&ckid hf tmZmenf rif;om;MuD;a&bef

Tbef; &wk
rif;om;trSe?f igvQifBuHu

uGsefoufwm&Snf &cki
d jf ynf

Ekid if &H yfpnf? wkid ;f jynftwGuf
uk,
d t
hf oufu?dk &uf&ufpeG UŒf cGm
ukvm;&Gmü? cE¨m&kyaf [mif;
b0ajymif;cJ?h jzpfaMumif;oHom
owå0gwkUŒd rSepf mG rcGswf
olrowfvnf;? rvGww
f pfcg
aotH&h mwnf;/
urÇmraMu? olwaŒdk wGvnf;
twnfrpk;d ? igajrxk;d aomf
t&k;d wpfcg? wGev
f rd &hf m\/
aemifom; aemifv?l &ckid o
f w
l UŒdk
t,lrajymif;? ighvrf;aMumif;ukd

¨ d
aumif;aumif;vku
d ef m? wkid ;f nmuk
wpfcgrkcs? igwkUŒd &tHh
vkUŒH va&SUŒ oef? vlvQifBuHu
edAmÁ efrcGswf? vuf0g;cwfonf
pGrJ w
S f þpm aowrf;wnf;/
&ckid t
f rsKd;om;tiftm;pkrS xkwaf 0onf?

223 ESpaf jrmuf &ckid t
hf csKyftjcmtm%musqk;H jcif; 0rf;enf;atmufarhz,
G f txdr;f trSwf

tcsKyftjcmtm%mykid f &ckid Ef idk if aH wmf
(BC-3325 rS AD-1784)




yxr "n0wDacwf
'kwd, "n0wDacwf
wwd, "n0wDacwf
a0omvDausmufavSum;acwf
av;jrdKŒacwf

(BC 3325 = 1507)
(BC 1507 = 580)
(BC 580 = AD 326)
(AD 327 = AD 818)
(AD 818 = AD 1430)

w yOPm_rdKŒ
(AD 818 - AD 1103)
w yxry&def_rdKŒ
(AD 1103 - AD 1123)
w 'kwd,y&def_rdKŒ
(AD 1123 - AD 1250)
w avmif;-uuf_rdKŒ
(AD 1250 - AD 1404)
*tif;0bk&ifrif;acgifodrf;ydkufI&cdkifbk&ifrif;apmrGefol&weffbk&iffxHcdkvHkpOf
umv (AD 1404 - AD 1429)

• ajrmufOD;acwf
w yxrajrmufOD;
w 'kwd,ajrmufOD;
w wwd,ajrmufOD;

(AD 1430 = AD 1784)
(AD 1430 - AD 1531)
(AD 1531 - AD 1638)
(AD 1638 - AD 1784)

ukdvkdeDuGsefb0 (1784 rS ,ckxd)




ArmudkvdkeDacwf
t*Fvdyfacwf
*syefacwf
t*FvdyfudkvdkeDacwf
ArmvlrsdK;}uD;0g'DESifh ppftm%m&Sifacwf

( 1784 = 1826)
( 1826 = 1942)
( 1942 = 1945)
(1945 = 1948)
(1948 = ,cktcsdefxd)

“r
[d Hou armfuGef;vuFm”
“r[d
“r[d H&efol/ zufrjyLom;/ okH;vlxGËfxm;/ jrwfbk&m;./ ukd,fpm;&kyf0g/ ajcmufa&mifjzmI/
r[mrkedbk&m;-uD;ukd/ nGwfjyD;aumfa&mf/ &SdylaZmfI/ yifhac: jyD;rS/ &uQyl&/ eef;ra'0D/ ra[oDESifh/ tnD,o/
&Harmif;rukd/ ,l-upkay/ aqmif,lav.? oifhaeXme/ &yfa'oY/ apmifhxm;jyD;ckdif/ vuf eufukdifwkdŒ/
tEkdifjyKvsif;/ &Jrufcsif;./ jrdKŒwGif;rSefom;/ jrdKŒjyifrsm;ESifh/ wkdif;um;&@H/ e*&H[k/ EkdifiHtaygif;
awmjrdKŒaumif;Y/ ykef;atmifaejim;/ &ckdifom;ukd/ a,musfm;rdef;r/ rvGwf&atmif/ csdKifaESmif wef;vef;/
uGsJEGm;zrf;okdŒ/ vdkif*kwfukdjzwf/ toDowf.? acsmrGwf&ly/ rdef;rvStm;/ yOPtm&kH/ umr*k%fjzifh/
jrL;xl;pdrfhiSm/ ,l-uyg.? olemoltkd/usKd;uef;ukdum;/ rvkdydwfxm;/ wkdufvkyfjim;I/ oGif; xm;tjynfh/
,rf;aq;xnfhvsuf/ ajrŒajrŒnufa-u/ rD;wkdufap.? aoav r-uGif;/ vlc yif;wkdŒ/ csif;csif; auG;auG;/
,aeŒarG;om;/ om;axG;om;i,f/ EkEki,fi,fwkdŒ/ jyKH;&,f&$ifjyD;/ ar rodukd/ arG;rdxHrS/ ,ljyD;rvSsif/
vufESifhukdifajrSmuf/ aumif;uifa&mufrS/ atmufuwzef/"m;ukdvSefI/ cHjyefjyD;um/ jyK onf rSma-umifh/
usumrvGJ/ &J&JaoG;puf/ ttlxGuf.? wpfcsufajrY/ vSHukdpkdufI/ cHvkdufwHusif/ zifu0if./
ESpfvkdaysmfyg;/ vifr,m;ukd/ aygif;-utwl/ rxm;rlI/ qGJ,l&kdufowf/ em;-udK;wwfvsuf/ yl;jyGwf
csKdifaESmif/ -uufukdavSmifokdŒ/ ykHaqmifyrm/ ,l-uyg.? rsm;pGmckwfxpf/ owfI ypfvsuf/ tcspf 0goem/
r[dygjim;/ ysLatmufom;onf/ pum;rkom;0g'Dwnf;?” [lI rsufjrifukd,fawGŒukd &ckdifynm&Sdrsm;
rSwfwrf;wifxm;cJh-uonfukdavhvmjcif;tm;jzifh trSefrkcs &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;ukd rsKd;jyKef;atmif
Armya'o&mZfrsm;u vkyfaqmifcJh-uonfrSm xif&Sm;ayonf//
PPPPPP
jrdKŒol}uD;atmifausmfZH&wk
“O'gef;ra-u/ jzpf&avjcif;/ wkdif;jynfukd-uH/ atmifausmfZHrSm/ -uHumazGaESmuf/ wpfusdyfajcmuf
wkdŒ/ ,Gif;azmufopPm/ olwkdŒrSmum;/ 0rf;pmpm;uGuf/ wpfxyfwGufukd/ wpfoufpmxif/ acG; tjrif
a-umifh/ wkdif;cGifompnf/ igwkdŒ jynfvnf;/ olŒ jynfjzpf&/ 0rf;enf;pGmwnf;/ rdbq&m/ ayg&%mwkdŒ/
a0g[mxk;H a[mif;/ vlb;l a'gif;uk/d raygif;azmf&m/ qkw
d yHk gvnf;/ arhumowd/ aygif;azmfrI
d / vuf&dS
'kuQ ig-uKH&./ b0wpfacwf/ vljyefjzpfum/ topfyif -uHpnfcsifonf/ b,fwGif rarhEkdif aom
a-umifh?”

'kd;0ef;}uD;atmifausmf&$D&wk
“aemufom;aemifvm aemufxyfygvnf; q&mokH;vuf a&SŒuwufI toufcE<m vlwkdŒrSm
um; wpfcgwpf&H tzkd;wef./ wpf&Hwpfcg qkdwkHygvnf;/ olomvmvsuf zdESdufpufu/ touf
wkdcg/ wkd;r&m&Sifh (pkd;r&&Sifh) "rRvrf;rSef usifha-umif;}uHvsuf/ wHpkd;ukdpm;/ vdrfvnfxm;aomf/
aemufom;wpfzef/ onf;rcHESifh/ EkdifiHwum/ [l&mY/ ynmESifhOm%f/ oifhpGmzefI/ wm0efrysuf/
opPm&Guv
f suf/ toufuv
dk ;DS / aoG;acsmif;pD;rS tjyD;}uHch idk /f Ekid if w
H idk ;f jrdKŒ/ tpkŒd pkŒd ESihf uk,
d jhf rdKŒuk,
d ahf jr/
ukd,fhXmeukd &rnfrkcs/ Tavmuvnf/ atmufusrcHcsifaoma-umifh?”
15

