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The C. Thomas Howell Handbook - Everything you need to know about C. Thomas Howell

The C. Thomas Howell Handbook - Everything you need to know about C. Thomas Howell

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Published by Emereo Publishing
Christopher Thomas Howell (born December 7, 1966), known by his stage name C. Thomas Howell, is an American actor and film director. He starred in the films The Outsiders as Ponyboy Curtis and in The Hitcher as Jim Halsey. He has appeared in The Da Vinci Treasure, Soul Man, Red Dawn, Secret Admirer, Grandview U.S.A., Gettysburg, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds, The Day the Earth Stopped, and Gods and Generals. He appeared in 2012's The Amazing Spider-Man.This book is your ultimate resource for C. Thomas Howell. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about C. Thomas Howell's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: C. Thomas Howell, A Gunfighter's Pledge, A Killer Within, A Tiger's Tale, Amazon (1999 TV series), American Pie Presents: The Book of Love, Arturo Toscanini, Asylum Days, Baby Face Nelson, Back to the Future, Breaking the Rules (film), Celebracadabra, Charades (film), Charlie Sheen, Criminal Minds, Darren Dalton, Dashiell Howell, Dead Fire, Dead Letters (film), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Far Out Man, Francis Ford Coppola, Gettysburg (1993 film), Glass Trap, Gods and Generals (film), Grandview, U.S.A., H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film), Hidalgo (film), Hot Boyz (film), Irma Capece Minutolo, It Happened One Christmas, Jenilee Harrison, KAMP-FM, Kindred: The Embraced…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.
Christopher Thomas Howell (born December 7, 1966), known by his stage name C. Thomas Howell, is an American actor and film director. He starred in the films The Outsiders as Ponyboy Curtis and in The Hitcher as Jim Halsey. He has appeared in The Da Vinci Treasure, Soul Man, Red Dawn, Secret Admirer, Grandview U.S.A., Gettysburg, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds, The Day the Earth Stopped, and Gods and Generals. He appeared in 2012's The Amazing Spider-Man.This book is your ultimate resource for C. Thomas Howell. Here you will find the most up-to-date information, photos, and much more.In easy to read chapters, with extensive references and links to get you to know all there is to know about C. Thomas Howell's Early life, Career and Personal life right away. A quick look inside: C. Thomas Howell, A Gunfighter's Pledge, A Killer Within, A Tiger's Tale, Amazon (1999 TV series), American Pie Presents: The Book of Love, Arturo Toscanini, Asylum Days, Baby Face Nelson, Back to the Future, Breaking the Rules (film), Celebracadabra, Charades (film), Charlie Sheen, Criminal Minds, Darren Dalton, Dashiell Howell, Dead Fire, Dead Letters (film), E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, Far Out Man, Francis Ford Coppola, Gettysburg (1993 film), Glass Trap, Gods and Generals (film), Grandview, U.S.A., H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film), Hidalgo (film), Hot Boyz (film), Irma Capece Minutolo, It Happened One Christmas, Jenilee Harrison, KAMP-FM, Kindred: The Embraced…and more pages!Contains selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed and shipped, combining the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the convenience of printed books. A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia Foundation to support their mission.

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Published by: Emereo Publishing on Mar 12, 2013
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9781486479856

Sections

  • C. Thomas Howell
  • A Gunfighter's Pledge
  • A Killer Within
  • A Tiger's Tale
  • Amazon (1999 TV series)
  • American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
  • American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
  • Arturo Toscanini
  • Asylum Days
  • Baby Face Nelson
  • Back to the Future
  • Breaking the Rules (film)
  • Celebracadabra
  • Charades (film)
  • Charlie Sheen
  • Criminal Minds
  • Darren Dalton
  • Dashiell Howell
  • Dead Fire
  • Dead Letters (film)
  • E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
  • Far Out Man
  • Francis Ford Coppola
  • Gettysburg (1993 film)
  • Glass Trap
  • Gods and Generals (film)
  • Grandview, U.S.A
  • H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
  • Hidalgo (film)
  • Hot Boyz (film)
  • Irma Capece Minutolo
  • It Happened One Christmas
  • Happened One Christmas
  • Jenilee Harrison
  • KAMP-FM
  • Kindred: The Embraced
  • Laws of Deception
  • Matter of Trust
  • Mockbuster
  • Ordinary Miracles
  • Patrick Swayze
  • Payback (1995 film)
  • Rae Dawn Chong
  • Red Dawn
  • Secret Admirer
  • Side Out
  • Sofia Shinas
  • Soul Man (film)
  • Southland (TV series)
  • Summerland (TV series)
  • Tank (film)
  • Television Preview
  • Teresa's Tattoo
  • That Night
  • The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
  • The Asylum
  • The Crimson Code
  • The Da Vinci Treasure
  • The Day the Earth Stopped
  • The Hillside Strangler (film)
  • The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting
  • The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting
  • The Hitchhiker (TV series)
  • The Jailhouse
  • The Land That Time Forgot (2009 film)
  • The Outsiders (film)
  • The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film)
  • The Return of the Musketeers
  • Thomas Chamberlain
  • Torchwood: Miracle Day
  • Twice in a Lifetime (TV series)
  • Two Marriages
  • War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave
  • Young Artist Award for Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film
  • Young Artist Award for Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film

Topic relevant selected content from the highest rated entries, typeset, printed

and shipped.
Combine the advantages of up-to-date and in-depth knowledge with the con-
venience of printed books.
A portion of the proceeds of each book will be donated to the Wikimedia
Foundation to support their mission: to empower and engage people around
the world to collect and develop educational content under a free license or in
the public domain, and to disseminate it efectively and globally.
Te content within this book was generated collaboratively by volunteers.
Please be advised that nothing found here has necessarily been reviewed by
people with the expertise required to provide you with complete, accurate
or reliable information. Some information in this book maybe misleading
or simply wrong. Te publisher does not guarantee the validity of the infor-
mation found here. If you need specifc advice (for example, medical, legal,
fnancial, or risk management) please seek a professional who is licensed or
knowledgeable in that area.
Sources, licenses and contributors of the articles and images are listed in the
section entitled “References”. Parts of the books may be licensed under the
GNU Free Documentation License. A copy of this license is included in the
section entitled “GNU Free Documentation License”
All used third-party trademarks belong to their respective owners.
Contents
Articles
C. Thomas Howell 1
A Gunfighter's Pledge 9
A Killer Within 11
A Tiger's Tale 13
Amazon (1999 TV series) 15
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love 17
Arturo Toscanini 21
Asylum Days 38
Baby Face Nelson 39
Back to the Future 47
Breaking the Rules (film) 57
Celebracadabra 58
Charades (film) 62
Charlie Sheen 64
Criminal Minds 77
Darren Dalton 87
Dashiell Howell 89
Dead Fire 90
Dead Letters (film) 91
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial 93
Far Out Man 105
Francis Ford Coppola 107
Gettysburg (1993 film) 128
Glass Trap 135
Gods and Generals (film) 137
Grandview, U.S.A. 142
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film) 146
Hidalgo (film) 151
Hot Boyz (film) 155
Irma Capece Minutolo 158
It Happened One Christmas 159
Jenilee Harrison 161
KAMP-FM 163
Kindred: The Embraced 168
Laws of Deception 171
Matter of Trust 172
Mockbuster 173
Ordinary Miracles 177
Patrick Swayze 179
Payback (1995 film) 187
Rae Dawn Chong 189
Red Dawn 192
Secret Admirer 198
Side Out 200
Sofia Shinas 202
Soul Man (film) 205
Southland (TV series) 207
Summerland (TV series) 214
Tank (film) 219
Television Preview 222
Teresa's Tattoo 224
That Night 227
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film) 230
The Asylum 258
The Crimson Code 264
The Da Vinci Treasure 265
The Day the Earth Stopped 267
The Hillside Strangler (film) 269
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting 271
The Hitchhiker (TV series) 273
The Jailhouse 277
The Land That Time Forgot (2009 film) 279
The Outsiders (film) 281
The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film) 285
The Return of the Musketeers 288
Thomas Chamberlain 290
Torchwood: Miracle Day 293
Twice in a Lifetime (TV series) 303
Two Marriages 308
War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave 310
Young Artist Award for Best Leading Young Actor in a Feature Film 313
References
Article Sources and Contributors 324
Image Sources, Licenses and Contributors 333
Article Licenses
License 335
C. Thomas Howell
1
C. Thomas Howell
C. Thomas Howell
Born Christopher Thomas Howell
December 7, 1966
Van Nuys, California, U.S.
Other names Tommy Howell, Tom Howell
Occupation Actor
Years active 1977–present
Spouse(s) Rae Dawn Chong (1989–1990)
Sylvie Anderson (1992–present)
Children 3
Website
cthomashowell.info
[1]
Christopher Thomas Howell (born December 7, 1966), known by his stage name C. Thomas Howell, is an
American actor and film director. He starred in the films The Outsiders as Ponyboy Curtis and in The Hitcher as Jim
Halsey. He has appeared in The Da Vinci Treasure, Soul Man, Red Dawn, Secret Admirer, Grandview U.S.A.,
Gettysburg, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial, H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds, The Day the Earth Stopped, and Gods and
Generals. He appeared in 2012's The Amazing Spider-Man.
Early life
Christopher Thomas Howell was born on December 7, 1966, in Van Nuys, California, the son of Candice and
Christopher N. Howell. He has two sisters, Stacy and Candi, and a brother, John.
[2]
He is nicknamed either "Tommy"
or "CT". His father worked as a stunt coordinator and rodeo performer. As a young boy, Howell wanted to be a
stuntman and was even a child stunt player. He began acting at the age of four, when cast in The Brian Keith Show in
an episode called "The Little People".
When Howell was young, his parents divorced,
[3]
leaving his mother with both of her sons and daughter Stacy, and
his father took Candi with him.
[4]
Howell shared his time with each parent and started his career through his father's
job. When he was 12, he became a rodeo champion at the California Junior Rodeo Association and was named
"All-Around Cowboy" in August 1979. While growing up, he also spent time golfing with his grandfather (where his
nickname "CT" came because that is how he was recorded on screen boards).
Career
Early career
Howell's showbiz debut was acting in the The Brian Keith Show episode "The Little People" as a little boy whose
ears are being checked out by a doctor. When he got older, he tried stunt acting like his father and worked on
commercials for a while.
[5]
His first film appearance was in the 1977 made-for-television movie It Happened One
Christmas. Following the movie, he tried rodeo riding for a few years. In 1982 he was originally a child stuntman in
Steven Spielberg's E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial; he also played a minor supporting role. Afterward, he was cast as the
lead role in Francis Ford Coppola's The Outsiders, which earned him a Young Artist Award. Following The
Outsiders, he became a teen idol, appearing in teen magazines like Tiger Beat and 16 Magazine, which referred to
him as "Tommy" and "Tom".
C. Thomas Howell
2
1980s
In 1983 he and Outsiders co-star, Patrick Swayze, reunited for Grandview, U.S.A., also with Jamie Lee Curtis, and
Red Dawn, with Charlie Sheen and Lea Thompson. Howell also had a pivotal role in Tank, with James Garner and
Jenilee Harrison. In 1985 he again starred in the lead role in Secret Admirer, opposite Lori Loughlin and Kelly
Preston. Howell was one of two final actors in the running to play Marty McFly in Back to the Future the other being
Eric Stoltz, who was eventually selected. Michael J. Fox would later go on to replace Stoltz after filming had begun.
In 1986 he played a hitchhiker's target in the film The Hitcher, another of his successful movies. The sequel was
released in 2003. Following that he starred as a white student who pretends to be black in the poorly received Soul
Man. In 1988 Howell played Arturo Toscanini in the story of the world renown conductor in Franco Zeffirelli's Il
giovane Toscanini with Irma Capece Minutolo and Elizabeth Taylor, which was one of his very first
straight-to-video releases. Howell and Kelly Preston reunited as lovers in A Tiger's Tale.
1990s
At the end of the 1980s and beginning of the 1990s, Howell appeared in The Return of the Musketeers and Side Out.
In 1993, he starred with Linda Fiorentino and Nancy Allen in the campy thriller Acting on Impulse. After several
straight-to-DVD features and a starring role in That Night, he achieved success again in the movie Gettysburg, which
was popular with history buffs and history classrooms. He starred as Mike, a motorcycle courier in Mad Dogs &
Englishmen (US title: Shameless) with Elizabeth Hurley. He started an interest in crime-thrillers after starring in
Payback and playing gangster Baby Face Nelson in a film of the same name. His made-for-television movie credits
include Suspect Device, Sealed with a Kiss, Dads, and Dead Fire. He also appeared in the short-lived TV series
"Kindred: The Embraced".
2000s
Howell returned to the theater in the 2000s in movies such as Asylum Days, the Gods and Generals prequel to
Gettysburg, and The Hillside Strangler, in which he played serial killer Kenneth Bianchi. In 2004, Howell starred in
Hoboken Hollow. He also became a supporter of the production company The Asylum, which produced his
straight-to-DVD movies.
In 2005, he starred in H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds, one of three 2005 adaptations of the novel The War of the
Worlds by H. G. Wells. Because of its success, Howell directed and starred in a straight-to-DVD sequel War of the
Worlds 2: The Next Wave in 2008, which was heavily criticized. In 2005, he also reunited with his Secret Admirer
co-star Lori Loughlin, when he had a recurring role on her television show Summerland as Zac Efron's father. After
War of the Worlds, he spent time directing unsuccessful straight to-DVD movies. Also, in 2008, he directed and
starred in The Day the Earth Stopped, a mockbuster intended to capitalize on The Day the Earth Stood Still. For
these reasons, 20th Century Fox have threatened legal action against The Asylum, but no action has yet been taken.
He also appeared as a doctor in The Poseidon Adventure, an adaptation of the 1972 film of the same name.
Coincidentally, his father's first stunt co-ordination was for the original movie,
[6]
though uncredited. He briefly
hosted a show on KLSX later that year. He appeared in the Western The Pledge.
C. Thomas Howell
3
2010s
Howell appeared in 2012's film The Amazing Spider-Man.
[7]
Television work
After filming The Outsiders, Howell starred in his own television series, Two Marriages, which ended after four
episodes, but letters of support got it back on air. Howell later expressed disappointment in the series,
[8]
but
eventually found it more satisfying.
After Two Marriages, Howell made guest appearances in shows like Moonlighting and The Hitchhiker. In 2000,
Howell played a doctor stranded on a deserted island after a plane crash in Amazon. He initially turned down a guest
role in ER after missing out on a role he wanted, but his wife signed him up after yet another offer. Following ER, he
guest appeared in 24. He appeared in five episodes of Criminal Minds on CBS as serial killer George Foyet, a
character based on the Zodiac Killer.
Howell has played the role of Officer Bill 'Dewey' Dudek, a wild, loudmouth, but efficient police officer recovering
from alcoholism, in the L.A. police drama Southland since 2009. He appeared in Seasons 1, 2, 3, and 4 and has been
promoted to a series regular for Season 5, which begins in February of 2013.
In 2011, he guest starred on The Glades and in Torchwood: Miracle Day.
[9]
Off-screen
Howell has worked with Francis Ford Coppola many times and in other areas of making motion pictures including
writing, producing, and directing. In 1995, he wrote and directed Hourglass, which starred him and Sofia Shinas.
The following year, he helped produce The Big Fall and Pure Danger. Howell did not write or direct another movie
until 2004. He and his father co-wrote the made for television movie Hope Ranch and Howell produced the film as
well. The film was a success and Howell went on to write and produce Blind Injustice the next year. Two years later
he produced The Stolen Moments of September.
Personal life
In his single days, Howell shared a place with his friend, Darren Dalton, with whom he co-starred in The Outsiders
and Red Dawn. From July 11, 1989, to sometime in 1990, Howell was married to actress Rae Dawn Chong, his Soul
Man co-star. He then married Sylvie Anderson in 1992. They have three children, Isabelle (born 1993), Dashiell
(born 1997), and Liam (born 2001). Isabelle appeared as Molly in Hope Ranch, credited as "Isabelle Howell", and
Dashiell played Howell's son Alex, in H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds, as "Dash Howell". The family currently
resides in Stevenson Ranch, California.
In 2008, Howell was a contestant in the reality game show, Celebracadabra, on which celebrities performed magic
tricks practiced by experienced coaches. The series began on April 27 and ended on June 12; Howell won and was
named Greatest Celebrity Magician.
Filmography
C. Thomas Howell
4
Year Movie Role Other notes
1977 It Happened One Christmas Unknown Made for television movie
1982 E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial Tyler Credited as Tom Howell
1983 The Outsiders Ponyboy Curtis Young Artist Award; first film with Patrick Swayze
1984 Grandview, U.S.A. Tim Pearson Second film with Swayze
Tank William "Billy" Carey
Red Dawn Robert Morris Third film with Swayze
1985 Secret Admirer Michael Ryan
1986 The Hitcher Jim Halsey
Soul Man Mark Watson Met and married Rae Dawn Chong
1987 Into the Homeland Tripp Winston Made for television movie
1988 A Tiger's Tale Bubber Drums
Giovane Toscanini II Arturo Toscanini Also known as "Young Toscanini"
1989 The Return of the Musketeers Raoul
1990 Far Out Man Himself
Side Out Monoroe Clark
Curiosity Kills Cat Thomas
Kid Kid
1992 Tattle Tale Bernard Sprat Made for television movie
Nickle & Dime Jack Stone
To Protect and Serve Egan
Breaking the Rules Gene Michaels
That Night Rick
1993 Gettysburg Thomas Chamberlain
1994 Jailbait Sgt. Lee Teffler
Dangerous Indiscretion Jim Lomax
Treacherous Micky Stewert
Natural Selection Ben Braden/Alex
Connelly
Made-for-television movie
1995 Payback Oscar Bonsetter
Baby Face Nelson Baby Face Nelson
Teresa's Tattoo Carl
Hourglass Michael Jardine
Mad Dogs and Englishmen Mike
Suspect Device Dan Jerico Made for television movie
1996 The Big Fall Blaise Rybeck
Sealed with a Kiss Detective Mick Cullen Made for television movie
The Sweeper Mark Goddard
Pure Danger Jonnie Dean
C. Thomas Howell
5
1997 Dads Tom Sitcom. The pilot episode is shown at the Television Preview, a marketing
research operation.
Matter of Trust Michael D'Angelo
Laws of Deception Evan Marino
Dilemma Detective Thomas
Quinlan
Directed by Eric Larsen under "Alan Smithee"
Dead Fire Tucker Made for television movie
Last Lives Aaron
1998 Fatal Affair Malcom Maddox
Sleeping Dogs Sanchez Boon
Charades Evan Also known as Felons or First Degree
1999 The Crimson Code J.B. Gaines Also known as Red Team
Hot Boyz Roberts
Enemy Action John Reed
Cybermaster Dakota
Shepherd Boris Dakota
The Glass Jar Lanois
Avalanche Jack
Hitman's Run Tom Holly
The Prince and the Surfer Dean
2000 Lawless: Dead Evidence Dean Riley
The Million Dollar Kid Valentino
2001 Separate Ways Tom Milton
Asylum Days Nathan Devine
Burning Down the House Unknown
Willfull Nat Wolff
XCU: Extreme Close Up Geoffrey Liddy
Askari Joss McKinley
2002 Night of the Wolf Sheriff Wade Messer Made for television movie
Killer Bees! Sheriff Lyndon Harris
2003 Net Games Adam Vance
Gods and Generals Thomas Chamberlain
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting Jim Halsey
2004 The Lost Angel Kuratha
Hidalgo Preston Webb
The Hillside Strangler Kenneth Bianchi
A Killer Within Addison Terrill
Zolar Hedion Made for television movie
C. Thomas Howell
6
2005 The Keeper: The Legend of Omar
Khayyam
Coach Fielding
Hoboken Hollow Clayton Connelly
Crimson Force Captain Baskin Made for television movie
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds George Herbert Film adaptation of H. G. Wells' novel The War of the Worlds
Glass Trap Curtis
Nursie Zack
Ordinary Miracles Jim Powell Made for television movie
The Poseidon Adventure Doctor Ballard
2006 The Da Vinci Treasure Michael Archer
The Far Side of Jericho Little Jimmy Thorton
2007 Dead Letters KC Formerly known as Cold Ones
The Haunting of Marsten Manor Captain Williams
Fighting Words David Settles
The Stolen Moments of September Sisner
2008 Xenophobia Stone Made-for-television movie
Mutant Vampire Zombies from the
'Hood!
David
House of Fallen Thomas
Big Game Sully
War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave George Herbert Also director
A Gunfighter's Pledge Horn Made-for-television movie
Toxic Joe
The Thirst: Blood War Jed
The Day the Earth Stopped Josh Myron Also director
2009 The Land That Time Forgot Frost Michaels
The Grind Luke
Razor Virgil
Fuel Shane
Cupid's Arrow Professor Grimes
Camouflage Stanley
Commander and Chief Shrub
Secret at Arrow Lake Daniel
The Jailhouse Seth Delray
American Pie Presents: The Book of
Love
Alumnus Guy #2
2011 Home Invasion Ray Made-for-television movie
2012 The Amazing Spider-Man Ray Reboot of Spider-Man franchise.
Escape Paul Jordan
C. Thomas Howell
7
Television
TV show Role Episode Year
Two Marriages Scott Morgan Unknown 1983
Moonlighting Post Office Guy; waiter "Yours, Very Deadly"; "The Lady in the Iron Mask" 1985, 1986
Nightmare Classics Jenner Brading "The Eyes of the Panther" 1989
The Hitchhiker Unknown "White Slaves" 1990
Kindred: The Embraced Frank Kohanek Eight episodes 1996
The Outer Limits Captain Miles Davidlow "The Joining" 1998
V.I.P Phil Sherman "Val Got Game" 1998
The Love Boat: The Next
Wave
John "Affairs to Remember" 1998
Dead Man's Gun Henry Hubble "The Phrenologist" 1999
Amazon Dr. Alex Kennedy 23 episodes 1999–2000
Twice in a Lifetime Tony "The Escaped Artist" 2000
Son of the Beach Jason Dudikoff "In the Line of Booty" 2002
The District Chris Gunner "On Guard" 2004
Summerland Kyle Bale Two episodes 2004, 2005
ER Vincent Janeson "The Human Shield" 2005
24 Barry Landes Two episodes 2006
Smith Unknown "Seven" 2007
Celebracadabra Himself Nine Episodes(On show, crowned best celebrity magician) 2008
Criminal Minds George Foyet/The Boston
Reaper
4.18 "Omnivore"; 4.26 "...And Back"; 5.1 "Nameless, Faceless"; 5.9
"100"
2009
Southland Off. Bill "Dewey" Dudek recurring, (1-4), regular (5) 2009–
Psych Camden Driggs "One, Maybe Two, Ways Out" 2010
The Glades Peyton Robinson
"Second Skin
[10]
"
2011
Torchwood: Miracle Day Unknown / Assassin "Escape to L.A." 2011
Alphas Eli "The Quick and the Dead" 2012
Revolution Bounty Hunter "Chained Heat" 2012
Castle John Campbell "Swan Song" 2012
Hawaii Five-0 Martin Cordova "Ha'aw make loa" 2013
C. Thomas Howell
8
References
[1] http:/ / cthomashowell. info/
[2] aboutct (http:/ / www. cthomashowell. net/ aboutct. htm). Cthomashowell.net. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
[3] Tommy Howell: I'm Just a Normal Kid! (http:/ / www. cthowell.net/ Articles/ Normal_Kid/ normal_kid.html). Cthowell.net. Retrieved on
2011-12-03.
[4] Marriage (http:/ / www. cthowell. net/ Articles/ Marriage/marriage.html). Cthowell.net. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
[5] Cooking (http:/ / www. cthowell. net/ Articles/ Cooking/ cooking.html). Cthowell.net. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
[6] Interview for the Poseidon Adventure Remake (http:// www. cthomashowell.net/ poseidoninterview.htm). Cthomashowell.net. Retrieved on
2011-12-03.
[7] Barrett, Annie. (2011-01-10) 'Spider-Man': C. Thomas Howell joins the reboot | Inside Movies | EW.com (http://insidemovies. ew. com/
2011/ 01/ 10/ spider-man-c-thomas-howell/). Insidemovies.ew.com. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
[8] Two Marriages (http:/ / www. cthowell. net/ Articles/ Two_Marriages/two_marriages. html). cthowell.net
[9] Torchwood: Miracle Day casting news (http:/ / www. denofgeek.com/ television/ 793926/ torchwood_miracle_day_casting_news.html).
Den of Geek. Retrieved on 2011-12-03.
[10] http:/ / www. aetv. com/ the-glades/ episode-guide/ second-skin/
External links
• C. Thomas Howell (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ name/ nm1367/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Official Web site (http:// cthomashowell. info)
• @cthomashowell on Twitter (https:/ / twitter.com/ cthomashowell)
• Review of Baby Face Nelson at Manor on Movies (http:/ / www. manoronmovies. com/ BabyFace. htm)
A Gunfighter's Pledge
9
A Gunfighter's Pledge
A Gunfighter's Pledge
Promotional poster used for guerrilla marketing campaign
Directed by Armand Mastroianni
Produced by Larry Levinson
Written by Jim Byrnes
Starring Luke Perry
C. Thomas Howell
Kim Coates
Jaclyn DeSantis
Music by Nathan Furst
Cinematography James W. Wrenn
Editing by Colleen Halsey
Country United States
Language English
Original channel Hallmark Channel
Release date •• July 5, 2008
Running time 79 minutes
A Gunfighter's Pledge (the working title was The Pledge) is a 2008 Western television film starring Luke Perry. The
film premiered on Hallmark Channel in July 2008. It was filmed at Big Sky Ranch in Simi Valley, California.
Plot
Ex-lawman Matt Austin (Luke Perry) accidentally kills an innocent man (Francesco Quinn) while hunting an outlaw
who killed his family. He pledges to the dying man that he will take his body to his sister Amaya (Jaclyn DeSantis).
Austin wrestles with the idea of telling her he caused the death, but is faced with bigger battles once at the farm.
There he gets involved with land baron Horn (C. Thomas Howell), who is trying to take Amaya's land. Their lives
are more intertwined than he thought, when he takes on Horn and discovers that Horn has hired the man he was
looking for all along.
Cast
• Luke Perry as Matt Austin
• C. Thomas Howell as Horn
• Kim Coates as Tate
• Jaclyn DeSantis as Amaya
• Francesco Quinn as Sheriff
• Jorge-Luis Pallo as Samuel
• Wyatt Smith as Billy
• Nicholas Guest as Vaughn
• Alex Paez as Eddie
• Johann Urb as Lars Anderson
• Daniel Wisler as Hank
A Gunfighter's Pledge
10
• James Keane as Preacher
• Chip Sickler as Hogan
• Jeffrey Markle as Bartender
• Lisa Brenner as Gail Austin
• Franc Ross as Sheriff
• Bob Ross as Town Resident
• Jordan Timsit as Jacob Austin
• Miranda Cunha as Fellini Prostitute
• Laci Greenfield as Suzy
• Laura Molina as Saloon Girl
Promotion
Hallmark Channel employed guerilla marketing tactics to promote the movie. The network dispatched 20 cowboys
each day from June 30 through July 2 in various places, including Times Square and Rockefeller Plaza in New York,
and Venice Beach and the Santa Monica Pier in Los Angeles. Over the three days, the cowboys engaged onlookers
in showdowns and deputized locals with sheriff’s badges featuring tune-in information for the film. Wild postings in
the form of Old west-style wanted posters featuring an ink-block likeness of Luke Perry’s character, Matt Austin, and
the phrase, “a sheriff with nothing to lose” were also put up around the cities.
[1]
Reception
When A Gunfighter's Pledge premiered on Hallmark Channel, it scored a 2.3 household rating with over 1.9 million
homes. It ranked as the second-highest-rated Prime Time telecast of the day and the second-highest-rated
ad-supported cable movie of the week. The movie also boosted the network to rank third in Prime Time on the day
of its premiere with a 1.9 household rating. It also ranked in the top 10 during the time period among key demo
ratings and delivery.
[2]
References
[1] Hallmark Channel Press Release: 6/30/2008 (http:/ / www. hallmarkchannelpress.com/ publish/ pr/home/ corporate/press_releases_1/
press_release_063008.html)
[2] Hallmark Channel Press Release: 7/9/2008 (http:// www.hallmarkchannelpress.com/ publish/ pr/home/ corporate/press_releases_1/
press_release_070908.html)
External links
• A Gunfighter's Pledge (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1146439/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• A Gunfighter's Pledge (http:/ / www. allrovi. com/ movies/ movie/ v1:449633) at AllRovi
• A Gunfighter's Pledge (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=830388) at the TCM Movie Database
• A Gunfighter's Pledge (http:/ / www. hallmarkchannel.com/ publish/ consumer/ home/ shows/
gunfighters_pledge.html) on Hallmark Channel
• A Gunfighter's Pledge (http:/ / www. hallmarkchannelpress. com/ publish/ pr/home/ shows/
a_gunfighters_pledge.html) on Hallmark Channel's press site
A Killer Within
11
A Killer Within
A Killer Within
Film poster
Directed by Brad Keller
Produced by Brad Keller
Joey Stewart
Written by Chris Peirson
William Peirson
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Sean Young
Ben Browder
Dedee Pfeiffer
Giancarlo Esposito
Music by William Richter
Cinematography Mike Redding
Editing by Russ G. Gregg
Running time 110 minutes
Country United States
Language English
A Killer Within is a 2004 film featuring C. Thomas Howell as Addison Terrill, Sean Young as Rebecca Terrill, Ben
Browder as Sam Moss, Dedee Pfeiffer as Sarah Moss and Giancarlo Esposito as Vargas. The movie was directed by
Brad Keller.
Plot
When Addison Terrill's wife Becky is brutally murdered suspicion automatically falls on him. The fact the words
"We're even now" were written on the bedroom wall next to her body seem to the police to make this a water tight
case. But Addison claims he is innocent and if that is the case then everyone around him, including his best friend
and partner Sam, Sam's loving wife Sarah (who babysits the Terrills' young son), even a disgraced cop he
successfully prosecuted in the past, are potentially guilty. With time and evidence against him Addison and his
unusual ally must race to clear his name.
There will be answers but some of them come at a heavy price...
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Addison Terrill
• Sean Young as Rebecca 'Becky' Terrill
• Ben Browder as Sam Moss
• Dedee Pfeiffer as Sarah Moss
• Giancarlo Esposito as Vargas
• Bill Flynn as Dr. Mark Shultz
A Killer Within
12
External links
• Official website
[1]
• A Killer Within
[2]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / akillerwithinmovie. com/
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0385813/
A Tiger's Tale
13
A Tiger's Tale
A Tiger's Tale
Theatrical poster
Directed by Peter Douglas
Produced by Don Goldman
Peter Douglas
Screenplay by Peter Douglas
Based on Love and Other Natural Disasters
by
Allen Hannay III
Starring Ann-Margret
C. Thomas Howell
Charles Durning
Kelly Preston
Music by Lee Holdridge
Cinematography Tony Pierce-Roberts
Editing by David Campling
Studio(s) Vincent Pictures
Distributed by Atlantic Releasing
Release date(s) 12 February 1988
Running time 97 minutes
Country  United States
Box office
$89,000
[1]
A Tiger's Tale is a 1987 film written and directed by Peter Douglas, based on the novel Love and Other Natural
Disasters by Allen Hannay III.
Plot
Bubber Drumm is a Houston high school student. Rose Butts is an alcoholic, more than twice his age, and the mother
of his girlfriend, Shirley. Bubber and Rose begin an affair after Bubber fixes Shirley up with his pal, Ransom
McKnight.
Bubber and Rose carry on their affair under the nose of her daughter until everything comes out in the open at a
drive-in movie theater. To get even with Bubber and Rose for "behaving badly", Shirley pricks a hole in Rose's
diaphragm. Shirley goes on to live with her father and Bubber moves in with Rose along with his pet tiger. The
diaphragm incident results in Rose getting pregnant with Bubber's baby. The couple must decide whether to keep the
baby and continue their May/December romance or part ways.
A Tiger's Tale
14
Principal cast
Actor Role
Ann-Margret Rose Butts
C. Thomas Howell Bubber Drumm
Charles Durning Charlie Drumm
Kelly Preston Shirley Butts
Ann Wedgeworth Claudine
William Zabka Randy
James Noble Sinclair
Sean Patrick Flanery Buddy
Critical reception
Roger Ebert of The Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 2 out of 4 stars although he did like certain aspects of the film:

Some movies don't seem to know what they're really about, and A Tiger's Tale is one of them... What does work in the film, however, is the
unlikely relationship between Howell and Ann-Margret... The movie is top-heavy with plot, and what's good in it gets lost in the confusion.
[2]

Janet Maslin of The New York Times:

A Tiger's Tale, which opens today at Loews 84th Street Six, is most notable for what it doesn't have: a heavy hand. The material has more than
enough potential to become painfully silly, and Mr. Douglas's biggest accomplishment is making sure that doesn't happen.
[3]

References
[1] Hassen, Kristie. "A Tiger's Tale > Overview" (http:// allmovie. com/ work/a-tigers-tale-49941). AllMovie. . Retrieved 2010-07-26.
[2] "A Tiger's Tale :: rogerebert.com :: Reviews" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19880219/ REVIEWS/
802190302/1023). Rogerebert.suntimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-26.
[3] Maslin, Janet (1988-02-12). "New York Times review" (http:// movies. nytimes.com/ movie/
review?res=940DE7DD1F39F931A25751C0A96E948260). Movies.nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-13.
External links
• A Tiger's Tale (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0094148/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• A Tiger's Tale (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v49941) at AllRovi
Amazon (1999 TV series)
15
Amazon (1999 TV series)
Amazon
Also known as Amazonas - Gefangene des Dschungels
Written by Alison Lea Bingeman
Paul Aitken
Directed by Milan Cheylov
T.W. Peacocke
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Carol Alt
Chris William Martin
Fabiana Udenio
Tyler Hynes
Rob Stewart
Country of origin Canada
Germany
Original language(s) English
German
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 22
Production
Executive producer(s) Peter Benchley
Producer(s) Jan Peter Meyboom
Running time 44 minutes
Broadcast
Original run 25 September 1999 – 20 May 2000
Amazon was a syndicated television show created by Peter Benchley. The drama series focused on the six survivors
of a crashed airline flight in the Brazilian Amazon jungle. It was developed by Canadian production companies
Alliance Atlantis Communications & WIC Entertainment and German company Beta Film GmbH. The 22 episodes
of the series were in first-run syndication between 1999 and 2000.
A novelization of the 2-hour pilot was written by Rob MacGregor.
The German title was Amazonas - Gefangene des Dschungels (Amazon - Prisoners of the Jungle).
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell - Dr. Alex Kennedy
• Carol Alt - Karen Oldham
• Fabiana Udenio - Pia Claire
• Chris Martin - Jimmy Stack
• Rob Stewart - Andrew Talbott
• Tyler Hynes - Will Bauer
Amazon (1999 TV series)
16
DVD release
Alliance Home Entertainment released the complete series on DVD in Canada only on 22 February 2011.
[1]
References
[1] http:/ / www.amazon. ca/ Peter-Benchleys-Amazon-Complete/ dp/ B004FUPK0Q
External links
• Amazon (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0205737/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Amazon (http:/ / www. tv.com/ shows/ peter-benchleys-amazon/) at TV.com
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
17
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
American Pie Presents:
The Book of Love
DVD cover
Directed by John Putch
Produced by Mike Elliot
Craig Perry
Warren Zide
Written by David H. Steinberg
Based on Characters by
Adam Herz
Starring Bug Hall
Brandon Hardesty
Kevin M. Horton
Eugene Levy
Louisa Lytton
Nico McEown
Beth Behrs
Melanie Papalia
Edwin Perez
Music by David Lawrence
Cinematography Ross Berryman
Editing by John Gilbert
Studio(s) Capital Arts Entertainment
Distributed by Universal Studios
Release date(s) •• December 22, 2009
Running time 93 minutes
96 minutes (Unrated cut)
Country Canada
United States
Language English
Budget $7 million
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love (sometimes known as American Pie and the Book of Love) is a 2009
teen comedy released directly to DVD. It is the seventh installment of the American Pie film series, and the fourth
and final film in the American Pie Presents franchise. Directed by John Putch, the film stars Bug Hall, John Patrick
Jordan, Kevin M. Horton, Brandon Hardesty, and Eugene Levy who reappears as "Jim's Dad" in a brief yet crucial
role. This was Sherman Hemsley's final film appearance before his death on July 24, 2012.
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
18
Plot
The story takes place at East Great Falls High, eleven years after the events of American Pie. The new protagonists
of this movie are three brand new hapless virgins: Rob (Hall), Nathan (Horton) and Lube (Hardesty). One night Rob
accidentally sets fire to the school library, and finds "the Bible" (or Book of Love), the creation of Mr. Levinstein
(Eugene Levy). Unfortunately for them, the book is ruined. The book had incomplete advice and sends them on a
helpless journey to lose their virginity. After trying and failing for most of the time, they pledge to restore the book,
and to do this, they must find Levenstein and all the other people who wrote in the book, and start the restoration.
The story begins with Rob entering his bedroom, and attempting to masturbate with a peanut butter sandwich
(similar to the apple pie scenario in the first film). While he is doing this his dog, Frizzie, tries to eat the sandwich,
and Rob's little brother Cody takes a video of him receiving this unwanted sexual gratification. Later, Rob meets
with his friends, Nathan and Marshall Lube, at school. Nathan reveals that his girlfriend, Dana, has pledged to
abstain from sex until marriage despite the fact that she has already slept with six other people. Rob talks to Heidi, a
girl he is attracted to, and Stifler. Stifler states that if Rob doesn't make a move on Heidi, he will. In class, Lube has a
vivid fantasy about a group of cheerleaders, particularly one named Ashley. Rob and Heidi meet later in the school
library where she discloses that she is a virgin, and wishes to just "get it [sex] over with". At the school dance,
Nathan tries to get to second base with Dana, but only manages to offend her due to her abstinance pledge. Rob
attempts to tell Heidi how he feels about her but is interrupted by Nathan and Lube. He eventually finds her in the
library about to have sex with another student, and drops a lit candle in a bin in shock. This sets the library on fire,
which sets off the water sprinklers.
The next day, when Rob and Heidi are cleaning the library, Rob finds a secret compartment containing 'The Bible'
(The Book of Love). He shows the book to his friends Nathan and Lube and explains that it is a sex manual that has
been compiled over forty years by the students who found it. The book is regarded as legendary, but unfortunately
has been damaged by the water.
