1988 ckESpf rwfv 12 &ufESifh 13 &uf &efukefpufr+wuUodkvfwGif

jzpfysufcJhaom tjzpftysufrsm;

1988ckepf/ rwfv 12 ESifh 13 &uf &efukefpur_wuUodkvfwGifjzpfysufcJhaom tjzpfysufrsm;?
1350 jynfh ta&;awmfyHk}uD;vdk@ jynfolrsm;u tjrwfwEdk; ac:a0:oHk;pGJae=uonfh &Spfav;vHk; 'Drdkua&pDtHkºuGr_}uD;. yxr
rD;yGg;rD;prsm;u 1988 ckESpf/ rwfv (12) &ufESifh (13)&uf ae@rsm;wGif &efukepf ufr_wuUodkvfY pwif awmuf avmifcJhonf?
xdkrD;yGm;rsm;tm; ppftm%mydkifawGu rnfodk@oabmxm;cJh=u/ rnfodk@udkifwG,fcJh=uygoenf;?wbufwGif ppftm%mydkif.
t}udrf}udrf
tvDvD
&rf;um;yufpufr_rsm;/
pdefac:apmfum;r_rsm;tm;
jynfolESifh
ausmif;om;vli,f awGu
rnfodk@aompdwf"gwf/ ydkif;jzwfcsufrsm; ESifh &ifqdkifausmef if;cJhoenf; ---- ponfh 1988/ rwfv. aEG&ufrsm;u usaemfwdk@
EdkifiHordkif;wGif urŠnf;wifcJhay+yD? ocFef;pm/ twk,lp&mESifh av;jrwf*k%fðyzG,f&mrsm;udk jyefvnfwifjyjcif; ESifhtwl usqHk;cJh/
pGef@vGwfcJh=uaom ol&Jaumif;awG/ &JabmfawGudk OD;!Gwfjcif;vnf;jzpfonf?

(1)

1988 ckESpf/ rwfvqef;twGif; &efukefòrd@awmf. vHkòcHa&;tajctae?
1? 1988 ckESpfrwfv 14 &ufae@wGif pwkwÎt}udrfjynfol@vGwfawmf qÏrtpnf;ta0; pwifusif;y&ef &Sdaejcif;/
2? 43 ESpfajrmufawmfvSefa&;ae@csDwufyGJtwGuf wyfrawmfppfa=umif;}uD;rsm; avhusifhaejcif;/
3? tajccHynm txufwef;pmar;yGJrsm; ajzqdk&efeD;uyfaejcif;/
4? 1988 ckESpf/ rwfv (7) &ufae@wGif &efukefòrdŒ/ jynfvrf;ray:&Sd csufudkqvdkAufoH±kH;a&SŒwGif AHk;aygufuGJr_jzpfay:cJhjcif;/
5? 1987 ckESpf/ pufwifbm (5) &ufae@wGif rqv ppftpdk;&onf wpHkw&mcdkifvHkaomta=umif;jycsufray;bJ aiGpuUL rsm; udk
w&m;0ifr_rS zsufodrf;cJhjcif;a=umifh (‚if;wdk@. trmcHrsm;/ owif;ay;rsm;/ opPmawmfcHrS tp) wwdkif;jynfvHk;. atmhESvHk;emr_udk
cHpm;ae&jcif;/
6? aiGpuULzsufodrf;vdkufjcif;twGuf ausmif;awmfom;rsm;rS ppftpdk;&tm;wHk@jyefpdeaf c:jcif;? (rd_if;&mjynfhta&;tcif;
+yD;aemufoufaomvlxk (vli,fxkwdkufyGJrsm;) wzefjyefay:vmjcif;?
7? &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfonf aiGpuULta&;tcif;wGif (rqv) tpdk;&tm; jyif;xefpGmwkef@jyefcJhaom wuUodkvf wckjzpfojzifh
tpdk;&. t!‡dK;taw;udk cHxm;&jcif;/ (tjyeftvSeftm;jzifh jynfolrsm;. tm;ay;axmufcHr_ESifh ar#mfvifhcsufqHkrSwfb0udk
&,lxm;Edkif jcif;)
8? 1988 ck/ atmufwdkbmvtwGif; ysOf;rem;a&qif;wuUodkvfrsm;ESifh ppfawGwuUodkvfwdk@wGif tpdk;&qef@usifa&; ausmif;om;xk
qENjyyGJrsm;/ q,fpkESpfwckausmf +idrfoufae&mrS jyefvnfay:vmjcif;?
9? EdkifiHa&;Edk;=um;r_tm;aumif;aom vli,frsKd;qufrsm; pkpkpnf;pnf;/ wnfwnf+idrf+idrf/ uspfuspfvpfvpfESifh pkzGJ@r_ tm;aumif;ae+yD;
wdkufyGJ0ifvdkr_pdwf"gwfrsm; [kef;[kef;xaeaom tajctaejzpfaejcif;?
10? wdkif;jynfonf urBmhzGH@òzd;wdk;wufr_ tenf;qHk;EdkifiH (LDC) pm;&if;0ifcJh&+yD; urBmhtvnfwGif trsKd;om;*k%foduQ c|wfòcHusoGm;
cJhonf?
11? rqv. vrf;pOfudk ‚if;wdk@ygwDtwGif;Yyif ,Hk=unfr_xdk;usae+yD; tajymif;tvJudk wwdkif;jynfvHk;u awmifhwaejcif;? Txuf
ygtajctae tcsuftvufrsm;atmufwGif 1988 ckESpf/ rwfv (12) ESifh rwfv (13) &ufae@ tjzpftzsufrsm; ay:xGufvmonf udk
qufpyf=unfhEdkif&efjzpfygonf?
(2)
12-3-88/ n 8 em&Dcef@
&efukefpufr_wuUodkvf/ jyifyaqmifausmifom;rsm;aexdkif&m taemufóud‹ukef; “pENm0if;”vufbuf&nfqdkifwGif pufr_ wuUodkvf
'kwd,ESpfausmif;om;rsm;jzpf=uonfh 0if;jrifh (EGm;odk;}uD;)/ 0if;jrifh (ykvJ)ESifh ausmfqef;0if;wdk@ vufbuf&nfqdkif xdkifae =u+yD;
qdkiftwGif; pdkif;xD;qdkifoDcsif;zGifhxm;onf?
xdktcsdefwGif 0if;jrifh (EGm;odk;}uD;)rS aZmf0if;xGÉfoDcsif;udk ajymif;zGifhay;&ef qdkif&Siftm;ajym&m qdkif&Sifu aZmf0if;xGÉt
f acG
r&Sd/ wl;wl;tacGom&Sda=umif;ajymonf? xdktcg rsufemcsif;qdkifpm;yGJrS t&ufrl;aeaom t&yfom; wOD;u “pdkif;xD;qdkiftacG em;
raxmifcsif&if jyefayhguG”[k cyfjywfjywfajym&if; bk=unfh=unfhaeonf? 0if;jrifh (EGm;odk;}uD;) u “tudkwdk@zGifhcdkif;wm
rodvdk@ajymwm” [k awmif;yefonf? xdktcg t&yfom;vli,fu “rif;wdk@ &Sd&if rxdkifawmhbl;”[k ajym+yD; xxGufoGm;onf?
c%t=umwGif 0if;jrifhwdk@tzGJ@vnf; xdkolawGrl;aerSef;odojzifh jyef&eftx wGif acG;ajcjzifht±kdufcH&onf? usef&yfuGufwGif;rS
trl;orm;vli,f (3) OD;uvnf;acGajcrsm;jzifh 0if;jrifhwdk@tm; 0dkif;±dkuf=u onf?
qdkiftjyiftxd vdkufvH±dkufESuf=u&m ausmif;om;ESpfOD;jyif;xefpGm'%f&m&cJh+yD; &ufuGufjynfol‹aumifpD twGif; a&;rl;
OD;}uD;jrifh a&muf&SdvmI 0ifa&mufjzefajzay;cJhonf? Todk@tcsdefrDjzefajzay;EdkifcJhojzifhom ausmif;om;rsm; oufomoGm;cJh&jcif;
jzpfa=umif;
vufbuf&nfqdkifydkif&Sif
=um;vlrsufjrifoufaojzpfonfh
a':apm&DrS
aumfr&SifwGif
xGufqdkcJhonf?
(T&efyGJwGifausmif;om;0if;jrifh (EGm;odk;}uD;) ausmfqef;0if;wdk@ESpfOD;ESifh t&yfom;ausmf!Gef@ (c) *Gwfpdefyg '%f&m&cJhonf?)
ausmif;om;rsm;onf olwdk@tm;±kdufESufcJhaomf &yfuGuftwGif;rSvli,frsm;udkvlvnf;rod/ trnfudkvnf; rod =uyg?
tcif;jzpfyGm;&mqdkifodk@ &Jpcef;rSvma&mufppfaq;aomtcg qdkif&Sifa':apm&Du 'k-&Jtyk fOD;vSarmiftm; tr_wGif nDnDvGif (c)
aZmfaZmf yg0ifa=umif; xkwfazmfajymqdkonfudk qdkiftwGif;&Sdolrsm;vHk;=um;vdkuf=u&onf? Tpum;t& ausmif;om;rsm;onf
olwdk@udk ±dkufESufvdkufolrSm nDnDvGif (c) aZmfaZmfatmif[k rSwfxm;vdkuf=uonf?

ausmif;om;ESpfOD;tm;
trl;orm;rsm;u
&efp±kdufESufvdkuf=uonfqdkaomowif;udk
=um;vdkuf=u&aom
ausmif;om;rsm;onf rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf+yD; ±dkuf&mwGifyg0ifonfhqdkaom nDnDvGif.aetdrfudkvdkufvHpHkprf;=uonf? nDnDvGif aexdkif&m
udk[if;vrf;/
vrf;oG,f-2udk
odoGm;=uonf?
,if;vrf;oG,fwGif
&yfuGufaumifpD0if
OD;!Gef‹óudif.aetdrf&Sd&m
“aumifpD0ifb,frSmvJ” [k ar;jref;=uonf? xdk@aemuf OD;!GefŒóudif.aetdrfrS oef;acgif;pm&if;udkawmif;,l=unfhI
nDnDvGif.yaxG;jzpfol OD;Adkvftdrfodk@oGm;a&mufum nDnDvGiftm; xkwfay;&ef awmif;qdkjcif;rsm;ðyvkyf=uonf?
ausmif;om;rsm; Todk@awmif;qdkaejcif;rSm tm%mydkifrsm;rS ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_r&Sdjcif;a=umifhjzpfonf? ,cifu vnf;
cHxm;&zl;onfhtawG@tóuHrsm;a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;u w&m;r#wr_udkvufawG‹ taumiftxnfazmf&ef vdkvm; awmif;qdkae=u
jcif;omjzpfonf? ausmif;om;rsm; Todk@pk±kHvkyfaqmifae=ua=umif; q&mrsm;odaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;&Sd&modk@ csufjcif;a&muf
vm+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;. rauseyfr_rsm;udk w&m;enf;vrf;uspGm ajz&Sif;ay;rnf[k ajymqdkaom a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;vnf; q&m
. pum;udk em;axmifvsuf udk[if;vrf;rS jyefxGufvmcJh=uonf?
q&mrsm;ESifhausmif;om;rsm;onf &yfuGufaumifpD±kH;odk@a&muf&Sdvm+yD; tif;pdefòrd@e,f&Jr–;/ tif;pdef&Jpcef;r–;/ e,fxdef;/ 'k&Jtkyfwdk@ESifh awG@qHkI ausmif;om;rsm;tm;±dkufonfh w&m;cHrsm;ESifhywfoufI rnfodk@ta&;,l aqmif&Guf rnfudk odvdka=umif;
ar;jref;&m pcef;rª;OD;!Gef‹armifrS (1) ausmif;om;rsm;udk ±kdufonfhw&m;cHtm; nwGif;csif; zrf;qD;rnfjzpfa=umif;/ (2) Oya'ESifhtnD
xda&mufpGm ta&;,lrnfjzpfa=umif;/ (3) tr_+yD;oGm;v#ifvnf; &yfuGuf twGif;odk@ jyefvnfra&mufap&ef wm0ef,lrnf jzpfa=umif;
ajymonf? ygarmuQcsKyfrS wu,fr[kwfoltm; ta&; r,lrdap&efESifh wu,f±dkufaomuav;udk xda&mufpGm ta&;,l&efajymcJh
onf?
xdk@twGuf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh q&mrsm;u auseyfaoma=umifh vlpkcGJIjyefcJh=uonf? odk@aomf xdknwGifyif atmufyg
rauseyfp&m tajctaetcsKdŒvnf; tm;%mydkifrsm;.vkyfaqmifr_a=umifh jzpfay:cJhjyefonf? xdk@a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf
rauseyfonfhwdkif apmifh=unfhvdkonfhoabmESifh wtHkaEG;aEG;jzpfcJh&onf?
(u) &Jpcef;rS ausmif;om;rsm;tm;±dkufESufonfh w&m;cHrsm;udkzrf;qD;&mwGif aZmfaZmf (c) nDnDvGiftm; zrf;qD;pOf &yfuGufaumifpD
0ifOD;!Gef@óudifrS nDnDvGiftm;rzrf;&efajymqdkwm;jrpfao;onf? (odk@aomf &Jpcef;r–;OD;!Gef‹armifu zrf;qD; ac:aqmifoGm;cJhonf?)
(c) &yfuGufaumifpD0ifOD;!Gef‹óudifonf &Jpcef;odk@vdkufoGm;+yD;aemuf nDnDvGifvGwfajrmufa&;twGuf &Jpcef;tm; zdtm;ay;jcif;/
vmbfxdk;jcif;rsm;ðycJhojzifh &Jpcef;rS aemufwaejzpfaom (13-3-88) ae@rGef;ydkif;wGif jyefv$wfay;cJhonf? (Todk@ nDnDvGif
jyefvGwfvmjcif;udk ausmif;om;rsm;u (13) &ufnaewGif =um;od&aomtcg tm%mydkifrsm;. w&m;r_twGuf tcJraus&mrS (13)
&ufn wGif qlylr_jzpfyGm;cJh&jcif;jzpfonf?)
(*) ygarmuQcsKyfESifh q&mtcsKdŒonf &Jpcef;urnfodk@ta&;,lonfukdodEdkif&eftwGuf &Jpcef;odk@vdkufoGm;&mwGif nDnD vGifESifh
w&m;cHwOD;udk ppfaq;aea=umif;/ ppfaq;aeaom 'k-&JtkyfOD;vSarmifonf ygarmuQcsKyftm; “'DvlESpfOD;udk =unfhprf;yg
&efjzpfxm;wJhyHkpHvm;” [k a'gojzifh ar;cGef;xkwfcJha=umif; ygarmuQcsKyfESifhq&mrsm;rS aumfr&SifwGifxGufqdk xm;onf?
TtjzpftysufESifhywfoufI owdðy&rnfhtcsufrSm &yfuGuftwGif;rS vli,frsm;onf tcif;jzpfyGm;pOfnu t&ufrl;
aea=umif; ‚if;udk,fwdkifu 0efcHxGufqdkxm;onf? *Gwfpdef.xGufqdkcsufwGif olonf±dkufr_jzifh axmifuszl; a=umif;yg&Sdonf?
ausmif;om;rsm;onf udk[if;vrf;wGif aZmfaZmf(c)nDnDoGif. aetdrfodk@oGm;a&mufjcif;/ aumifpD0ifOD;!Gef@óudif. aetdrfwGif
oGm;a&mufawmif;qdkjcif;rsm;onf w&m;r#waom ta&;,laqmif&Gufr_jzpfay:vmap vdkaom qENoufoufomjzpfonf?
&efvdkaompdwfjzifh vkyfaqmifcJhjcif; r[kwfa=umif;udk atmufygtcsuf (2) csuft& odomxif&Sm;apygonf?
(1) q&mrsm;u w&m;r#wpGmajz&Sif;ay;rnf[laom uwdpum;udkvHk0,Hk=unfojzifh q&mrsm;.pum; twdkif;emcH vkyfaqmifcJh
jcif;? (udk[if;vrfoG,f-2 rS tomw=unfjyefxGufvm+yD; q&mrsm;ac:aqmif&m odk@vdkufygvmcJhonf?)
(2) ausmif;om;rsm;onf nDnDvGifudk xkwfay;&efomawmif;qdkcJh+yD; wpHkw&mudk,fxv
d ufa&muf ðyvkyfcJhjcif;r&Sdyg a=umif;
nDnDvGif. zcifOD;AdkvfcsKyfrS aumfr&SifxHwGif xGufqdkcJhonf ?