u&ifqdkvJ wdkŒwawG&Jh pdwfrcsEdkifwJh pum;ajym&if ajymovdk vkyfwwfwJh 0g'&Sdw,f? 'g[m
&efolwpfrsdK;yJ? b0udk ajrawmif rajrSmufay;eJŒ? vufjref/ ajcjref0g' &Sdw,f? owdvpf&if vpfovdk
ArmawG touf&Sl-uyfvdrfhr,f?
"m;&Snf/ "m;c|efawGudk udkifjyD; a&cJawmifay:rSm aysmfydkufwJh ucsifawGuvnf; rEWav;udkawmif
olwdkŒ jrdKŒqdkjyD; awmifbufwpfcGifudk olwdkŒa'ojzpfzdkŒ &nfrSef;xm;w,f? olwdkŒu yifv,fig;udk
pm;r,fwJh? rif;wkdŒ ArmawG&Jh ocifb0udk a&mufatmif zefwD;r,fwJh? b,fvdkyJjzpfjzpf igwdkŒwawG[m
vufOD;xm;zdkŒ ta&;-uD;w,f? rnSmeJŒ? nSm&ifemr,f? ArmawG owdxm;-u?
ordkif;&SnfjyD; wkd;wufcJhwJh rGefawGuvnf; ,aeŒqdk ArmatmufrSm a&mufaeayr,fh '*Hkqdkwm
rGepf um;jzpfvŒkd &efuek rf mS rGeef ef;aqmufr,fw?hJ rGeaf wG&hJ owWu
d dk a&$w*d b
kH &k m; odap&r,fw?hJ qdv
k w
kd m
uawmh &efukefqdkwm rGefjynf jzpf&r,f qkdwmygyJ? twdwfu olydkifw,f? igydkifw,f qkdwm[m
ArmawG em;rvnf bl;? vuf&SdrSm b,fvdk&SdaeovJ? &Sdaeovdk xdrf;xm;&r,f? rGefqdkwm
onf;rcHwwfbl;? rvdk vm;&if awmfvSefwwfw,f?
xm;0,fqw
kd hJ vlrsdK;uvnf; &Sad o;w,f? olwŒkd uawmh vlenf;pkawGy?J 'gayr,fh txif ao;vdŒk
r&bl;? igwdkŒeJŒ ordkif;a-uG; &Sdaew,f? olwdkŒawG[m wpfjcm;wdkif;&if;om;awGeJŒ yl;aygif;jyD;
igwdkŒArmawGudk tEWm&m,f jyKvmEkdifw,f? 'ga-umifh 'DaumifawGudk wpfjcm;wkdif;&if;om;awGeJŒ ryl;
aygif;rdatmif rif;wdkΠ-udK;pm;&r,f? taumif;qHk;uawmh xm;0,fvlrsdK;awGudk ysLeJΠurf;,HawGvdkyJ
rsdK;aysmufoGm;atmif igwkdŒ vkyfaqmif&r,f? qkdvdkwmu igwkdŒArmtrsdK;om;awG[m xm;0,ftrsdK;
orD;awGudk &wJhenf;eJΠodrf;oGif;jyD; vufxyf,l&r,f? &efoludk -uD;oljzpfap/ i,foljzpfap
b,fawmhrtxifrao;-uzdkΠigrSmcsifw,f?
a'gif;tawmifcyf&if awm&Sif;&r,f?b,folŒudkrS a'gif;tawmifatmufu rvGwfap&bl;?
a'gif;tvHudkyJ igodw,f? a'gif;udky,f&if bmudkrS igrvdkvm;bl;? igwdkΠArmawGuvnf; olwpf
vl/ igwpfrif;eJΠnDnGwfr+ r&Sdbl;? tcsif;csif; nDnGwfr+ &SdrSom om,mr,f? yk*~dKvftcsif;csif; raus
eyfwmudk EdkifiHa&;rSm ra&maxG;oifhbl;?
'ga-umifh igraocif aemufqHk; rSmxm;cJhcsifw,f? 'gudk igwkdŒwawG rapmifhxdef;&if olŒu|ef
jzpf r,f? Arm[m ArmyJ? urBmrSm ArmawG &Sdaeoa&GΠxm0& &Sifoefaer,fh uwdwpfck igawmif;csif
w,f? rif;wdkŒ uwday;&if igaoaysmfjyD? odkŒr[kwf&if igaoraysmfbl;? wrvGefb0uvnf; igwdkŒ
Arm awG u|efjzpfaewmudk r-unfhcsifbl;? ArmawG tcsif;csif; bmawGyJjzpfjzpf ArmhvGwfvyfa&;udk
wpfjcm; vlrsdK;awGqDudk ra&mufapzdkΠta&;-uD;wJhtcg ArmawGtcsif;tcsif; aoG;pnf;jyD; wpfyg;&efudk
umuG,f &r,f? 'Dvdk tcsdefrSm olwpfvl/ igwpfrif; 0g'udk pGefŒ&r,f?

&ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;twGuf 0rf;enf;atmufarhzG,faeŒ&ufrsm;
q&mawmf OD;OwWraeŒ
pwifbmv 9 &uf
aoG;pGef;aom qefjy\emaeŒ
-o*kwfv 13 &uf
q&m-uD; OD;ODomxGef;usqkH;aeΠ-o*kwfv 14 &uf
&ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%musqkH;aeΠ'DZifbmv 31 &uf
14

olŒu|efb0 usa&muf&jcif;
&ckdifouU&mZf 1146 ck jymokdvjynfhausmf 7 &uf/ 1784 'DZifbm 31 wGif ajrmufOD; a&$jrdKŒ
awmfESifhwuG &ckdifwpfjynfvkH;onf Arme,fcsJŒya'o&mZffarmif0kdif; vufatmufokdŒusa&mufcJh&onf?
Armbk&ifarmif0idk ;f .om; tdraf &SŒrif;om;armifay:onf jrdKŒ0eftENyusefEiS hf rif;-uD;rif;acgifausmf trSL;
jyKaom aemufvkdufaemufygwpfaomif;ESifhtwl &ckdifjynfolrsm;ukd zdESdyfuGsefjyK&efxm;cJhjyD; &ckdifbk&if
r[morRw&mZmESifh rdbk&m;jroEWm/ rSL;rwfynm&Sd/ pmayusrf;*efwwf &[ef;/ ynm&Sdrsm;ESifh &ckdifjynf
ol ESpfodef;ausmfukd acGs;wyfqGJjyD; ArmjynfokdŒac:oGm;cJhonf? &ckdifjynfolwkdŒ toufwr#wefzkd;xm;
ukd;uG,faom r[mjrwfrked&kyf&Sifawmfukdvnf; tydkif;ydkif;jzwfum ArmjynfrEWav;okdΠtwif;t"rR
odrf;,loGm;cJh onf? xkdtcsdefrSpI ESpfaygif; (5000) ausmf&SnfcJhaom &ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%monf
jyKdvJysufpD;um &ckdifjynfolrsm;onf ulolrawGŒ/ u,folr&SdbJ ab;vGwf&mukd xGufajy;cJh-u&onf?
xkdŒaemuf Armya' o&mZfe,fcsJŒ usL;ausmfolrsm;ESifh vufyg;aprsm;onf &ckdifjynfwGif oufOD;qHykdif
Armya'o&mZftkyfcsKyfa&;pepfukd pwiftaumiftxnfazmfygawmhonf? ykcufwGif;&Sd uav;rsm; yg
rusef tqrwef-uD;av;aomvlcGefukd twif;t"rRaumufcHcJhonf? &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm; .toufESifhcE<m
onf ArmvlrsKd;wkdŒ vufxJ wGifom&Sd.f? Armya'o&mZfe,fcsJŒ. EkwfxGufpum;onf twnfjyKOya'
jzpfcJhonf? Arme,fcsJŒwkdŒonf &ckdifjynftm;odrf;ykdufcJhcsdefrSpI vlrsKd;a&;t& enf;rsdK;pHkoHk;
aoG;aESmapjcif;/ pmayukdzsufqD;I &ckdif ,Ofaus;r+rsm;ukd Armr+jyKjcif;jzifh &cdkifwdkŒ. trsdK;om;a&;
vuQ%mudk wpfpwpfp azsmufzsufzdkΠ-udK;pm;vmcJh-uonf? ,Ofaus;r+ukd zsufqD;jcif;/ ppfa&;t&
&ufpufpGmowfjzwfjcif;/ Armpum;/ Armtokdif;t0kdif;/ Arm"avhxkH;wrf;rsm; ESifheD;pyfolrsm;ukd
&mxl;rsm;ay;um [efjycsD;ajrSmufjcif;jzifh enf;y&d,m,frsKd;pkHoHk;I &ckdiftrsdK; om;rsm;tm;
xm0&uGsefjyK&ef ,ckxufwdkif -uHpnf-udK;pm;vsuf &Sd-uayonf? ArmwdkΠ-uD;pdk;aom ya'o&mZfacwf/
bDtkdifat/ bD'Dat/ rqv/ e0wESifh etz acwf tqufqufY &cdkiftrsdK;om;wdkŒrSm rdrdwdkŒ.
bdk;bGm;tarG/ &cdkifjynfwGifyif ajcokwfykqdk;/ ajrGpG,fusdK;b0jzifh Armacgif;aqmifrsm;xH uyfzm;
&yfzm;vkyfum toufquf&SifoefzdkΠtm;xkwfae-u&ayonf?