Later in the local mall, Rob attempts to test a tip in the book; 'Simple Flattery'. He approaches Ashley in a lingerie
store and complements her. Ashley leads him into a changing room, takes off her bra and top, and makes him steal a
bra for her. Unfortunately Rob is caught and forced to pay for the bra with his mom's credit card. Meanwhile, Nathan
goes to Dana's church service to talk to her, but accidentally broadcasts the explicit and highly personal conversation
to the entire congregation on the church's PA system. Dana's father then bans Dana from seeing Nathan. When she
receives her credit card bill, Rob's mom tries to talk to him about buying underwear, prompting Rob to sarcastically
say that he likes wearing womens' underwear. He is again filmed by his little brother, who again posts the footage on
the internet for the whole school to see.
The next day, Heidi, Imogen and Dana are spectating at a school basketball game in which Rob and Stifler are
playing. A girl called Katie tries to talk to Stifler, but he brushes her off. Rob again attempts to tell Heidi how he
feels, but is unable to. Lube discovers a page in The Bible which tells of a brothel in Canada and a prostitute,
Monique, who is very experienced. The entry was written in 1975, but Lube misreads the date as 1995, and they
decide to visit. When they meet Monique the boys are disgusted, but Nathan states that they should go for it anyway.
Nathan and Lube make Rob go first, but Monique dies while performing oral sex on him. They panic and drive back
to the USA.
Rob and Heidi are once gain in the library where Rob finally tells her he is attracted to her. Heidi says she feels the
same, and they agree to meet at Stifler's party later. At the party Heidi hears Rob shout "Tonight, I'm getting laid!",
and runs upstairs. Stifler again brushes off Katie when she tries to talk to him. Lube tells Ashley how he feels about
her, giving a speech on how he guarantees sexual satisfaction, but she still turns him down. Ashley's friend is
impressed with his promise and tells Lube to meet her upstairs, but when she finds an offensive text on his phone she
storms out. Nathan attempts to reconcile with Dana but offends her, making her leave once again. Rob finds Heidi in
bed with Stifler and leaves the room. Heidi follows him downstairs, but Rob refuses to talk to her and begins to drink
heavily. He declares "only assholes get laid!" and then behaves crudely to a random girl, who promptly goes to bed
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
19
with him. She asks him to have sex with her from behind, but he hallucinates and sees Heidi saying; "You aren't
seriously going to stick your dick in that, are you?". Rob then throws up on the girl's back. The next morning his
mother asks him if he drove home drunk, and shows him a film she received on her phone of Rob throwing up on the
girl the night before.
In an attempt to restore The Bible, Rob and his friends resolve to find all of the people who originally wrote it in
order to recreate it, starting with the original creator, Noah Levenstein. They eventually succeed in recreating the
book.
Rob and his friends then go on the school ski trip. In a log cabin where a few students are playing strip poker, Katie
again attempts to talk to Stifler, who again brushes her off. She bets Stifler that if she wins at poker he has to
apologise to her and run naked in the snow. Stifler loses and is forced to apologise and go outside naked, where he is
humped ting due to last night's ordeal, Imogen keeps him company and the two forms a bond. The other students are
riding up the mountain in gondola ski lifts, but Nathan has sex with Dana in the lift control room and accidentally
shut off the lifts' power. In one lift, Rob and Heidi reconcile and kiss. Ashley and Lube are in another lift, where
Lube falls out when trying to go for help. When Ashley climbs down to him, Lube tells her how he really feels about
her, moving her to tears. Heidi and Rob return to the cabin and have sex. Lube and Ashley also go back to the cabin
and have sex.
The story ends with Rob, Nathan and Lube returning the newly-restored Bible to where Rob found it, after Rob has
added his signature to it. As a finale, Rob's brother, Cody, enters his bedroom to find an online film of him putting a
vacuum cleaner on his penis. To his horror it has been viewed almost 10 million times. Rob ends the film with the
words "Gotchaaaaa, ha ha".
Cast
• Bug Hall as Robert "Rob" Shearson
• Brandon Hardesty as Marshall "Lube" Lubetsky
•• Kevin M. Horton as Nathan Jenkyll
• Beth Behrs as Heidi
• Melanie Papalia as Dana
•• Jennifer Holland as Ashley
• John Patrick Jordan as Scott Stifler
• Louisa Lytton as Imogen
• Curtis Armstrong as Pete O'Donnell
• Rosanna Arquette as Madeline Shearson
• Cindy Busby as Amy
•• Naomi Hewer as Alyson
•• Adrienne Carter as Katie
•• Nico McEown as Cody
•• Edwin Perez as Gibbs
Cameo Appearances
• Eugene Levy as Noah Levenstein (aka Jim's Dad)
• Kevin Federline as Canadian Border Guard
• Sherman Hemsley as Pastor
• Dustin Diamond as Alumnus Guy #1
• C. Thomas Howell as Alumnus Guy #2
• Christopher Knight as Alumnus Guy #3
• Tim Matheson as Carlito (Alumnus Guy #4)
• Steve Railsback as Alumnus Guy #5
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
20
• Robert Romanus as Alumnus Guy #6
• Bret Michaels as himself
Production
The Book of Love was filmed in Canada. The East Great Falls High was actually Centennial Secondary School in
Coquitlam. The tram scene up the mountain is located at Vancouver's Grouse Mountain.
Soundtrack
1. "Oh Yeah" by Yello
2. "Something in Your Mouth" by Nickelback
3. 3. "Sexy Little Thing"/"Miss Cindy" by The High Decibels
4. 4. "Smoke Alarm" by Freddy Rawsh
5. "Hot N Cold" by Katy Perry
6. "Dance, Dance" by Fall Out Boy
7. 7. "Turn It Down" by Sideway Runners
8. 8. "Hypnotik" by Roobie Breastnut
9. 9. "Beer" by Ace Baker
10. 10. "How Do I Know" by Wanda Bell
11. 11. "When You Want Some Uh Uh" by Nio Renee Wilson
12. "Get Loose (NipJoint Remix)" by Quanteisha
13. 13. "Pauline" by The High Lonesome
14. 14. "Katmandu" by Sam Morrison
15. 15. "1969" by Dr. Hollywood
16. "Body Language" by Isaac Hayes
17. 17. "If Something's Wrong" by Aidan Hawken
18. "Damned If I Do Ya (Damned If I Don't)" by All Time Low
19. "Hot Mess" by Cobra Starship
20. "Are You Ready" Crash Boom Bang
21. 21. "Got Me Some Love" by Keely Hawkes
22. 22. "Army Girl" by The Genders
23. 23. "Obsession" by Ace Baker
24. 24. "Something Wild" by The High Lonesome
25. 25. "Burnin' Love" by Travis Tritt
26. 26. "Laid" by Aidan Hawken
27. 27. "She Can Dance" by Billy Trudel
28. 28. "Monday" by Mikey and the Gypsys
29. 29. "In It for You" ("Catch My Fall") by The Elliots
30. 30. "Heartbeats" by Melinda Ortner
31. "Say Yes" by Elliott Smith
32. 32. "Book of Love" by Fire! Fire!
33. 33. "Sinner" by Big B featuring Scott Russo
34. "Mouth to Mouth" by Kaya Jones
American Pie Presents: The Book of Love
21
Reception
The film received negative reviews from critics and audiences. The Rotten Tomatoes approval rating is currently
N/A, but the audience score is currently 30%. This is generally considered by fans to be the worst in both the
Presents series, and the franchise as a whole.
References
External links
• American Pie Presents: The Book of Love (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt1407050/ ) at the Internet Movie
Database
• American Pie Presents: The Book of Love (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v503962) at AllRovi
• American Pie Presents: The Book of Love (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/
american_pie_presents_the_book_of_love/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Behind the scenes videos from set of American Pie 7 (http:/ /www. movieset. com/ american-pie-book-of-love/
videos)
Arturo Toscanini
Toscanini in 1908.
Arturo Toscanini (Italian: [arˈtuːro toskaˈniːni]; March 25, 1867 –
January 16, 1957) was an Italian conductor. He was one of the most
acclaimed musicians of the late 19th and 20th century, renowned for
his intensity, his perfectionism, his ear for orchestral detail and
sonority, and his photographic memory.
[1]
He was at various times the
music director of La Scala Milan, the Metropolitan Opera in New
York, and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra. Later in his career he
was appointed the first music director of the NBC Symphony
Orchestra (1937-54), and this led to his becoming a household name
(especially in the United States) through his radio and television
broadcasts and many recordings of the operatic and symphonic
repertoire.
Biography
Arturo Toscanini
22
Early years
Caricature of Toscanini by
Enrico Caruso
Toscanini was born in Parma, Emilia-Romagna, and won a scholarship to the
local music conservatory, where he studied the cello. He joined the orchestra of
an opera company, with which he toured South America in 1886. While
presenting Aida in Rio de Janeiro, Leopoldo Miguez, the locally hired conductor,
reached the summit of a two-month escalating conflict with the performers due to
his rather poor command of the work, to the point that the singers went on strike
and forced the company's general manager to seek a substitute conductor. Carlo
Superti and Aristide Venturi tried unsuccessfully to finish the work. In
desperation, the singers suggested the name of their assistant Chorus Master, who
knew the whole opera from memory. Although he had no conducting experience,
Toscanini was eventually convinced by the musicians to take up the baton at
9:15 pm, and led a performance of the two-and-a-half hour opera. The public was
taken by surprise, at first by the youth and sheer aplomb of this unknown
conductor, then by his solid mastery. The result was astounding acclaim. For the
rest of that season Toscanini conducted eighteen operas, all with absolute
success. Thus began his career as a conductor, at age 19.
[2][3]
Upon returning to Italy, Toscanini set out on a dual path for some time. He
continued to conduct, his first appearance in Italy being at the Teatro Carignano
in Turin, on November 4, 1886,
[4]
in the world premiere of the revised version of
Alfredo Catalani's Edmea (it had had its premiere in its original form at La Scala, Milan, on February 27, of that
year). This was the beginning of Toscanini's lifelong friendship and championing of Catalani; he even named his
first daughter Wally after the heroine of Catalani's opera La Wally.
[5]
However, he also returned to his chair in the
cello section, and participated as cellist in the world premiere of Verdi's Otello (La Scala, Milan, 1887) under the
composer's supervision. Verdi, who habitually complained that conductors never seemed interested in directing his
scores the way he had written them, was impressed by reports from Arrigo Boito about Toscanini's ability to
interpret his scores. The composer was also impressed when Toscanini consulted him personally about the Te Deum,
suggesting an allargando where it was not set out in the score. Verdi said that he had left it out for fear that "certain
interpreters would have exaggerated the marking".
[6][7]
National and international fame
Gradually the young musician's reputation as an operatic conductor of unusual authority and skill supplanted his
cello career. In the following decade he consolidated his career in Italy, entrusted with the world premieres of
Puccini's La bohème and Leoncavallo's Pagliacci. In 1896, Toscanini conducted his first symphonic concert (in
Turin, with works by Schubert, Brahms, Tchaikovsky, and Wagner). He exhibited a considerable capacity for hard
work: in 1898 he conducted 43 concerts in Turin.
[8]
By 1898 he was principal conductor at La Scala, where he
remained until 1908, returning as Music Director, 1921–1929. He took the Scala Orchestra to the United States on a
concert tour in 1920/21; it was during that tour that Toscanini made his first recordings (for the Victor Talking
Machine Company).
Outside Europe, he conducted at the Metropolitan Opera in New York (1908–1915) as well as the New York
Philharmonic Orchestra (1926–1936). He toured Europe with the New York Philharmonic in 1930; he and the
musicians were acclaimed by critics and audiences wherever they went. Toscanini was the first non-German
conductor to appear at Bayreuth (1930–1931), and the New York Philharmonic was the first non-German orchestra
to play there. In the 1930s he conducted at the Salzburg Festival (1934–1937) and at the inaugural concert in 1936 of
the Palestine Orchestra (later renamed the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra) in Tel Aviv, and later performed with them
Arturo Toscanini
23
in Jerusalem, Haifa, Cairo and Alexandria. During his engagement with the New York Philharmonic, Hans Lange,
the son of the last Master of the Sultan's Music in Istanbul, who was later to become conductor at the Chicago
Symphony Orchestra and the legendary founder of the New Mexico Symphony Orchestra as a professional
ensemble, was his concert master.
[9]
During his career, Toscanini worked with such legendary artists as Enrico Caruso, Feodor Chaliapin, Ezio Pinza,
Jussi Björling, and Geraldine Farrar. Although he also worked with Wagnerian heldentenor Lauritz Melchior, he
would not work with Melchior's frequent partner Kirsten Flagstad after her political sympathies became suspect
during World War II; it was Helen Traubel who sang with Melchior instead of Flagstad at the Toscanini concerts.
Departure from Italy to the United States
In 1919, Toscanini ran unsuccessfully as a Fascist parliamentary candidate in Milan. He had been called "the greatest
conductor in the world" by Fascist leader Benito Mussolini. However, he became disillusioned with fascism and
repeatedly defied the Italian dictator after the latter's ascent to power in 1922. He refused to display Mussolini's
photograph or conduct the Fascist anthem Giovinezza at La Scala.
[10]
He raged to a friend, "If I were capable of
killing a man, I would kill Mussolini."
[11]
At a memorial concert for Italian composer Giuseppe Martucci on May 14, 1931 at the Teatro Comunale in Bologna,
he was ordered to begin by playing Giovinezza but he refused even though the fascist foreign minister Galeazzo
Ciano was present in the audience. Afterwards he was, in his own words, "attacked, injured and repeatedly hit in the
face" by a group of blackshirts.
[12]
Mussolini, incensed by the conductor's refusal, had his phone tapped, placed him
under constant surveillance and took away his passport. The passport was returned only after a world outcry over
Toscanini's treatment.
[10]
On the outbreak of the Second World War, Toscanini left Italy. He would return seven
years later to conduct a concert at the restored La Scala Opera House, which was destroyed by bombs during the
war.
[13]
NBC Symphony
Toscanini returned to the United States where the NBC Symphony Orchestra was created for him in 1937. He
conducted his first NBC broadcast concert on December 25, 1937, in NBC Studio 8-H in New York City's
Rockefeller Center.
[14]
The acoustics of the specially built studio were very dry; some remodeling in 1939 added a
bit more reverberation. (In 1950, the studio was further remodeled for television productions; today it is used by
NBC for Saturday Night Live. In 1980, it was used by Zubin Mehta and the New York Philharmonic Orchestra in a
series of special televised NBC concerts called "Live From Studio 8H", the first one being a tribute to Toscanini,
punctuated by clips from his television concerts.)
The NBC broadcasts were preserved on large transcription discs, recorded at both 78-rpm and 33-1/3 rpm, until NBC
began using magnetic tape in 1947. NBC used special RCA high fidelity microphones both for the broadcasts and for
recording them; these microphones can be seen in some photographs of Toscanini and the orchestra. Some of
Toscanini's recording sessions for RCA Victor were mastered on sound film in a process developed about 1941, as
detailed by RCA producer Charles O'Connell in his memoirs, On and Off The Record. In addition, hundreds of hours
of Toscanini's rehearsals with the NBC were preserved and are now housed in the Toscanini Legacy archive at The
New York Public Library.
Toscanini was often criticized for neglecting American music; however, on November 5, 1938, he conducted the
world premieres of two orchestral works by Samuel Barber, Adagio for Strings and Essay for Orchestra.
[15][16]
The
performance received significant critical acclaim.
[15]
In 1945, he led the orchestra in recording sessions of the Grand
Canyon Suite by Ferde Grofé in Carnegie Hall (supervised by Grofé) and An American in Paris by George Gershwin
in NBC's Studio 8-H. Both works had earlier been performed in broadcast concerts. He also conducted broadcast
performances of Copland's El Salón México; Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue with soloists Earl Wild and Benny
Goodman and Piano Concerto in F with pianist Oscar Levant; and music by other American composers, including
Arturo Toscanini
24
marches of John Philip Sousa. He even wrote his own orchestral arrangement of The Star-Spangled Banner, which
was incorporated into the NBC Symphony's performances of Verdi's Hymn of the Nations. (Earlier, while music
director of the New York Philharmonic, he conducted music by Abram Chasins, Bernard Wagenaar, and Howard
Hanson.)
In 1940, Toscanini took the orchestra on a "goodwill" tour of South America. Later that year, Toscanini had a
disagreement with NBC management over their use of his musicians in other NBC broadcasts. This, among other
reasons, resulted in a letter which Toscanini wrote on March 10, 1941 to RCA's David Sarnoff. He stated that he now
wished "to withdraw from the militant scene of Art" and thus declined to sign a new contract for the up-coming
winter season, but left the door open for an eventual return "if my state of mind, health and rest will be improved
enough". So Leopold Stokowski was engaged on a three-year contract instead and served as the NBC Symphony's
music director from 1941 until 1944. Toscanini's state of mind soon underwent a change and he returned as
Stokowski's co-conductor for the latter's second and third seasons resuming full control in 1944.
One of the more remarkable broadcasts was in July 1942, when Toscanini conducted the American premiere of
Dmitri Shostakovich's Symphony No. 7. Due to World War II, the score was microfilmed in the Soviet Union and
brought by courier to the United States. Stokowski had previously given the US premieres of Shostakovich's 1st, 3rd
and 6th Symphonies in Philadelphia, and in December 1941 urged NBC to obtain the score of the 7th as he wanted
to conduct its premiere as well. But Toscanini coveted this for himself and there were a number of remarkable letters
between the two conductors (reproduced by Harvey Sachs in his biography) before Stokowski agreed to let
Toscanini have the privilege of conducting the first performance. Unfortunately for New York listeners, a major
thunderstorm virtually obliterated the NBC radio signals there, but the performance was heard elsewhere and
preserved on transcription discs.
[17]
It was later issued by RCA Victor in the 1967 centennial boxed set tribute to
Toscanini, which included a number of NBC broadcasts never released on discs.
[18]
In Testimony Shostakovich
himself expressed a dislike for the performance, after he heard a recording of the broadcast. In Toscanini's later years
the conductor expressed dislike for the work and amazement that he had actually conducted it.
[19]
In the summer of 1950, Toscanini led the orchestra on an extensive transcontinental tour. It was during that tour that
the well-known photograph of Toscanini riding the ski lift at Sun Valley, Idaho was taken. Toscanini and the
musicians traveled on a special train chartered by NBC.
The NBC concerts continued in Studio 8-H until the fall of 1950. They were then held in Carnegie Hall, where many
of the orchestra's recording sessions had been held, due to the dry acoustics of Studio 8-H. The final broadcast
performance, an all-Wagner program, took place on April 4, 1954, in Carnegie Hall. During this concert Toscanini
suffered a memory lapse reportedly caused by a transient ischemic attack, although some have attributed the lapse to
having been secretly informed that NBC intended to end the broadcasts and disband the NBC orchestra. He never
conducted live in public again. That June, he participated in his final recording sessions, remaking portions of two
Verdi operas so they could be commercially released. Toscanini was 87 years old when he retired. After his
retirement, the NBC Symphony was reorganized as the Symphony of the Air, making regular performances and
recordings, until it was disbanded in 1963. It was heard one last time (as the NBC Symphony Orchestra) in the 1963
telecast of Gian Carlo Menotti's Christmas opera for television, Amahl and the Night Visitors.
On radio, Toscanini conducted seven complete operas, including Fidelio, La bohème, La traviata, and Otello, all of
which were eventually released on records and CD, thus enabling the modern listening public to have at least some
idea of what an opera conducted by Toscanini sounded like.
Arturo Toscanini
25
Last years
With the help of his son Walter, Toscanini spent his remaining years editing tapes and transcriptions of his
performances with the NBC Symphony. The "approved" recordings were issued by RCA Victor, which also has
issued his recordings with the La Scala Orchestra, the New York Philharmonic Orchestra, and the Philadelphia
Orchestra. His recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra (1937–39) and the Philharmonia Orchestra (1952)
were issued by EMI. Various companies have issued recordings on compact discs of a number of broadcasts and
concerts that he did not officially approve. Among these are stereophonic recordings of his last two NBC broadcast
concerts.
Sachs and other biographers have documented the numerous conductors, singers, and musicians who visited
Toscanini during his retirement. He was a big fan of early television, especially boxing and wrestling telecasts, as
well as comedy programs.
Toscanini died on January 16, 1957 at the age of 89 at his home in the Riverdale section of the Bronx in New York
City. His body was returned to Italy and was buried in the Cimitero Monumentale in Milan. His epitaph is taken
from one account of his remarks concluding the 1926 premiere of Puccini's unfinished Turandot: "Qui finisce
l'opera, perché a questo punto il maestro è morto" ("Here the opera ends, because at this point the maestro died").
[20]
During his funeral service, Leyla Gencer sang an aria from Verdi's Requiem.
In his will, he left his baton to his protégée Herva Nelli, who sang in the broadcasts of Otello, Aïda, Falstaff, the
Verdi Requiem, and Un ballo in maschera.
Toscanini was posthumously awarded the Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award in 1987.
Personal life
Toscanini married Carla De Martini on June 21, 1897, when she was not yet 20 years old. Their first child, Walter,
was born on March 19, 1898. A daughter, Wally, was born on January 16, 1900. Carla gave birth to another boy,
Giorgio, in September 1901, but he died of diphtheria on June 10, 1906. Then, that same year, Carla gave birth to
their second daughter, Wanda.
Toscanini worked with many great singers and musicians throughout his career, but few impressed him as much as
Vladimir Horowitz. They worked together a number of times and recorded Brahms' second piano concerto and
Tchaikovsky's first piano concerto with the NBC Symphony for RCA. Horowitz also became close to Toscanini and
his family. In 1933, Wanda Toscanini married Horowitz, with the conductor's blessings and warnings. It was
Wanda's daughter, Sonia, who was once photographed by Life playing with the conductor.
During World War II, Toscanini lived in Wave Hill, a historic home in Riverdale.
[21]
Despite the reported infidelities revealed in Toscanini's letters documented by Harvey Sachs, he remained married to
Carla until she died on June 23, 1951.
[22][23]
Arturo Toscanini
26
Gallery
Arturo Toscanini poses on a
ship's deck.
Toscanini lifts his hat for the
camera on a ship's deck.
Toscanini in a dark suit. Toscanini with his wife and an
unidentified woman.
Toscanini's wife, Carla. Advertisement
for one of the
first records
made by
Toscanini
conducting the
La Scala
Orchestra.
Arturo Toscanini
holding a small
dog.
Innovations
At La Scala, which had what was then the most modern stage lighting system installed in 1901 and an orchestral pit
installed in 1907, Toscanini pushed through reforms in the performance of opera. He insisted on dimming the
house-lights during performances. As his biographer Harvey Sachs wrote: "He believed that a performance could not
be artistically successful unless unity of intention was first established among all the components: singers, orchestra,
chorus, staging, sets, and costumes."
Toscanini favored the traditional orchestral seating plan with the first violins and cellos on the left, the violas on the
near right, and the second violins on the far right.
Premieres
Toscanini conducted the world premieres of many operas, four of which have become part of the standard operatic
repertoire: Pagliacci, La bohème, La fanciulla del West and Turandot; he took an active role in Alfano's completion
of Puccini's Turandot.
[24]
He also conducted the first Italian performances of Siegfried, Götterdämmerung, Salome,
Pelléas et Mélisande, and Euryanthe, as well as the South American premieres of Tristan und Isolde and Madama
Butterfly and the North American premiere of Boris Godunov. He also conducted the world premiere of Samuel
Arturo Toscanini
27
Barber's most famous work, the Adagio for Strings.
Arturo Toscanini
Operatic premieres
• Edmea (revised version) by Alfredo Catalani – Turin, November 4, 1886
• Pagliacci by Ruggiero Leoncavallo – Milan, May 21, 1892
• Guglielmo Swarten by Gnaga – Rome, November 15, 1892
• Savitri by Natale Canti – Bologna, December 1, 1894
• Emma Liona by Antonio Lozzi – Venice, May 24, 1895
• La bohème by Giacomo Puccini – Turin, February 1, 1896
• Forza d'Amore by Arturo Buzzi-Peccia – Turin, March 6, 1897
• La Camargo by Enrico De Leva – Turin, March 2, 1898
• Anton by Cesare Galeotii – Milan, December 17, 1900
• Zaza by Leoncavallo – Milan, November 10, 1900
• Le Maschere by Pietro Mascagni – Milan, January 17, 1901
• Mosè by Don Lorenzo Perosi – Milan, November 16, 1901
• Germania by Alberto Franchetti – Milan, March 11, 1902
• Oceana by Antonio Smareglia – Milan, January 22, 1903
• Cassandra by Vittorio Gnecchi – Bologna, December 5, 1905
• Gloria by Francesco Cilea – Milan, April 15, 1907
• La fanciulla del West by Puccini – New York, December 10, 1910
• Madame Sans-Gène by Umberto Giordano – New York, January 25, 1915
• Debora e Jaele by Ildebrando Pizzetti – Milan, December 16, 1922
• Nerone by Arrigo Boito (completed by Toscanini and Vincenzo Tommasini) – Milan, May 1, 1924
• La Cena delle Beffe by Giordano – Milan, December 20, 1924
• I Cavalieri di Ekebu by Riccardo Zandonai – Milan, March 7, 1925
• Turandot by Puccini – Milan, April 25, 1926
• Fra Gherado by Pizzetti – Milan, May 16, 1928
• Il Re by Giordano – Milan, January 12, 1929
Orchestral premieres
• Adagio for Strings and First Essay for Orchestra by Samuel Barber – NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York,
November 5, 1938
• Western Suite by Elie Siegmeister – NBC Symphony Orchestra, New York, November 1945.
Recorded legacy
Overview
Toscanini made his first recordings in December 1920 with the La Scala Orchestra in the Trinity Church studio of
the Victor Talking Machine Company in Camden, New Jersey and his last with the NBC Symphony Orchestra in
June 1954 in Carnegie Hall. His entire catalog of commercial recordings was issued by RCA Victor, save for two
single-sided recordings for Brunswick in 1926 (his first by the electrical process) with the New York Philharmonic
Orchestra and a series of excellent recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1937 to 1939 for EMI's
HMV label (which was RCA Victor's European affiliate). Toscanini also recorded with the New York Philharmonic
in Carnegie Hall for RCA Victor in 1929 and 1936. He made a series of long unissued recordings with the
Philadelphia Orchestra for RCA Victor in Philadelphia's Academy of Music in 1941 and 1942. All of the
Arturo Toscanini
28
commercially issued RCA Victor and HMV recordings have been digitally re-mastered and released on compact
disc. There are also recorded concerts with various European orchestras, especially with La Scala Orchestra and the
Philharmonia Orchestra. In April 2012, RCA Red Seal released a new 84 CD boxed set reissue of Toscanini's
complete RCA Victor recordings and original HMV recordings with the BBC Symphony.
[25]
In 2013, EMI Classics
issued a 6 CD set containing Toscanini's complete HMV recordings with the BBC Symphony Orchestra.
Hearing Toscanini
In some of his recordings, Toscanini can be heard singing or humming. This is especially audible in RCA's recording
of La Bohème, recorded during broadcast concerts in NBC Studio 8-H in 1946. Tenor Jan Peerce later said that
Toscanini's deep involvement in the performances helped him to achieve the necessary emotions, especially in the
final moments of the opera when the beloved Mimi (sung by Licia Albanese) is dying. During the "Tuba mirum"
section of the January 1951 live recording of Verdi's Requiem, Toscanini can be heard on the disc shouting as the
brass blares. In his recording of Richard Strauss' Death and Transfiguration, Toscanini sighed loudly near the end of
the music; RCA Victor left this in the released recording.
Specialties
He was especially famous for his performances of Beethoven, Brahms, Wagner, Richard Strauss, Debussy and his
own compatriots Rossini, Verdi, Boito and Puccini. He made many recordings, especially towards the end of his
career, which are still in print. In addition, there are many recordings available of his broadcast performances, as well
as his remarkable rehearsals with the NBC Symphony.
Charles O'Connell on Toscanini
Charles O'Connell, who produced many of Toscanini's RCA Victor recordings in the 1930s and early 1940s, said
that RCA quickly decided to record the NBC Symphony Orchestra in Carnegie Hall, whenever possible, after being
disappointed with the dull-sounding early recordings in Studio 8-H in 1938 and 1939. (Nevertheless, there were a
few recording sessions in Studio 8-H as late as June 1950, probably because of improvements to the acoustics in
1939, including installation of an acoustical shell.) O'Connell, and others, often complained that Toscanini was little
interested in recording and, as Harvey Sachs wrote, Toscanini was frequently disappointed that the microphones
failed to pick up everything he heard during the recording sessions. O'Connell even complained of Toscanini's
failure to cooperate with RCA during the sessions. Toscanini himself was often disappointed that the 78-rpm discs
failed to fully capture all of the instruments in the orchestra; those fortunate to attend Toscanini's concerts later said
the NBC string section was especially outstanding.
[26]
Philadelphia Orchestra recordings
O'Connell also extensively documented RCA's technical problems with the Philadelphia Orchestra recordings of
1941/42, which required extensive electronic editing before they could be released (well after Toscanini's death,
beginning in 1963, with the rest following in the 1970s). Harvey Sachs also recounts that the masters were damaged,
possibly due to the use of somewhat inferior materials imposed by wartime restrictions. Unfortunately, a Musicians
Union recording ban from 1942 to 1944 prevented immediate retakes; by the time the ban ended, the Philadelphia
Orchestra had left RCA Victor for Columbia Records and RCA apparently was hesitant to promote the orchestra any
further. Eventually, Toscanini recorded all of the same music with the NBC Symphony. In 1968, the Philadelphia
Orchestra returned to RCA and the company was more favorable toward issuing all of the discs. As for the historic
recordings, even on the CD versions, first released in 1991, some of the sides have considerable surface noise and
some distortion, especially during the louder passages. The best sounding of the recordings is the Schubert
Symphony No. 9 (The "Great"), which had been restored by RCA first (in 1963) and issued on LP. RCA finally
released the rest of the recordings in 1977 and, as Sachs noted, by that time some of the masters may have
Arturo Toscanini
29
deteriorated further. Nevertheless, despite the occasional problems, the entire set is an impressive document of
Toscanini's collaboration with the Philadelphia musicians. A 2006 RCA reissue makes more effective use of digital
processing in an attempt to produce better sound. Longtime Philadelphia director Eugene Ormandy expressed his
appreciation for what Toscanini achieved with the orchestra.
High fidelity and stereo
In the late 1940s when magnetic tape replaced direct wax disc recording and high fidelity long playing records were
introduced, the conductor said he was much happier making recordings. Sachs wrote that an Italian journalist,
Raffaele Calzini, said Toscanini told him, "My son Walter sent me the test pressing of the [Beethoven] Ninth from
America; I want to hear and check how it came out, and possibly to correct it. These long-playing records often
make me happy."
[27]
NBC had recorded all of Toscanini's broadcast performances on transcription discs from the start of the broadcasts in
1937. The use of high fidelity sound film was common for recording sessions, as early as 1941. By 1948, when RCA
began using magnetic tape on a regular basis, high fidelity became the norm for Toscanini's, and all other
commercial recordings. With RCA's experiments in stereo in early 1954, stereo tapes were made of Toscanini's final
two broadcast concerts, as well as the rehearsals, as documented by Samuel Antek in This Was Toscanini. The
microphones were placed relatively close to the orchestra and with limited separation, so the stereo effects were not
as dramatic as the commercial "Living Stereo" recordings which RCA Victor began to make about the same time
with the Boston Symphony Orchestra and the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The two Toscanini concerts recorded in
stereo have been issued on LP and CD and have also been offered for download in digitally enhanced sound by
Pristine Classical, a company which produces digitally enhanced versions of older classical recordings.
One more example of Toscanini and the NBC Symphony in stereo now also exists. It is of the January 27, 1951
concert devoted to the Verdi Requiem, previously recorded and released in high-fidelity monophonic sound by RCA
Victor. Recently a separate recording of the same performance, using a different microphone in a different location,
was acquired by Pristine Audio. Using modern digital technology the company constructed a stereophonic version of
the performance from the two recordings which it made available in 2009. The company calls this an example of
"accidental stereo".
Notable recordings
Among his most critically acclaimed recordings are the following (with the NBC Symphony unless otherwise
shown):
(Many of these were never released officially during Toscanini's lifetime)
• Beethoven, Symphony No. 3 "Eroica" (1953; also 1939 and 1949 recordings)
• Beethoven, Symphony No. 6 "Pastoral" (1952)
• Beethoven, Symphony No. 7 (1936, Philharmonic-Symphony of New York)
• Beethoven, Symphony No. 9 (1952 and 1938) (only the 1952 recording was released officially)
• Beethoven, Missa Solemnis, (1953 and 1940 NBC broadcast) (Only the 1953 version was released officially.)
• Berlioz, Roméo et Juliette (1947 NBC broadcast) (only excerpts released during Toscanini's lifetime)
• Brahms, Symphony No. 1 (1941)
• Brahms, Symphony No. 2 (1952 and February 1948 broadcast)
• Brahms, Symphony No. 4 (1951 and 1948 broadcast)
• Brahms, Four Symphonies, Tragic Overture and Haydn Variations, 1952, Philharmonia Orchestra, London (his
only appearances with that orchestra, produced by Walter Legge).
• Debussy, La mer (1950 and 1940 broadcast; only the 1950 version was released officially)
• Dvořák, Symphony No. 9 "From the New World" (1953)
Arturo Toscanini
30
• Mendelssohn, Incidental Music from A Midsummer Night's Dream, (NBC 1947, studio and broadcast versions;
Philadelphia 1941); Scherzo, New York Philharmonic, (1929)
• Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 4 "Italian", (1954, exists in two versions: one as approved by Toscanini with
excerpts from the rehearsals, and the unedited broadcast)
• Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 5 "Reformation", (1942 broadcast, 1953 studio recording. The 1953 version is the
one officially released.)
• Puccini, La bohème (1946 broadcast)
• Mozart, Die Zauberflöte (1937, Salzburg Festival; poor sound)
• Mussorgsky, Pictures at an Exhibition (1938, 1948 and 1953 broadcast, studio recording 1953, all of them in the
version orchestrated by Maurice Ravel. The studio recording from January 1953 is the only one to have been
officially released.)
• Schubert, Symphony No. 9 (Philadelphia, 1941; NBC 1947 and 1953)
• Tchaikovsky, Piano concerto No. 1 in B flat minor, Op. 23, Vladimir Horowitz and NBC Symphony, (live
recording of April 25, 1943 War Bonds benefit concert at Carnegie Hall, first issued in 1959 on LP by RCA
Victor)
• Verdi, Requiem (1940 NBC broadcast; and 1951 studio recording)
• Verdi, Un ballo in maschera (1954 NBC broadcast)
• Verdi, Falstaff (1937, Salzburg Festival with restored sound on the Andante label; 1950 NBC broadcast)
• Verdi, Rigoletto (Act IV only, 1944; from World War II Red Cross benefit concert held in Madison Square
Garden, with the combined forces of the New York Philharmonic and the NBC Symphony; the entire concert,
complete with an auctioning of one of Toscanini's batons, was released on an unofficial recording in 1995)
• Verdi, Otello (1947 NBC broadcast)
• Wagner, Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg (1937, Salzburg Festival; original Selenophone sound-on-film
recording restored on Andante.)
Rarities
There are many pieces which Toscanini never recorded in the studio; among these, some of the most interesting
surviving recordings (off-the-air) include:
• Meyerbeer Overture to Dinorah (1938, on Testament)
[28]
• Stravinsky, Suite from Petrushka (1940, on RCA Victor)
• Mendelssohn, Symphony No. 3 "Scottish" (1941, on Testament)
• Franz Schubert, Symphony No. 2 (1940, on Testament)
• Dmitri Shostakovich, Symphony No. 7 "Leningrad" (1942, on RCA Victor)
• Vasily Kalinnikov, Symphony No. 1 (1943, on Testament)
• Schumann, Symphony No. 2 (1946, on Testament)
• Boito, scenes from Mefistofele and Nerone, La Scala, Milan, 1948 – Boito Memorial Concert.
• Mussorgsky, Prelude to Khovanshchina (1953)
Arturo Toscanini
31
Rehearsals and broadcasts
A few of the hundreds of hours of rehearsal tapes
featuring Toscanini, residing in the Rodgers and
Hammerstein Archive of Recorded Sound, a
division of The New York Public Library for the
Performing Arts
Many hundreds of hours of Toscanini's rehearsals were recorded. Some
of these have circulated in limited edition recordings. Many broadcast
recordings with orchestras other than the NBC have also survived,
including: The New York Philharmonic from 1933–36, 1942, and
1945; The BBC Symphony Orchestra from 1935–1939; The Lucerne
Festival Orchestra; and broadcasts from the Salzburg Festival in the
late 1930s. Documents of Toscanini's guest appearances with the La
Scala Orchestra from 1946 until 1952 include a live recording of
Verdi's Requiem with the young Renata Tebaldi. Toscanini's ten NBC
Symphony telecasts from 1948 until 1952 were preserved in kinescope
films of the live broadcasts. These films, issued by RCA on VHS tape
and laser disc and on DVD by Testament, provide unique video
documentation of the passionate yet restrained podium technique for
which he was well known.
Recording guide
A guide to Toscanini's recording career can be found in Mortimer H.
Frank's "From the Pit to the Podium: Toscanini in America" in
International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15 8–21) and
Christopher Dyment's "Toscanini's European Inheritance" in International Classical Record Collector (1998, 15
22–8). Frank and Dyment also discuss Maestro Toscanini's performance history in the 50th anniversary issue of
Classic Record Collector (2006, 47) Frank with 'Toscanini – Myth and Reality' (10–14) and Dyment 'A Whirlwind
in London' (15–21) This issue also contains interviews with people who performed with Toscanini – Jon Tolansky
'Licia Albanese – Maestro and Me' (22–6) and 'A Mesmerising Beat: John Tolansky talks to some of those who
worked with Arturo Toscanini, to discover some of the secrets of his hold over singers, orchestras and audiences.'
(34–7). There is also a feature article on Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony – Norman C.
Nelson, 'First Among Equals [...] Toscanini's interpretation of Brahms's First Symphony in the context of others'
(28–33)
The Arturo Toscanini Society
In 1969, Clyde J. Key acted on a dream he had of meeting Toscanini by starting the Arturo Toscanini Society to
release a number of "unapproved" live performances by Toscanini. As Time Magazine reported, Key scoured the
U.S. and Europe for off-the-air transcriptions of Toscanini broadcasts, acquiring almost 5,000 transcriptions (all
transferred to tape) of previously unreleased material—a complete catalogue of broadcasts by the Maestro between
1933 and 1954. It included about 50 concerts that were never broadcast, but which were recorded surreptitiously by
engineers supposedly testing their equipment.
