is to show that the number of pulses counted during identical time intervals by a counter tube which bears a fixed distance to along-lived radiation emitter correspond to a Poisson´s distribution. In order to show this unsymmetry the experiment is carried out with a short counting period and a sufficiently large gap between the emitter and the counter tube so that the average number of pulses counted becomes sufficiently small. The purpose of the following experiment is to confirm these facts and to show that the statistical pulse distribution can even be be approximated by a Guassian distribution. USB Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.com 245 . but also the Guassian distribution which is always symmetrical is very suitable to approximate the pulse distribution measured by means of a long-lived radiation emitter and a counter tube arranged with a constant gap between each other.phywe.

alpha detector excellence in science 246 . The analogue pulses from the detector are shaped by the analyser. 3. Tasks 1. Principle An Alpha-spectrometer. 4 kBq Pre-amplifier f. a preamplifier. alpha detector or gamma detector. Screened cable. digitised and summed per channel according to pulse height.7 kBq Radioactive source Ra-226. consisting of a photodetector. BNC.3 Alpha Particles . a pulse height analyser and a recording device for registration of the spectra is calibrated by means of an open Alpha-emitter of known Alpha energy (241Am). is recorded and evaluated.Energy .11 Nuclear Physics .Radioactivity 11. The energy spectrum of a radium source which is in equilibrium with its decay products.Energies found in this way are allocated to the corresponding nuclides of the radium decay series.magn. 3. The Alpha. l 750 mm 09099-00 14452-61 09200-00 09202-00 09201-00 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 Multi channel analyser Function and Applications The multi-channel analyser is for analysing voltage pulses which are proportional to energy and for determining pulse rates and intensities in conjunction with an X-ray detector. max. The calibration spectrum of the open241Am Alpha-emitter is recorded at the same settings. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Decay series Radioactive equilibrium Isotopic properties Decay energy Particle energy Potential well model of the atomic nucleus Tunnel effect Geiger-Nuttal law Semiconductor Barrier layer Alpha and Photodetector measure Software multi channel analyser Base plate for radioactivity Source holder on fixing magnet Counter tube holder on fix. 13727-99 Main articles Multi channel analyser Radioactive source Am-241. The Alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra is recorded with Multi Channel Analyzer 2.Rutherford Experiment P2522015 Alpha energies of different sources with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) Alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra. The Alpha-energies corresponding to the individual peaks of the Alphaspectrum of the radium are calculated and compared to the values in the literature. 13727-99 09090-03 09041-00 09100-10 1 1 1 1 This results in a frequency distribution of detected pulses dependent on the energy of the radiation.

3 Alpha Particles .com 247 .nuclear phys. It is also possible in this case to shift the foil and source in an axial direction (thus deviating from Chadwick's original apparatus). 370 kBq Pre-amplifier f. The ratio of the two particle rates is compared with the particle rate calculated from Rutherford's scattering equation.phywe. Radioactive source Am-241.Radioactivity 11. 2.Energy . so that the angle of scattering can be varied over a wide range.11 Nuclear Physics . The particle rates are measured at different angles of scattering between about 20° and 90°. Nobel Prize in Physics Related Experiment Rutherford experiment with the digital counter P2522101 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.expts. This detector has a detection probability of 1for alpha-particles and virtually no zero effect. KG · www. In addition to the annular diaphragm with gold foil. so that the number of pulses agrees exactly with the number of alpha-particles striking the detector. a measurement geometry is used which dates back to Chadwick. In order to obtain maximum possible counting rates.Rutherford Experiment Rutherford experiment with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2522115 Counting rate for gold as a function of 1 . a second diaphragm with aluminium foil is provided in order to study the influence of the scattering material on the scattering rate. The particle rates are measured in the case of scattering by aluminium and gold with identical angles of scattering in each case. Tasks 1. The measurements are compared with the particle rates calculated by means of the Rutherford theory for the measurement geometry used.alpha detector 09100-00 13727-99 09103-00 09090-11 09100-10 1 1 1 1 1 Ernest Rutherford 1908. Principle The relationship between the angle of scattering and the rate of scattering of alpha-particles by gold foil is examined with a semiconductor detector. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Scattering Angle of scattering Impact parameter Central force Coulomb field Coulomb forces Rutherford atomic model Identity of atomic number and charge on the nucleus Main articles Alpha detector Multi channel analyser Container f.

1 hPa resolution 13727-99 09103-00 09090-03 08163-93 34171-00 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 248 .3 Alpha Particles . 1 m 09100-10 09099-00 14452-61 07542-11 39289-00 1 1 1 3 2 Container for nuclear physical experiments Function and Applications Container for nuclear physical experiments. 400 mm long. 75 mm diam. The energy of the two peaks preceding the principal peak is calculated. Tasks 1. ▪ Second flange with adaptors for vacuum system and detector. The spectrum of an open 241Am-emitter is recorded with the xyt recorder at the maximum resolution capacity of the measurement layout. maximum use being made in this case of the resolution capacity of the pulse height analyzer.Rutherford Experiment P2522215 Fine structure of the alpha spectrum of Am-241 with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) / alpha spectroscopy Measured Alpha-spectrum of Am-241. ▪ One flange with vacuum tight centrally fitted bearing for a. with a printed on scale 0 to 28 cm and metal flanges at its end.486 MeV. Equipment and technical data ▪ Cylindrical glasstube. Radioactive source Am-241. using automatic window movement.nuclear phys. 1 . Principle The alpha-spectrum of an open 241Am-emitter is measured with a semiconductor a-detector. ▪ Removable by knurled head screws.7 kBq Diaphragm pump. 6/15 mm. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Energy level diagram (decay diagram) Transition probability Excited nuclear states γ-emission Connection between the fine structure of the α-spectrum and the accompanying γ-spectrum Pre-amplifier f. 2.expts. The pulse peaks above this threshold are amplified 5 times and restricted to a maximum of 10 V. which is an additional amplification stage having in the effect that only that proportion of the pulses exceeding the threshold voltage of 5 V undergoes further processing. two stage. The principal peak. l 750 mm Vacuum tube.11 Nuclear Physics .. BNC. 220V Vacuum gauge DVR 2. The resolution capacity of the measurement layout is measured from the half-life width of the principal peak.alpha detector Alpha and Photodetector measure Software multi channel analyser Screened cable.Radioactivity 11. is used for calibration purposes. 1000 hPa..Energy . 09103-00 Main articles Multi channel analyser Container f. Use is made for this purpose of the "Zoom" function.. 3.push-rod for radioactive source adaption. NBR. corresponding to a particle energy of 5.

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.3 Alpha Particles - Energy - Rutherford Experiment

Study of the alpha energies of Ra-226 with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA)

P2522315

226Ra pulse rate dependence of pulse height.

Principle An alpha-spectrometer, consisting of a silicon surface barrier layer detector, a preamplifier, a pulse height analyser and a recording device for registration of the spectra is calibrated by means of an open alpha-emitter of known alpha-energy (241Am). The energy spectrum of a radium source which is in equilibrium with its decay products, is recorded and evaluated. The alpha-energies found in this way are allocated to the corresponding nuclides of the radium decay series. Tasks 1. The alpha-spectrum of the 226Ra is recorded, the settings of the pulse analyzer (amplification) and recorder (x and y input sensitivity) being selected so as to make best possible use of the recording width. 2. The calibration spectrum of the open 241Am-emitter is recorded at the same settings. 3. The alpha-energies corresponding to the individual peaks of the alpha spectrum of the radium are calculated and, on the assumption of a constant energy loss in the source covering, the alpha-active nuclides of the radium decay series corresponding to the individual peaks are determined on the basis of the values in the literature. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ decay series radioactive equilibrium isotopic properties decay energy particle energy potential well model of the atomic nucleus tunnel effect Geiger-Nuttal law semiconductor barrier layer

Main articles
Multi channel analyser Container f.nuclear phys.expts. Radioactive source Am-241, 3.7 kBq Diaphragm pump, two stage, 220V Vacuum gauge DVR 2, 1 ... 1000 hPa, 1 hPa resolution Radioactive source Ra-226, max. 4 kBq Pre-amplifier f.alpha detector Alpha and Photodetector measure Software multi channel analyser Screened cable, BNC, l 750 mm 13727-99 09103-00 09090-03 08163-93 34171-00 09041-00 09100-10 09099-00 14452-61 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
249

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.3 Alpha Particles - Energy - Rutherford Experiment

P2522415

Energy loss of alpha particles in gases with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA)

Influence of the type of gas on the energy loss of -particles.

Principle A study is made of the connection between the energy E of alphaparticles and the path x travelled by them in air at standard pressure. The measurements recorded enable the differencial energy loss dE/ dx to be calculated as a function of x. Tasks 1. The spectrum of a covered 241Am source is measured at a fixed distance s as a function of the pressure p. The distance s is selected in such a way as to correspond to the maximum range at the highest pressure measurable with the manometer used. The energy corresponding to the central points of the individual spectra are determined (after calibration of the measurement layout with an open 241Am-emitter, see 3.) and plotted as a function of the distance x converted to a 1013 hPa basis. Using this function, the differential energy loss (dE/dx) is then calculated as a function of x and again plotted on the graph. 2. The spectrum of the source used in 1.is measured initially under the same geometric conditions under vacuum and subsequently with the vessel filled with helium, nitrogen or carbon dioxide, in each case under identical pressures. The different energy loss values are compared with the electron concentration in the particular gas. 3. The mean energy with which the alpha-particles leave the covered americium source is determined by calibration against the open americium emitter (E = 5.485 MeV). (This value is required for the evaluation in 1.) What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Range, Range dispersion Mean free path length Mean ionization energy of gas atoms Mean energy loss of a-particles per collision Differencial energy loss, Bethe formula

Main articles
Multi channel analyser Container f.nuclear phys.expts. Radioactive source Am-241, 3.7 kBq Diaphragm pump, two stage, 220V Radioactive source Am-241, 370 kBq Vacuum gauge DVR 2, 1 ... 1000 hPa, 1 hPa resolution Pre-amplifier f.alpha detector Alpha and Photodetector measure Software multi channel analyser 13727-99 09103-00 09090-03 08163-93 09090-11 34171-00 09100-10 09099-00 14452-61 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Diaphragm pump, two stage, 220V
Function and Applications Diaphragm pump, two stage. Benefits ▪ Maintenance-free, insensitve towards condensates, quiet, lightweight and easy to use because motor and compressor are together in one unit. ▪ It has a carryinghandle, overpressure valve 1.5 bar, toggle switch, working condenser and light metal casing. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Aspirating power 30 l/min, Final pressure 13 mbar Pump head: Al, Valves: stainless steel Membrane and seals: CR (polychloroprene) Dimensions 323 x 250 x 222 mm Power supply voltage 230 V AC

08163-93

excellence in science
250

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.4 Beta Particles - Electron Absorption

Electron absorption

P2523100

Counting rate I as a function of absorber thickness.

Principle The attenuation of an electron particle stream passing through a material layer depends both on the thickness of the layer and on the mass coverage, resp. the "mass per unit area". It will be shown that the particle flux consisting of electrons of a particular energy distribution decreases with the "mass per unit area". As electron source, a radioactive sample of Sr90 is used. Tasks 1. The beta-counting rates are measured as a function of the absorber thickness using different absorbing materials such as aluminium (AL), glass (GL), hard paper (HP), and typing paper (TP). 2. The attenuation coefficients are evaluated for the four absorbing materials and plotted as a function of the density. What you can learn about ▪ Density, Counter tube, Radioactive decay ▪ Attenuation coefficient, Mass coverage

Geiger-Müller-Counter

Function and Applications Demonstration and student use unit in connection with Geiger Müller counting tubes for experiments on radioactivity. Equipment and technical data 09047-53 13606-99 09025-11 09024-00 09200-00 09203-00 09200-01 09201-00 09202-00 03010-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ▪ 4-digit LED display, 20mm high.4 standard measurement times 1/10/60/100 s, Automatic measurement sequence with memory 10 s ▪ Freely selectable measuring time, BNC-socket for counting tube 500V ▪ 4-mm-bushes for event counting with TTL signals, Mains 100-230 V/50-60 Hz, Shock proof casing with carrying handle ▪ Dimensions 190 x 140 x 130 mm 13606-99

Main articles
Radioactive source Sr-90, 74 kBq Geiger-Müller-Counter Geiger-Mueller Counter tube, type A, BNC Absorption plates f. beta-rays Base plate for radioactivity Plate holder on fixing magnet Supports f. base 09200.00, 2 pcs Counter tube holder on fix.magn. Source holder on fixing magnet Vernier caliper

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
251

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.4 Beta Particles - Electron Absorption

P2523200

Beta spectroscopy

Beta-spectrum of 90Sr.

Principle The radiation of β-unstable atomic nuclei is selected on the basis of its pulses in a magnetic transverse field, using a diaphragm system. The relationship between coil current and particle energy is determined for calibration of the spectrometer and the decay energy of the β-transition is obtained in each case from the β--spectra. Tasks 1. Energy calibration of the magnetic spectrometer. 2. Measurement of the β-spectra of 90Sr and 22Na. 3. Determination of the decay energy of the two isotopes. What you can learn about ▪ β--decay, β+-decay, Electron capture ▪ Neutrino, Positron, Decay diagram, Decay energy ▪ Resting energy, Relativistic Lorentz equation

Beta-spectroscope

Function and Applications Beta spectroscope. Equipment and technical data ▪ Cylindrical chamber with base plate with diaphragm system. ▪ Top plate removable. ▪ Lateral bore-holes for radioactive source and flux-meter probe. ▪ Diameter: 90 mm. ▪ Height: 20 mm. 09104-00

Main articles
Teslameter, digital Power supply, universal Radioactive source Na-22, 74 kBq Radioactive source Sr-90, 74 kBq Geiger-Müller-Counter Beta-spectroscope Geiger-Mueller Counter tube, type A, BNC Hall probe, tangential, protection cap Clamping device Coil, 600 turns 13610-93 13500-93 09047-52 09047-53 13606-99 09104-00 09025-11 13610-02 06506-00 06514-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

excellence in science
252

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.5 Gamma Particles - Energy - Compton Effect

Inverse-square law and absorption of gamma or beta rays with the Geiger-Müller counter

P2524101

Attenuation coefficient of different materials as a function of the material density (from left to right: Plexiglas®, concrete, aluminium, iron, lead).

Principle The inverse square law of distance is demonstrated with the gamma radiation from a 60Co preparation, the half-value thickness and absorption coefficient of various materials determined with the narrow beam system and the corresponding mass attenuation coefficient calculated. Tasks 1. To measure the impulse counting rate as a function of the distance between the source and the counter tube. 2. To determine the half-value thickness d1/2 and the absorption coefficient of a number of materials by measuring the impulse counting rate as a function of the thickness of the irradiated material. Lead, iron, aluminium, concrete and Plexiglas are used as absorbers. 3. To calculate the mass attenuation coefficient from the measured values. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Radioactive radiation, Beta-decay, Conservation of parity Antineutrino, Gamma quanta, Half-value thickness Absorption coefficient, Term diagram, Pair formation Compton effect, Photoelectric effect Conservation of angular momentum, Forbidden transition Weak interaction, Dead time

Plate holder on fix. magnet Absorption material, aluminium Base plate for radioactivity Absorption material, iron

09204-00 09029-03 09200-00 09029-02

1 1 1 1

Radioactive sources, set

Function and Applications Set of 4 encapsulated radionuclides, radiation sources with storage container. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ valid handling licence necessary notifiable to your supervisory authority Alpha Am-241, Hwz: 433 a Beta(+) Na- 22, Hwz: 2,6 a Beta(-) Sr- 90, Hwz: 28,5 a Gamma Co- 60, Hwz: 5,3 a Activity each source: 74 kBq

Main articles
Radioactive sources, set Geiger-Müller-Counter Geiger-Mueller Counter tube, type A, BNC Absorption material, lead Absorption plates f. beta-rays Absorption material, concrete 09047-50 13606-99 09025-11 09029-01 09024-00 09029-05 1 1 1 1 1 1

09047-50

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
253

11 Nuclear Physics - Radioactivity
11.5 Gamma Particles - Energy - Compton Effect

P2524215

Energy dependence of the gamma absorption coefficient with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) / Gamma spectroscopy

Total gamma-absorption coefficient as a function of the energy.

Main articles
Principle The intensity of gamma-radiation decreases when it passes through solid matter. The attenuation can be the result of Compton scattering, the photo effect or the pair production. An absorption coefficient can be attributed to each of the three phenomena. These absorption coefficients, as well as the total absorption, are highly energy-dependent. The energy dependence of the total absorption coefficient for aluminium in the range below 1.3 MeV is verified. Tasks 1. For each of the emitting isotopes Na22, Cs137 and Am241 the gamma-spectrum is traced and a threshold energy, E, just below the photo-peak in the high energy range determined. 2. Using the scintillation counter in conjunction with the pulse height analyser as a monochromator, the gamma-intensity is measured as a function of the thickness of different aluminium layers.The three gamma- emitting isotopes are used successively as the source, assuming that the energy of the emitted gamma-radiation is known. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Compton scattering Photo effect Pair production Absorption coefficient Radioactive decayg-spectroscopy Gamma detector Multi channel analyser Radioactive source Cs-137, 37 kBq Radioactive source Am-241, 370 kBq Operating unit for gamma detector Radioactive source Na-22, 74 kBq measure Software multi channel analyser High-voltage connecting cable Lab jack, 160 x 130 mm Absorption material, aluminium 09101-00 13727-99 09096-01 09090-11 09101-93 09047-52 14452-61 09101-10 02074-00 09029-03 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

excellence in science
254

37 kBq Operating unit for gamma detector measure Software multi channel analyser 09101-00 13727-99 09096-01 09101-93 14452-61 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Tasks 1. Operation voltage: 600. beta and x-rays. Conversion electron Characteristic X-ray radiation Scintillation detectors Gamma detector Function and Applications To detect gamma. KG · www.4 mm. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ g-radiation. 09101-00 Main articles Gamma detector Multi channel analyser Radioactive source Cs-137. Thickness of Al envelope: 0.8. Crystal dimensions (mm): 38 x 50.11 Nuclear Physics . Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal: NaI (Ta). 2. Principle The radiation emitted during the decay of the 137Cs isotope is measured with a scintillation detector and the energyspectrum determined with a pulse height analyzer. Large volume thallium doped NaI-crystal in light-tight capsule. The areas of the fractions in question are determined and the conversion factor obtained from them.1100 V.5 Gamma Particles . with photomultiplier with mumetal shielding mounted in holder with rod. Determination of the conversion factor of the 137mBa excited nucleus.phywe.Energy .Radioactivity 11. Metastable states Isotopic spin quantum Numbers Rules governing selection Multipole radiation. Nuclear transitions Transition probability Duration.. Isomeric nuclei Photonuclear reaction. The spectrum contains fractions due to a gamma-transition and fractions originating from a characteristic X-ray radiation.Compton Effect Internal conversion in 137m Ba with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) P2524515 Gamma-spectrum of 137Cs.com 255 . Measurement of the g-spectrum of 137Cs using a scintillation detector.