&ckdifjynfukd aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfjcif;
vlrsKd;wpfrsKd;tm; aoG;cGJtkyfcsKyfjcif;onf e,fcsJŒArmwkdŒ. enf;y&d,m,frsm;teuf wpfck
tygt0ifjzpfonf? ArmvlrsKd;wkdŒonf &ckdifjynfawmifykdif;ESifh ajrmufykdif;/ awmifay:ESifh acsmif;zsm;/
ajrmufOD;/ &rf;jAJ/ rmefatmif/ oHwGJ/ ausmufjzLwkdŒrS &ckdifom;rsm;tm; a'opdwfrsm;jyif;xefvmatmif/
txiftjrifvGJrSm;atmifjyKvkyfjcif;jzifh uGsefjyK&efvG,fulatmifaqmif&GufcJh-uonf? xkdokdΠaoG;cGJ
tkyfcsKyfr+onf &ckdifjynfuGsefb0okdŒ usa&mufcJhcsdefrSpwif usifhokH;vmcJhonfrSm ,aeŒtcsdefwkdifatmif
jzpfonf?

bmoma&;ukd zsufqD;jcif;/ todynm&Sifrsm;tm; csKd;ESdrfjcif;
Arme,fcsJŒwkdŒonf &ckdifjynfrS ukd,fyGg;awmf r[mjrwfrked&kyf&Sifawmftm; ,laqmifoGm;&kH
omru r[mjrwfrkedodrfawmfukdvnf; Arme,fcsJŒarmif0kdif;. ppfacG;rsm;u rD;&+dŒzsufqD;cJh-uonf?
&ckdifomoema&;wGiftausmftarmfrsm; jzpfaom 0denf;"kd&f o#pfaomif;q&mawmf-uD; awZm&mrq&m
awmf-uD;/ ydEJMawmifq&mawmf q&mawmf-uD;tajrmuftjrm;ESifh &[ef;/ynm&Sd rsm;/ twwfynm&Sif/
todynm&Sifrsm;tm; aemufaemifwGif jyefvnf rykefuef rwkdufckdufEkdifatmif ajrmufOD;jrdKŒawmfrS
3

ArmjynfokdŒ twif;t"rR ac:aqmifoGm;cJhjcif;jzifh &ckdifvlrsKd;wkdŒ. bmom omoemtm; ArmvlrsKd;
rsm;u zsufqD;csKd;ESdrfcJh-uonf?

ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'Drsm;twGuf ppfwkduf&aom &ckdifom;uGsefb0
&ckdifouU&mZf 1150 ckESpfwGif taemufbufwkduf0efonf &ckdifjynfolrsm;tm; uGsefjyK&ef
ajrmufOD;jrdKŒawmfwGif jrdKŒ0efjzpfvmcJh onf? xkdESpfwGifyif Armbk&iffarmif0kdif;onf ,kd;',m;EkdifiH Zif;r,f
ukd AkdvfrSL;wyfrSL;wkdΠjzifhwkdufckduf&m ratmifjrifbJ jyefvnfqkwfcGmvmcJhonf? xkdtcg armif0kdif;onf
&ckdifjynfwGif ppfom;pkaqmif;&ef trdefŒcsrSwfcJhaoma-umifh ajrmufOD;/ &rf;jAJ/ rmefatmif/ oHwGJwkdŒrS
oefrmaom &ckdifajcmufaxmifukd twif;t"rR pkaqmif;jyD; ,kd;',m;Zif;r,fokdŒcsDwufapcJhonf? &ckdifh
ol&Jaumif;wkdŒrSm tjyif;txefiSufzsm;jzpfjyD; aoqkH;cJh-u&.? ,ckxufwkdifvnf; &ckdifom;rsm;onf
ArmhppfwyfxJwGif tr+xrf;vsuf ArmvlrsKd;-uD;pkd;a&;twGuf oufpGefŒqHzsm;wm0efxrf;aqmifum
csKd;ESdrfr+ trsKd;rsKd;ukd cg;pnf;cHae-u&onfukd &ckdifom;wkdif;rsufjrifjzpfonf?

1795 &ckdifol&Jaumif;rsm;tm; owfjzwfjcif;
&ckdifol&Jaumif;rsm;jzpf-uaom ykd;vkH;/ cGufayguf/ uGsJwpfaumifEkdifwkdŒonf olŒuGsefrcHvkdI
Arme,fcsJŒwkdŒtm; tcGifhomwkdif; awmfvSefykefuefcJh-uonf? xkduJhokdŒawmfvSefI vkdufvHzrf;qD;aom
a-umifh Arme,fcsJŒwkdŒESifhuif;vGwf&m ppfwaumif;e,fokdŒ wdrf;a&SmifxGufajy;aecJh&onf? xkdtcg
Arme,fcsJŒwkdŒonf &ckdifjynfolrsm;xHrS wpftdrfqif;wpftdfrfwuf aiGrsm;tm;aumufcH&m aiG'*Ffg;wpf
odef;ESpfaomif; &&Sdavonf? xkdaiG'*Fg;rsm;tm; &ckdifhopPmazmuf oHa'oruf oufESHa0ukday;jyD; ppf
waumif;okŒd apv$wf vku
d o
f nf? ppfwaumif;pm;t*Fvyd t
f m; opPmazmufoufEaHS 0u vmbfx;dk awmif;
cHojzifh &ckdifhol&Jaumif;okH;OD;tm; ay;tyfvkdufjyD; Arm (jrefrm) jynftr&yl&okdŒ,laqmifvmcJhonf?
pvif;qifjzLuGsef;okdŒa&mufvSsif ol&Jaumif; cGufaygufESifh uGsJwpfaumifEkdifwkdŒonf oHajcusif;ukd csKd;I
xGufajy;&m Armppfom;rsm;u vkdufvHzrf;qD;-uonf? ol&Jaumif;cGufaygufukd zrf;qD;&rdjyD; ol&J
aumif; uGsJwpfaumifEkdifrSm vGwfajrmufoGm;cJhonf? ol&Jaumif;ykd;vkH;ESifh cGufaygufwkdŒukd tr&yl&okdŒ
ac:aqmifvmjyD; Armbk&ifarmif0kdif;tm; qufovkdufonf? armif0kdif;u owfrdefŒay;vkduf&m olwkdŒ
ESpOf ;D tm; tm%myg;uGuo
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f iG &f u
dk u
f m tapmifh
rsm; csxm;vkduf avonf? vuf0g;uyfwkdif&kdufjyD; 24 em&Dt-umwGif &ckdifhol&Jaumif; cGufayguf
uG,fvGefI/ ol&Jaumif;ykd;vkH;rSm em&D 60 t-umwGif uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf?
olwkdŒESpfOD;onf e,fcsJŒArmwkdŒtm; OD;rnGwf 'l;raxmufbJ &ckdifhEkdifiHawmf.tcsKyftjcmt%m
twGuf toufukdapaw;jyD; &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;twGuf wkdufckdufcJh-uaom tmZmenfrsm;jzpfayonf? rnfuJh
okdŒyif &ufpufzdESdyfr+rsm;jyKvkyfapumr+ &ckdifom;wkdŒ.awmfvSefa&;aoG;onfum; uGsefb0rS rvGwf
ajrmufao;oa&GΠ&J&JeDaevsuf&SdOD;rnf?

ocifajymif;oGm;aom &ckdifuGsefb0
1826 ckESpfwGif jAdwdo#wkdŒ.aer0iftifyg,mtwGif; &ckdifwkdŒusa&mufoGm;cJhojzifh tESpf (40)
Armhi&Jcef;onf wcef;&yfcJhonf?“ocifajymif;oGm;aom uGsefb0onfyif&ckdifwkdŒtwGuf uHxl;uHjrwf”
yifjzpfonf[k qkd&ayrnf? Armatmufom;wkdŒtm; armif;xkwfI t*FvdyfwkdŒuwzef ae&m,lxm;cJhjcif;
jzpfonf? t*FvdyfwkdŒonf zdESdyf&ufpufaom Armrsm;ESifhpmvSsif tqaygif;rsm;pGm &ckdifom;wkdŒ.b0ukd
4