A private, nonprofit club based in Dumas, Texas, it offered members five or six LPs annually for a $25-a-year
membership fee. Key's first package offering included Brahms' German Requiem, Haydn's Symphonies Nos. 88 and
104, and Richard Strauss' Ein Heldenleben, all NBC Symphony broadcasts dating from the late 1930s or early 1940s.
In 1970, the Society releases included Sibelius' Symphony No. 4, Mendelssohn's "Scottish" Symphony, dating from
the same NBC period; and a Rossini-Verdi-Puccini LP emanating from the post-War reopening of La Scala on May
11, 1946 with the Maestro conducting. That same year it released a Beethoven bicentennial set that included the
1935 Missa Solemnis with the Philharmonic and LPs of the 1948 televised concert of the ninth symphony taken from
an FM radio transcription, complete with Ben Grauer's comments. (In the early 1990s, the kinescopes of these and
Arturo Toscanini
32
the other televised concerts were released by RCA with soundtracks dubbed in from the NBC radio transcriptions; in
2006, they were re-released by Testament on DVD.)
Additional releases included a number of Beethoven symphonies recorded with the New York Philharmonic during
the 1930s, a performance of Mozart's Piano Concerto No. 27 on February 20, 1936, at which Rudolf Serkin made his
New York debut, and one of the most celebrated underground Toscanini recordings of all, the legendary 1940
broadcast version of Beethoven's Missa Solemnis, which has better soloists (Zinka Milanov, Jussi Bjoerling, both in
their prime) and a more powerful style than the 1953 RCA studio recording, although the microphone placement was
kinder to the soloists in 1953.
Because the Arturo Toscanini Society was nonprofit, Key said he believed he had successfully bypassed both
copyright restrictions and the maze of contractual ties between RCA and the Maestro's family. However, RCA's
attorneys were soon looking into the matter to see if they agreed. As long as it stayed small, the Society appeared to
offer little real competition to RCA. But classical-LP profits were low enough even in 1970, and piracy by
fly-by-night firms so prevalent within the industry (an estimated $100 million in tape sales for 1969 alone), that even
a benevolent buccaneer outfit like the Arturo Toscanini Society had to be looked at twice before it could be
tolerated.
[29]
Magazine and newspaper reports subsequently detailed legal action taken against Key and the Society, presumably
after some of the LPs began to appear in retail stores. Toscanini fans and record collectors were dismayed because,
although Toscanini had not approved the release of these performances in every case, many of them were found to be
further proof of the greatness of the Maestro's musical talents. One outstanding example of a remarkable
performance not approved by the Maestro was his December 1948 NBC broadcast of Dvořák's Symphonic
Variations, released on an LP by the Society. (A kinescope of the same performance, from the television simulcast,
has been released on VHS and laser disc by RCA/BMG and on DVD by Testament.) There was speculation that, the
Toscanini family itself, prodded by his daughter Wanda, sought to defend the Maestro's original decisions, made
mostly during his last years, on what should be released. Walter Toscanini later admitted that his father likely
rejected performances that were satisfactory. Whatever the real reasons, the Arturo Toscanini Society was forced to
disband and cease releasing any further recordings.
Television
Arturo Toscanini was one of the first conductors to make extended appearances on live television. Between 1948 and
1952, he conducted ten concerts telecast on NBC, including a two-part concert performance of Verdi's complete
opera Aida starring Herva Nelli and Richard Tucker, and the first complete telecast of Beethoven's Ninth Symphony.
All of these were simulcast on radio. These concerts were all shown only once during that four-year span, but they
were preserved on kinescopes.
[30]
The telecasts began on March 20, 1948, with an all-Wagner program, including the Prelude to Act III of Lohengrin;
the overture and bacchanale from Tannhäuser; "Forest Murmurs" from Siegfried; "Dawn and Siegfried's Rhine
Journey" from Götterdämmerung; and "The Ride of the Valkyries" from Die Walküre. On the very same day that
this concert was telecast live, conductor Eugene Ormandy also made his live television concert debut with the
Philadelphia Orchestra.
[31]
They performed Weber's overture to Der Freischutz and Rachmaninoff's Symphony no.
1, which had been recently rediscovered.
[32]
The Ormandy concert was telecast by rival network CBS, but the
schedules were arranged so that the two programs would not interfere with one another.
[32]
Less than a month after the first Toscanini televised concert, a performance by the conductor of Beethoven's Ninth
Symphony was telecast on April 3, 1948. On November 13, 1948, there was an all-Brahms program, including the
Concerto for Violin, Cello, and Orchestra in A minor (Mischa Mischakoff, violin; Frank Miller, cello);
Liebeslieder-Walzer, Op. 52 (with two pianists and a small chorus); and Hungarian Dance No. 1 in G minor. On
December 3, 1948, Toscanini conducted Mozart's Symphony No. 40 in G minor; Dvořák's Symphonic Variations;
and Wagner's original overture to Tannhäuser.
Arturo Toscanini
33
There were two Toscanini telecasts in 1949, both devoted to the concert performance of Verdi's Aida from studio
8H. Acts I and II were telecast on March 26 and III and IV on April 2. Portions of the audio were rerecorded in June
1954 for the commercial release on LP records. As the video shows, the soloists were placed close to Toscanini, in
front of the orchestra, while the robed members of the Robert Shaw Chorale were on risers behind the orchestra.
There were no Toscanini telecasts in 1950, but they resumed from Carnegie Hall on November 3, 1951, with
Weber's overture to Euryanthe and Brahms' Symphony No. 1. On December 29, 1951, there was another all-Wagner
program that included the two excerpts from Siegfried and Die Walküre featured on the March 1948 telecast, plus the
Prelude to Act II of Lohengrin; the Prelude and Liebestod from Tristan und Isolde; and "Siegfried's Death and
Funeral Music" from Götterdämmerung.
On March 15, 1952, Toscanini conducted the Symphonic Interlude from Franck's Rédemption; Sibelius's En Saga;
Debussy's "Nuages" and "Fetes" from Nocturnes; and the overture of Rossini's William Tell. The final live Toscanini
telecast, on March 22, 1952, included Beethoven's Symphony No. 5, and Respighi's The Pines of Rome.
The NBC cameras were often left on Toscanini for extended periods, documenting not only his baton techniques but
his deep involvement in the music. At the end of a piece, Toscanini generally nodded rather than bowed and exited
the stage quickly. Although NBC continued to broadcast the orchestra on radio until April 1954, telecasts were
abandoned after March 1952.
As part of a restoration project initiated by the Toscanini family in the late 1980s, the kinescopes were fully restored
and issued by RCA on VHS and laser disc beginning in 1989. The audio portion of the sound was taken, not from
the noisy kinescopes, but from 33-1/3 rpm 16-inch transcription disc and high fidelity audio tape recordings made
simultaneously by RCA technicians during the televised concerts. The hi-fi audio was synchronized with the
kinescope video for the home video release. Original introductions by NBC's longtime announcer Ben Grauer were
replaced with new commentary by Martin Bookspan. The entire group of Toscanini videos has since been reissued
by Testament on DVD, with further improvements to the sound.
Film
In December 1943, Toscanini made a 31-minute film for the United States Office of War Information called Hymn of
the Nations, directed by Alexander Hammid. It was mostly filmed in NBC's Studio 8-H and consists of Toscanini
conducting the NBC Symphony in a performance of Verdi's Overture to La Forza del Destino and Verdi's "Hymn of
the Nations" (Inno delle nazioni), which contains national anthems of England, France, and Italy (the World War I
allied nations), to which Toscanini added the Soviet "Internationale" and "The Star Spangled Banner". Tenor Jan
Peerce and the Westminster Choir performed in the latter work and the film was narrated by Burgess Meredith.
[33]
The film was released by RCA/BMG on DVD in 2004. By this time the "Internationale" had been cut from the 1943
film, but the complete "Hymn of the Nations" can still be heard in all releases of the audio recording of the film
issued by RCA.
[34]
Hymn of the Nations was nominated for a 1944 Academy Award for Best Documentary Short.
[35]
Toscanini: The Maestro is a 1985 documentary made for cable television. The film features archival footage of the
conductor and interviews with musicians who worked with him. This film was released on VHS and in 2004 on the
same DVD with Hymn of the Nations.
Toscanini is the subject of the 1988 fictionalized biography Il giovane Toscanini (Young Toscanini), starring C.
Thomas Howell and Dame Elizabeth Taylor, and directed by Franco Zeffirelli.
[36]
It received scathing reviews and
was never officially released in the United States. The film is a fictional recounting of the events that led up to
Toscanini making his conducting debut in Rio de Janeiro in 1886. Although nearly all of the plot is embellished, the
events surrounding the sudden and unexpected conducting debut are based on fact.
Arturo Toscanini
34
Acclaim and criticism
Throughout his career, Toscanini was virtually idolized by the critics (a notable exception being Virgil Thomson), as
well as by most fellow musicians and the public alike. He enjoyed the kind of consistent critical acclaim during his
life that few other musicians have had. He was featured three times on the cover of Time magazine, in 1926, 1934,
and again in 1948. In the magazine's history, he is the only conductor to have been so honored.
[37][38][39]
On March
25, 1989, the United States Postal Service issued a 25 cent postage stamp in his honor.
[40]
While online critics such
as Peter Gutmann have dismissed much of what was written about Toscanini during his lifetime as "adoring
puffery",
[41]
it neverthleless remains a fact that composers and others who worked with the Maestro readily
acknowledged what they felt was his greatness, and audio interviews containing the praise of such luminaries as
Aaron Copland still exist.
[42]
Over the past thirty years or so, however, as a new generation has appeared, there has been an increasing amount of
revisionist criticism directed at Toscanini. These critics contend that Toscanini was ultimately a detriment to
American music rather than an asset because of the tremendous marketing of him by RCA as the greatest conductor
of all time and his preference to perform mostly older European music. According to Harvey Sachs, Mortimer Frank,
and B. H. Haggin, this criticism can be traced to the lack of focus on Toscanini as a conductor rather than his legacy.
Frank, in his recent book Toscanini: The NBC Years, rejects this revisionism quite strongly,
[43]
and cites the author
Joseph Horowitz (author of Understanding Toscanini) as perhaps the most extreme of these critics. Frank writes that
this revisionism has unfairly influenced younger listeners and critics, who may have not heard as many of
Toscanini's performances as older listeners, and as a result, Toscanini's reputation, extraordinarily high in the years
that he was active, has suffered a decline. Conversely, Joseph Horowitz contends that those who keep the Toscanini
legend alive are members of a "Toscanini cult", an idea not altogether refuted by Frank, but not embraced by him,
either.
Some contemporary critics, particularly Virgil Thomson, also took Toscanini to task for not paying enough attention
to the "modern repertoire" (i.e., 20th-century composers, of which Thomson was one). It may be speculated,
knowing Toscanini's antipathy toward much 20th-century music, that perhaps Thomson had a feeling that the
conductor would never have played any of his (Thomson's) music, and that perhaps because of this, Thomson bore a
resentment against him. During Toscanini's middle years, however, such now widely accepted composers as Richard
Strauss and Claude Debussy, whose music the conductor held in very high regard, were considered to be radical and
modern. Toscanini also performed excerpts from Igor Stravinsky's Petrouchka, and three of George Gershwin's most
famous works, Rhapsody in Blue, An American in Paris, and the Piano Concerto in F, though his performances of
these last three works have been criticized as not being "jazzy" enough.
Another criticism leveled at Toscanini stems from the constricted sound quality that comes from many of his
recordings, notably those made in NBC's Studio 8-H. Studio 8-H was foremost a radio and later a television studio,
not a true concert hall. Its dry acoustics lacking in much reverberation, while ideal for broadcasting, were unsuited
for symphonic concerts and opera. However, it is widely believed that Toscanini favored it because its close miking
enabled listeners to hear every instrumental strand in the orchestra clearly, something that the conductor strongly
believed in.
[44]
Toscanini has also been criticized for lack of nuance and metronomic (rhythmically too rigid) performances:
"Others attacked the conductor on the ground that he was a slave to the metronome. They said that his beat
was inexorable, that his rhythms were rigid, that he was an enemy of Italian song and a wrecker of the art of
bel canto."
[45]
"When he was young as a conductor, it was complained of Toscanini that he held the tempo and rhythm of the
music firmly to its course and that it had the mechanical exactitude of a metronome. [...]"
[46]
—The Maestro: The Life Of Arturo Toscanini (1951) by Howard Taubman
Arturo Toscanini
35
Others state (and there is some evidence from the recordings) that Toscanini's tempos, quite flowing in his earlier
recordings, became stricter as he got older, although this is not to be taken as a literally true statement. His 1953
recording of Pictures at an Exhibition, for instance, and his 1950 La Mer, are considered masterpieces by many.
The Toscanini Legacy
Beginning in 1963, NBC Radio broadcast a weekly series of programs entitled Toscanini: The Man Behind The
Legend, commemorating Toscanini's years with the NBC Symphony Orchestra. The show, hosted by NBC
announcer Ben Grauer, who had also hosted many of the original Toscanini broadcasts, featured interviews with
members of the conductor's family, as well as musicians of the NBC Symphony, David Sarnoff, and noted classical
musicians who had worked with the conductor, such as Giovanni Martinelli. It spotlighted partial or complete
rebroadcasts of many of Toscanini's recordings. The program ran for at least three years, and did not feature any of
the revisionist commentary about the conductor one finds so often today in magazines such as American Record
Guide.
[47]
The series was rebroadcast by PBS radio in the late 1970s.
In 1986, The New York Public Library for the Performing Arts
[48]
purchased the bulk of Toscanini's papers, scores
and sound recordings from his heirs. Named The Toscanini Legacy, this vast collection contains thousands of letters,
programs and various documents, over 1,800 scores and more than 400 hours of sound recordings. A finding aids for
the scores and sound recordings
[49]
is available on the library's website. In house finding aids are available for other
parts of the collection.
The Library also has many other collections that have Toscanini materials in them, such as the Bruno Walter papers
[50]
, the Fiorello H. La Guardia papers
[51]
, and a collection of material from Rose Bampton.
[52]
Quotations
• Of German composer Richard Strauss, whose political behavior during World War II was arguably very
questionable: "To Strauss the composer I take off my hat; to Strauss the man I put it back on again."
•• "The conduct of my life has been, is, and will always be the echo and reflection of my conscience."
•• "Gentlemen, be democrats in life but aristocrats in art."
• Referring to the first movement of the Eroica: "To some it is Napoleon, to some it is a philosophical struggle. To
me it is allegro con brio."
• At the point where Puccini left off writing the finale of his unfinished opera, Turandot: "Here Death triumphed
over art". (Toscanini then left the opera pit, the lights went up and the audience left in silence.).
[53]
• Toscanini was invited in the year 1940 to visit a movie set at the Metro Goldwyn Mayer Studios. There he said
with tears in his eyes, "I will remember three things in my life: the sunset, the Grand Canyon and Eleanor
Powell's dancing."
References
[1] Sachs, Harvey (1978). Toscanini. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80137-X.
[2] Tarozzi, Giuseppe (1977). Non muore la musica – La vita e l'opera di Arturo Toscanini (p.36). SUGARco Edizioni.)
[3] Nicotra, Tobia (2005). Arturo Toscanini. Kessinger Publ. Co.. ISBN 978-1-4179-0126-5.
[4] [4] Mortimer H. Frank, Arturo Toscanini: The NBC Years, p. 149
[5] David Mason Greene, Greene’s Biographical Encyclopedia of Composers, p. 819
[6] Conati et al., Marcello (1986). Encounters with Verdi. Cornell University Press. p. 303. ISBN 0-8014-9430-3.
[7] Verdi, however, was quick to criticise Toscanini when appropriate, as in a rehearsal of Otello where he was unhappy with the playing of the
solo for four muted cellos that ushers in the final duet of the first act of Otello: "Gia nella notte densa". cf. Conati et al., p.304
[8] [8] Opera. June 1954, p334
[9] [9] Music: Lange's own, TIME Magazine, Nov 25, 1935 (to be found in the TIME online archive)
[10] [10] Plaskin, 195.
[11] Sachs, Toscanini, 154.
[12] Sachs, Toscanini, 211.
Arturo Toscanini
36
[13] Farrell, Nicholas (2005). Mussolini: a New Life. Sterling Publishing Company, Inc.. p. 238. ISBN 1-84212-123-5.
[14] The Double reed (http:/ / books. google. com/ books?id=R1YJAQAAMAAJ). International Double Reed Society. 1995. p. 65. . Retrieved 25
July 2012.
[15] Association for the Advancement of Instrumental Music (1993). The Instrumentalist (http:// books. google. com/
books?id=jjpLAAAAYAAJ). The Instrumentalist. . Retrieved 25 July 2012.
[16] Ewen, David (1949). American composers today: a biographical and critical guide (http:// books.google.com/
books?id=vI44AAAAIAAJ). H.W. Wilson Co.. . Retrieved 25 July 2012.
[17] MOG.com (http:/ / mog.com/ musikfriend/blog/ 184658). MOG.com. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[18] [18] RCA Victor liner notes
[19] Taubman in 1951 (at page 289) quotes him (without citation) as saying "I asked myself, did I conduct that? Did I work two weeks
memorizing that symphony? Impossible! I was stupid!" The violist William Carboni, when interviewed by Haggin in 1967 (at pages 54–55 of
The Toscanini Musicians Knew) quotes him (without citation) as saying "Did I play this? I must have been crazy." Marek in 1975 (at page
234) quotes him (without citation) as saying "Did I really learn and conduct such junk?"
[20] William Ashbrook (1984). "Turandot and Its Posthumous Prima" (http:// oq.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/ reprint/2/ 3/ 126). Opera Quarterly 2
(3): 126–132. doi:10.1093/oq/2.3.126. ISSN 0736-0053 / Online ISSN 1476-2870. .
[21] Frank, Mortimer H. "A Toscanini Odyssey" (http:// www. juilliard.edu/ update/journal/ 353journal_story_0204.asp), The Juilliard Journal
Online, April 2002. Retrieved February 26, 2008. "That archive was housed at Wave Hill, Toscanini's Riverdale residence during World War
II."
[22] Michael Kennedy (May 12, 2002). "Conductor con brio" (http:/ / www. telegraph.co.uk/ arts/ main.jhtml?xml=/arts/ 2002/05/ 12/
botos12. xml). London: Telegraph. . Retrieved April 28, 2007.
[23] Catherine Milner (April 20, 2002). "Letters detail Toscanini's affairs" (http:// www. telegraph.co. uk/ news/ main.
jhtml;jsessionid=MQQUQXCVEW2Z3QFIQMFSFGGAVCBQ0IV0?xml=/ news/ 2002/ 04/ 21/ wtosc21.xml). Telegraph. . Retrieved April
18, 2007.
[24] [24] However, he refused to conduct the section that Alfano composed at the opera's world premiere.
[25] Arturo Toscanini: The Complete RCA Collection: Arturo Toscanini: Music (http:/ / www. amazon.com/
Arturo-Toscanini-The-Complete-Collection/dp/ B006VKKAWQ/ ref=pd_rhf_ee_shvl39). Amazon.com. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[26] [26] Eyewitness accounts by William Knorp and others
[27] Harvey Sachs, Toscanini, pp. 302–303
[28] Amazon.com (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ B000LPS4NO). Amazon.com. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[29] Time, March 2, 1970
[30] Harvey Sachs, Toscanini
[31] "Penn Special Collections - Ormandy/Usher" (http:// www. library.upenn.edu/ exhibits/ rbm/ ormandy/usher. html). Library.upenn.edu. .
Retrieved 2012-11-01.
[32] "The First Televised Orchestra Concert" (http:/ / www. library.upenn.edu/ exhibits/ music/ ormandy/first_concert.html).
Library.upenn.edu. . Retrieved 2012-11-01.
[33] "Toscanini: Hymn of the Nations" (http:// www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,778680,00.html). Time magazine, April 29,
1946.
[34] "Toscanini: The Maestro" Amazon.com 2004 (http:// www.amazon. com/ dp/ B00017HWLW). Amazon.com. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[35] Hymn of the Nations (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0036023/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
[36] "Movies: About Il Giovane Toscanini" (http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/130532/Young-Toscanini/overview). The New York Times. .
[37] Cover story: "The Perfectionist" (http:// www. time. com/ time/ covers/ 0,16641,19480426,00.html). Time magazine, April 26, 1948
[38] Cover story: "Birthday of a Conductor" (http:/ / www. time.com/ time/ covers/ 0,16641,19340402,00.html). Time magazine, April 2, 1934.
[39] Cover story: "Toscanini" (http:/ / www. time. com/ time/ covers/ 0,16641,19260125,00.html). Time magazine, January 25, 1926.
[40] Scott catalog # 2411.
[41] Toscanini, The Recorded Legend, Classical Notes, Peter Gutmann (http:/ / www. classicalnotes. net/ features/ toscaweb. html#legacy).
Classicalnotes.net. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[42] Explore Toscanini: The Man Behind the Legend: List View UNT Digital Library (http:/ / digital. library.unt.edu/ explore/collections/
TNMBL/ browse/ ). Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[43] Klassi.net (http:/ / www. klassi. net/ new_reviews/ opus30/ ). Klassi.net. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[44] Amazon.com (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ 0306803569). Amazon.com. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[45] Howard Taubman. "The Maestro: The Life Of Arturo Toscanini" (http:// www. archive.org/stream/ maestrothelifeof000862mbp#page/
n109/mode/ 1up). .
[46] Howard Taubman. "The Maestro: The Life Of Arturo Toscanini" (http:// www.archive.org/stream/ maestrothelifeof000862mbp#page/
n280/mode/ 1up). .
[47] Explore Toscanini: The Man Behind the Legend: List View UNT Digital Library (http:// digital. library.unt.edu/ explore/collections/
TNMBL/ browse/ ?start=170). Digital.library.unt.edu. Retrieved June 7, 2012.
[48] http:/ / www. nypl. org/research/ lpa/ lpa. html
[49] http:/ / www. nypl. org/research/ manuscripts/ music/ mustoscanin. xml
[50] http:// digilib. nypl. org/dynaweb/ ead/ music/ muswalter/
Arturo Toscanini
37
[51] http:/ / www. nypl. org/research/ chss/ spe/ rbk/ faids/ laguardia.pdf
[52] http:/ / catnyp.nypl. org/record=b2516189
[53] Mosco Carner, Puccini, 1974; Howard Taubman, Toscanini, 1951; quoted in Norman Lebrecht, The Book of Musical Anecdotes
Notes
•• Seraphim recordings/liner notes
•• Arturo Toscanini Society recordings
•• RCA home videos
Further reading
• Antek, Samuel (author) and Hupka, Robert (photographs), This Was Toscanini, New York: Vanguard Press, 1963
(Essays by an NBC Symphony musician who played under Toscanini; also includes rehearsal photographs from
the latter part of Toscanini's career.)
• Frank, Mortimer H., Arturo Toscanini: The NBC Years, New York: Amadeus Press, 2002. (Complete list and
analysis of Toscanini's NBC Symphony performances and recordings.)
• Haggin, B. H., Arturo Toscanini: Contemporary Recollections of the Maestro, New York: Da Capo Press, 1989
(A reprint of Conversations with Toscanini and The Toscanini Musicians Knew.)
• Horowitz, Joseph, Understanding Toscanini, New York: Knopf, 1987 (contains inaccuracies corrected by Sachs
in Reflections on Toscanini and Frank in Arturo Toscanini: The NBC Years)
• Marek, George R., Toscanini, New York: Atheneum, 1975. ISBN 0-689-10655-6 (contains inaccuracies corrected
by Sachs in Toscanini)
• Marsh, R. C. Toscanini on Records – Part I: High Fidelity Magazine vol 4,1954, pp. 55–58
• Marsh Part II: vol 4,1955, pp. 75–81
• Marsh Part III: vol 4,1955, pp. 83–91
• Matthews, Denis, Arturo Toscanini. New York: Hippocrene, 1982. ISBN 0-88254-657-0 (includes discography)
• Meyer, Donald Carl, The NBC Symphony Orchestra. UMI Dissertation Services, 1994.
• O'Connell, Charles, The Other Side of the Record. New York: A. A. Knopf, 1947.
• Sachs, Harvey, Toscanini, New York: Prima Publishing, 1995. (Reprint of standard and best biography originally
published 1978.)
• Harvey Sachs, Reflections on Toscanini, New York: Prima Publishing, 1993. (Series of essays on various aspects
of Toscanini's life and impact.)
• Harvey Sachs, ed., The Letters of Arturo Toscanini, New York: Knopf, 2003.
• Howard Taubman, The Maestro: The Life of Arturo Toscanini, New York: Simon & Schuster, 1951 (contains
inaccuracies corrected by Sachs in Toscanini)
• Teachout, Terry, Toscanini Lives, Commentary Magazine, July/August 2002
External links
• Arturo Toscanini official website (http:// www.toscaninionline. com)
• Arturo Toscanini (http:/ / www. allmusic.com/ artist/ q57138) at Allmusic
• Toscanini and the History of the NBC Symphony plus Live WWII broadcast (http:/ / www. classicalrecordings.
org/ znbc/ index. html)
• NPR special (http:/ / www. npr. org/templates/ story/ story.php?storyId=6427815) on the selection of the 1938
radio broadcast of Toscanini conducting the NBC Orchestra to the 2005 National Recording Registry
Asylum Days
38
Asylum Days
Asylum Days
Directed by Thomas Elliott
Produced by Joy Czerwonky
Jennifer Daly
Thomas Elliott
Written by Llywelyn Jones
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Music by
Jann Castor
[1]
Cinematography Brian Baugh
Running time 100 mins.
Country United States
Language English
Asylum Days is a 2001 thriller film directed by Thomas Elliott.
Plot
After losing her parents in the age of five in a car accident, Laurie Cardell is sent to an orphanage where she stays for
two years, until a fire burn down the place. Years later, she becomes a famous Hollywood actress, but traumatized
and haunted by her past. When the small time criminal Nathan (C. Thomas Howell) is released after spending most
of his life in prison, he goes to the house of his brother Daniel, a young man that works in a rental and worships
Laurie. Daniel has researched the entire life of Laurie and written a screenplay with her biography. Nathan decides to
please his younger brother and asks Laurie to read the script. She refuses and he kills her manager and friend and
abducts her. Nathan locks Laurie in the trunk of his car, and calls his brother to go to Saint Claire orphanage to shoot
the movie. Once in the destroyed spot, secrets from the past are disclosed.
Cast
•• C. Thomas Howell
•• Charlie Weirauch
•• Jason Widener
•• Deborah Zoe
•• Roark Critchlow
•• Michael Crider
•• Kristina Malota
•• Delaney Niehoff
Asylum Days
39
External links
• Asylum Days
[2]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Asylum Days
[3]
at AllRovi
References
[1] http:/ / www.composing. com
[2] http:// www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0285440/
[3] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v303579
Baby Face Nelson
Lester Joseph Gillis (December 6, 1908
[1]
– November 27, 1934), known under the pseudonym George Nelson,
was a bank robber and murderer in the 1930s. Gillis was better known as Baby Face Nelson, a name given to him
due to his youthful appearance and small stature. Usually referred to by criminal associates as "Jimmy",
[2]
Nelson
entered into a partnership with John Dillinger, helping him escape from prison in the famed Crown Point, Indiana
Jail escape, and was later labeled along with the remaining gang members as public enemy number one.
Nelson was responsible for the murder of several people, and has the dubious distinction of having killed more FBI
agents in the line of duty than any other person.
[3]
Nelson was shot by FBI agents and died after a shootout often
termed "The Battle of Barrington".
Early life
On July 4, 1921, at the age of twelve, Nelson was arrested after accidentally shooting a fellow child in the jaw with a
pistol he had found. He served over a year in the state reformatory.
[4]
Arrested again for theft and joyriding at age 13,
he was sent to a penal school for an additional 18 months.
[5]
By 1928, Nelson was working at a Standard Oil station in his neighborhood that was the headquarters of young tire
thieves, known as "strippers". After falling in with them, Nelson became acquainted with many local criminals,
including one who gave him a job driving bootleg alcohol throughout the Chicago suburbs. It was through this job
that Nelson became associated with members of the suburban-based Touhy Gang (not the Capone mob, as usually
reported).
[6]
Within two years, Nelson and his gang had graduated to armed robbery. On January 6, 1930, they
invaded the home of magazine executive Charles M. Richter. After trussing him up with adhesive tape and cutting
the phone lines, they ransacked the house and made off with $25,000 worth of jewelry. Two months later, they
carried out a similar theft in the Sheridan Road bungalow of Lottie Brenner Von Buelow. This job netted $50,000 in
jewels, including the wedding ring of the bank's owner. Chicago newspapers nicknamed them "The Tape Bandits."
[7]
On April 21, 1930, Nelson robbed his first bank, making off with $4,000. A month later, Nelson and his gang pulled
their home invasion scheme again, netting $25,000 worth of jewels. On October 3 of that year, Nelson hit the Itasca
State Bank for $4,600; a teller later identified Nelson as one of the robbers. Three nights later, Nelson stole the
jewelry of the wife of Chicago mayor Big Bill Thompson, valued at $18,000. She later described her attacker this
way, "He had a baby face. He was good looking, hardly more than a boy, had dark hair and was wearing a gray
topcoat and a brown felt hat, turned down brim."
[8]
Years later, Nelson and his crew were linked to a botched
roadhouse robbery in Summit, Illinois on November 23, 1930 that resulted in gunplay that left three people dead and
three others wounded. Three nights later, the Tape Bandits hit a Waukegan Road tavern, and Nelson ended up
committing his first murder of note, when he killed stockbroker Edwin R. Thompson.
[9]
Baby Face Nelson
40
Going west
Throughout the winter of 1931, most of the Tape Bandits were rounded up, including Nelson. The Chicago Tribune
referred to their leader as "George 'Baby Face' Nelson" who received a sentence of one year to life in the state
penitentiary at Joliet. In February 1932, Nelson escaped during a prison transfer. Through his contacts in the Touhy
Gang, Nelson fled west and took shelter with Reno gambler/crime boss William Graham. Using the alias of "Jimmy
Johnson", Nelson wound up in Sausalito, California, working for bootlegger Joe Parente. During these San Francisco
Bay area criminal ventures, Nelson most probably first met John Paul Chase and Fatso Negri, two men who were at
his side during the later half of his career.
[9]
While in Reno the next winter, Nelson first met the vacationing Alvin
Karpis, who in turn introduced him to Midwestern bank robber Eddie Bentz. Teaming with Bentz, Nelson returned
to the Midwest the next summer and committed his first major bank robbery in Grand Haven, Michigan on August
18, 1933. The robbery was a near-disaster, even though most of those involved made a clean getaway.
[10]
Gang leader
The Grand Haven bank job apparently convinced Nelson he was ready to lead his own gang. Through connections in
St. Paul's Green Lantern Tavern, Nelson recruited Homer Van Meter, Tommy Carroll, and Eddie Green. With these
men (and two other local thieves), Nelson robbed the First National Bank of Brainerd, Minnesota of $32,000 on
October 23, 1933. Witnesses reported that Nelson wildly sprayed sub-machine gun bullets at bystanders as he made
his getaway.
[11]
After collecting his wife Helen and four-year old son Ronald, Nelson left with his crew for San
Antonio, Texas. While here, Nelson and his gang bought several weapons from underworld gunsmith Hyman
Lebman. One of those weapons was a .38 Colt automatic pistol that had been modified to fire fully automatic
(Nelson used this same gun to murder Special Agent W. Carter Baum at Little Bohemia Lodge several months
later).
[12]
By December 9, a local woman tipped San Antonio police to the nearby presence of "high powered Northern
gangsters". Two days later, Tommy Carroll was cornered by two detectives and opened fire, killing Detective H.C.
Perrin and wounding Detective Al Hartman. All the Nelson gang, except for Nelson, fled San Antonio. Nelson and
his wife traveled west to the San Francisco Bay Area, where he recruited John Paul Chase and Fatso Negri for a new
wave of bank robberies in the coming spring.
[13]
Partnership with John Dillinger
On March 3, 1934, John Dillinger made his famous "wooden pistol" escape from the jail in Crown Point, Indiana.
Although the details remain in some dispute, the escape is suspected to have been arranged and financed by members
of Nelson's newly-formed gang, including Homer Van Meter, Tommy Carroll, Eddie Green, and John "Red"
Hamilton, with the understanding that Dillinger would repay some part of the bribe money out of his share of the
first robbery. The night Dillinger arrived in the Twin Cities, Nelson and his friend John Paul Chase were driving
when they were cut off by a car driven by a local paint salesman named Theodore Kidder. Nelson lost his temper and
gave chase, crowding Kidder to the curb. When the salesman got out to protest, Nelson fatally shot him.
[14]
Two days after this, the new gang (with Hamilton's participation as the sixth man uncertain) struck the Security
National Bank at Sioux Falls, South Dakota. In the robbery, which netted around $49,000 (figures differ slightly),
Nelson severely wounded motorcycle policeman Hale Keith with a burst of sub-machine-gun fire as the officer was
arriving at the scene.
[15][16]
The six men would soon be identified as "the second Dillinger gang", due to Dillinger's extreme notoriety, but the
gang had no leader.
[17]
On March 13, the gang struck again at the First National Bank in Mason City, Iowa. Dillinger
and Hamilton both were shot and wounded in the robbery, where they made away with $52,000.
[18]
On April 3,
federal agents ambushed and killed Eddie Green, though he was unarmed and they were uncertain of his identity.
[19]
In the aftermath of the Mason City robbery, Nelson and John Paul Chase fled west to Reno, where their old bosses
Baby Face Nelson
41
Bill Graham and Jim McKay were fighting a federal mail fraud case. Years later, the FBI determined that, on March
22, 1934, Nelson and Chase abducted the chief witness against the pair, Roy Fritsch, and killed him. Fritsch's
quartered body, while never found, was said to have been thrown down an abandoned mine shaft.
[20]
Little Bohemia
On the afternoon of April 20, Nelson, Dillinger, Van Meter, Carroll, Hamilton, and gang associate (errand-runner)
Pat Reilly, accompanied by Nelson's wife Helen and three girlfriends of the other men, arrived at the secluded Little
Bohemia Lodge in Manitowish Waters, Wisconsin, for a weekend of rest. The gang's connection to the resort
apparently came from the past dealings between Dillinger's attorney, Louis Piquett, and lodge owner Emil Wanatka.
Though gang members greeted him by name, Wanatka maintained that he was unaware of their identities until some
time on Friday night. According to Bryan Burrough's book Public Enemies: America's Greatest Crime Wave and the
Birth of the FBI, 1933–34, this most likely happened when Wanatka was playing cards with Dillinger, Nelson, and
Hamilton. When Dillinger won a round and raked in the pot, Wanatka caught a glimpse of Dillinger's pistol
concealed in his coat, and noticed that Nelson and the others also had shoulder holsters.
The following day, while she was away from the lodge with her young son at a children's birthday party, Wanatka's
wife informed a friend, Henry Voss, that the Dillinger gang was at the lodge, and the F.B.I. was subsequently given
the tip early on April 22. Melvin Purvis and a number of agents arrived by plane from Chicago, and with the gang's
departure imminent, attacked the lodge quickly and with little preparation, and without notifying or obtaining help
from local authorities.
Wanatka offered a one-dollar dinner special on Sunday nights, and the last of a crowd estimated at 75 were leaving
as the agents arrived in the front driveway. A 1933 Chevrolet coupé was leaving at that moment with three departing
lodge customers, John Hoffman, Eugene Boisneau and John Morris, who apparently did not hear an order to halt
because the car radio drowned out the agents yelling at them to stop. The agents quickly opened fire on them,
instantly killing Boisneau and wounding the others, and alerting the gang members inside.
Adding to the chaos, at this moment Pat Reilly returned to the lodge after an out-of-town errand for Van Meter,
accompanied by one of the gang's girlfriends, Pat Cherrington. Accosted by the agents, Reilly and Cherrington
backed out and escaped under fire, after a number of misfortunes.
Dillinger, Van Meter, Hamilton, and Carroll immediately escaped through the back of the lodge, which was
unguarded, and made their way north on foot through woods and past a lake to commandeer a car and a driver at a
resort a mile away. Carroll was not far behind them. He made it to Manitowish and stole a car, making it
uneventfully to St. Paul.
Nelson, who had been outside the lodge in the adjacent cabin (he supposedly was irked that Dillinger got a better
room), characteristically attacked the raiding party head on, exchanging fire with Purvis, before retreating into the
lodge under a return volley from other agents. From there he slipped out the back and fled in the opposite direction
from the others. Emerging from the woods ninety minutes later, a mile away from Little Bohemia, Nelson kidnapped
the Lange couple from their home and ordered them to drive him away. Apparently dissatisfied with the car's speed,
he quickly ordered them to pull up at a brightly lit house where the switchboard operator, Alvin Koerner, aware of
the ongoing events, quickly phoned authorities at one of the involved lodges to report a suspicious vehicle in front of
his home. Shortly after Nelson had entered the home, taking the Koerners hostage, Emil Wanatka arrived with his
brother-in-law George LaPorte and a lodge employee (while a fourth man remained in the car) and were also taken
prisoner. Nelson ordered Koerner and Wanatka back into their vehicle, where the fourth man remained unnoticed in
the back seat.
As they were preparing to leave, with Wanatka driving at gunpoint, another car arrived with two federal agents – W.
Carter Baum and Jay Newman, and a local constable, Carl Christensen. Nelson quickly took them by surprise at
gunpoint and ordered them out of their car. As Newman, the driver was getting out, Nelson, apparently detecting a
suspicious movement, opened fire with a custom-converted machine gun pistol, severely wounding Christensen and
Baby Face Nelson
42
Newman and killing Baum, shot three times in the neck. Nelson was later quoted as having said that Baum had him
"cold" and couldn't understand why he hadn't fired. It was found that the safety catch on Baum's gun was on.
Nelson then stole the FBI car. Less than 15 miles away, the car suffered a flat tire and finally became mired in mud
as Nelson attempted unsuccessfully to change it. Back on foot, he wandered into the woods and took up residence
with a Chippewa family in their secluded cabin for several days before making his final escape in another
commandeered vehicle.
[21][22]
Three of the women who had accompanied the gang, including Nelson's wife Helen Gillis, were captured inside the
lodge. After grueling interrogation by the F.B.I., the three were ultimately convicted on harboring charges and
released on parole.
[23]
With an agent and an innocent bystander dead, and four more severely wounded, including two more innocent
bystanders, and the complete escape of the Dillinger gang, the F.B.I came under severe criticism, with calls for J.
Edgar Hoover's resignation and a widely circulated petition demanding Purvis' suspension.
[24]
Nelson as public enemy #1
At the time of the Little Bohemia shootout, Nelson's identity as a member of the Dillinger gang had been known to
the F.B.I. for only two weeks. Following the killing of Baum, Nelson became nationally notorious and was made a
high-priority target of the Bureau. The focus on him and the murdered agent also served to deflect some of the
intense criticism directed at Hoover and Purvis following the Little Bohemia debacle.