Measurement of the g-spectra of 22Na and 137Cs.Energy .Radioactivity 11. using a scintillation detector. 74 kBq measure Software multi channel analyser 09101-00 13727-99 09096-01 09101-93 09047-52 14452-61 1 1 1 1 1 1 09101-93 excellence in science 256 . 662 and 1275 keV. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ g-radiation Interaction with material Photoelectric effect Compton effect Pair formation Detection probability Scintillation detectors Operating unit for gamma detector Function and Applications Operating unit for gamma-detector.1 %. Benefits ▪ Highly stabilized DC voltage continuously adjustable by 10 range potentiometer.1100 V DC.11 Nuclear Physics . Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Output / MHV socket: 600 . 2.5 Gamma Particles . Principle The radiation of 137Cs and 22Na is measured with a scintillation detector and the energy spectrum determined with a pulse height analyzer. Input voltage: 220 V AC. Stabilization: better than 0. 37 kBq Operating unit for gamma detector Radioactive source Na-22. The results are used for determining the ratio of the effective cross-sections and examining its energy dependence. Dimensions (mm): 115 x 65 x 225. Determination of the ratio of the specific effective cross-sections due to the Compton effect and the photoelectric effect in photons having energy values of 511. Main articles Gamma detector Multi channel analyser Radioactive source Cs-137. The fractions of the spectra caused by Compton scattering and those caused by the photoelectric effect are determined on the basis of their areas. Tasks 1.Compton Effect P2524615 Photonuclear cross-section/ Compton scattering cross-section with Multi Channel Analyser (MCA) Gamma-spectrum of 22Na.

und Gamma-radiation with Mica window.phywe.11 Nuclear Physics . The actual counting tube.650V) with only a slight slope renders the selection of the operating point uncritical. Equipment and technical data ▪ Operating voltage: 500 V ▪ Diameter of countering tube: 45 mm 09007-00 Main articles XR 4.Beta. Task Determine the counter tube characteristics of the type B counter tube that is used. Equipment and technical data ▪ Mica window ▪ Diameter of counter tube: 15 mm 09005-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. type B 09057-99 09057-80 09005-00 1 1 1 Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. which is mounted in a metal cylinder with a permanent BNC connecting cable. characteristics. Benefits ▪ Highly sensitive counting tube ▪ Useful to investigate weakly radioactive sources ▪ Even natural radioactive sources can be investigated. A long plateau (approx.. What you can learn about Geiger-Müller counter tube. beta and gamma radiation.0 X-ray expert unit P2540010 Pulse rate as a function of the counter tube voltage Principle The counter tube uses the ionising effect of high-energy radiation in order to measure the intensity of the radiation.Radioactivity 11. has a thinwalled metal sheath that is permeable to alpha radiation.com 257 . The counter tube characteristics describe its working range. the voltage range in which it reliably counts the incoming particles. KG · www. i.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.0 expert unit XR 4. quenching gas. type B Function and Applications Self recovering Halogenid countertube for detection of Alpha. ionising radiation Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.e. 45 mm is a self-extinguishing halogen counting tube for the detection of alpha. 425.6 Counter tube characteristics Counter tube characteristics with XR 4. 45 mm Purpose and description The Geiger-Mueller Counter tube..

the given distance between the aperture and the radiation source at maximum anode voltage and current is to be determined. and absorbed dose rate. The resulting ion current is used to determine the dosimetric data.0 X-ray expert unit Ionisation current Ic as a function of the capacitor voltage Uc for diffrent diaphragm tubes. The ion current at maximum anode voltage is to be measured and graphically recorded as a function of the capacitor voltage by using two different beam limiting apertures. an air volume is irradiated with X-rays.0 X-ray fluorescent screen XR 4. deals with the determination and calculation of dose rates.11 Nuclear Physics . The ion dose rate and the energy dose rate are to be determined from the saturation current values. electrical charges and for quasi-static measurements of DC voltages. 13620-93 excellence in science 258 . . Principle Dosimetry. 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube DC measuring amplifier Power supply. Using the two different diaphragm tubes and the fluorescent screen.600 VDC XR 4. equivalent dose.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray optical bench XR 4. Inside a plate capacitor. This experiment demonstrates the principle of measurement and it explains the various units of absorbed dose. The ion current is to be measured and graphically recorded as a function of the capacitor voltage at different anode voltages and the corresponding saturation currents plotted graphically. as a subspecialty of medical physics. 3.. Tasks 1. which is also of great importance in view of the radiation protection directives.. 2.x-ray-unit 09057-99 09057-80 13620-93 13672-93 09057-26 09057-18 09058-05 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DC measuring amplifier Function and Applications Versatile measuring amplifier for measurement of very small direct currents. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-rays Absorption inverse square law Ionizing energy Energy dose Equivalent dose and ion dose and their Rates Q factor Local ion dose rate Dosimeter Main articles XR 4.7 X-ray dosimetry P2541801 X-ray dosimetry with XR 4.Radioactivity 11. Using the d = 5 mm aperture. 0. the ion current is to be determined and graphically recorded at various anode currents but with maximum anode and capacitor voltages.0 X-ray Capacitor plates f.

12 Particle Physics Particle Physics 12.2 Visualisation of radioactive particles Cosmic Muon Lifetime .Kamiocan 260 262 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.phywe.com 259 . KG · www.1 12.

the instrument can be set up by itself.9 kVA Power supply: 230 V. 2. ▪ Underneath the upper sheet of glass. which heat up this part of the chamber and thus keep the chamber from misting over. Depth: 64 cm Active observation surface: (45 × 45) cm Weight: approx. handles on side help to transport the instrument. ▪ They each consist of a pedestal for the chamber on top of which lies the observation chamber.12 Particle Physics 12. Width: 128 cm. the observation chamber is installed. ▪ The top and the sides of the observation chamber are made of glass.0 kVA Function and Applications Continuously working Large-Diffusion Cloudchamber on pedestal. Depth: 128 cm Height of pedestal: 10 cm Active observation surface: (8O × 8O) cm Weight: approx. Benefits ▪ The Large-Diffusion cloud chamber with an 8O x 8O cm active observation surface are hermetically closed units. a pump for alcohol and a timer. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Dimensions: Height: 126 cm. 50/60 Hz 09046-93 09043-93 excellence in science 260 . 80 kg Power input: approx. Width: 64 cm. ▪ These wires simultaneously serve as high-voltage mesh to gather up ions. 230 V Function and Applications Continuously working Large-Diffusion cloud chamber on box. PJ 80. 450 kg Power input: approx. 0. ▪ The Chamber's pedestal holds the refrigerating unit.1 Visualisation of radioactive particles Diffusion cloud chamber 80 x 80 cm. ▪ On top of the pedestal. Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Dimensions:Height: 60 cm. thin heating wires are installed. 230 V Diffusion cloud chamber. 45 x 45 cm PJ45. a tank for alcohol. power supply.

2. causes emotions like no other scientific subject before. 45 x 45 cm PJ45. beta. 3. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. The fact that this radiation cannot be seen or felt by the human being and that the effects of this radiation are still not fully explored yet. the diffusion cloud chamber offers the opportunity to carry out physical experiments with the aid of artificial radiation sources.T. 4.com 261 . 1000 ml Holder for dynamometer Right angle clamp PHYWE 09043-52 08041-00 08256-00 02060-00 30092-70 03068-04 02040-55 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 What you can learn about Main articles Diffusion cloud chamber. economy and media for many years now.1 Visualisation of radioactive particles Visualisation of radioactive particles with the diffusion cloud chamber PJ45 P2520400 Particles visible in the diffusion cloud chamber. Furthermore. Wilson 09046-93 09047-53 1 1 1927. Tasks 1. KG · www.β.γ -particles β-deflection Ionising particles Mesons Cosmic radiation Radioactive decay Decay series Particle velocity Lorentz force Accessory set for Beta deflection Object holder. 74 kBq C. 5x5 cm Swinging arm Stand tube Isopropyl alcohol. Principle Radioactivity is a subject in our society which has been playing an important role throughout politics.12 Particle Physics 12. The high-performance diffusion cloud chamber serves for making the tracks of cosmic and terrestrial radiation visible so that a wide range of natural radiation types can be identified. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Determination of the amount of background radiation Visualisation of alpha. 230 V Radioactive source Sr-90. gamma-particles and mesons Visualisation of the Thorium (Radon) decay Deflection of beta-particles in a magnetic field α.R.phywe.

Tasks 1. The measurement of muon properties such as its lifetime and studies of the electroweak interaction without radioative sources in a clear experimental setup is realized in cooperation with the University of Göttingen and Netzwerk Teilchenwelt.2 Cosmic Muon Lifetime . Principle The Muon is an elementary particle similar to the electron.Available 2013 09049-88 1 Masatoshi Koshiba 2002. with unitary negative electric charge and a spin of 1/2.12 Particle Physics 12. which consist mostly of protons.Kamiocan - Muon lifetime. 3.Kamiocan . arriving from space at very high energy. It is named "Kamiokanne" according to the Kamiokande experiment in Japan. 2. Muons. 4. Nobel Prize in Physics excellence in science 262 . Most naturally occurring muons on earth are created by cosmic rays. electrons. and neutrinos are classified as a leptons.Kamiocan P2520800 Cosmic Muon Lifetime measurement . angular distribution Cosmic Myons Cherenkov radiation Cosmic radiation Electromagnetic cascade Hadronic cascade Muonic cascade PMT In Cooperation with: What you can learn about Main articles Cosmic Myon Counter complete experiment set. ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Calibration Muon rate determination Muon lifetime mesurement Coincidence.

6 13.1 13.5 13.9 Characteristic of X-rays Radiography Absorption of X-rays .8 13.2 13.7 13. KG · www.Dosimetry Debye-Scherrer diffraction Laue diffraction X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy Computed Tomography Related Experiments Literature 264 271 274 278 281 282 290 292 294 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.3 13.13 X-ray Physics X-ray Physics 13.phywe.com 263 .4 13.

13 X-ray Physics 13.1 Characteristic of X-rays excellence in science 264 .

com 265 . KG · www.13 X-ray Physics 13.1 Characteristic of X-rays PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.phywe.

13 X-ray Physics 13.1 Characteristic of X-rays excellence in science 266 .

mounted XR 4. Tasks 1. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the copper anode as a function of the Bragg angle using a LiF or KBr monocrystal as analyzer.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. The energies of the characteristic lines are then determined from the positions of the glancing angles for the various orders of diffraction.13 X-ray Physics 13.phywe.0 expert unit XR 4. analyser crystal: LiF Principle Spectra of X-rays from a copper anode are analyzed using different monocrystals and the results plotted graphically. 2. Absorption edges Interference Order of diffraction Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen 1901. type B XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.0 potassium bromide (KBr) crystal PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Calculate the energy values of the characteristic copper lines and compare them with the energy differences of the copper energy terms. KG · www. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Energy levels Crystal structures Lattice constant Absorption.1 Characteristic of X-rays Characteristic X-rays of copper P2540101 Intensity of the X-radiation of copper as a function of the glancing angle theta.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. Nobel Prize in Physics Related X-ray Experiments Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum P2540201 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 09056-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Characteristic X-rays of iron P2540301 Characteristic X-rays of tungsten P2542801 Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.com 267 .

3. Varying the anode current and anode voltage influences the intensity of the characteristic Ka and Kß radiation.13 X-ray Physics 13. mounted XR 4. Determine the intensities of the characteristic Ka and Kß radiations as a function of both the anode current and the anode voltage.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. Tasks 1. plug type A/B. 2. Compare the results of the measurement with the theoretical intensity formula.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. and plot them graphically. Record the intensity spectrum of polychromatic radiation from an X-ray tube with the help of an LiF monocrystal.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm Data cable USB.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.8 m 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 09057-02 14608-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 268 . What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Characteristic X-ray radiation Energy level The Bragg equation Intensity of characteristic X-rays Main articles XR 4. 1. type B XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.1 Characteristic of X-rays P2540401 The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of anode current and voltage Scanning range 19° < theta < 24° at different anode voltages Principle The polychromatic X-radiation from a copper anode is analyzed using a LiF monocrystal according to Bragg.

g.phywe.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm Data cable USB.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. Numerous experiments (e.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal.1 Characteristic of X-rays Monochromatisation of molybdenum P2540501 X-ray spectrum of molybdenum with a KBr crystal as the analyser. Debye-Scherrer experiments concerning crystal structures).0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Principle The X-rays that are generated by an X-ray tube are polychromatic.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4. 2. however.13 X-ray Physics 13. The energy values of the characteristic molybdenum lines are to be calculated. red: with a zirconium Kβ filter. KG · www. green: without filter.0 potassium bromide (KBr) crystal XR 4.8 m 09056-05 09056-01 09058-03 09057-01 14608-00 1 1 1 1 1 Related X-ray Experiment Monochromatisation of copper X-rays P2540601 Main articles XR 4. plug type A/B.com 269 . Tasks 1. Use the LiF monocrystal to filter out a characteristic line and record the appertaining monochromatization graphically 3. require monochromatic X-radiation.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube w. using a LiF monocrystal as analyzer. zirconium foil XR 4. which can be generated by filtering the X-rays with monocrystals or with the aid of metal foils. mounted XR 4. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode as a function of the Bragg angle. 1. XR 4. type B 09057-99 09057-10 09057-60 14414-61 09005-00 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode as a function of the Bragg angle. using a LiF monocrystal as analyzer and a zirconium filter. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic radiation energy levels absorption absorption edges interference Diffraction Bragg scattering.

type B XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Characteristic X-ray radiation energy levels selection rules the Bragg equation energy term symbols Related X-ray Experiments K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure P2540801 Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's "quantum of action" P2540901 Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley's law P2541001 Counter tube characteristics P2540010 Main articles XR 4. Determine the wavelengths and ratio of the intensities of the two Ka lines in high order diffraction and compare your results with the theoretical predictions. The energy of the characteristic lines is determined from the positions of the glancing angles at various orders of diffraction.1 Characteristic of X-rays P2540701 K alpha double splitting of molybdenum X-rays/ fine structure Splitting of the Kα1 and Kα2 lines of molybdenum (n = 4) Principle The polychromatic molybdenum X-ray spectrum is analyzed by means of a monocrystal.0 expert unit XR 4. 2. Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted by the molybdenum anode as a function of the Bragg angle using a LiF monocrystal as analyzer.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. The separation of the Ka doublet in higher order diffraction is examined.13 X-ray Physics 13. mounted 09057-99 09057-10 09057-60 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 270 .0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. Tasks 1.

and Xray diffractometry. h = 30 mm Table with stem 09057-99 09057-80 09057-26 09057-18 08286-01 09824-00 1 1 1 1 2 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Duane Hunt's law. Vary the anode current and voltage and observe the result on the fluorescent screen. 09057-99 Main articles XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4. KG · www. Principle An X-ray tube produces X-rays that cause a fluorescent screen to emit light. Moseley's law. material-thickness. If one varies the anode current and voltage. Bragg reflection. bremsspectrum/characteristic lines of various different anode materials. K and Ledges. Tasks 1.13 X-ray Physics 13. Laue and Debye-Scherrer images.phywe. the change in intensity can be observed in a qualitative manner on the fluorescent screen. Objects that are located between the X-ray source and the fluorescent screen will be irradiated so that their inner structure becomes visible.and energy-dependent absorption.0 expert unit Function and Applications School/full-protection device with X-ray tube quick-change technology for fluoroscopy and X-ray imaging. ionisation and dosimetry experiments. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray tube absorption of X-rays radiography fluorescence XR 4. X-ray an object and observe the result on the fluorescent screen. determination of Planck's constant and Rydberg constant.0 X-ray optical bench Slide mount for optical bench. X-ray spectroscopy.0 X-ray fluorescent screen XR 4.com 271 .2 Radiography Radiographic examination of objects P2540020 Radiography of a digital alarm clock. 2. contrast medium experiments. Compton scattering.

The screen is fixed in place on the desktop in a permanent manner in order to protect it against damage and theft.0 X-ray Blood vess.0 Mobile X-ray Lab Main articles XR 4. can be stored safely in the lockable cabinet. Inject a 50% potassium iodide solution into the blood vessel model.cl.model f. 2. such as X-ray tubes.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4. It is only after the injection of a contrast medium that the blood vessels become visible. short .scr.0 X-ray optical bench Slide mount for optical bench.0 expert unit XR 4. All of the important parts. goniometer.contrast fluid XR 4. h = 30 mm Potassium iodide 50 g Table with stem Glass beaker DURAN®. or multi-channel analyser.2 Radiography P2541901 Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model Blood vessel model with the contrast medium half filled Principle When a blood vessel model is irradiated with X-rays.250ml 09057-99 09057-80 09057-26 09058-06 09057-18 08286-01 30104-05 09824-00 36013-00 46213-00 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 Function and Applications The mobile X-ray lab saves valuable time by making the set-up and dismantling of experiments in the classroom or lecture hall redundant. the blood vessels themselves are not visible at first. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray radiation Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Law of absorption Mass absorption coefficient Contrast medium XR 4. Any type of room can be instantly transformed into an X-ray science lab! 09057-48 excellence in science 272 . Observe the fluorescent screen of the X-ray basic unit to follow the course taken by the injected solution in the blood vessel model.0 X-ray fluorescent screen XR 4.13 X-ray Physics 13. 250 ml Reagent bottle. Prepare your experiments unhurriedly ahead of time before pushing them into the room at time of the lecture. Tasks 1.cap..

0 X-ray Implant model f. Determine the true length of the pin by taking into account the magnification factor which results from the divergence of the X-rays.0 X-ray expert unit kV to determine the length and spatial position of a non visible metal pin which is enclosed in a block of wood.phywe. Determine the spatial position of the pin.com 273 . h = 30 mm PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. ▪ Block size (59 x 59 x 140) mm ▪ Disc diameter: 30 mm 09058-07 Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray Adapter for digital camera 1/4"" XR 4. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray radiation Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Law of absorption Mass absorption coefficient Stereographic projection XR 4.13 X-ray Physics 13.0 X-ray external optical bench Slide mount for optical bench.x-ray photography Function and Applications 09057-99 09057-80 09057-26 09057-18 09057-29 09057-15 09058-07 09057-21 08286-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 For use with XR 4. 3. Tasks 1.0 X-ray optical bench XR 4.2 Radiography Determination of length and position of an object which can not be seen P2542001 Pictures of the implant model projection in the y. Record a bi-planar radiogram of two perpendicular planes of a metal pin which cannot be seen.x-ray photography XR 4.0 X-ray fluorescent screen XR 4.0 X-ray slide for external optical bench XR 4. KG · www.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Implant model f. This experiment is also an excellent preparatory exercise for demonstrating the principle of computed tomography. 2. Equipment and technical data ▪ With inserted metal disc of known diameter to determine the magnification factor. A metal pin that is embedded in a wooden block is used as the model.z-plane Principle This experiment provides training in determining the length and position of an object based on an X-ray image.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4.