uGsefb0wGif zJhay; vdkuf&aom &uQXmeD
yxrt*Fvdyf=Armppf (1824=1826)t_yD;/ c&pfESpf(1824) ckESpfaz:0g&Dv(24)&ufaeŒwGif
_Adwdo#ESifh Armbk&ifwkdŒa&;xkd;chJaom &EWAdkpmcsKyft& &cdkifjynf.e,ferdwfwGif ,ckyvuf0c&kdifac:
&cdkifjynfajrmuf ydkif; awmifwef;a'owqifh &cddkif&kd;rta&SŒbuftusqHk;awmifwef;.tjrifhqHk;tydkif;
ESifh awmifbufY ,ck{&m0wDwdkif; twGif;yg0ifaom i0efjrpfa-umif;ta&SŒbufwpfav#muf/
,if;rSwqifh awmifbuf tpGefqHk;e*&DtilESifh [dkif;}uD;u|ef;wdkŒ0ifchJavonf? ,if;t& &cdkifurf;
ajc.tvsm;rSm rkdifaygif; (480) cefŒ &Snfvsm;cJŒonf? T&EWmykdpmcsKyfum; c&pffESpf (1454) ckESpfwGif
&ckdifjynf ajrmufOD; acwf bk&ife&EkESifhArmjynftif;0bk&ifrif;acgifwkdŒt-um; ESpfOD;ESpfbufoabmwl
owfrSwfxm;cJΠaomESpf EkdifiH e,fedrdwftm; jyefvnftoufoGif;ay;cJΠjcif;jzpfonf? T&EWmykdpmcsKyf
t& &ckdifwkdif;. e,ferdwf tus,ft0ef;rSm(21694)pwk&ef;rdkif&Sdygonf? okdŒ&mwGif &ckdifawmifykdif;
a'o ausmufcGsef;jrpfrS e*&Dtilxd&Snfvsm;aome,fajrrsm;tm; jAdwdo#wkdŒu tkyfcsKyfa&;,EW&m;
ykdrkdvG,fula&;twGuf 'kwd,t*Fvdyf =Arm ppf (1852) tjyD; c&mZfESpf(1853) ckESpfwGif ykodrfc&kdif
(,ck{&m0wDwkdif;) twGif;okdŒ xnfhoGif;xm;cJŒavonf? ,if;a-umif;&ckdifjynf.e,fedrdwfrSm
(21694)pwk&ef;rkdifrS (18945) pwk&ef; rkdifcefŒokdŒ avsmhusoGm;avonf?
tdEdN,=jrefrm cGJa&;wGJa&;jy\emtjyD;(1937)t*FvdyftufOya't& ewfjrpftaemufbuf
urf;(37)rkdif&Snfvsm;aom aemufbufurf;&kd;wef;tm; tdENd,EkdifiH. tkyfcsKyfa&;vufatmufokdŒ
oGwfoGif;vkdufaoma-umifh &ckdifurf;&kd;wef;tvsm;rSm (480) rkdifrS (443)rkdifokdŒavsmŒqif;oGm;cJŒonf?
xŒdkjyifArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;&_yD; (1953) wGif ,ckyvuf0c&dkif[kac:aom &cdkifajrmufydkif; awmifwef;
a'oukdvnf; csif;jynfe,fxJodkŒqGJoGif;jcif;cHvdkuf&onfhtwGuf ,ckvuf&Sdumv ArmjynfwGif owf
rSwfxm;aom &cdkifjynfe,f.e,fedrdwftusk,ft0ef;rSm (14200)pwk&ef;rdkifr#om usef&Sdawmh onf?
TuJhokdŒuGsefb0wpfav#muf &ckdifjynftm; xifovkdvkdufzJhay;aev#if aemufqkH;wGif ukd,f
ykdifajr[kyif&Sdawmhrnfr[kwfacs? xkda-umifh &ckdiftcsKyftjcmtm%monf &ckdifom;vufxJwGif&Sda&;
onf ta&;-uD;ayonf?

Armhacgif;aqmif ocifudk,fawmfr+dif;. aowrf;pm
(Taowrf;pmonf ArmrsdK;cspfacgif;aqmif ocifudk,fawmfrd+if; ruG,fvGefrD Armacgif;aqmif
tcsdKŒtm; rSm-um;cJhaom aowrf;pm jzpfonf?)
&cdkifudk txifao;rdvdkŒ ArmOD;acgif; taemufudk nGefŒcJh&w,f? 'Dawmh &cdkifudk b,fawmhcgrS
txifrao;eJŒ? twdwfu jzpf&yfudk -unfhjyD; owdxm;&r,f? &cdkifawG[m &mZ0if-uD;oavmuf rme
-uD;w,f? b,folŒudkrS txif-uD;wJh vlrsdK;r[kwfbl;? ordkif;a-uG; rqyfEdkifatmif/ emvHrxlEdkifatmif
rif;wdkŒwawG pGrf;aqmifwwf&r,f?
&Srf;qkdwJh vlawGuvnf; awmifay:rSmae awmifay:om;? olwdkΠtxufuqdk&if iSufysHoGm;wm
udkawmif rvdkcsifbl;? rav#mhwJh ZGJ/ vHkŒv[m &Srf;a'orSm &Sdw,f? ArmawGudk &mZ0if-unfhjyD;
"m;aoG;wkduf& r,fqdkwJh pum;yHk wpfaeŒaeŒawmh 'Djy\em ay:vmr,f? awmifay:om;[m
awmifay:om; todxufrausmf vGefapzdkΠ-uyf-uyfowdxm;&r,f? b,folyJjzpfjzpf -uD;xGm;vmcJh&if
Armh&efolyJ/ jywfom;wJhenf;udk usifhoHk;&r,f?
13

3? trSwftom;rSm txufatmifvHawmf. axmifhpGef;tjzla&mifay:wGif odE<0jrif;ysH&kyfwpfck/ ‚if;t
jzla&mif usefwzufem;ay:wGif em*q'Nef&kyfwpfck atmufzuf teDa&mifay:wGif jcaoFh&kyfwpfck
yg&So
d nf? wpfzufpeG ;f wGirf l yÌ&ly&H yk w
f pfcyk gao;onf? ausmzufwiG f rdrw
d Œkd ydik q
f ikd af ome,ferd w
d f
wdkif;jynfEdkifiHudkaz: jyonf? e,fedrdwfwdkŒrSmvnf; rif;wpfyg;ESifhwpfyg;rwlbJ wefcdk;&Sdv#if &Sd
onhftavsmuf tusOf;tus,fudk vdkufIjyKvkyf&onf? e,fedrdwfwdkŒ.twdkif;twmtuGmta0;
udk wpf&mh&Spfyg'&Sdaom &cdkifatmifvHawmf&wkwGifvnf;aumif;/ ompGavcsDvuFmwGifvnf;
aumif;/ &cdkifr[m&mZm0if wGifvnf;aumif; awGŒEdkifonf?
4? atmifvHawmf. t&kd;rSm 0g; odkŒr[kwf jy0gac: opfwpfrsKd;jzpfonf? tjrifhrSm 27 awmifjzpfI
owWyDous,fjyKvkyf&onf? 0g;rSm -uaomif0g;udkokH;onf?
5? atmifvHawmf pdkufxl&mXgerS a&$eef;raqmifawmf}uD;. ta&SŒbuf e0&wfudk;oG,fpDjc,faom
rSefpJar#mfaqmifawmfOD;. xdyfxuf xD;rpdkufckHwGif wifIv$ifhxl&onf?
6? atmifvHawmfudk tcsdefumv tuefŒowfr&Sd v$ifhxl pdkufaqmufonfhaeŒrSpI pkwfjyJa[mif;EGrf;
onfwdkifatmif Ekwfrc|wfpaumif;/ rcsrwifpaumif; tjrJyif xm;&onf?
7? atmifvHawmf.t"dyyg,frSm &uQKdif/ &uQdw[laomyk'fjzifh apmifha&Smufjcif;teufa-umifh vn;f
aumif;/ jzlpifaomoDv/ jrifhjrwfaom rsKd;&kd;jzpfjcif;a-umifhvnfaumif;/ a0oD,rsKd;/ ok'd<,rsKd;wdkŒ
xGe;f um;ay:ayguf&mjzpfaomrsKd;&d;k jzpfIvnf;aumif;/ &cdik w
f Œkd usifo
h ;Hk w&m;xk;H qdpk onfph um;t&/
rsLd;&d;k udk oDvjzlpifpmG apmifah &SmufcjhJ cif;a-umifh tjzla&mifut
kd ay:u wyf&onf? teDa&mifrf mS torBDB
EM/ cwWd,0Ho/ ousom*D,/ jA[RmEG,frsKd;&kd;wdkŒrS qif;oufvmaomtEG,fawmfjzpfI azmufjyef
wwfaomaoG;r&Sd/ yuwdeDjref;aomaoG;tqif;om&Sdaoma-umifh teDa&mifudkwyfqif&onf?
odaE<mjrif;wdkŒrnfonfrSm auGŒaumuffIoGm;jcif;r&Sd/ wnfhrwfajzmifhpif;Ivm;wwfaom oabm
a-umifh vnf;aumif;/ q'NefrsKd;rnfonf jzLaomtqif;rSwpfyg; qifrJudk arG;zGm;&kd;r&Sd/? jzL&m
rSrnf;vmonf[lIvnf;r&Sd/ yuwdaom tqif;udk tcgcyfodrf;rpGefŒaoma-umifhvnf;aumif;/
auom&mZmjcaoFhwdkŒrnfonfrSm awmoHk;axmifudkxD rxifouJhodkŒvnfaumif;/ xdkodkŒoabmjzifh
jynfhpkHaom owW0gokH;OD;wdkΠt&kyfjzifhvnfaumif;/ jzL/eDa&mifESpfckwdkΠjzifhaygif; 5 ckaom&ly&kyf
wdkŒudkaqmifaom yÌ&kyfwdkŒ jzpfI yÌ&ly&kyfudkwyfqif&onf?
q&mOD;omxGef; (&ckdif jrefrm y¾dwf)jrdKŒa[mif;
(&ckdifwefaqmif aqmif;yg;rsm; OD;OD;omxGef; pmtkyfrS ul;,lazmfjyygonf?