[25]
A day after the Little Bohemia raid, Dillinger, Hamilton, and Van Meter ran through a police road block near
Hastings, Minnesota, drawing fire from officers there. A ricocheting bullet struck Hamilton in the back, fatally
wounding him.
[26][27]
Hamilton reportedly died in hiding on April 30 or May 1, 1934, and was secretly buried by
Dillinger and others including Nelson, who had rejoined the gang in Aurora, Illinois.
[28]
On June 7, gang member Tommy Carroll was killed when trying to escape arrest in Waterloo, Iowa. Carroll and his
girlfriend Jean Crompton (who had been captured and tried with Helen Gillis after Little Bohemia) had grown close
to the Nelsons, and his death was a personal blow to them. The couple went into hiding during the ensuing weeks,
and although they were in the Chicago area, their precise movements in this period remain obscure. The Nelsons
reportedly lived in various tourist camps, while continuing to secretly meet with family members whenever
possible.
[29]
On June 27, former gang errand-runner and Little Bohemia fugitive Pat Reilly was surrounded as he slept and was
captured alive in St. Paul, Minnesota.
[30]
On the morning of June 30, Nelson, Dillinger, Van Meter, and one or more additional accomplices robbed the
Merchants National Bank in South Bend, Indiana. One man involved in the robbery is believed to have possibly been
Pretty Boy Floyd, based on several eyewitness identifications as well as the later account of Joseph "Fatso" Negri, an
old Nelson associate from California who was serving as a gofer to the gang at this time.
[31]
Another rumored
participant was Nelson's childhood friend Jack Perkins, also an associate of the gang at that time. (Perkins would
later be tried for the robbery and acquitted).
[32]
When the robbery began, a policeman named Howard Wagner had been directing traffic outside; responding quickly
to the scene and attempting to draw his gun, he was shot dead by Van Meter, who was stationed outside the bank.
Also outside the bank, Nelson exchanged fire with a local jeweler, Harry Berg, who had shot him in the chest -
ineffectively, because of Nelson's bullet-proof vest. As Berg retreated into his store under a return volley from
Nelson, a man in a parked car was wounded. Nelson also grappled briefly with a teenage boy, Joseph Pawlowski,
who tackled him until Nelson (or Van Meter) stunned Powlowski with a blow from his gun. When Dillinger and the
man identified as Floyd (not confirmed) emerged from the bank with sacks containing $28,000, they brought three
hostages with them (including the bank president) to deter gunfire from three patrolmen on the scene. The policemen
fired nonetheless, wounding two of the hostages before grazing Van Meter in the head. The gang escaped, and Van
Baby Face Nelson
43
Meter recovered. In the constant and chaotic exchange of gunfire, several other bystanders were wounded by shots,
ricochets, or flying broken glass. It proved to be the last confirmed robbery for all of the known and suspected
participants, including Floyd (unknown).
[33][34]
During the month of July, as the FBI manhunt for him continued, Nelson and his wife fled to California with
associate John Paul Chase, who would remain with Nelson for the rest of his life. Upon their return to Chicago on
July 15, the gang held a reunion meeting at a favorite rendezvous site. When the meeting was interrupted by two
Illinois state troopers, Fred McAllister and Gilbert Cross, Nelson fired on their vehicle with his converted "machine
gun pistol", wounding both men as the gangsters retreated. Cross was badly injured, but both men survived. Nelson's
responsibility was uncertain until verification came later in the form of a confession from Chase.
[35]
On July 22, 1934, Dillinger was ambushed and killed by FBI agents outside the Biograph Theater in Lincoln Park,
Chicago. The next day the FBI announced that "Pretty Boy" Floyd was now Public Enemy No. 1. On October 22,
1934, Floyd was killed in a shootout with agents including Melvin Purvis. Subsequently, J. Edgar Hoover announced
that "Baby Face" Nelson was now Public Enemy No. 1.
[36]
On August 23, Van Meter was ambushed and killed by police in St. Paul, Minnesota, leaving Nelson as the sole
survivor of the so-called "Second Dillinger Gang".
In the ensuing months, Nelson and his wife, usually accompanied by Chase, drifted west to cities including
Sacramento and San Francisco, California and Reno and Las Vegas, Nevada. They often stayed in auto camps,
including Walley's Hot Springs, outside of Genoa, Nevada, where they hid out from October 1
[37]
before returning to
Chicago around November 1.
[38]
Nelson's movements during the final month of his life are largely unknown.
By the end of the month, FBI interest had settled on a former hideout of Nelson's, the Lake Como Inn in Lake
Geneva, Wisconsin, where it was believed that Nelson might return for the winter. When the Nelsons and Chase did
return to the inn on November 27, they briefly came face to face with surprised and unprepared FBI agents who had
staked it out. The fugitives sped away before any shots were fired. Armed with a description of the car (a black Ford
V8) and its license plate number (639-578), agents swarmed into the area.
[39]
Death
A plaque at the Barrington Park District in
Barrington, Illinois commemorates the site of the
Battle of Barrington, a 1934 shootout that
claimed the lives of two FBI agents and resulted
in the death of notorious Chicago gangster Baby
Face Nelson.
A short but furious gun battle
[40]
between FBI agents and Nelson took
place on November 27, 1934 outside Chicago, in the town of
Barrington resulting in the deaths of Nelson and FBI Special Agents
Herman "Ed" Hollis
[41]
and Samuel P. Cowley.
[42][43]
The Barrington gun battle erupted as Nelson, with Helen Gillis and
John Paul Chase as passengers, drove a stolen V8 Ford south towards
Chicago on State Highway 14. Nelson, always keen to spot G-Men,
caught sight of a sedan driven in the opposite direction by FBI agents
Thomas McDade and William Ryan. Nelson hated police and federal
agents and used a list of license plates he had compiled to hunt them at
every opportunity. The agents and the outlaw simultaneously
recognized each other and after several U-turns by both vehicles,
Nelson wound up in pursuit of the agents's car. Nelson and Chase fired
at the agents and shattered their car's windshield. After swerving to
avoid an oncoming milk truck, Ryan and McDade skidded into a field
and anxiously awaited Nelson and Chase who had stopped pursuing. The agents did not know that a shot fired by
Ryan had punctured the radiator of Nelson's Ford or that the Ford was being pursued by a Hudson automobile driven
by two more agents: Herman Hollis (who was alleged to have delivered the fatal shot to a wounded Pretty Boy Floyd
a month earlier
[44]
) and Cowley. As a result, Ryan and McDade were oblivious to the events that happened next.
Baby Face Nelson
44
With his vehicle losing power and his pursuers attempting to pull alongside, Nelson swerved into the entrance of
Barrington's North Side Park and stopped opposite three gas stations. Hollis and Cowley overshot them by over 100
feet ( m), stopped at an angle, exited their vehicle's passenger door, under heavy gun fire from Nelson and Chase and
took cover behind the car. The ensuing shootout was witnessed by more than 30 people.
Nelson's wife, fleeing into an open field under instructions from Nelson, turned briefly in time to see Nelson
mortally wounded. He grasped his side and sat down on the running board as Chase continued to fire from behind
their car. Nelson, advancing toward the agents, fired so rapidly with a .351 rifle that bystanders mistook it for a
machine gun. Six bullets from Cowley's submachine gun eventually struck Nelson in the chest and stomach before
Nelson mortally wounded Cowley with bullets to the chest and stomach, while pellets from Hollis's shotgun struck
Nelson in the legs and knocked him down. As Nelson regained his feet, Hollis, possibly already wounded, moved to
better cover behind a utility pole while drawing his pistol but was killed by a bullet to the head before he could
return fire. Nelson stood over Hollis's body for a moment, then limped toward the agents's car. Nelson was too badly
wounded to drive, so Chase got behind the wheel and the two men and Nelson's wife fled the scene. Nelson had been
shot seventeen times; seven of Cowley's bullets had struck his torso and ten of Hollis's shotgun pellets had hit his
legs.
[45]
After telling his wife "I'm done for", Nelson gave directions as Chase drove them to a safe house on Walnut
Street in Wilmette. Nelson died in bed with his wife at his side, at 7:35 p.m.
[46]
Hollis was severely wounded in the head and was declared dead soon after arriving at the hospital. At a different
hospital, Cowley lived for long enough to confer briefly with Melvin Purvis and have surgery, before succumbing to
a stomach wound similar to Nelson's. Following an anonymous telephone tip, Nelson's body was discovered
wrapped in a blanket,
[47]
in front of St. Peter Catholic Cemetery, in Skokie which still exists. Helen Gillis later stated
that she had placed the blanket around Nelson's body because, "He always hated being cold..."
Newspapers then reported, based on the questionable wording of an order from J. Edgar Hoover ("...find the woman
and give her no quarter"), that the FBI had issued a "death order" for Nelson's widow, who wandered the streets of
Chicago as a fugitive for several days, described in print as America's first female "public enemy".
[48][49]
After
surrendering on Thanksgiving Day, Helen Gillis, who had been paroled after capture at Little Bohemia, served a year
in prison for harboring her husband. Chase was apprehended later and served a term at Alcatraz.
[50]
Burial
Gillis and Nelson are buried at Saint Joseph's Cemetery in River Grove, Illinois.
[51]
Personality
Nelson was the antithesis of popular, Robin Hood-like gangsters of the Depression era, which included Dillinger. A
hot-tempered man, Nelson did not hesitate to kill lawmen and innocent bystanders alike. For example, in the March
6, 1934 robbery of the Security National Bank & Trust Company in Sioux Falls, Nelson was enraged by the sound of
the alarm, demanding to know who set the alarm off, setting him apart from Dillinger and Van Meter, who continued
working to the alarm as if it hadn't gone off. Upon seeing a police officer, Hale Keith, pull up on a motorcycle
alongside the bank, Nelson leaped onto a railing and fired a deafening burst through a plate glass window, striking
Keith four times and severely wounding him. He reportedly screamed "I got one!" after shooting Keith.
One of the high profile outlaws of that era, Nelson and Clyde Barrow were accused of killing more than 50 police
officers between them.
[52]
Paradoxically, Nelson was also a devoted family man who often had his wife and children
with him while running from the law. After Dillinger's death in July 1934, Nelson became Public Enemy Number
One.
[53]
Baby Face Nelson
45
In popular culture
Nelson has been portrayed in multiple films. These include:
• Baby Face Nelson, a 1957 film starring Mickey Rooney
• The FBI Story, a 1959 film starring James Stewart
• Dillinger, a 1973 film featuring Richard Dreyfuss as Nelson
• Baby Face Nelson, a 1995 film starring C. Thomas Howell
• O Brother, Where Art Thou?, a 2000 film featuring Michael Badalucco as Nelson. In this film Nelson is depicted
as being bipolar. When he last appears he is being taken by an angry mob to meet his death in the electric chair.
The film is set in 1937, three years after the real Nelson's death.
• Public Enemies, a 2009 film starring American actor Johnny Depp, with Stephen Graham as Nelson. In this film,
Nelson is portrayed as being killed by Melvin Purvis at the Little Bohemia shootout, and thus does not become
Public Enemy Number One after Dillinger's death. However, the film still portrays Nelson as getting up and
continuing to fire immediately after being shot several times.
References
[1] Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House. pp. 13–14. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[2] Bryan Burrough. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pg.98 ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
[3] Voorhees, Donal (May 3, 2001). The Indispensable Book of Useless Information: Just When You Thought It Couldn't Get Any More
Useless--It Does. Penguin. p. 221. ISBN 0-399-53668-X.
[4] [4] Burrough, p. 99.
[5] "Nelson Arrested as Thief When 13." (http://select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
html?res=F20C16FA395C147A93CBAB178AD95F408385F9) New York Times. November 29, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[6] [6] Burrough, p. 101.
[7] [7] Burrough, pp. 101-2.
[8] [8] Burrough, pp. 102-3.
[9] [9] Burrough, pp. 104-5.
[10] [10] Burrough, pp. 105-6.
[11] [11] Burrough, pp. 175-76.
[12] [12] Burrough, pp. 176, 319.
[13] [13] Burrough, pp. 175-78.
[14] [14] Burrough, pp. 243-4.
[15] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 150–167. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[16] Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pp. 234–247, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
[17] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 169. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[18] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 170–79. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[19] Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press, pp. 274–278, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
[20] [20] Burrough, p. 259.
[21] Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 207–230. ISBN
978-0-924772-06-1.
[22] Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 203–255.
ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[23] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 236–237, 250–251, 263–264. ISBN
1-58182-272-3.
[24] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 239–246. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[25] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 240. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[26] Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 207-230. ISBN
978-0-924772-06-1.
[27] [27] Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 222. ISBN
1-58182-272-3.
[28] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing. p. 256. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[29] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 272–273. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[30] Cromie, Ronert; and Pinkston, Joseph. (1962) Dillinger: A Short And Violent Life. Chicago Historical Bookworks, pp. 245–246. ISBN
978-0-924772-06-1.
[31] Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. pp. 382-383 ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
Baby Face Nelson
46
[32] Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. p. 383, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
[33] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 289–302. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[34] Burrough, Bryan. (2004) Public Enemies. The Penguin Press. pp. 384-387, ISBN 1-59420-021-1.
[35] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 305–306. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[36] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 308–309. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[37] [37] Burrough, p. 453
[38] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 311–338. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[39] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House Publishing, pp. 334–342. ISBN 1-58182-272-3.
[40] Nickel, Steven; William J. Helmer (2002). Baby Face Nelson: Portrait of a Public Enemy (http:// books.google. com/
books?id=JKqF1U7VvpsC& q=Barrington#search_anchor). Cumberland House Publishing. pp. 341–360. ISBN 1-58182-272-3. .
[41] Special Agent Herman E. Hollis. (http:// www. odmp. org/officer/6641-special-agent-herman-e.-hollis) Officer Down Memorial Page.
Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[42] Inspector Samuel P. Cowley. (http:/ / www. odmp. org/ officer/3534-special-agent-samuel-p.-cowley) Officer Down Memorial Page.
Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[43] "CRACK AGENT TAKES CHARGE.; Washington Orders H.H. Clegg to Direct Nelson Chase." (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
html?res=F50A1EF93B5A107A93CAAB178AD95F408385F9) New York Times. November 28, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[44] "Blasting a G-Man Myth" (http:/ / www.time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,947394,00.html). Time Magazine. September 24, 1979.
. Retrieved August 9, 2008.
[45] [45] Burrough, pp. 479-80.
[46] [46] Burrough, p. 482.
[47] "Wife Lying in Ditch Saw Nelson Shot." (http:// select. nytimes. com/gst/ abstract.
html?res=FA0710FB3558177A93C4A91789D95F408385F9) New York Times. December 6, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[48] [48] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J., Baby Face Nelson, Cumberland House, 2002, p.364
[49] "'Kill Widow Of Baby Face!', U.S. Orders Gang Hunters". Chicago Herald-Examiner. November 30, 1934.
[50] Nickel, Steven, and Helmer, William J. Baby Face Nelson. Cumberland House, 2002, pp. 343–363.
[51] "Baby Face Nelson" (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr&GRid=8200914). Find a Grave. . Retrieved October 22,
2010.
[52] Burrough, Bryan. "How the Feds Got Their Men." (http:/ / query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9E07E4D61E3CF937A25756C0A9629C8B63) New York Times. May 14, 2004. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
[53] "Nelson Now Takes Place Of 'Public Enemy No. 1'." (http:/ / select. nytimes. com/ gst/ abstract.
html?res=FB0C17F9395B107A93C1AB178BD95F408385F9) New York Times. October 23, 1934. Retrieved June 12, 2008.
External links
• FBI famous cases (http:/ / www. fbi.gov/ libref/historic/famcases/ babyface/ babyface.htm) (public domain
text)
• Crime Library biography (http:// www. trutv.com/ library/crime/ gangsters_outlaws/ outlaws/ nelson/ 1.html)
• Baby Face Nelson (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/ fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=8200914) at Find a Grave
Back to the Future
47
Back to the Future
Back to the Future
Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan
Directed by Robert Zemeckis
Produced by Neil Canton
Bob Gale
Written by •• Robert Zemeckis
•• Bob Gale
Starring Michael J. Fox
Christopher Lloyd
Lea Thompson
Crispin Glover
Music by Alan Silvestri
Cinematography Dean Cundey
Editing by •• Harry Keramidas
•• Arthur Schmidt
Studio(s) Amblin Entertainment
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) •• July 3, 1985
Running time 116 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $19 million
Box office
$383,874,862
[1]
Back to the Future is a 1985 American science fiction adventure comedy film. It was directed by Robert Zemeckis,
written by Zemeckis and Bob Gale, produced by Steven Spielberg, and stars Michael J. Fox, Christopher Lloyd, Lea
Thompson, Crispin Glover and Thomas F. Wilson. The film tells the story of Marty McFly, a teenager who is
accidentally sent back in time from 1985 to 1955. He meets his future-parents in high school and accidentally attracts
his future mother's romantic interest. Marty must repair the damage to history by causing his parents-to-be to fall in
love, and with the help of scientist Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown, he must find a way to return to 1985.
Zemeckis and Gale wrote the script after Gale mused upon whether he would have befriended his father if they
attended school together. Various film studios rejected the script until the financial success of Zemeckis' Romancing
the Stone. Zemeckis approached Spielberg and the project was planned to be financed and released through
Universal Pictures. Eric Stoltz was originally cast as Marty McFly when Michael J. Fox was busy filming the TV
series Family Ties. However, during filming, Stoltz and the filmmakers decided that he was miscast, so Fox was
approached again and he managed to work out a timetable in which he could give enough time and commitment to
both.
Back to the Future was released on July 3, 1985 and became the most successful film of the year, grossing more than
$383 million worldwide and receiving critical acclaim. It won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation and
the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film, as well as an Academy Award, and Golden Globe nominations
among others. Ronald Reagan even quoted the film in his 1986 State of the Union Address.
[2][3]
In 2007, the Library
of Congress selected it for preservation in the National Film Registry, and in June 2008 the American Film Institute's
Back to the Future
48
special AFI's 10 Top 10 designated the film as the 10th-best film in the science fiction genre. The film marked the
beginning of a franchise, with sequels Back to the Future Parts II and III released in 1989 and 1990, as well as an
animated series, theme park ride and several video games.
Plot
Seventeen-year-old Marty McFly lives with his bleak, unambitious family in Hill Valley, California. His father,
George McFly, is bullied by his supervisor, Biff Tannen, while his unhappy mother, Lorraine Baines McFly, is an
alcoholic. Marty's underachieving older siblings, Dave and Linda, also live in the household. When Marty and his
band audition to perform at the high school dance, they are rejected. Despite this setback, Marty's girlfriend,
Jennifer, encourages him to pursue the dream of being a rock musician. At dinner that night, Lorraine recounts how
she and George first fell in love when her father hit George with his car.
The house used as the McFly residence in the
Back to the Future trilogy
Marty meets his friend, scientist Dr. Emmett "Doc" Brown, late at
night in the parking lot of a deserted shopping mall where Doc reveals
a time machine made from a modified 1981 DeLorean DMC-12; the
vehicle's time displacement is powered by plutonium, which supplies
the 1.21 gigawatts of power to a device he calls the "flux capacitor."
Doc explains that the car travels to a programmed date upon reaching
88 miles per hour, using the date November 5, 1955, as an example
destination. Before Doc can make his first trip, the Libyan terrorists
from whom he stole the plutonium shoot him. Marty attempts to escape
in the DeLorean and inadvertently activates the time machine. He is transported back to November 5, 1955, and
finds himself without the plutonium needed for the return trip.
While exploring the 1955 version of Hill Valley, Marty meets his teenaged father, who is being bullied by Biff. As
George is about to be hit by Lorraine's father's car, Marty pushes him out of the way and is knocked out by the
impact. Consequently, a teenaged Lorraine becomes infatuated with Marty instead of George. Marty is disturbed by
her flirtations and leaves to find the younger Doc of 1955. Marty convinces Doc that he is from the future, and asks
for help returning to 1985. Doc explains that the only available power source capable of generating 1.21 gigawatts of
energy is a bolt of lightning. Discovering the "Save the Clock Tower" flyer that Marty received in 1985, indicating
that lightning will strike the courthouse clock tower the following Saturday at 10:04 pm, Doc makes plans to harness
the lightning strike to power the DeLorean's flux capacitor. When they observe a fading photograph of Marty with
his siblings, they realize Marty has prevented his parents from meeting, jeopardizing his family's existence.
Marty attempts to set George up with Lorraine. To make his parents fall in love, Marty plans to have George
"rescue" Lorraine from Marty's inappropriate advances on the night of the school dance. A drunk Biff unexpectedly
shows up, pulls Marty from the car, and attempts to force himself on Lorraine. George arrives to rescue her from
Marty, but instead finds Biff, who humiliates George and pushes Lorraine to the ground. Standing up to him for the
first time, George knocks Biff out. A smitten Lorraine follows George to the dance floor, where they kiss for the first
time, ensuring Marty's existence.
Marty arrives at the clock tower where Doc is making final preparations for the lightning strike, and tries to warn
Doc of his impending 1985 murder in a letter, but Doc tears it up, fearing it will lead to altering the future. A falling
tree branch disconnects Doc's wiring setup, but Doc repairs the connections in time to send Marty and the DeLorean
back to 1985. Although Marty arrives too late to prevent him from being shot, Doc is still alive and admits to reading
the letter anyway and wearing a bulletproof vest.
Doc drops Marty off at home and uses the time machine to travel 30 years into the future. Marty awakens the next
morning to find his family changed; Lorraine is happy and physically fit, a self-confident George is a successful
science fiction author, Dave is an office employee, and Linda no longer has trouble finding boyfriends. George and
Back to the Future
49
Lorraine now have a closer relationship than ever, while Biff has become an auto detailer/washer who is on good
terms with the McFly family. As Marty reunites with Jennifer, Doc arrives, insisting they accompany him to the
future to sort out a problem with their future children. Marty and Jennifer enter the upgraded DeLorean, now a
hovercar powered by nuclear fusion, and Doc flies the time machine into the future.
Development
Writing
Writer and producer Bob Gale conceived the idea after he visited his parents in St. Louis, Missouri after the release
of Used Cars. Searching their basement, Gale found his father's high school yearbook and discovered he was
president of his graduating class. Gale thought about the president of his own graduating class, who was someone he
had nothing to do with.
[4]
Gale wondered whether he would have been friends with his father if they went to high
school together. When he returned to California, he told Robert Zemeckis his new concept.
[5]
Zemeckis subsequently
thought of a mother claiming she never kissed a boy at school, when in reality she was highly promiscuous.
[6]
The
two took the project to Columbia Pictures, and made a development deal for a script in September 1980.
[5]
Zemeckis and Gale set the story in 1955 because, they claimed, mathematically, a 17-year-old traveling to meet his
parents at the same age meant traveling to that decade. The era also marked the rise of teenagers as an important
cultural element, the birth of rock n' roll, and suburb expansion, which would flavor the story.
[7]
Originally the time
machine was a refrigerator and its user needed to use the power of an atomic explosion at the Nevada Test Site to
return home. Zemeckis was "concerned that kids would accidentally lock themselves in refrigerators", and found that
it would be more convenient if the time machine were mobile. The DeLorean was chosen because its design made
the gag about the family of farmers mistaking it for a flying saucer believable. In addition the original climax was
deemed too expensive by the executives of Universal and was simplified. Spielberg later used the omitted
refrigerator and Nevada nuclear site elements in his film Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull.
[8]
The
writers found it difficult to create a believable friendship between Marty and Brown before they created the giant
guitar amplifier, and only resolved his Oedipal relationship with his mother when they wrote the line "It's like I'm
kissing my brother." Biff Tannen was named after Universal executive Ned Tanen, who behaved aggressively
toward Zemeckis and Gale during a script meeting for I Wanna Hold Your Hand.
[6]
The first draft of Back to the Future was finished in February 1981. Columbia Pictures put the film in turnaround.
"They thought it was a really nice, cute, warm film, but not sexual enough," Gale said. "They suggested that we take
it to Disney, but we decided to see if any other of the major studios wanted a piece of us."
[5]
Every major film studio
rejected the script for the next four years, while Back to the Future went through two more drafts. During the early
1980s, popular teen comedies (such as Fast Times at Ridgemont High and Porky's) were risqué and adult-aimed, so
the script was commonly rejected for being too light.
[6]
Gale and Zemeckis finally decided to pitch Back to the
Future to Disney. "They told us that a mother falling in love with her son was not appropriate for a family film under
the Disney banner," Gale said.
[5]
The two were tempted to ally themselves with Steven Spielberg, who produced Used Cars and I Wanna Hold Your
Hand, which both flopped. Spielberg was initially absent from the project because Zemeckis felt if he produced
another flop under him, he would never be able to make another film. Gale said "we were afraid that we would get
the reputation that we were two guys who could only get a job because we were pals with Steven Spielberg."
[9]
One
producer was interested, but changed his mind when he learned Spielberg was not involved. Zemeckis chose to
direct Romancing the Stone instead, which was a box office success. Now a high-profile director, Zemeckis
approached Spielberg with the concept, and the project was set up at Universal Pictures.
[6]
Executive Sidney Sheinberg made some suggestions to the script, changing Marty's mother's name from Meg to
Lorraine (the name of his wife, actress Lorraine Gary), to change Brown's name from Professor Brown to Doc
Brown and replace his pet chimpanzee with a dog.
[6]
Sheinberg also wanted the title changed to Spaceman from
Back to the Future
50
Pluto, convinced no successful film ever had "future" in the title. He suggested Marty introduce himself as "Darth
Vader from the planet Pluto" while dressed as an alien forcing his dad to ask out his mom (rather than "the planet
Vulcan"), and that the farmer's son's comic book be titled Spaceman from Pluto rather than Space Zombies from
Pluto. Appalled by the new title that Sheinberg wanted to impose, Zemeckis asked Spielberg for help. Spielberg
subsequently dictated a memo back to Sheinberg, wherein Spielberg convinced him they thought his title was just a
joke, thus embarrassing him into dropping the idea.
[10]
Casting
Michael J. Fox was the first choice to play Marty McFly, but he was committed to the show Family Ties.
[11]
Family
Ties producer Gary David Goldberg felt that Fox was essential to the show's success. With co-star Meredith Baxter
on maternity leave, he refused to allow Fox time off to work on a film. Back to the Future was originally scheduled
for a May 1985 release and it was late 1984 when it was learned that Fox would be unable to star in the film.
[6]
Zemeckis' next two choices were C. Thomas Howell and Eric Stoltz, the latter of whom impressed the producers
enough with his portrayal of Roy L. Dennis in Mask – which had yet to be released – that they selected him to play
Marty McFly.
[4]
Because of the difficult casting process, the start date was pushed back twice.
[12]
Four weeks into filming, Zemeckis determined Stoltz had been miscast. Although he and Spielberg realized
reshooting the film would add $3 million to the $14 million budget, they decided to recast. Spielberg explained
Zemeckis felt Stoltz was too humorless and gave a "terrifically dramatic performance". Gale further explained they
felt Stoltz was simply acting out the role, whereas Fox himself had a personality like Marty McFly. He felt Stoltz
was uncomfortable riding a skateboard, whereas Fox was not. Stoltz confessed to director Peter Bogdanovich during
a phone call, two weeks into the shoot, that he was unsure of Zemeckis' and Gale's direction, and concurred that he
was wrong for the role.
[6]
Fox's schedule was opened up in January 1985 when Meredith Baxter returned to Family Ties following her
pregnancy. The Back to the Future crew met with Goldberg again, who made a deal that Fox's main priority would
be Family Ties, and if a scheduling conflict arose, "we win". Fox loved the script and was impressed by Zemeckis
and Gale's sensitivity in releasing Stoltz, because they nevertheless "spoke very highly of him".
[6]
Per Welinder and
Bob Schmelzer assisted on the skateboarding scenes.
[13]
Fox found his portrayal of Marty McFly to be very personal.
"All I did in high school was skateboard, chase girls and play in bands. I even dreamed of becoming a rock star."
[11]
Christopher Lloyd was cast as Doc Brown after the first choice, John Lithgow, became unavailable.
[6]
Having
worked with Lloyd on The Adventures of Buckaroo Banzai (1984), producer Neil Canton suggested him for the part.
Lloyd originally turned down the role, but changed his mind after reading the script and at the persistence of his
wife. He improvised some of his scenes,
[14]
taking inspiration from Albert Einstein and conductor Leopold
Stokowski.
[15]
Brown mispronounces gigawatts as "jigawatts", which was the way a physicist said the word when he
met with Zemeckis and Gale as they researched the script.
[13][16]
Crispin Glover played George McFly. Zemeckis said Glover improvised much of George's nerdy mannerisms, such
as his shaky hands. The director joked he was "endlessly throwing a net over Crispin because he was completely off
about fifty percent of the time in his interpretation of the character".
[6]
Due to a contract disagreement, Glover was
replaced by Jeffrey Weissman in Part II and Part III.
[17]
Lea Thompson was cast as Lorraine McFly because she had acted opposite Stoltz in The Wild Life; the producers
noticed her as they had watched the film while casting Stoltz.
[18]
Her prosthetic makeup for scenes at the beginning
of the film, set in 1985, took three-and-a-half hours to apply.
[19]
Thomas F. Wilson was cast as Biff Tannen because the producers felt that the original choice, J. J. Cohen, wasn't
physically imposing enough to bully Stoltz.
[6]
Cohen was recast as one of Biff's cohorts. Had Fox been cast from the
beginning, Cohen probably would have won the part because he was sufficiently taller than Fox.
[13]
Conversely,
Melora Hardin was originally cast in the role of Marty's girlfriend Jennifer, but was let go after Eric Stoltz was
dismissed, with the explanation that the actress was now too tall to be playing against Michael J. Fox. Hardin was
Back to the Future
51
dismissed before she had a chance to shoot a single scene and was replaced with Claudia Wells.
[20]
Actress Jill
Schoelen had also been considered to play Marty's girlfriend.
[21]
Production
Courthouse Square as it appeared in Back to the
Future.
Following Stoltz's departure, Fox's schedule during weekdays
consisted of filming Family Ties during the day, and Back to the
Future from 6:30 pm to 2:30 am. He averaged five hours of sleep each
night. During Fridays, he shot from 10 pm to 6 or 7 am, and then
moved on to film exterior scenes throughout the weekend, as only then
was he available during daytime hours. Fox found it exhausting, but "it
was my dream to be in the film and television business, although I
didn't know I'd be in them simultaneously. It was just this weird ride
and I got on."
[22]
Zemeckis concurred, dubbing Back to the Future "the
film that would not wrap". He recalled that because they shot night
after night, he was always "half asleep" and the "fattest, most
out-of-shape and sick I ever was".
[6]
Lyon Estates set used in the film
The Hill Valley town square scenes were shot at Courthouse Square,
located in the Universal Studios back lot (34°08′29″N 118°20′59″W).
Bob Gale explained it would have been impossible to shoot on location
"because no city is going to let a film crew remodel their town to look
like it's in the 1950s." The filmmakers "decided to shoot all the 50s
stuff first, and make the town look real beautiful and wonderful. Then
we would just totally trash it down and make it all bleak and ugly for
the 1980s scenes."
[22]
The interiors for Doc Brown's house were shot at the Robert R. Blacker House, while exteriors
took place at Gamble House.
[23]
The exterior shots of the Twin Pines Mall, and later the Lone Pine Mall (from 1985)
were shot at the Puente Hills Mall in City of Industry, California. The exterior shots and some interior scenes at Hill
Valley High School were filmed at Whittier High School in Whittier, California, while the band tryouts and the
"Enchantment Under the Sea" dance were filmed in the gymnasium at Hollywood United Methodist Church. The
scenes outside of the Baines' house in the 50s were shot at Bushnell Avenue, South Pasadena, California.
[24]
Filming wrapped after 100 days on April 20, 1985, and the film was delayed from May to August. But after a highly
positive test screening ("I'd never seen a preview like that," said Frank Marshall, "the audience went up to the
ceiling"), Sheinberg chose to move the release date to July 3. To make sure the film met this new date, two editors,
Arthur Schmidt and Harry Keramidas, were assigned to the picture, while many sound editors worked 24-hour shifts
on the film. Eight minutes were cut, including Marty watching his mom cheat during an exam, George getting stuck
in a telephone booth before rescuing Lorraine, as well as much of Marty pretending to be Darth Vader. Zemeckis
almost cut out the "Johnny B. Goode" sequence as he felt it did not advance the story, but the preview audience
loved it, so it was kept. Industrial Light & Magic created the film's 32 effects shots, which did not satisfy Zemeckis
and Gale until a week before the film's completion date.
[6]
Music
Alan Silvestri collaborated with Zemeckis on Romancing the Stone, but Spielberg disliked that film's score.
Zemeckis advised Silvestri to make his compositions grand and epic, despite the film's small scale, to impress
Spielberg. Silvestri began recording the score two weeks before the first preview. He also suggested Huey Lewis and
the News create the theme song. Their first attempt was rejected by Universal, before they recorded "The Power of
Love".
[22]
The studio loved the final song, but were disappointed it did not feature the film's title, so they had to send
Back to the Future
52
memos to radio stations to always mention its association with Back to the Future.
[6]
In the end, the track "Back in
Time" was featured in the film, playing during the scene when Marty wakes up after his return to 1985 and also
during the end credits.
[22]
Although it appears that Michael J. Fox is actually playing the guitar, Music Supervisor Bones Howe hired
Hollywood guitar coach and musician Paul Hanson to teach Michael J. Fox to simulate playing all the parts so it
would look realistic, including playing behind his head.
The original 1985 soundtrack album only included two tracks culled from Silvestri's compositions for the film, both
Huey Lewis tracks, the songs played in the film by Marvin Berry and The Starlighters (and Marty McFly), one of the
vintage 1950s songs in the movie, and two pop songs that are only very briefly heard in the background of the film.
On November 24, 2009, an authorized, limited-edition two-CD set of the entire score was released by Intrada
Records.
[25]
Reception
Release
Back to the Future opened on July 3, 1985, on 1,200 screens in North America. Zemeckis was concerned the film
would flop because Fox had to film a Family Ties special in London and was unable to promote the film. Gale was
also dissatisfied with Universal Pictures' tagline "Are you telling me my mother's got the hots for me?" Yet Back to
the Future spent 11 weeks at number one.
[6]
Gale recalled "Our second weekend was higher than our first weekend,
which is indicative of great word of mouth. National Lampoon's European Vacation came out in August and it
kicked us out of number one for one week and then we were back to number one."
[9]
The film went on to gross
$210.61 million in North America and $173.2 million in foreign countries, accumulating a worldwide total of
$383.87 million.
[1]
Back to the Future had the fourth-highest opening weekend of 1985 and was the top grossing
film of the year.
[26]
This film received a 25th anniversary theatrical re-release in the U.K. and the U.S. in October
2010 to coincide with the Universal Studios Home Video 25th Anniversary DVD and Blu-ray Disc releases of the
trilogy.
[27][28]
For its re-issue, Back to the Future was restored and remastered.
[29]
Critical response
Back to the Future was reviewed very positively. Roger Ebert felt Back to the Future had similar themes to the films
of Frank Capra, especially It's a Wonderful Life. Ebert commented "[Producer] Steven Spielberg is emulating the
great authentic past of Classical Hollywood cinema, who specialized in matching the right director (Robert
Zemeckis) with the right project."
[30]
Janet Maslin of theNew York Times believed the film had a balanced storyline:
"It's a cinematic inventing of humor and whimsical tall tales for a long time to come."
[31]
Christopher Null, who first
saw the film as a teenager, called it "a quintessential 1980s flick that combines science fiction, action, comedy, and
romance all into a perfect little package that kids and adults will both devour."
[32]
Dave Kehr of Chicago Reader felt
Gale and Zemeckis wrote a script that perfectly balanced science fiction, seriousness and humor.
[33]
Variety
applauded the performances, arguing Fox and Lloyd imbued Marty and Doc Brown's friendship with a quality
reminiscent of King Arthur and Merlin.
[34]
BBC News applauded the intricacies of the "outstandingly executed"
script, remarking that "nobody says anything that doesn't become important to the plot later."
[35]
Back to the Future
appeared on Gene Siskel's top ten film list of 1985.
[36]
As of September 2012, review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes reported that 97% of critics gave the film a positive
review, based on 61 reviews, certifying it "Fresh", with an average rating of 8.6 out of 10 and the consensus:
"Inventive, funny, and breathlessly constructed, Back to the Future is a rousing time-travel adventure with an
unforgettable spirit."
[37]
Back to the Future
53
Awards
At the 58th Academy Awards, Back to the Future won for Best Sound Editing while "The Power of Love" was
nominated for Best Song. Bill Varney, B. Tennyson Sebastian II, Robert Thirlwell and William B. Kaplan were
nominated for Best Sound Mixing, and Zemeckis and Gale were nominated for Best Original Screenplay.
[38]
The
film won the Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation
[39]
and the Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film.
Michael J. Fox and the visual effects designers won categories at the Saturn Awards. Zemeckis, composer Alan
Silvestri, the costume design and supporting actors Christopher Lloyd, Lea Thompson, Crispin Glover and Thomas
F. Wilson were also nominated.
[40]
The film was nominated for numerous BAFTAs at the 39th British Academy
Film Awards, including Best Film, original screenplay, visual effects, production design and editing.
[41]
At the 43rd
Golden Globe Awards, Back to the Future was nominated for Best Motion Picture (Musical or Comedy), original
song (for "The Power of Love"), Best Actor in a Motion Picture Musical or Comedy (Fox) and Best Screenplay for
Zemeckis and Gale.
[42]
Legacy
The retrofitted DeLorean DMC-12
President Ronald Reagan, a fan of the film, referred to the movie in his
1986 State of the Union address when he said, "Never has there been a
more exciting time to be alive, a time of rousing wonder and heroic
achievement. As they said in the film Back to the Future, 'Where we're
going, we don't need roads'."
[43]
When he first saw the joke about his
being President, he ordered the projectionist of the theater to stop the
reel, roll it back, and run it again.
[4]
George H. W. Bush also
referenced Back to the Future in his speeches.
[44]
The movie ranked number 28 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the 50
Best High School Movies.
[45]
In 2008, Back to the Future was voted
the 23rd greatest film ever made by readers of Empire.
[46]
It was also placed on a similar list by the New York Times,
a list of 1000 movies.
[47]
In January 2010, Total Film included the film on its list of the 100 greatest movies of all
time.
[48]
On December 27, 2007, Back to the Future was selected for preservation in the United States National Film
Registry by the Library of Congress as being "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant".
[49]
In 2006, the
original screenplay for Back to the Future was selected by the Writers Guild of America,West as the 56th best
screenplay of all time.