(3)
1988 ckESpf rwfv 13 &uf? 7;00 em&D
óud;ukef;&Sd udk[if;vrf;twGif; ±kef;&if;qefcwfr_jzpfyGm;jcif;?
nDnDvGifjyefvGwfvmaoma=umifh rwfv(13) &ufae@wGif ausmif;om;rsm;=um;od&aomtcg (ygarmuQcsKyfudk ay;xm;
onfhuwdtm; tm%mydkifwdk@bufrS azmufzsufvdkuf+yD;[k,lqvdu
k f=uonf?) tm%mydkifrsm;onf rw&m;r_udk ajAmifvkyfawmh
rnf/ ausmif;om;rsm;. w&m;r#waomawmif;qdkcsufudk csKd;azmufjcif;jzifh tm%mydkifwdk@rSpdefac:cJhacs+yD;? Ttwdkif; iHk@cHrvm;[l
aomtawG;rsm;
ausmif;om;wdk@.&ifxJ0ifvm+yD;aemuf/
wkef@jyefvdkpdwfrsm;/
rcHvdkpdwfrsm;
rwfv(13)&ufnwGif
jynfhodyfaecJhonf[k pufr_uUodkvf yÌrESpf-òrd@jyausmif;om; udkrif;olrS xdkpOfuolwdk@. cHpm;csuf rsm;udk jyefajymjyonf?
xdka=umifh qENwlausmif;om;rsm; pkrdaomtcg w&m;r#wr_udk rdrdwdk@bmomazmfaqmifrnf[konfh ydkif;jzwf csufjzifh
nDnDvGif.aetdrftm; oGm;a&muf0dkif;awmh=uonf? xdkodk@0dkif;&mwGif nDnDvGifudkvnf;aumif; tjcm;aom &yfuGufaumifpD tyg
t0if &yfuGufol/ &yfuGufom;rsm;udkvnf;aumif; t=urf;zufvdkonfhpdwf"gwfr[kwfbJ w&m;r#wonfh twdkif;jzpfapvdkpdwfa=umifh
ausmif;om;rsm;onf vufeufrsm;,laqmifroGm;=uyg? oabmt& ausmif;om;rsm; wGif vufeufrsm;&Sdwwfonfr[kwfyg?
(aemuf&yfuGufxJrS 0dkif;I±dkufESufaomtcgwGifrS ausmif;om;rsm;onf eD;pyf&m aetdrf+cHpnf±dk;rsm;rSm wkwfrsm;udk udkifpGJcJh
jcif;jzpfa=umif; oufaoxGufcsuf rsm;wGifay:vGifaeayonf?)
ausmif;om;rsm;tm; vrf;rD;rsm; tarSmifI wkwf/ 'g;rsm;jzifh xdk;ckwfvdkuf=ujcif;
ausmif;om;rsm;onf nDnDvGifaexdkif&m udk[if;vrf;twGif;odk@0ifvmaomtcg tpydkif;wGif vrf;rD;rsm; vif;ae ao;onf?
xdk@aemuf vrf;rD;rsm;±kwfw&ufarSmifusoGm;+yD; vlcsif;rrSm;ap&eftusôc|wfxm;=uonfh&ufuGuftwGif;rS vltcsdKŒu wkwfjzifh±dkuf
±Hkru "g;jzifhygxdk;ckwfvdkuf=uonf? Tae&mwGif owdðyoifhonfrSm ausmif;om;rsm;&yfuGuftwGif;odk@ 0ifvmaomtcg nDnDvGif
onfvnf;aumif; ol.yaxG;jzpfolOD;AdkvfcsKyfonfvnf;aumif; a=umufojzifh tdrfaemufab;rSxGufajy;um v,fuGif;xJ
oGm;ykef;atmif;aecJhonf[k aumfr&SifwGifxGufqdkxm;onf? nDnDvGifaexdkif &m udk[if;vrf;/ vrf;oG,f-2rS vlxktawmfrsm;rsm;
onfvnf; Todk@yif v,fuGif;bufodk@ xGuaf jy;ykef;a&mif=uonf? ±dkufrnfhol/ ckwfrnfholrsm;om oD;oef@a&G;xm;olrsm;
jzpfa=umif; Ttcsuft&xif&Sm;ygonf? rD;arSmifcsvdkufjcif;/ vlcsif;rrSm;ap&ef tusôc|wfxm;jcif;ponfcsufrsm;onf ppfa&;
oabmygonfh jyifqifr_jzpfygonf? Ttm%mydkifrsm; yg0ifywfoufr_r&Sdv#if rjzpfEdkifonfhudpPjzpfygonf? tm%mydkifrsm;
yg0ifywfoufr_qdk&mwGif &yfuGufaumifpDvdk ygr$m; tqifhrS vkyf0HaomudpPrsdK;r[kwfyg? tqifhroifhv#if vlowf&ef}uH&G,fonfh
tqifhjrifhtm%mydkifrsm; yg0ifaeaom pDrHcsufjzpfygonf? tusôc|wfxm;jcif;onf w&m;cHtppfray:ap&ef oufaoazsmuf
zsufypf&efjzpfonf? &yfuGufaumifpD tqifhu vkyf0hHaomudpPr[kwfyg?)
ausmif;om;rsm; '%f&m&jcif;/ orqdkifrD;avmifjcif;? &ufuGufvlxka'gojzpfvmjcif;/
ausmif;om;ESifhvlxkvrf;ray:wGif qdkifxm;jcif;?
n 8 em&DcJG/ 9em&Dcef@?
óud@ukef;vrf;twGif; ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh t&yfom;rsm;±kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfae=u+yD;qdkonfhowif;udk =um;=um; jcif;
ygarmuQcsKyfESifh
q&mrsm;onf
tcif;jzpfyGm;&modk@csufjcif;yifa&mufvm=uonf?
q&mrsm;&yfuGuf
aumifpD±kHodk@
udka&mufaomtcg aumifpD±Hk;ydwfxm;onf? (ausmif;om;rsm;oH=um;onfESifh &yfuGufaumifpD0ifrsm;a&m/ &yfuGuf twGif;
tr_ppf&eftwGufa&mufaeaom 'k&Jtkyftygt0if &Jrsm;a=umufIxGuaf jy;=ua=umif; aumifpD;OuUXrS xGufqdk onf?) xdktwGuf
q&mrsm;tcif;jzpfyGm;&modk@ oGm; a&muf=uonf? tcif;jzpfymG ;&mwGif tm%mydkifrsm;wOD;r#r&Sd? (xl;jcm;aeayonf
aoG;±dk;om;±dk;r[kwfyg)? Oya'udkudk,fpm;ðyrnfh/ tmrcHrnfh vlyk*~dKvf/ ±HktaqmuftOD;/ tm%m ,EW&m;bmwckrSr&Sdawmhyg?
awmOya'oom }uD;pdk;oGm;cJh+yD;jzpfonf?
q&mrsm;oGm;a&mufcsdefwGif "m;ckwfcH&aomausmif;om;rsm;udk udk[if;vrf;twGif;rSxrf;xkwf vm=uonf? q&mrsm;ygvm
aomum;jzifhyif '%f&m&ausmif;om;rsm;udkaq;±kHodk@ydk@vdkuf&onf? ausmif;om;rsm;ydkI rcHr&yfEdkif jzpfvm=uonf?

óud@ukef;jyifyaqmifaeausmif;om;rsm;oru
ausmif;0if;twGif;&Sd
taqmifrsm;rS
ausmif;om;rsm;
ygrcHr&yfjzpf+yD;
(q&mrsm;xdef;xm;onfh=um;rS) yl;aygif;rdvm=uonf? xdkodk@ ±_yfaxG;aetcsdefwGif ±kef;&if;qefcwf jzpfyGm;&m teD;&Sdor0g,r
qdkif}uD; rD;xavmifygawmhonf? (orqdkifrD;avmifr_onf ,ckjzpfpOfwGif ta&;}uD;aom *Gif;qufjzpfonf? ausmif;om;awG±_dŒ
onf? xdk@a=umifh vlxkurcHEdkifvdk@yg0ifvmwm? ausmif;om;awGrSmom wm0ef&Sd w,f [laom taygufrsLd; tm%mydkifwdk@udku
csdK;&ef }uHygonf?)
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ausmif;om;rsm;±_dŒonf[kompGyfpGJajymqdk+yD; ±_dŒonfhausmif;om;rsm;udkvnf;rod/ trnfvnf;rod? vlykHyef; o¾mefudkfrSrrSwfrd?
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(napmifhudk b,fvdkxGufqdk[k b,folawGucsKyfudkifxm;ygovJ/ napmifhwa,mufonf trSefw&m;bufu &yfwnf&ef
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orqdkifESifhtwl taqmuftOD;oHk;vHk;yg rD;xJygoGm;onf? rD;avmifcsdefwGif ausmif;om;rsm;onf udk[if;vrf;twGif;Yr&Sdawmhyg
bDyDtdkifvrf;ray:odk@ a&mufae+yD;jzpfonf? xdkodk@ orqdkifrD;avmifjcif;/ tjcm;taqmuftOD;tcsdKŒyg rD;xJygoGm;jcif;? rD;avmif
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rsm;jzifh wm;r&aomtaetxm;odk@ a&muf&SdoGm;onf? ausmif;om;rsm; tm;vHk;eD;yg;wdk@onf bDyDtdkifvrf;ray:odk@a&muf&Sdukef+yD;
&yfuGufvlxkonfvnf; bDyDtdkif vrf;ay:odk@a&muf&Sdaeonf? ESpfbufqdkifxm;+yD; tjyeftvSefatmf[pf=u wkwfrsm;/ cJrsm;jzifh
ypfayguf=ujzpfaeonf?
“&yfuGufvlxkbufrSm vli,fxkbufrSmu av;*GawG&Sdw,fAs? e*dkuwnf;u tdrfwdkif;rSmwkwfawG/ "g;awGvJ tEW&,fum
uG,fzdk@&SdaewwfwmAs/ 'Dvdk&Sdaewm[m obm0vnf;usw,f? usaemfwdk@ausmif;om;awGbufrSmawmh av;*GvJaqmifp&mrvdk
wkwf/ "g;vJaqmifxm;p&mrvdkbl;avAsm;? ckvdkESpfbufqdkif=u+yD;qdkawmh usaemfwdk@bufu ckcHp&m jyefwdkufcdkufzdk@u vrf;ab;u
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qdkif&mtcsufwcku ckvdk vlxkygvm+yD;qdkawmh usaemfwdk@wawG &efjyefvkyf&rSmcwfaew,fAs? usaemfwdk@u &yfuGuftaqmifawG
xJrSmae=uw,fqdkawmh vlxkeJ@u&if;ESD;aew,f? tenf;qHk;awmh rsufrSef;wef;rdaew,f? 'Dawmh jyef+yD;&efvkyf&rSm &efol}uD;vdk o
abmxm;+yD; acsr_ef;&/ wdkufcdkuf&rSm cufw,fAs? rjzpfEdkifbl;As? 'Dawmh udk,fudkudk,fckcHzdk@avmufom pdwf"gwf&Sd=uwm? 0Éfa=u
wef;a=uoabmqefw,f” [k pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om; udkrif;olrS xdkntawG@tóuHESifhywfoufI jyefajymjyonf? (ausmif;
om;rsm;onf TtcsdefwGif a'gorsm;ajywefoavmuf ajyae=u+yD;udk owdðy&ygrnf?)
TtcdkufwGif rD;avmifaeaomorqdkifudk rD;owf&efvmaomrD;owfum;ESpfpD; bDrDtdkufvrf;twGif;odk@0ifvmonf? rD;rSm
&yfuGufvlxk 0dkif;0ef;+idrf;owfr_a=umifh aoae+yD;jzpfaoma=umifh (rD;owfum;rSm rvdkawmhyg) b,fvdkvSnfh&ef;rSef;rodaom
ausmif;om;xka'goonf tqdkygrD;owfum;ESpfpD;ay:odk@ a&mufoGm;+yD; rD;owfum;rsm;udk jyefcdkif;vdkufonf? rD;owfum;rsm;u
vnf; jyefvSnfhoGm;ygonf?
Todk@jzifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf ygarmuQcsKyfOD;aqmifonfh q&mrsm;.xdef;odrf;r_a=umifha&m &yfuGufvlxkudk&efolvdk
oabmxm;&rSm cwfaeaoma=umifhyg a'gorsm;t&Sdefav#mhusukefygonf? ausmif;0if;txdvnf;aumif;/ tif;pdefvrf;r wbuf
txdvnf;aumif;/ ausmif;tkwfwHwdkiftxdvnf;aumif; (wcsdK@) jyefa&mufae=uonf? tif;pdefvrf;ray:oGm;vmaeaom tpdk;&
Xmeqdkif&mum;rsm;udk &efr_aeaoma'gorajyao;aom ausmif;om;wa,mufwavom &Sdaeygonf?
wckvHk;taetxm;rSm ausmif;om;rsm;a'goonf t&Sdefusqif;ae+yD; tcsdeftenf;twGif; wajz;ajz;+idrf;aooGm;awmhrnfh
tajctaejzpfygonf? vlpkvnf;uGJpðyaeyg+yD? odk@aomf TtcsdefwGif ppftm%mydkifrsm;onf tajcaeudktwdtusrodavm/ od
v#ufESifhyif (aiGpuULta&;tcif;tyg0if) olwdk@tm;tHwkcJh/ tHwkaeaomausmif;om;rsm;udk ta&;óuH+yD;/ tcgtcGifhay:+yD; cyfpyfpyf
uav;qHk;rvdkufprf;rnf[k ay:vpDcsxm;ovm;rodyg? atmufyg (&mZm0ifwGifrnfh trnf;pufrsm;udk pepfwusðyvkyf usL;vGef
=uygawmhonf?)
±kef;&if;qefcwfjzpfr_/ orqdkifrD;avmifr_rsm;ESifhywfoufI tm%mydkifwdk@. aemufuG,frSt}uHtpnfrsm;? oabmxm;rsm;? ajcykef;
ckwfr_rsm;? jyiffqifr_rsm;? owif;udkxdefcsefxm;vdkufjcif;?
rwfv (13) &uf n (8;20) cef@wGif &yfuGufaumifpD±kH;wGif tr_ppfaeaom tif;pdef&Jpcef;rS 'k-&JtkyfOD;vSjrifhu ausmif;om;
rsm;onf &yfuGufaumifpD±kH;udk cJESifhaygufa=umif;/ udk[if;vrf;oG,f-2&Sd nDnDvGifESifh aumifpD0ifOD;!GefŒóudifwdk@. aetdrfrsm;udk

