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Chapter 1

Introduction to Momentum Transfer

Pressure at a point in a Static Fluid. For a static uid, the normal stress at a point may be determined from the application of Newtons laws to a uid element as the uid element approaches zero size. It may be recalled that there can be no shearing stress in a static uid. Thus, the only surface forces present will be those due to normal stresses. Consider the element shown in Figure 1.4. This element, while at rest, is acted upon by gravity and normal stresses. The weight of the uid element is rg(Dx Dy Dz/2).
Fs y Fx x z q x Fy y s z

Figure 1.4 Element in a static uid.

For a body at rest, SF 0. In the x direction DFx DFs sin u 0 Since sin u Dy/Ds, the above equation becomes DFx DFs Dy 0 Ds

Dividing through by Dy Dz and taking the limit as the volume of the element approaches zero, we obtain   DFx DFs lim 0 Ds Dz DV!0 Dy Dz Recalling that normal stress is positive in tension, we obtain, by evaluating the above equation s xx s ss In the y direction, applying SF 0 yields DFy DFs cos u rg Since cos u Dx/Ds, one has DFy DFs Dx Dx Dy Dz rg 0 Ds 2 Dx Dy Dz 0 2 (1-1)

Dividing through by Dx Dz and taking the limit as before, we obtain   DFy DFs rgDy lim 0 2 Ds Dz DV!0 Dx Dz