[50]
In June 2008, the American Film Institute revealed the AFI's 10 Top 10 – the best ten films in ten classic American
film genres – after polling more than 1,500 people from the creative community. Back to the Future was
acknowledged as the 10th best film in the science fiction genre.
[51]
Skateboarding
The scenes of the Marty McFly character skateboarding in the film occurred during the infancy of the skateboarding
sub-culture and numerous skateboarders, as well as companies in the industry, pay tribute to the film for its influence
in this regard. Examples can be seen in promotional material, in interviews in which professional skateboarders cite
the film as an initiation into the action sport, and in the public's recognition of the film's influence.
[52][53]
American Film Institute lists
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (1998) – Nominated
[54]
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Laughs (2000) – Nominated
[55]
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills (2001) – Nominated
[56]
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Songs (2004):
Back to the Future
54
• "The Power of Love" – Nominated
• "Johnny B. Goode" – Nominated
[57]
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Movie Quotes (2005):
• "Roads? Where we're going we don't need roads." – Nominated
[58]
• AFI's 100 Years...100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) (2007) – Nominated
[59]
• AFI's 10 Top 10 (2008) – #10 Science Fiction Film
[60]
Back to the Future is also among Film4's 50 Films to See Before You Die, being ranked 10th.
[61]
When the film was released on VHS, Universal added a "To be continued..." caption at the end to increase awareness
of production on Part II. This caption is omitted on the film's DVD release in 2002.
[15]
References
Footnotes
[1] Box Office Information for Back to the Future. (http:// www.the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1985/ 0BCK1. php) The Numbers. Retrieved April
14, 2012.
[2] State of the Union 1986 (http:/ / reagan2020. us/ speeches/ state_of_the_union_1986.asp) Reagon 2020. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
[3] State of the Union: President Reagan's State of the Union Speech - 2/4/86 (https:/ / www. youtube.com/ watch?v=ZIWkQbXSetM), at the
20:00 mark. Youtube. Retrieved May 17, 2012.
[4] Back to the Future, The Complete Trilogy - "The Making of the Trilogy, Part 1" (DVD). Universal Home Video. 2002.
[5] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 1–10
[6] Ian Freer (January 2003). "The making of Back to the Future". Empire: pp. 183–187.
[7] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 61–70
[8] Peter Sciretta (2009-07-15). "How Back To The Future Almost Nuked The Fridge" (http://www. slashfilm. com/
how-back-to-the-future-almost-nuked-the-fridge/). Slashfilm. . Retrieved 2012-08-10.
[9] Scott Holleran (2003-11-18). "Brain Storm: An Interview with Bob Gale" (http:// www. boxofficemojo.com/ features/ ?id=1258&
pagenum=all&p=. htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-10-19.
[10] McBride (1997), pp. 384–385
[11] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 11–20
[12] Kagan (2003), pp. 63–92
[13] Robert Zemeckis, Bob Gale. (2005). Back to the Future: The Complete Trilogy DVD commentary for part 1 [DVD]. Universal Pictures.
[14] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 31–40
[15] Robert Zemeckis and Bob Gale Q&A, Back to the Future [2002 DVD], recorded at the University of Southern California
[16] "Back to The Future Script" (http:// www. imsdb. com/ scripts/ Back-to-the-Future.pdf) (PDF). . Retrieved 2012-11-22.
[17] Hickerson, Michael (2010-03-19). "Glover Says Why He Was Left Out of "Back to the Future" Sequels" (http:/ / www. sliceofscifi.com/
2010/ 03/ 19/ glover-says-why-he-was-left-out-of-back-to-the-future-sequels/). Slice of Sci-Fi. . Retrieved 2011-01-03.
[18] Harris, Will (2012-02-21). "Random Roles: Lea Thompson" (http:/ / www. avclub.com/ articles/ lea-thompson,69639/ ). avclub.com. .
Retrieved 19 October 2012.
[19] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 21–30
[20] Mattise, Nathan (2011-12-08). "Marty McFly's Original Girlfriend Goes Back to the Future" (http:/ / www. wired. com/ underwire/2011/
12/melora-hardin-back-to-future/). Wired. . Retrieved 2011-12-19.
[21] "Jill's Spielberg Memories" (http:// fangoria.com/ index. php?option=com_content&view=article&
id=4772:jill-schoelens-spielberg-memories&catid=1:latest-news& Itemid=167). Fangoria. 2011-06. . Retrieved 2012-08-26.
[22] Michael J. Fox, Robert Zemeckis, Bob Gale, Steven Spielberg, Alan Silvestri, The Making of Back to the Future (television special), 1985,
NBC
[23] Klastornin, Hibbin (1990), pp. 41–50
[24] [24] Back to the Future Trilogy DVD, Production Notes
[25] "FSM BBoard: New Intradata: Back to the Future" (http:// www. filmscoremonthly.com/ board/posts. cfm?threadID=63964). Film Score
Message Board. 2009-09-23. . Retrieved 2011-01-02.
[26] "1985 Domestic Totals" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ yearly/chart/ ?yr=1985&p=.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[27] Cericola, Rachel (2010-06-29). "Back to the Future: 25th Anniversary Trilogy Coming to Blu-ray" (http:// www. bigpicturebigsound.com/
Back-to-the-Future-25th-Anniversary-Trilogy-Coming-to-Blu-ray.shtml). Big Picture Big Sound. . Retrieved 2010-01-02.
[28] "'Back to the Future' To Receive 25th Anniversary Theatrical Re-Release" (http:// www. iconvsicon. com/ 2010/ 09/ 28/
back-to-the-future-to-receive-25th-anniversary-theatrical-re-release/ ). Icon vs. Icon. 2010-09-28. . Retrieved 2010-01-02.
[29] "'Back to the Future' 25 years later" (http:// www. independent. co.uk/ arts-entertainment/films/ back-to-the-future-25-years-later-2092687.
html). The Independent. 2010-09-29. . Retrieved 2010-01-02.
Back to the Future
55
[30] Ebert, Roger (1985-07-03). "Back to the Future" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19850703/ REVIEWS/
507030301/1023). Chicago Sun-Times. Archived (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20080913214211/ http:/ / rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/
pbcs.dll/ article?AID=/19850703/ REVIEWS/507030301/ 1023) from the original on 13 September 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[31] Maslin, Janet (1985-07-03). "Back to the Future". The New York Times.
[32] Null, Christopher. "Back to the Future" (http:// www. filmcritic.com/ misc/ emporium.nsf/ reviews/ Back-to-the-Future). FilmCritic.com.
Archived (http:// web.archive. org/web/ 20080830021837/ http:/ / www.filmcritic.com/ misc/ emporium.nsf/ reviews/ Back-to-the-Future)
from the original on 30 August 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[33] Kehr, Dave. "Back to the Future" (http:/ / onfilm.chicagoreader.com/ movies/ capsules/ 651_BACK_TO_THE_FUTURE). Chicago
Reader. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[34] Variety Staff (31). "Back to the Future" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ review/ VE1117788826). Variety. Reed Elsevier Inc. . Retrieved 24
August 2012.
[35] Unknown (August 2007). "Back to the Future (1985)" (http:// www. bbc.co. uk/ films/ 2000/ 10/ 05/ back_to_the_future_1985_review.
shtml). BBC. BBC. . Retrieved 24 August 2012.
[36] The Inner Mind (3). "These ten best lists for movie critics Gene Siskel and Roger Ebert have been collected from various postings in the
Usenet newsgroup rec.arts.movies." (http:// www. innermind.com/ misc/ s_e_top.htm#SE1984). The Inner Mind. The Inner Mind. .
Retrieved 24 August 2012.
[37] "Back to the Future" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ back_to_the_future/). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved 2012-11-22.
[38] "The 58th Academy Awards (1986) Nominees and Winners" (http:/ /www.oscars. org/awards/ academyawards/ legacy/ ceremony/
58th-winners. html). oscars.org. . Retrieved 2011-10-16.
[39] "1986 Hugo Awards" (http:// www.thehugoawards. org/ ?page_id=34). The Hugo Awards. Archived (http://web.archive. org/web/
20080928150653/http:/ / www. thehugoawards. org/ ?page_id=34) from the original on 28 September 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-26.
[40] "Past Saturn Awards" (http:// www. saturnawards. org/ past. html). Saturn Awards.org. Archived (http:// web. archive.org/ web/
20080914184217/ http:/ / www. saturnawards.org/ past. html) from the original on 14 September 2008. . Retrieved 2008-10-26.
[41] "Back to the Future" (http:/ / www. bafta. org/awards-database. html?sq=Back+ to+the+ Future). British Academy of Film and Television
Arts. . Retrieved 2008-10-09.
[42] "Back to the Future" (http:/ / www. goldenglobes. org/browse/ film/ 23660). Hollywood Foreign Press Association. Archived (http:// web.
archive.org/web/ 20081206041829/ http:/ / www. goldenglobes. org/browse/ film/ 23660) from the original on 6 December 2008. .
Retrieved 2008-10-26.
[43] "President Ronald Reagan's Address Before a Joint Session of Congress on the State of the Union" (http:/ / www. c-span. org/ executive/
transcript.asp?cat=current_event&code=bush_admin& year=1986). C-SPAN. 1986-02-04. . Retrieved 2006-11-26.
[44] "Bushism Audio Gallery" (http:/ / politicalhumor.about. com/ library/blbushism-hanukkah.htm). . Retrieved 2011-10-24.
[45] Cruz, Gilbert. "The 50 Best High School Movies" (http:/ /www. ew.com/ ew/gallery/0,,20215654,00.html#20408759). Entertainment
Weekly. . Retrieved 2006-11-26.
[46] "Empire's The 500 Greatest Movies of All Time" (http:/ / www. empireonline.com/ 500/ 92.asp). Empire. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[47] "The Best 1,000 Movies Ever Made" (http:/ / www. nytimes.com/ ref/movies/ 1000best. html). The New York Times. April 29, 2003. .
Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[48] "Total Film features: 100 Greatest Movies of All Time" (http:// www. totalfilm.com/ features/100-greatest-movies-of-all-time/page:2).
Total Film. . Retrieved August 23, 2010.
[49] Film Registry 2007 (http:/ / www. loc. gov/ loc/ lcib/ 08012/ registry.html|title=National). Accessed 2008-02-04
[50] Writer's Guild of America, 101 best Screenplays as chosen by the Writers Guild of America, West. http:// www. wga. org/
subpage_newsevents. aspx?id=1807
[51] "AFI Crowns Top 10 Films in 10 Classic Genres" (http:// www. comingsoon.net/news/ movienews. php?id=46072). ComingSoon.net.
2008-06-17. Archived (http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20080619034738/ http:/ / www. comingsoon. net/news/ movienews. php?id=46072)
from the original on 19 June 2008. . Retrieved 2008-06-18.
[52] Michael Sieben; Stacey Lowery (23). "Welcome Back to the Future Of Radical" (http:/ / www. rogerskateboards.com/
welcome-back-to-the-future-of-radical/). Roger Skateboards. Roger Skateboards. . Retrieved 24 August 2012.
[53] Henry Hanks (26). "Going 'Back to the Future,' 25 years later" (http:// edition.cnn.com/ 2010/ SHOWBIZ/Movies/ 10/ 20/ bttf.
anniversary.go/ index. html). CNN Cable News Network. Turner Broadcasting System, Inc. . Retrieved 24 August 2012.
[54] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies Official Ballot" (http:/ / connect. afi.com/ site/ DocServer/movies400. pdf?docID=263). American Film
Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[55] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Laughs Official Ballot" (http://connect. afi.com/ site/ DocServer/laughs500. pdf?docID=251). American Film
Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[56] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Thrills Official Ballot" (http:/ / connect. afi.com/ site/ DocServer/thrills400.pdf?docID=249). American Film
Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[57] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Songs Official Ballot" (http:/ / connect.afi.com/ site/ DocServer/songs400. pdf?docID=243). American Film
Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[58] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes Official Ballot" (http:/ /connect.afi.com/ site/ DocServer/quotes400. pdf?docID=205). American
Film Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
Back to the Future
56
[59] "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies (10th Anniversary Edition) Official Ballot" (http:// connect. afi. com/ site/ DocServer/Movies_ballot_06.
pdf?docID=141). American Film Institute. . Retrieved May 22, 2010.
[60] "AFI's 10 Top 10" (http:/ / www. afi. com/ 10top10/ category.aspx?cat=7). American Film Institute. Retrieved October 23, 2010.
[61] "Film4's 50 Films To See Before You Die" (http:/ / www. channel4.com/ film/reviews/ feature.jsp?id=161521& page=4#comments).
Film4. Archived (http:// web. archive. org/web/ 20090221054610/ http:/ / www.channel4. com/ film/ reviews/ feature.jsp?id=161521&
page=4) from the original on 21 February 2009. . Retrieved 2009-02-10.
Bibliography
• Gale, Bob, and Robert Zemeckis (1990). "Foreword". Back To The Future: The Official Book Of The Complete
Movie Trilogy. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-57104-1.
• Kagan, Norman (2003). "Back to the Future I (1985), II (1989), III (1990)". The Cinema of Robert Zemeckis.
Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield. ISBN 0-87833-293-6.
• Klastornin, Michael; Hibbin, Sally (1990). Back To The Future: The Official Book Of The Complete Movie
Trilogy. London: Hamlyn. ISBN 0-600-57104-1.
• Joseph McBride (1997). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. New York City: Faber and Faber. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
Further reading
• George Gipe (July 1985) (Paperback). Back to the Future: A Novel. Novelization of the film. Berkley Books.
ISBN 978-0-425-08205-8.
• Shail, Andrew; Stoate, Robin (2010). Back to the Future. BFI Film Classic. Palgrave Macmillan.
ISBN 978-1-84457-293-9.
• Ni Fhlainn, Sorcha (2010). The Worlds of Back to the Future: Critical Essays on the Films.. McFarland
Publishers. ISBN 978-0-7864-4400-7.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. bttfmovie.com/ )
• Back to the Future (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0088763/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Back to the Future (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v3671) at AllRovi
• Back to the Future (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ back_to_the_future/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Back to the Future (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=backtothefuture.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Back to the Future (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 1985/ 0BCK1. php) at The Numbers
• February 24, 1981 draft of the screenplay (http:// www. scifiscripts. com/ scripts/
back_to_the_future_original_draft.html)
• Futurepedia: The Back to the Future Wiki on Wikia
Breaking the Rules (film)
57
Breaking the Rules (film)
Breaking the Rules
Directed by Neal Israel
Produced by Kent Bateman
Jonathan D. Krane
Written by Paul W. Shapiro
Starring Shawn Phelan
Jackey Vinson
Marty Belafsky
Jason Bateman
Music by David Kitay
Cinematography James Hayman
Editing by Tom Walls
Release date(s) •• October 9, 1992
Running time 100 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Breaking the Rules is a 1992 drama film directed by Neal Israel, executive produced by Larry A. Thompson,
[1]
starring Jason Bateman, C. Thomas Howell, Jonathan Silverman and Annie Potts. Jason's father, Kent Bateman, has
a role in the movie as well.
Plot
Phil (Jason Bateman), reunites with two of his childhood friends by inviting them to a fake engagement party. This
has the potential for problems because Gene (C. Thomas Howell) once stole Rob's girlfriend. Phil gets them to be
friends again. He tells them of his illness and all three decide to go to Los Angeles for Phil's dying wish; to be a
contestant on "Jeopardy."
References
[1] "Breaking the Rules (1992) (TV) - Full cast and crew" (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0103877/ fullcredits). Imdb.com. . Retrieved
2010-05-20.
External links
Breaking the Rules (film) (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0103877/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Celebracadabra
58
Celebracadabra
Celebracadabra
Contestants
Format Reality
Created by VH1
Directed by
Michael Dimich
[1]
Jason Sklaver
[1]
Country of origin  United States
No. of episodes 9
Production
Executive producer(s)
Shelly Tatro
[1]
Karla Hidalgo
[1]
Christopher Martin
[1]
Michael Hirschorn
Producer(s) Brandon Waite
Editor(s)
Mike Bulkey
[1]
Cinematography
John Armstrong
[1]
Running time 60 mins.
Production company(s)
VH1
[1]
Distributor
RDF Rights
[2]
Broadcast
Original channel VH1
Original run April 27, 2008 – June 12, 2008
External links
Website
[3]
Celebracadabra is an American reality television series on VH1 that premiered on April 27, 2008.
[4]
The series
involves celebrities attempting to learn and perform magic.
[1]
Magician/actor Jonathan Levit serves as the host. On
Thursday June 12, 2008 C. Thomas Howell was named Greatest Celebrity Magician.
Contestants
Celebracadabra
59
Celebrity
[5] Magic Coach Celebrity Status Show Result
C. Thomas Howell David Regal Actor, Writer, Director, Producer, TV Host and Radio Personality Winner
Hal Sparks Rocco Silano Actor and Comedian Eliminated Episode 8
Lisa Ann Walter Silly Billy Actress and Comedian Eliminated Episode 6
Kimberly Wyatt Murray Sawchuck Singer/Dancer of Pussycat Dolls Eliminated Episode 5
Christopher "Kid" Reid Derek Hughes Actor/Rapper Eliminated Episode 3
Ant Asi Wind Actor and comedian Eliminated Episode 2
Carnie Wilson Simon Lovell Singer Eliminated Episode 1
•• There were no eliminations in Episode 4 and 7.
Episodes
Episode 1
For the premiere episode of Celebracadabra, the seven celebrities try their hand at magic, paired with professional
magicians. This week's first challenge is Street Magic, hitting the streets armed with only their skills to impress the
crowds. At the end, only six of the seven celebrities will continue onto next week.
Episode 2
For their next challenge, the celebs must play dress-up for a kiddie magic show. Hal forces one of his competitors to
wear an undesirable costume, and Ant causes a riot!
Episode 3
Our celebrity magicians perform comedy magic for a rowdy and drunken college crowd. One of the contestants faces
a severe handicap that may ultimately result in their elimination.
Episode 4
They have won the hearts of children and collegiate scholars, but can they win the heart of grandma? In this
challenge, the celebrities will entertain residents at a retirement community using only magic that they can fit in their
pockets. Plus, a surprise switcharoo of the coaches sends shockwaves through the competition.
Episode 5
The celebs are given the challenge of performing Cabaret Magic for a roomful of professional magicians at the
Magic Castle. After getting hit with the Zonk prize, one of the celebs has to perform in drag. Meanwhile, Kim and
Murray take their bickering to new heights.
Episode 6
In their most death-defying challenge yet, the remaining celebs are forced to deal with their greatest fears in Phobia
magic. As the winner of the previous week's challenge, Tommy is given the special power of assigning the escapes,
and his choice infuriates Hal and shatters their friendship.
Celebracadabra
60
Episode 7
After six weeks of learning magic and surviving difficult challenges and eliminations, the final two contestants hit
the road. They travel from Los Angeles to Sin City for their final performances on a real Vegas stage. Tensions
between Hal & Tommy continue to run high as they choose their illusions, practice their tricks and attempt to create
a show that will impress their Las Vegas audience.
Episode 8
It's time for their final performances! Who will walk away with the $100,000 grand prize and the title of "World's
Greatest Celebrity Magician"?
Episode 9
This season on Celebracadabra, seven celebrities tried to become magicians. Some succeeded, and some failed...
miserably. And while the celebrities took center stage, their coaches were forced to stand in the background... until
now. It's the Celebracadabra Magician Special – ten all-star magicians perform their favorite tricks.
Celebracadabra Elimination History
Eliminations
Order Celebrities Episodes
1 2 3 4 5 6 8
01 Ant Hal Thomas Kimberly Hal Thomas Hal Thomas
02 C.Thomas Howell Chris Chris Hal Kimberly Lisa Thomas Hal
03 Carnie Wilson Kimberly Lisa Lisa Lisa Hal Lisa
04 Christopher "Kid" Reid Ant Hal Thomas Thomas Kimberly
05 Hal Sparks Lisa Kimberly Chris
06 Kimberly Wyatt Thomas Ant
07 Lisa Ann Walter Carnie
The contestant won the competition.
The contestant was eliminated.
None of the contestants were eliminated.
References
[1] Lowry, Brian (24 April 2008). "Celebracadabra! Clearly struggling to conjure new versions of its "celebreality" brand, VH1 has disgorged
from its bag of tricks "Celebracadabra!" -- or what should more accurately be called "(Sort of) Celebrity Magician Survivor."" (http:// www.
variety.com/ review/VE1117936895/ ). Daily Variety. . Retrieved 22 Mar 2010.
[2] Rogers, Jessica (4 April 2008). "RDF Rights adds VH1 trio to Mip offering" (http:/ / www. broadcastnow.co. uk/ news/ multi-platform/
news/ rdf-rights-adds-vh1-trio-to-mip-offering/1055320. article). Broadcast: 15. . Retrieved 6 March 2010.
[3] http:/ / www.vh1. com/ shows/ dyn/ celebracadabra/series. jhtml
[4] "Celebracadabra episode guide" (http:// www. vh1. com/shows/ dyn/ celebracadabra/ 132072/ episode.jhtml). VH1.com. . Retrieved
2008-04-21.
[5] "Celebracadabra: Personalities" (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ shows/ dyn/ celebracadabra/series_characters.jhtml). VH1.com. .
Celebracadabra
61
External links
• Celebracadabra (http:/ / www. vh1. com/ shows/ dyn/ celebracadabra/series. jhtml) at VH1.com
• Celebracadabra News, Pics & Unreleased Videos (http:/ / blog.ellusionist. com/ tag/ celebracadabra/)
• Celebracadabra (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt1173669/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Celebracadabra (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ celebracadabra/) at TV.com
Charades (film)
62
Charades (film)
Charades
Directed by Stephen Eckelberry
Produced by Karen Black
Paul Williams
Richard Hillman, Sr.
Written by Richmond Riedel
Karen Black
Starring Erika Eleniak
James Wilder
C. Thomas Howell
Kimberley Kates
Jack Scalia
Karen Black
James Russo
Music by S.P. Somtow
Cinematography Susan Helen Emerson
Editing by Fima Noveck
Release date(s) December 17, 1998
Running time 94 minutes
Country  United States
Language English
Charades (also known as Felons or First Degree) is a mystery/drama film released in 1998. The film stars Erika
Eleniak, James Wilder, and C. Thomas Howell.
Tagline: "One murder can ruin your whole day..."
Film synopsis
Barry (Jack Scalia) is a man that works at the shipping department of a high-tech company called Technoworks. One
day he is invited to a barbecue at his boss' house (Wilder). At the party, things start to get weird and Barry ends up
playing a demented version of charades. Other strange things happen: the next door neighbor (James Russo) starts
screaming racial slurs over the fence, and the widow of the ex-owner of Technoworks arrives. As a result, we learn
of a kidnapping scheme gone awry, a fight ensues, and the pieces of the puzzle start to come together to reveal who
kidnap and killed the former Technoworks boss, and why was Barry invited to the party in the first place.
Charades (film)
63
Cast
• Erika Eleniak as Monica
• James Wilder as Quinn
• C. Thomas Howell as Evan
• Kimberley Kates as Laura
• Jack Scalia as Barry
• Karen Black as Jude
• James Russo as Max Targenville
Release
The film was first released to video on December 17, 1998 in Iceland. The next year, the film premiered at the
Austin Film Festival. On 1999, it was released to video on Germany and Japan.
External links
• Charades
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• "First Degree"
[2]
at TV Guide
• Charades
[3]
at Rotten Tomatoes
• Film Threat: Review
[4]
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0129922/
[2] http:/ / movies. tvguide. com/ degree/review/ 136472
[3] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ charades/
[4] http:// www.filmthreat.com/ index. php?section=reviews& Id=488
Charlie Sheen
64
Charlie Sheen
Charlie Sheen
Sheen at the 2012 FX Ad Sales Upfront
Born
Carlos Irwin Estévez
September 3, 1965
[1]
New York, New York, U.S.
Occupation Actor
Years active 1974–present
Spouse(s)
Donna Peele (1995–1996)
Denise Richards (2002–2006)
Brooke Mueller (2008–2011)
[2]
Children 5
Parents Martin Sheen (father)
Janet Templeton (mother)
Relatives Emilio Estevez (brother)
Ramon Estevez (brother)
Renée Estevez (sister)
Website
[www.charliesheen.com www.charliesheen.com]
Carlos Irwin Estévez (born September 3, 1965),
[3]
best known by his stage name Charlie Sheen, is an American
actor. He has appeared in films such as Platoon (1986), The Wraith (1986), Wall Street (1987), Major League
(1989), Hot Shots! (1991), Hot Shots! Part Deux (1993), Scary Movie 3 (2003), and Scary Movie 4 (2006). On
television, Sheen is known for his roles on Spin City, Two and a Half Men, and Anger Management. In 2010, Sheen
was the highest paid actor on television and earned US$1.8 million per episode of Two and a Half Men.
[4]
Sheen's personal life has also made headlines, including reports about alcohol and drug abuse and marital problems,
as well as allegations of domestic violence. He was fired from Two and a Half Men by CBS and Warner Bros. in
March 2011. Sheen subsequently went on a nationwide tour.
[5]
Charlie Sheen
65
Early life
Sheen was born Carlos Irwin Estevez in New York City, the youngest son and third of four children of actor Martin
Sheen and artist Janet Templeton.
[6]
His paternal grandparents were immigrants from Spain (Galicia) and Ireland.
[7]
Sheen has two older brothers, Emilio Estevez and Ramon Estevez, and a younger sister, Renée Estevez, all actors.
His parents moved to Malibu, California, after Martin's Broadway turn in The Subject Was Roses. Sheen's first movie
appearance was at age nine in his father’s 1974 film The Execution of Private Slovik. Sheen attended Santa Monica
High School in Santa Monica, California, where he was a star pitcher and shortstop for the baseball team.
[6][8]
At Santa Monica High School, he showed an early interest in acting, making amateur Super 8 films with his brother
Emilio and school friends Rob Lowe and Sean Penn under his birth name. A few weeks before graduation, Sheen
was expelled from school for poor grades and attendance. Deciding to become an actor, he took the stage name
Charlie Sheen. His father had adopted it in honor of the Catholic archbishop and theologian Fulton J. Sheen.
[9][10]
Acting career
Film
Sheen's film career began in 1984 with a role in the Cold War teen drama Red Dawn with Patrick Swayze, C.
Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, and Jennifer Grey. Sheen and Grey reunited in a small scene in Ferris Bueller's
Day Off (1986). He also appeared in an episode of the anthology series Amazing Stories. Sheen had his first major
role in the Vietnam War drama Platoon (1986). In 1987, he starred with his father in Wall Street. Both Wall Street
and Platoon were directed by Oliver Stone. In 1988, Stone asked Sheen to star in his new film Born on the Fourth of
July (1989), but later cast Tom Cruise instead. Sheen was never notified by Stone, and only found out when he heard
the news from his brother Emilio. Sheen did not take a lead role in Stone's subsequent films,
[11]
although he did have
a cameo role in Money Never Sleeps.
In 1987, Sheen was cast to portray Ron in the unreleased Grizzly II: The Predator, the sequel to the 1976 low budget
horror movie Grizzly. In 1988, he starred in the baseball film Eight Men Out as outfielder Happy Felsch. Also in
1988, he appeared opposite his brother Emilio in Young Guns and again in 1990 in Men at Work. In 1989, Sheen,
John Fusco, Christopher Cain, Lou Diamond Phillips, Emilio Estévez and Kiefer Sutherland were honored with a
Bronze Wrangler for their work on the film Young Guns.
[12]
In 1990, he starred alongside his father in Cadence as a rebellious inmate in a military stockade and with Clint
Eastwood in the buddy cop film The Rookie.
[6]
The films were directed by Martin Sheen and Eastwood, respectively.
In 1992, he featured in Beyond the Law with Linda Fiorentino and Michael Madsen. In 1994, Sheen was awarded a
star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.
[12]
In 1997, Sheen wrote his first movie, Discovery Mars, a direct-to-video
documentary revolving around the question, "Is There Life on Mars?". The next year, Sheen wrote, produced and
starred in the action movie No Code of Conduct.
[13]
Sheen appeared in several comedy roles, including the Major League films, Money Talks, and the spoof Hot Shots!
films. In 1999, Sheen appeared in a pilot for A&E Network, called Sugar Hill, which was not picked up. In 1999,
Sheen played himself in Being John Malkovich. He also appeared in the spoof series Scary Movie 3 and follow up
Scary Movie 4.
Sheen appears as Dex Dogtective in the unreleased Lionsgate animated comedy Foodfight.
[13]
Sheen has been cast to star alongside Jason Schwartzman in Roman Coppola's upcoming film A Glimpse Inside the
Mind of Charlie Swan III.
[14]
Charlie Sheen
66
Television
Sheen in March 2009
In 2000, Sheen debuted on the small screen when he replaced Michael
J. Fox for the last two seasons of the sitcom Spin City (which also had
fellow Ferris Bueller actor Alan Ruck as Stuart Bondek). For his work
on Spin City, Sheen was nominated for two ALMA Awards and won
his first Golden Globe for Best Performance by an Actor in a
Television Series – Musical or Comedy.
[15][16]
The series ended in
2002.
In 2003, Sheen was cast as Charlie Harper in the CBS sitcom Two and
a Half Men, which followed the popular Monday night time slot of
Everybody Loves Raymond. Sheen's role on Two and a Half Men was
loosely based on Sheen's bad boy image.
[17]
The role garnered him an
ALMA Award and he gained three Emmy Award nominations and two
Golden Globe award nominations.
[15]
During his eighth and final
season on the show, Sheen earned $1.8 million per episode.
[4]
Warner Bros. dismissal
Production of Two and a Half Men went on hiatus in January 2011
while Sheen underwent a substance rehabilitation program in his home,
his third attempt at rehab in 12 months.
[18][19][20]
The following month, however, CBS canceled the season's four
remaining episodes after Sheen publicly made derogatory comments about the series' creator, Chuck Lorre,
[21]
and
Warner Bros. banned Sheen from entering its production lot.
[22]
Sheen, already the highest-paid actor on
television,
[4]
responded by publicly demanding a 50 percent raise,
[23]
claiming that in comparison to the amount that
the series was making, he was "underpaid."
[23]
Sheen was dismissed from Two and a Half Men on March 7, 2011.
[24]
He was replaced by Ashton Kutcher.
[25][26]
In
the aftermath of his dismissal, Sheen remained vocally critical of Chuck Lorre,
[27]
and filed a wrongful termination
lawsuit against Lorre and Warner Bros., which was settled the following September 26.
[28]
That same month, Sheen,
while presenting an award at the Primetime Emmy Awards, addressed "everybody here from Two and a Half Men"
and stated, "From the bottom of my heart, I wish you nothing but the best for this upcoming season. We spent eight
wonderful years together and I know you will continue to make great television."
[29]
In 2012, Sheen returned to
television in Anger Management, the spin-off of the movie of the same name.
[30]
Meltdown
In the wake of the dismissal, Sheen had a highly publicized "meltdown" which was broadcast on television and the
internet. He made bizarre statements in television interviews, suggesting that he was a "warlock" with "tiger blood"
and "Adonis DNA".
[31]
He also posted videos to YouTube showing himself smoking cigarettes through his nose, and
cursing out his former employers.
[32]
He told one TV interviewer, "‘I’m tired of pretending I’m not special. I’m tired
of pretending I’m not a total bitchin’ rock star from Mars."
[33]
Charlie Sheen
67
Other
On September 19, 2011, Sheen was roasted on Comedy Central. It was watched by 6.4 million people, making it the
highest rated roast on Comedy Central to date.
[34]
Other ventures
In 2006, Sheen launched a clothing line for kids, called Sheen Kidz.
[35]
In 2011, Sheen set a new Guinness World Record for Twitter as the "Fastest Time to Reach 1 Million Followers"
(adding an average of 129,000 new followers per day
[36]
) as well as the Guinness record for "Highest Paid TV Actor
Per Episode – Current" at $1.25 million while he was a part of the cast of Two and a Half Men sitcom.
[37]
On March
3, 2011, Charlie Sheen signed with Ad.ly marketing agency specializing in Twitter and Facebook promotions.
[38][39]
Sheen's "My Violent Torpedo of Truth/Defeat is
Not An Option" tour on the marquee of Radio
City Music Hall in New York City.
On March 10, 2011, Sheen announced a nationwide tour, "My Violent
Torpedo of Truth/Defeat is Not An Option", which began in Detroit on
April 2.
[40]
The tour sold out in 18 minutes, a Ticketmaster record.
[41]
However, on April 1, 2011 the Detroit Free Press featured an article
that stated as of March 30 that there were over 1000 tickets available
from a third-party reseller, some at 15% less than the cheapest seats
sold at the Fox Theater.
[42]
The Huffington Post reported that it was
expected Sheen would earn $1 million in 2011 from Twitter
endorsements and $7 million from the North American tour.
[43]
Many
of those attending the April 2 performance in Detroit found it
disappointing;
[44]
the subsequent performance in Chicago, which
featured some adjustments, received a more positive reception.
[45]
Sheen has taken up a new business venture as a partner in a line of electronic cigarettes. The "NicoSheen" product
will feature the actor's signature smirk on packages of disposable E-cigarettes and related products.
[46]
On August 13, 2011, Sheen hosted at the 12th annual Gathering of the Juggalos, an event created by the Insane
Clown Posse. He received a mixed reaction from the audience,
[47]
but has expressed appreciation for the culture by
describing himself as a Juggalo
[48]
and wearing a baseball cap featuring the Psychopathic Records logo in public and
during production meetings for Anger Management.
[49]
Personal life
Family and relationships
Sheen has been married three times and has five children. His first daughter, Cassandra Jade Estevez, was born on
December 12, 1984, to his former high school girlfriend, Paula Profit,
[50][51]
whose name has also been given as
Paula Speert.
[52]
In January 1990, Sheen accidentally shot his fiancee, Kelly Preston, in the arm.
[53]
She broke off the engagement
soon after.
[54][55][56]
In the 1990s, Sheen dated a number of adult film actresses, including Ginger Lynn
[53][57][58]
and Heather Hunter.
[53]
On September 3, 1995,
[59]
Sheen married Donna Peele.
[60]
That same year, Sheen was named as one of the clients of
an escort agency operated by Heidi Fleiss.
[61]
Sheen and Peele divorced in 1996.
[6]
On June 15, 2002, Sheen married actress Denise Richards. They have two daughters, Sam
[62]
and Lola Sheen.
[63]
In
March 2005, Richards filed for divorce, accusing Sheen of alcohol and drug abuse and threats of violence.
[64]
The
divorce was finalized in November 2006 and preceded a custody dispute over their two daughters.
[65][66][67]
Charlie Sheen
68
On May 30, 2008, Sheen married Brooke Mueller, who later gave birth to their twin sons, Bob and Max.
[68][69][70]
In
November 2010, Sheen filed for divorce. On March 1, 2011, police removed Bob and Max from Sheen's home.
Sheen told NBC's Today, "I stayed very calm and focused."
[71]
According to People, social services took the children
after Mueller obtained a restraining order against Sheen. The document said, "I am very concerned that [Sheen] is
currently insane."
[72]
Asked if he would fight for the children, Sheen texted People, "Born ready. Winning."
[72]
Sheen and Mueller's divorce became final on May 2, 2011.
[2][73][74]
On March 1, 2011, Sheen was concurrently living with pornographic actress Rachel Oberlin and model and graphic
designer Natalie Kenly, whom he collectively nicknamed his "goddesses".
[75][76][77][78][79]
Oberlin left Sheen in
April 2011, and Kenly left in June 2011.
[80][81]
In January 2013 Sheen's daughter Cassandra was reported to be pregnant, with Sheen's first grandchild.
[82]
On a January 2013 interview on Piers Morgan Tonight, Sheen stated he was in a relationship with adult film actress
Georgia Jones.
[83]
Substance abuse and legal issues
On May 20, 1998, Sheen overdosed while using cocaine and was hospitalized. On August 11, 1998, Sheen, already
on probation in California for a previous drug offense, had his probation extended for an extra year and entered a
rehab clinic.
[84][85]
In a 2004 interview, Sheen admitted that the overdose was caused by his experimentation with
injecting cocaine.
[86]
On December 25, 2009, Sheen was arrested for assaulting his wife, Brooke Mueller in Aspen, Colorado. He was
released the same day from jail after posting an $8,500 bond.
[87][88]
Sheen was charged with felony menacing, as
well as third-degree assault and criminal mischief.
[89]
On August 2, 2010, Sheen, represented by Yale Galanter,
[90]
pleaded guilty to misdemeanor assault as part of a plea bargain that included dismissal of the other charges against
him. Sheen was sentenced to 30 days in a drug rehab center, 30 days of probation, and 36 hours of anger
management.
[91]
On October 26, 2010, the police removed Sheen from his suite at the Plaza Hotel after he reportedly caused $7,000
in damage.
[92]
According to the NYPD, Sheen admitted to drinking and using cocaine the night of the incident.
[92]
He was released after entering a hospital for observation.
[93]
Political views and activities
Charitable activities
Sheen was the 2004 spokesperson for the Lee National Denim Day breast cancer fundraiser that raised millions of
dollars for research and education regarding the disease. Sheen stated that a friend of his died from breast cancer, and
he wanted to try to help find a cure for the disease.
[94]
A major donor and supporter of Aid For AIDS since 2006, Sheen was honored with an AFA Angel Award, one of
only a few ever given, at the nonprofit's 25th Silver Anniversary Reception in 2009.
[95]
In addition to his financial
support, he has volunteered to act as a celebrity judge for several years for their annual fundraiser, Best In Drag
Show,
[96]
which raises around a quarter of a million dollars
[95]
each year in Los Angeles for AIDS assistance.
[97][98]
He has brought other celebrities to support the event, including his father, actor Martin Sheen.
[99]
Sheen's interest in
AIDS was first reported in 1987 with his support of Ryan White, an Indiana teenager who became a national
spokesperson for AIDS awareness after being infected with AIDS through a blood transfusion for his
hemophilia.
[100][101]
On March 27, 2008, Sheen and Jenna Elfman co-hosted a New York Rescue Workers Detoxification Project charity
event.
[102]
Charlie Sheen
69
Sheen donated one dollar from each ticket sold from his “My Violent Torpedo of Truth/Defeat is Not An Option
Show” 2011 tour to the Red Cross Japanese Earthquake Relief Fund.
[41]
In 2011, Sheen took on a Twitter challenge by a grieving mother to help critically ill babies born with Congenital
diaphragmatic hernia by supporting CHERUBS – The Association of Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia Research,
Awareness and Support.
[103]
On July 16, 2012 Sheen announced that he would donate at least $1 million dollars to the USO. This will be among
the largest single donations ever given to the troop morale-boosting organization.