cJESifhayguf&ef &yfuGufudkrD;±_dŒ&efpDpOfaea=umif; owif;&ojzifh tif;pdef&JwyfzJG@pcef;r_; OD;!Gef@armifxHodk@owif;ay;ydk@cJhygonf? pcef;
r–; OD;!Gef@armifrSowif;&v#if &csif; e,fxdef;&JwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;udk csufjcif;apv$wf+yD; owif;udkvnf; tif;pdefòrd@e,f jynfol@aumifpD
ESifh 'kwdkif;&JwyfzGJ@r–;t rSwf (1)odk@ csufjcif;ay;ydk@cJhonf[kqdkygonf?
aemuf (15)rdepft=um n 8;35wGif ausmif;om;tcsKdŒ "g;ckwfcH&a=umif;owif;udk pcef;r–;OD;óudifrS qufvuf&&Sdygonf?
odk@aomf xdkowif;udkr_ pcef;r–;onf txufodk@ qufvufay;ydk@csif;r&SdyJ xdefcsefxm;ygonf? (txuftqifh toD;oD;wdk@onf
vnf;ausmif;om;rsm; "g;ckwfcH&onfhowif;udk r=um;&awmhyg? owif;jynhfpHkrlr&Sdawmhyg?)
wzef rwfv(13)&uf n9em&Dcef@wGif &yfuu
G fOuUX OD;apmvGifrS ausmif;om;rsm;vlpkI aumifpD±kH;udk cJESifhaygufaea=umif;
(aemufwc%t=umwGif) ausmif;om;rsm; &yfuGuftwGif;&Sdaetdrfrsm;udk rD;±_d@&efpDpOfaea=umif;) &yfuGufaumifpDOuUXa&m òrd@e,f
&Jpcef;r–;yg) ausmif;om;rsm;"g;ckwfcH&onfhowif;ESifh ywfoufI xdefcsefxm;&mwGif wlnDaeygonf? xl;jcm;aom wdkufqdkifr_w&yf
[lIr,lqEdkifyg? aumfr&Sifonf oufaoxGufcsufrsm;udk 1988 ckESpf/ rwfv(21)&ufae@wGifrS pwifðyvkyfjcif; jzpf&m tm%mydkif;
rsm;onf Oya'a=umif;t& [muGufr&Sdap&ef jyifqifcsdef&oGm;ygonf? jiif;r&aom (odk@r[kwf) vufqkyfvufudkif&SdaomudpPrsm;
wGif atmufajc.tm;enf;csufa=umifh[lI yHkcsxm;+yD; w&m;cHtppfudkjr‡Kyfxm; (odk@r[kwf) vrf;v$Jxm;csifonfh ppftm%m
ydkifvkyfae=u/ usL;vGefae=u jzpf±dk;jzpfpOfwckyifjzpfygonf?
Todk@ rjynfhaomowif;rsm; vufcH&&Sdxm;jcif;a=umifh tusdL;quftjzpf qdk;usdK;rsm;qufvufjzpfyGm;&a=umif; aumf&Sifu
Todk@ oHk;oyfxm;ygonf?
owif;rsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;u &yfuGuftwGif;rD;±_d@jcif;/ t&yfom;rsm;u ausmif;om;rsm;tm; ckcHae&jcif; yHky:aeapcJh
+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;onf Oya'vufvGwfðyr_qlylaeaom tkyfpkrsm;[ktjrifa&mufaponf? teD;tem;wGif&dSae=uaom q&m
tcsKdŒ. tqdkt& vHkxdef;wyfzGJ@0ifrsm;onfvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;udkom t"du OD;wnfòzd@cGJvdkufjcif;a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;.
a'goonf vHkxdef;rsm;ay:odk@ usa&mufcJh+yD; ausmif;om;ESifhvHkxdef;wdk@. t"du±k%f;toGif;odk@ ul;ajymif;oGm;cJhonf?
vHkxdef;wyfrsm;udk apv$wfjcif;?
tifpdefòrd@e,f &Jpcef;r–;ESifh &yfuGufaumifpDOuUXwdk@. (rjynfhpHkaom) owif;ydk@csuft& qlaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk xdef;
odrf;&ef òrd@e,fjynfol@aumifpDOuUX 'kAdkvfrª;}uD;wifa&$onf rD;owfwyfzGJ@udk a=umif;=um;vdkufonf? xdkaemuf vHkxdef; (vHkòcHr_xdef;
odrf;a&;wyf&if;)udk apv$wfay;&ef &efukefwdkif;jynfol@aumifpDodk@ zkef;quf&m tquftoG,fr&ojzifh &efukefwdkif;ppfXmecsKyfodk@
qufoG,f+yD; vHkxdef;wyfrsm;apv$wfay;&ef ta=umif;=um;vdkufonf?
vHkxdef;wyfrsm;csufjcif;qdkovdkyif (owfrSwfpk&yfjzpfaom ordkif;vrf;qHkodk@) a&mufvmygonf? vHkxdef;wyfrSm wyfpkESpfpk
tiftm;&Sdygonf? wpkudkteD;uyf ypfcwfa&;wm0ef;ay;&m xdkwyfpkwGif wyfpdwfESpfpdwfyg0if+yD; wyfpdwfwpdwf ( 12 OD;rSm) pwif;
ESifh trf-16 armif;jyef±dkufz,f (ppfajrjyifoHk;aoewfrsm;) wyfqifxm;ygonf? (ypfcwfòzdcJGcgeD;wGifrS &efukefwdkif; &JwyfzGJ@rª;. vHòk cH
a&;tjzpfESifhvdkufygvmaom (12)bdk;&Drifwefajymif;acsm aoewfudkifwyfpdwfESifh vJvS,fae&mcsxm;vdkufojzifhom tao
taysmuf oufomcJh&jcif;jzpfygonf?
odk@aomf vHkxdefwyfrsm;xuf ydkIapm+yD;a&mufaeolrsm;rSm jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; AdkvfcsKyfrif;acgif/ wdkif;jynfol@aumifpDOuUX
OD;ausmfodef;ESifh wdkif;jynfol@aumifpDtwGif;a&;rª;wdk@jzpfonf? (rdrdwdk@ordkif;vrf;qHo
k dk@a&muf&SdcsdefwGif jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; wdkif;aumif
pDOuUXESifh wdkif;aumifpD;twGif;a&;rª;wdk@ óudwifa&muf&Sdaea=umif; (ausmif;om;rsm;udk ypfcwfowfjzwfrnfh) vHkxdef;wyfudk OD;
aqmifoGm;ol 'kwyf&if;rª;OD;xGef;&DrS twdtvif;xGufqdkxm;ygonf?) T0ef}uD;rsm; vHkxdef;rsm;a&muf+yD; csufjcif;qdkovdkyif
ra&S@raESmif; a&mufvmolrsm;rSm ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; !Gef=um;a&;rª;ESifh trsdK;om;axmufvSrf;a&;wyfzGJ@ !Gef=um;a&;rª;csKyfwm
0efudkyg yl;wGJ,lxm aom Adkvfrª;}uD;cif!Gef@/ jynfxJa&;ESifhomoem'k0ef}uD; Adkvfrª;}uD;cifarmif0if;/ ynma&;0ef;}uD;Xme/ 0ef}uD;
a'gufwmarmif'D/ ukefoG,f a&;0ef}uD; (acwWynma&;0ef}uD;) OD;cifarmif}uD;/ jynfol&JwyfzGJ@csKyf OD;odef;atmif/ &efukefwdkif;'k&J
wyfzGJ@rª; OD;az=unf/ &Jowif;wyfzGJ@rª; jynfol&Jabmf wyfzGJ@&JaxmufcsKyf OD;bkef;jrifhwdk@jzpf=uonf? olwdk@tm;vHk; vd_if&Jpcef;wGif
uGyfuJa&;±kH;zGifh+yD; ±Hk;xdkif;vdkuf=uonf?
ppfaxmufvSef;a&; Adkvfrª;}uD;cif!GefrSm tmtdkifwD rdef;*dwfem;txdvma&muf+yD; tajcaeudktuJcwfaecJholjzpfonf? ol
a&mufaecsdefonf rD;owfuvnf; a&ESifhrywfao;/ rsnf&nf,dkAHk;vnf; rypfao;yg? olTae&modk@a&mufaecJha=umif; ola&mufae
wmudk vSrf;awG@&jcif;r[kwfyJ E_wfqufpum;yifajymjzpfa=umif; olESifhtwl jynfxJa&;0ef;}uD;udk,fwdkif&Sdae+yD; rdrdtm;ac:,lwm0ef
ay;cJha=umif; "gwfwktif*sifeD,m ygarmuQa'gufwmarmifarmif0if;rS twdtvif;xGufqdkxm;ygonff?

odk@jzifh owfrnfhtzGJ@ owfrdef@udk teD;uyfay;rnfhtzGJ@rsm; n9 em&DausmfwGifpHknDae+yDjzpfygonf? xdkodk@ pHkpHknDnD&Sdaeaom
tcsdefonf ausmif;om;rsm;aoG;at;+yD; vlpkuGJpðyaeaomtcsdefjzpfygonf?

ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh vkHxdef;wyfzJG@0ifrsm; t"du&k%f;jzpfyGm;jcif;?
vlpkuJGpðyaeaom tcsdefwGif vkHxdef;wyfzJG@0ifrsm;onf vufeuftjynfhtpkHjzifh tif;pdefvrf;r}uD;twdkif; pufr_wuUodkvf
bufodk@ &ifaygifwef;csDwufvmcJhonf? (olwdk@.aemufrvSrf;rurf;wGif rD;owfum;rsm;/ wdkif;aumifpDOuUX/ wdkif;&JwyfzJG@rSL;wdk@
wygwnf;vdkufygvm=uonf?) vrf;.[dkbuf 'DbufwGif ESpfbufn‡yfvsuf&dSae=uaom t&yfom;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; t
=um;odk@ =um;0ifcsDwufvmcJhaom ykHpHjzpfaeI yxrwGifausmif;om;rsm;u wdwfqdwfpGmjzifh ai;=unfhae=uonf?
xdk@aemuf vkHxdef;rsm;onf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifh rsufESmcsif;qdkifodk@vSnfhvsuf ausmif;om;rsm;udk aoewfrsm;jzifhxdk;csdefxm;
vdkuf=uonf? yxrausmif;om;rsm; tHhtm;oifhoGm;=uonf? jzefajzay;&efa&mufvmjcif;r[kwf? òzdcJG&efoufouftwGuf a&muf
vmjcif;omjzpfa=umif; vkHxdef;rsm;.trlt,mt& odomxif&Sm;aeonf? (rsufjrifoufaowOD;jzpfonfh owWKwl;azmfa&;
tif*sifeD,mXmerS q&mOD;pkd;jrifh. oufaocHxGufcsuft& vkHxdef;rsm;onf igvdk;rausmif;om;awG[k qJa&;wdkif;xGma=umif;
aumfr&SifwGif xGufqdkxm;ygonf?)
aoG;at;pðyaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;.a'goonf tm%mydkifrsm;.ya,m*a=umifh wzefjyefIxawmufvmcJhonf?
ausmif;0if;twGif;odk@ jyefa&mufaeaomausmif;om;rsm; aqmifay:a&mufaeaomausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk; ausmif;tkwfwHwdkif;
teD;odk@ jyefvnfpka0;vmonf? vHkxdef;rsm;tm;atmf[pfavSmifajymifae=uonf? a=u;pm;awG/ acG;awG? wkwfrsm;/ tkwfcJrsm; &
&mypPnf;rsm;jzifh ypfayguf=uonf? &yfuGufvlxkEiS fh jzpfyGm;aeaomyÉdyuQrS vHkxdef;rsm;ESifh jzpfyGm;aomyÉdyuQtjzpfodk@ ajymif;vJ
oGm;onf? vHkxdef;rsm;uvnf; jyefvnfypfayguf=uonf? xdktcsdefwGif rD;owfum;rsm;a&mufvm+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;odk@ OD;wnf
v#ufxdk;yufawmhonf? ausmif;om;xk. a'gorSm ydkIaygufuGJvmawmhonf?

rsuf&nf,dkAHk;aiG@rsm;/ ausmif;om;rsm;udk csdefqypfcwfaom aoewfoH?
rD;owfydkufvHk;jzifh xdk;cJGvSJòzdaomfvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;u ±dkusdK;roGm;aomtcg +idrf0yfydjym;roGm;aomtcg teD;uyft
rdef@ay;csifvGef;I wygwnf;ygvmaom tm%mydkifxdyfoD;rsm;onf ‚if;wdk@vkyfwwfawmhonfh vkyfcsifvGef;aeonfh enf;udkom
xkwfoHk;vdkufygawmhonf?
vHkxdef;wyfrsm;onf ausmif;tkwfwHwdkif;udk ausmfeif;0ifa&mufvdkuf=uonf? ausmif;om;rsm;utaqmifbuf a&yef;t
0dkufbuftvif;a&mif vif;vif;csif;csif;&Sdae&mbufodk@ qkwfcGm=uonf? rcHr&EdkifvGef;onfhpdwfa=umifh tom;rsm; qufqufwkef
aeonf? rw&m;r_udkrcHcsifpdwfom ausmif;om;rsm;wGif&Sdaeonf? ppftm%m±l;rsm;. ao;odrfaumufuspfwwfonfh obm0udk
rod? (vlxkwdkufyGJrsm; 1976/ rd_if;&mjynf+yD;uwnf;u +idrfoufaecJhojzifh ,ckvli,fav;rsm;onf ppfbD;vl;rsm;ESifhywfoufv#if
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twGuf tem*gwftwGuf tif*sifeD,mynm&Sifrsm; arG;xkwfay;rnfharG;cef;}uD;tm; ppfajrjyiftjzpfoabmxm;vdkuf+yD;qdkonfudk
Ti,f&G,fysKdEkaomausmif;om;uav;rsm; rodvdkuf=uyg? xdk@twGuf ae&mr,l/ vlpkrcGJ? vuf,m;aeaom vlowform;rsm;
twGuf ypfrSwfudk xif;xif;yif ay;xm;jyonf?
yxr rsuf&nf,dkAHk;rsm; usa&mufaygufuGJ=uonf? ajy;=uv$m;=u/ wdkifwnf=u/ nnf;wGm;=u/ atmf[pf=u? usm;xdk;oHrsm;
toHeuf}uD;rsm;/ ,rf;cdk;ESifhaoG;pufrsm;/ rwfv (13) nwGifayyGcJhyg+yD? &mZm0ifwcsdK;wauG@um;pwifcJhacs+yD?
tm%mESifh tCmwpdwfwdk@ i,fxdyfwufaejcif;?
(u) owdray;bJ ypfcwfjcif?
vlpkcGJonfhyk*~dKvfjzpfaom vHkxdef;wyfpkrª; OD;atmifjrifhonf rD;owfydkufjzifh òzd@cGJaomfvnf; vlpkuGJoGmaomtcg rsuf&nf,dk
AHk;jzifhypfcwf vlpkcGJrnfjzpfa=umif; xdkodk@rS vlpkruGJv#if aoewfjzifhypfcwfvlpkcGJrnf[k arwWmyif&yfcHyga=umif;xGufqdkonf?
ol@vdkyif olESihfwoHwnf;xGufqdk=uolwpkrSm wdkif;aumifpDOuUX/ &JcsKyf/&JaxmufcsKyfwdk@jzpf=uonf?

odk@aomf ol.owday;a=ujimcsufudk olESifhol@tm;teD;uyftrdef@ay;aeolwpkwdk@om=um;ygonf? wjcm;q&m;rsm; ausmif;
om;rsm; rnfolr#r=um;yg? &Jrsm;óudwifowday;jcif;r&SdonfrSm xif&Sm;vGef;aeaoma=umifh aumfr&Sifu “vdkufem&efwm0ef &dS
onf? ausmif;om;rsm;=um;atmifa=ujimoifhonf”[k zmax;az;rtypfzdk@jyxm;ygonf?
(c) trdef@ay;r_?
t"d±k%f;vlpkcGJ&mwGif tqifhvdkufaqmif&Guf&ygonf? Oya'jyXmef;xm;wm&dSygonf? aoewfjzifhypfcwfaomenf;rSm aemuf
qHk;tqifhjzpfygonf? xdkodk@ypfcwf&eftwGuf a&;om;xm;aomtrdef@&+yD;rS ypfcwfEdkifygonf? ,ckudpPqdkv#if t&yfbufjzpfaom
wdkif;aumifpD; OuUXuom trdef@ay&rnfjzpfaomfvnf; wdkif;&JwyfzGJ@rª;rStrdef@ay;cJhjcif;jzpfonf?
trdef@ay;yHkpHwGif vludkaoaptxd '%f&m&atmif aoewfjzifhypfcwfI vlpkcGJ&mwGif vltkyfacgif;aqmiftm; ypfcwf&ef
(odk@y[kwf)vltkyfwGiftaomif;usef;qHk;tydkif;udk ypfcwf&eftrdef@ay;oifhygv#uf “vltkyfruGJyJwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;tm;tEW&,fusa&muf
vmv#if ajr&Syfypfcwf+yD;vlpkcGJ&ef”&efukew
f dkif;&Jrª;rS vHkxdef;wyfpkrª;tm; trdef@ay;vkdufjcif;rSm enf;vrf;rusonfhtaet xm;
wdusaom trdef@oabmrygcJhacs? xdk@a=umifhvHkxdef;wyfpkrª;onf qifjcifpOf;pmEdkifonfh taetxm;r&SdawmhbJ xifovdkquf
vuftrdef@ay;awmhonf? (aumfr&Sif. oHk;oyfcsufjzpfonf?)
b,fvdk vHkxdef;awGvJ?
(‚if;wdk@. xGufcsufrsm;t&) vHkxdef;rsm;rS ppfwyfrS toGifajymif;xm;olrsm;omjzpfonf? t"du±k%f;ESdrfeif;onfh tawG@
tóuH vHk0(vHk0)r&Sdolrsm;jzpfonf? tawG@tóuHr&Sdaomfvnf; xifovdkvkyfcGifhrdef@&xm;olrsm;vnf;jzpfaeonf? xdk@a=umifh olwdk@
u|rf;usifcJh&m jzpfonfhwyfenf;vrf; ppfyHkpHrsm;jzifh òrd@jyvkyfief; rdkudkifwG,fawmhonf?