8 x 20. Observe the transmission of X-rays as a function of the material thickness. With handle. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit. mechanical lock and two switching pins. h = 30 mm Table with stem excellence in science 274 . Incl. and Fe). dust protection cover. Tasks 1. which only operate correspondingly security microswitches of the basic unit when the plug-in module is correcly inserted. iron (all of them: d = 1mm) Principle X-rays penetrate objects that are impenetrable for visible light.0 expert unit XR 4.Complete protection against touching hot parts Equipment and technical data ▪ Anode angle 19°. Cu. Max.0 expert unit. 09057-80 Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Function and Applications Factory adjusted tungsten tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.3 kg ▪ Dimensions(26. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray tube absorption of X-rays atomic number fluorescence Lambert-Beer XR 4. This dependence is demonstrated in a qualitative manner on a fluorescent screen with the aid of various different absorption specimens. adjustment free.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4. 09057-99 09057-80 09057-26 09057-18 08286-01 09824-00 1 1 1 1 2 1 Benefits Tube XChange Technology: ▪ Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W.3 Absorption of X-rays .3) cm. Mass 4. 2.7 x 18.0 X-ray fluorescent screen XR 4. The absorption depends on the thickness and type of the material.0 X-ray optical bench Slide mount for optical bench. Mo. Determine how the atomic number of the elements in a material affects the transmission of X-rays.13 X-ray Physics 13.Dosimetry P2540030 Qualitative examination of absorption From left to right: aluminium. cardboard. operation datas 1 mA/35 kV ▪ Test voltage 50 kV.

0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. The resulting monochromatic radiation is used as the primary radiation source for examining the absorption behaviour of various metal foils of different thicknesses.13 X-ray Physics 13.0 expert unit XR 4. for protecting the detectors ▪ Intuitive operation directly at the unit or via a PC 09057-10 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. λK = 138 pm Main articles Principle The polychromatic X-radiation that is emitted by an X-ray tube is filtered in terms of its energy with the aid of a monocrystal. thereby. UA = 25 kV. Tasks 1.phywe. Prove the validity of μ/ ρ = f( λ3).com 275 .Dosimetry Absorption of X-rays P2541101 Absorption edge of copper. 2. 3. type B 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 1 1 1 1 1 XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer Function and Applications Goniometer with two independent stepper motors for the precise angular positioning of a sample and detector. Determine the attenuation of the X-radiation by aluminium and zinc foils of different thicknesses and at two different wavelengths of the primary radiation. Prove the validity of μ/ ρ = f( λ3) in a graphical manner. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic radiation Bragg scattering law of absorption mass absorption coefficient absorption edge half value thickness photoelectric effect Compton scattering pair production XR 4. Benefits ▪ Self-calibrating goniometer Plug & measure: ▪ Automatic identification of the goniometer ▪ Goniometer block with two independent stepper motors for rotating the sample holder and the detector either separately or coupled in a 2:1 ratio ▪ The detector holder with a slit diaphragm holder for absorption foils can be moved in order to change the angular resolution ▪ Includes a light barrier system for limiting the permissible swivelling range and. Determine the energy values of the corresponding K shells based on the graphical representation. Determine the mass absorption coefficient μ/ ρ for aluminium.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.3 Absorption of X-rays . KG · www. and tin absorbers of constant thickness as a function of the wavelength of the primary radiation. Determine the absorption coefficients µ for copper and nickel as a function of the wavelength of the primary radiation. zinc.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.

Determine the K absorption edges of different absorber materials. Calculate the Rydberg constant from the energy values of the L absorption edges. Tasks 1. Calculate the Rydberg constant and the screening constants from the energy values of the K absorption edges.Dosimetry P2541201 K and L absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant X-ray spectra of copper without any absorber (top curve) and with the absorption edges of various elements Principle Samples of various elements of different atomic numbers are irradiated with X-rays of a known spectral distribution.3 Absorption of X-rays .0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-04 09056-05 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 276 . Record the intensity of the X-rays emitted from the copper anode as a function of the Bragg angle using an LiF monocrystal as analyzer. Subsequently. 4.0 X-ray Chemical set for edge absorption XR 4. 2. the Rydberg constant and the screening constants are calculated from the energy of the absorption edges. The energy of the transmitted intensities is analyzed using a monocrystal analyzer. Atomic energy level scheme Moseley's law Rydberg constant. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-ray Bremsstrahlung Characteristic radiation Bragg equation Bohr's atomic model. type B XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. 3.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.13 X-ray Physics 13. Find the L absorption edges of different absorber materials. Screening constant Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.

13 X-ray Physics
13.3 Absorption of X-rays - Dosimetry

X-ray dosimetry

P2541801

Ionisation current Ic as a function of the capacitor voltage Uc for diffrent diaphragm tubes.

Principle Dosimetry, as a subspecialty of medical physics, deals with the determination and calculation of dose rates, which is also of great importance in view of the radiation protection directives. This experiment demonstrates the principle of measurement and it explains the various units of absorbed dose, equivalent dose, and absorbed dose rate. Inside a plate capacitor, an air volume is irradiated with X-rays. The resulting ion current is used to determine the dosimetric data. . Tasks 1. Using the two different diaphragm tubes and the fluorescent screen, the given distance between the aperture and the radiation source at maximum anode voltage and current is to be determined. 2. The ion current at maximum anode voltage is to be measured and graphically recorded as a function of the capacitor voltage by using two different beam limiting apertures. The ion dose rate and the energy dose rate are to be determined from the saturation current values. 3. Using the d = 5 mm aperture, the ion current is to be determined and graphically recorded at various anode currents but with maximum anode and capacitor voltages. 4. The ion current is to be measured and graphically recorded as a function of the capacitor voltage at different anode voltages and the corresponding saturation currents plotted graphically. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ X-rays Absorption inverse square law Ionizing energy Energy dose Equivalent dose and ion dose and their Rates Q factor Local ion dose rate Dosimeter

Main articles
XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube DC measuring amplifier Power supply, 0...600 VDC XR 4.0 X-ray Capacitor plates f.x-ray-unit 09057-99 09057-80 13620-93 13672-93 09058-05 1 1 1 1 1

Related X-ray Experiment
Ionizing effect of X-radiation P2540040

Power supply, 0...600 VDC
Function and Applications Power supply with 5 output voltages especially designed for experiments with tubes, fine beams and conducting the Frank-Hertz experiment. Benefits ▪ Electronically stabilised DC voltages, short-circuit protected, galvanically isolated from one another so that they can be possible to connected in series, featuring LED current-limiting indicator and protection against polarity reversal ▪ AC voltage with automatic circuit breaker ▪ All outputs are floating and isolated from the mains and use 4-mm safety sockets. 13672-93

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
277

13 X-ray Physics
13.4 Debye-Scherrer diffraction

P2541401

X-ray of cubic crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method

Debye-Scherrer pattern of a powdered sample of NaCl. Thickness of the sample: 0.4 mm. Exposure time: 2.5 h. Mo X-ray tube: UA = 35 kV; IA = 1 mA

Principle When polycrystalline samples are irradiated with X-rays a characteristic diffraction pattern results. These Debye-Scherrer reflections are photographed and then evaluated. Tasks 1. Debye-Scherrer photographs are to be taken of powdered samples of sodium chloride and caesium chloride. 2. The Debye-Scherrer rings are to be evaluated and assigned to the corresponding lattice planes. 3. The lattice constants of the sample materials are to be determined. 4. The number of atoms in the unit cells of each sample are to be determined. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices Crystal systems Reciprocal lattice Miller indices Structure amplitude Atomic form factor Bragg scattering

Related X-ray Experiment
X-ray of hexagonal crystal structures / Debye-Scherrer powder method P2541501

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube
Function and Applications Factory adjusted molybdenum tube in sheet steel housing ready for use in connection with XR 4.0 expert unit. Housing with plugs to accept the tubes operating quantities from the basic unit. Benefits: Tube XChange Technology: ▪ Quick-change technology for four different X-ray tubes (W, Cu, Mo, and Fe) ▪ adjustment free ▪ Complete protection against touching hot parts Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Anode angle 19° Max. operation datas 1 mA/35 kV Test voltage 50 kV Mass 4.3 kg Dimensions(26.7 x 18.8 x 20.3) cm

Main articles
XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4.0 X-ray film holder XR 4.0 X-ray optical bench 09057-99 09057-60 09057-08 09057-18 1 1 1 1

09057-60

excellence in science
278

13 X-ray Physics
13.4 Debye-Scherrer diffraction

Diffraction measurements to determine the intensity of DebyeScherrer reflexes using a cubic powder sample

P2542601

Debye-Scherrer pattern of a copper powder sample.

Principle A polycrystalline, cubic face-centered crystallizing powder sample is irradiated with the radiation from a Roentgen tube with a copper anode. A Geiger-Mueller counter tube is automatically swivelled to detect the radiation that is constructively reflected from the various lattice planes of the crystallites. The Bragg diagram is automatically recorded. The intensities of the individual reflex lines are determined and compared with those theoretically expected. In addition, the evaluation allows the Bragg reflexes to be assigned to the individual lattice planes, and both their spacing and the corresponding Bravais lattice type to be determined. Tasks 1. Record the intensity of the Cu X-rays back scattered by a cubic crystallizing copper powder sample as a function of the scattering angle. 2. Calculate the lattice plane spacings from the angle positions of the individual Bragg lines. 3. Assign the Bragg reflexes to the respective lattice planes. Calculate the lattice constant of the substance and the Bravais lattice type. 4. Determine the intensity of the individual reflex lines and compare them with the theoretically expected intensities. 5. Determine the number of atoms in the unit cell. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices, Crystal systems, Bravais-lattice Reciprocal lattice, Miller indices Structure factor, Atomic scattering factor Lorentz-polarization factor, Multiplicity factor Debye-Waller factor, Absorption factor

XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube Geiger-Mueller Counter tube, type B XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal XR 4.0 X-ray Univ. crystal holder XR 4.0 X-ray holder for powder probes

09057-50 09005-00 09056-05 09058-02 09058-09

1 1 1 1 1

Related X-ray Experiments
Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of powder samples, cubic Bravais lattices P2542101 Debye-Scherrer diffractions pattern of powder samples, diamond structure P2542201 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of powder samples, hexagonal lattice structure P2542301 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of powder samples, tetragonal lattice structure P2542401 Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of powder samples, cubic lattice structure

Main articles
XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer 09057-99 09057-10 1 1

P2542501

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
279

13 X-ray Physics
13.4 Debye-Scherrer diffraction

P2542701

Debye-Scherrer diffraction measurements for the examination of the texture of rolled sheets

Debye-Scherrer diagram of a rolled copper sheet

Principle A polycrystalline, cubic face-centered crystallizing copper powder sample and a thin copper sheet are separately irradiated with the radiation from a Roentgen tube with a copper anode. A Geiger-Mueller counter tube is automatically swivelled to detect the radiation that is constructively reflected from the various lattice planes of the crystallites. The Bragg diagrams are automatically recorded. The evaluation allows the Bragg reflexes to be assigned to the individual lattice planes. In contrast to the powder sample, the rolled thin sheet gives a spectrum showing an alignment of the crystallites (rolled texture), that is made even more complete by heating the sheet. Tasks 1. Record the intensity of the Cu X-rays back scattered by a cubic crystallizing copper powder sample as a function of the scattering angle. 2. Assign the Bragg reflexes to the individual lattice planes. 3. Record the Bragg spectrum of a thin sheet of copper. 4. Repeat the measurements made in Task 3 after the sheet of copper has been subjected to annealing. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices, crystal systems Bravais-lattice, reciprocal lattice Miller indices structure factor atomic scattering factor Bragg scattering characteristic X-rays monochromatization of X-rays fiber textures, sheet textures annealing texture recrystallization

Main articles
XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube, type B XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal, mounted 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 14414-61 09005-00 09056-05 1 1 1 1 1 1

Related X-ray Experiment
Counter tube characteristics P2540010

XR 4.0 Software measure X-ray

Function and Applications Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the XR 4.0 Expert Unit (X-ray unit). XR 4.0 measure X-ray consists of a module for device control and measurement data recording and a module for measurement data processing (main program). 14414-61

excellence in science
280

13 X-ray Physics
13.5 Laue diffraction

X-ray of crystal structures/Laue method with digital X-ray image sensor (XRIS)

P2541602

Laue pattern of the LiF (100) crystal.

Principle Laue diagrams are produced when monocrystals are irradiated with polychromatic X-rays. This method is primarily used for the determination of crystal symmetries and the orientation of crystals. When a LiF monocrystal is irradiated with polychromatic Xrays, a characteristic diffraction pattern results. This pattern is photographed with the digital X-ray sensor XRIS. Tasks 1. The Laue diffraction of an LiF mono-crystal is to be recorded on a film. 2. The Miller indices of the corresponding crystal surfaces are to be assigned to the Laue reflections What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Crystal lattices, Crystal systems, Crystal classes Bravais lattice, Reciprocal lattice, Miller indices Structure amplitude Atomic form factor, Bragg equation

Related X-ray Experiment
X-ray investigation of crystal structures / Laue method with X-ray film P2541601

XR 4.0 X-ray Digital Image Sensor XRIS

Function and Applications Digital X-ray camera to perform X-ray imaging (radiography), and X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) experiments. For experiments in physics, medical education and material sciences. 1 1 1 1 1 1 Features and Benefits ▪ Direct aquisition of the X-ray images by a direct X-ray direct digital image sensor for daylight conditions, high-performance CMOS image sensors for the direct digital X-ray radiography to create superior image quality, high resolution, and large active area images based on CMOS technology. active area 5 x 5 cm², Resolution 48 µm, Image depth 12 bit. 09057-40

Main articles
XR 4.0 X-ray Direct Digital Image Sensor (XRIS) XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 Software measure CT XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal, mounted XR 4.0 X-ray Crystal holder for Laue-pattern For more details refer to page 290. 09057-40 09057-99 14421-61 09057-80 09056-05 09058-11

PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.phywe.com
281

13 X-ray Physics
13.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

P2544001

X-ray energy spectroscopy - calibration of the X-ray energy detector

Fluorescence lines of zinc with a fitted normal distribution

Principle Various metal samples are subjected to polychromatic X-rays. The resulting fluorescence radiation is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multi-channel analyser. The maxima of intensity of the corresponding characteristic X-ray lines are determined. The predefined energy values of the characteristic lines and channels of the multi-channel analyser that must be assigned in turn result in a calibration of the semiconductor energy detector. Tasks 1. Record the spectra of the fluorescence radiation that is generated by the metal samples. 2. Determine the channel numbers of the maxima intensity of the characteristic lines of the corresponding fluorescence radiation. 3. Represent the predefined line energies as a function of the channel numbers graphically for two gain factors of the multi-channel analyser. What you can learn about ▪ Bremsstrahlung, characteristic X-radiation, energy levels, fluorescence radiation ▪ conduction processes in semiconductors, doping of semiconductors, pin-diodes, semiconductor energy detectors, multichannel analysers

XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED)

Function and Applications With the new X-ray energy detector you can directly determine the energies of single x-ray quanta. Benefits ▪ In connection with the multi-channel analyser (MCA) you can characterise the complete x-ray energy spectrum of the analysed material. Characteristic x-ray lines for all elements of the PSE included in the software. ▪ Directly mountable on the goniometer of the x-ray unit, without loss of functionality of the goniometer ▪ Directly connectable to MCA (USB) without any additional interface on, Green Operation-LED ▪ Parallel observation of the signals in the oscilloscope (optional) Typical application laboratory experiments in universities and high schools: ▪ Characterisation of X-rays of different anode materials (Cu, Fe, Mo), Fluorescence analysis of pure materials and alloys ▪ Determination of the composition of alloys ▪ Compton effect-Mosley's law-Energy dispersive Bragg structure analysis 09058-30

Main articles
XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence, set of 7 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 09058-31 1 1 1 1 1 1

excellence in science
282

4.0 expert unit XR 4. Calibration of the semiconductor detector with the aid of the characteristic radiation of the molybdenum X-ray tube. set of 7 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 09058-31 1 1 1 1 1 1 Multi channel analyser Function and Applications The multi-channel analyser is for analysing voltage pulses which are proportional to energy and for determining pulse rates and intensities in conjunction with an X-ray detector.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4. Determination of the energy levels and full widths at half maximum of the characteristic lines and their graphical representation. Determination and graphical representation of the shift of the line centroid as a function of the counting rate. alpha detector or gamma detector. the dependence of the full widths at half maximum and the shift of the line centroid as a function of the counting rate are examined. with the Kalpha line of zircon used as an example. The energy of the characteristic X-ray lines and their full widths at half maximum are determined. with the Kalpha line of zircon used as an example. The resulting fluorescence radiation is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multi-channel analyser. The analogue pulses from the detector are shaped by the analyser. Recording of the spectra of the fluorescence radiation that is generated by the metal samples.13 X-ray Physics 13. digitised and summed per channel according to pulse height. Determination and graphical representation of the full widths at half maximum as a function of the counting rate. This results in a frequency distribution of detected pulses dependent on the energy of the radiation. 2.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy Energy resolution of the X-ray energy detector P2544101 Normal distribution of the iron Kα-lines for determining the line energy and the full width at half maximum (the original measurement curve is hidden) Principle Various metal samples are subjected to polychromatic X-rays.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.com 283 .0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4.phywe. KG · www. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation fluorescence radiation conduction processes in semiconductors doping of semiconductors pin-diodes resolution and resolving power semiconductor energy multi-channel analysers Main articles XR 4. Tasks 1. 3. 5. In addition.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence. 13727-99 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

the detector is subjected to monochromatic X-radiation with the aid of a monocrystal. 1. 2.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy P2544201 Inherent fluorescence radiation of the X-ray energy detector Characteristic fluorescence spectrum of the detector components (energy of the primary radiation E0 = 32. the spectrum may include lines that are not caused by the sample.0 X-ray Lithium fluoride crystal. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation fluorescence radiation fluorescent yield interference of X-rays crystal structures Bragg's law Compton scattering escape peaks semiconductor energy detectors multi-channel analysers Main articles XR 4. Assign the lines to elements by comparing the measured values with table values. For the detection of potential additional lines.2 . As a result. 5.13 X-ray Physics 13.0 expert unit. Requirements PC with at least a Pentium 3 processor. Comparative measurement and evaluation of the fluorescence spectra of pure metal samples.0 expert Unit (X-ray unit) under LabVIEW ™ (National Instruments). USB 2.free of charge Function and Applications Software driver package of the "measure" series for developing a control software of XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. The numerous possibilities of control and visualisation with LabView (™ National Instruments) can be used immediately. 1 GB free hard drive space.0. Irradiate the X-ray energy detector with monoenergetic Xrays that are produced by the Bragg reflection on an LiF monocrystal. Measure the resulting fluorescence spectrum. DVD drive.5 keV) Principle Fluorescence radiation of the elements of a sample can cause fluorescence radiation inside the detector and its housing if the energy is sufficiently high. 512 MB RAM. Microsoft ®Windows XP or higher. 3. For comparison. Four sample applications are included. Tasks 1. Determine of the energy of the spectrum lines. 4. Minimum Software Package: LabView Base ™ (2011) 14414-62 excellence in science 284 .0 expert unit XR 4. Calibrate the semiconductor energy detector with the aid of the characteristic fluorescence radiation of the calibration sample.0 Software measure LabVIEW (TM) driver V.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4. mounted 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 09056-05 1 1 1 1 1 1 XR 4. the fluorescence spectra of pure metal samples are measured. Benefits The package includes all neccessary drivers for the control of all functions of PHYWE's X-ray unit XR 4.