jrifhwifay;cJhavonf? wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf jAdwdo#wkdŒ. w&m;r#wr+ukd &ckdifom;xkdŒ txkduft
avsmuff&&SdcJhonf? trsKd;/ bmom/ omoemwnf;[laom trsKd;om;a&;vuQ%mwkdŒonf jrifomxifom
jzpfvmcJhonf? txl;ojzifh trsKd;om;a&;vuQ%maqmifaom &ckdifhpmayonf tnGefŒwvlvljzpfvmcJh
onf? vGwfvyfpGm ul;oef;a&mif;0,fr+&&SdcJhojzifh &ckdifom;wkdŒonf wjznf;jznf;wkd;wufvmcJhjyD; acwf
ynmrsm;ukdvnf; oif-um;cGifh &&SdvmcJhonf? wpfenf;tm;jzifhqkdaomf atmufom; wkdŒzsufIysufcJhaom
&ckdifwkdŒ. trsKd;om;vuQ%m/ ,Ofaus;r+vuQ%mrsm;ukd jyefvnf jyKpkysKd;axmifEkdifcJhonf? &ckdifom;
wkdŒ.tokduftjrKHonf t*FvdyfvufxufwGiftopfwzef jyefvnfpnfyifvmcJhonf? okdŒaomfvnf;
&ckdifwkdŒonf ocifajymif;oGm;aom t*FvdyfuGsefrsm;omjzpfayonf?

1885 ArmwpfjynfvkH; t*FvdfyfuGsefb0usa&mufjcif;
&ckdifom;wkdΠt*Fvdyf=Arm vufatmuf uGsefouf (101) ESpfjynfhonhfESpfwGif ArmwpfjynfvkH;
onf t*FvdyfuGsefb0 usa&mufoGm;cJhonf? ukdvkdeDxrf;ykd;atmufwGif twlusa&mufaeaom &ckdifESifh
ArmwkdŒonf twlvufwGJ &kef;uefcJh-uonf? &ckdifvlrsKd;wkdŒonf Armwpfwkdif;jynfvkH; vGwfajrmufa&;
twGuf OD;aqmifvrf;jycJhonf? &ckdifvlrsKd;q&mawmf to#ifOD;OwWronf wpfwkdif;jynfvkH;twGuf EkdifiH
a&;rsufpdzGifhay;cJhonf? t*Fvdyfvufatmuf tkyfcsKyfa&;/ w&m;pD&ifa&;/ Oya'jyKa&;/ ynma&;ponfh
Xmersm;wGif &ckid o
f m;wkŒd onf t"duwm0efrsm;ukd &,lEidk cf -hJ u&onf? okŒd aomf &ckid o
f m;wkŒd onf pnf;pdrf
r,pf/ tm%mrrufbJ wwkdif;jynfvkH;twGuf OD;pm;ay;aqmif&GufcJh-uonfrSm orkdif;oufaoyif jzpf
onf? &ckdifom;wkdŒtwGuf aemufqkH;&v'fu t*FvdyfukdawmfvSefI ArmvlrsKd;0g'DwkdŒ. vuf0g;-uD;
tkyfpkd;jcif;ukd cHae&jcif;yifjzpfonf? ArmhvlrsKd; q&mawmf OD;0dZm&tm; *k%fjyKyef;jcHrsm;/ ausmufwkdif
rsm;jyKvkyf*k%fjyK-uaomfvnf;/ OD;0dZm&.q&m vGwfvyfa&;rD;&+;wefaqmif q&mawmfOD;OwWrukdrl
orkdif;azsmufzkdΠ-udK;pm;aejcif;ukd -unfhjcif;jzifh Armho&kyfonf tay:vGif-uD;ay:vGifvmaponf?

ArmwkdŒxdefcsefxm;aom vGwfvyfa&;twGuf yxrqkH;usaom &ckdifhaoG;
ArmwkdŒonf ArmhvGwfvyfa&;ta-umif;ajym&mwGif ArmvlrsKd;wkdŒ.pGefŒvGwftepfemcHr+/ ArmwkdŒ
. OD;aqmifOD;&GufjyKcJhr+rsm;ukdom a&SŒwef;wifjyD; ajym-uonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf &ckdifom;
wkdŒtwGufusaomaoG;ukdrl xdefcsefxm;cJhonf? ArmhvGwfvyfa&;twGuf yGJOD;xGufaoG;onf &ckdifhaoG;
yifjzpfonf? atmufom;wkdŒ. vGwfvyfa&;orkdif;wGif usqkH;oGm;cJhaom rif;om;-uD;&$Dbef;. &J&JeDaom
trsKd;om;a&;aoG;ukdum; Armorkdif;wGif pmwpfa-umif;yif rygcJh?

PPPPPP
“u|ef;wGifZrŠL vlwGif&cdkif -udKifbdowif; uif;onftjypf cspfonftrsdK; -udK;onfvHkŒv
jrwfpm*ESifh ESpf0ewfvl cspf-unfjzLonf edAŠLqkawmif; jynfhtHhwnf;?”
Ak'<0iftvuFmrS
“trsdK;oDv/ ESpfXmeudk/ jynfh0r¾dKif apmifhpGrf;EdkifI/ &cdkifemr/ bGJŒrnfvSjzifh tEGwWonm/
ac:tyf&monf?”
em*dENarmfuGef;rS
12

ArmwkdŒajymaeaom awmfvSefa&;aeŒ 1945 rwfv 27 &uf
ArmwkdŒonf 1945 ck/ rwfv 27 &ufaeŒwGif ArmhajrwGif zufqpf*syefwkdŒtm; wkdufckdufcJhojzifh
xkad eŒukd awmfveS af &;aeŒ[k owfrw
S cf o
hJ nf? ,ckArmhppfbv
D ;l rsm;u wpfzef wyfrawmfaeΠtjzpfajymif;
vJ usif;yvsuf&Sdonf? zufqpf*syefukdawmfvSef&ef AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u &&if& r&&ifcs [lI ppf
a-u jimoHay;aomtcg &ckid af jrwGif *syefr&Sad wmhay? 1945 ck/ rwfv (27) &ufaeŒukd *syefawmfveS af &;
tjzpfa-ujimI *syefwkdŒtm;wkdufxkwf&ef [efjyifaomtcg &ckdifjynfwGif *syefr&Sdawmh? &ckdifwkdŒonf
vGwfvyfa&;twGuf &&mvufeufukdqGJukdifI awmfvSefwkdufxkwfcJhjcif;jzpfjyD; ArmwyfrawmfrS &kdifz,f
wpfvufr#yif tultnDr&cJhyg?
5

1948 ArmhvGwfvyfa&;ESifh &ckdifwpfusyf=Armwpfusyf
1948 ckESpfwGif ArmvGwfvyfa&;&&Sdonf? vGwfvyfa&; r&rSD AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef; usqkH;
onf? OD;Eku uruxjyKvkyfI vGwfvyfa&;ukd &,lcJhonf? okdŒaomf wkdif;&if;om;vlrsKd;wkdŒ. vGwfvyf
a&;r[kwfbJ ArmwkdŒ.vGwfvyfa&;omjzpfcJhonf? atmifqef;uwday;cJhaom &ckdifwpfusyf = Armwpf
usyfrlonf wef;wltcGifhta&;r[kwfbJ wvGJt"dy`m,f jzpfvmcJhonf? &ckdifwpfusyf = Arm wpfusyf
ponfjzifh aemufykdif;wkdif;&if;om;wpfrsKd;pD wpfusyf/ wpfusyf &&SdcsdefwGif Armonf (7) usyf wif;jynfh
&oGm;cJo
h nf? Tr#ruao;? e,fcsJŒawmfveS af &; umvwpfav#mufwiG f awm-udK/ awmif-um;Y oufpeG Œf
qHzsm; wdkufyGJ0ifI vlxkacgif;aqmif jzpfvm-uaom OD;pdEWm/ bHkaygufomausmfwdkŒuJhodkŒaom &cdkiftrsdK;
om;awmfvSefa&;orm;-uD;rsm;udk "m;jy/ olcdk; wHqdyfuyfI 0g;&rf;wyfvdkuf-uao;onf? vGwfvyfa&;
r&cifu yifvEHk iS hf wpfz/Hk Ekwjf zifw
h pfrsKd; vdrn
f mcJah omArmwkŒd . ajymawmhtoH/ a&;awmhtrSef v#mESpcf G
pum;a-umifh aemufwpf-udrfuGsefZmwfoGif; cHvkduf&jyDjzpfonf? aemufvlrsm; oifcef;pm,lp&myif
jzpfonf?