'%f&m&cJh=uolrsm;tm; òcHikHoHk;oyfjcif;?
'%f&molrsm;tm; ukoay;aom q&m0ef;rsm;.xGufqdkcsufESifh &&dSonfh'%f&mtajctaersm;t& aoewfypfcH&oltm;
vHk;rSm ypfcwfolrsm;ESifh&ifqdkiftaetxm;wGif xdrSefcJh&jcif;r[kwfyg? (aumfr&Sif. oHk;oyfcsuf)
ypfcH&aom'%f&mrsm;rSm vHkxdef;rsm;pwifypfcwfpOf usnfvGwf&modk@qkwfcGmajy;aepOfwGif &cJhaom'%f&mrsm;csnf;jzpfyg
onf? ypfcH&onfhae&mrsm;rSmvnf; '%f&oltm;vHk; wpkwa0wnf;&Sdae=uonfhoabmr[kwfyJ wae&mpDjyef@}uJv#uf&Sdaom
taetxm;wGif ypfcHcJh&jcifomjzpfonf? (aumfr&Sif. oHk;oyfcsuf)
aoewf'%f&m&&SdI vJaeaom tEW&,frðyEdkifawmhaom/ ykef;uG,fol ausmif;om;rsm;jzpfonfh armifaZmf0if;/ armifaX;0if;/
armifoef;0if; polrsm;udk vHkxdef;wyfzGJ@rsm;u wkwfjzifh±kdufjcif;/ ajcjzifhuefjcif;/ vufoD;jzifhxdk;}udwfjcif;/ aoewf'ifjzifh apmifhjcif;
ponfrsm;onf (tEW&,frðyEdkifawmhonfhonfh tajctaewGif vludkaoapvdkaom oabmoufa&mufaeygonf?) (aumfr&Sif.
oHk;oyfcsuf)
(5)
1988 rwfv (13) &ufonf vHkxdef;rsm;.ypfcwfr_wGif usqHk;/ '%f&mcJh=uolrsm;
(u) udkbkef;armf-yÌrESpf owWKwl;azmfa&; tif*sifeD,m? (usqHk;)
&efukefjynfol@aq;±kH}uD;rS r_cif;q&m0ef;}uD; a'gufwmOD;bmc|efESifh q&m0efrsm;.xGufqdkcsuft& udkbkef;armf.udk,fwGif
jyify'%f(13)csuf&&SdI (3)csufrSm usnf0if'%f&mrsm;jzpfygonf? reD;vGef;ra0;vGef; (udkuf 30twGif;)rS ypfcwfcH&r_a=umifh &&dS
aom'%f&mjzpf+yD; usnf0if'%f&moHk;ckpvHk;rSm wcsufwnf;ypfcwfcHr_a=umifh &&dSaom'%f&m;rsm;jzpfonf?
(c) udkpdk;Edkif-yÌrESpf owWKwl;azmfa&; tif*sifeD,m? (usqHk;)

0Jbufaemufydkif;wGif xdrSefaom'%f&mjzpfonf? xdk'%f&monf xGufaygufr&Sdbuf tlrwGif'%f&mESpfcsuf/ tlodrfwGif
'%f&mav;csuf/ aoG;a=umwacsmif;wdk@udkaygufap+yD; Adkufta&S@tqDjyifwGifuyfaeygonf? udkpdk;EdkifrSm cGJpdyf+yD;aemuf '%f&m
a=umifh aemufqufwGJjzpfay:aom 0rf;Adkuftajr‡;a,muf,rf;jcif;/ aoG;qdrfwufjcif;wdk@a=umifh 5-4-88 nae 6;30wGif uG,fvGef
jcif;jzpfa=umif;a'gufwmOD;bmc|efrS xGufqdkxm;ygonf?
(*) armifjrifh-aemufqHk;ESpf pufr_wuUodkvf?
nmbufausmukef; vufjyifatmifwGif '%f&m&&SdcJhygonf? cGJpdwfuko&efrvdk? "gwfrSef±dkufppfaq;csuft& wpfvHk;jyL;
(odk@r[kwf) ESpfvkH;jyL;aoewfjzifh ypfcH&aom'%f&mjzpfonf?

(C) armifjroif;-yxrESpf pufr_wuUodkvf?
ausmif;twGif;a&yef;teD;wGif aygifb,fbuftydkif;twGif;ydkif;wGif '%f&m&cJhygonf? AdkufwGif'%f&m&aom ausmif;
om;tm; oGm;qJG&if;rS typfcH&jcif;jzpfygonf? '%f&m&xm;ojzifh qufrajy;Edkifaoma=umifh vHðk cHrnfxifaom ae&mwGif+idrfaepOf
vHkxdef;rsm;vdkuf&Smaomtcg rvGwfEdkifrSef;odI rdrd'%f&m&xm;a=umif; zGifhajymvdkufygonf? xdktcg vHkxdef;rsm; (av;OD;jzpf
ygonf)u olwdk@ygvmaom aoewf'ifrsm;jzifh 0dkif;±dkuf&m OD;acgif;wGif '%f&mxyfrH&cJhygonf? rdrdtm;qufvufxdk;}udwf+yD;
ajcusOf;cwfxm;I aq;uk&ygonf? 14-30-88 ae@wGifaygifrS'%f&mudk arhaq;ay;IcGJpdwf+yD; 25-3-88 ae@wGif tif;pdefaxmifodk@
tydk@cH&ygonf?
(i)armifjratmif-wwd,ESpf ±_yaA' armfvòrdifwuUodkvf
ppfxJ0ifvdkI óu@ukef;&Sd tdkat;ppftaqmifwGif acWwnfcdkaeoljzpfygonf?13-3-88 ae@nwGif ausmif;om;
rsm;ESifhtwla&maESmyg0ifaecJh+yD; ppfr_wUodkvf0if;txd ygoGm;cJhygonf? tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwl ausmif;0if;twGif;a&yef;
teD;wGifaeae&ygonf? u|efawmfhteD;wGif ruGJao;aom(rD;cdk;tenf;i,ftlxGufaeaom rsuf&nf,dkAkH;wvHk;usvm&modvdk
(pl;prf;vdkI) ðcHtuG,frSxGufIaumuf,lpOf nmbufajcovHk; aoewfxdrSefygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;uu|efawmfESifhudkpdk;Edkiftm;
aq;±Hkodk@ydk@ygonf? aq;±HkwGif'%f&mudkarhaq;ay;cGJpdwf+yD;aemuf rwfv 25 &ufae@wGiftif;pdefaxmifodk@ydk@vdkufygonf?
(p) armifaZmf0if;- qDpufvkyfom;? armfvòrdifu|ef;?
armfu|ef;&Sd rdbrsm;ydkifqDpufwGif tvkyf0ifvkyfaeoljzpfygonf? &efukefodk@qDpufypPnf;rsm;vm0,fjcif;jzpfygonf?
usdKuf0dkif;wGifwnf;ygonf? 13-3-88 ae@wGif óu@ukef;wGif rD;avmifonf=um;I xGuf=unfhpOf ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwla&maESm
yg0ifaecJhygonf? vHkxdef;rsm;ypfcwfaecsdefwGif a&yef;teD; ykÀ&dyfyifwef;em;wGif ykef;aecJhygonf?ausmif;om;rsm;u taqmifodk@
jyefajy;aomtcg wOD;wnf;usef&pfaeygonf? vHkxdef;rsm;vma&muf&Sif;vif;aomtcg rvGwfEdkifawmhrSef;odI xGuftyrf;cHvdkufyg
onf? vHkxdef;rsm;tm;u|efawmfryga=umifhajymaomfvnf;r&yg? vHkxdef;rsm;±dkufESufr_a=umifh ezl;uGJoGm;&ygonf? &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;
tif;pdefaxmifwdk@wGifausmif;om;rsm;ESifhtwltydk@cH&ygonf?
(q) armifaX;0if;- 'kwd,ESpf &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf
jyifyaqmifaeoljzpfaomfvnf; ausmif;0if;twGif; xrif;oGm;pm;pOf vHkxdef;rsm;ESifh ausmif;om;rsm; t"du±k%f;udkóuH
&ygonf? rsuf&nf,HkAHk;oHrsm; aoewfoHrsm;=um;&pOf taqmif(1)bufxGufajy;&m rvGwfEdkifbl;xifI yef;+cHxdyf tkwfcHkab;wGif
0yfaecJhygonf? em&D0ufcef@0yfaepOfvHkxdef;rsm;a&mufvm+yD; tkwfcJhESifhtxkcH&ygonf? xajy;pOf usefvHkxdef;rsm;u0dkif;csKyfxm;+yD;
wkwfESifh0dkif;±dkufaoma=umifh owdarhoGm;ygonf? &efukefaq;±Hk}uD;a&mufrS owdjyef&ygonf? acgif;rS'%f&mrsm;udk ig;}udrfcef@ "gwf
rSef±dkuf&ygonf?
ausmif;0if;twGif;taqmifwGifyif aexdkifygonf? ausmif;om;rsm; "gwfESifhckwfcH&onf=um;aoma=umifh rcHcsifpdwfESifh
xGufcJhygonf? rsuf&nf,dkAHk;/aoewfESifhypfcwfpOf taqmif(1)bufxGufajy;&m rvGwfEdkifbl;xifI yef;+cHtwGif;0yfaecJhygonf?
aoewfoHrsm;pJoGm;aomtcg vHkxdef;rsm;a&mufvm+yD; rdrdudkjrifoGm;tcg aoewfESihfcsdefI 0dkif0ef;±dkufESufxdk;=udwf=uonfygonf?
acgif;udkygwkwfjzifh t±dkufcH&ygonf? &efukefaq;±kH}uD;wGif aq;ukcH+yD;aemuf tif;pdefaxmifodk@ tydk@cH&ygonf?

(6) pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sif/ aumfr&Sif.wm0efESifh pHkprf;ppfaq;r_rsm;?
1998ckESpf? rwfv(12)&ufae@n &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;tcsKd@ESifh óud@ukef;taemuf&ufuGufvlxktcsdK@wdk@
jzpfyGm; cJhonfhta&;tcif;udk pkHprf;ppfaq;wifjyEdkif&ef EdkifiHawmfaumifpDu atmufyg A[dktm%mydkiftzGJ@tpnf;oHk;OD;yg 0ifaom
pkHprf;a&;aumfr&Sifudk 1988ckESpf? rwfv(17)&ufae@ ae@pGJygpmtrSwf 45§88jzifh zGJ@pnf;wm0efay;tyfcJhygonf?
(u) OD;barmf (jynfol@w&m;ol}uD; tzGJ@0if) ?

?OuUX

(c) OD;vSwifh (jynfol@Oya'tusKd;aqmiftzGJ@0if ?

?tzGJ@0if

(i) a'gufwmarmif&Sdef (jynfol@vkyfief;ppfaq;a&;tzGJ@0if) ?

?tzGJ@0if

(C)tzGJ@twGif;a&;r–;tjzpf aumfr&SifOuUXrS wm0efay;tyfol OD;atmifjrifh (A[dkw&m;±kH;!Gef@=um;a&;rª;)?
aumfr&Sif.wm0efrsm;?
(1) (12-3-88) ae@nwGif &efukepf ufy_wuUodkvf ausmif;om;wcsdK@ESifh óud@ukef;taemuf&ufuGufvlxktcsdK@wdk@ jzpfyGm;cJhonfh
ta&;tcif; rnfodk@pwifaay:aygufcJhonf?
(2) ta&;tcif;wGif ausmif;om;wOD; aoewf'%f&mjzifhaoqHk;cJh&jcif;rSm rnfonfaoewfjzifh rnfol.vufcsufa=umifhaoqHk;&
jcif;jzpfonf?
(3) ta&;tcif;ESifh ywfoufI aumfr&Sifodk@oHk;oyfcsuf/ tóuHðycsuf?
(4) tvm;wl ta&;cif;rsm; xyfrHray:aygap&ef aqmif&Gufoifhonfh tcsufrsm;?
(5) aumfr&Sifu xnfoGif;tpD&ifcHoifhonfh[k,lqaom tjcm;awG&Sdcsufrsm;? aemufqHk;tpD&ifcHpmudk 1988ckESpf? {+yDv(17)
&ufae@ aemufqHk;xm;I wifjy&efwdk@jzpfonf?
pkHprf;ppfaq;cJhaom oufaorsm;?
aumfr&Siftaejzifh pkpkaygif;oufao (97) OD;udkppfaq;cJh&m trsKd;tpm;tvdkuf OD;a&rSmæ
(u) 'k-0ef}uD;

2OD;?

(c) óud@ukef;t aemuf&yfuGufaumifpD

7OD;?

(*) wdkif;ESifhòrd@e,faumifpD;

4OD;?

(C) pufr_wuUodkvfrS q&mESifhtr_aqmifrsm;

19OD;?

(i) jynfol@&JwyfzGJ@0ifrsm;

14OD;

(p) ausmif;om;rsm;

16OD;?

(q) q&m0efrsm;ESifh aq;±kH;tr_aqmifrsm;

17OD;?

(Z) ±dk;±dk;t&yfom;rsm;

18OD;?

aumfr&Siftaejzifh pkHprf;ppfaq;&mwGif oufaoxGufcsufrsm;jynfhpkHonf[k qdkEdkifygonf? jynfxJa&;'k0ef}uD;rS a&cJwdkuf
tr_xrf;xd? aoewfESifhtypfcHcJh&aom ausmif;om;rsm;rSonf ypfrde@f ay;ol(&JcsKyf)/ ypfcJhol(vHkxdef;wyfpkr–;txd)/ rwfv(12)&uf
wGif&efpwifjzpfyGm;cJhaom nDnDrSpufr_wuUodkvfausmif;om;xd pHkprf;ppfaq;cJhonf? txl;ojzifh 1988 ckESpf/ {+yDv(5)&ufae@wGif
aoewf'%f&mjzifh xyfrHusqHk;cJhaomausmif;om;udkpdk;Edkifudk ol@a0'emjyif;xefpGmrcHpm;&ao;rD tcsdefrDoufaoxGufqdk,l jcif;rsm;
twGuf aumfr&Sif.óud;yrf;r_udk wpHkw&mtodtrSwfðy&rnfjzpfonf? odk@aomfaumfr&Sifonf trSefw&m;udk vGwfvGwfvyfvyf
azmfxkwfEdkifvdrfhrnfr[kwf[lonfh jynfolrsm;.oHo,rsm;udk ausmfv$m;Edkifjcif;r&Sdyg? txl;ojzifh ppftm%mydkifxdyfoD;rsm;.

aemufuG,frS v_yf&Sm;r_rsm;rSm twdkif;omay:vGifaeonfhwdkif qdwfa&jzifhulnDzHk;zday;onfh oHk;oyfcsufrsm;onfvnf; trsm;
tjym;awG@&onf? (Oyrm-v_dif&Jpcef;wGif ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; !Gefrª;ESifh 0ef}uD; 5 a,mufwdk@ uGufuJa&;±kH;zGifhI uGufuJcJhjcif;tay:
aumfr&Sifu “t"du±k%frsm; ulpufjyef@yGm;oGm;rnfudk pdk;&drfpdwfa=umifh” [lonfhoHk;oyf csufrsdK;)?
rnfodk@jzpfap oufaorsm;.xGufcsufrsm;udkawmhrl aumfr&SiftaejzifhwpkHw&m rSdefxm;/ azsmhxm;/ azsmufxm;jcif;rðycJh
[k pkHprf;od&Sd&onf? 'Drkdua&pDqdwfokef;aeaom tarSmifacwf}uD;wGif tjzpftysuftrSefrsm;udk t&if;twdkif;odcGifhr&SdonfhrSm
obm0usygonf? odkaomf trSefw&m;[konfrSmvnf; azsmufzsufvkd@r&aumif;rSef; vlom;wdk@.ordkif;oufwrf;ESifhtr# txif;
t&Sm;jyoaeonf opPmw&m;yifjzpfonf? Tpmwrf;rSm &or#tcsuftvufrsm;tay:rlwnfI wOD;csif;tjrifjzifh oHk;oyfxm;
jcif;rsdK;omjzpfonf? jynfpHkp&mr&Sdyg?
rwfv (12) &ufae@n &efjzpfr_ESifhywfoufI um,uH&Sifrsm;. oufaoxGufcsufrsm;?
(pmzwfolrsm; tao;pdwfod&SdEdkif&eftwGuf rSwfpktusOf;xkwfI wifjyxm;jcif;jzpfygonf? oufaorsm;. rlvxGufcsuf
rsm;udk xdef;odrf;umuG,fxm;+yD; ta&;}uD;aom tcsufrsm;udkpkpnf;xm;jcif;jzpfygonf?
1?udk0if;jrifh (EGm;xdk;}uD;)-'kwd,ESpf &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf?
(12-3-88)ae@n 9 em&DausmfavmufwGif u|efawmf udk0if;jrifh(ykvJ)// ausmfqef;0if;ESifh aqGodef;wdk@av;OD; pEN0if;vuf
buf&nfqdkifodk@oGm;ygonf? xkdtcsdef qdkiftwGif;wGifvlq,f@av;ig;a,mufcef@&Sdae+yD; pdkif;xD;qdkiftacGzGifhaeygonf? qdkif&SifESifh
u|efawmf cifaeaoma=umifh u|efawmfu aZmf0if;xGÉftacGvJcdkif;&m qdkif&SifuaZmf0if;xGÉfr&Sd wl;wl;om&Sda=umif;ajymygonf?
u|efawmfu ausmf0if;qef;tm; pdkif;xD;qdkiftacG±dk;oGm;+yD;jzpfa=umif; ajym&m a&S@pmyGJu vlwa,mufu pdkifxD;qdkiftacGudk em;r
axmifcsif&ifjyefaygh[k ajymygonf? u|efawmfu tudkwdk@zGifhcdkif;wm rodvdk@yg[k awmif;yefygonf? c%t=um xdkolu rif;wdk@&Sdae
&if rxdkifawmhbl;[k ajym+yD;jyefxGufoGm;ygonf? xdk0dkif;rSvlESpfuvnf; u|efawmfwdk@udk &yf=unfhae&m xdkolrsm;rl;aeygojzifh
u|efawmfwdk@u xjyefawmhrnfðy&m xdkpOf vlwa,mufu u|efawmfudk0if;±kdufygonf? ausmfqef;0if;udkvnf; wjcm;wa,mufu
0if&kdufygonf? tjyifrS vlwcsKd@vnf;0if;vm+yD; u|efawmfwdk@udk0dkif;±kdufygonf? &yfuGufaumifpDrsm; a&mufvmojzifh ±kdufyGJ&yfoGm;
ygonf?
t±dkufcH&pOf u|efawmfem&DðywfusoGm;+yD; vlwa,mufu aumuf,lwm jrifvdkuf&aomfvnf; xyf±dkufrnfpdk;aoma=umifh
u|efawmfbmrS 0ifrajymawmhyg? xdkpOfausmif;rS q&mOD;av;atmifa&mufvmojzifh u|efawmfu tusdK;ta=umif;wifjyygonf?
q&mu u|efawmfwdk@udk tif;pdef&Jpcef;odk@ wdkifcsufzGifh&efac:oGm;+yD; jyifyaq;cef;wckodk@yg0ifI aq;xnfhygonf? ausmfqef;0if;
acgif;rSm 6 csufcsKyf&ygonf? taqmifjyefa&mufaomtcg 0if;jrifh(ykvJ)udkawG@&ygonf? ±dkufolrsm;wGif tom;jzLjzLwa,mufyg+yD;
usefulrsm;udk rrSwfrdyg?
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a=umif; od&yg onf?