Principle Various metal samples are subjected to polychromatic X-rays. Determine the energy values of the corresponding characteristic K -lines.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy Qualitative X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of metals .Moseley's law P2544501 Fluorescence spectrum of nickel. 4. 2.com 285 .0 X-ray Univ.x-ray-unit XR 4.13 X-ray Physics 13.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence.0 expert unit XR 4. crystal holder f. set of 7 measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 3.phywe.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. Determine the Rydberg frequency and screening constants with the aid of the resulting Moseley diagrams. The energy of the resulting fluorescence radiation is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multi-channel analyser. KG · www.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm 09058-31 14452-61 09058-32 09058-02 09057-01 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiments Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of alloyed materials P2544601 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of powder samples P2544701 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of solutions P2544801 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of ore samples P2544901 Main articles XR 4. Tasks 1. Record the spectra of the fluorescence radiation that are generated by the metal samples. and the resulting Moseley diagram is used to determine the Rydberg frequency and the screening constants.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Calibrate the semiconductor energy detector with the aid of the characteristic radiation of the tungsten X-ray tube. The energy of the corresponding characteristic X-ray lines is determined. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation absorption of Xrays Bohr's atom model energy levels Moseley's law Rydberg frequency screening constant semiconductor energy detectors multi-channel analysers XR 4.

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation energy levels fluorescent yield Auger effect coherent and incoherent photon scattering absorption of X-rays edge absorption matrix effects semiconductor energy detectors multi-channel analysers Main articles XR 4. the intensity of their respective fluorescence signals is compared to that of the pure elements. 3.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. Calibration of the semiconductor energy detector with the aid of the characteristic radiation of the tungsten X-ray tube.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. set of 7 measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4. Determination of the energy values of the corresponding fluorescence lines. 2.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4. The energy of the corresponding characteristic X-ray fluorescence lines is determined. Principle Various alloyed materials are subjected to polychromatic X-rays. crystal holder f.x-ray-unit 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 09058-34 09058-31 14452-61 09058-32 09058-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of solutions P2545101 excellence in science 286 .0 X-ray Univ.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for fluorescence. Recording of the fluorescence spectra that are produced by the pure metals.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4. set of 4 XR 4. The energy of the resulting fluorescence radiation is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multichannel analyser. Kα-lines. 5.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence. Tasks 1. Calculation of the concentration levels of the alloy constituents. 4.13 X-ray Physics 13. In order to determine the concentration of the alloy constituents.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy P2545001 Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of alloyed materials Fluorescence spectrum of constantan. Recording of the fluorescence spectra that are produced by the alloyed samples.

phywe. Calibrate the semiconductor energy detector.com 287 . 3. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation fluorescent yield Auger effect coherent and incoherent photon scattering ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ law of absorption mass attenuation coefficient saturation thickness matrix effects semiconductor energy detectors multi-channel analysers Main articles XR 4. set of 7 XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Multi channel analyser XR 4. For this type of measurement. Determine the intensity of the Fe-Kalpha fluorescence line for various numbers of pieces of aluminium foil that are fastened in front of the outlet of the tube of the energy detector. if it is sufficiently thin.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for X-ray fluorescence.0 X-ray Specimen set metals for fluorescence. Measure fluorescence spectrum of the iron substrate with different numbers n of pieces of aluminium foil with the same thickness placed on the substrate (including n = 0).0 expert unit XR 4. depending on the thickness.13 X-ray Physics 13.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. 5. set of 4 measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4. The thickness of the layer can be determined based on the intensity attenuation of the fluorescence radiation of the substrate material. 2. On its way to the detector. the radiation will penetrate the layer. KG · www. 4.0 XRED cable 50 cm XR 4. Tasks 1. crystal holder f.0 X-ray Univ. When the layer on the substrate is subjected to X-rays. Determine the intensity of the Fe-Kalpha fluorescence line. to a certain extent.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. Execute tasks 2 to 4 for copper foil on molybdenum or zinc substrate. 6. and in turn cause characteristic fluorescence radiation in the material of the underlying substrate. this fluorescence radiation will be attenuated by absorption at the layer. Plot the intensity of the Fe-Kalpha fluorescence line as a function of the number of pieces of aluminium foil placed on the substrate in linear and semilogarithmic way. the X-ray source and detector are located on the same side of the sample.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy / layer thickness determination P2545201 Fe-fluorescence lines as a function of the number n of the pieces of aluminium foils placed on the substrate Principle X-ray fluorescence analysis (XRF) is suitable for the non-contact and non-destructive thickness measurement of thin layers as well as for determining their chemical composition.x-ray-unit 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-80 13727-99 09058-31 09058-34 14452-61 09058-32 09058-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Calculate the thickness of the aluminium foil.

The energy of the scattered photons is determined in an angle-dependent manner with the aid of a swivelling semiconductor detector and a multichannel analyser. so that the Compton wave length can be determined from the varying intensity attenuation of the Xrays at different wavelengths. Principle Photons of the molybdenum X-ray line are scattered at the quasifree electrons of an acrylic glass cuboid.13 X-ray Physics 13. 09057-99 09058-30 09057-10 09057-60 13727-99 1 1 1 1 1 Main articles XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube Multi channel analyser excellence in science 288 . using a premeasured transmission curve.x-rayunit 14452-61 09057-04 1 1 Compton scattering of X-rays P2541701 Principle Compton scattering is to be achieved by directing an X-ray beam against a piece of plastic.energy-dispersive direct measurement Molybdenum-Kα-Line of various scattering angles theta.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. Tasks 1. 4. 3. The portions of the scattered X-rays at various angles is to be measured with a counter tube. Calculation of the Compton wavelength of electrons and a comparison of this value with the corresponding value of the 90° scattering. Energy determination of the photons of the Mo K-line that are scattered through an acrylic glass element as a function of the scattering angle.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy P2546001 Compton effect . Measurements are to be made with an absorber positioned in front of and behind the scatterer.0 X-ray Compton attachment f. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Bremsstrahlung characteristic X-radiation Compton scattering Compton wavelength conservation of energy and momentum rest mass and rest energy of the electron relativistic electron mass and energy semiconductor detector multi-channel analyser measure Software multi channel analyser XR 4.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4. Energy calibration of the multi-channel analyser with the aid of the two characteristic molybdenum X-ray lines 2. Comparison of the measured energy values of the lines of scatter with the calculated energy values.

energy levels ▪ crystal structures. Bohr's atom model ▪ energy levels. What you can learn about ▪ Bremsstrahlung. The rays are reflected by the lattice planes of the monocrystal. Rydberg frequency For more details refer to page 226.6 X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy Energy-dispersive measurements of K. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.13 X-ray Physics 13. characteristic X-radiation.and L-absorption edges Principle P2546101 Thin powder samples are subjected to polychromatic X-rays.phywe. Moseley's law. characteristic X-radiation ▪ absorption of X-rays. The energy of the radiation that passes through the samples is analysed with the aid of a semiconductor detector and a multichannel analyser. The energy of the corresponding absorption edges is determined. and the principal quantum numbers. KG · www.com 289 . Duane and Hunt's law of displacement is verified with the aid of the maximum energy of the bremsspectrum. interference ▪ semiconductor detectors For more details refer to page 227. Bravais lattice. Duane-Hunt displacement law Principle P2546301 X-ray spectra of an X-ray tube are measured in an energy dispersive manner with a semiconductor detector and with various anode voltages. and the resulting Moseley diagrams are used to determine the Rydberg frequency. reciprocal lattices ▪ Miller indices. What you can learn about ▪ Bremsstrahlung. The lattice constant of the crystal is determined with the aid of the various orders of diffraction and the energy of the reflected rays. the screening constant. Determination of the lattice constants Principle P2546201 Polychromatic X-rays impinge on a monocrystal under various glancing angles. Bragg scattering. What you can learn about ▪ Bremsstrahlung ▪ characteristic X-radiation ▪ energy levels ▪ photo energy ▪ semiconductor detectors ▪ multi-channel analysers For more details refer to page 228. An energy detector is only used to measure those radiation parts that interfere constructively.

0 X-ray CT accessories 09057-40 09110-88 09057-42 09057-43 1 1 1 1 Related X-ray Experiment X-ray of crystal structures/Laue method with digital X-ray image sensor (XRIS) P2541602 Allan M. While doing so. Record a CT scan of the metal samples and analyse the result in view of beam hardening.0 X-ray CT Z-rotation stage (XRstage) XR 4. Nobel Prize in Medicine excellence in science 290 . In the case of very simple targets.0 X-ray Direct Digital Image Sensor (XRIS) with USB cable XRE 4. Cormack (left) Sir Godfrey Newbold Hounsfield (right) 1979. Related topics ▪ Beam hardening ▪ artefacts ▪ algorithms EduMedia Award for Didactical Software Main articles XR 4. the more images are necessary in order to show all the details. Tasks 1. 2.7 Computed Tomography P2550100 Computed tomography CT of a Snail shell. Record a CT scan of the simple objects. vary the number of steps. special samples are used to demonstrate how artefacts are generated and what causes beam hardening. Principle The CT principle is demonstrated with the aid of simple objects.0 X-ray expert set XR 4. The more complicated the objects are. only a few images need to be taken in order to achieve a good result.13 X-ray Physics 13. In addition.

0 series. Graphic card: MSI nVidia GeForce N440GT 1GB or better. 8GB (2x 4GB) 1600MHz DDR3. This ensures a smooth transition from training to professional application. numerous parameters must be set. Equipment and technical data ▪ Active area 5 x 5 cm². The data can be exported in all of the established formats.0 Software measure CT Function and Applications Software package of the "measure" series for controlling the digital X-ray sensor XRIS and the X-ray unit XR 4. They can be changed in their own screen and their effect can be observed directly in an example image.0 X-ray Direct Digital Image Sensor (XRIS) with USB cable XR 4. The data can be exported in all of the established formats and then evaluated with the aid of professional software. rigid bodies of flexible size can be analysed on a simple way.7 Computed Tomography XR 4. Reconstruction as an independent step: Reconstruction is the most important process step in computed tomography. Benefits ▪ Direct aquisition of the X-ray images by a direct X-ray direct digital image sensor: Experimentation under daylight conditions ▪ High-performance CMOS image sensors for the direct digital Xray radiography to create superior image quality. DVD-drive. Automatic identification of the connected devices of the XR 4.phywe. 4x USB 2. "CT scan". XR 4. high resolution. medical education and material sciences. Clear structure: ▪ The software is clearly divided into the 4 basic steps "Parameters".0 X-ray CT Z-rotation stage (XRstage) Function and Applications Rotating tabel to position samples e.Resolution 48 µm.z-viewer and 3D view ▪ This area shows the results of the reconstruction process. Reference experiments: ▪ The comprehensive collection of reference experiments and projects simplifies the selection of suitable experiments and can be used as a template for own experiment scripts/laboratory handbooks.0. 09057-40 Benefits Plug & measure: ▪ The intuitive user concept considerably simplifies the operation of the complex devices and puts the experiment into the focus of attention. for the CT application.y. x.Motorised ▪ plug&measure interface. Equipment and technical data ▪ Angle resolution < 1 degree. Microsoft ®Windows 7 64bit or higher. stepper motor with 4200 steps/360° 09057-42 14421-61 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Recommended System requirements: PC with at least an Intel Core i7 2600 (3. Visualisation of the devices: In the first steps. The data can now be evaluated with professional software that the students will encounter in their future daily work. Benefits ▪ Z-axis rotation of the sample to be analysed: Movement of the sample is not influenced by gravitational effects.com 291 . e. "Reconstruction". In order to facilitate these steps. Working directly without the need for specialist knowledge. and large active area images based on CMOS technology. KG · www.g.0 interface The includes the XRIS camera and USB-cable to connect it to the PC. Particularly suitable for experiments in lab courses and lectures in physics.4 Cores. 40GB free hard drive space. Function and Applications Digital X-ray camera to perform X-ray imaging (radiography). Double Control: ▪ Simultaneous operation via manual control or via a computer. the corresponding devices are displayed as virtual devices. Again. the anode current and voltage. numerous parameters play an important role during this step.Image depth 12 bit ▪ USB 2.0. and "3D view". While at the beginning of the measurement hardly anything can be discerned.13 X-ray Physics 13. As a result. and X-ray Computer Tomography (CT) experiments. even beginners can easily familiarise themselves with the topic.g. the contours become increasingly clear over time.4GHz) 8MB . CT scan with live reconstruction: ▪ Sectional images are reconstructed during the scanning process.

0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. Task 1. type B Main articles XR 4.e.04%/V Death time: approx.8 Related Experiments P2540010 Counter tube characteristics Pulse rate as a function of the counter tube voltage Principle The counter tube uses the ionising effect of high-energy radiation in order to measure the intensity of the radiation. 15 Pulse/min Diameter of housing: 22 mm Diameter of counter tube: 15 mm Counter tube length: 76 mm. Determine the counter tube characteristics of the type B counter tube that is used.magn.und Gamma-radiation. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Geiger-Müller counter tube quenching gas characteristics ionising radiation Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. Mass: 103 g 09005-00 excellence in science 292 . type B XR 4. The counter tube characteristics describe its working range. the voltage range in which it reliably counts the incoming particles.13 X-ray Physics 13. i..Beta. Density of Mica window:2. Benefits ▪ mounted in metal cylinder with fixed 500 mm long BNC-cable ▪ Including protection cap for countertube Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Mica window.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 1 mm Counter tube holder on fix. 09057-99 09057-80 09005-00 09057-01 09201-00 1 1 1 1 1 Function and Applications Self recovering Halogenid countertube for detection of Alpha.. Plateau slope: 0.3 mg/cm² Operation voltage: 500 V Plateau length: 200 V. 100 µs Zero rate: approx.

1°. for protecting the detectors ▪ Intuitive operation directly at the unit or via a PC Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Angular increment: 0. set of 3 XR 4. The associated interplanar spacings are determined based on the Bragg angles of the characteristic lines.100 s/increment Sample rotation range: 0. thereby.. Determine the intensity of the X-rays that are reflected by the NaCl monocrystals with the orientations [100]..0 X-ray NaCl-monocrystals. Benefits Self-calibrating goniometer Plug & measure: ▪ Automatic identification of the goniometer ▪ Goniometer block with two independent stepper motors for rotating the sample holder and the detector either separately or coupled in a 2:1 ratio ▪ The detector holder with a slit diaphragm holder for absorption foils can be moved in order to change the angular resolution ▪ Includes a light barrier system for limiting the permissible swivelling range and..com 293 . Tasks 1.0 X-ray Diaphragm tube d = 2 mm 09057-99 09057-10 09057-50 09058-01 14414-61 09005-00 09058-02 09057-02 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 09057-10 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. type B XR 4. Determine the lattice constant and calculate the interplanar spacing.0 X-ray goniometer Function and Applications Goniometer with two independent stepper motors for the precise angular positioning of a sample and detector.+170° Dimensions (cm): 35 x 30 x 20...0 Software measure X-ray Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.5.0 X-ray Univ. 4. Rate: 0. 3. crystal structures ▪ Reciprocal lattices. Bragg scattering XR 4.. [110].0 expert unit XR 4.. atomic form factor ▪ structure factor. 2. Miller indices.13 X-ray Physics 13.360° Detector rotation range: -10°.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. crystal holder f. Mass (kg): 5 Main articles XR 4.10°. and [111] as a function of the Bragg angle..0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.8 Related Experiments Examination of NaCl monocrystals P2541301 Intensity of the X-ray spectrum of copper as a function of the glancing angle theta: NaCl monocrystals with [111] crystal orientation as Bragg analyser Principle The spectra of the X-rays that are reflected with various different orientations by NaCl monocrystals are analysed. Assign the reflections to the corresponding lattice planes that are given by way of their respective Miller indices.phywe.x-ray-unit XR 4. energy levels. KG · www. Determine the mass of a cell and the number of atoms in the cell. What you can learn about ▪ Characteristic X-radiation.

equipment list.com 01200-02 excellence in science 294 .0 measure X-ray" includes presettings for the easy and direct execution of the experiment at the push of a button as well as numerous example measurements. chemistry. Compton scattering. ▪ For every experiment. The information provided is so comprehensive that no other background information is required.9 Literature Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments This documentation contains the following experiments: Counter tube characteristics P2540010 Radiographic examination of objects P2540020 Qualitative examination of the absorption of X-rays P2540030 Ionizing effect of X-radiation P2540040 Characteristic X-rays of copper P2540101 Characteristic X-rays of iron P2540301 The intensity of characteristic X-rays as a function of the anode current and anode voltage P2540401 Article no. ▪ Experiment matrix for quick orientation ▪ Operating instructions concerning the components of the XR 4. ▪ This simplifies the orientation and execution as well as the selection of the experiment parts for personalised laboratory experiments. A clear matrix simplifies the orientation in terms of scientific fields and topics.0 platform including detailed information ▪ DIN A4 format. material science. biology. 01200-02 Experiments with X-rays and their use in physics. and geology Description Comprehensive collection of reference experiments concerning the fundamental principles and use of X-rays in physics. medicine. chemistry. tasks.0 X-ray unit platform as a pool of ideas concerning the potential areas of application in demonstration and laboratory experiments. and geology with the XR 4. material science. medicine. fundamental principles. Topics ▪ Characteristic X-radiation / atomic structure / quantum physics and chemistry ▪ X-ray absorption. theory and evaluation with example results plus important notes concerning the operation and safety of the equipment. photo of the set-up. illustrated instructions concerning the set-up and procedure.13 X-ray Physics 13. Dosimetry ▪ Crystal structures/structural analysis with X-rays/Debye-Scherrer experiments (counting tube goniometer) ▪ Transirradiation experiments/non-destructive testing Features ▪ Experiment descriptions with clearly structured learning objectives. the software package "XRM 4. spiral-bound ▪ Colour print K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays / fine structure P2540801 Duane-Hunt displacement law and Planck's "quantum of action" P2540901 Characteristic X-ray lines of different anode materials / Moseley's law P2541001 Absorption of X-rays P2541101 K and L absorption edges of X-rays / Moseley's law and the Rydberg constant P2541201 Examination of the structure of NaCl monocrystals with dif-ferent orientations P2541301 Compton scattering of X-rays P2541701 X-ray dosimetry P2541801 Contrast medium experiment with a blood vessel model P2541901 Determination of length and position of an object which can not be seen P2542001 Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of powder samples with three cubic Bravais lattices (Bragg-Brentano-geometry) P2542101 Energy resolution of the X-ray energy detector P2544101 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy of metals Moseley's law P2544501 Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis of alloyed materials P2544601 Complete experiment list see www.phywe. biology.

14 Laser Physics .Photonics 14.8 14.4 14.com 295 .6 14.9 Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer Determination of the wavelength of laser light Holography LDA .Laser Doppler Anemometry Helium neon laser Optical pumping Nd:YAG laser Fibre optics Related Experiments 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.Photonics Laser Physics .5 14.3 14.1 14.7 14. KG · www.phywe.2 14.