[104]
Sheen, a lifelong fan of the Cincinnati Reds, announced in August 2012 that he would donate $50,000 to the team's
community fund, which supports various charities. The donation came after the team raised another $50,000 in an
attempt to get broadcaster Marty Brennaman to shave his head on the field after a Reds victory. After Brennaman
shaved his head, Sheen offered to match the previous donation total.
[105]
September 11 attacks
On March 20, 2006, Sheen stated that he questions the U.S. government's account of the September 11 attacks.
[106]
He said during the interview on The Alex Jones Show that the collapse of the World Trade Center towers looked like
a controlled demolition.
[107][108]
Sheen has since become a prominent advocate of the 9/11 Truth movement.
[109]
On September 8, 2009, he appealed
to President Barack Obama to set up a new investigation into the attacks. Presenting his views as a transcript of a
fictional encounter with Obama, he was characterized by the press as believing the 9/11 Commission was a
whitewash and that the administration of former President George W. Bush may have been responsible for the
attacks.
[110][111]
Filmography
Films
Year Film Role Notes
1973 Badlands Boy Under Lamppost Uncredited
1974 The Execution of Private Slovik Kid at wedding Uncredited
1979 Apocalypse Now
Extra
[112] Uncredited
1984 Red Dawn Matt Eckert
1984 Silence of the Heart Ken Cruze
1985 The Fourth Wise Man Captain of Herod's soldiers
1985 Out of the Darkness Man shaving
1985 The Boys Next Door Bo Richards
1986 A Life in the Day Short film
1986 Lucas Cappie
1986 Ferris Bueller's Day Off Garth Volbeck Cameo
1986 Platoon Private Chris Taylor
1986 The Wraith Jake Kesey
1986 Wisdom Hamburger restaurant manager Cameo
1987 Wall Street Bud Fox
1987 No Man's Land Ted Varrick
Charlie Sheen
70
1987 Three for the Road Paul
1987 Grizzly II: The Predator Concert Ron
1988 Never on Tuesday Thief Uncredited cameo
1988 Eight Men Out Oscar 'Happy' Felsch
1988 Young Guns Richard "Dick" Brewer
1989 Tale of Two Sisters Narrator Writer
1989 Major League Ricky 'Wild Thing' Vaughn
1989 Comicits Himself Short film
Producer
1989 Catchfire Bob Cameo
1990 Cadence Private First Class Franklin Fairchild Bean
1990 Courage Mountain Peter
1990 Men at Work Carl Taylor
1990 Navy SEALs Lieutenant Dale Hawkins
1990 The Rookie David Ackerman
1991 Hot Shots! Lieutenant Sean Topper Harley
1992 Beyond the Law William Patrick Steaner
Daniel "Dan" Saxon
Sid
1992 Oliver Stone: Inside Out Himself Documentary
1993 Loaded Weapon 1 Gern Cameo
1993 Deadfall Morgan "Fats" Gripp
1993 Hot Shots! Part Deux Lieutenant Sean Topper Harley
1993 The Three Musketeers Aramis
1994 Charlie Sheen's Stunt Spectacular Himself
1994 Terminal Velocity Richard "Ditch" Brodie
1994 The Chase Jackson Davis "Jack" Hammond Executive producer
1994 Major League II Ricky "Wild Thing" Vaughn
1996 Loose Women Barbie-loving bartender Cameo
1996 Frame by Frame
1996 All Dogs Go to Heaven 2 Charles B. "Charlie" Barkin Voice
1996 The Arrival Zane Zaminsky
1997 Money Talks James Russell
1997 Shadow Conspiracy Bobby Bishop
1997 Bad Day on the Block Lyle Wilder
1997 Discovery Mars Narrator Educational video
1998 Postmortem James McGregor
1998 A Letter from Death Row Cop Cameo
1998 No Code of Conduct Jacob "Jake" Peterson Executive producer and writer
1998 Free Money Bud Dyerson
Charlie Sheen
71
1998 Junket Whore Himself Documentary
1999 Lisa Picard is Famous Himself
1999 Five Aces Chris Martin
1999 Being John Malkovich Himself
2000 Rated X Artie Jay "Art" Mitchell
2001 Good Advice Ryan Edward Turner
2001 Last Party 2000 Himself Documentary
2002 The Making of Bret Michaels Himself Documentary
2003 Deeper Than Deep Charles "Chuck" E. Traynor Short film
2003 Scary Movie 3 Tom Logan
2004 The Big Bounce Bob Rogers Jr.
2004 Pauly Shore Is Dead Himself Cameo
2005 Guilty Hearts Himself Segment: "Spelling Bee"
2006 Scary Movie 4 Tom Logan Uncredited cameo
2010 Wall Street: Money Never Sleeps Bud Fox Uncredited cameo
2010 Due Date Himself / Charlie Harper Cameo
2010 I Am Himself Archive footage
2011 9/11 Truth: Hollywood Speaks Up Himself Documentary
2012 Madea's Witness Protection Himself Post-credits scene
2012 A Glimpse Inside the Mind of Charles Swan III Charles Swan III
2012 She Wants Me Himself Executive Producer
2012 Foodfight! Dex Dogtective
2013 Machete Kills President of the USA
2013 Scary Movie 5 Himself Cameo
Television
Year Film Role Notes
1986 Amazing Stories: Book Three Casey Episode: "No Day at the Beach"
1987 War of the Stars
1996 Friends Ryan Episode: "The One with the Chicken Pox"
1999 Sugar Hill Matt Episode: "Pilot"
2000–2002 Spin City Charlie Crawford Lead Role (Seasons 5–6); 45 episodes
2003–2011 Two and a Half Men Charlie Harper Lead Role (Seasons 1–8); 177 episodes
2006 Overhaulin' Himself Episode: "LeMama's Boy"
2008 The Big Bang Theory Himself Episode: "The Griffin Equivalency"
2008 CSI: Crime Scene Investigation Himself Episode: "Two and a Half Deaths"
2010 Family Guy Himself Episode: "Brian Griffin's House of Payne"
2011 Drew Carey's Improv-A-Ganza Himself 1 episode
2011 Comedy Central Roast Himself Roastee
Charlie Sheen
72
2012–present Anger Management Charlie Goodson Lead Role
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Charlie Sheen
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Charlie Sheen
76
External links
• Official website (http:// www. charliesheen.com)
• Charlie Sheen (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ name/ nm221/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Charlie Sheen (https:/ / twitter.com/ charliesheen) on Twitter
• Charlie Sheen (https:/ / www. facebook.com/ charliesheen) on Facebook
• Charlie Sheen (http:/ / www. myspace. com/ charliesheen) on Myspace
• Charlie Sheen's channel (https:/ / www. youtube. com/ user/ charliesheen) on YouTube
• Charlie Sheen: Life and Times (http:// www.life.com/ image/ first/in-gallery/55041/
charlie-sheen-life-and-times#index/ 0) – slideshow by Life magazine
Criminal Minds
77
Criminal Minds
Criminal Minds
Genre
Drama
Police procedural
[1]
Format Police procedural
Created by Jeff Davis
Starring Mandy Patinkin
Thomas Gibson
Lola Glaudini
Shemar Moore
Matthew Gray Gubler
A. J. Cook
Kirsten Vangsness
Paget Brewster
Joe Mantegna
Rachel Nichols
Jeanne Tripplehorn
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 8
No. of episodes 178 (List of episodes)
Production
Location(s) Quantico, Virginia (setting)
Los Angeles, California (filming)
Running time 42 minutes
Production company(s) The Mark Gordon Company
(2005–present)
Touchstone Television (2005–07)
ABC Studios (2007–present)
Paramount Television (2005–06)
CBS Paramount Television (2006–09)
CBS Television Studios (2009–present)
Broadcast
Original channel CBS
Picture format 1080i 16:9 (HDTV)
Audio format Dolby Digital 5.1
Original run September 22, 2005 – present
Criminal Minds
78
Chronology
Related shows Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior (2011)
External links
Website
[2]
Production website
[3]
Criminal Minds is an American police procedural television program that premiered September 22, 2005, on CBS.
The series follows a team of profilers from the FBI's Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU) based in Quantico, Virginia.
The BAU is part of the FBI National Center for the Analysis of Violent Crime.
[4]
The show differs from many
procedural dramas by focusing on profiling the criminal, rather than the crime itself. The show is produced by The
Mark Gordon Company in association with CBS Television Studios (originally Paramount Network Television then
CBS Paramount Network Television) and ABC Studios (originally Touchstone Television).
CBS announced in October 2009 that Legacy Interactive would develop a video game based on the show. The game
would require players to examine crime scenes for clues to help solve murder mysteries. The interactive puzzle game
was released in 2012, but did not feature any of the voices of the show's cast, nor were the cast involved with the
project.
[5][6][7]
On March 14, 2012, CBS renewed Criminal Minds for an eighth season,
[8]
which premiered on September 26, 2012.
Background
When the series premiered in 2005, it featured FBI Agents Jason Gideon (Mandy Patinkin), Aaron Hotchner
(Thomas Gibson), and the rest of the Behavioral Analysis Unit (BAU). For season one, the team was composed of
Agents Elle Greenaway (Lola Glaudini), Derek Morgan (Shemar Moore), Dr. Spencer Reid (Matthew Gray Gubler),
Jennifer "JJ" Jareau (A.J. Cook), and Technical Analyst Penelope Garcia (Kirsten Vangsness). During season one,
Vangsness was not in the regular cast, but instead appeared as a guest star.
Casting has been ever-changing with the coming and going over multiple characters. In season two (2006–07), Elle
leaves after episode six and is replaced in episode nine by Emily Prentiss (Paget Brewster), the daughter of an
ambassador (Kate Jackson). In season three (2007–08), Jason departs after episode two, but he is replaced several
episodes later by David Rossi (Joe Mantegna), a former FBI agent and best-selling author. In season six (2010–11),
Jennifer leaves after episode two and is replaced by Ashley Seaver (Rachel Nichols). Later in season six, Emily
leaves the show; and Cook returns, as a special guest star, to participate in Prentiss' final episode.
For season seven (2011–12), Cook had signed a two-year contract to return as a series regular at the end of season
six and for the beginning of season seven. Brewster also returned as a series regular for season seven.
[9][10]
In May
2011, CBS chose not to pick up Nichols' contract for a second season. Moore's and Gibson's contracts were both
renewed. Paget Brewster left the show after season seven,
[11]
and it was later revealed that Jeanne Tripplehorn would
join the cast as Brewster's replacement.
[12]
Criminal Minds
79
Cast and crew at a Paley Centre discussion of the show
Characters
Character Played by Position Seasons
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
Aaron
Hotchner
Thomas Gibson Unit Chief / Senior Supervisory Special Agent
Main
Derek Morgan Shemar Moore Supervisory Special Agent / Tactical Trainer Main
Spencer Reid Matthew Gray
Gubler
Supervisory Special Agent
Main
Jennifer Jareau A. J. Cook Supervisory Special Agent / Former Communications
Liaison
Main Recurring* Main
Penelope
Garcia
Kirsten Vangsness Technical Analyst / Communications Liaison
Recurring Main
David Rossi Joe Mantegna Senior Supervisory Special Agent Main
Alex Blake
[13] Jeanne Tripplehorn
FBI Linguistics Expert
[13]
Main
Jason Gideon Mandy Patinkin Senior Supervisory Special Agent Main
Elle Greenaway Lola Glaudini Supervisory Special Agent Main
Emily Prentiss Paget Brewster Supervisory Special Agent Main
Ashley Seaver Rachel Nichols FBI Cadet Main
• Although only guest-starring in the first two episodes of the sixth season, A. J. Cook was still billed as a member
of the main cast in them. She later appeared as a "special guest-star" in two more episodes that season.
Main
• Aaron Hotchner (portrayed by Thomas Gibson) is the Unit Chief of the BAU team. He is a former prosecutor
and was originally assigned to the FBI Field Office in Seattle. He is one of the most experienced agents in the
BAU. He struggles to balance the demands of his job with his family life, but his wife Haley Brooks (Meredith
Monroe) divorces him in season three. In the season five episode "100", Haley is killed by fugitive serial killer
George Foyet (C. Thomas Howell), also known as "The Reaper", whom Aaron fights and beats to death. He also
has a son named Jack Hotchner (Cade Owens), and a brother named Sean Hotchner, who appears one time in the
Criminal Minds
80
first season. After Haley is murdered, he receives sole custody of Jack, and Haley's sister, Jessica Brooks, helps
him with taking care of Jack. Aaron is now dating a woman named Beth Clemmons (Bellamy Young), who first
appears in the season seven episode, "The Bittersweet Science".
• Derek Morgan (portrayed by Shemar Moore), is a Supervisory Special Agent (and served as interim unit chief
for SSA Aaron Hotchner), is a confident, assertive, and often hot-tempered character. Raised by his mother Fran,
along with his two sisters, Sarah Morgan and Desiree Benita, Derek was a troubled Chicago youth headed for
juvenile delinquency. He was rescued and mentored by Carl Buford (Julius Tennon) who is later arrested for child
molestation; Derek had been one of his victims. After developing an interest in football, he attended Northwestern
University on a scholarship. After a football injury left him unable to play football, he joined the Chicago Police
Department's bomb squad, then moved to the BAU. He has a special relationship with Technical Analyst
Penelope Garcia, and the two have a unique shorthand and banter. In season seven premiere "It Takes a Village,"
Derek shows complete hatred towards Ian Doyle (Timothy V. Murphy) for killing SSA Emily Prentiss, but when
Emily returns alive, he has mixed feelings.
• Dr. Spencer Reid (portrayed by Matthew Gray Gubler), is a Supervisory Special Agent. He is a genius who
graduated from Las Vegas High School at age 12, and holds PhDs in Mathematics, Chemistry, and Engineering,
as well as BAs in Psychology and Sociology, and, as of season four, is working on a BA in Philosophy. It has
been revealed that he has an IQ of 187, can read a dizzying 20,000 words per minute, and has an eidetic memory.
Most of the members on the team are intimidated by his profound knowledge. He is habitually introduced as "Dr.
Spencer Reid", in contrast to the other agents' introductions as "Supervisory Special Agent". The purpose of this,
as explained by Unit Chief Aaron Hotchner in the pilot episode "Extreme Aggressor", is to create a respectable
first impression of Spencer, deflecting judgments about his age. His mother, Diana Reid (Jane Lynch), suffers
from schizophrenia, and is currently committed to a mental institution. In the season seven episode "Proof",
Spencer completely ignores SSA Jennifer Jareau for not telling him the that SSA Emily Prentiss was alive.
Spencer is also the godfather of Jennifer's son Henry.
• Jason Gideon (portrayed by Mandy Patinkin) is a Senior Supervisory Special Agent and is widely known as the
BAU's best profiler. After a series of emotionally troubling cases, and the murder of his friend Sarah by fugitive
serial killer Frank Breitkopf (Keith Carradine), he begins to feel burned out. The last straw occurs when Unit
Chief Aaron Hotchner is suspended for two weeks by the team's boss—an action for which Jason feels
responsible. He retreats to his cabin and leaves a letter for Dr. Spencer Reid, who he knows will be the one to
come looking for him. When Spencer arrives at the cabin, it is empty except for the letter and Jason's badge and
firearm. Jason is last seen remarking to a Nevada diner waitress that he does not know where he is going or how
he will know when he gets there, leaving the diner and driving off.
• David Rossi (portrayed by Joe Mantegna) is a Senior Supervisory Special Agent and is a highly experienced
profiler who once worked the BAU in its origins, then took early retirement to write books and go on lecture tours
about criminal analysis, until volunteering to return shortly after SSA Jason Gideon's departure. He has been
married three times. In the season seven episode "From Childhood's Hour," David reconnects with his first wife,
Carolyn Baker (Isabella Hofmann), who has shocking news for him. It is revealed that she came to him because
she was diagnosed with ALS (Lou Gehrig's disease). In the next episode "Epilogue", Carolyn dies of a drug
overdose. It is also revealed that he has a son who died in this episode. In the season eight episode "The Fallen" it
is revealed that David was a Marine in Vietnam.
• Jennifer "JJ" Jareau (portrayed by A. J. Cook), is a Supervisory Special Agent. In seasons one through five,
she served as the Communications Liaison to local police agencies. She dates (and later marries) William
LaMontagne (Josh Stewart), a New Orleans Police Officer, and the two have a son together, Henry LaMontagne
(Mekhai Andersen). In the season six episode "JJ", Jennifer is forced to accept a promotion at the Pentagon,
causing her departure from the team, although Unit Chief Aaron Hotchner expressed his hope that she will return
to the BAU in the future. Jennifer returned in the season six episode "Lauren" to assist the team in finding SSA
Emily Prentiss. In the season six finale "Supply and Demand", Jennifer meets with SSA David Rossi, informing
Criminal Minds
81
him that she is returning to the BAU. As of season seven, Jennifer is now a legitimate profiler, thus Technical
Analyst Penelope Garcia took over as Communications Liaison.
• Elle Greenaway (portrayed by Lola Glaudini) is a Supervisory Special Agent. Elle is assigned to the FBI Field
Office in Seattle, and assigned to the BAU as an expert in sexual offense crimes. Elle suffers extreme emotional
trauma after being shot by an unsub in the season one finale "The Fisher King (Part 1)". In the season two
premiere "The Fisher King (Part 2)", Elle survives and returns to duty, sooner than SSA Jason Gideon and Unit
Chief Aaron Hotchner would like to see. Several episodes later, while alone on stakeout of a suspected serial
rapist, she shoots the man in cold blood. The local police deem it self-defense, but Jason and Aaron question her
ability as a profiler after this. Elle resigns, turning her badge and her gun in to Aaron, with the declaration that this
is "not an admission of guilt."
• Emily Prentiss (portrayed by Paget Brewster) is a Supervisory Special Agent. She is the daughter of Ambassador
Elizabeth Prentiss (Kate Jackson). After SSA Elle Greenaway leaves the BAU, Emily shows up with papers
assigning her to the BAU. Emily is also fluent in some languages, such as Spanish, French, Greek and Arabic, and
has a working knowledge in Italian, but it is revealed that Emily has lost comprehension of her other known
language, Russian. She is apparently killed while being held hostage by Ian Doyle (Timothy V. Murphy) in the
season six episode "Lauren," but in the last scene of the episode, it is revealed that she survived her encounter
with Ian, and is seen with SSA Jennifer Jareau in Paris with passports and a bank account for protection. In the
season seven premiere "It Takes a Village", she returns alive and well, much to the team's surprise. In the season
seven finale "Run", Emily decides to leave the BAU after accepting a job to run the Interpol Office in London.
She is last seen at the wedding of JJ and New Orleans Police Officer William LaMontagne.
• Penelope Garcia (portrayed by Kirsten Vangsness) is the team's Technical Analyst. She joined the BAU after
bringing attention upon herself by illegally accessing some of their equipment; she is offered a job in lieu of a jail
sentence. She usually supports the team from her computer lab at Quantico, but occasionally joins them on
location when her skills can be used in the field. She is a leader in a support group for those who have lost
someone in their lives. Her parents were killed by a drunk driver when they were out looking for her when she
was a teen and had missed her curfew. She enjoys a flirtatious relationship with SSA Derek Morgan, often
engaging in comical banter of a sexually suggestive nature when he calls in for information. She was once shot
and almost killed by Jason Clark Battle (Bailey Chase) who lured her on a date in the season three episode
"Lucky". When SSA Jennifer Jareau leaves the BAU, Penelope takes over her job as Communications Liaison.
Penelope is also the godmother of Jennifer's son Henry.
• Ashley Seaver (portrayed by Rachel Nichols) is an FBI Cadet training at the FBI Academy in Quantico who
replaces SSA Jennifer Jareau after she is forced to accept a promotion at the Pentagon. She was chosen for her
unique background; her father, Charles Beauchamp, was a horrific serial killer known as the "Redmond Ripper",
who murdered dozens of women before being caught by the BAU, incidentally. At first, Unit Chief Aaron
Hotchner was going to make her a special, one-time consultant to the BAU, but SSA David Rossi allowed her to
finish her remedial training with the team, under the supervision of SSA Emily Prentiss. In the season six episode
"... With Friends Like These", she graduated from the Academy and had been added to the team as a
"probationary agent". In the season seven premiere "It Takes a Village", Jennifer reveals to Emily that Ashley
transferred to the Domestic Trafficking Task Force, which is led by Andi Swann (Amy Price-Francis).
• Alex Blake (portrayed by Jeanne Tripplehorn) is an FBI Linguistics Expert and professor at Georgetown
University who joins the BAU after SSA Emily Prentiss transfers to the Interpol Office in London. Alex first
appears in the season eight premiere "The Silencer". She makes a personal connection with Spencer Reid after he
reveals to her that he has begun a romantic relationship with a woman who he has never met.
Criminal Minds
82
Recurring
• Haley Hotchner, portrayed by Meredith Monroe (recurring seasons 1–5), is Agent Aaron Hotchner's wife and the
mother of his only son Jack Hotchner, born in late 2005. The couple's marriage is troubled, due to Haley's
perception of Aaron being more devoted to his job and BAU team than to his family. This subplot progresses, and
by the end of episode two of season three, Haley moves out, taking Jack with her. Later in the season, Haley
serves Aaron with divorce papers, which he decides to sign without contest in order to save his relationship with
his son. Haley is occasionally referred to but not seen again until the first episode of season five when The Reaper
(C. Thomas Howell) stabs Aaron and steals Haley's address. Aaron has them put into protective custody. Aaron
becomes obsessed with bringing The Reaper to justice so he can see his son and his ex-wife again. In the season
five episode "100", The Reaper kills the US Marshal assigned to protect Haley, then lures her to Aaron's home,
telling her that he is the replacement and that Aaron is dead. Meeting her alone at the house, he forces her at
gunpoint to phone Aaron so he can hear his ex-wife and son being killed. Aaron gives Jack a coded message to
hide and says a tearful goodbye to Haley before The Reaper shoots her. Aaron reaches the house ahead of the rest
of his team and engages in a life-or-death fist fight with The Reaper. He beats him to death, then finds his son
alive in his hiding place.
• Jordan Todd, portrayed by Meta Golding (season 4), is SSA Jennifer Jareau's handpicked replacement to serve as
the BAU's Media Director during Jennifer's maternity leave, from late 2008 through early 2009. Jordan had
formerly served in the FBI Counterterrorism Division, but only follows Jennifer for one day of shadowing before
Jennifer goes into labor. Jordan seemed to get along well with most of the team, even flirting platonically with
SSA Derek Morgan. She is especially close with SSA David Rossi, who is seen to counsel her while they are on
cases. However, Jordan clashed several times with Unit Chief Aaron Hotchner.
• Dr. Diana Reid, portrayed by Jane Lynch (seasons 1–4), is the mother of BAU team member Dr. Spencer Reid.
Like her son, she has a high IQ and was once a university professor of literature, but suffers from schizophrenia
and is hospitalized in a Las Vegas sanitarium, where Spencer committed her when he was eighteen. Her husband
William Reid (Taylor Nichols) left prior to her diagnosis, because of his inability to cope with her illness and he
could not deal with protecting her after she witnessed a murder. She is functional when on her medication, but
frequently lapses into regression to her university career. Diana spent much time reading aloud to Spencer while
he was growing up, and he continues to write her a letter every day. She is proud of her son, but disapproves of
the FBI as it is a government run organization and she refers to his colleagues as "fascists".
• Erin Strauss, portrayed by Jayne Atkinson (seasons 2–present), is the BAU Unit Chief's direct superior. Her FBI
experience lies in administration, as she has no actual field experience. Strauss proves to be only concerned with
herself and appearances within the Bureau, going so far as to force SSA Jennifer Jareau to accept a promotion to
the Pentagon in the season six episode "JJ".
• Kevin Lynch, portrayed by Nicholas Brendon (seasons 3–present), first appears in the season 3 episode
"Penelope", in which he is required to search Penelope Garcia's computer to learn who shot her. Kevin sends the
team live video alerting that the unsub is in the BAU headquarters. He is intensely impressed by Penelope's
computer skills, and the feeling is mutual. At the end of the episode, Penelope is introduced to Kevin, and the two
have been romantically involved ever since. In the season seven episode "I Love You, Tommy Brown" Kevin
proposes to Penelope, but she turns him down saying "things are going too fast" but by the end of season seven,
the two seem set on reuniting.
• William LaMontagne, Jr., portrayed by Josh Stewart (seasons 2–present), is SSA Jennifer Jareau's husband and
the father of Jennifer's son, Henry LaMontagne. Will and Jennifer met while she was working a case in his
hometown. As of early season four, Will had moved to Virginia, and is a stay-at-home dad for Henry until he
became a detective for the Metropolitan Police Department (Washington DC) as shown in the season seven finale
"Run". It is also stated that the couple had made a deal that in a life-threatening situation, they would do
everything so that one of them could live to look after Henry. Jennifer accepted his marriage proposal and they
were married officially, however when their son was born, they did exchange rings with insets of Henry's
Criminal Minds
83
birthstone, citrine. He is seen briefly in the 100th episode getting medicine for Henry with Jennifer, as well as the
season five episode "The Slave of Duty", accompanying Jennifer and the team at Haley Hotchner's funeral.
Episodes
Seven complete seasons of Criminal Minds have been aired, with the eighth season starting on September 26, 2012.
As of February 20,  2013, a total of 177 episodes have aired.
Season No. of
episodes
Originally aired DVD release date
Season premiere Season finale North America (R1) United Kingdom (R2) Australia (R4) Discs
1 22 September 22, 2005 May 10, 2006
November 28, 2006
[14]
February 12, 2007
[15]
November 3, 2007
[16] 6
2 23 September 20, 2006 May 16, 2007
October 2, 2007
[17]
May 5, 2008
[18]
April 1, 2008
[19] 6
3 20 September 26, 2007 May 21, 2008
September 16, 2008
[20]
April 6, 2009
[21]
March 18, 2009
[22] 5
4 26 September 24, 2008 May 20, 2009
September 8, 2009
[23]
March 1, 2010
[24]
March 9, 2010
[25] 7
5 23 September 23, 2009 May 26, 2010
September 7, 2010
[26] February 28, 2011 March 2, 2011 6
6 24 September 22, 2010 May 18, 2011
September 6, 2011
[27]
November 28, 2011
[28]
November 30,
2011
[29]
6
7 24
September 21, 2011
[30]
May 16, 2012
[31] September 4, 2012
November 26, 2012
[32] November 7, 2012 6
8 24 September 26, 2012 TBA N/A N/A N/A N/A
Spin-off
The spin-off debuted February 16, 2011, on CBS
[33]
but was canceled after a short 13 episode season due to low
ratings.
[34]
Critical reception
Despite the first two seasons receiving largely positive reviews, subsequent reviews have been mixed to negative.
The show holds a Metacritic score of 42/100 as of May 11, 2012.
[35]
Dorothy Rabinowitz said, in her review for the Wall Street Journal, that "From the evidence of the first few
episodes, Criminal Minds may be a hit, and deservedly" and gave particular praise to both Matthew Gray Gubler and
Mandy Patinkin's performance.
[36]
The New York Times was less than positive, saying "The problem with "Criminal Minds" is its many confusing
maladies, applied to too many characters" and felt that "as a result, the cast seems like a spilled trunk of broken toys,
with which the audience - and perhaps the creators - may quickly become bored."
[37]
The Chicago Tribune reviewer, Sid Smith, felt that the show "May well be worth a look" though he too criticized the
"confusing plots and characters."
[38]
PopMatters panned the show, saying the show "confuses critical thinking with supernatural abilities" and criticized
the "stereotypical characters". The Los Angeles Times gave a similar review.
[39]
However, both reviewers praised
Patinkin and Gubler's performances.
[40]
Criminal Minds
84
American ratings
Broadcast
Seasonal rankings (based on average total viewers per episode) of Criminal Minds.
Note: Each U.S. network television season starts in late September and ends in late May, which coincides with
the completion of May sweeps.
Season Episodes Timeslot (EST) Original Airing Rank Viewers
(in millions)
Season premiere Season finale TV season
1 22 Wednesday 9:00 pm September 22, 2005 May 10, 2006 2005–06 No. 28
12.63
[41]
2 23 September 20, 2006 May 16, 2007 2006–07 No. 24
14.05
[42]
3 20 September 26, 2007 May 21, 2008 2007–08 No. 24
12.78
[43]
4 26 September 24, 2008 May 20, 2009 2008–09 No. 11
14.95
[44]
5 23 September 23, 2009 May 26, 2010 2009–10 No. 16
13.70
[45]
6 24 September 22, 2010 May 18, 2011 2010–11 No. 10
14.11
[46]
7 24 September 21, 2011 May 16, 2012 2011–12 No. 15
13.20
[47]
8 24 September 26, 2012 TBA 2013 2012–13 No. 12
13.51 (to date)
[48]
• In season 2 episode "The Big Game" Criminal Minds set a series high rating by attracting an audience of 26.31
million viewers and a 18–49 rating of 9.3.
[49]
DVR
The show ranked number nine in DVR playback (2.35 million viewers), according to Nielsen prime DVR lift data
from September 22, 2008 – November 23, 2008.
[50]
For the week of October 10, 2010, Criminal Minds ranked sixth in DVR playback (2.40 million viewers), and
seventh in the demo playback (1.0 demo) according to Nielsen prime DVR lift data.
[51]
Syndication
The series is in syndication on A&E Network and ION Television.
[52]
References
[1] "Criminal Minds: Season 01" (http:/ / www. allmovie. com/ movie/ criminal-minds-season-01-v353621). Allmovie. . Retrieved November 11,
2012.
[2] http:/ / www.cbs. com/ shows/ criminal_minds
[3] http:/ / www.abcstudiosmedianet. com/ web/ showpage/ showpage. aspx?program_id=CB2042& type=lead
[4] NCAVC homepage (http:// www. fbi.gov/ about-us/ cirg/ investigations-and-operations-support)
[5] "Criminal Minds Game Blog" (http:/ / www. criminalmindsgame.com) (Press release). November 1, 2011. .
[6] "CBS Consumer Products Announces Eight New Video Games Based on Popular TV Shows" (http:/ / games. ign.com/ articles/ 104/
1041583p1. html) (Press release). CBS Interactive. October 29, 2009. .
[7] "Interview: Thomas Gibson" (http:// www. shavemagazine.com/ entertainment/ Interview-Thomas-Gibson). ShaveMagazine.com (http://
www. shavemagazine. com/ ). . Retrieved May 10, 2012.
[8] Gorman, Bill (March 14, 2012). "CBS Renews 18 Shows: 'The Good Wife,' 'Blue Bloods,' '2 Broke Girls,' 'The Mentalist,' 'Mike & Molly' &
Many More" (http:/ / tvbythenumbers. zap2it. com/ 2012/ 03/ 14/
cbs-renews-18-shows-the-good-wife-blue-bloods-2-broke-girls-the-mentalist-mike-molly-many-more/ 124487/ ). TV by the Numbers. .
Retrieved March 14, 2012.
Criminal Minds
85
[9] JJ Is Back! AJ Cook Inks 2-Year Deal To Return To 'Criminal Minds' (http:/ / www. deadline. com/ 2011/ 04/
jj-is-back-aj-cook-inks-2-year-deal-to-return-to-criminal-minds/ )
[10] It's Official: Criminal Minds Welcomes Back Paget Brewster, Bids Farewell to Rachel Nichols (http:// www. tvline.com/ 2011/ 05/
its-official-criminal-minds-welcomes-back-paget-brewster-bids-farewell-to-rachel-nichols/ )
[11] Andreeva, Nellie (February 15, 2012). "Paget Brewster To Leave 'Criminal Minds'" (http:// www. deadline.com/ 2012/ 02/
paget-brewster-criminal-minds-leaving-cbs-drama/). Deadline.com. . Retrieved February 15, 2012.
[12] "Big Love Jeanne Tripplehorn becomes Criminal Minds series regular" (http:// www. digitalspy. co.uk/ ustv/ news/ a387187/
big-loves-jeanne-tripplehorn-becomes-criminal-minds-series-regular.html). Digital Spy. . Retrieved June 18, 2012.
[13] Jeffery, Morgan (June 27, 2012). "'Criminal Minds': Jeanne Tripplehorn role revealed" (http:// www. digitalspy.co. uk/ ustv/ news/
a390039/ criminal-minds-jeanne-tripplehorn-role-revealed.html). . Retrieved June 29, 2012.
[14] ASIN: B000ION72Q, Criminal Minds - The First Season
[15] ASIN (amazon.co.uk): B000M2E7G4, Criminal Minds - Season 1 Complete
[16] "Criminal Minds - The 1st Season" (http://www.ezydvd.com.au/ item.zml/803591). EzyDVD. . Retrieved March 19, 2010.
[17] ASIN: B000SQFC40, Criminal Minds - The Second Season
[18] ASIN (amazon.co.uk): B0012RA9AQ, Criminal Minds - Season 2 Complete
[19] "Criminal Minds - The 2nd Season" (http:/ / www. ezydvd.com.au/ item.zml/ 797846). EzyDVD. . Retrieved March 19, 2010.
[20] ASIN: B001AI776G, Criminal Minds: Season 3
[21] ASIN (amazon.co.uk): B001NN415I, Criminal Minds - Season 3 Complete
[22] "Criminal Minds - Season 3" (http:/ / www. ezydvd. com. au/ item.zml/804107). EzyDVD. . Retrieved March 19, 2010.
[23] ASIN: B001G0MFKQ, Criminal Minds: The Complete Fourth Season
[24] ASIN (amazon.co.uk): B002TG39YC, Criminal Minds Season 4
[25] "Criminal Minds - Season 4" (http:/ / www. ezydvd. com. au/ item.zml/810656). EzyDVD. . Retrieved March 19, 2010.
[26] ASIN: B003TFAJ18, Criminal Minds: The Complete Fifth Season
[27] ASIN: B003R0MEZ4, Criminal Minds: The Complete Sixth Season
[28] ASIN (amazon.co.uk): B004JHXWD2, Criminal Minds Season 6 [DVD]
[29] Lambert, David (June 20, 2011). "Criminal Minds - 'The 6th Season' DVDs Announced by CBS/Paramount: Date, Cost, Packaging
**UPDATE: DVD Supplements**" (http:// www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Criminal-Minds-Season-6/ 15545). TVShowsOnDVD.com. .
Retrieved January 19, 2012.
[30] Seidman, Robert (June 29, 2011). "CBS Announces Fall 2011 Premiere Dates" (http:/ / tvbythenumbers.zap2it. com/ 2011/ 06/ 29/
cbs-announces-fall-2011-premiere-dates/ 96883/ ). TV by the Numbers. . Retrieved June 29, 2011.
[31] Bibel, Sara (March 22, 2012). "CBS Announces Season Finale Dates and Storylines" (http:// tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/ 2012/ 03/ 22/
cbs-announces-season-finale-dates-and-storylines/ 125592/ ). TV by the Numbers. . Retrieved March 22, 2012.
[32] [32] http//www.amazon.co.uk/Criminal-Minds-Season-7-DVD/dp/B007BDEWI0/ref=pd_cp_d_h__0
[33] Nellie Andreeva (May 17, 2010). "CBS Picks Up 'Criminal Minds' Spinoff To Series" (http:/ / www. deadline.com/ 2010/ 05/
cbs-picks-up-criminal-minds-spinoff-to-series/ ). Deadline.com. . Retrieved May 17, 2010.
[34] Andreeva, Nellie (May 17, 2011). "CBS renews 'CSI:NY', cancels 'Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior'" (http:// www.deadline. com/2011/
05/cbs-renews-csi-ny-cancels-criminal-minds-suspect-behavior/). Deadline.com. . Retrieved May 17, 2011.
[35] Critic Reviews for Criminal Minds Season 1 at Metacritic (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ tv/ criminal-minds/season-1/ critic-reviews)
[36] Circle of Genius - WSJ.com (http:// online. wsj. com/ article/ SB112864294888262284.html)
[37] "On the Case, a Crack Team of Tic-Ridden F.B.I. Agents" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 09/ 28/ arts/ television/ 28crim.html)
[38] Topic Galleries - chicagotribune.com (http:/ / www. chicagotribune.com/ topic/ )
[39] McNamara, Mary. "TV Review: 'Criminal Minds: Suspect Behavior' Goes with Its Gut." Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times, Feb 16,
2011. Web. (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 2011/ feb/ 16/ entertainment/la-et-criminal-minds-review-20110216) May 18, 2012.
[40] Criminal Minds < PopMatters (http:// www. popmatters. com/ pm/ review/criminal-minds-051005)
[41] "ABC Television Network 2005–2006 Primetime Ranking Report" (http:/ / abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/dispDNR. aspx?id=053106_05).
(May 31, 2006). ABC Medianet. Retrieved November 6, 2007.
[42] "ABC Television Network 2006–2007 Primetime Ranking Report" (http:/ / abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/dispDNR. aspx?id=053007_08).
(May 30, 2007). ABC Medianet. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
[43] "ABC Television Network 2007–2008 Primetime Ranking Report" (http:/ / abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/dispDNR. aspx?id=052808_06).
(May 28, 2008). ABC Medianet. Retrieved July 3, 2009.
[44] "ABC Television Network 2008–2009 Primetime Ranking Report" (http:/ / abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/dispDNR. aspx?id=060209_05).
(June 2, 2009). ABC Medianet. Retrieved May 31, 2011.
[45] "Final 2009-10 Broadcast Primetime Show Average Viewership" (http:/ / tvbythenumbers.com/ 2010/ 06/ 16/
final-2009-10-broadcast-primetime-show-average-viewership/ 54336). TV by the Numbers. June 16, 2010. . Retrieved July 29, 2010.
[46] "2010-11 Season Broadcast Primetime Show Viewership Averages" (http:// tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/ 2011/ 06/ 01/
2010-11-season-broadcast-primetime-show-viewership-averages/ 94407/ ). TV by the Numbers. June 1, 2011. . Retrieved June 1, 2011.
[47] Gormam, Bill (May 25, 2012). "Complete List Of 2011-12 Season TV Show Viewership: 'Sunday Night Football' Tops, Followed By
'American Idol,' 'NCIS' & 'Dancing With The Stars'" (http:// tvbythenumbers.zap2it. com/ 2012/ 05/ 24/
complete-list-of-2011-12-season-tv-show-viewership-sunday-night-football-tops-followed-by-american-idol-ncis-dancing-with-the-stars/
Criminal Minds
86
135785/ ). TV by the Numbers. . Retrieved May 25, 2012.
[48] "Nielsen Television - TV Ratings for Primetime: 2012-13 Season-to-Date" (http:// www. zap2it.com/ tv/ ratings/
zap-season-ratings,0,1937498.htmlstory). zap2it.com. October 15, 2012. . Retrieved October 19, 2012.
[49] "Weekly Program Rankings" (http:// abcmedianet. com/ web/ dnr/ dispDNR. aspx?id=020607_05). ABC Medianet. February 6, 2007. .
Retrieved March 15, 2010.