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trSwf(7)vHkxdef;wyfrS wyfpkwpkuóudwifa&muf&Sd+yD; ae&m,lxm;=uygonf? (vHkxdef;'kwyf&if;rª; xGufqdkcsufwGif 0ef}uD;ponfwdk@
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aemufqkwf+yD; ausmif;om;tawmfrsm;rsm;vnf; ausmif;0if;wGif ajy;oGm;=uygonf?
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wdk@taejzifh ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&mrsm;tm;wefqmcHðyvkyfrnfta=umif;/ jynfyvlrsm;vnf; ausmif;0if;odk@a&muf&Sdae+yD; v_H
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olrsm;wGif TtoHrsKd;=um;&onf[k xGufqdkxm;olrSm T&JaxmufcsKyf wa,mufwnf;om&Sdygonf? xdk@twGuf aumfr&Siftae
jzifh tao;pdwfod&ef xrfrHar;jrefykH&ygonf? xdktcgwGif ykvif;xJ "gwfqDxnfhIypfaygufaomtoH[kxifjrifa=umif; tjyifwGif
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yif twdtvif;xGufqdkxm;=ujcif;jzpf&m aumfr&SifrS&JaxmufcsKyftm; xyfrHar;jref;yHk&ygonf? TtcsufrSm "gwfqDykvif;uGJoHvdk
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onf? ,ck ta&;tcif;onf u|efawmfh. rxrqHk;t"du¶k%f;ESdrfeif;a&; tawG@tóuHjzpfygonf?

OD;az=unf- &efukefwdkif; &JwyfzGJ@rª;
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vlpkcGJrnfhtzGJ@xJodk@ xnfhoGif;ay;vdkufygonf?f vHkxdef;wyfzGJ@rsm;rSm usnfxGuftm;aumif;aom trf-16 aoewfrsm;udkifxm;
aoma=umifh jzpfygonf?

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qD;oHrsm;=um;ae&ygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&mrsm;udkt=uyfudkifaeonf[k oHk;oyfrdygonf? xdktcsufrsm owif;ydk@I
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cGJwGif wyfrsm;udk wyfazsmufvdkufygonf?
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wif;ydk@aomtcg t&yfom;ESifhausmif;om;wdk@ t"d¶k%f;jzpfonfhowif;udkyg xyfqifh&ygonf?
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ausmfI0if;oGm;=uygonf?
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wyfzGJ@rª;rS wyfazsmufcdkif;ojzifh bD;yDtdkift&m&Sd&dyfomESifh pdkufysKd;a&;okawoe+cH0if;twGif;odk@ wyfazsmufxm;vdkufygonf?
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em;wGif&Sdaomfvnf; vufawGtrdef@ay;oGm;olrSm wdkif;&JwyfzGJrª; OD;az=unfjzpfygonf? OD;az=unfonf ta&;tcif;vlpkcGJ&mwGif
trdef@ay;onfhtawG@tóuH rdrdwGifr&Sdyg[kxGufqdkxm;jyef&m udk,fhtvkyfvnf;r[kwf u|rf;usif&mvnf;r[kwfbJ bma=umifh0if
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bufrS rvdkufemcJh/ owfcsifjzwfcsifpdwfom r$efxlaecJhygonf? ppfaxmufvSrf;a&;ESifh jynfxJa&;0ef}uD; wdk@tem;wGif&Sdaejcif;
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rD;owfum;rsm;vmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;u “vm+yD;a[h csuG” [knmoHay;v#uf cJrsm;ESifh0dkif;ayguf=uygonf? u|ef
awmfwdk@u rD;owfum;udk tumuG,f,lIwufoGm;ygonf? rD;owfum;rsm;a&ukefI 'v=urf;jyefqkwfoGm;aomtcg u|efawmf
wdk@csnf;usef&pfcJh+yD; vl}uD;rsm;vHkòcHa&;twGuf um;vrf;ay:wGif wef;Iae&m,lvdkufygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;ydkqlvm+yD; a'gufwdkif
awG acG;awG[k qJ/ cJrsm;ESifhypfayguf/ ykqdk;vSefjyvkyfae=uygonf? (&Jrsm;u cJrsm;jzifhjyefvSefypfonfudkawmh xGufqdkrxm;yg?)
11em&D rDepf20wGif u|efawmfwdk@wyfzGJ@rsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;u ywf0dkif;rnfhoabmjzpfaeojzifh (awmfawmf,kwWdwefaom
qifajcjzpfygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;0if;twGif;rSvHkxdef;ESifh vl}uD;rif;qdkolawGu tif;pefvrf;ray:rSm rsufESmcsif;qdkif
&yfqdkifxm;aomaetxm;jzpfonf? ausmif;tkwfwHwdkif;u =um;wGifjcm;xm;ygonf? b,fuae b,fvdkywf0dkif;rSmvJ? tmtdkifwD
ausmif;. taetxm;u 'Dvdk0dkifywfqdkwmrjzpfEdkifyg?) wdkif;&JzGJ@rª;u u|efawmfhtm;ac:+yD; at;at;aq;aq;vlpkcJG&ef vlpkruGJygu
tiftm;oHk;I vlpkcGJrnfjzpfa=umif;a=umjimcdkif;ygonf? u|efawmfvnf;oHk;}udrfwdkif vlpkcGJ&efarwWm&yfcHygonf? Xdktcsdefavmuf
wGif bDyDtdkif*dwfbufqDrS 0kef;qdkaomaygufuGJoH}uD;=um;&ygonf? ausmif;om;rsm; xyfrHqlvmjyefonf?
wdkif;&JwyfzGJ@rª;u vlpkrcGJv#ifrsuf&nf,dkAHk;jzifh ypfcwfrnfjzpfa=umif; a=ujimcdkif;ojzifh oHk;}udrfwdkifxrfrHa=ujimygonf/
aemufxyf 10rDepfcef@apmifh=unfhaomfvnf;xljcm;rvmyg? taqmifwGif;rS rSefuGJoHrsm;=um;&ygonf? u|efawmfwdk@vl}uD;rsm;
vHkòcHa&;tEW&,fudk pdk;&drf&onfhtajctae&Sdvm;ojzifh wdkif;wyfzGJ@rª;u u|efawmfhtm; yxrrsuf&nf,dkAHk;jzifhypf&ef vlpkruGJygu
yxraoewf udkif(6)a,muftm; usnfwawmifhpD ajr&Syfypfcwf&ef !Gef=um;ygonf? !Gef=um;twdkif; rsuf&nf,dkAHk;jzifh ypfcwf
aomfvnf; ausmif;om;rsm;ydk@qlvm+yD; tkwfcJrsm;jzifhteD;uyfypfcwfaoma=umifh wyfzGJ@rsm;cJxdrSefhcH&ygonf? vltkyfruGJbJydkqdk;
vm;aoma=umifh aoewfudkif (6)a,muftm; usnfwawmifhpD ajr&SyfypfcwfvlpkcJG&ef trdef@ay;vdkufygonf?
ausmif;om;rsm;vlpkuGJI xGufajy;=uaomtcg u|efawmfwdk@ tkwfwHwdkif;udkausmfI ausmif;0if;twGif;odk@ 0ifa&muf=uyg
onf? u|efawmfwdk@vnf; tajctaeudkapmifh=unfhtuJcwfae=uygonf? eHeuf5em&D 45wGif wyfazsmufae&m,l&ef trdef@&aom
a=umifh wyfazsmufcJh+yD; wyfudkjyefvnfppfaq;aomtcg u|efawmfwyfrS &Jabmf20/'k-&if;rª; wyfpkrS 8OD;'%f&m&ygonf? rdrd t"Du
¶k%f;EdSrfeif;a&;wyfrsm; xdknu umuD0wd+yD; OD;xkyfteDaqmifxm;ygonf?
OD;ausmfodef; OuUX-&efukefwdkif; jynfolaumifpD

(13-3-88)ae@n 7em&D 40wGif ygarmuQ OD;armifarmifoef;rS u|efawmfhxH&yfuGufrD;avmifr_EiS fh ausmif;om;t"du¶k%f; udk
q&mrsm;urxdef;Edkifawmhojzifh pdrefcef@cGJa&;enf;t&ajz&Sif;ay;&ef ta=umif;=um;ygonf? rdrdu jynfxJa&; 'k-0ef}uD;ESifhwdkif;
aumifpDtwGif;a&;rª;wdk@xH qufvufta=umif;=um;+yD; 8em&DcGJwGif r&ef;ukef; rD;owfum;a&S@odk@ a&mufvmygonf? vl}uD;rsm;
a&mufvm+yD; u|efawmfu t&yfom;rsm;udkxdef;&ef wm0ef,l&ygonf? u|efawmf. arwWm&yfcH csuft& t&yfom;rsm;aemufqkwf
oGm;ygonf? 0ef}uD;tem;odk@jyefvmaomtcg ausmif;om;rsm;ypfaomcJa=umifh wdkif;aumifpDtwGi;f a&;rª; '%f&m&oGm;ygonf?
xdktcsdefwGif vlpkcGJ&efatmfoHxGufvmygonf? +idrfroGm;yg? 'kwd,t}udrf a=umjimoHxrfrH=um;&jyefygonf? 5rdepfcef@
t=umwGif“0kef;”[laomaygufuGJoH rsuf&nf,dkAHk;ypf[laom trdef@ay;oHwdk@udk=um;&ygonf? jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;ESifh u|efawmfwdk@
eHeuf 00em&D 30cef@wGif v_dif&Jpcef;odk@jyefvmcJhygonf? rdrdwdk@vd_if&Jpcef;a&mufrS ynma&;'k‘-0ef}uD;’a'gufwmarmifarmifa&muf
vmojzifh jynfxJa&;0ef;}uD;u tmtdkifwDodk@oGm;+yD; ygcsKyfESifhtwl ausmif;om;rsm;udk xdef;&efajymonf?
ta&;tcif;jzpfyGm;cJhv#if yxr òrdŒe,faumifpD/ r&v#if wdkif;aumifpD/ r&v#if txufodk@tqifhqifhwifjy&ygonf? xdknu
owif;udk òrd@e,faumifpDxHrS&onfr[kwfbJ ygarmuQ OD;armifarmifoef;xHrS &jcif;jzpfygonf? tcsif;jzpfyGm;onfhta&;tcif;Y
cGifhðyrdef@ wpHkw&m vufrSwfa&;xdk;ay;&jcif;r&Sdyg?
a'gufwmarmif'D ynma&; 'k-0ef}uD;?
(3-3-88)ae@n oef@aumifausmfrS(14-3-88)ae@ eHeuf 3 em&Dcef@txd pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;0if;tjyifbuf tif;pdefvrf;
ray:rS jynfxJa&; 'k-0ef}uD; Aru cifarmif0if;/ &JcsKyf OD;odef;atmif/ &Jrª;}uD;pdk;jrifh(&Jowif;wyfzGJ@rª;) wdkif;jynfol@aumifpOD uUXwdk@ &dS
ae=uygonf? ausmif;om;(100)cef@ yifraqmifa&S@wGifawG@&+yD;(4-5)OD;cef@rSmatmfvdkuf ab;uvufckwfwD;vdkuf vkyfaeygonf?
u|efawmfu ygcsKyftm; ausmif;0if;jyifodk@ac:xkwf+yD; ,ckudpPonf EdkifiHa&;/ ynma&;jy\emr[kwfbJ &efjzpfonfhjy\em
jzpfI Ora't&ta&;,lrnfudpPjzpfa=umif;/ xdk@a=umifh rql&efausmif;om;rsm;tm;ajymjycdkif;ygonf? ygcsKyfuoGm;ajym+yD; jyefxGuf
vm+yD;aemuf ajymr&a=umif; awmif;qdkcsufrsm; wifjyaea=umif;ajymojzifh rdrdudk,fwdkif0ifajymrnfqdkaomfvnf; ygcsKyfESifhq&m
rsm;wm;xm;=uygonf?
eHeufvif;tm;}uD; 2em&DavmufwGif xdk 14&ufae@twGuf w&ufwmpmoif=um;jcif;udk &yfqdkif;xm;&ef ygcsKyftm;rSm+yD; t
qifhjrifhynmOD;pD;Xme&dS ,m,DuGyfuJa&;pcef;odk@jyefcJhygonf?
OD;pdk;jrifh enf;jy-owˆKazmfa&; tif*sifeD,m Xme
13&ufae@nwGif ausmif;aqmifenf;jyq&mrsm; tcsdefjynfhtoifh&Sdaeap&ef wm0efay;xm;ygonf? n 11 em&Dcef@wGif ig -dk;
rausmif;om;awG[kqJ&if; vHkxdef;rsm;um;ay:rS qif;vm;=uojzifh u|efawmfonf rdef;*dwftxdajy;oGm;+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;udk t
aqmifxJ0if&efajymqdkcJhygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;txJ0ifaepOf vHkxdef;rsm; ausmif;0if;wHwdkif;ab;wGif uyfIae&m,lvdkuf=u+yD;
jzpfygonf? xdktcsdefwGif rdk;ay:axmifazmufaom aoewfoHwcsuf=um;vdkuf&onf? ausmif;om;rsm;udk taqmiftwGif;0if&ef
u|efawmfu twif;wdkufwGef;ojzifh tcsdKŒu0ifoGm;+yD; tcsdKŒrSmausmif;a&S@jrufcif;jyif armfuGef;wdkifyufvnfwGif xkdifae=uygonf?
xdkodk@ ausmif;om;rsm;tm; tajcaexdef;EdkifonfhtcsdefwGif rD;owfum;jzifha&pwifyufygonf? u|efawmfwdk@bufu tajctaeudk
xdef;vdkufEdkifonfhjzpfonfhtwGuf u|efawmfESifhtaqmifenf;jywOD;wdk@ rdef;*dwfbufodk@toGm; armifzkef;armfajy;vm;onfudkawG@
&ygonf? armifzkef;armfu bmjzpfaewmvJ[k ar;aeojzifh aemufrSajymr,frif;tck taqmifxJ0ifyg[k ajy;v$m;&if;jyefajymcJhyg
onf? u|efawmfurD;owfydkufjzifh txdk;cH&onfhae&modk@oGm;+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;udk twif;0ifqGygonf? ausmif;om;rsm;u a'go
a=umifhqwfqwfwkefae+yD; vHkxdef;rsm;ESihf tjyeftvSef cJrsm;jzifhypfaygufae=uygonf? u|efawmfESifh q&mwOD;uausmif;0if;
twGif; uGefu&dvrf;ab;wGif&yf+yD; tajctaeudk=unfhaeygonf? xkdpOf vHkxdef;rsm;tkwfwHwdkif;udkausmfI ausmif;0if;odk@0ifvm
cJ=uonf?
rsuf&nf,dkAHk;ypfonfhtcg (aoewfoHrsm;vnf; wòydifwnf;vdkyifxGufay:vmygonf?) ausmif;om;rsm;ajy;v$wfae=u+yD;
u|efawmhfwkd@vnf;ajy;&efjyifpOf ausmif;om;wa,mufvJusoGm;onfudk vSrf;awG@vdkuf&ojzifh xkdausmif;om;xHodk@ u|efawmf
ajy;oGm;ygonf? ausmif;om;rSm armifzkef;armfjzpf+yD; ausmif;a&S@t0dkif;. ywfvrf;taemufbufjcrf; uGefu&dvrf;ay:wGif vJaejcif;
jzpfonf? ol@teD;wGif wjcm;ausmif;om;ESpfOD;vnf;awG@ojzifh u|efawmfwdk@oHk;a,muf yÀ&dyfyifwef;ausmfI cufcufcJcJo,f,l
vmygonf? aoewfoHrsm;=um;&aomtcg u|efawmfwdk@0yfae+yD; twGif;vrf;em;wGifc%em;eygonf? vHkxdef;rsm;u rajy;eJ@rajy;
eJ@[k atmfaoma=umifh qufrajy;&Jyg? xdkae&mwGifausmifom;wOD;vnf; '%f&m&I0yfaeygonf? vHkxdef;rsm;u rajy;eJ@[kajym
aomtcg xdkausmif;om;u u|efawmf'%f&m&xm;w,f[katmfajymygonf? vHkxdef;rsm;u'%f&m& &ifxGufcJh[kajym&m xdk