12 V AC. TTL output to control peripheral devices ▪ power supply connector (4 mm jacks) 11415-95 08701-00 08702-93 08715-00 08700-00 11207-30 13505-93 08738-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Equipment and technical data ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Fork width: 70 mm. working frequency: 25 kHz External dimensions (mm): 160 x 25 x 105M6 Threaded holes in casing: 7.12 V DC/ 6 V. 2. Principle With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. Benefits ▪ 4 figureluminous display. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Temporal coherence Special relativity theroy Lorentz transformation Light barrier with counter Function and Applications With the function of an electronic time measuring and counting device. 2 channel He/Ne Laser... the alteration in the interference pattern is observed and the modulatione frequency is measured using the Doppler effect. Construction of a Michelson interferometer using seperate components. selection switch for 4 operating modes ▪ RESET key.. Counting: 0. 230 V Perforated disk w.. Usable barrier depth: 65 mm Sensitivity adjustable. BNC jack for exterior starting and/ or stopping of time measurement. Stem included: 100 mm. Tasks 1.Photonics 14. LED-Display: 4digits. tY. light is brought to interference. While moving one of the mirrors. Max.14 Laser Physics .9999 Supply voltage: 5 V DC.999 s.1 Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer P2221000 Doppler effect with the Michelson interferometer with optical base plate Resulting difference signal during interferometric measurement..drive Optical base plate with rubberfeet Light barrier with counter Power supply 0. M6 thread Main articles Recorder. 8 mm Time measurement: 0. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Interferometerplate w prec. driving belt 11207-30 excellence in science 296 ..9. Measurement of the Doppler effectvia uniform displacement of one ofthe mirrors.

▪ Digital display for preset shutter times as well as those which have already occured. Equipment and technical data ▪ With programmable timer for selection of exposure time of holograms between 0. the multibeam interference of a laser's light beam is investigated.00). stop and shutter open (permanent open). the change in the intensity distribution of the interference pattern is studied.. new start.com 297 . shutter with fixed connection cord with unit plug on holding rod.drive Plane mirror HR>99%.14 Laser Physics . The interferometeris used to observe different resonator modeswithin the interferometer. ▪ Incl. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Concave mirror OC. Tasks 1. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Wavelength Diffraction index Speed of light Phase Virtual light source Two-beam interferometer Power supply for laser head 5 mW Function and Applications High voltage power supply for lasers.1 . 08702-93 Main articles He/Ne Laser.4m. Construction of a Fabry-Perot interferometer using separate optical components. the 5 mW laser (08701.Photonics 14.r=1.mounted Optical base plate with rubberfeet Adjusting support 35 x 35 mm Surface mirror 30 x 30 mm 08701-00 08702-93 08711-03 08715-00 08711-02 08700-00 08711-00 08711-01 1 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. ▪ With a controllable shutter.T=1. g.. KG · www. On moving one of the mirrors. This is a qualitative experiment.2 Determination of the wavelength of laser light Fabry-Perot interferometer . ▪ Rod diameter: 10 mm. e.phywe. to study the shape of different lasermodes and compare it with some photos given in this desciption.7% Interferometerplate w prec. ▪ Shutter control via time select.wavelength of laser light with optical base plate P2221206 Intensity distribution of the Hermitian-Gaussian resonator modes. 99 s. Using them. ▪ Dimensions of plastic housing (mm): 184 x 140 x 130. Principle Two mirrors are assembled to form a Fabry-Pert Interferometer. 2.

Record a white light reflectionhologram and process it to get a phase hologram. 230 V Function and Applications A complete set to perform the following experiments using the experimental system "Advanced Optics" incl.and 2-dimensional setups can be quickly and reliably realised. 230 V xy shifting device 08701-00 08702-93 08700-01 08712-00 08746-00 08713-00 08747-88 08714-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 excellence in science 298 . Interference ▪ Diffraction.case Surface mirror. The hologram is reconstructed with the reference beam which was also used to record the hologram. a coherent light beam (laser light) is split into an object and a reference beam by being passed through a beam splitter. Developing of film Pin hole 30 micron Object for holography 08743-00 08749-00 1 1 Related Experiments Transfer hologram . By folding the lightpaths experiments with larger focal distances can be carried out on the working base. Holography package incl. To capture the three-dimensionality of an object.3 Holography P2260300 Recording and reconstruction of holograms with optical base plate Setup for recording and reconstruction of a transmission hologram. 08700-55 Main articles He/Ne Laser. transfer a hologram from a masterhologram. handbook "Holography" with 11 described experiments: white light holography. horizontal Darkroom equipment for holography. 1. transmission holography. 2.large. manual. These beams interfere in the plane of the holographic film. d=80 mm Holographic plates. Coherence.14 Laser Physics .Real time procedure P2260306 Advanced Optics. Tasks 1. Principle In contrast to normal photography a hologram can store information about the three-dimensionality of an object. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Optical base plate in exp. which can be positioned jolt-free. 25 pieces Sliding device. Reference beam. Real and virtual image ▪ Phase holograms. With the aid of a base plate and magnetic adhering holders. Laminate it for reconstruction by a white light source. Record a laser light hologram and process it to get a phase hologram. the film stores not only the amplitude but also the phase of the light rays. Amplitude holograms. What you can learn about ▪ Object beam.master hologram P2260305 Holography . To achieve this. Reconstruct it by verifying the virtual and the real image.Photonics 14.

. 1. band width for AC 200 Hz .. The frequency change of the scattered light is detected and converted into a particle or flow velocity.com 299 . 100.Photonics 14.. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Interference Doppler effect Scattering of light by small particles (Mie scattering) High. bandwidth for DC . KG · www.Laser Doppler Anemometry LDA . gain 1 . USB Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Optical base plate with rubberfeet Sliding device. horizontal LDA-Accessory-Set Control Unit for Si-Photodetector xy shifting device Pin hole 30 micron 08701-00 08702-93 12150-50 08735-00 08700-00 08713-00 08740-00 08735-99 08714-00 08743-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Function and Applications Silicon diode with high signal-to-noise ratio for photometric measurements where there is a high degree of interference. Equipment and technical data ▪ Movable holder for diode on round mounting rod with lens for incoming light. 60 kHz Output 3 (filter output).5/m lead with diode plug for connecting to the required control unit. 100.and low-pass filters Sampling theorem Spectral power density Turbulence Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Function and Applications Amplifier for silicon photodetector Equipment and technical data ▪ 3 BNC outputs: Output 1 (monitor output).10 kHz ▪ Input: 5-pole diode socket for silicon photodetector ▪ Connections +9 V ...4 LDA . Removable slot filter. Power consumption 1 W ▪ Impact-resistant plastic case (194 x 140 x 130) mm with carrying handle. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Cobra3 BASIC-UNIT. 08735-00 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. gain 1 . band width for AC 10 Hz . Includes 110-V/240-V power supply 08735-99 Main articles He/Ne Laser.phywe... gain 1. Tasks 1.laser Doppler anemometry with optical base plate P2260511 Measurement of the signal spectrum with a signal peak Principle Small particles in a current pass through the LDA measuring volume and scatter the light whose frequency is shifted by the Doppler effect due to the particle movement.14 Laser Physics .... 60 kHz Output 2 . Measurement of the light-frequency change of individual light beams which are reflected by moving particles... +12 V.

02. base plt. The following items can be realized with advanced set 08656. Gas discharge tube. Measure the beam diameter within the hemispherical resonator right and left of the laser tube. advanced set P2260705 excellence in science 300 . Finally you can demonstrate the existence of longitudinal modes and the gain profile of the He-Ne laser provided an analysing Fabry Perot system is at your disposal. Determine the divergence of the laser beam. Adjust the resonator mirrors by use of the pilotlaser. 3. Principle The difference between spontaneous and stimulated emission of light is demonstrated.5 Helium neon laser P2260701 Helium neon laser. Brewster angle Littrow prism. R = 700 mm) 2. Set up the He-Ne laser. 6. Cleaning set for laser Diffraction grating. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Spontaneous and stimulated light emission. 5. Tasks 1.Set-Helium-Neon Laser Sliding device. (left mirror: VIS. horizontal Protection glasses HeNe-laser Photoelement f. plane. Inversion Collision of second type. Fabry Perot Etalon Main articles Exp. right mirror: VIS. opt.Ne laser and its divergence are determined. Resonator cavity Transverse and longitudinal resonator modes Birefringence. Check on the stability condition of a hemispherical resonator. NiCr-Ni thermocouple Connection box Barrel base PHYWE Plate holder 08656-93 08713-00 08581-10 08734-00 08582-00 08546-00 07123-00 06030-23 02006-55 02062-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 Related Experiment Helium neon laser. its stability criterion is checked and the relative output power of the laser is measured as a function of the tube's position inside the resonator and of the tube current. HR. The beam propagation within the resonator cavity of a He. HR. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the tube current.14 Laser Physics . By means of a birefringent tuner and a Littrow prism different wavelengths can be selected and quantitatively determined if a monochromator is available. Measure the integral relative output power as a function of the laser tube's position within the hemispherical resonator. basic set Relative output power as a function of mirror spacing. 4.Photonics 14. 600 lines/mm DMM. auto range.

4. Benefits ▪ The power emitted by the laser diode can be measured as a function of the supply current. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Spontaneous emission Induced emission Mean lifetime of a metastable state Relaxation Inversion Diode laser Basic set optical pumping Sensor f. To measure the mean life-time of the 4F3/2-level of the Ndatoms.6 Optical pumping Optical pumping P2260800 Relative fluorescent power of the Nd-YAG rod as a function of the diode temperature (wavelength) for I = 450 mA. ▪ The fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG crystal is analysed and the main absorption lines of the Nd-Atoms are verified.6. 2 channels Protection glasses for Nd:Yag laser Digital multimeter 2010 Screened cable. Main articles Principle The visible light of a semiconductor diode laser is used to excite the neodymium atoms within a Nd-YAG (NeodymiumYttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod. Conclusively.09 "Nd-YAG laser". the mean life-time of the4F3/2-level of the Ndatoms is measured in approximation. measurem. The fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod is then determined and the maon absorption lines of the Nd-atoms are verified. of beam power Oscilloscope. 30 MHz.phywe. 08590-93 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. BNC. To trace the fluorescent spectrum of the Nd-YAG rod pumped by the diode laser and to verify the main absorption lines of neodymium. For further applications see experiment 2. 3. l 750 mm 08590-93 08595-00 11459-95 08581-20 07128-00 07542-11 1 1 1 1 1 3 Basic set optical pumping Function and applications The light from a lasersiode is used to excite neodymium atoms in a Nd:YAG crystal. ▪ Finally the half-life of the 4F3/2-level is estimated.com 301 . To determine the power output of the semiconductor diode laser as a function of the injection current.Photonics 14. KG · www. Tasks 1. The power output of the semiconductor diode laser is first recorded as a function of the injection current.14 Laser Physics . ▪ With only a small number of additional components it is possible to build a Nd:YAG laser with this system. 2.

doubling crystal in holder Nd-YAG laser cavity mirror/holder Laser cav. 2 channels Protection glasses for Nd:Yag laser Filter plate. Set up the Nd:YAG laser and optimise its power output. As lasing medium.7 Nd:YAG laser P2260900 Nd:YAG laser Nd-YAG laser power output as a function of the pump power = 808. 30 MHz. Principle The rate equation model for an optically pumped four-level laser system is determined. The quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave and the beam power for the second harmonic is then evident.mirror frequ. of beam power Oscilloscope. a KTP-crystal is inserted into the laser cavity and frequency doubling is demonstrated. Tasks 1. measurem. doubling Sensor f. What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Optical pumping Spontaneous emission Induced emission Inversion Relaxation Optical resonator Resonator modes Polarization Frequency doubling Main articles Basic set optical pumping Frequ. The IR-power output of the Nd:YAG laser is measured as a function of the optical power input and the slope efficiency as well as the threshold power are determined. 2. and the beam power of the second harmonic with lambda = 532 nm. with lambda = 1064 nm.4 nm. Verify the quadratic relationship between the power of the fundamental wave. The slope efficiency and the threshold power are to be determined. short pass type Cleaning set for laser Digital multimeter 2010 08590-93 08593-00 08591-01 08591-02 08595-00 11459-95 08581-20 08594-00 08582-00 07128-00 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 excellence in science 302 . 3. Finally.Photonics 14. a Nd:YAG (NeodymiumYttrium Aluminium Garnet) rod has been selected which is pumped by means of a semiconductor diode laser. The IR-power output of the Nd:YAG laser is to be measured as a function of the pump power.14 Laser Physics .

What you can learn about ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ ▪ Total reflection. BNC. l 750 mm 08662-93 11453-99 07542-11 1 1 2 Charles K. Measure the transit time of light through the fibre and determine the velocity of light within the fibre. 2-Kanal. Diode laser Gaussian beam Monomode and multimode fibre Numerical aperture Transverse and longitudinal modes Transit time. Measure the numerical aperture of the fibre. Threshold energy Slope efficiency. Couple the laser beam into the fibre and adjust the settingup in a way that a maximum of output power is achieved at the exit of the fibre.8 Fibre optics Fibre optics P2261000 Relative output power at the fibre end versus angle readout. Determine the relative output power of the diode laser as a function of the supply current. Nobel Prize in Physics PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. Demonstrate the transmission of a LF-signal through the fibre. 4. Principle The beam of a laser diode is treated in a way that it can be coupled into a monomode fibre. Velocity of light Main articles Experimental set Fibre optics Digital Storage Oszilloscope 200 MHz. Tasks 1. 2. The problems related to coupling the beam into the fibre are evaluated and verified. Kao 2009.phywe. 5.com 303 .2 GSa/s Screened cable. KG · www. The numerical aperture of the fibre is recorded. In consequence a low frequency signal is transmitted through the fibre.Photonics 14.14 Laser Physics . Finally the measurement of the relative output power of the diode laser as a function of the supply current leads to the characteristics of the diode laser such as "threshold energy" and "slope efficiency". 3. The transit time of light through the fibre is measured and the velocity of light within the fibre is determined.

Michelson interferometer. Quantum eraser with optical base plate Principle P2220800 A Mach-Zehnder-interferometer is illuminated with a laser beam. optical baseplate Principle P2220600 The wavelengths and the corresponding lengths of coherence of the green spectral lines of an extreme high pressure Hg vapour lamp are determined by means of a Michelson interferometer. An illuminated auxiliary adjustable slit acts as a non punctual light source. width of spectral lines. Different double slit combinations are illuminated to verify the coherence conditions of non punctual light sources.Photonics 14. Placing another polarizer before one of the screens causes the pattern to reappear. Substituting the air in a measurement cuvette located in one of the interferometer arms by CO2 gas allows to determine the index of refraction of CO2. Michelson interferometer with optical base plate Principle P2220705 Light is caused to interfere by means of a beam splitter and two mirrors according to Michelson's set up. For more details refer to page 171.14 Laser Physics . Refraction index of CO2. Electromagnetic radiation can be described both in terms of propagating waves. excellence in science 304 . If polarization filters with opposite polarization planes are placed in the two interferometer paths the interference patterns disappear. as well as particles (photons). The experiment illustrates this duality by showing how interference patterns can be explained on the basis of both classical wave mechanics and quantum physics. Circular interference fringes appear on the screens behind the interferometer. For more details refer to page 170. For more details refer to page 190.9 Related Experiments Coherence.

one can deduce the refraction index of air. the multibeam interference of a laser's light beam is investigated.phywe.14 Laser Physics . For more details refer to page 174. KG · www. For more details refer to page 172. By changing the pressure in a measuring cell located in the beam path. PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.Photonics 14. By moving one of the mirrors.High Resolution with optical base plate Principle P2220900 With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. the alterationin the interference pattern is observed and the wave length of the laser light determined. the change in the interference pattern is studied and the wavelength of the laser's light determined.wavelength of laser light with optical base plate Principle P2221205 Two mirrors are assembled to form a Fabry-Perot interferometer. Fabry-Perot interferometer . For more details refer to page 173. Refraction index of air.9 Related Experiments Michelson interferometer .com 305 . Mach-Zehnder interferometer with optical base plate Principle P2221100 Light is brought to interference by two mirrors and two beam splitters in the Mach-Zehnder arrangement. Using them. While moving one of the mirrors. light is brought to interference.

perpenicularly to its optical axis. For more details refer to pages 156. For more details refer to page 183. 218.The polarisation of exiting light is examined for different angles between the optical axis of the lambda/4 plate and the direction of polarisation of incident light.2f arrangement with optical base plate Principle P2261100 The electric field distribution of light in a specific plane (object plane) is Fourier transformed into the 2 f configuration. If the thickness of the plate is adequate (lambda/4 plate).9 Related Experiments Polarisation through quarter-wave plates with optical base plate Principle P2250105 Monochromatic light impinges on amica plate. For more details refer to page 180.14 Laser Physics . 182. Due to the magnetostrictive effect. and the change in the interference pattern is observed. Investigation of the Fourier transform by a convex lens for different diffraction objects in a 2 f set-up. Magnetostriction with the Michelson interferometer with optical base plate Principle P2430800 With the aid of two mirrors in a Michelson arrangement. one of the mirrors is shifted by variation in the magnetic field applied to a sample. Fourier optics . Task 1. excellence in science 306 .Photonics 14. a phase shift of 90° occurs between the ordinary and the extraordinary beam when the latter leaves the crystal. light is brought to interference.

15 Indices Indices 15.phywe.1 15.2 Numerical index Alphabetical index 308 311 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. KG · www.com 307 .