[50] "Breaking News - Cbs Number One Live - And In Playback" (http:/ /www.thefutoncritic.com/ news. aspx?date=12/ 10/ 08&
id=20081210cbs01). TheFutonCritic.com. June 29, 2010. . Retrieved July 6, 2010.
[51] Gorman, Bill (November 1, 2010). "Live+7 DVR Ratings: Grey's Anatomy, Fringe, The Mentalist Top Week's Rankings" (http:/ /
tvbythenumbers.com/ 2010/ 11/ 01/ live7-dvr-ratings-greys-anatomy-fringe-the-mentalist-top-weeks-rankings/70322). TV by the Numbers. .
Retrieved February 25, 2011.
[52] Mediaweek.com (http:// www. mediaweek. com/ mw/ content_display/ news/ national-broadcast/
e3i8d7762ca1514653dd1bced45972371d0)
External links
• Official website (http:// www. cbs. com/ shows/ criminal_minds)
• Criminal Minds (http:/ / tv. yahoo. com/ show/ 38090/ ) at Yahoo! TV
• Criminal Minds (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0452046/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Criminal Minds (http:/ / www. tv.com/ shows/ criminal-minds/ ) at TV.com
• A&E's Criminal Minds site (http:/ / www. aetv.com/ criminal-minds/index. jsp)
• AXN's Criminal Minds site (http:/ / www. canalaxn. com/ criminal-minds)
• "List of Criminal Minds Episodes" (http:/ / www.tvguide.com/ tvshows/ criminal-minds/192244). TV Guide.
• Gamespy Article On The Game (http:// au.pc.gamespy. com/ pc/ criminal-minds/)
• Legacy Interactive Official Game Site (http:// www.criminalmindsgame.com/ )
• Criminal Minds on the Criminal Minds Wikia
Darren Dalton
87
Darren Dalton
Darren Dalton
Born Darren Jack Dalton
February 9, 1965
Powell, Wyoming, United States
Occupation Film, television actor, writer
Years active 1983-present
Spouse(s) Kristen Dalton (1993-2009)
Darren Jack Dalton (born February 9, 1965) is an American actor, screenwriter, and film producer.
Life and career
Dalton was born in Powell, Wyoming. Dalton's career began in 1982 when cast as Randy Anderson by Francis Ford
Coppola during a nationwide talent search for the ground breaking teen ensemble The Outsiders.
After The Outsiders, Dalton reunited with C. Thomas Howell and Patrick Swayze in Red Dawn, a story of a group of
teenagers fighting Soviet Union troops who have invaded the United States.
[1]
Dalton portrayed Daryl Bates, the son
of the mayor.
After Red Dawn, Dalton's first made-for-television movie was Brotherhood of Justice as a rebellious teenager,
followed by Daddy and the short-lived, but critically acclaimed TV ensemble drama The Best Times. He has also had
numerous TV guest appearances on Highway to Heaven, Quantum Leap, Alien Nation and as General Custer on
Doctor Quinn, Medicine Woman. Shortly after, he returned to theatrical releases, such as Dancing in the Forest and
The Wolves.
Turning to screenwriting full time, Dalton did not appear in any other TV shows or movies until 2007's The Stolen
Moments of September. After the movie, he fully returned to acting, in War of the Worlds 2, Children of the Hunt,
Darkroom (which he also Executive Produced and provided music for), the 3-D zombie thriller Day of the Living
and The Day the Earth Stopped which Dalton also wrote and produced, and The Land That Time Forgot, which
Dalton adapted from the Edgar Rice Burroughs novel.
Darren Dalton
88
Filmography
• The Outsiders (1983)
• National Lampoon's Joy of Sex (1984)
• Red Dawn (1984)
• Brotherhood of Justice (1986)
• Daddy (1987)
• Dancing in the Forest (1991)
• Montana (1990)
• To Protect and Serve (1992)
• Scanner Cop (1994)
• Hourglass (1996)
• Pure Danger (1996)
• Sleeping Dogs (1998)
• The Stolen Moments of September (2007)
• Darkroom (2008)
• War of the Worlds 2 (2008)
• The Day the Earth Stopped (2008)
• Children of the Hunt (2008)
• The Jailhouse (2009)
• The Land That Time Forgot (2009)
• Vault of Darkness (2009)
• The Auctioneers (2010)
• The Cottage (2012)
References
[1] Basinger, Jeanine (15 May 2003). World War Two combat film (http:/ / books. google.com/ books?id=lQ3GZuKbidMC& pg=PA326).
Wesleyan University Press. p. 326. ISBN 978-0-8195-6623-2. . Retrieved 15 September 2010.
External links
• Darren Dalton (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0198257/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Dashiell Howell
89
Dashiell Howell
Dashiell "Dash"
Howell
Born Dashiell Anderson Sage
Howell
January 2, 1997
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Dashiell Howell (born January 2, 1997) is an American child actor, son of C. Thomas Howell. Dash is best known
for portraying Alex Herbert alongside his father in The Asylum's science fiction horror film H. G. Wells' War of the
Worlds, one of three 2005 film adaptations of the novel by H.G. Wells. He appeared again in the sequel, War of the
Worlds 2: The Next Wave.
Filmography
Films
• H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds (aka Invasion) (2005) as Alex "Rangler" Herbert
• Dreamland (2007) as Young Blake
• War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave (2008) as Alex Herbert
External links
• Dashiell Howell
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ name/ nm1553024/
Dead Fire
90
Dead Fire
Dead Fire
Directed by Robert Lee
Produced by Michelle Gahagan
Written by Chris Hyde
Andrew J. McEvoy
Starring Colin Cunningham
Monika Schnarre
Matt Frewer
C. Thomas Howell
Rachel Hayward
Lucie Zednícková
Gerard Whelan
Cinematography David Pelletier
Editing by Richard Benwick
Release date(s) 19 July 1997
Country Canada
Language English
Dead Fire is a 1997 made for television Canadian science fiction film starring Colin Cunningham as a soldier on a
space station. He is assigned to the "freezer," for prisoners as a result of a botched operation. When the prisoners
escape, he must stop them from taking over the space station.
External links
• Dead Fire
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0163597/
Dead Letters (film)
91
Dead Letters (film)
Dead Letters
A poster with the film's original title: Cold Ones
Directed by Garrett Clancy
Produced by Garrett Clancy
Josephina Sykes
Patricia Anne Isgate
Written by Garrett Clancy
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Duane Whitaker
Adam Nelson
Geoffrey Lewis
Kim Darby
Joe Unger
Music by David Baerwald
Cinematography Scott Spears
Editing by Richard Casey
David H. Lloyd
Studio(s) Brightway Productions Inc.
Distributed by Leo Films
Running time 90 min.
Country United States
Language English
Dead Letters is a 2007 independent feature film written and directed by Garrett Clancy, executive produced by Paul
Hellweg,
[1]
produced by Josephina Sykes, and co-produced by Brad Sykes. It stars C. Thomas Howell, Geoffrey
Lewis, Kim Darby, Joe Unger and Duane Whitaker. It was originally entitled Cold Ones, and was retitled by
Distributor, Leo Films, for its 2009 DVD release. It won Honorable Mention in the feature film category at the 2007
Buffalo Niagara Film Festival.
[2]
The film's score was composed by David Baerwald who also has several songs on
the soundtrack, including "Hi Ho" with vocals by Terra Naomi. Dead Letters (as Cold Ones) also played at the 2007
Real to Reel Film Festival
[3]
in North Carolina, and both The California Independent
[4]
and the Kern Projections
Film Festivals.
Dead Letters (film)
92
References
[1] Welcome to Paul Hellweg.com (http:/ / www. paulhellweg. com)
[2] Buffalo Niagara Film Festival (http:// www. buffaloniagarafilmfestival.com/ archive/ archive07.php)
[3] Real to Reel Film Festival (http:/ / www. ccartscouncil. org/ realtoreel/)
[4] California Independent Film Festival | Moraga, CA (http:/ /www. caiff.org/)
External links
• Dead Letters (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0486561/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• (http:// www. brightwayfilms.com/ )
• (http:/ / leofilms.com/ index.distribution.html)
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
93
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
[1]
Directed by Steven Spielberg
Produced by Steven Spielberg
Kathleen Kennedy
Written by Melissa Mathison
Starring Dee Wallace
Peter Coyote
Henry Thomas
Drew Barrymore
Music by John Williams
Cinematography Allen Daviau
Editing by Carol Littleton
Studio(s) Amblin Entertainment
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) •• June 11, 1982
Running time 120 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $10.5 million
Box office
$792,910,554
[2]
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (often referred to simply as E.T.) is a 1982 American science fiction film co-produced
and directed by Steven Spielberg, written by Melissa Mathison and starring Henry Thomas, Dee Wallace, Robert
MacNaughton, Drew Barrymore, and Peter Coyote. It tells the story of Elliott (played by Thomas), a lonely boy who
befriends an extraterrestrial, dubbed "E.T.", who is stranded on Earth. Elliott and his siblings help the extraterrestrial
return home while attempting to keep it hidden from their mother and the government.
The concept for E.T. was based on an imaginary friend Spielberg created after his parents' divorce in 1960. In 1980,
Spielberg met Mathison and developed a new story from the stalled science fiction/horror film project Night Skies.
The film was shot from September to December 1981 in California on a budget of US$10.5 million. Unlike most
motion pictures, the film was shot in roughly chronological order, to facilitate convincing emotional performances
from the young cast.
Released by Universal Pictures, E.T. was a blockbuster, surpassing Star Wars to become the highest-grossing film of
all time—a record it held for ten years until Jurassic Park, another Spielberg-directed film, surpassed it in 1993.
Critics acclaimed it as a timeless story of friendship, and it ranks as the greatest science fiction film ever made in a
Rotten Tomatoes survey. The film was re-released in 1985, and then again in 2002 to celebrate the film's 20th
anniversary, with altered shots and additional scenes.
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
94
Plot
The film opens in a California forest as a group of alien botanists collect flora samples. U.S. government agents
appear on the scene (in various civilian 4x4 trucks of the era), and the aliens flee in their spaceship, mistakenly
leaving one of their own behind. The scene shifts to a suburban home, where a 10-year-old boy named Elliott is
trying to hang out with his 16-year-old brother Michael and his friends. As he returns from picking up a pizza, Elliott
discovers that something is hiding in their tool shed. The creature promptly flees upon being discovered. Despite his
family's disbelief, Elliott lures the alien from the forest to his bedroom using a trail of Reese's Pieces candy. Before
he goes to sleep, Elliott realizes the alien is imitating his movements.
Elliott feigns illness the next morning to stay home from school and play with the alien. Later that day, Michael and
their 5-year-old sister Gertie meet the alien. They decide to keep him hidden from their mother. When they ask it
about its origin, the alien levitates several balls to represent its solar system and then demonstrates its powers by
reviving a dead flower plant.
At school the next day, Elliott begins to experience a psychic connection with the alien. Elliot exhibits signs of
intoxication due to the alien drinking beer, and he begins freeing all the frogs from a dissection class. As the alien
watches John Wayne kiss Maureen O'Hara in The Quiet Man, Elliott's link causes him to kiss a girl he likes.
Makeshift communicator used by E.T. to phone
home. Among its constitute parts is a Speak &
Spell, an umbrella lined with tinfoil, and a coffee
can filled with other electronics.
The alien learns to speak English by repeating what Gertie says as she
watches Sesame Street and, at Elliott's urging, dubs itself "E.T." E.T.
reads a comic strip where Buck Rogers, stranded, calls for help by
building a makeshift communication device, and is inspired to try it
himself. He gets Elliott's help in building a device to "phone home" by
using a Speak & Spell toy. Michael notices that E.T.'s health is
declining and that Elliott is referring to himself as "we".
On Halloween, Michael and Elliott dress E.T. as a ghost so they can
sneak him out of the house. Elliott and E.T. ride a bicycle to the forest,
where E.T. makes a successful call home. The next morning, Elliott
wakes up in the field, only to find E.T. gone, so he returns home to his
distressed family. Michael searches for and finds E.T. dying in a ditch
and takes him to Elliott, who is also dying. Mary becomes frightened
when she discovers her son's illness and the dying alien, just as
government agents invade the house.
Scientists set up a medical facility there, quarantining Elliott and E.T. Their link disappears and E.T. then appears to
die while Elliott recovers. A grief-stricken Elliott is left alone with the motionless alien when he notices a dead
flower, the plant E.T. had previously revived, coming back to life. E.T. reanimates and reveals that his people are
returning. Elliott and Michael steal a van that E.T. had been loaded into and a chase ensues, with Michael's friends
joining them as they attempt to evade the authorities by bicycle. Suddenly facing a dead end, they escape as E.T.
uses telekinesis to lift them into the air and toward the forest.
Standing near the spaceship, E.T.'s heart glows as he prepares to return home. Mary, Gertie, and "Keys", a
government agent, show up. E.T. says goodbye to Michael and Gertie, as Gertie presents E.T. with the flower that he
had revived. Before entering the spaceship, E.T. tells Elliott "I'll be right here", pointing his glowing finger to
Elliott's forehead. He then picks up the flower Gertie gave him, walks into the spaceship, and takes off, leaving a
rainbow in the sky as Elliott (and the rest of them) watches the ship leave.
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
95
Cast
• Henry Thomas as Elliott, a lonely 10-year-old boy. Elliott longs for a good friend, whom he finds in E.T., who
was left behind on Earth. Elliott adopts the stranded alien and they form a mental, physical, and emotional bond.
• Robert MacNaughton as Michael, Elliott's football-playing 16-year-old brother who often makes fun of him.
• Drew Barrymore as Gertie, Elliott's mischievous 5-year-old sister. She is sarcastic and initially terrified of E.T.,
but grows to love the alien.
• Dee Wallace as Mary, the children's mother, recently separated from her husband. She is mostly oblivious to the
alien's presence in her house.
• Peter Coyote as "Keys", a government agent. His face is not shown until the film's second half, his name is never
mentioned, and he is identified by the key rings that prominently hang from his belt. He tells Elliott that he has
waited to see an alien since the age of 10.
• K. C. Martel, Sean Frye and C. Thomas Howell as Greg, Steve and Tyler, Michael's friends. They help Elliott and
E.T. evade the authorities during the film's climax.
• Erika Eleniak as the young girl Elliott kisses in class.
Having worked with Cary Guffey on Close Encounters of the Third Kind, Spielberg felt confident in working with a
cast composed mostly of child actors.
[3]
For the role of Elliott, he auditioned hundreds of boys
[4]
before Robert Fisk
suggested Henry Thomas for the role.
[5]
Thomas, who auditioned in an Indiana Jones costume, did not perform well
in the formal testing, but got the filmmakers' attention in an improvised scene.
[3]
Thoughts of his dead dog inspired
his convincing tears.
[6]
Robert MacNaughton auditioned eight times to play Michael, sometimes with boys
auditioning for Elliott. Spielberg felt Drew Barrymore had the right imagination for mischievous young Gertie after
she impressed him with a story that she led a punk rock band.
[5]
Spielberg enjoyed working with the children, and he
later said that the experience made him feel ready to be a father.
[7]
The major voice work for E.T. was performed by Pat Welsh, an elderly woman who lived in Marin County,
California. Welsh smoked two packets of cigarettes a day, which gave her voice a quality that sound effects creator
Ben Burtt liked. She spent nine-and-a-half hours recording her part, and was paid $380 by Burtt for her services.
[8]
Burtt also recorded 16 other people and various animals to create E.T.'s "voice". These included Spielberg; Debra
Winger; Burtt's sleeping wife, who had a cold; a burp from his USC film professor; and raccoons, sea otters, and
horses.
[9][10]
Doctors working at the USC Medical Center were recruited to play the doctors who try to save E.T. after government
agents take over Elliott's home. Spielberg felt that actors in the roles, performing lines of technical medical dialogue,
would come across as unnatural.
[7]
During post-production, Spielberg decided to cut a scene featuring Harrison Ford
as the headmaster at Elliott's school. The scene featured Ford's character reprimanding Elliott for his behavior in
science class and warning of the dangers of underage drinking; he is then taken aback as Elliott's chair rises from the
floor, while E.T. is levitating his "phone" equipment up the staircase with Gertie.
[5]
Production
Development
After his parents' divorce in 1960, Spielberg filled the void with an imaginary alien companion. Spielberg said that
E.T. was "a friend who could be the brother I never had and a father that I didn't feel I had anymore."
[11]
During
1978, Spielberg announced he would shoot a film entitled Growing Up, which he would film in 28 days. The project
was set aside because of delays on 1941, but the concept of making a small autobiographical film about childhood
would stay with Spielberg.
[8]
He also thought about a follow-up to Close Encounters of the Third Kind, and began to
develop a darker project he had planned with John Sayles called Night Skies in which malevolent aliens terrorize a
family.
[8]
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
96
Filming Raiders of the Lost Ark in Tunisia left Spielberg bored, and memories of his childhood creation
resurfaced.
[12]
He told screenwriter Melissa Mathison about Night Skies, and developed a subplot from the failed
project, in which Buddy, the only friendly alien, befriends an autistic child. Buddy's abandonment on Earth in the
script's final scene inspired the E.T. concept.
[12]
Mathison wrote a first draft titled E.T. and Me in eight weeks,
[12]
which Spielberg considered perfect.
[5]
The script went through two more drafts, which deleted an "Eddie
Haskell"-esque friend of Elliott. The chase sequence was also created, and Spielberg also suggested having the scene
where E.T. got drunk.
[8]
Columbia Pictures, which had been producing Night Skies, met Spielberg to discuss the
script. The studio passed on it, calling it "a wimpy Walt Disney movie", so Spielberg approached the more receptive
Sid Sheinberg, president of MCA.
[13]
Ed Verreaux created a $700,000 prototype for E.T., which Spielberg deemed useless.
[8]
Carlo Rambaldi, who
designed the aliens for Close Encounters of the Third Kind, was hired to design the animatronics of E.T. Rambaldi's
own painting Women of Delta led him to give the creature a unique, extendable neck.
[5]
The creature's face was
inspired by the faces of Carl Sandburg, Albert Einstein and Ernest Hemingway.
[14]
Producer Kathleen Kennedy
visited the Jules Stein Eye Institute to study real and glass eyeballs. She hired Institute staffers to create E.T.'s eyes,
which she felt were particularly important in engaging the audience.
[3]
Four E.T. heads were created for filming, one
as the main animatronic and the others for facial expressions, as well as a costume.
[14]
Two dwarfs, Tamara De
Treaux and Pat Bilon,
[8]
as well as 12-year-old Matthew DeMeritt, who was born without legs,
[15]
took turns
wearing the costume, depending on what scene was being filmed. DeMeritt actually walked on his hands and played
all scenes where E.T. walked awkwardly or fell over. The head of the E.T. puppet was placed above the head of the
actors, and the actors could see through slits in the puppet's chest.
[5]
Caprice Roth, a professional mime, filled
prosthetics to play E.T.'s hands.
[3]
The puppet was created in three months at the cost of $1.5 million.
[16]
Spielberg
declared it was "something that only a mother could love."
[5]
Mars, Incorporated found E.T. so ugly that the
company refused to allow M&M's to be used in the film, believing the creature would frighten children. This
allowed The Hershey Company the opportunity to market Reese's Pieces.
[17]
Science and technology educator Henry
Feinberg created E.T.'s communicator device.
[18][19]
Filming
E.T. began shooting in September 1981.
[20]
The project was filmed under the cover name A Boy's Life, as Spielberg
did not want anyone to discover and plagiarize the plot. The actors had to read the script behind closed doors, and
everyone on set had to wear an ID card.
[3]
The shoot began with two days at a high school in Culver City, and the
crew spent the next 11 days moving between locations at Northridge and Tujunga.
[8]
The next 42 days were spent at
Culver City's Laird International Studios, for the interiors of Elliott's home. The crew shot at a redwood forest near
Crescent City for the production's last six days.
[8][12]
Spielberg shot the film in roughly chronological order to
achieve convincingly emotional performances from his cast. In the scene in which Michael first encounters the alien,
the creature's appearance caused MacNaughton to jump back and knock down the shelves behind him. The
chronological shoot gave the young actors an emotional experience as they bonded with E.T., making the hospital
sequences more moving.
[7]
Spielberg ensured the puppeteers kept away from the set to maintain the illusion of a real
alien. For the first time in his career, he did not storyboard most of the film, in order to facilitate spontaneity in the
performances.
[20]
The film was shot so adults, except for Dee Wallace, are never seen from the waist up in the film's
first half, as a tribute to Tex Avery's cartoons.
[5]
The shoot was completed in 61 days, four days ahead of
schedule.
[12]
According to Spielberg, the memorable scene where E.T. disguises himself as a stuffed animal in
Elliott's closet was suggested by colleague Robert Zemeckis, after he read a draft of the screenplay that Spielberg
had sent him.
[21]
Longtime Spielberg collaborator John Williams, who composed the film's musical score, described the challenge of
creating a score that would generate sympathy for such an odd-looking creature. As with their previous
collaborations, Spielberg liked every theme Williams composed and had it included. Spielberg loved the music for
the final chase so much that he edited the sequence to suit it.
[22]
Williams took a modernist approach, especially with
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
97
his use of polytonality, which refers to the sound of two different keys played simultaneously. The Lydian mode can
also be used in a polytonal way. Williams combined polytonality and the Lydian mode to express a mystic,
dreamlike and heroic quality. His theme—emphasizing coloristic instruments such as the harp, piano, celesta, and
other keyboards, as well as percussion—suggests E.T.'s childlike nature and his "machine."
[23]
Allegations of plagiarism
There were allegations that the film was plagiarized from a 1967 script, The Alien, by celebrated Indian Bengali
director Satyajit Ray. Ray stated, "E.T. would not have been possible without my script of The Alien being available
throughout the United States in mimeographed copies." Spielberg denied this claim, stating, "I was a kid in high
school when his script was circulating in Hollywood."
[24]
Star Weekend Magazine disputes Spielberg's claim,
pointing out that he had graduated from high school in 1965 and began his career as a director in Hollywood in
1969.
[25]
Besides E.T., some believe that an earlier Spielberg film, Close Encounters of the Third Kind, was also
inspired by The Alien.
[26][27]
Veteran filmmakers Martin Scorsese and Richard Attenborough too pointed out Spielberg's influences from Ray's
script.
[28]
Themes
Spielberg drew the story of E.T. from his parents' divorce;
[29]
Gary Arnold of The Washington Post called the film
"essentially a spiritual autobiography, a portrait of the filmmaker as a typical suburban kid set apart by an
uncommonly fervent, mystical imagination".
[30]
References to Spielberg's childhood occur throughout: Elliott feigns
illness by holding his thermometer to a light bulb while covering his face with a heating pad, a trick frequently
employed by the young Spielberg.
[31]
Michael's picking on Elliott echoes Spielberg's teasing of his younger
sisters,
[5]
and Michael's evolution from tormentor to protector reflects how Spielberg had to take care of his sisters
after their father left.
[7]
Critics have focused on the parallels between E.T.'s life and Elliott, who is "alienated" by the loss of his father.
[32][33]
A.O. Scott of The New York Times wrote that while E.T. "is the more obvious and desperate foundling", Elliott
"suffers in his own way from the want of a home."
[34]
E.T. is the first and last letter of Elliott's name.
[35]
At the film's
heart is the theme of growing up. Critic Henry Sheehan described the film as a retelling of Peter Pan from the
perspective of a Lost Boy (Elliott): E.T. cannot survive physically on Earth, as Pan could not survive emotionally in
Neverland; government scientists take the place of Neverland's pirates.
[36]
Vincent Canby of The New York Times
similarly observed that the film "freely recycles elements from [...] Peter Pan and The Wizard of Oz".
[37]
Some
critics have suggested that Spielberg's portrayal of suburbia is very dark, contrary to popular belief. According to
A.O. Scott, "The suburban milieu, with its unsupervised children and unhappy parents, its broken toys and
brand-name junk food, could have come out of a Raymond Carver story."
[34]
Charles Taylor of Salon.com wrote,
"Spielberg's movies, despite the way they're often characterized, are not Hollywood idealizations of families and the
suburbs. The homes here bear what the cultural critic Karal Ann Marling called 'the marks of hard use'."
[29]
Other critics found religious parallels between E.T. and Jesus.
[38][39]
Andrew Nigels described E.T.'s story as
"crucifixion by military science" and "resurrection by love and faith".
[40]
According to Spielberg biographer Joseph
McBride, Universal Pictures appealed directly to the Christian market, with a poster reminiscent of Michelangelo's
Creation of Adam and a logo reading "Peace".
[12]
Spielberg answered that he did not intend the film to be a religious
parable, joking, "If I ever went to my mother and said, 'Mom, I've made this movie that's a Christian parable,' what
do you think she'd say? She has a kosher restaurant on Pico and Doheny in Los Angeles."
[]
As a substantial body of film criticism has built up around E.T., numerous writers have analyzed the film in other
ways as well. E.T. has been interpreted as a modern fairy tale
[41]
and in psychoanalytic terms.
[33][41]
Producer
Kathleen Kennedy noted that an important theme of E.T. is tolerance, which would be central to future Spielberg
films such as Schindler's List.
[5]
Having been a loner as a teenager, Spielberg described the film as "a minority
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
98
story".
[42]
Spielberg's characteristic theme of communication is partnered with the ideal of mutual understanding: he
has suggested that the story's central alien-human friendship is an analogy for how real-world adversaries can learn
to overcome their differences.
[43]
Reception
Spielberg with President Ronald Reagan and
Nancy Reagan, fans of the film, in 1986
Release and sales
E.T. was previewed in Houston, Texas, where it received high marks
from viewers.
[12]
The film premiered at the 1982 Cannes Film
Festival's closing gala,
[44][45]
and was released in the United States on
June 11, 1982. It opened at number one with a gross of $11 million,
and stayed at the top of the box office for six weeks; it then fluctuated
between the first and second positions until October, before returning
to the top spot for the final time in December.
[46]
In 1983, the film superseded Star Wars as the highest-grossing film of
all-time,
[47]
and by the end of its theatrical run it had grossed $359
million in North America and $619 million worldwide.
[2][48]
Spielberg earned $500,000 a day from his share of the
profits,
[49][50]
while The Hershey Company's profits rose 65% due to the film's prominent use of Reese's Pieces.
[17]
The film was re-released in 1985 and 2002, earning another $60 million and $68 million respectively,
[51][52]
for a
worldwide total of $792 million with North America accounting for $435 million.
[2]
E.T. held the global record until
it was usurped by Jurassic Park—another Spielberg-directed film—in 1993,
[53]
although it managed to hold on to
the domestic record for a further four years, where a Star Wars reissue saw that film reclaim the record.
[54]
It was
eventually released on VHS and laserdisc on October 27, 1988; to combat piracy, the tapeguards on the
videocassettes were colored green, and encoded with macrovision.
[6]
In North America alone, VHS sales came to
$75 million.
[55]
E.T. was the first major film to have been seriously affected by video piracy. The usual account is that the public in
some areas were becoming impatient at long delays getting E.T. to their cinemas; an illegal group realized this, got
hold of a copy of the film for a night by bribing a projectionist, and made it into a video by projecting the film with
sound and videorecording the screen and the sound. The resulting video was used as a master to run off very many
copies, which were widely sold illegally.
[56]
Critical response
Critics acclaimed E.T. as a classic. Roger Ebert wrote, "This is not simply a good movie. It is one of those movies
that brush away our cautions and win our hearts."
[44]
Michael Sragow of Rolling Stone called Spielberg "a space age
Jean Renoir.... [F]or the first time, [he] has put his breathtaking technical skills at the service of his deepest
feelings."
[57]
Leonard Maltin would include it in his list of "100 Must-See Films of the 20th Century" as one of only
two movies from the 1980s.
[58]
George Will was one of the few to pan the film, feeling it spread subversive notions
about childhood and science.
[59]
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial holds a 98% rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
[60]
It has a Metacritic score of 94.
[61]
In addition
to the many impressed critics, President Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Reagan were moved by the film after
a screening at the White House on June 27, 1982.
[50]
Princess Diana was in tears after watching the film.
[5]
On
September 17, 1982, the film was screened at the United Nations, and Spielberg received the U.N. Peace Medal.
[62]
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
99
Awards and honors
The film was nominated for nine Oscars at the 55th Academy Awards, including Best Picture. Gandhi won that
award, but its director, Richard Attenborough, declared, "I was certain that not only would E.T. win, but that it
should win. It was inventive, powerful, [and] wonderful. I make more mundane movies."
[63]
It won four Academy
Awards: Best Original Score, Best Sound (Robert Knudson, Robert Glass, Don Digirolamo, Gene Cantamessa), Best
Sound Effects Editing (Charles L. Campbell and Ben Burtt) , and Best Visual Effects.
[64]
At the 40th Golden Globe Awards, the film won Best Picture in the Drama category and Best Score; it was also
nominated for Best Director, Best Screenplay, and Best New Male Star for Henry Thomas. The Los Angeles Film
Critics Association awarded the film Best Picture, Best Director, and a "New Generation Award" for Melissa
Mathison.
[65]
The film won Saturn Awards for Best Science Fiction Film, Best Writing, Best Special Effects, Best Music, and Best
Poster Art, while Henry Thomas, Robert McNaughton, and Drew Barrymore won Young Artist Awards. In addition
to his Golden Globe and Saturn, composer John Williams won a Grammy and a BAFTA for the score. E.T. was also
honored abroad: the film won the Best Foreign Language Film award at the Blue Ribbon Awards in Japan, Cinema
Writers Circle Awards in Spain, César Awards in France, and David di Donatello in Italy.
[66]
In American Film Institute polls, E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial has been voted the 24th greatest film of all time,
[67]
the
44th most heart-pounding,
[68]
and the sixth most inspiring.
[69]
Other AFI polls rated it as having the 14th greatest
music score
[70]
and as the third greatest science-fiction film.
[71]
The line "E.T. phone home" was ranked 15th on
AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movie Quotes list,
[72]
and 48th on Premiere's top movie quote list.
[73]
The character of Elliott
was nominated for AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains as one of the 50 greatest heroes.
[74]
In 2005, the film
topped a Channel 4 poll of the 100 greatest family films,
[75]
and was also listed by Time as one of the 100 best films
ever made.
[76]
In 2003, Entertainment Weekly called the film the eighth most "tear-jerking";
[77]
in 2007, in a survey of both films
and television series, the magazine declared E.T. the seventh greatest work of science-fiction media in the past 25
years.
[78]
The Times also named E.T. as their ninth favorite alien in a film, calling it "one of the best-loved
non-humans in popular culture".
[79]
The film is among the top ten in the BFI list of the 50 films you should see by
the age of 14. In 1994, E.T. was selected for preservation in the U.S. National Film Registry.
[80]
In 2011, ABC aired Best in Film: The Greatest Movies of Our Time, revealing the results of a poll of fans conducted
by ABC and People magazine: E.T. was selected as the fifth best film of all time and the second best science fiction
film
On October 22, 2012, Madame Tussauds unveiled wax likenesses of E.T. at six of its international locations.
[81]
20th anniversary version
An extended version of the film, including altered special effects, was released on March 22, 2002. Certain shots of
E.T. had bothered Spielberg since 1982, as he did not have enough time to perfect the animatronics.
Computer-generated imagery (CGI), provided by Industrial Light & Magic (ILM), was used to modify several shots,
including ones of E.T. running in the opening sequence and being spotted in the cornfield. The spaceship's design
was also altered to include more lights. Scenes shot for but not included in the original version were introduced.
These included E.T. taking a bath, and Gertie telling Mary that Elliott went to the forest on Halloween night.
Spielberg did not add the scene featuring Harrison Ford, feeling that would reshape the film too drastically.
Spielberg became more sensitive about the scene where gun-wielding federal agents threaten Elliott and his escaping
friends and had the guns digitally replaced with walkie-talkies.
[5]
At the premiere, John Williams conducted a live performance of the score.
[82]
The new release grossed $68 million
in total, with $35 million coming from Canada and the United States.
[52]
The changes to the film, particularly the
escape scene, were criticized as political correctness. Peter Travers of Rolling Stone wondered, "Remember those
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
100
guns the feds carried? Thanks to the miracle of digital, they're now brandishing walkie-talkies.... Is this what two
decades have done to free speech?"
[83]
Chris Hewitt of Empire wrote, "The changes are surprisingly low-key...while
ILM's CGI E.T. is used sparingly as a complement to Carlo Rambaldi's extraordinary puppet."
[84]
South Park
ridiculed many of the changes in the 2002 episode "Free Hat".
[85]
The two-disc DVD release which followed in October 22, 2002 contained the original theatrical and 20th
Anniversary extended versions of the film. Spielberg personally demanded the release to feature both versions.
[86]
The two-disc edition, as well as a three-disc collector's edition containing a "making of" book and special features
that were unavailable on the two-disc edition,
[87]
were placed in moratorium on December 31, 2002. Later, E.T. was
re-released on DVD as a single-disc re-issue in 2005, featuring only the 20th Anniversary version.
In a June 2011 interview, Spielberg said that in the future,
"There's going to be no more digital enhancements or digital additions to anything based on any film I
direct.... When people ask me which E.T. they should look at, I always tell them to look at the original
1982 E.T. If you notice, when we did put out E.T. we put out two E.T.s. We put out the digitally
enhanced version with the additional scenes and for no extra money, in the same package, we put out the
original '82 version. I always tell people to go back to the '82 version."
[88]
A 30th Anniversary edition was released on October 9, 2012 for Blu-ray and DVD, which included a fully restored
version of the original film, re-instating the original animatronic close-ups and the shotguns.
[89]
Other portrayals
In July 1982, during the film's first theatrical run, Spielberg and Mathison wrote a treatment for a sequel to be titled
E.T. II: Nocturnal Fears. It would have seen Elliott and his friends kidnapped by evil aliens and follow their
attempts to contact E.T. for help. Spielberg decided against pursuing the sequel, feeling it "would do nothing but rob
the original of its virginity".
[90]
Atari, Inc. made a video game based on the film for the Atari 2600. Released in 1982, it was widely considered to be
one of the worst video games ever made. William Kotzwinkle, author of the film's novelization, wrote a sequel, E.T.:
The Book of the Green Planet, which was published in 1985. In the novel, E.T. returns home to the planet Brodo
Asogi, but is subsequently demoted and sent into exile. E.T. then attempts to return to Earth by effectively breaking
all of Brodo Asogi's laws.
[91]
E.T. Adventure, a theme park ride, debuted at Universal Studios Florida in 1990. The
$40 million attraction features the title character saying goodbye to visitors by name.
[12]
In 1998, E.T. was licensed to appear in television public service announcements produced by the Progressive
Corporation. The announcements featured E.T.'s voice reminding drivers to "buckle up" their safety belts. Traffic
signs depicting a stylized E.T. wearing a safety belt were installed on selected roads around the United States.
[92]
The following year, British Telecommunications launched the "Stay in Touch" campaign, with E.T. as the star of
various advertisements. The campaign's slogan was "B.T. has E.T.", with "E.T." also taken to mean "extra
technology".
[93]
At Spielberg's suggestion, George Lucas included members of E.T.'s species as background
characters in Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace (1999).
[94]
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
101
References
[1] Stewart, Jocelyn (February 10, 2008). "Artist created many famous film posters" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 2008/ feb/ 10/ local/
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[8] Douglas Brode (1995). "E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial". The Films of Steven Spielberg. Citadel. pp. 114–127. ISBN 0-8065-1540-6.
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[12] Joseph McBride (1997). Steven Spielberg. Faber and Faber. pp. 323–38. ISBN 0-571-19177-0.
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[74] AFI's 100 Years...100 Heroes and Villains Ballot (http:/ / www. afi. com/ Docs/ 100Years/ handv400.pdf)
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[82] (DVD) Live at the Shrine! John Williams and the premiere of E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial. Universal. 2002.
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Bibliography
• Brode, Douglas (1995). The Films of Steven Spielberg. Carol Publishing. ISBN 0-8065-1951-7.
• Kotzwinkle, William (1985). E.T.: The Book of the Green Planet. Berkley Books. ISBN 0-425-07642-3.
• McBride, Joseph (1997). Steven Spielberg: A Biography. Da Capo Press. ISBN 0-306-80900-1.
• Rubin, Susan Goldman (2001). Steven Spielberg. Harry N. Abrams. ISBN 0-8109-4492-8.
• Shay, Don; Duncan, Jody (2001). The Making of Jurassic Park: An Adventure 65 Million Years in the Making.
Boxtree. ISBN 1-85283-774-8.
• Worsley, Sue Dwiggins (1997). From Oz to E.T.: Wally Worsley's Half-Century in Hollywood. Scarecrow Press.
ISBN 0-8108-3277-1.
E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial
104
External links
• Official homepage for the 20th anniversary edition (http:// www. et20. com/ )
• Nocturnal Fears (http:/ / www. writingtreatments.com/ et2. pdf) Sequel treatment by Spielberg and Melissa
Mathison
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0083866/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v15032) at AllRovi
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ et_the_extraterrestrial/) at Rotten Tomatoes
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=et.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ et-the-extra-terrestrial) at Metacritic
• E.T. the Extra-Terrestrial (http:/ / movies. yahoo.com/ movie/ 1800060404/ info) at Yahoo!
Far Out Man
105
Far Out Man
Far Out Man
Theatrical release poster.
Directed by Tommy Chong
Produced by Lisa M. Hansen
John Pare
Written by Tommy Chong
Starring Tommy Chong
C. Thomas Howell
Rae Dawn Chong
Shelby Chong
Paris Chong
Martin Mull
Judd Nelson
Michael Winslow
Cheech Marin
Paul Bartel
Music by Jay Chattaway
Cinematography Greg Gardiner
Eric Woster
Editing by Stephen Myers
Gilberto Costa Nunes
Distributed by New Line Cinema
Release date(s) May 11, 1990
Running time 81 min
Country USA
Language English
Budget Unknown
Box office Unknown
Far Out Man was a 1990 comedy film written, directed by and starring Tommy Chong.
[1]
It was filmed in Los
Angeles, California, USA. Cinetel Films produced the movie and it was distributed in USA theaters by New Line
Cinema, Sony Video (VHS), Platinum Disc (DVD), and RCA/Columbia Pictures Home Video (VHS). It was
distributed in Germany by Ascot Video (VHS) and in Brazil by Odyssey (VHS). It was distributed in Canadian
theaters by Alliance.
Far Out Man
106
Plot
An aging hippie goes on a road trip in search of his long lost family. He meets up with his son (Paris Chong,
Tommy's real-life son). Together they go off to see America. A majority of Tommy’s real life family have roles;
daughter Rae Dawn and wife Shelby both have lines.