ausmif;om;xGufoGm;+yD; vHkxdef;rsm;a&S@a&mufaomtcg xkd'%f&m&ausmif;om;tm; vHkxdef;4OD;u eHygwfwkwfjzifh¶kduf ajcaxmuf
jzifh 0dkif;uefxdk;}udwfaewmudkawG@&ygonf? xdkausmif;om;udkac:oGm;awmhrS u|efawmfwdk@vnf; 0yfae&mrS armifzkef;armfudkt
aqmif(1)atmufodk@ o,foGm;ygonf? taqmif(1)atmifwGif wjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;ajy;vmojzifh armfzkef;armftm; olwdk@ESifh
tyfv#uf ygcsKyfxHowif;ydk@&efxGufoGm;pOf ausmif;om;rsm;aemufrSvdkufvm+yD; '%f&m&ausmif;om; armifzkef;armfaoqHk;oGm;+yD;
jzpfa=umif; idk,dkajymqdk=uygonf? u|efawmfvnf; A[dkaqmiftaqmifrª; OD;bjrifhudkoGm;&Sm&m rawG@ojzifhtaqmifodk@jyefvm+yD;
tcef;xJrSmyifpdwfxdcdkufojzifh ikwfwkwfxdkifidkifaevdkufygonf?
armifjrifhOD;-aemufqHk;ESpf pufr_tif*sifeD,m
u|efawmfonf qif;&Jojzifh ausmif;p&dwf&&ef yefyJwef;ESifh ausmufwHwm;òrd@e,frsm;wGif usL&Sifay;ygonf? (13-3-88) ae@
naewGif usL&SifcsdefudkðzwfcJh+yD; taqmifodk@jyefvmonf? xrif;pm;+yD;tdrfaepOf qlqlnHnHtoHrsm;=um;I tcef;a&S@xGuf=unfh&m
bDyDtdkifbufwGif rD;avmifa=umif;od&+yD; c%t=umwGif rD;+idrf;oGm;ygonf? rD;owfum;rsm;a&mufvmonf? ausmif;om;rsm; [dk
[dk'D'DoGm;vmae=uonf? taqmifay:wGif vlr&Sdoavmufjzpfaeojzifh atmufodk@qif;vmygonf?
ausmif;+cHpnf;±kd;tem;&Sd ausmif;om;rsm;ESifhoGm;a&mufaESmpOf OD;xkyfteDapmif;xm;aom vHkxdef;rsm;u ausmif;bufodk@
aoewfrsm;jzifh xdk;csdefxm;aoma=umifh a=umuf+yD; ausmif;bufodk@jyefvmcJhygonf? a&;yef;teD;wGifu|efawmfwdk@pkxdkifae=upOf rD;
owfum;rsm;u a&jzifhxkd;yufygonf? c%t=umwGif rD;wef;}uD;rsm;jrif&+yD; azmif;ueJ azmif;ueJ toHrsm; trsm;}uD;=um;&yg
onf?
u|efawmfvnf; a=umufojzifh ausmif;aqmifbufxajy;pOf ausmbufrSylueJjzpfomG ;ygonf? atmifh+yD;ypfvJoGm;ygonf?
igbmjzpfovJ rodbl;[katmf+yD;jyefxajy;ygonf? ajy;r&awmhbJ vJoGm;ygonf? oli,fcsif;rsm;u u|efawmfudkwGJ+yD; taqmif(1)
atmufodk@qJGac:oGm;ygonf? wtm;emygonf? owdrvpfyg? aemuf &efukefaq;±kH}uD;odk@a&mufoGm;ygonf?
u|efawmfonf ,ckta&;tcif;xJwGif udk,fwdkifyg0ifcJhjcif;r&Sdyg? =unfh±kHoufoufomjzpfygonf? ukodkvfuHraumif;ojzifh
om aoewfrSef&jcif;jzpfygonf? '%f&m&&SdonfhtxJ ajcusOfcwfxm;ojzifh pdwfrcsrf;romjzpf&ygonf? (udkjrifhOD;. xGufcsufudk
,lpOfu &efukef±Hk}uD;wGif aq;ukocHae&pOfjzpfygonf?)
(9-u)
rwfv 14 &uf? &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf?
13 &ufae@tul;eHeuf 1em&DausmfrSom ypfcwfjcif;rsm;/ ±dkufESufjcif;rsm; &yfpJoGm;onf? odk@aomf ausmif;0if;wHwdkif;a&S@rSm
umuD0wf OD;xkwfteD;aqmif;awGu aoewfawGudkifv#uf acsmif;ajrmif;ae=uonfudkjrifae&onf? aoewfajymif;rsm;udk ausmif;
om;rsm;aexdkifaomtaqmifrsm;/ taqmuftOD;bufodk@ wnfhwnfhcsdef&nfxm;onf? olwdk@xHwGif b,ftrsKd;tpm;vufeuf
awGygaeOD;rnfenf;? befumuwkwfusOf;zsuf vufeufawGrsm;ygaeovm;? 62 qJAZl;vdkifwkef;u ordkif;0if&efukefwuUodkvf
or*~taqmif tOD;udkòzd ausmif;om;aoG;eJ@yv†ifaq;cJhzl;aomppftkyfpkrSm rvkyf0Hhwmqdkvdk@ tm%mudkvlxkxHjyefzdk@wckom&Sdonf?
b,ftcsdefrSm ausmif;om;awGudk tvpfidkuf,l+yD; ausmif;aqmifwGifay: “usm;”qdk wJh toHeuf}uD;awGeJ@ wufxdk;+yD;pD;eif;av
rvJ? rjrif&aomae&mawGrSmvnf; tifESifhtm;ESifh xkESifhxnfESifh apmif;ajrmif;acsmif;ae=uvdrf;rnf? cspfvSpGmaom trdwuUodkvf
e,fajronf ppfajrjyifjzpfcJh&+yD;? wbufoufppfajrjyif? b,frSmvJ w&m;Oya'/ b,frSmvJ trSefw&m;&efukefòrd@vnfacgifacgif}uD;
rSm awmOya'oawG }uD;pdk;aewJhn?
ausmif;om;rsm;onf rtdrfjzpf=u? tdrfvkdvJr&=u? touftEW&,f+cdrf;ajcmufchae&r_? tapmfum;&r_? pdefac:cH&r_awGu
tkyfpdk;aeonf? tjzpftysufawGujrefonf? awG;xifrxm;EdkifcJhaom¶kdufpdkif;yufpufr_udk ezl;awG@'l;awG@awG@vdkuf&+yD;? b0rSm'grsKd;
róuHcJhbl;? tarhtdrf/ pmoifcef;/ +idrf;csrf;aomywf0ef;usif? pmóud;pm;aom/ pmawmfaom/ vdrRmaomausmif;om;rsm;tjzpf rdb
aqGrsKd;rsm;ESifhywf0ifusif. tav;xm;r_ av;pm;r_udkom&ifeD;cJh=uaomb0jzpfonf? pufr_wuUodkvfa&mufp armifr,fopfvGif
ae@&ufrsm;ay:rSm ar#mfvifhcsuf,Hk=unfcsufrsm; v#r;f v#rf;a0aecJhjcif;rsm;? pG,fawmfawm[kwifpm;=uaom ausmif;awmf}uD;ay:
wifaeaom oHa,mZOf? urBmESifh&ifaygifwef;vdkpdwf/ acwfopfynm&yfrsm;ESifh &if;eD;cGifh/ t&m&monftm;wufvef;qef;zG,f&m
awGcsnf;? odk@aomf Tt&mtm;vHk;onf 'Dae@nwGif yk'frcsoGm;cH+yD;? qJoHrsm;? rsu&f nf,dk;AHk;/ wnfhwnfhvdkufypfaomaeaom
aoewfoH/ ±dkufESufoHrsm;/ trdef@ay;oHeufeuf}uD;rsm;/ bufwbuftaeeJ@ 'DnrSmtrSefw&m;udk jrifvdkuf&+yD;? acwfudk/ pepfudk/
tpdk;&o±kyfudkjrifvdkuf&+yD;? wdk@udktkyfcsKyfaewm wkdifjynf&J@uH=urRmudk pDrHcef@cGJaewm/ vli,fawG&J@tem*wfudkyJhudkifxm;wm
b,fvdktpdk;&ovJ? vli,ftcsif;csif; obm0t& &efjzpf=uwmudk aoewfeJ@ajzodrfh&rvJ? wb0vHk;eJ@ b0rsm;pGm;wdk@ a&S@quf&if
qdkif=u&rJhc&D;rSm oif;wdk@eJ@ b,fvdk=unf =unfjzLjzLvufwGJoGm;Edkif=urvJ?

wck ckawmhoabmxm;&rnf wkH@jyef&rnf? rtdrfjzpf=u? wD;wdk;pumoHrsm; ausmif;aqmifwdkif;&J@ tcef;wdkif;rSmay:ae
onf? [kwfonf tjrifawGuwlonf? pufr_wuUodkvfudk“pG,fawmfawm”tjzpfwifpm;=uonf? ESpf&Gufaygif;v#uf pkpnf;ae
aom pG,fawmf&Gufuav;rsm;udkt&ifu tcspfoauFw wcktjzpfomjzpfjrifcJhonf? tckawmh nD!Gwfaygif;pnf;r_rjzpf vwfvwf
qwfqwfcHpm;ae&+yD;? pdwf"gwfwufºuG&onf? 'Dvdktjrifwlr_rsKd; wcgr#rcHpm;bl;/ &ifcHkorH sm;jzifh aEG;aeonfhn? pdwfv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;
jzifhvwfqwfaewJh trdwuUodkvfudk topfjyefjref&wJhn?
(9-c)
13 &ufae@eHeuf 5em&DwGif ausmif;om;rsm;u udkzkef;armfusqHk;cJhaomae&m udkzkef;armfuscJhaom aoG;uGufrsm;&Sd&mae&m
wGif txdrf;trSwf trSwftom;av;wckudk ðyvkyfcJh=uonf? aoG;uGufae&mudk tkwfcJrsm;jzifh =u,fykHo¾efpDvdkuf=uonf?
usnfqefcGHrsm;udk xdkaoG;pGef;=u,feDtay:wGif wifxm;vdkuf=uonf?
ausmif;om;tcsKdŒusqHk;;onfudk nwGif;csif;yifod&onf? odk@aomfb,fESpfa,mufusqHk;onfudk rod&? aumv[mvawG
uysHaeonf? eHeufrdk;tvif;wGif ordkif;ausmif;aqmif0twGif;&Sd pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;aqmifrsm;u ausmif;wGif nutjzpft
ysufudk tjynfhtpkHod&onf? ausmif;om;rsm; rcHr&Edkifawmh? xdkrS &efukefwuUodkvf-vd_ife,fajr/ &efukefwuUodkvfyifr/ pD;yGm;a&;
wuUodkvf ponfhowif;rsm;ysHESH@oGm;onf? aevnfydkif;wGif &efukefwòrd@wvHk;ESifhrEWav;/ armfvòrdif/ rHk&Gm/ yJcl;/ jynf/ rdwÎDvm
paomòrd@rsm; owif;ysHESH@oGm;ukefonf?
tpdk;&owif;pmwGif t&yfom;ESifhausmif;om; omref&efyGJavmufom a&;om;xm;+yD; ausmif;om;wa,mufaoqHk;onf
[k a&;om;xm;onf? aoewf'%f&ma=umifh[kazmfjyxm;jcif;r&Sd? awmOya'oonf pufr_wuUodkvfrS EdkifiHtESH@odk@ul;pufoGm;
onf? EdkifiHa&;Edk;=um;r_tm;aumif;aom pGef@v$wfvdkpdwf tajymif;tvJudk vdkvm;pdwf jrifhrm;aeaom ausmif;om;vli,fav;rsm;
u acgifiHk@rcH? tpdk;&. aumufuspf,kwfnHhI ¶dkif;pdkif;aomvkyf&yfrsm;udk zGifhcswdkufyGJ0if&ef óud;yrf;=uonf? tpdk&qefŒusifa&;
pm&Gufpmwrf;rsm; yvlysHcJh+yD;?
“rwfv 13&ufae@n &efukefpufr_wuUodkvf tjzpftysufESifhyufoufI pufwuUodkvfausmif;om;rsm;. rdbjynfolrsm;
ESifh ausmif;om;vli,frsm;odk@ &Sif;vif;wifjycsuf” “tmZmenfudkzkef;armf psmre tm;vHk;vdkufydk@=u” udkzkef;armfusqHk;jcif;ESifhywf
oufI pHkprf;a&;aumfr&Sifw&yf zGJ@pnf;pHkprf;ay;&ef? pHkprf;a&;aumfr&SifwGif ausmif;om;xkudk,fpm;vS,frsm; yg0ifcGifhay;&ef/ ausmif;
om;tcGifta&; umuG,fa&;aumfrwDw&yf zGJ@pnf;ay;&ef? ausmif;eH&Hrsm;? ausmif;oifykef;rsm;/ opfyifrsm;wGif a=umjimcsufrsm;
ay:vmonf? ausmif;om;rsm;u 0dkif;tHkzwf=uonf? pm&Gufpkwf+zJrnfhowif;ay;rsm;u cyf,dk@,dk@? a=ujimcsufrsm;awmif;qdkrsm;u
ausmif;om;tm;vHk;. vdkvm;csufudkxif[yfaeonf? udk,fpm;ðyaeonf? odk@a=umifhyif a=ujimcsufudk vufa&;ESifhvdkuful;olu
ul;aeonf? aemufwem&Dt=umwGif vufa&;jzifha=ujimcsufrsm;vnf;ay:vmonf? Todk@jzifh wuUodkvfajronf awmfvSefa&;
taiG@toufrsm;jzifh Edk;ºuGvmcJhonf? idkufrl;aer_rsm;vGifhusukefonf? +iD;aiG@pdwfukefzG,fae@&ufawGudk 'dk@awGajymif;,lvdk@&w,f
a[h? ausmif;pmoifcef;/ ausmif;taqmif/ uifwif; pm=unfhwdkufrsm;xJrS wD;wdk;pum;oHrsm; topfjzpfaompum;rsm;? trdEdkifiH
awmf. vGrf;armwufºuGbG,f aEG&uftopfrsm;?
(9-*)
rwfv 14 &ufae@ tjzpftysuf?
tm%mydkifrsm;onf rausreyfjzpfaeaom ausmif;om;rsm;udk ausmif;q&mrsm;ESifh&ifqdkifcdkif;vdkufonf?
™ eHeuf 2em&DcJG? ausmif;om;rsm;u ygarmuQcsKyftm; ausmif;om;(3-4)a,mufaoa=umif;owif;&onf? [kwf-r[kwfar;
jref;&m ygcsKyfuerdwfr&Sdaompum;udkrajymeJ@/ rdrdtaejzifh wwfEidk for#vkyfay;+yD;+yD usef;rma&;raumif;ojzifh ESvHk;aq; aomuf
ae&a=umif;om ausmif;om;rsm;udkjyefajymygonf? (ygcsKyfudk,fwdkifxGufqdkcsuf) (ygcsKyfonf ausmif;om;aoqHk;cJhonfqdkonfh
owif;udk wav#mufvHk;jiif;y,fcJholjzpfonf? n8em&DjrefrmtoHrS ausmif;om;ao;qHk;onf[k w&m;0ifwdkif;od jynfod xkwf
azmfa=umjimcsdefxd ausmif;om;aoonfqdkonfudk xkwfazmfajymqdk&ef jiif;qef@oljzpfonf?)
™ eHeuf 5em&D 30wGifausmif;omrsm;onf udkzkef;armfusqHk;cJhaomae&mwGif “aoG;pGef;=u,feD” txdrftrSwfudkðyvkyfcJh=u
onf? usnfqHcGH 3cGH/ aoG;pGef;pGyfus,fwxnf? zdeyfw&Hudkywf0dkif;v#uf tkwfcJhrsm;jzifh ig;axmifh=u,fyHk trSwfw&vkyfcJh=uonf?
zufqpfbD;bl;wdk@. vufcsufjzifh usqHk;cJh&oludk OD;!Gef*k%fðyaomaom Tvkyf&ufa=umifh tm%mydkifrsm; qwfqwfcgjzpfcJh&
onf? (ygcsKyfu Todk@tvkyf&efajym+yD; ,m,DuGyfuJa&;pcef;zGihfxm;aom tqifhjrifhynmOD;pD;Xmeodk@ zkef;qufowif;ydk@vdkuf
onf? (ygcsKyf.xGufqdkcsuf)