304 181.Pohl's… Moment of inertia / Steiner's theorem Moments of inertia of different bodies /… Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus Moments of inertia and torsional vibrations Propagation of a periodically excited… Phase velocity of rope waves / waves of wires Wave phenomena in a ripple tank Interference and diffraction of water… Density of liquids Surface of rotating liquids Viscosity of Newtonian and non-Newtonian… Viscosity measurement with the falling… Surface tension with the ring method (Du… Barometric height formula Velocity of sound in air with Universal… Acoustic Doppler effect with universal… Chladni figures Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube Velocity of sound using Kundt's tube… Wavelengths and frequencies with a… Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz… Resonance frequencies of Helmholtz… Optical determination of the velocity of… Phase and group velocity of ultrasound in… Temperature dependence of the velocity of… Stationary ultrasonic waves -… Absorption of ultrasound in air Ultrasonic diffraction at different… Ultrasonic diffraction at different… Diffraction of ultrasonic waves at a pin… Ultrasonic diffraction at a Fresnel zone… Interference by two identical ultrasonic… Interference of ultrasonic waves by a… Determination of the ultrasonic velocity… Ultrasonic Michelson interferometer Ultrasonic diffraction by a straight edge Ultrasonic Doppler effect Ultrasonic Doppler effect with Cobra4 Measuring the velocity of light Measuring the velocity of light using the… Law of lenses and optical instruments Dispersion and resolving power of a prism… Page 27 30. 305 181.… Moments Modulus of elasticity Mechanical hysteresis Hooke's law with Cobra3 Hooke's law with Cobra4 Newton's 2nd law / air track Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration track Newton's 2nd law/ air track with Cobra3 Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration… Newton's 2nd law/ demonstration… Laws of collision/ air track Laws of collision/ demonstration track… Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra3 Laws of collision/ demonstration track… Laws of collision/ air track with Cobra4… Free fall Free fall with Cobra3 Free fall (interface version with Cobra4)… Determination of the gravitational… Projectile motion Ballistic pendulum Moment of inertia and angular… Moment of inertia and angular… Moment of inertia and angular… Moment of inertia and angular… Moment of inertia and angular… Moment and angular momentum Centrifugal force Centrifugal force. 164 Art no. 165 166 166 167 168 169 169 170. 58 47. 127 95.2f arrangement with… Fourier optics . 303 180. 106 98 97.laser Doppler anemometry with… Helium neon laser. 305 174. P1198860 P1199560 P1199660 P1221300 P1223200 P1253500 P1350060 P1350160 P1350260 P1500060 P2110100 P2120100 P2120200 P2120300 P2130111 P2130160 P2130301 P2130305 P2130311 P2130315 P2130360 P2130501 P2130505 P2130511 P2130515 P2130560 P2130701 P2130711 P2130760 P2130901 P2131100 P2131200 P2131301 P2131305 P2131311 P2131315 P2131360 P2131500 P2131601 P2131611 P2131800 P2131900 P2132000 P2132100 P2132200 P2132301 P2132311 P2132360 P2132511 P2132560 P2132660 P2132701 P2132711 P2132760 P2132801 P2132860 P2133000 P2133100 P2133200 P2133300 P2133400 P2133500 P2140100 P2140200 P2140300 P2140400 P2140500 P2140700 P2150305 P2150405 P2150501 P2150601 P2150605 P2150702 P2150811 P2150860 P2151000 P2151100 P2151200 P2151300 P2151400 P2151515 P2151615 P2151715 P2151800 P2151915 P2152000 P2152115 P2152200 P2152300 P2152415 P2152460 P2210101 P2210111 P2210200 P2210300 Description Uniformly accelerated motion on an inclined… Impulse and momentum with Cobra 4 Conservation of momentum during central… Ferromagnetism. 233 44. 130 125.15 Indices 15. 103 84. 234 124. 108 85 83 86. 306 180 101 102 82. basic set Helium neon laser.theory of… Fresnel's law . 177 178 179 179 159 159 159 160 160 183 183. 233 43. 300 300 215. complete set… Mechanical conservation of energy /… Laws of gyroscopes / 3-axis gyroscope Laws of gyroscopes / cardanic gyroscope Mathematical pendulum Reversible pendulum Variable g pendulum Variable g pendulum with Cobra3 Variable g pendulum with Cobra4 Coupled pendula with Cobra3 Coupled pendula with Cobra4 Harmonic oscillations of spiral springs -… Forced oscillations .1 Numerical index Art no. 33 155 82 41 82 82 82 93. 129 132 132 97.Cobra 3 Photometric invers-square law . 105 96. 304 171 171. 305 296 173.master hologram Holography . 99 99 121.High… Doppler effect with the Michelson… Refraction index of air with the… Fabry-Perot interferometer -… Fabry-Perot interferometer -… Diffraction at a slit and… Diffraction at a slit and… Diffraction of light at a slit and an… Diffraction of light at a slit and at an… Intensity of diffractions due to pin hole… Diffraction intensity due to multiple… Diffraction of light through a double… Diffraction intensity at slit and double… Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a… Diffraction intensity at a slit and at a… Photometric inverse-square law Photometric inverse-square law .Pohl's pendulum Forced oscillations . 109 92. 184 185 186 187 137. 100 88 89 89. 191 175 175 176 177 161. paramagnetism and… The gas laws of Boyle-Mariotte. 108 26 41 42. 130 122 123. 302 162. 190 172. 306 183 184 162. 109 94 94 94 96. 47 29 46 31 32 34 34 34 34 34 35 36 36 37 38 39 58 47. P2220100 P2220200 P2220205 P2220300 P2220400 P2220500 P2220505 P2220600 P2220700 P2220705 P2220800 P2220900 P2221000 P2221100 P2221205 P2221206 P2230100 P2230105 P2230200 P2230205 P2230300 P2230400 P2230405 P2230500 P2230600 P2230605 P2240201 P2240211 P2240260 P2240400 P2240405 P2250100 P2250105 P2250200 P2250300 P2250305 P2250400 P2250505 P2260100 P2260106 P2260300 P2260305 P2260306 P2260511 P2260701 P2260705 P2260800 P2260900 P2261000 P2261100 P2261200 P2310200 P2310300 P2320115 P2320160 P2320201 P2320211 P2320260 P2320300 P2320400 P2320500 P2320600 P2330101 P2330111 P2330160 P2330200 P2330260 P2340100 P2340200 P2340300 P2340400 P2350101 P2350115 P2350160 P2350200 P2360100 P2360200 P2360360 P2360401 P2360415 P2360460 P2410101 P2410115 P2410160 P2410200 P2410401 P2410415 P2410460 P2410500 P2410601 P2410660 P2410700 P2410800 P2410901 P2410915 P2410960 Description Interference of light Newton's rings with interference filters Newton's rings with optical base plate Interference at a mica plate according to… Structure of a Fresnel zone / zone plate Michelson interferometer with optical… Michelson interferometer with optical… Coherence and width of spectral lines… Refraction index of air and CO2 with the… Refraction index of CO2 with the… Quantum eraser with optical base plate Michelson interferometer .4f arrangement -… Thermal expansion in solids Thermal expansion in liquids Equation of state for ideal gases with Cobra3 Equation of state for ideal gases with… Heat capacity of gases Heat capacity of gases with Cobra3 Heat capacity of gases with Cobra4 Maxwellian velocity distribution Thermal equation of state and critical point Adiabatic coefficient of gases -… Joule-Thomson effect Heat capacity of metals Heat capacity of metals with Cobra3 Heat capacity of metals with Cobra4 Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical equivalent of heat with Cobra4 Vapour pressure of water at high temperature Vapour pressure of water below 100°C -… Boiling point elevation Freezing point depression Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation… Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation… Stefan-Boltzmann's law of radiation… Thermal and electrical conductivity of metals Solar ray collector Electric compression heat pump Heat insulation / heat conduction Stirling engine with an oscilloscope Stirling engine with Cobra3 Stirling engine with Cobra4 4 Point Method / Measurement of low… Ohm's law with Cobra3 Ohm's law with Cobra4 Wheatstone bridge Temperature dependence of different… Temperature dependence of different… Temperature dependance of different… Kirchhoff's laws Current balance/ force acting on a… Current balance / Force acting on a… Semiconductor thermogenerator Peltier heat pump Characteristic curves of a solar cell Characteristic curves of semiconductors… Characteristic curves of semicconductor… Page 161. 59 59 59 60 60 61 62 62 62 40. 107 99 97. 131 125 excellence in science 308 .Real time procedure LDA .… Torque Charles' law Amontons law Boyle's law Cooling by evacuation Measurement of basic constants: length. 45 40 63 45 65 69 66 67 48 49 50 51 52 53. 109 89 90 90 84.theory of reflection… Malus' law Polarimetry with optical base plate Faraday effect with optical profile bench Faraday effect with optical base plate Recording and reconstruction of holograms… Transfer hologram . 301 234.Cobra 4 Lambert's law Lambert's law of radiation on… Polarisation through quarter-wave plates… Polarisation through quarter-wave plates… Polarimetry Fresnel's equations . 129 128 128 128 123. 233 44 27 27 27 27 27 33 33 33 33 33 29 29. 33 30. 100 87. advanced set Optical pumping Nd:YAG laser Fibre optics Fourier optics . 297 191 181.Pohl's… Forced oscillations . 187 298 298 298 299 215. 130 122. 96 82 85 85. 104 91. 84 68 70 64 71 71 72 73 73 74 75 75 77 77 76 76 76 77 77 77 77 77 77 78 78 158 158 163 161.

46 30 188 56 56 110 294 188 41 52 43 37 46 39 38 72 68 88 86 95. 278 182. 289 290 54 54 80. 279 225. KG · www.energy-dispersive direct… Energy-dispersive measurements of K. Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 2 Handbook Glass jacket system Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments Multimedia Demo Lab for demonstration… Moments disk Torsion dynamometer.com 309 . 270 211. 500 ml High insulation house e/m . 115. 231 200 200 200 200 27 29. 193 194 195 196 196 208 209 209 198. 248 249 250 251 220. 117 126.Observation Chamber Helmholtz coils. Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 1 Physics. 46 36 36 29. 133 134 134. 224 224. Electrolysis… Electric fields and potentials in the… Charging curve of a capacitor / charging… Switch-on behaviour of a capacitor and an… Capacitance of metal spheres and of a… Coulomb's law / image charge Coulomb potential and Coulomb field of… Dielectric constant of different materials Determination of the earth's… Magnetic field of single coils/… Magnetic field of single coils/… Magnetic field of single coils/… Magnetic field of paired coils in a… Magnetic field of paired coils in a… Magnetic field of paired coils in a… Magnetic moment in the magnetic field Magnetic field outside a straight conductor Magnetic field inside a conductor Magnetic field inside a conductor with… Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra3 Ferromagnetic hysteresis with Cobra4 Magnetostriction with the Michelson… Transformer Magnetic induction Magnetic induction with the FG module and… Magnetic Induction with Cobra4 Inductance of solenoids Inductance of solenoids with Cobra3 Inductance of solenoids with Cobra4 Coil in the AC circuit Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra3 and… Coil in the AC circuit with Cobra4 Capacitor in the AC circuit Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra3… Capacitor in the AC circuit with Cobra4 RLC circuit RLC circuit with Cobra3 and the FG module RLC circuit with Cobra4 Rectifier circuits RC filters High-pass and low-pass filters with… High-pass and low-pass filters with the… Resistance. 278 224. 270 275 212.Tunneling… Roughness and nanomorhology of different… Counter tube characteristics with XR 4. 127 131 120 127 235 139 141 141 140 141 156 192 215 216 202 247 252 221 239 Art no.0… Radiographic examination of objects Qualitative examination of absorption Characteristic X-rays of copper Characteristic X-rays of molybdenum Characteristic X-rays of iron The intensity of characteristic X-rays as… Monochromatisation of molybdenum Monochromatisation of copper X-rays K alpha double splitting of molybdenum… K alpha doublet splitting of iron X-rays… Duane-Hunt displacement law and… Characteristic X-ray lines of different… Absorption of X-rays K and L absorption edges of X-rays /… Examination of the structure of NaCl… X-ray of cubic crystal structures /… X-ray investigation of hexagonal crystal… X-ray investigation of crystal structures… X-ray of crystal structures/Laue method… Compton scattering of X-rays X-ray dosimetry Contrast medium experiment with a blood… Determination of length and position of… Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of… Debye-Scherrer diffractions pattern of… Debye-Scherrer diffraction patterns of… Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of… Debye-Scherrer diffraction pattern of… Diffraction measurements to determine the… Debye-Scherrer diffraction measurements… Characteristic X-rays of tungsten X-ray energy spectroscopy . Manual Physics. P2532500 P2533000 P2533500 P2535000 P2537000 P2540010 P2540020 P2540030 P2540101 P2540201 P2540301 P2540401 P2540501 P2540601 P2540701 P2540801 P2540901 P2541001 P2541101 P2541201 P2541301 P2541401 P2541501 P2541601 P2541602 P2541701 P2541801 P2541901 P2542001 P2542101 P2542201 P2542301 P2542401 P2542501 P2542601 P2542701 P2542801 P2544001 P2544101 P2544201 P2544501 P2544601 P2544701 P2544801 P2544901 P2545001 P2545101 P2545201 P2546001 P2546101 P2546201 P2546301 P2550100 P5140100 P5142100 P5160100 P5160200 P5160300 P5160700 P5160800 P5160900 P5942100 P5942200 P5942300 P5942400 P6000360 P6000460 P6000560 P6000660 P6000760 P6000860 01151-02 01152-02 01153-02 01196-12 01200-02 02190-93 02270-00 02416-00 02421-88 02425-00 02540-00 02550-00 02555-00 03482-00 03543-00 04361-00 04364-10 04366-00 04368-00 04401-10 04507-93 06959-01 06960-00 07616-00 08163-93 Description Investigate in surface atomic structures… Nanoscale workfunction measurements by… Nanoscale electrical charakteristics of… Quantum Mechanics by STM . Magnet Board Optics.phywe. 221 221 221 221 221 236. Exp. 267 213. 288 226. 136 136 138. incl. phase shift and power in AC… Induction impulse Induction impulse with Cobra4 Coupled resonant circuits Forced oscillations of a nonlinear… Elementary charge and Millikan experiment Specific charge of the electron e/m Franck-Hertz experiment with a Hg tube Franck-Hertz experiment with a Ne tube Planck's "quantum of… Planck's "quantum of… Fine structure: one and two electron spectra Balmer series/ determination of… Atomic spectra of two-electron system: He. 118. 222 223. complete Maxwell wheel Cavendish balance / computerized Gyro. 279 225. 289 228.Kamiocan Alpha energies of different sources with… Rutherford experiment with the digital… Rutherford experiment with MCA Fine structure of the alpha spectrum of… Study of the alpha energies of Ra-226… Energy loss of alpha particles in gases… Electron absorption Beta spectroscopy Inverse-square law and absorption of gamma… Energy dependence of the gamma absorption… Compton effect with the multi-channel… Internal conversion in 137m Ba with Multi… Photonuclear cross-section/ Compton… X-ray fluorescence and Moseley's law… Hall effect in p-germanium (with the… Hall effect in p-germanium with Cobra3 Hall effect in p-germanium (with Cobra4) Hall effect in n-germanium (with the… Hall effect in n-germanium (with Cobra3) Band gap of germanium Band gap of germanium (with Cobra3) Atomic Resolution of the graphite… Page 116. Flammersfeld Calorimeter vessel. 118 119 113 114 120. 134 135 137. 270 214. 279 279 280 213. Handb. Magnus type. Quincke type Measuring microphone with amplifier Joule-Thomson apparatus Critical point apparatus Thermogenerator with 2 water baths Gas oscillator. 126 112. 279 225.calibration… Energy resolution of the X-ray energy… Inherent fluorescence radiation of the… Qualitative X-ray fluorescence… Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… Qualitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… Quantitative X-ray fluorescence analysis… X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy / layer… Compton effect . 277 272 273 225. Gyroscope with 3 axes Interference tube. 219 87 89 107 193 139 119 250 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.electrolysis… Second order conductors.01 N Torsion apparatus. 270 271 274 213. 267 213. two stage.1 Numerical index Art no. 198 199 199 197 197. 133 133. 203 244 244 244 245 245 261 262 246 247 216. 267 282 283 284 285 285 285 285 285 286 286 287 205. one pair Wimshurst machine Diaphragm pump.and… Determination of the lattice constants of… Duane-Hunt displacement law Computed tomography Mechanics of flow Flow Measurement Ultrasonic Doppler effect Velocity of ultrasound in solid state… Basic principles of ultrasonic echography… Basic principles of ultrasonic echography… Frequency dependence of resolution power… Attenuation of ultrasound in solid state… Shear waves in solid state materials Basic principles in Nuclear Magnetic… Relaxation times in Nuclear Magnetic… Spatial encoding in Nuclear Magnetic… Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) I Uniformly accelerated motion caused by an… Free fall with air friction with Cobra4 Centripetal acceleration with Cobra4 Centripetal force with Cobra4 Free Fall: determination of the… Newton's law with Cobra 4 and… Phys. 270 206. 253 254 204 255 256 210 221 138. P2411100 P2411200 P2411315 P2411360 P2420100 P2420201 P2420260 P2420300 P2420401 P2420500 P2420600 P2430100 P2430201 P2430215 P2430260 P2430301 P2430315 P2430360 P2430400 P2430500 P2430600 P2430605 P2430711 P2430760 P2430800 P2440100 P2440201 P2440215 P2440260 P2440301 P2440311 P2440360 P2440401 P2440411 P2440460 P2440501 P2440515 P2440560 P2440601 P2440611 P2440660 P2440700 P2440801 P2440905 P2440915 P2441101 P2441211 P2441260 P2450201 P2450301 P2510100 P2510200 P2510311 P2510315 P2510402 P2510502 P2510600 P2510700 P2510800 P2511001 P2511005 P2511006 P2511007 P2511101 P2511111 P2511200 P2511300 P2520101 P2520111 P2520160 P2520311 P2520360 P2520400 P2520800 P2522015 P2522101 P2522115 P2522215 P2522315 P2522415 P2523100 P2523200 P2524101 P2524215 P2524415 P2524515 P2524615 P2524715 P2530101 P2530111 P2530160 P2530201 P2530211 P2530401 P2530411 P2532000 Description Characteristic curve and efficiency of a… Faraday's law Second order conductors . 230 80. 281 205. 0. 288 258. 137. 279 225. 220V Page 239 239 240 241 241 257. 289 227. Hg Zeeman effect with an electromagnet Zeeman effect with an electromagnet and… Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic system Zeeman effect with a variable magnetic… Stern-Gerlach experiment (classical version) Stern-Gerlach experiment with a stepper… Electron spin resonance Electron diffraction Half-life and radioactive equilibrium Half-life and radioactive equilibrium… Half-life and radioactive equilibrium… Poisson's and Gaussian distribution… Poisson's and Gaussian distribution… Visualisation of radioactive particles… Cosmic Muon Lifetime measurement . 267 268 269 269 214. 276 182.15 Indices 15. 142 143 143 143 145 145 145 146 146 146 147 147 147 148 148 148 149 150 151 151 152 144 144 153 154 115. 229 79 79 79 80. 155 138.