1952 wGif ArmwkdŒrdwfqufay;cJhaom 'Drkdua&pDvlowfyGJ
atmufom;wkdŒvGwfvyf-uavjyD? ArmwkdŒu ygvDref 'Drkdua&pD usifhokH;cJh-uonf[k ajym
-u onf? ygvDrefwGif &ckdifom;wkdŒ vGwfvyfpGmajymqkdwifjycGifhawmh &Sd-uygonf? okdŒaomf
&ckdifjynftwGuf vGwfvyfpGmvkyfykdifcGifhum; r&cJh-u? 1952 wGif awmyefZif;/ tcpm;(ausmufawmf)/
rusnf;ukef; (rmefatmif) paom &Gmrsm;wGif &GmvkH;uGswfvlowfyGJrsm;jzifh &ckdifom;rsm;tm; ArmvlrsKd;
-uD;0g'DOD;Eku &ckdifwkdŒtm; 'Drkdua&pDjzifh rdwfqufay;cJhygonf? &cdkifvlxku Armacgif;aqmifwdkŒ
tay:xm;&SdcJhaom ,Hk-unfr+/ jynfaxmifpk tay:xm;&SdcJhaom opPmw&m;. tusdK;&vm'faywnf;?

rw&m;vkyf&yfrsm;tm; awmfvSefjcif;onf w&m;enf;vrf;usonf
Armppf t m%m&S i f r sm;/ Armvl r sKd ; }uD ; 0g'D r sm;onf igwk d Πtm; trsKd ; rsKd ; zd E S d y f c J h o nf ?
&ufpufcJhonf? igwkdŒ&ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;tm; vlŒom;rsm;tjzpfyifoabmrxm;bJ igwkdŒtcGifhta&;rsm;ukd
vk,l csKd;azmuf vsuf&Sdonf? xkdŒa-umifh igwkdŒ&ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;onf igwkdŒukd &ufpufacsr+ef;aeaom
Armppf0g'/ Arm vlrsKd;}uD;0g'wkdŒukd tjrpfjyKwfatmif wkdufxkwfoGm;&rnf? igwkdŒ.wkdufyGJonf
orkdif;uawmif;qkdaom/ w&m;aomppfyGJjzpfonf? igwkdŒaexkdif&m &ckdifjynf/ igwkdŒaexkdif&m urBm}uD;
vSyom,ma&;twGuf Tpepfqkd;tm; &&mvufeufpGJukdifawmfvSef-u&rnfjzpfonf? “orkdif;u
igwkdŒwkdufyGJtm; tqkH;tjzwfay;vdrfhrnf”?
&ckdifjynfoltaygif;wkdŒtaejzifh &ckdiftrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;wkdufyGJwGif toufay;vSLcJh-u
aom tmZmenfol&Jaumif;rsm;tm; OD;nGwftav;jyK-uygpkdŒ? olwkdŒ.ppfrSefaom awmfvSefa&;c&D;ukd
igwkdŒqufvufav#mufvrf;-uygpkdŒ? igwkdŒ.tcsKyftjcmtm%mukd igwkdŒ&ckdiftrsKd;om;vufxJ
a&muf&Sd atmif igwkdŒ.aoG;/ acGs;/ ZGJrsm;ukday;qyf-uygpkdŒ?
&ckdifrsKd;cspfol&Jaumif;rsm;aumif;&mok*wda&mufygap?
&ckdifjynf uGsefb0rSvGwfajrmufEkdifygap?
PPPPPPPPPPPP

&cdkifatmifvHawmf

1958 zqyvESpfjcrf;uGJjcif;ESifh &ckdifjynf
1958 ckESpfwGif Arm0g'Drsm;t-um; tm%mvk-u&mrS tkyfpkESpfpkuGJjyefonf? OD;Ekacgif;aqmif
aomwnfjrJzqyvygwDukd rJay;v#if &ckdifjynfe,fay;rnf[k rJvdrfw&m;a[monf? oefŒ&Sif;zqyv
baqGu jynfe,fawmhray;Ekdifbl;/ cifAsm;wkdŒukd usefwJh[mukday;Ekdifw,f [k ajAmifpdefac:onf?
&ckdifwkdŒonf vGwfvyfa&;twGufvnf; wkdufckdufcJh&onf? aoG;ajrvnf;uscJh&onf? okdŒaomf
vGwfvyfa&;&vsiforRwEkdifiHaxmifcGifhESifh r[mrked &kyf&Sifawmfudk jyefay;rnf[k uwdjyKcJh-uaom Arm
acgif;aqmifrsm;xHrS jynfe,ftqifhukdyif vuf0g;jzefΠI toem;cHawmif;cJh-u&onf? wef;wltcGifh
ta&;ESifh jynfe,fvkdcsifaom &ckdifwkdŒonf OD;EkukdaxmufcHrJay;cJh-uonf? 1960 azazmf0g&Dv a&G;
aumufyGJwGif &ckdifwkdŒaxmufcHrJay;cJhaom OD;EkygwDtEkdif&&SdcJhonf? okdŒaomf OD;Ekonf rJqG,fpnf;&kH;pOf
uay;cJhaom &ckdifjynftm; jynfe,fay;rnf[laom uwdukd csKd;azmufcJhonf? rdrdygwD rJtEdkif&a&;
wpfcu
k o
kd m a&S;&+I &ckid jf ynfwiG ;f w&m;r0if 0ifa&mufvm-uaom b*FvrD q
l vifrsm;udk Edik if o
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owfrSwfvdkufjcif;rSm OD;Eku &cdkifjynfolvlxkudk ay;tyfcJhonfh t-uD;rm;qHk; wHkΠjyefr+yif jzpfayonf?
&ckdifom;wkdŒrSm t&SufwuGJ/ tusdK;enf;pGmjzifh ,l-uKH;r&jzpf &kHrSwyg; rnfokdŒr#rwwfEkdifbJ vufr+difcscJh
-u&onf?
&ckdifu jynfe,fawmif;/ &Srf;u jynfaxmifpkppfppfrlwifvmaomtcg Armppf0g'Dae0if;onf
[efraqmifEkdifawmhbJ tm%modrf;cJhavonf? aemufqkH;wGif &ckdifwkdŒtm; atmifqef; rufvHk; ay;cJh
aom wpfusyfpDtcGifhta&;ukdyg ae0if;u vk,loGm;cJhonf?
6

&cdkifxD;&kd;eef;ae rif;taygif;wdkŒ.a&$eef;OuUoHeef;raqmifOD;Y tjrJpdkufxlxm;tyfaom
atmifvHawmf}uD;. ta-umif;tjcif;&m [lor#wdkŒudk tcgtcGifhESifh -uHK-udKufpGm yk&m%fusrf;/ &mZmao
e*FAsL[musrf;/ AsL[m puUdusrf;/ AsL[mppfcsDusrf;wdkŒrS A[kokwjzpfapjcif;iSm tenf;o,fazmfjyyg tHh?
1? atmifvHawmf.twdkif;twmum; tvsm; 9 awmif teH 6 awmifwdwdf&Sdonf? xdkxufi,fapvdk
v#if t0ufus twdkif;twmjyKI okH;cJhonf?
2? ta&miftqif;rSSm teDESifhtjzLpyfI jyK-uonf? tjzLa&mifudk txufydkif;wGifxm;I teDa&mifudk
atmufydkif;Y xm;onf?
11

ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'Drsm;uvnf; igwkdŒ. trsKd;om;a&;pdwf"mwf/ EkdifiHa&;pdwf"mwf/ awmfvSefa&;pdwf"mwf
rsm;Ek;d -um;vma&;ukd txl;a-umuf&ŒHG ae-uonf? xkad -umifh igwkŒd .awmfveS af &;r&ifrh n
S rhf t
DS csdeu
f wnf;
u jzdKcGJcJh-uonf? &ifhrSnfhvmcJhv#ifvnf; pepfwus 0ifa&mufxkd;ESufjzdKcGif;cJh-uonfukd igwkdŒ&ckdiftrsKd;
om;rsm; awGŒ }uKHcJh&jyD;jzpfonf? igwkdŒ&ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;onf Arme,fcsJŒ/ t*Fvdyfe,fcsJŒ/ zufqpf
*syefe,fcsJŒ/ ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'/ Armppftm%m&Sif0g'wkdŒtm; orkdif;tpOftquf wkdufxkwfcJh-uonf?
rdwfaqG[efaqmifxm;aom &efolrsm;ukdvnf; igwkdŒ.orkdif;wav#mufawGŒ&SdcJh&jyD;jzpfonf?
e,fcsJŒrsm;onf olwkdŒyef;wkdifatmifjrifa&;twGuf igwkdŒ&ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;ukd tokH;cscJh-uonf?
vkd&myef;wkdifa&mufv#if igwkdŒtm; owfjzwfjcif;/ zrf;qD;axmifcsr_rsm;jyKvkyfcJh-uonf? Arme,fcsJŒrsm;/
ArmvlrsKd;}uD;0g'Drsm;a-umifh igwkdŒ&ckdiforkdif;vnf; aysmufcJh&onf? igwkdŒ. pmay,Ofaus;r+/
tEkynmrsm;vnf; Armr+jyKcHae&onf? orkdif;a-umif;t& igwkdŒ&ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;onf oD;jcm;orRwEkdifi
Htqifh&Sdygvsuf r[mArmrsm;a-umifh “jynfe,f”tqifhyif r&&SdcJhay? ,ckigwkdŒukday;xm;aom
“&ckdifjynfe,f”qkdonfrSmvnf; EkdifiHa&;t& jynfe,ftqifhr&Sdacs? igwkdŒtbkd;/ tbGm;rsm;onf
ArmvlrsKd;rsm;ESifhvufwGJum ArmjynfvGwfvyfa&;twGufwkdufyGJ0ifcJh-uaomfvnf; trSefwu,f
vGwfvyfa&;&aomtcg &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;rSm vGwfvyfa&;r&? “jynfe,f”tqifhay;&efawmif;cHaom
tcgvnf; rsufESmi,fi,fjzifh awmif;cHcJh&onf? okdŒaomf ppfrSefaomjynfe,ftqifh r&cJhacs? &ckdifvlrsKd;
rsm;.EkdifiHa&;tqifhtwef;ukdtm; wjznf;jznf; edrfhusatmif aqmif&GufcJh-uonf? “oD;jcm;orRwEkdifiH
tqifhrS jynfe,f” “jynfe,ftqifhrS wkdif;tqifh” “wkdif;tqifhrS wzef vlenf;pktqifh” xd wqifhjyD;
wpfqifh usqif;oGm;atmif ArmvlrsKd;rsm; pepfwusaqmif&GufcJh-uonf? xkda-umifh igwkdŒ&ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;
onf igwkŒd . &ckid o
f rkid ;f a-umif;em;vnf&eftxl;ta&;}uD;onf? &ckid v
f rl sKd;rsm;.vuf&t
dS qifah e&mukd
od&Sdxm;&efvkdtyfonf? &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;onf uGsefb0wGifusa&mufaeonfukd arhaysmufroGm;atmif
owdxm;-u&rnf? igwkdŒ.qkH;&+H;oGm;aom”&ckdifhtcsKyftjcmtm%m” ukd igwkdŒvufxJ jyefvnf&&Sda&;
onf &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;. orkdif;ay;wm0efjzpfonf? tcsKyftjcmtm%musqkH;jcif;jcif;a-umifh uGsefb0.
qkd;arGrsm;ukd igwkdŒod&SdcJh-ujyD;jzpfonf? xkda-umifh tcsKyftjcmtm%m &&SdrS ukd,fhuH-urRm ukd,fzefwD;cGif
h&&Sdrnfjzpfonf? xkda-umifh tcsKyftjcmtm%monf &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;wkduf,lwnfaqmuf&rnfh
tvkdtyfqkH;t&mjzpfayonf?
&ckdiftrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&; rnfolulnDrnfenf;?
&ckdiftrsKd;om;vGwfajrmufa&;ukd rnfonfhEkdifiH/ rnfonfhvlrsKd;ur# ulnDvdrfhrnfr[kwf?
&ckid jf ynf.jy\emukd &ckid jf ynforl sm;uom uk,
d t
hf m;uk,
d u
f ;dk jyD; -udK;yrf;wku
d cf u
dk f oGm;&rnfjzpf onf?
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&ckdifvlrsKd;wkdŒvkdvm;awmifhwaeaomvGwfvyfa&;ukd &&Sdrnfjzpfayonf?
ArmvlrsKd;-uD;0g'DwkdŒonf &ckdifjynfolwpf&yfvkH;pdwf"mwfusqif;jyD; t&+H;ay;tnhHcHvmatmif
ESpfaygif;rsm;pGmuyif zefwD;vkyfaqmifcJh-uonf? okdŒaomfvnf; &ckdifvlrsKd;rsm;taejzifh rdrdwkdŒ.
&ykdifcGifhrSefor#ukd r&&atmif,lrnf[kqkH;jzwfaom wpfaeŒrSm rnfonfhf vufeuf/ rnfonfhft-urf;zuf
r+urS wm;qD;acszsufvkdŒ&vdrfhrnf r[kwfay? &ckdifvlrsKd;wkdŒ. wkefv+yfacsmufcsm;p&m/ 0rf;enf;a-uuGJ
p&m tajctaeukd rodrjrifaomolrsm;twGuf txuf oabmw&m;rsm;onf at;wdat;puf
rav;reufbJ &Sdaumif;&Sdayvdrfhrnf? okdŒaomf “orkdif;uoufaojycJhygjyD?”
10

&ckdifhaoG; pGef;cJhaom 1967 -o*kwf 13 &uf
bm;Al[d,ifh/ qef[d,ifh? 'kdif;usD[d,ifh &D[d,ifh [lI &ckdifjynfwGif qefa&pyg;aygrsm; jcif;ukd
wifpm;cJh-uonf? okdŒaomf Armhppftm%m&Sifrsm;vufatmufwGif &ckdifjynfY qefjywf vwf iwfrGwfr+
-uKHcJhonf? qefjywfvwfr+awmifru qeftpm; usnfqHukd &cJh-uonf? &ckdifjynf ppfawGjrdKŒwGif 1967
ck -o*kwfv 13 &uf OykwfaeŒwGif xrif;iwfI qefawmif;aom jynfolrsm;ukd ae0if;ppftpkd;&u ypf
owf&ef trdefŒay;cJhonf? xkdtcsdefu &ckdifjynfwGif qef&Sm;yg;aeI r[kwf? ppfawGjrdKŒ&Sd tpkd;&*kda'gif
-uD;rsm;/ pDbDzvwfrsm;wGif qeftjynfh&Sdaeonf? &ckdifjynfolwkdŒukd qefrjzefŒa0bJ txufArmjynf
okdŒwifykdŒ&ef ae0if;tpkd;&u okdavSmifxm;jcif;jzpfonf? xkda-umifh &ckdifjynfwGif qefjywfvwfr+ESifh
-uKHawGŒ&um &ckdifjynfolrsm; qefxkwfay;&ef qENjyawmif;qkd&mrS jrqefpufa&SŒwGif w'kH;'kH; wa'gif;
a'gif; ESifh usnfrkd;&Gmum &ckdif&[ef;&Sifvl/ ausmif;om;/ausmif;ol/ r,foDv&Sifrsm;vnf; aoyGJ0ifcJh
&onf? aool/'%f&m&oltm;vkH;ukd ppfum;wpfpD;ay:wifum tpkvkduftjyKHvkduf ajrjrKyfcJhonf?
toufraobJ usef&o
dS rl sm;ukv
d nf; uGsefawmfraoao;yg [kajymaomfvnf; *&krjyKbJ t&Siv
f wfvwf
ajrjrKyfcJhonftxd Armonf &ckdifukd yckH;csif;,SOfrnfh &efbufvlrsKd;tjzpf tjrJwrf; nSrf;yrf;ESdyfpufcJh
-uonf?

ay;cJhygonf &ckdifjynfe,f okdŒaomf h h h h
1974 ckwGif OD;Ek ray;cJhaom jynfe,fukd ae0if;uay;cJh onf? emrnfuom jynfe,f jzpfjyD;
vkyyf idk cf iG [
hf o
l r#udk ae0if;.ppfacG;rsm;u "m;rk;d tkycf sKyfc-hJ uonf? Auyrsm;ukd Aef;jyum &ckid jf ynfwiG f
&GmvkH;u|wfrD;&+dŒ/ vlowf/ qufa-u; aumuf/ rk'def;usifh/"m;jywkdufjzifh atmufom;rsm;onf xifovkd
cs,f vS,fcJh-uonf? xkdokdΠArmvlrsKd;/ ppf0g'D/ wpfygwDpepfatmufwGif &ckdifjynfvnf; 26 ESpf-um
cJhonf?,ckvnf; &ckdifjynfukd jynfe,ftqifh owfrSwfxm;onf[k ajymqkdvdrfnmaeao;onf?

88 ESifh &ckdifjynf
88 ta&;tcif;jzpfI ArmjynfwpfjynfvkH; yGwfavm&kdufaomtcg &ckdifokdŒvnf; ul;pufvmcJh
onf? atmufom;wkŒd . rajymyavmufaom aoG;ajrusr+orkid ;f wGif &ckid w
f Œdk vnf; yg0ifa&; om;cJo
h nf?
Armh'Drkdua&pDwkdufyGJtwGuf jynfajy;/ &Gmajymif;cJh&aom &ckdifom;wkdŒ.ta&twGufvnf; renf;
awmhay? ppfzdeyfatmufwGif toufaysmufcJh&onfum; 'kESifha';? axmifeef;pH&if;b0qkH;vlnGefŒ
wkH;cJh&onfrSm a&wGufI rukefEkdifyg?