™

™ eHeu6 em&DcGJausmif;om;rsm;onf rsufEmS wGift0wfrsm;pnfv#uf 2a,mufwwefpD+yD; a&S@qHk;ausmif;om; 2OD;rSm yef;acGudk
udkifv#uf ausmif;0if;twGif;vSnfhvnf=uonf? yxrtrsKd;om;aqmifudkywfonf? xdkaemuf ausmif;olaqmifudkywf+yD; aoG;pGef;
=u,feDokd@jyefvmonf? av;ðyonf? wdwfqdwf+idrfoufae=uonf? rsuf&nfrsm;±d_oHrsm;ESifh i,f&G,fEke,faomrsufemrsm;/ +yD;
awmht&G,fESifhrr#onfhaomu/ a=uuGJr_/ cHjyif;jcif;? (ygcsKyfu 'grsKd;erdwfr&dS/ rvkyfaumif;[k[efwm;ygao;onf? ygcsKyf.udk,fwdkif
xGufcsuf)
™ rw&m;r_/ zdEdSrfr_udk&ifqdkifae&aom ausmif;om;rsm;taejzifh rdrd. epfemcsufrsm;udk pmemem;vnfay;Edkifol ulnD;cHpm;ay;
Edkifol wnfwnf=unf=unfESifh vrf;jyulnDay;Edkifoludk&Sm=uawmhonf? rdrd.epfemcsufudkazmfxkwf&rnf? vdkvm;csufudk wifjy&
rnf? rdrdwdk@rSmtm;awGtrsm;}uD;&dSonf? nDtudkausmif;om;awG&Sdonf? rdbjynfol\rsm;&Sdonf? &[ef;oHCmawmf rsm;&Sdonf?
tvkyfom;rm;}uD;rsm;&dSonf? v,form;awG/ orm;*k%f&Sdaom q&mawG&Sdao;onf? wifjy&rnf? xdktwGuf pmul;puf/ vufESdyf
pufvdkonf? rdrdwdk@rSm 'gawG@r&Sd &Sdaeonfuausmif;±kHcef;? puftm%mydkifawGua&'D,dkrS xifwdkif;vky}f uHaecsdefwGif rdrdwdk@onf 'D
tcGifhta&;udkawmh,l&rnf? yxr tomw=unfawmif;onf? armfuGef;xdef;u ypfypfcgcgajymv$wfonf? xdktcg &atmif,l
onf? (armfuGef;xdef; OD;Adkvfat;onf ygcsKyftm; (1)ausmif;om;rsm;onf q&mudk±dkif;pdkif;pGmqufqHa=umif;/ (2) pmul;pufcef;udk
t"rRzGifha=umif; (3)pmrsm;udkul;a=umif;/ (4)vSnfhul;xm;aompmrsm;udk a0iScJh=ua=umif;/ owif;ydk@ygonf armfuGef;xdef;.xGufqdk
csufrS)
™ ae@vnf; 12em&D ausmif;om;rsm;u w&m;yGJrsm;usif;yðyvkyfcJhonf? ta,muf(300-400)cef@&dSrnf? rae@nu ylylaEG;aEG;
jzpfysufcJhaom tjzpftysufudk wdkifwnfwifjy=uonf? ppftm%mrsm;tvdkus rsufEmS vdktm;& vkyfcJholrsm;udkvnf;a0zefonf?
xkwfazmfajymqdk=uonf? aemufw&m;yGJu t0ef;t0dkif;us,fvmonf? bGJ@&tvkyfrJhjy\em/ ukef;aps;E_ef;}uD;jrifhr_/ tvkyform;
rsm;ESifhvkyfcvpm/ v,form;rsm;ESifhpyg;0,f,la&;/ ausmif;om;vli,frsm;.xGufayguf bdef;/ t&uf ppfwyf? wcsKdΠA[kokwjrifh
rm;aom ausmif;om;rsm;u ppftm%m&SifpepfESifh'Drdkua&pDudkajymqdk=uonf? wdkif;jynfonf urBm@zGJ@®z@r_tEdSyfusqHk;EdkifiH pm&if;
xJ0ifoGm;+yD;jzpfa=umif;? pum;awGupHkonf? vufckwfoHrsm;? &,foHrsm;?
nuarSmufvm+yD; vHkxdef;rsm;ESifh &yfuGufaumifpDwdk@u ausmif;udkywfywfvnfrS 0dkif;xm;vdkuf+yD;jzpfonf? w&m;yGJu r+yD;ao;?
ygcsKyfu ,m,DuGyfuJa&;pcef;(tqn)odk@owif;ydk@onf? tm%mydkifwdk@u ygcsKyfudk,fwdkifxdef;=unfh&ef jyefvnf !Gef=um;onf?
(ygcsKyf. xGufqdkcsuf) ygcsKyfu ausmif;om;rsm;&Sd&modk@oGm;onf? jrefrmhtoHrS n8em&Dowif; vm+yd;ump jzpf onf?
owif;wGifausmif;om;rsm;u Oya'rJhðyvkyfaea=umif; typfwifxm;onf? ausmif;om;wa,mufaoqHk;a=umif;udk azmfjy
xm;aomfvnf; aoewf'%f&ma=umifh[k ajymrxm;/ &efjzpfI"g;xdk;cH&+yD; aooa,mifa,mif? ausmif;om;awGrauseyfr_u ydkI
wdk;vmonf?
ygcsKyfa&mufvmonf? ausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;om;wpfaoqHk;onfudk jrefrmhtoHrSa=ujima=umif; ajymjy=uonf?
(ygcsKyfu 0efcHpum;rqdk) aoaomoludk &SifatmifjyefrvkyfEdkifa=umif; *vJhpm;acscsifv#if rdrdudkowfEdkifa=umif;ajymqdkonf? (ygcsKyf
. xGufqdkcsuf) ausmif;om;rsm;onf vlowform;r[kwf? q&mudk *vJhpm;acsowfjzwfrnfholrsm; ydkIr[kwf? 0efcHpum;rqdkwJh
tjyif tajctaeeJ@roifhawmfwJhpum;udk ygcsKyfuajymvmonfhwdkif ausmif;om;rsm;uonf;cH=uonf? rdrdwdk@bufrS wynfh0wf
awmhausap&rnf? q&m}uD;udk xkdifuawmh=uygonf? (ygcsKyf.xGufcsuf)
tpdk;&. owif;xkwfjyefcsufrSm rSm;aeonf? rSm;aewmudk ygcsKyftodqHk;jzpfonf? xdk@twGufowif;trSefudk xkwfjyefzdk@vdk
rnf? trSefw&m;bufu &yfwnfzdk@awmhvdkrnf? odk@twGuf q&m}uD;taejzifh vufrSwfxdk;ay;zdk@ ausmif;om;rsm;uawmif;qdk=u
onf? wa,mufwcGef;ajymae=uonf?
Ttajctaeudk vrf;pOf;vli,fOuUXvnf;jzpf csnfr#ifESihftxnfuxduvnf;jzpfaom OD;armifarmifoef;uodoGm;onf?
ausmif;om;awG ygcsKyfudk0dkif;xm;+yD[(k tqn)udkowif;ydk@onf? (OD;armifarmifoef;.xGufqdkcsuf)(tqn)uvnf; q&m}uD;udk&
atmifqJGxkwfyg[k !Gef;=um;onf? OD;armifarmifoef;u ppfqifa&;r[mpDrHcsufawmf}uD;udk vrf;pOfvli,fOuUX t&nftcsif;}uD;
jzifh csufjcif;a&;qGJonf? wjcm;q&mrsm;udk pkonf? ausmif;om;rsm;&dS&modk@oGm;onf? ausmif;om;rsm;tjcm;q&mrsm; a&mufvm
ojzifh &ifzGifhp&mvlrsm;vmaoma=umifh ygcsLyfab;rScGmI wjcm;q&mrsm;udk wifjy=uonf? &ifzGifh=uonf? trSefw&m;bufu&yf
wnfzdk@ awmif;qdkovdk awmif;vnf;awmif;yef=uonf? vl&Sif;oGm;aomygcsKyfudk (pDrHxm;onfhtwdkif;) OD;armifarmifoef;u
tomav;ac:xkwfoGm;onf? atmif+yD?(tqn)odk@ owif;ydk@onf? yifyef;cufcJpGm vHk;yef;tm;xkwf+yD;aemufæponf? (Tta&;
tcif;udk tcsKdŒaomolrsm;onf opPm&Sdr_jyyGJ/ &mxl;a&;ajzpmar;yJG[k oabmxm;=uonfrsm;vnf; &SdcJhonf?)
rwfvaEG. tarSmifatmufwGif vufvif;aeaom}u,fav;rsm;udk ausmif;om;rsm;ai;aecJh}uonf? ,ae@ oli,fcsif;&J
abmfzkef;armftm; wufpGrf;orsS*k%fðyjzpfcJh=ujyD; ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk;onf(rqv)acwfwGif vljzpfcJh=uolrsm;jzpfonf? (rqv)
tpdk;&ta}umif;udk ,aehw&m;yGJwGifjywfjywfom;om;}um;cJh&onf? rsufaphawGyGihfvmonf? wm0efawGudkjrifvmonf? xrf;&
rnfh0wW&m;awGu wyHkwyif? vlb0onf t"dy`g,f&Sdvmonf? t&ifuawG;qxm;ovdk bGJ@&/ 0goemvnf;yg/ ae&mvnf;aumif;

onfhtvkyfwck&/ tdrfaxmifusb0onf 'Dr#ruawmh? ajymif;ypf&rSmawGESifh topfawGwnfaqmuf=u&rSmawG jynfhESufaeonf?
(wdkif;jynfudkcspfwJhpdwf"gwfu &ifxJwGif teuf±d_if;qkH; xdk;0ifvmcJhonf?)
ntarSmifrSm pG,fawmf&GufawG=um; &dyfueJv_yf&Sm;r_rsm;udkvnf;awGŒae&onf? q&mawGeJ@ xdyfwdkufawGŒcJh&wmudkawmh
pdwfraumif;? 'gayr,fh rwwfEdkif?
rwfv 15 &uf?
(10)
nu jrefrmhtoHu a=ujimcJhaomowif;a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm;rcHr&yfEdkifjzpf=u&onf? 'Dtwdkif;ikH‹cHaeygu &mZ0if±dkif;ay
awmhrnf? oli,fcsif;zkef;armf.tavmif;u ajrrusao;? opPrJholrsm;tjzpf woufvHk;vdyfjymvHkp&mr&Sdawmh? wjcm;'%f&m&
aom/ aysmufaom oli,fcsif;rsm;twGufvnf; &wufrat;jzpf&onf? bmvkyf=urvJ?
eHeufrdk;vif;ydkif; 3em&DwGif aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;vkyf=uonf? wnvHk;rtdyfEdkif=u? aqG;aEG;yGJrsm;vkyfr,fqdkawmh ausmif;om;awGt
wGuf us,f0ef;wJhae&m tckvdktajctaersKd;rSm (owfjzwfzdk@ausmif;ywfywfvnfu acsmif;ajrmif;aewJhtcsdef) vHkòcHaomae&m
ausmif;om;awGtwGufr&Sd? r&Sdawmh taumif;qHk;ae&mjzpfonfh a':apm&D. “qHkqnf;&m”pm;aomufqdkfifrSm vkyfjzpf=uonf?
ausmif;wGif;v_yf&Sm;r_rsm; tjyifuodzdk@vdkonf? rdbjynfolrsm;odzdk@vdkonf? rae@u wae@vHk;tif;pdefvrf;r=uD;udk ppftm
%mydkifwdk@u ydwfqdk@xm;onf? 'Dvrf;u toufaoG;a=um usonfhwckwnf;aomvrf;r}uD; olwdk@=um=um ydwfEdkifrnfr xif?
tjcm;ausmif;om;rsm;od&ef wm0efawGcGJa0=uonf?
tpdk;&.owif;xkwfjyefa=umjimcsufudk ajz&Sif;&ef owif;xkwjf yefcsuftrSefudk 0dkif;0ef;a&;om;onf? a&;om;+yd;aomtcg
axmufcHvufra&;xdk;ay;rnfh q&mr&Sd? ygcsKyfvnf;jiif;aeonf? 'DawmharmfuGef;xdef;udk vufrSwfa&;xdk;cdkif;onf? a=umuf
a=umufeSifhxdk;ay;vdkufonf? (armfuGef;xdef;rS oufaoxGufqdk&mwGif rdrd.touftEW&,f/ ygarmuQcsKyftygt0if q&mrsm;.
touftEW&,f/ ausmif;}uD;rD;±_dŒypfrnfhtEW&,fwdk@a=umifh vufra&;xdk;ay;vdkuf&a=umif; xGufqdkxm;ygonf?)
,ae@ tif;pdefvrf;rudk jyefvnfzGifhvSpfvdkuf+yDjzpfojzifh jynfolrsm;vnf;toGm;tvm&Sdonf? tjcm;ausmif;rS ausmif;om;
rsm;/ pufr_wuUodkvfrS ae@ausmif;om;rsm;/ ordkif;0iftaqmifrsm;rS ausmif;om;rsm;/ ausmif;0if;twGif; t0iftxGuf&Sdvm=u
onf? ausmif;rSmrae@ouJhodk@ txD;usefwdwfqdwfraeawmh? pdkajyaeonf? w&m;yGJrsm;usif;yae=uonf? &efukefwuUodkvf (yifr)
tygt0if tjcm;ausmif;rsm;odk@ tjzpftysuftrSefwifjycsufrsm; jzef@a0aeolujzef@a0ae+yD? ttdyfysuf/ tpmysufESifh pdwfyifyef;r_
rsm;a=umifh ausmif;om;rsm; EGrf;ae=uonf? odk@aomf tm;wufoa&mjzpfaer_rsm;u txif;om;?
aevnf 12em&DcGJ ygarmuQcsKyfonf ,m,DuGyfuJa&;pcef;zGifhxm;aom tqifhjrifhynmOD;pD;Xm (tqn)±kH;csLyfodk@ xGufoGm;
onf? (tqn)wGif ynma&;0ef;}uD;/ jynfxJa&;0ef;}uD;/ ynma&; 'k-0ef;}uD;wdk@ESifhawG@onf? ausmif;om;rsm;±dkif;pdkif;a=umif;/
tajctaeudk a&&Snfxdef;xm;&efrvG,fa=umifh/ ausmif;ydwfvdkufjcif;a=umif;udk wifjyonf? (ygcsKyf. xGufqdkcsufjzpfygonf?
aumfr&Sif. tpD&ifcHpm pmrsufESm 142)
xdkaemuf ppfqifa&;yHkpHjzifh &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfodk@ tm;vHk;csDwufvm=uonf? ygcsKyfonf jynfxJa&;0ef}uD;/ ynma&;
0ef}uD;/ 'k-0ef}uD;wdk@ESifhtwl v_dif&Jpcef;odk@oG;a&mufonf? v_dif&Jpcef;wGif jynfxJa&;0ef;}uD; 'k-0ef}uD; Adkvfrª;}uD;cif;armif0if;/ ukef
oG,fa&;0ef;}uD;ESifh ,m,Dynma&;0ef}uD; OD;cifarmif}uD;/ jyef=um;a&;0ef;}uD; OD;atmifausmfjrifh/ ppfaxmufvSrf;a&; !Gef;=um;a&;
rª; Adkvfrª;cif!Gef/ &Jowif;wyfzGJ@rª; &Jrª;}uD;pdk;jrifhwdk@vnf;a&muf&Sdvm+yD; pkpnf;rd=uonf? xdkaemuf pufr_wuUodkvfausmif;0if;xJ
0ifa&mufpD;eif;&ef vrf;a=umif;udkajrykHcscif;I&Sm;=uonf? (ygarmuQcsKyfonf q&m0wW&m;ig;yg;twdkif; ausmif;om;wdk@udk ol0go
em ygaomenf;jzifh “oifh&mtyfydk@”awmhrnfjzpfonf?
xdkaemuf trdef@ay;vdkufaomtcg ppfwyfutjyifrS0dkif;xm;+yD; jynfxJa&; 'k-0ef}uD;Adkvfrª;}uD;cifarmif0if;u udk,fwdkif avmf
pyDumjzifh “at;csrf;pGmynmoif=um;vdkaom ausmif;om;trsmpk. rsufESmudkaxmufxm;I qlylr_udkxdef;odrf;ay;&rnfjzpf
a=umif;/ at;csrf;pGm;ynm oif=um;vdkaomausmif;om;rsm;taqmifay:odk@ jyefvnfaexdkif&ef” atmfoHrsm;ESifhtwl vHkxdef;rsm;
ESifh&JwyfzGJ@0if;rsm;u ausmif;0if;xJodk@ 0ifa&mufpD;eif;vdkuf=uonf? ausmif;aqmifrsm;udk 0dkif;olu0dkif;onf? q&mrsm;aetdrf/ pm
oifaqmifrsm; taqmuftOD;toD;oD;wGif ausmif;om;rsm;yke;f cdkaejcif;r&Sdap&ef &Smoluvnf;&Smonf? (nae 4em&Dausmf)
ausmif;om;rsm; taqmifay:a&muft+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;u ausmif;udkpD;eif;xdef;csKyfEdkifcsdef/ ausmif;jyifwGif ppfwyfuae&m
,l+yD;a=umif; owif;ydk@t+yD;wGif taqmifay:rSausmif;om;rsm;udk taqmifatmufodk@ac:qif;onf? taqmiftwGif;odk@ ykef;ae
jcif;&Sd/ r&Sd tcef;vdkufvdkuf=unhfonf? ausmif;om;rsm;udk taqmifa&S@wGif &mZ0wfom;xdkif xdkifcdkif;onf? jiif;qefolrsm;udkpdwf
jzifhrSwfxm;onf? (u|efaemhftm; udk,fa&;&mZ0ifar;pOf xdkifrajymbJ rwfw&yfajymvdk@ axmifudkac:oGm;wmjzpfw,f[k yOPrESpf
Adokum ausmif;om; udkausmfqef;u xGufqdkonf?)
jrufcif;wGif &mZ0wfom;xdkif xkdifcdkif;xm;aomausmif;om;rsm;udk ppftm%mydkifrsm;(v_dif&Jpcef;wGif pkrdaeaom 0ef}uD;rsm;
wòyHvHk;ausmif;xJodk@ ygvmygonf?)u q&mrsm;ESifhtwla&G;xkwfygonf? q&mrsm;udk qlylaomausmif;om;rsm;tm; “rsuf&dyfrsuf
csnfESifhomjyyg” rdrdwdk@qJGxkwfrnf[k tm%mydkifrsm;u wdk;wdk;wdwfwdwfrSmxm;onf? rsuf&dyfrsufcsnfjyolutrsm;pk? ("gwktif