Aluminium. 08180-93 08181-93 08283-00 08493-93 08557-00 08590-93 08700-00 08700-55 08700-88 08701-00 08702-93 08715-00 08733-00 08735-00 08735-99 09005-00 09007-00 09043-93 09046-93 09047-50 09050-00 09057-10 09057-40 09057-42 09057-48 09057-50 09057-60 09057-80 09057-99 09058-07 09058-30 09101-00 09101-93 09103-00 09104-00 09105-99 09500-99 09600-99 09613-00 09700-99 11006-01 11030-93 11061-00 11202-17 11207-30 11229-10 11260-10 11260-99 11305-00 11330-00 11444-93 11500-10 12601-00 12642-00 12670-00 13500-93 13505-93 13520-93 13530-93 13601-99 13606-99 13610-93 13617-93 13620-93 13625-93 13626-93 13650-93 13654-99 13662-97 13670-93 13672-93 13715-93 13727-99 13900-00 13903-99 13920-99 13921-05 13921-99 13923-99 14411-61 14414-61 14414-62 14421-61 14440-62 16001-02 18220-00 18223-99 30505-88 32246-93 35635-02 35731-93 45016-00 Description Laser. 230 V Power supply -2op-. 83 26 251 140 91 113. 280 223. 241 242 145 69 70 28 35. 284 291 55 28 51 50 126 103 164 104 48 excellence in science 310 .5 meters Linear Levitation Track. 0. 275 281.0 mW. 232 298 173 166. 2x15V/2A Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Universal Counter Geiger-Müller-Counter Teslameter. digital Temperature meter digital.2/1.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XR 4.12 VDC/ 6 V. 15 . 218 172 187 178. 230 V AC Laser. 118 65 53. 2 meters Light barrier with counter Ballistic Unit External vibration generator for ripple… Ripple Tank with LED-light source. 5mW with holder Power supply for laser head 5 mW Interferometerplate with precision drive Faraday modulator for optical base plate Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. 257 257 260 260 253 202 211. 40 31 67 66 28 135 150 112 93 61 116 117 49.600 VDC Work and power meter Multi channel analyser Ultrasound operation unit Goniometer Operation Unit Ultrasonic generator Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique Software Speed of Light Meter XR 4. 299 299 214.. 0. 177 156.40mm Laboratory motor. 45 x 45 cm PJ45.… Demo advanced Physics Manual Linear… Falling ball viscometer Rotary viscometer. PJ… Diffusion cloud chamber. 246 78 76 74 230 79.… Radioactive sources.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4.000 mPas.2. 168 185 102 171 301 174. 152 204. 230 V AC Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Immersion thermostat Alpha A.300 turns. Holography package incl.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. 1.… Collection of interferometers with 1 mW… He/Ne Laser.0 Software measure LabVIEW (TM)… XR 4. type B Geiger-Mueller Counter tube.12 VAC. length: 70 cm Difference amplifier Electric field meter Cobra4 Wireless-Link Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity. 220 V AC Car. 1.1 MHz Digital Function Generator. 4-2 DC measuring amplifier LF amplifier. 0-10 kV Power supply. 45 mm Diffusion cloud chamber 80 x 80 cm. complete Demonstration Track. 258 71 121 154 64. incl.0 Software measure CT Software "Measure Dynamics". Air… Power supply..x-ray… XR 4. He-Ne.000. USB. He-Ne.0 X-ray Direct Digital Image Sensor… XR 4.… Power supply for spectral lamps High voltage supply unit. motor driven Air track rail.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4. 136 167 115 277 98.… TESS Electrochemical measurement set Heating apparatus for glass jacket system Spectrometer / goniometer with vernier Magnetic stirrer Westphal / Mohr density balance Page 160. set ESR resonator with field coils XR 4. 186 165.0 Software measure X-ray XR 4.15 Indices 15. 229 54 158 222. 282 255 256 248 252 195 201 238. 230 V Michelson interferometer Basic set optical pumping Optical base plate with rubberfeet Advanced Optics. for Compact… Compact-Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Induction coil.. universal Power supply 0. 291 291 272 212 278 274 271 273 227..0 mW.0 X-ray CT Z-rotation stage (XRstage) XR 4. 220 V Universal measuring amplifier Power frequency generator.0 X-ray Implant model f.1 Numerical index Art no. 240 238.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) Gamma detector Operating unit for gamma detector Container for nuclear physical experiments Beta-spectroscope Franck-Hertz control unit Compact magnetic resonance tomograph… Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Set samples nanomorphology.dia.0 expert unit XR 4. 10 Hz .0 Mobile X-ray Lab XR 4.

2 Alphabetical index A A. 210. Holography package incl. 103. 37. 240 75 98 253. 99 163 66 95. 149 83 117 40. 141. 147 96. 126. 131 73 64 52 298 68 28 176 290 246. 222. 306 84. 285 27 29. 106. 120 70 128 84. 96. 155. 274. 241 118. 275 209. Gamma-particles Amontons' law Amount of substance Amplitude Amplitude holograms Analyser Analyzer Angle of scattering Angular acceleration Angular frequency Angular momentum Angular restoring force Angular restoring moment Angular restoring torque Angular velocity Anode Antineutrino Apparent force Artefacts Atomic beam Atomic energy level scheme Atomic form factor Atomic number Atomic scattering factor Atomic Structures and Arrangements Attenuation coefficient Auger effect Avalanche effect Average velocity Avogadro´s number Axis of rotation 146. impedance Absorption Absorption coefficient Absorption coefficient of ultrasonic waves Absorption edges Absorption factor Absorption inverse square law Absorption of X-rays Acceleration Acceleration due to gravity Acceleration of gravity Acceptors Acoustic resonant circuit Acoustic vibrations Adhesion Advanced Optics. 304 286. 225 203 182. 271. 129. 109 98 124. 247 40. 60 62 32. 122. 231 54 290 60 76 220. 62 153 205. 212. 500 ml Capacitance Capacitance of a plate capacitor Capacitor Car. 96. 199. 141. 211. 45 45 63 34. 106 282. 106 215. 129 248 253 27. 104 61 116 93 138. 221 153 148 153 53. 72 298 185 183. 130. 125. 127 149 91. 253 261 252 250 211. 36. 2 meters Airy disk Algorithms Alpha energy Alpha-. 125. 142. 224 274 225.… Compact-Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) Compact-Scanning Tunneling Microscope (STM) Compressibility Compressor Compton effect Compton scattering Compton wavelength Computed tomography Concave Concave lens Concentration ratio Condensation Conduction band Conduction of heat Conduction processes in semiconductors Conductivity Conductor Connection between the fine structure of the… Conservation of angular momentum Conservation of energy Conservation of energy and momentum Conservation of momentum Conservation of parity Constant-Height and Constant-Current Mode Constant-Height and Constant-Current-Mode Contact resistance Container for nuclear physical experiments Contrast medium Control Unit for Si-Photodetector Convection Conversion electron Conversion of heat Convex lens Convex lense Cooling capacity Coplanar forces Copper Cornu's spiral Corpuscle Cosmic radiation Coulomb field Coulomb forces Coulomb's law 89 114. 119. 208 40. 239. 254 77 213. manual. 284. 206. 103. 176 170. 143 173 96. 216 198. 109 64 123. 269 279 258. 254. 252. 141 215. 270. KG · www. 84 246. 100 117 58. 103 239 196 193 46 46 73 216. 247 216. 228.C. 287 128. 279. 277 226.15 Indices 15. 280 239 251 286. 267. incl. 35. 279 284 182. 247 35. 223 225. 241 138. 213 300 185 240 C B Babinet's theorem Ballistic pendulum Ballistic Unit Ballistics Band Gap Band spacing Band structure Band theory Band-pass filter Band-width Bandwidth Barometric height formula Barrier layer Basic set Basic set optical pumping Basic Set Ultrasonic echoscope Basic set: Ultrasonic Doppler technique Beam hardening Beat Bessel function Beta-decay Beta-deflection Beta-spectroscope Bethe formula Binding energies Binding energy Biot-Savart's law Birefringence Black body radiation Bode diagram Bohr magneton Bohr model Bohr's atomic model Bohr's magneton Boiling point Boyle temperature Bragg equation Bragg reflection Bragg scattering Bragg-Brentano Geometry Bragg's law Bravais lattice Calorimeter vessel. 223. 234 255 97. 249 261 82. 256 205. 282 182. 49 36 60. 224.phywe. 227 Bremsstrahlung Brewster angle Brewster's law Brillouin Zone 205. 118. 92. 134. 292 117. 306 216. 213 253. 206. 106. 225. 222. 304 170. 288 33 253 241 236. 234 41 212 77 204 261 216. 168. 288 290 66 163 91. 216 212. 280.com 311 . 235 161. 196. 275 198. 100 206. 270. 283 121. motor driven Carbon film resistor Carnot cycle Catalysis Cathode Cathode rays Cavendish balance Cavendish balance / computerized Cavity resonator Central force Centre of gravity Centrifugal force Centripetal force Characteristic frequency Characteristic impedance Characteristic X-radiation Characteristic X-rays Characteristics Charge Charge carrier generation Charge Density Waves Charging Charging capacitor Chemical potential Chladni figures Circuit Circular motion Circularly and elliptically polarised light Clausius-Clapeyron equation Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Force ± 4 N Cobra4 Sensor-Unit Weather: Humidity. 45 76. 179 32 31 31 240 138. 211 198. 37 196 253 36 290 197. 114 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 300 241 201 242 238. 89. 205. 47 27 124. 38. 247 113. 229. 130. 39. 184. 199. 239 121. 221 240. 276 182. 130 123. 215. 227. 109 86. 213. 92. 287 166 138. 45 36. 131 96. Beta-. 209. 212.… Air pressure variation Air track rail. 211 257. 119. 300 94 151 197. 130 248 272 299 95. 288 204. 122. 210 133. 119 128 239. 148 120. 169. 33 205. 151 35 183. 215 84. 249 271 301 79. 304 170. 199. Air… Cobra4 Wireless-Link Coercive field strength Coherence Coherence conditions Coherence length for non punctual light sources Coherence time Coherent and incoherent photon scattering Coherent light Coil Collection of interferometers with 1 mW… Collector equations Collision of second type Commensurability Compact magnetic resonance tomograph (MRT). 147. 199. 235 112.

246. 232 113. 187. 182. 195. 117. 113.Observation Chamber Earth's magnetic field Ebullioscopic constants Edge absorption Efficiency Efficiency rating Eigen-modes Elastic collision Elastic loss Elasticity Electric charge Electric constant Electric field Electric field constant Electric field meter Electric field strength Electric flow Electric flux Electric theory of light Electrical conductivity Electrical eddy field Electrode polarisation Electrolysis Electrolyte Electromagnetic field interaction Electromagnetic theory of light Electromagnetism Electron capture Electron charge Electron collision Electron concentration in gases Electron diffraction Electron in crossed fields Electron mass Electron oscillation Electron spin Electronic oscillation Electrostatic induction Electrostatic induction constant Electrostatic potential Energiy dispersive Energy ceiling Energy detectors Energy dose Energy level Energy level diagram (decay diagram) Energy of rotation Energy of translation Energy quantum Energy term symbols Energy-band diagram Eötvös equation Equation of adiabatic change of slate Equation of state Equation of state for ideal gases Equations of state Equilibrium Equilibrium spacing Equipotential lines Equivalent dose and ion dose and their rates Escape peaks ESR resonator with field coils Evaluation Evaporation Exchange energy Excitation energy Excited nuclear states Expected value of pulse rate Exponential function Extension and compression External photo effect External photoelectric effect External vibration generator for ripple tank… Extrinsic conduction Extrinsic conductivity 193 137. 209 248 245 118. 291 132 136 26 98 46 145 62 148 62 65 244 113. 279 124. 153 149 162. 277 284 202 222. 235 120. 86. 299 70. 131 52 87. 120. 127. 230 V Diffusion cloud chamber. 138. 59 116. incl. 187. 130. 206. 300 174. 45 x 45 cm PJ45. 99. 175. 252 115. 235 113. 126. 193 194. PJ 80. 100. 120 258. 251 48 66 256 298 26 250 120. 233 91. 280 114 136 151 97. 1. 51 137. 108 86. 117. Cobra4… Diode and Zener diode Diode laser Direct energy conversion Direct imaging sensor Directional quantization Discharging Disintegration or decay constant Disintegration product Dispersion Dissipation factor Donors Doping of semiconductors Doppler effect Doppler shift of frequency Dosimeter Double refraction Doublets Droplet method Du Nouy method Dulong Petit's law Duration Duration of oscillation Dynamic and kinematic viscosity 252 173 303 e/m . 115 158 112 113 114 113 185 96. 124. 234 64. 219 281. 232 220. 224. 108 53. 97. 233 114 113. 181. Aluminium. 131 234 182. 126. 97. 182.2 Alphabetical index Coulometry Counter tube Counting rate Couple Coupled pendula Critical or optimum coupling Critical point Critical point apparatus Cryoscopic constants Cryoscopy Crystal classes Crystal lattices Crystal structures Crystal systems CT table Current Current density Curvature Cycle 117 251 244 41 60 153 52. USB. 92. 106 95. 283. 114 227. 125. 224. 109 203 279 220. 114. 261 47. 136. 192. 301. 269. 249. 108 28 28 75. 172. 206. 127 244 244 161. 280 48 208. 291 197. 225. 105 260 260 124. 235 112. 223. 199. 283 67. 141 51 271. 182. 284. 109 182. two stage. 281. 258 203 191 204 245 89. 221 215. 216 118. 187. 156. 105 143 116. 161. 131 116. 84 85. 230 V Diffusion potential Digital Function Generator. 164 153 124. 215. 198. 298 209 138. 287 excellence in science 312 . 177 67 208 191 96. 213. 208. 249. 102 112. 195. 131 42. 125. 127 44. 99 85. 285. 274 282. 209 248 37 37 115.5 meters Density Density of liquids Dependency of wave velocity Detection probability Developing of film Diameter Diaphragm pump. 209 194. 195 250 203 193 193 187 197. 106 286 258. 194. 156. 233 196 196 67 221 138. 127 136 187 184 137. 270. 100 86 92. 252 220. 234 64 33 33 43. 109 286 96. 192 52 89.15 Indices 15. 127. 306 208 115. 130. 215 137. 120. 277 182. 282. 199 232 127. 127. 208. 139 91. 220V Dielectric constant Dielectric displacement Dielectric polarisation Dielectrics Dif-fraction Difference amplifier Differencial energy loss Different symmetries of distributions Differentiating network Diffraction Diffraction image of a diffraction grating Diffraction index Diffraction of light Diffraction of water waves Diffraction spectrometer Diffraction uncertainty Diffusion Diffusion cloud chamber 80 x 80 cm. 130. 109 255 58 51 E 290 225 222 225 D Damped Damped oscillation Damped/ undamped free oscillation Damping Damping constant Damping of waves Daughter substance DC measuring amplifier De Broglie equation De Broglie relationship De Broglie wavelength Dead time Debye temperature Debye-Scherrer method Debye-Waller factor Decay diagram Decay energy Decay series Decomposition of force Decomposition voltage Deformation Degree of dissociation Degree of freedom Demo advanced Physics Manual Linear Motion (LMT) Demonstration Track. 277 183. 235 119 269 150 250 245 150 191. 282 96. 223. 130. 109 85. F 131 Fabry Perot Etalon Fabry-Perot interferometer Falling ball viscometer Faraday effect Faraday modulator for optical base plate Faraday´s contant Faraday's law Fermi characteristic energy level Ferromagnetic material Fiber textures Field intensity Field strength Filter First and second law of thermodynamics First law of thermodynamics Flat coils Fluidity Fluorescence Fluorescence radiation Fluorescent yield 198. 187 117 116. 78 258. 90 134. 246. 109 92. 49 101. 70. 218 284 286. 100 41. 202 214. 224. 119 119 113.

type B Geiger-Müller-Counter Geiger-Nuttal law General equation of state for ideal gases Generation of surface waves Gibbs-Helmholtz equation Goniometer Goniometer Operation Unit Gradient Graetz rectifier Graphite structure Grating spectrometer Gravitational acceleration Gravitational force Gravity pendulum Greenhouse effect Group velocity Grüneisen equation Gyro.phywe. 84 215.300 turns. 139 137. Magnus type. 180 179 179 46 65 120. 102 39 37 38 118. 92. 221 27 46 95.Molecules Gaussian beam Gaussian distribution Gaussian rule Gay-Lussac theory Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. 151 298 42. 257. 130 239 180. 96. 59 69 166. 302 168 161. 58. 146. 77. 300 97. 72. 33 26 37 150 175 268 137. 275 76 114 149 203 196 29 59 60 96. 244 183 253 149 138. 108. KG · www. 197. 165 77 184 76. Quincke type Interferometer Interferometerplate with precision drive Internal energy Internal friction Internal resistance Intrinsic conduction Intrinsic conductivity Intrinsic energy Inverse Joule-Thomson effect Inversion Inversion temperature Ionising particles Ionising radiation Ionizing energy Isobars Isochoric and isothermal changes Isochors and adiabatic changes of slate Isoclinic lines Isogenic lines Isomeric nuclei Isotherms Isotopic properties Isotopic spin quantum Numbers J Joule effect Joule-Thomson apparatus K K-Space Kinetic gas theory Kinetic theory of gases Kirchhoff's diffraction formula Kirchhoff's laws Klein-Nishina formula Kundt's Tube PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 105 121. type B Geiger-Müller Counter tube. 106 97.and low-pass filters High-pass Holography Hooke's law Hooke's law oscillations Hothouse effect Huygens Fresnel principle Huygens' principle Hydrogen bond 97. 247 159. 100 216. 195 76. 199. 100. 160 114 236. 234 62 96. 107 84. 109 161. 176 161. 106 69 101. 239. Gyroscope Gyroscope with 3 axes H Half life Half-shade principle Half-value thickness Half-wave rectifier Hall coefficient Hall effect Handbook Glass jacket system Handbook Physics X-Ray Experiments Harmonic oscillation Harmonic wave He/Ne Laser. 249 82. 165 77. 107 Heat transition Heating apparatus for glass jacket system Heating capacity Heisenberg's uncertainty principle Helmholtz Helmholtz coils Helmholtz coils. 141. 304. 76. 107 103 95. 44. 74 234. 109 50 124. 292 251 246. 147 204 71 I G G-factor G-modulus Galvanic elements Gamma detector Gamma quanta Gamma-emission Gamma-quanta Gamma-radiation Gamma-spectrometry Gamma-spectroscopy Gas constant Gas discharge tube Gas jaws Gas oscillator. 43. 247 152 68 221 137. 180. 99 87 83 162. 187. 137 145 114 32. 137. incl. 301 88 261 257. 170. 187 110 294 47. 306 215. 77.40mm Induction constant Inelastic collision Inside diameter thickness Instantaneous velocity Integrating network Intensity Intensity of characteristic X-rays. 108 137. 138 166.com 313 . 240 53. 249 255 95. 234 221 138. 77.dia. 130. Handb. 177 85.2 Alphabetical index Focal length Fog technique Forbidden band Forbidden transition Forbidden zone Force Forced and torsional oscillations Forced cooling Forced oscillation Four-point measurement Four-wire method of measurement Fourier Filtering Fourier transform Franck-Hertz control unit Franck-Hertz experiment Fraunhofer and Fresnel diffraction Fraunhofer diffraction Fraunhofer interference Fraunhofer und Fresnel diffraction Free Free and fixed end Free charges Free fall Free path Frequency Frequency doubling Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction Fresnel biprism Fresnel integrals Fresnel mirror Fresnel zones Fresnel's equations Fresnel's zone construction Full-wave rectifier 163 180 221 209 138. 99 85. 5mW with holder Heat capacity Heat conduction Heat conductivity Heat of vaporization Heat pipe Heat radiation Heat transfer Ideal gases Identity of atomic number and charge on the nucleus Illuminance Image charge Imaging on the sub nanometer scale Immersion thermostat Alpha A. 235 29. 234. 270. 100 256 161. 136. 241 102 216. 47 128 65. 280. 234. 134. 103 95. 175 161. 127. 109 95. 108 97. 151 114. 292 257. 177. 234 191 73. 234 97. Flammersfeld Gas. 133. 77. 232 86. 234 88 239. Interaction of electromagnetic fields Interaction potential Interaction with material Intereference of light Interface Interference Interference at thin layers Interference in thin films Interference of electromagnetic waves Interference of equal inclination Interference of waves Interference of X-rays Interference tube. 239. 141 135. 148. 233 61 97. 241 107 115 299 150. 131 255 253 248 204 255. 301. 256 210 254 53. 0-10 kV High. 216 63 116. 117 66 91. 139 241 171. 134. 89. 161 48 86. 168. 129. 280. 127. 84 83 191 123. 108 246. 221 88 88 215. 300. 230 V Impact parameter Impedance Impulse of sound Impurity depletion Inclinometer Incommensorability Index of refraction Induced emission Induced voltage Inductance Induction Induction coil. 149. 202. 277 85. 302 143 146. 139 255 85. 176 149 115. 303 245 114 88 257 214. 234 96. 270. 122. 292 258. 164. 71. 76. 175. 221 133. one pair Henry's law Hexagonal Structures High insulation house High voltage supply unit. 165 52 72. 211. 306 195 194. 139 139 91. 167 166 198.15 Indices 15. 109 236. 45 mm Geiger-Mueller Counter tube. 215 167 67 284 72 77 172 89. 107 168 67.