90 a&G;aumufyGJESifh &ckdifjynf
1990 wGif a&G;aumufyGJusif;yaomtcgwGifvnf; &ckdifom;wkdŒonf atmifqef;pk-unfESifh
vufwGJcJh-u.? EkdifiHa&;/ vlrsKd;tcGifhta&;twGuf &ckdifom;wkdŒonf rnfonfhtcgrSvufrwGefŒcJh
-u? a&G;aumufyGJwGif &ckdiftrsKd;om;'DrkdupDtzGJŒcsKyfu trwfae&m (11) ae&m&&Sdum &ckdiftrsKd;om;
tm;rmefukd zGifhjycJh-uonf? okdŒaomf r-umay? &ckdifom;wkdŒtrsKd;om;a&;tm;rmefukd jzdKcGif;cHvkduf&onf?
&ckdiftrsKd;om;EkdifiHa&;acgif;aqmifrsm;ukd zrf;qD;cJhonf? &ckdifwkdŒtm; &ckdifom;tcGifhta&;/ &ckdifepfem
csufrsm;ESifhywfowfI ajymqkdwifjycGifh vkH;0r&&SdcJh? a&G;aumufyGJtwGif;wGifvnf; rqv ppfAdkvf
7

S
vlxGuf Armtrsm;pk -uD;pkd;aom NLD ygwDu jrdKŒwkdif;&Gmwkdif;wGif rJqG,fw&m; 'Drkdua&pDpum;ukd
ajymqkd wifjycsdefwGif &ckdifwkdŒrSm rdrdwkdŒ.trsKd;om;a&;w&m;ukd a,mifIyifajymqkda&;om;cGifhr&Sd?
v#if rsufuef;rsKd;cspf/ tjrifusOf;olrsm;tjzpf pGyfpGJI zrf;qD;csKyfaESmifowfypfcJhonf? aemufykdif; wGif
&ckdiftrsKd;om;'Drkdua&pDygwDukdvnf; zsufodrf;cHcJh&onf? ArmwkdŒ. NLD ygwdukd ,ck
tcsdefxdqufvufv+yf&Sm;cGifhay;xm;onfrSm ArmvufxJrS tm%m ArmvufxJokdΠjyefvGJrnfh
tpDtpOfvm;[k oHo,yGm;zG,fyif?

&ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH; av;pm;jrwfEkd;aom q&m-uD;OD;OD;omxGef;
&ckdiftrsKd;om;xJrS 'Drkdua&pDta&;/ wef;wla&;/ w&m;r#wa&;twGuf toufay;cJh&aom
acgif;aqmifrsm;xJwGif &ckdifwpfrsKd;om;vkH;av;pm;-unfnKdaom q&m-uD;OD;OD;omxGef;vnf;
wpfOD;tygt0ifjzpfonf? q&m-uD;. rJqG,fpnf;&kH;a&;Y Armppftpkd;&. wkdif;jynftay: tEkdifusifh
apmfum;r+ESifhywfowfI q&m-uD;. tcsufusus a0zefxkd;ESufcsufrsm;onf Armppf tpkd;&twGuf
temay:wkwfus t&Suf&apcJhonf? xkdtwGufa-umifh q&m-uD;tm; rif;jym;jrdKΠjym;acsmif;aus;&GmY
trsKd;om;a&; w&m;a[m onf ponfjzifh trsKd;rsdK;pGJcsufwifjyD; zrf;qD;cJhonf? xkdŒaemuf etzppfckH&kH;
u axmif'%f (3)ESpf jypf'%fcsrSwfjyD; ppfawGtusOf;axmifY csKyfaESmifxm; cJhonf? axmifxJwGif
q&m-uD;tm; xrif;auGs;&mwGif pdet
f p&Sad om tqdyyf gaom tpm;tpm;rsm;tm; aeŒpOfvv
dk dk tenf;i,f
xnfhauGs;I vkyf-uHcJh&m axmifusjyD; wpfESpf avmuft-um 1990 -o*kwfv 14 &ufaeŒwGif ppfawG
tusOf;axmifY uG,fvGefoGm;cJhonf? ArmwkdŒonf &ckdifom;wkdŒtwGuf rm;rm;rwfrwf wkdufyGJ0ifcJhaom
q&m-uD;tm; owfjzwfjcif;jzifh &ckdifwkdŒtm;csKd;ESdyfcJhonf? okdŒaomf q&m-uD;.rjyD;qkH;cJhaom trsKd;om;
a&;wm0efukd &ckdifvli,f rsKd;qufopfrsm;u qufvufxrf;aqmif a&SŒquf-uayOD;rnf?

pum;ESpfcGajymaom Armhacgif;aqmif zcifESifh orD;
ArmwkdŒ.vGwfvyfa&;acgif;aqmif AkdvfcsKyfatmifqef;u &ckdifvlrsKd;wkdŒESifhywfowfI
“ajrGayG;ESifh &ckdifukd wpfjydKifwnf;awGŒv#if &ckdifukdOD;pGmowf”[kajymcJhzl;onf? ,ckwpfzef olŒorD;
atmifqef;pk-unf &ckdifukdpnf;&kH;c&D;wGif ygwDwGif;rdefŒcGef;wpfckwGif “usruawmh &ckdifawGukd cspf
rdoGm;jyD” [kqkdvmjyefonf? tazurD;wkduf/ orD;u a&avmif;cHaom&ckdifwkdŒ b,fvkdrSr,kHEkdif awmh?
uGsefb0. emusOf;p&m/ cg;oD;p&mtawGŒt-uKHrsm;ukd t-udrfaygif;rsm;pGmcHcJh&um ArmwkdŒazmfpyfaom
aq;cg;/ aq;csKd t rsKd ; rsKd ; uk d v nf ; aomuf c J h z l ; jyD ? xk d Πa-umif h tjrJ w rf ; tvd r f rcH & atmif
orkdif;oifcef;pm,lh-u&ayrnf?

o,HZmwayg=uG,f0aom &ckdifjynf/ qif;&JEGrf;yg;aeaom &ckdifvlrsKd;
,cktcg &ckdifjynfwGif ta&SŒawmiftm&SwGif t-uD;rmqkH;aom obm0"mwfaiGŒwGif;rsm;tm;
awGŒ&Sdxm;onf? Armppftpkd;&uvnf; xkd"mwfaiGŒwGif;rsm;ukd EkdifiHjcm;ukry%DESifh tusKd;wlyl;aygif;
vsuf&Sdonf? xkd"mwfaiGŒwGif;rS&&Sdaom aiGa-u;jzifh Armppftpkd;&onf txufArmjynfwGif wHxm;
rsm;/ puf&rHk sm;/ aq;&krH sm;vnf;wnfaqmufrnf? &ckid v
f rl sKd;rsm;twGurf l rjzpfpavmufuo
dk m ay;urf;I
ajzodrfhay;rnf? Armhrm,mtwGif; roufqif;a&; &ckdifom;rsm;owdxm;-u&rnf? &ckdifjynfukd acsm
hwpfcg ajrSmufwpfvSnfh tkyfcsKyfaeonfukd rarhzkdŒvkdonf? ,ckvnf; o,HZmwayg-uG,f0aom &ckdif
jynfwGif urBm-uD;.vkdtyfaompGrf;tif *wfpf xGufvsuf&Sdonf? okdŒaomf &ckdifom;wkdŒrS qif;&JwGif;euf
8

oxufeufvmum &ckdifjynfukdpGefŒcGmum e,fajrjcm;rsm;wGif 0rf;pmtwGuf&kef;uefae-u&onf?
&ckdifvlrsKd;twGuf tusKd; tjrwfvnf; wpfckvnf;r&Sdaom ppftpkd;&. &ckdifh a&$pDrHudef;onf ArmhtusKd;/
vufwpfqyk pf m Akv
d cf sKyf wkŒd twGuo
f m jzpfonf? xkŒd a-umifh &ckid hf o,HZmw &ckid o
f m; ok;H pGcJ iG &hf a&;onf
ta&;-uD;qkH;jzpfonf? ,ckawGŒ&Sdxm;aom obm0"mwfaiGŒtm;a&mif;csI &rnfh aiGa-u;onf
&ckdifjynftm; urBmhtqifhrSD EdkifiHwpfEdkifiH tjzpfxlaxmifEdkifonfudk &ckdifjynfolvlxk tm;vHk;
pGJrSwfxm;&ayrnf?
2007 pufwifbmawmfvSefa&;ESifh &ckdiftrsKd;om;rsm;
jrefrmEkdifiHppftm%m&Sifwkdufzsufa&;wGifvnf; &ckdifol/ &ckdifom;rsm;onf a&S;wef;rS rm;
rm;rwfrwf&yfwnfwkdufyGJ0ifcJh-uonfukd rnfolr# jiif;y,fIr&Ekdif? 2007 pufwifbmvwGif jzpf
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9

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