*sifeD,m ygarmuQa'gufwmarmifarmif0if;uawmh jynfxJa&;0ef;}uD;AdkvfcsKyfrif;a*gifu u|efawmukdtJovdkajymygw,f? u|ef
awmfu tJovdkrvkyfEdkifa=umif; jiif;vdkufw,f[k xGufqdkxm;ygonf?)
a&G;xkwfxm;aomausmif;om;rsm;udk wae&mwGifpkIxdkifcdkif;onf? (ta&G;cH&ol wenf;axmifydk@cH&r,folawGxJu w
a,mufurS u|efawmfrygbl;vdk@yajymbl;As? rif;wdk@vkyfcsif&mvkyfprf;qdkwJh pdwf"gwfawGeJ@csnf;bJ? u|efawmfrygbl;vdk@xajym&if
u|efawmfxifw,f olwdk@enf;enf;yg;yg;cH0efav;a&;+yD; jyefv$wfay;rSmbJ? olwdk@uvJ 'Dvkd0efcsawmif;yefapcsifaewmAs? 'gayr,fh
b,fausmif;omrS'DvdkrvkyfcJh=ubl;?) xdkpOfu tzrf;cH&mwGifygaomausmif;om;wOD;u jyefajymjyzl;ygonf?
a&G;xkwfcH&aomausmif;om;rsm;pkpkaygif; 68 OD;&Sdygonf? xdkausmif;om;rsm;udk toifhac:vmaom tcsKyfum;jym}uD;rsm;
ay:odk@wifonf? ausmif;om;rsm;utomw=unfbJ wufoGm;=uonf? tcsKyfum;jym}uD;rsm; ausmif;0if;twGif;rS xGufcGmoGm;
=uonf?
ae!kd+yD? ausmif;0if;twGif;rS xGufcGmaom tcsKyfum;jym}uD;rsm;udkai;&if; ausmif;om;awGrsufvHk;xJrSm ta&mifrsKd;pHkwkd@
awmufvufae=uonf? ausmif;olawGursuf&nf0Jae=uonf? rsuf&nf0JaeaomrsufvHk;rsm;jzifh ppftm%mydkifrsm;udk pdkuf=unf
aeonf? wdk@udkypfowfcJholawG/ igwdk@oli,fcsif;rsm;udkyGJcsif;+yD;owfcJholawG/ igwdk@ubJ qlyl&rf;um;olawGvdkajymcJholawG/ '%f&m&
xm;wJh igwdk@oli,fcsif;awGudk oif;wdk@b,fvdkEdSyfpufaeovJ/ ckzrf;oGm;wJh igwdk@oli,fcsif;awGudkvnf; oif;wdk@b,fvdkEdSyfpuf owf
jzwf=uOD;rSmvJ? =unfprf;igwdk@ausmif; usnfqH&mvJxifcJh/ rsuf&nf,dkAHk;aiG@vJa0cJh/ ppfzdeyfawG aoewfawGu tcsKyfum;awGu
igwkd@wuUodkvfe,fajray: usL;eif;apmfum;cJh+yD?
usef&pfaomausmif;om;rsm;udk ppftm%mydkifrsm;u w&m;a[monf? vdrRm=uzdk@ pmudkomóud;pm;zdk@? qlylolawG/ ausmif;
ydkifypPnf; zsufqD;olawGudk Oya't& ta&;,l&rnfjzpfa=umif; Oya'udkav;pm;vdkufem&rnfjzpfa=umif; ppfyg;pyfuewfpum;
xGufaeonf? usef&pfaom ausmif;om;rsm;ucHjyif;aeonf? ausmif;om;csif;ylylaEG;aEG;aoG;cJGwmcH&ojzifh a'goawGuqlaeonf?
'Dyg;pyf}uD;awGxJu xGufusvmaom pmemr_udkvtvdkr&Sd? csD;usL;r_udktvdkr&Sd? ynmay;wmudktvdkr&Sd? oifhwdk@udkawmh urRmr
a=u?
rwfv 16&uf?
ausmif;om;rsm;tm;vHk; rwfv 16 &ufaemufqHk;xm;+yD; ausmif;0if;twGif;rS xGufoGm;ay;&ef ygarmuQcsKyfrS !Gef=um;csuf
xkwfvdkufonf? (rqv tpdk;&u wHwmeDta&;cif;a=umifh rwfv 16 nwGifrS ausmif;rsm;&ufuef@towfr&Sdydwfvdkufa=umif;
a=umjimjcif;jzpfonf? ygcsKyfu 15&ufae@wGif a=umjimonf?)
ausmif;0if;w0if;vHk;wdwfqdwfaeonf? ,cif;ausmif;ydwf&ufawGwkef;u wdwfqdwfr_rsKd;r[kwf? Tck wdwfqdwfr_rSm t"d
yg,fawGav;euf jynfheufaeonf?
(12)
1988ckESpf? rwfv(12-16)&ufrsm;wGif &efukefpufr_wuUodkvfwGif jzpfysufcJhaom tjzpftysufrsm;ESifhywfoufI tm%m
ydkifrsm;. rw&m;r_/ Oya'rJhòyvkyfr_rsm;udk atmufygtwdkif;awG@&Sd&onf?
(1) rwfv 13 &ufn ausmif;om;rsm; udk[if;vrf;wGif;odk@ 0ifvmcsdefwGif vrf;rD;rsm;rSdwfxm;jcif;/ t&ufom;rsm; tusôrsm;
c|wfI "g;jzifhckwfjcif;?
txufygudpPrSm tm%mydkif;rsm; yg0ifywfoufr_r&SdbJ jzpfEdkifaomudpPr[kwfyg? óudwifjyifqifr_ vdktyfaomudpPjzpfonf?
tusôc|wfxm;jcif;rSm w&m;cHtppftay:ap&ef oufaoazsmufzsufypf&efjzpfonf? ppfa&;oabmygaom vkyf}uHr_jzpfonf? &yf
uGufaumifpD tqihfavmufu vkyf0HhaomudpPr[kwfyg?
(2)owif;xdefcsefjcif;?
&ufuGufaumifpDOuUXa&m tif;pdefòrd@e,f&Jpcef;rª;yg ausmif;om;rsm;u qlylaomif;usef;aeonf[laom owif;udkom
txufodk@wifjy+yD; ausmif;om;rsm;"g;ckwfcH&onfhowif;udk qufvufwifjyjcif;r&Sdyg? txl;ojzifh òrd@e,f&Jpcef;rª;tqifhqdkonf
rSm &Jt&ifhtrm}uD;jzpfaeygonf? Oya'udk *sdK;(csKd;uyf)atmifodaeaomoljzpfonf? bma=umifh owif;xdefcsef&ygoenf; (odk@r
[kwf) òrde,f&Jpcef;rª; i0ufu '%fcHvdkufjcif;ayavm?
(3) 0ef}uD;rsm;(trdef@ay;tzGJ@u)óudwifa&muf&Sdaejcif;?
ppfajrjyifwGif wdkufcdkufa&;wyfura&mufao;? trdef@ay;rnfholu t&ifóuda&mufESifhonf? Ttcsuft& tm%mydkifwdk@.
&nf&G,fcsufrSm zHk;rvHk/ zdr&ay:aeawmhonf?
(4) Oya't& owfrSwfxm;aom tqifhvkdufvyk faqmif&rnfenf;vrf;udk rusifhoHk;jcif;? Ypfcwfrnfqdkv#if w&m;0ifpmjzifh a&;
om;xm;aom trdef@pmvdktyfaomfvnf; bmpmrSrygbJ ypfrdef@ay;jcif;(wdkif;rª;az=unf)
rif;rJhp±kdufonf xdyfwef;tm%mydkifrsm;wGif;Y jzpfaecJhonfudk Tcsuft& txift&Sm;awG@Edkifygonf? (vHkxdef;'k-&if;rª;.
xGufqdk csufudk=unfhyg?)
(5) owday;jcif;r&SdyJ ypfcwfjcif;?

óudwifowday;jcif;r&SdyJ ypfcwf±kHru aumfr&SifwGifxGufqdkxm;aomtcgwGifvnf; &Jwpkonf owday;cJhygonf? arwWmyif
&cHcJhygao;onf [k wdkifyif!‡dEd_if;I vdrfvnfxGufqdkcJhjcif;?
(6) ypfcwfp&mrvdktyfygbJv#if ypfcwfcJhjcif;?
oufaoxGufqdkcsufrsm;wGif TtcsufrSmtvGefyifxif&Sm;aeayonf? ausmif;om;rsm;onf taqmifbufodk@ jyeffvnf
qkwfcGmaepOf ypfcwfjcif;jzpfonf? &&SdcJhaom'%f&mrsm;u tcdkifrmqHk;aom oufaojzpfygonf? ypfcwfr_udkjynfxJa&;0ef}uD;/ jynf
xJa&; 'k-0ef}uD;/ ppfaxmifvSrf;a&; !Gefrª;wdk@ rsufaphatmufwGifusL;vGefcJhjcif;jzpfonf? olwdk@rD;pdrf;rjyyJ atmufajcvHkxdef;rsm;
usL;vGef&Jrnfh r[kwfyg?
(7) vHkxdef;rsm;. tmCmwrsm;?
um;ay:rSqJqdkI qif;vmjcif;;/ '%f&m&+yD; tEW&,frðyEdkifaom ausmif;om;av;rsm;tm; aoewf'ifESifhapmifh/ vufoD;ESihf
xdk;/ ppfbdeyfjzifhuef/ ±kdufESufjcif;rsm;onf teD;uyf&Sdaeaom tm%mydkif}uD;rsm;. oabmxm;udk xif[yfjcif;yifjzpfonf?
(8) rwfv ta&;tcif;udk udkifwG,f&ef wyfr 22tm;wm0efay;jcif;?
(etz)ppfordkif;armfuGef;wdkufrS ðypkaom wyfrawmfordkif;(qXr)wGJ pmrsufESm(278)wGif &efukefòrd@wGifjzpfyGm;aeaom r+idrf
oufr_rsm;udk xdefodef;&eftwGuf trSwf22 ajcjrefwyfrXmecsKyfonf 1988 ckESpf/ rwfv 13&ufae@wGif&efukefwdkif; ppfXmecsKyfe,f
ajrodk@ a&muf&Sdwm0ef,lonf[k a&;om;azmfjyxm;a&&m tm%mydkif;rsm;. &nf&G,fcsufrSm &Sif;ae+yDjzpfonf?
xdkrwfv(13)&ufn aoewfoHrsm;jzpfay:ap&ef trdef@ay;cJholrsm;onf olwdk@udk,fwkdiftwGuv
f nf; trdef@udkwygwnf;ay;
+yD;om;jzpfcJhonfudk &Spfav;vHk;ae@&ufrsm;u ordkif;oufaojzpfcJhonf? wbufwGifvnf;(rqv)ppftm%mydkif;rsm;tay: +iD;aiG@
&GJrkef;r_rsm;/ z,f&Sm;wdkufyGJ0ifvdkr_rsm;onf wwdkif;wjynfvkH;twdkif;taejzifh wtHkaEG;aEG;jzpfwnfaeaomumvjzpfonf? (a&cH
ajrcH&Sdaeonf? ,rf;ykH}uD;&Sdae+yD;jzpfonf?)
vGwfvyf+yD; 'Drdkua&pD&Sdonfh EdkifiHa&;pepfw&yfudk awmifhwvdkcsifaeaom pdwf"gwfrsm;onf jynfolvlxkESifh ausmif;om;vl
i,frsm;twGif; [kef;[kef;xaecsdefjzpfonf? vli,frsm;onf wdkufyGJ0ifvdkpdwf atmifyGJcHvdkpdwfrsm;jzifh Edk;=um;aeaomumv vnf;
jzpfonf? 'Da&jrifhwufvmaeaom umvvnf;jzpfonf?
ppftm%mydkif;rsm;onf tjzpftysufwck yÉdyuQw&yfESifh &ifqdkifvm&+yD;qdkygu tm%mvufrv$wfa&; tajccHay:rS zdESdyf
a&;enf;vrf;udkoma&G;+yD; vkyfaqmifwwfavh&Sdonf? olwdk@tm;udk;onfhzdESdyfa&;oufoufenf;vrfrSm olwdk@aowGif;olwdk@jyefwl;
onfh enf;vrf;rsm;omjzpfonfudk T rwfvrS pwifaom &Spfav;vHk;'Drdkua&pDta&;awmfykH}uD;u tcdkiftrmjyocJh+yD;jzpfonf?
wjcm;urRmordkif;wGifvnf; ocFef;pmrsm; jynfhESufaeygonf?
Todk@jzifh ppftm%m&Sifrsm;. acgif;rmrdkufrJaom&rRufESifh jynfolrsm;. av;pm;av;eufzG,f&m +idrf;csrf;vGwfvyfvdk
aom pdwf"gwfwdk@ ordkif;wauGŒwGifxdyfwdkufawG@=uawmhonf?
jrifhjrwfaom awmfvSeftkHºuGr_rsm; wmqD;a&;? ay:aygufatmifyGJcH=uawmhonf? ?

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