122. 34. 221 83 158 42. 0. 209 279 255 238. 137. 215 160. 1. 40. 280 162. 227. 76 132. 306 145 41 71 35. 305 133. 71. 141. 287 177 177 46 177 144 177 177 163 184 85. 186 165. 253. 33 29. 131. 153 123.0 mW. 156. He-Ne. 126. 141. 304 137. 61. 141 137. 239. 233 101. 51 221 128 255 162. 304 44. 164 37 120. 45 45 34 45 41 41 225. 59 145 99 124. 302 234. 139 135. 246. 223. 58. 139 132 197. 160 159. 141 158 138. 39 26 180. 109 77. 179. 155. 71 220. 232 167 298 185 215. 151 159. 105. 83. 136. 303 211. 240. 306 183 208. 302 183 213. 221 104 163. 212. 303 38. 102 135 27. 37 34 45 34.15 Indices 15. 280 191 26 32 68 Mechanical conservation Mechanical equivalent of heat Mechanical hysteresis Mechanical work Melting Mesons Metallic film resistor Metals Metastable states Michelson interferometer Microscope Miller indices Millikan experiment Mirrors Mixture temperature Mobility Model kinetic energy Modulation Modulus of elasticity Mohr balance Mole volumes Molecule radius Molybedenum Moment Moment of inertia Moment of inertia of a bar Moment of inertia of a cylinder Moment of inertia of a disc Moment of inertia of a long bar Moment of inertia of a mass point Moment of inertia of a sphere Moments Moments disk Monochromatization of X-rays Monomode and multimode fibre Moseley's law Motion involving uniform acceleration Moving charges Multi channel analyser Multi-channel analyser Multi-channel analysers Multichannel analysers Multimedia Demo Lab for demonstration experiments… Multiple beam interference Multiplicity Multiplicity factor Multipole radiation 37 90 43. 137. 287 37 161. 226. 216 176. 136. 300 142 241 236. 134. 75. 221 296 279 96. 160 209 173. 230 V AC Lattice constant Lattice planes Lattice potential Lattice vibration Law of absorption Law of Coherence Law of Fraunhofer und Fresnel diffraction Law of Gravitation Law of Huygens principle Law of Induction Law of Interference Law of Laser Law of Lenses Law of Refraction Law of thermodynamics 1st Laws governing falling bodies Laws of Collision Laws of Falling bodies Laws of Gyroscopes Length Lenses Lenz's law Lever LF amplifier. 216 250 250 250 215. 272. 108 86. 171. 35. 109 138.2/1. 273. 209 47. 31 132 204. 163 182. 285 285 188 179 208. 220 V AC Lambert-Beer Lambert's law Landé factor Laser Laser. 301. 202. 100 278 34 32. 240 209. 267 213. 133. 170. 178. 138. 283 226. 131 256 209 129 137 P P-n junction Pair formation Pair production Paraboloid of rotation Parahelium Parallel conductance Parallel connection Parallel springs Parallel-T filters excellence in science 314 . 192 66 89. 143. 233 90 48 261 128 96. 63. 306 174. 255 138.0 mW. 277 145 68. 279. 252 27 166 35 166 50. 222. 230 V AC Laser. 272. 283. 235 256 183 183 183. 39 170 224 270 284 N M Nanotechnology Natural frequency Neutrino Newton's 2nd law Newton's colour glass Newton's laws Newton's ring apparatus Newtonian liquid Neyer-Neldel Rule NTC Nuclear transitions Numerical aperture Nutation Mach-Zehnder interferometer Magnetic field Magnetic field constant Magnetic field of coils Magnetic field strength Magnetic flow density Magnetic flux Magnetic flux density Magnetic inclination and declination Magnetic induction (formerly magnetic-flux densitiy) Magnetic moment Magnetic resistance Magnetic stirrer Magnification Malus' law Mass absorption coefficient Mass attenuation coefficient Mass coverage Material waves Mathematical pendulum Mathie's rule Matrix effects Maxwell disc Maxwell relationship Maxwell wheel Maxwell's equations Maxwellian velocity distribution Mean energy loss of alpha-particles per collision Mean free path length Mean ionization energy of gas atoms Mean lifetime of a metastable state Measure Measurement accuracy Measurement of basic constants Measurement of projectile velocities Measuring microphone with amplifier O 155 235 138 186 Object beam Object distance Ohm's law Operating point Operating unit for gamma detector Optic axis Optical activity Optical axis Optical base plate with rubberfeet Optical path difference Optical path length Optical profile bench l = 60 cm Optical pumping Optical resonator Optical rotatory power Order of diffraction Order of interference Ordinary and extraordinary beam Ordinary and extraordinary ray Orthohelium Oscillation period Oscillatory circuit Oscilloscope 298 163 121. 197. Paschen-. 234. 267. 296 169. 185. 138. 306 186 51 215. 233 48 85. 108 29. 193. 183. 47 183. 47 33 29 38. Brackett and Pfund Series 69 274 160 115. 61 150 125. 169. 216 138. 130. 270 203 101. 220 V Light barrier with counter Light velocity Limit of elasticity Linear expansion Linear Levitation Track. 105 148 72 150. 160 159. 115. 241 258. 102 89. 59 128 286. length: 70 cm Linear motion Linear motion due to constant acceleration Linearly Lippich polarizer Liquid Littrow prism Loaded transformer Local Density of States Local Density Of States (LDOS) Local ion dose rate Logarithmic decrement Longitudinal waves Lorentz force Lorentz transformation Lorentz-polarization factor Lorenz number Loss resistance Loudness Low-pass Luminance Luminous flux Luminous intensity Lyman-. 130 125. 273 287 251 203 47. 254 49 208. 213. 267 183. 301 222.2 Alphabetical index L Laboratory motor. 168 206. 240 65. He-Ne.

153. 59 56 56 236. 50. 241 241 239. 124. 103.m. 289 245 47. 153. 2x15V/2A Power supply 0. 297 167 53. Manual Physical pendulum Physics. 99 47. 289 228.. 258 199. 151 298 166 166 72. 235 123. 185. 253. 100.240 V Rotating liquids Rotating tabel Rotation Rotation table Rotational energy Rowland grating Rüchardt's experiment Rules governing selection Rutherford atomic model Rydberg constant Rydberg frequency Rydberg frequency and screening constant Rydberg series 149 251. 230 V Power supply for laser head 5 mW Power supply for spectral lamps Power supply variable 15 VAC/ 12 VDC/ 5 A Power supply. 164 31 77. 164. 159. 127. 234 196 210. 39 53. 241 75 75 75 282.000 mPas. 247 299 286 256 212. 239. 223. 141. 276 226. 130. 148. 300 234. 292 R R. 108 255 216.600 VDC Power supply. Magnet Board Optics.phywe.. 306 87. 12 VAC.12 VDC/ 6 V. 209. 97. 156.2 Alphabetical index Parallel-tuned circuit Parent substance Particle energy Particle velocity Path difference Path of a ray Pauli method Peierl's Theorem Peierl's Transition Peltier coefficient Peltier effect Period Periodic motion Periodic Structures Phase Phase difference Phase displacement Phase holograms Phase relation Phase relationship Phase shift Phase velocity Phase. 49 50 49 291 34. 219 208. 104 67 32 161. 161 298 146. 215 160 202. 15 . 184..12 V DC/ 6 V. 195 115. 276.com 315 . 280. 283 196 196.. 202 62. 285. 288 227. 240. 216. 73 215. 240 204. 109 244 62 183 298 120. 58. 164 87. 110. 247 212. 285 95. 198. 119.000.15 Indices 15. 289 283 226. 0. 58 298 167 184 184 77 66 167 169. 152 240 240 97. 84.. 216 270. 214.12 VDC/ 6 V. 164 137. 274. 289 211. 215. 252 112. 158. 233. 45 149 66 149 272 34. 288 220. 249 154 65 118 129 49 156. 224 239 225 227.. 196 257. 222. 58 40. value Radioactive decay Radioactive equilibrium Radioactive radiation Radioactive sources. 10 Hz . 171. 145.s. 254. 35 291 32. 234 138. 78 66 128 145. 302 205.and group velocity Phasor diagram Pheres and rods Photo effect Photo energy Photo-conductive effect Photocell Photoelectric effect Photometric inverse-square law Photon Absorption Photon energy Photonuclear reaction Phys. 69 77 152 46 254 228. 233 212. 12 V AC. 256 159 196 196 255 188 47. 252 98 97. Exp. 270 209 183 299 287 236.12 VAC. 225 145. 34 161. KG · www. 120 32 114 37 246. 129. 127. Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 1 Physics. 209 183 183. 83 277 117 38. 148. 249 253 253 271 250 250 241 91. 249 261 166 163 153 241 241 95.. 234 58 65 239 138. 152 65. 92. 219 97. 230 V Power supply 0. 161. 288 220. 36. 286 282 S Q Q factor Quantisation of energy levels Quantity of light Quantum leap Quantum number Quantum theory Quenching gas Saccharimetry Sampling theorem Saturation thickness Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Spectroscopy Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS) Scattering Scattering of light by small particles (Mie… Scattering of X-rays Scintillation detectors Screening constant Seebeck coefficient Seebeck effect (thermoelectric effect) Selection rules Self-inductance Semi Conductor Semi Metal Semiconductor Semiconductor detector Semiconductor detectors Semiconductor detectors and multi-channel analysers Semiconductor energy Semiconductor energy detectors Semiconductor energy detectors and multi-channel… PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co. 179 183. 187 184 183. 169 98 205. 284. 219 95. 230 V Power supply 0. 130 283 115. 306 167 43. 185. 186 183 161. 155. 125.2. 239.1 MHz Power supply -2op-. 261 246. 289 124. 298 66 158. Manual Magnet Board Mechanics 2 Piezo-electric devices Piezoelectric effect Piezoelectric ultrasonic transducer Piezoelectric ultrasonics transformer Pin-diodes Planck's "quantum of action" Planck's constant Plane Plane of polarization Plane parallel plate Plastic flow Plasticity Plug-in Point Defects Poisson's distribution Poisson's ratio Poisson's spot Polarimetry Polariser Polarizability Polarization Polarization level Polarizer Polytropic equation Positron Potential Potential and kinetic energy Potential difference Potential energy Potential well model of the atomic nucleus Power frequency generator. 127. 100 163 182. 235 88 86. 285. 147. 97. 218. set Radiography Range Range dispersion Ransition Metal Chalcogenide Raoult's law Rate of decay Ratio of attenuation/ decrement Reaction rate Real and virtual image Real charges Real gas Real gases Real image Reciprocal lattice Reciprocal Lattice Reciprocal lattice Reciprocal lattices Recovering time and resolution time o fa counter tube Reduced length of pendulum Reference beam Reflection Reflection coefficient Reflection factor Reflection of longitudinal waves Reflection of waves Refraction Refraction index Refraction of waves Refractive index Refrigerator Relativistic electron mass and energy Relativistic Lorentz equation Relaxation Remanence Resistance Resistivity Resolution and resolving power Resonance Resonance frequency Resonator cavity Resonator modes Rest mass and rest energy of the electron Resting energy Restrictor valve Reversible cycles Reversible pendulum Rigid body Ripple Ripple Tank with LED-light source.. 252 43. 108 220.. 226. 100. 148. 151 121. 233 76.. complete Ripple voltage Rollaway table Rotary motion Rotary viscometer. 233 43. 127 205. universal Precession Pressure Principle of "phased arrays antennas" Principle of conservation of momentum Prism Projectile motion Propagation of sound waves Propagation of surface waves PTC 148 244 246. 278 239 245 42. 122.

40. 108 90 101. 232 26 163 138. 98. 72 72. 109 84. 98. 75 78 191 191 132. 149 149 84. 105 91 296 253 47.f. 91 97. 39.2 Alphabetical index Serial springs Series connection Series-tuned circuit Set samples nanomorphology.m. 43 62 43 52 43. 38. 192 42. 105 150 119 133. 171. 74 94 47. 85. 233 62 40. 58 140 126 182. complete Torsion dynamometer. 114 52 52 153 Thomson equations Threshold energy Throttling Time constant Time measurement Tomography Torque Torque and Restoring torque Torsion apparatus.01 N Torsion modulus Torsion pendulum Torsional vibration Torsional vibration Torsional vibrations and torsion modulus Total reflection Trajectory parabola Transfer function Transformer Transistor Transit time Transition probability Transverse and longitudinal modes Transverse and longitudinal resonator modes Transverse and longitudinal waves Tungsten Tunnel effect Tunneling Effect Turbulence Two-beam interferometer Two-dimensional standing waves Two-wire field 95. 224. 156. 183 26 138. 225. f. 152 excellence in science 316 . 182. 182. 223. 71 72 74. 69. 127. 161. 301.15 Indices 15. 239. 120. 219 95. 99 97. 300 72 274 246. 130. 63 50 280 210 178. 297 64 197. 303 31 150 142. 4-2 Temporal coherence Term diagram Terrestrial gravitational acceleration Teslameter. 44. 100 95. 303 215. 100. 304 299 161. 216 97. for Compact Scanning… Shear modulus Shear stress Sheet textures Shell structure of electron shells Si-Photodetector with Amplifier Single electron atom Singlet and triplet series Slope efficiency Smoothing factor Software "Measure Dynamics". 104 84. 100 121 142 61 124. 182. 130. 241 299 181. 164 164 227. 140 78 77 239 113. 99 238. 127. 219 Valence band Van der Waals equation Van der Waals force Van't Hoff factor Van't Hoff law Vaporisation enthalpy Vaporization Vapour pressure Variable g-pendulum Velocity Velocity distribution Velocity gradient Velocity of light Velocity of sound Velocity of sound in air Velocity of sound in liquids Verdet's constant Vernier Virtual image Virtual light source Virtual light source Coherence Viscosity Viscosity measurements Visible spectral range Voltage Voltage doubling Voltage stabilisation Volume Volume expansion Volume expansion of liquids 303 165 123 W Water anomaly Wave equation Wave length Wave propagation Wave-particle dualism Wavelength Weber-Fechner law Weight resolution Weiss molecular magnetic fields Westphal / Mohr density balance Wheatstone bridge Wiedmann-Franz law Wien-Robinson bridge Wimshurst machine Wire loop Work and power meter 48 69 64 68. 95. 104 47. Thermogenerator with 2 water baths Thomson coefficient 163 53. 75 137. 88. 219 162. 282 138. 45. 70 191 65. 96. 300 215. 268 90. 135 26 82. 0. campus licence Software Speed of Light Meter Solar cell Solar ray collector Solenoids Solubility Solubility product Sonar principle Sound pressure Sound velocity in gases Sound wave Spatial and time coherence Special relativity theory Specific heat Specific rotation Specific thermal capacity Spectral lines (shape and half width value) Spectral power density Spectrometer Spectrometer / goniometer with vernier Spectroscopy Speed of light Spin Spin-orbit coupling Spin-orbital angular momentum interaction Spinorbit interaction Spiral spring Spontaneous and stimulated light emission Spontaneous emission Spring constant Square wave Standard deviation Standing waves Statics Stationary longitudinal waves Stationary waves Stefan-Boltzmann's law Steiner's law Steiner's theorem Step Edges Step response Stereographic projection Stern-Gerlach experiment Stirling engine Stm Stokes law Stokes' law Stress Structure amplitude Structure factor Superimposition of magnetic fields Superimposition of sound waves Superposition of waves Surface Activation Surface charge density Surface energy Surface tension Sweep 61 123. 304 296 96. 107 82. 129 96. 286 77 74. 249 236. 60 150 245 65 41 77 64. 33 83 50 158. 71. 127 26 291 34. 234. 103 98 84. 105 183 90 170. 71. 60 63 162. 219 95. 214. 102 97. 59 27. 102 87. 172. 141 98. 303 88 118. 303 248. 299 209 209 162. 209 138. 127. 145 125. 77 71 68 170. 45. 106 145 285. 156. 97. 107 94 96. 240. 119. 129 148 241 238 46. 131. digital TESS Electrochemical measurement set The Bragg equation Thermal capacity Thermal capacity of gases Thermal energy Thermal expansion Thermal pump Thermal radiation Thermal tension coefficient Thermoelectric converter Thermoelectric e. 97. 78 76 74 230 77 74. for Compact Scanning… Set samples nanomorphology. 192 51 209 112. 137. 100 88 92. 169. 84. 208 209 60 215. 240 51 115. 233 182. 222. 255 162. 115. 125. 304 50. 86. 96. 303 149 55 158 124. 208. 58 46 239 150 273 197. 234 97. 97. 234 96. 156. 235 162. Thermoelectric e. 216 77. 134. 187. 224. 104 48 101. 102 131 U 173 218 302 Ultrasonic Ultrasonic diffraction Ultrasonic generator Ultrasonic probe 2 MHz Ultrasonic transmitters Ultrasonics Ultrasound operation unit Uncertainty of location Uncertainty of momentum Uniform magnetic field Universal Counter Universal gas constant Universal measuring amplifier Unloaded transformer Use of an interface V 278 279 T Telescope Temperature Temperature amplitude attenuation Temperature dependence of resistances Temperature gradient Heat transport Temperature meter digital. 219 94. 286 285. 218 48 123. 101. m. 156. 83. 162.

293 282 Y Z Young's modulus Z diode Zeeman effect Zener effect Zone plates 42. 227. 281. 212 271. 239 182. 291 205. 211.0 X-ray Plug-in Cu tube XR 4. 293 291 280.0 expert unit XR 4.0 X-ray Plug-in Mo tube XR 4. 281.0 X-ray CT Z-rotation stage (XRstage) XR 4. 233 128 115.0 Software measure X-ray XR 4. 271 272 291 223 284 222. 258. 291 281 291 227.0 X-ray energy detector (XRED) XR 4.x-ray photography XR 4. 202 128 77. 210 272 206.0 Mobile X-ray Lab XR 4. 211. 272.15 Indices 15.phywe. 267.0 X-ray Direct Digital Image Sensor (XRIS)… XR 4.com 317 . 212.… XR 4. 199. 291 282 273 213. 168 PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.0 X-ray Implant model f.0 XR 4.2 Alphabetical index Work function 196. 278 277 291 X X-ray X-ray apparatus X-ray camera X-ray expert unit X-ray fluorescence analysis X-ray radiation X-ray spectral analysis X-ray table X-ray tube X-ray-tube X-rays XR 4.0 X-ray plug-in unit W tube XRED XRT 280 282 275. KG · www.0 Software measure CT XR 4. 222.0 X-ray goniometer XR 4.0 X-ray Digital Image Sensor XRIS XR 4.2 XR 4.0 Software measure LabVIEW (TM) driver V. 273 212 278 274 227. 275.0 Software measure LabVIEW (TM) driver V. 198. 1. 270 274. 211.

2 Alphabetical index Information excellence in science 318 .15.

com 319 .phywe. KG · www.15.2 Alphabetical index Information PHYWE Systeme GmbH & Co.

15.2 Alphabetical index Information excellence in science 320 .