Cast
• Tommy Chong as Far Out Man
• C. Thomas Howell as himself
• Rae Dawn Chong as herself
• Shelby Chong as Tree
• Paris Chong as Kyle
• Martin Mull as Dr. Leddledick
• Bobby Taylor as Bobby
• Reynaldo Rey as Lou
• Peggy McIntaggart as Misty (Peggy F. Sands)
• Al Mancini as Fresno detective
• Judd Nelson as himself
• Cheech Marin as Cheech
• Michael Winslow as airport cop
• Lisa M. Hansen as police radio dispatcher
• Rae Allen as Holly
• Paul Bartel as Weebee Cool
• Paul Hertzberg as Drunk man with wine
Floyd Sneed, former drummer of the rock group Three Dog Night, made a small cameo in the film as a drummer.
References
[1] Bloom, Steve; Halperin, Shirley (2010), Reefer Movie Madness: The Ultimate Stoner Film Guide (http:// books. google.com/
books?id=2WMt_bUB6SkC& pg=PT113), Abrams, p. 113, ISBN 1613120168, .
External links
• Far Out Man (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0099546/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Far Out Man (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v16791) at AllRovi
Francis Ford Coppola
107
Francis Ford Coppola
Francis Ford Coppola
Coppola at the 2011 San Diego Comic-Con International.
Born April 7, 1939
Detroit, Michigan, United States
Residence Napa Valley, California
Nationality American
Education Great Neck North High School
Alma mater Hofstra University & UCLA
Occupation Film director, producer, screenwriter
Years active 1962 - present
Influenced by Ingmar Bergman, Sergei Eisenstein, Werner Herzog, Roger Corman, Alfred Hitchcock, Michelangelo Antonioni, Akira
Kurosawa, Eugene O'Neill, Tennessee Williams, Elia Kazan
Home town Woodside, Queens, New York
Spouse(s) Eleanor Jessie Neil
(1963 - present)
Children Gian-Carlo Coppola (deceased)
Roman Coppola
Sofia Coppola
Parents Carmine Coppola
Italia Coppola
Family Talia Shire (sister)
August Coppola (brother) & father of Nicolas Cage (nephew)
Anton Coppola (uncle)
Gia Coppola (granddaughter from Gian-Carlo)
Francis Ford Coppola (English pronunciation: /ˈkoʊpələ/ Italian pronunciation: [ˈkɔppola]), born April 7, 1939
[1]
is an
American film director, producer and screenwriter. He is widely acclaimed as one of Hollywood's most innovative
and influential film directors
[1]
and he epitomized the group of filmmakers known as the New Hollywood, that
includes Martin Scorsese, Terrence Malick, Robert Altman, Woody Allen, William Friedkin, Philip Kaufman and
George Lucas, who emerged in the early 1970s with unconventional ideas that challenged contemporary
film-making.
[2][3]
He co-wrote the script for Patton (1970), which won him an Academy Award for Best Writing (Original
Screenplay). His directorial fame escalated with the release of The Godfather (1972), a film which revolutionized
movie-making in the gangster genre, earning praise from critics and public alike. It won three Academy Awards,
including his second for Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay) (with Mario Puzo), Best Picture and Best Actor (for
Francis Ford Coppola
108
Marlon Brando) and a nomination for Best Director. It was instrumental in cementing his position as a prominent
American film director.
Coppola followed it with a critically successful sequel, The Godfather Part II (1974), which became the first sequel
to win the Academy Award for Best Picture. The film was highly praised and won him three Academy Awards: for
Best Adapted Screenplay, Best Director and Best Picture. The Conversation, which Coppola directed, produced and
wrote, was released that same year, winning the Palme d'Or at the 1974 Cannes Film Festival. He next directed
Apocalypse Now (1979), notorious for its over-long and strenuous production, but critically acclaimed for its vivid
and stark depiction of the Vietnam War, winning the Palme d'Or at the 1979 Cannes Film Festival. Coppola is one of
only eight filmmakers to win two Palme d'Or awards and is the only filmmaker to win both in the same decade.
Many of Coppola's ventures in the 1980s and 1990s were critically lauded, but he has never quite achieved the same
commercial success with films as in the 1970s.
[4][5][6]
Early life
Coppola was born in Detroit, Michigan, to a family of Italian ancestry (his paternal grandparents were immigrants
from Bernalda, Basilicata).
[7]
He received his middle name in honor of Henry Ford, not only because he was born in
the Henry Ford Hospital but also because of his musician/father Carmine Coppola's familiarity with Henry Ford
through his position as principal flutist with the Detroit Symphony Orchestra.
[8]
His parents were Carmine and Italia
Coppola (née Pennino). He was the second of three children (his older brother was August Coppola and younger
sister is actress Talia Shire). Two years later, Carmine became the principal flutist for the NBC Symphony Orchestra
and the family moved to New York City, finding a home in Woodside, Queens, where Francis spent the remainder of
his childhood.
Coppola had polio as a boy, leaving him bedridden for large periods of his childhood and allowing him to indulge his
imagination with homemade puppet theater productions. Reading A Streetcar Named Desire at age 15 was
instrumental in developing his interest in theater.
[9]
Eager to be involved in film-craft, he turned out 8mm features
edited from home movies with such titles as The Rich Millionaire and The Lost Wallet.
[10]
As a child he was a
mediocre student, but was very much interested in technology and engineering; so much, in fact, that his friends
nicknamed him “Science.”
[11]
Initially he trained for a career in music and became so proficient on the tuba that he
won a musical scholarship to the New York Military Academy.
[10]
Overall, he attended 23 other schools
[8]
before he
eventually graduated from the Great Neck North High School,
[2]
he entered Hofstra University in 1955 majoring in
theater arts. There he won a playwrighting scholarship, which furthered his interest in directing theater, though this
wasn't approved by his father, who wanted him to study engineering.
[12]
However, after he chanced to see Sergei
Eisenstein’s October: Ten Days That Shook the World, which impressed him profoundly, particularly the quality of
editing in the movie, Coppola decided that he would not go into theater but would opt for cinema.
[12]
Coppola says
he was tremendously influenced to become a writer early on by his brother, August,
[8]
whose footsteps he would
also follow in by attending both of his brother's alma maters--Hofstra and UCLA. He also gives great credit to the
work of Elia Kazan for its influence on him as director.
[8]
Amongst Coppola's classmates at Hofstra were James
Caan and Lainie Kazan.
[2]
He would later cast Caan in The Rain People and in The Godfather.
While pursuing his bachelor's degree, Coppola was elected president of The Green Wig (the university's drama
group) and the Kaleidoscopians (its musical comedy club). He then merged the two into The Spectrum Players and
under his leadership, they staged a new production each week. Coppola also founded the cinema workshop at
Hofstra and contributed prolifically to the campus literary magazine.
[10]
He won three D. H. Lawrence Awards for
theatrical production and direction and received a Beckerman Award for his outstanding contributions to the school's
theater arts division.
[13]
While a graduate student, one of his teachers was Dorothy Arzner, whose encouragement
Coppola later acknowledged as pivotal to his film career.
[9]
Coppola graduated from Hofstra university in 1959 with a bachelor's degree in Theatre Arts.
[10][14]
Francis Ford Coppola
109
Career
1960s
Coppola enrolled in the University of California, Los Angeles for his graduate studies, where he met Jim Morrison.
Coppola would later use Morrison's well-known song The End in Apocalypse Now.
[15]
Very soon he enrolled in
UCLA Film School for graduate work in film.
[10]
At UCLA, Coppola directed a short horror film called The Two
Christophers inspired by Edgar Allan Poe's William Wilson. He also directed Ayamonn the Terrible, a film about a
sculptor’s nightmares coming to life.
[11]
It was then he decided to experiment as a serious film director and ended up
directing a softcore "nudie" comedy Tonight for Sure in 1962.
[2]
The film failed to attract any attention. The
company that hired Coppola to edit Tonight for Sure brought him back to re-cut a German film titled Mit Eva fing
die Sünde an directed by Fritz Umgelter. He added some new 3-D color footage and earned a writer’s and director’s
credit for The Bellboy and the Playgirls, also a box-office failure. Coppola was hired as an assistant by Roger
Corman
[16]
and his first job for Corman was to dub and re-edit a Russian science fiction film Nebo zovyot, which he
turned into a sex-and-violence monster movie entitled Battle Beyond the Sun, released in 1962.
[2][17]
Impressed by
Coppola's perseverance and dedication, Corman hired him as dialogue director on Tower of London (1962), sound
man for The Young Racers (1963) and associate producer of The Terror (1963).
[13]
While on location in Ireland for The Young Racers in 1963, Corman, ever alert for an opportunity to produce a
decent movie on a shoestring budget, persuaded Coppola to make a low-budget horror movie with funds left over
from the movie.
[13]
Coppola wrote a brief draft story idea in one night. It incorporated elements from Hitchcock's
Psycho
[18]
and it impressed Corman enough to give him the go-ahead. On a budget of $40,000 ($20,000 from
Corman and $20,000 from another producer who wanted to buy the movie's English rights),
[18]
Coppola directed in a
period of just nine days Dementia 13, his first feature from his own original screenplay. Somewhat superior to the
run-of-the-mill exploitation films being turned out at that time, the film recouped its shoestring expenses and went
on to become a minor cult film among horror buffs. It was on the sets of Dementia 13 that he met his future wife
Eleanor Jessie Neil.
In 1965, Coppola won the annual Samuel Goldwyn Award for the best screenplay (Pilma, Pilma) written by a UCLA
student.
[10]
This secured him a job as a scriptwriter with Seven Arts. In between, he co-wrote the scripts for This
Property Is Condemned (1966) and Is Paris Burning? (1966). However, with fame still eluding him and partly out of
desperation, Coppola bought the rights to the David Benedictus novel You're a Big Boy Now and fused it with a story
idea of his own, resulting in You're a Big Boy Now (1966). This was his UCLA thesis project that also received a
theatrical release via Warner Bros..
[2]
This movie brought him some critical acclaim and eventually his Master of
Fine Arts Degree from UCLA School of Theater, Film and Television in 1967.
[13][14]
Following the success of You're a Big Boy Now, Coppola was offered the reins of the movie version of the Broadway
musical Finian's Rainbow, starring Petula Clark in her first American film and veteran Fred Astaire. Producer Jack
Warner was nonplussed by Coppola's shaggy-haired, bearded, "hippie" appearance and generally left him to his own
devices. He took his cast to the Napa Valley for much of the outdoor shooting, but these scenes were in sharp
contrast to those obviously filmed on a Hollywood soundstage, resulting in a disjointed look to the film. Dealing
with outdated material at a time when the popularity of film musicals was already on the downslide, Coppola's result
was only semi-successful, but his work with Clark no doubt contributed to her Golden Globe Best Actress
nomination. The film introduced George Lucas to him, who became his lifelong friend as well as production
assistant in his next film The Rain People in 1969. It was written, directed and initially produced by Coppola
himself, though as the movie advanced, he fell short of his budget and the studio had to underwrite the remainder of
the movie.
[2]
The film won the Golden Shell at the 1969 San Sebastian Film Festival.
In 1969, Coppola took it upon himself to subvert the studio system which he felt had stifled his visions, intending to
produce mainstream pictures to finance off-beat projects and give first-time directors their chance to direct. He
decided he would name his future studio "Zoetrope" after receiving a gift of zoetropes from Mogens Scot-Hansen,
Francis Ford Coppola
110
founder of a studio called Lanterna Film and owner of a famous collection of early motion picture making
equipment. While touring Europe, Coppola was introduced to alternative filmmaking equipment and inspired by the
bohemian spirit of Lanterna Film, he decided he would build a deviant studio that would conceive and implement
creative, unconventional approaches to filmmaking. Upon his return home, Coppola and George Lucas searched for
a mansion in Marin County to house the studio. However in 1969, with equipment flowing in and no mansion found
yet, the first home for Zoetrope Studio became a warehouse in San Francisco on Folsom Street.
[19]
The studio went
on to become an early adopter of digital filmmaking, including some of the earliest uses of HDTV. In his book The
American Cinema, Andrew Sarris wrote, "[Coppola] is probably the first reasonably talented and sensibly adaptable
directorial talent to emerge from a university curriculum in film-making... [He] may be heard from more decisively
in the future."
[20]
1970s
Patton (1970)
Coppola co-wrote the script for Patton in 1970 along with Edmund H. North. This earned him his first Academy
Award for Best Original Screenplay. However, it was not easy for Coppola to convince Franklin J. Schaffner that the
opening scene would work. Coppola later revealed in an interview:
[21]
I wrote the script of Patton. And the script was very controversial when I wrote it, because they thought it was
so stylized. It was supposed to be like, sort of, you know, The Longest Day. And my script of Patton was -- I
was sort of interested in the reincarnation. And I had this very bizarre opening where he stands up in front of
an American flag and gives this speech. Ultimately, I wasn't fired, but I was fired, meaning that when the
script was done, they said, "Okay, thank you very much," and they went and hired another writer and that
script was forgotten. And I remember very vividly this long, kind of being raked over the coals for this
opening scene.
Even after the director was persuaded to keep the scene intact, George C. Scott refused to do it, as he believed it
would overshadow the rest of his performance. The director lied and assured him that it would be shown at the end.
The movie opens with Scott's rendering of Patton's famous military "Pep Talk" to members of the Third Army, set
against a huge American flag. Coppola and North had to tone down Patton's actual language to avoid an R rating; in
the opening monologue, the word "fornicating" replaced "fucking" when criticizing the The Saturday Evening Post.
Over the years, this opening monologue has become an iconic scene and has spawned parodies in numerous films,
political cartoons and television shows.
The Godfather (1972)
The release of The Godfather in 1972 was a milestone in cinema. The near 3-hour-long epic, which chronicled the
saga of the Corleone family, received overwhelmingly positive reviews from critics and fetched Coppola the
Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay, which he shared with Mario Puzo and two Golden Globe Awards: for
Best Director and Best Screenplay. However, Coppola had to face a lot of difficulties while filming The Godfather.
He was not Paramount's first choice to direct the movie; Italian director Sergio Leone was initially offered the job,
but declined in order to direct his own gangster opus, Once Upon a Time in America.
[22]
Peter Bogdanovich was then
approached but he also declined the offer and made What's Up, Doc? instead; Bogdanovich has often said that he
would have cast Edward G. Robinson in the lead had he accepted the film. According to Robert Evans, head of
Paramount Pictures at the time, Coppola also did not initially want to direct the film because he feared it would
glorify the Mafia and violence and thus reflect poorly on his Sicilian and Italian heritage; on the other hand, Evans
specifically wanted an Italian-American to direct the film because his research had shown that previous films about
the Mafia that were directed by non-Italians had fared dismally at the box office and he wanted to, in his own words,
"smell the spaghetti". When Coppola hit upon the idea of making it a metaphor for American capitalism, however,
he eagerly agreed to take the helm.
[23]
Francis Ford Coppola
111
There was disagreement between Paramount and Coppola on the issue of casting; Coppola stuck to his plan of
casting Marlon Brando as Vito Corleone, though Paramount wanted either Ernest Borgnine or Danny Thomas. At
one point, Coppola was told by the then-president of Paramount that "Marlon Brando will never appear in this
motion picture". After pleading with the executives, Coppola was allowed to cast Brando only if he appeared in the
film for much less salary than his previous films, perform a screen-test and put up a bond saying that he would not
cause a delay in the production (as he had done on previous film sets).
[24]
Coppola chose Brando over Ernest
Borgnine on the basis of Brando's screen test, which also won over the Paramount leadership. Brando later won an
Academy Award for his portrayal, which he refused to accept. Coppola would later recollect:
[18]
The Godfather was a very unappreciated movie when we were making it. They were very unhappy with it.
They didn't like the cast. They didn't like the way I was shooting it. I was always on the verge of getting fired.
So it was an extremely nightmarish experience. I had two little kids, and the third one was born during that.
We lived in a little apartment, and I was basically frightened that they didn't like it. They had as much as said
that, so when it was all over I wasn't at all confident that it was going to be successful, and that I'd ever get
another job.
After it was released, the film received widespread praise. It went on to win multiple awards, including Academy
Award for Best Adapted Screenplay for Coppola. The film routinely features at the top in various polls for the
greatest movies ever. It has been selected for preservation in the United States National Film Registry. In addition, it
was ranked third, behind Citizen Kane, and Casablanca on the initial AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies list by the
American Film Institute. It was moved up to second when the list was published again, in 2008.
[25]
Director Stanley
Kubrick believed that The Godfather was possibly the greatest movie ever made and had without question the best
cast.
[26]
The Conversation (1974)
Coppola's next film, The Conversation, further cemented his position as one of the most talented auteurs of
Hollywood.
[27]
The movie was partly influenced by Michelangelo Antonioni’s Blowup (1966)
[28]
and generated a lot
of speculation and interest when news leaked that the film utilized the very same surveillance and wire-tapping
equipment that members of the Nixon administration used to spy on political opponents prior to the Watergate
scandal. Although Coppola insisted that this was purely coincidental, for not only was the script for The
Conversation completed in the mid-1960s (before the election of Richard Nixon), but the spying equipment used in
the film was discovered through research and the use of technical advisers and not, as many believed, by revelatory
newspaper stories about the Watergate break-in. However, the audience interpreted the film to be a reaction to both
the Watergate scandal and its fall-out. The movie was a critical success and won Coppola his first Palme d'Or at the
1974 Cannes Film Festival.
The Great Gatsby (1974)
During the filming of The Conversation, Coppola wrote the screenplay for The Great Gatsby.
[16]
However, in the
commentary track to the DVD of The Godfather Coppola states, "I don't think that script was [actually] made."
[29]
The Godfather Part II (1974)
Coppola shot The Godfather Part II parallel to The Conversation and it was the last major American motion picture
to be filmed in Technicolor. George Lucas commented on the film after its five-hour-long preview, telling Coppola:
"You have two films. Take one away, it doesn't work", referring to the movie's portrayal of two parallel storylines;
one of a young Vito Corleone and the other of his son Michael. In the director's commentary on the DVD edition of
the film (released in 2002), Coppola states that this film was the first major motion picture to use "Part II" in its title.
Paramount was initially opposed to his decision to name the movie The Godfather Part II. According to Coppola, the
studio's objection stemmed from the belief that audiences would be reluctant to see a film with such a title, as the
audience would supposedly believe that, having already seen The Godfather, there was little reason to see an
Francis Ford Coppola
112
addition to the original story. However, the success of The Godfather Part II began the Hollywood tradition of
numbered sequels. The movie was released in 1974 and went on to receive tremendous critical acclaim, with many
deeming it superior to its predecessor.
[30]
It was nominated for 11 Academy Awards and received 6 Oscars,
including 3 for Coppola: Best Picture, Best Adapted Screenplay and Best Director.
The Godfather Part II is ranked as the #1 greatest movie of all time in TV Guide's "50 Best Movies of All Time"
[31]
and is ranked at #7 on Entertainment Weekly's list of the "100 Greatest Movies of All Time".
[32]
The film is also
featured on movie critic Leonard Maltin's list of the "100 Must-See Films of the 20th Century",
[33]
as well as Roger
Ebert's "Great Movies" list.
[34]
It was also featured on Sight & Sound's list of the ten greatest films of all time in
2002, ranking at #4.
[35]
Coppola was the third director to have two nominations for Best Picture in the same year. Victor Fleming was the
first in 1939 with Gone With the Wind and The Wizard of Oz; Alfred Hitchcock repeated the feat the next year with
Foreign Correspondent and Rebecca. Since Coppola, two other directors have done the same: Herbert Ross in 1977
with The Goodbye Girl and The Turning Point, and Steven Soderbergh in 2000 with Erin Brockovich and Traffic.
Coppola, however, is the only one to have produced the pictures.
Apocalypse Now (1979)
Following the success of The Godfather, The Conversation and The Godfather Part II, Coppola began filming
Apocalypse Now, an adaptation of Conrad’s Heart of Darkness set in Cambodia during the Vietnam War (Coppola
himself briefly appears as a TV news director). Before production of the film began, Coppola went to his mentor
Roger Corman for advice about shooting in the Philippines, since Corman had filmed several pictures there. Coppola
said that all the advice Corman offered was "Don't go".
[36]
The production of the film was plagued by numerous
problems, including typhoons, nervous breakdowns, the firing of Harvey Keitel, Martin Sheen's heart attack, extras
from the Philippine military and half of the supplied helicopters leaving in the middle of scenes to go fight rebels and
an unprepared Brando with a bloated appearance (which Coppola attempted to hide by shooting him in the shadows).
It was delayed so often it was nicknamed Apocalypse When?
[37]
The 1991 documentary film Hearts of Darkness: A
Filmmaker's Apocalypse, directed by Eleanor Coppola (Francis's wife), Fax Bahr and George Hickenlooper,
chronicles the difficulties the crew went through making Apocalypse Now and features behind-the-scenes footage
filmed by Eleanor. After filming Apocalypse Now, Coppola famously stated:
[38]
"We were in the jungle, there were
too many of us, we had access to too much money, too much equipment and little by little, we went insane."
The film was overwhelmingly lauded by critics when it finally appeared in 1979 and was selected for the 1979
Cannes Film Festival, winning the Palme d'Or along with The Tin Drum, directed by Volker Schlöndorff. When the
film screened at Cannes, he quipped:
[37]
"My film is not about Vietnam, it is Vietnam." Apocalypse Now's reputation
has grown in time and it is now regarded by many as a masterpiece of the New Hollywood era and is frequently cited
as one of the greatest movies ever made.
[2][39][40][41]
Roger Ebert considers it to be the finest film on the Vietnam
war and included it on his list for the 2002 Sight & Sound poll for the greatest movie of all time.
[42][43]
In 2001, Coppola re-released Apocalypse Now as Apocalypse Now Redux, restoring several sequences lost from the
original 1979 cut of the film, thereby expanding its length to 200 minutes.
1980s
One from the Heart (1982)
Apocalypse Now marked the end of the golden phase of Coppola's career.
[2]
His musical fantasy One from the Heart,
although pioneering the use of video-editing techniques which are standard practice in the film industry today, ended
with a disastrous box-office gross of $636,796 against a US$26 million budget,
[44]
far from enough to recoup the
costs incurred in the production of the movie and he was forced to sell his 23-acre Zoetrope Studio in 1983.
[13]
He
would spend the rest of the decade working to pay off his debts. (Zoetrope Studios finally filed for Chapter 11
bankruptcy in 1990, after which its name was changed to American Zoetrope).
[2]
In addition Coppola himself was
Francis Ford Coppola
113
forced into US bankruptcy court three times over the next 8 years.
[45]
Hammett (1982)
Following the disastrous One from the Heart, Coppola co-directed Hammett along with Wim Wenders in the same
year. Although Coppola was not credited for his effort, according to one source, "by the time the final version was
released in 1982, only 30 percent of Wenders' footage remained and the rest was completely reshot by Coppola,
whose mere 'executive producer' credit is just a technicality."
[46]
The Outsiders (1983)
In 1983, he directed The Outsiders, a film adaptation of the novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton. Coppola
credited his inspiration for making the film to a suggestion from middle school students who had read the novel. The
Outsiders is notable for being the breakout film for a number of young actors who would go on to become major
stars. These included major roles for Matt Dillon, Ralph Macchio and C. Thomas Howell. Also in the cast were
Patrick Swayze, Rob Lowe, Emilio Estevez, Diane Lane and Tom Cruise. Matt Dillon and several others also starred
in Coppola's related film, Rumble Fish, which was also based on a S. E. Hinton novel and filmed at the same time as
The Outsiders on-location in Tulsa, Oklahoma. Carmine Coppola wrote and edited the musical score, including the
title song "Stay Gold", which was based upon a famous Robert Frost poem and performed for the movie by Stevie
Wonder. The film was a moderate box-office success, drawing a revenue of $25 million
[47]
against a budget of $10
million.
[48]
Rumble Fish (1983)
Rumble Fish was based on the novel of the same name by S. E. Hinton, who also co-wrote the screenplay. Shot in
black-and-white as an homage to German expressionist films, Rumble Fish centres on the relationship between a
revered former gang leader (Mickey Rourke) and his younger brother, Rusty James (Matt Dillon). The film bombed
at the box office, earning a meagre $2.5 million against a budget of $10 million
[49]
and once again aggravated
Coppola's financial troubles.
The Cotton Club (1984)
In 1984 Coppola directed the Robert Evans-produced The Cotton Club. The film was nominated for several awards,
including Golden Globes for Best Director and Best Picture (Drama) and the Oscar for Best Film Editing. However
the film failed miserably at the box-office, recouping only $25.9 million of the $47.9 million privately invested by
brothers Fred and Ed Doumani.
[27]
Rip Van Winkle (1984)
The same year he directed an episode of Rip Van Winkle, where Harry Dean Stanton played the lead role.
[50]
Captain EO (1985)
In 1985, along with producer George Lucas, he was able to indulge himself by making Captain EO, a 12-minute
space fantasy for Disney theme parks starring pop superstar Michael Jackson. At a cost of about one million dollars
per minute of film, it is therefore, minute-for-minute, the most expensive motion picture of all time.
[1][51]
Peggy Sue Got Married (1986)
In 1986 Coppola released the comedy Peggy Sue Got Married starring Kathleen Turner, Coppola's nephew Nicolas
Cage and Jim Carrey. Much like The Outsiders and Rumble Fish, Peggy Sue Got Married centered around teenage
youth. The film earned Coppola positive feedback and provided Kathleen Turner her first and only Oscar
nomination. It was the first box-office success for Coppola since Apocalypse Now
[52]
and the film ranked number 17
on Entertainment Weekly's list of "50 Best High School Movies."
[53]
Francis Ford Coppola
114
Gardens of Stone (1987)
The following year, Coppola re-teamed with James Caan for Gardens of Stone, but the film was overshadowed by
the death of Coppola's eldest son Gian-Carlo Coppola during the film's production. The movie was not a critical
success and performed poorly at the box office, earning only $5.6 million against a budget of $13 million.
[54]
Tucker: The Man and His Dream (1988)
Coppola directed Tucker: The Man and His Dream the following year. A biopic based on the life of Preston Tucker
and his attempt to produce and market the Tucker '48, Coppola had originally conceived the project as a musical
with Marlon Brando after the release of The Godfather Part II. Ultimately it was Jeff Bridges who played the role of
Preston Tucker. The film received positive reviews, earning three nominations at the 62nd Academy Awards. In
addition, Martin Landau won a Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actor, while Dean Tavoularis won the
BAFTA Award for Best Production Design.
New York Stories (1989)
In 1989 Coppola teamed up with fellow Oscar-winning directors Martin Scorsese and Woody Allen for an anthology
film called New York Stories. Coppola directed the Life Without Zoë segment, starring his sister Talia Shire and also
co-wrote the film with his daughter Sofia Coppola. Life Without Zoë was mostly panned by critics and was generally
considered the segment that brought the film's overall quality down.
[55][56]
Hal Hinson of The Washington Post
wrote a particularly scathing review, stating that "It's impossible to know what Francis Coppola's Life Without Zoë is.
Co-written with his daughter Sofia, the film is a mystifying embarrassment; it's by far the director's worst work
yet."
[57]
1990s
The Godfather Part III (1990)
Francis Ford Coppola at the 1996 Cannes Film
Festival.
In 1990, he released the third and final chapter of The Godfather series:
The Godfather Part III. Coppola successfully managed to get Al
Pacino, Diane Keaton and Talia Shire to return to the franchise, but
Robert Duvall refused to reprise his role as Tom Hagen over salary
disagreements.
[58]
While not as critically acclaimed as the first two
films,
[59][60][61]
it was still a box office success, earning a revenue of
$136 million against a budget of $54 million.
[62]
Some reviewers
criticized the casting of Coppola's daughter Sofia, who had stepped
into the leading role of Mary Corleone which had been abandoned by
Winona Ryder just as filming began.
[59]
Despite this, The Godfather
Part III went on to gather 7 Academy Award nominations, including
Best Director and Best Picture. The film failed to win any of these
awards, the only film in the trilogy to do so.
Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992)
In 1992, Coppola directed and produced Bram Stoker's Dracula.
Adapted from Bram Stoker's novel, it was intended to be more faithful
to the book than previous film adaptations.
[63]
Coppola cast Gary
Oldman in the film's title role, with Keanu Reeves, Winona Ryder and
Anthony Hopkins in supporting roles. The movie became a box-office hit, grossing $82,522,790 domestically,
making it the 15th highest-grossing film of the year.
[64]
It fared much better overseas grossing $133,339,902 for a
Francis Ford Coppola
115
total worldwide gross of $215,862,692 against a budget of $40 million,
[65]
making it the 9th highest grossing film of
the year worldwide.
[66]
The film won Academy Awards for Costume Design, Makeup and Sound Editing.
Jack (1996)
Coppola's next project was Jack, which was released on August 9, 1996. It starred Robin Williams as Jack Powell, a
ten-year-old boy whose cells are growing at four times the normal rate, so at the age of ten he looks like a
40-year-old man. With Diane Lane, Brian Kerwin and Bill Cosby, Jack also featured Jennifer Lopez, Fran Drescher
and Michael McKean in supporting roles. Although a moderate box-office success, grossing $58 million
domestically on an estimated $45 million budget, it was panned by critics, many of whom disliked the film's abrupt
contrast between actual comedy and tragic melodrama. It was also unfavourably compared with the 1988 film Big, in
which Tom Hanks also played a child in a grown man's body. Most critics felt that the screenplay was poorly
written, not funny and the dramatic material was unconvincing and unbelievable. Other critics felt that Coppola was
too talented to be making this type of film. Although ridiculed for making the film, Coppola has defended it, saying
he is not ashamed of the final cut of the movie. He had been friends with Robin Williams for many years and had
always wanted to work with him as an actor. When Williams was offered the screenplay for Jack he said he would
only agree to do it if Coppola agreed to sign on as director.
The Rainmaker (1997)
The last film Coppola directed in the 90s, The Rainmaker was based on the 1995 novel of the same name by John
Grisham. An ensemble courtroom drama, the film was well received by critics, earning an 88% rating on Rotten
Tomatoes.
[67]
Roger Ebert gave The Rainmaker three stars out of four, remarking: "I have enjoyed several of the
movies based on Grisham novels... but I've usually seen the storyteller's craft rather than the novelist's art being
reflected. By keeping all of the little people in focus, Coppola shows the variety of a young lawyer's life, where
every client is necessary and most of them need a lot more than a lawyer."
[68]
James Berardinelli also gave the film
three stars out of four, saying that "the intelligence and subtlety of The Rainmaker took me by surprise" and that the
film "stands above any other filmed Grisham adaptation".
[69]
Grisham said of the film, "To me it's the best
adaptation of any of [my books]... I love the movie. It's so well done."
[70]
The film grossed about $45 million
domestically.
[71]
This would be more than the estimated production budget of $40 million, but a disappointment
compared with previous films adapted from a Grisham novel.
Pinocchio dispute with Warner Bros.
In the late 1980s, Coppola started considering concepts for a motion picture based upon the 19th century novel The
Adventures of Pinocchio and in 1991, Coppola and Warner Bros. began discussing the project as well as two others:
involving the life of J. Edgar Hoover and the children's novel The Secret Garden. These discussions led to
negotiations for Coppola to both produce and direct the Pinocchio project for Warners, as well as The Secret Garden
(which was made in 1993 and produced by American Zoetrope, but directed by Agnieszka Holland) and Hoover,
which never came to fruition. (A film was eventually to be made by Clint Eastwood in 2011 as J. Edgar, which was
distributed by Warners.)
But, in mid-1991, Coppola and Warners came to disagreement over the compensation to be paid to Coppola for his
directing services on Pinocchio.
[72]
The parties deferred this issue and finally a settlement was reached in 1998,
when the jurors in the resultant court case awarded Coppola $20 million as compensation for losing the Pinocchio
film project. However, they also awarded him a further $60 million in punitive damages on top, stemming from his
charges that Warner Bros. sabotaged his intended version. This is the largest civil financial verdict ever against a
Hollywood studio.
[45]
Francis Ford Coppola
116
Contact dispute with Carl Sagan/Warner Bros.
During the filming of Contact on December 28, 1996, Coppola filed a lawsuit against Carl Sagan and Warner Bros..
Sagan had died a week earlier
[73][74]
and Coppola claimed that Sagan's novel Contact was based on a story the pair
had developed for a television special back in 1975, titled First Contact.
[73]
Under their development agreement,
Coppola and Sagan were to split proceeds from the project with American Zoetrope and Children's Television
Workshop Productions, as well as any novel Sagan would write. The TV program was never produced, but in 1985,
Simon & Schuster published Sagan's Contact and Warner Bros. moved forward with development of a film
adaptation. Coppola sought at least $250,000 in compensatory damages and an injunction against production or
distribution of the film.
[73]
Even though Sagan was shown to have violated some of the terms of the agreement, the
case was dismissed in February 1998 because Coppola had waited too long to file suit.
[75]
2000s
Youth Without Youth (2007)
Francis Ford Coppola at the 2001 Cannes Film
Festival.
After a 10-year hiatus, Coppola returned to film direction with Youth
Without Youth in 2007, based on the novella of the same name by
Romanian author Mircea Eliade. The film was poorly reviewed,
currently holding a 30% 'rotten' rating on Rotten Tomatoes.
[76]
It was
made for about $19 million and was given a limited release, only
managing $2,624,759 at the box-office.
[77]
As a result, Coppola
announced his plans to produce his own films in order to avoid the
marketing input that goes into most films and so trying to make them
appeal to too wide an audience.
Tetro (2009)
In 2009, Coppola released Tetro. It was "set in Argentina, with the
reunion of two brothers. The story follows the rivalries born out of
creative differences passed down through generations of an artistic
Italian immigrant family."
[78]
The film received generally positive
reviews from critics. On Metacritic, the film has an average metascore
of 63% based on 19 reviews.
[79]
Rotten Tomatoes reported that 68% of
critics gave positive reviews based on 71 reviews with an average score of 5.6/10.
[80]
Overall, the Rotten Tomatoes
consensus was: "A complex meditation on family dynamics, Tetro's arresting visuals and emotional core compensate
for its uneven narrative."
[80]
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film 3 stars, praising the film for being
"boldly operatic, involving family drama, secrets, generations at war, melodrama, romance and violence". Ebert also
praised Vincent Gallo's performance and claimed that Alden Ehrenreich is "the new Leonardo DiCaprio".
[81]
Todd
McCarthy of Variety gave the film a B+ judging that "when Coppola finds creative nirvana, he frequently has trouble
delivering the full goods."
[82]
Richard Corliss of TIME gave the film a mixed review, praising Ehrenreich's
performance, but claiming Coppola "has made a movie in which plenty happens, but nothing rings true."
[83]
It has
made $2,636,774 worldwide,
[84]
against a budget of $5,000,000
[85]
Francis Ford Coppola
117
2010s
Twixt (2011)
Twixt, starring Val Kilmer, Elle Fanning, Joanne Whalley and Bruce Dern and narrated by Tom Waits, was released
to film festivals in late 2011
[86]
and was released theatrically in early 2012. It has received critical acclaim in
France.
[87]
Commercial ventures
American Zoetrope
In 1971, Coppola and George Lucas co-produced the latter's first film, THX 1138. Shortly after completion of
production they brought the finished film to Warner Bros., along with several other scripts for potential projects at
their newly-founded company, American Zoetrope. However, studio executives strongly disliked all the scripts,
including THX and demanded that Coppola repay the $300,000 they had loaned him for the Zoetrope studio, as well
as insisting on cutting five minutes from the film. The debt nearly closed Zoetrope and forced Coppola to
("reluctantly") focus on The Godfather.
[4]
Zoetrope Virtual Studio
His company American Zoetrope also administers the innovative Zoetrope Virtual Studio, a complete motion picture
production studio for members only. Launched in June 2000, the culmination of more than four years work, it brings
together departments for screenwriters, directors, producers and other filmmaker artists, plus new departments for
other creative endeavours, offering powerful e-collaborative tools. Filmmaker members can workshop a wide range
of film arts, including music, graphics, design and film & video.
Inglenook Winery
Coppola, with his family, expanded his business ventures to include winemaking in California's Napa Valley, when
in 1975 he purchased the former home and adjoining vineyard of Gustave Niebaum in Rutherford, California using
proceeds from the first movie in the Godfather trilogy.
[88]
His winery produced its first vintage in 1977 with the help
of his father, wife and children stomping the grapes barefoot and every year the family has a harvest party to
continue the tradition.
[89]
After purchasing the property, he produced wine under the Niebaum-Coppola label. When he purchased the former
Inglenook Winery chateau in 1995, he renamed the winery Rubicon Estate Winery in 2006. On 11 April 2011,
Coppola acquired the iconic Inglenook trademark
[90]
paying more, he said, for the trademark than he did for the
entire estate
[91]
and announced that the estate would once again be known by its historic original name, Inglenook.
Its grapes are now entirely organically grown and its Inglenook Chablis is one of the five most-widely-selling wines
in US restaurants.
[92]
Francis Ford Coppola
118
Francis Ford Coppola Presents
Coppola is also the owner of Francis Ford Coppola Presents, a lifestyle brand under which he markets goods from
companies he owns or controls. It includes films and videos, resorts, cafes, a literary magazine, a line of pastas and
pasta sauces called Mammarella Foods and a winery.
Winery
The Francis Ford Coppola Winery near Geyserville, California,
[93]
located on the former Chateau Souverain
Winery,
[94]
where he has opened a family-friendly facility, is influenced by the idea of the Tivoli Gardens in
Copenhagen,
[95]
with swimming pools, bocce courts and a restaurant. The winery displays several of Coppola's
Oscars along with memorabilia from his movies, including Vito Corleone’s desk from The Godfather and a restored
1948 Tucker Sedan as used in Tucker: The Man and His Dream.
Resorts
Included in the Francis Ford Coppola Presents lifestyle brand are several hotels and resorts around the world. The
Blancaneaux Lodge in Belize, which from the early 1980s was a family retreat until it was opened to the public in
1993 as a 20-room luxury resort
[96]
and The Turtle Inn, in Placencia, Belize,
[97]
(both of which have won several
prestigious awards including "Travel + Leisure's World's Best: Best Resort in Central & South America"); La
Lancha in Lago Petén Itzá, Guatemala;
[98]
Jardin Escondido in Buenos Aires, Argentina
[99]
and Palazzo Margherita
in Bernalda, Italy.
[100]
Cafe & Restaurant
In San Francisco, Coppola owns a restaurant named Cafe Zoetrope, located in the Sentinel Building where American
Zoetrope is based.
[101]
It serves traditional Italian cuisine and wine from his personal estate vineyard and bottling
company and for 14 years he co-owned the Rubicon restaurant in San Francisco along with Robin Williams and
Robert De Niro. Rubicon closed in August 2008.
[102]
Literary Publications
He brought out the San Francisco-based City Magazine in the 1970s, but lost $1.5 million on this venture.
[103][104]
In 1997, Coppola founded Zoetrope: All-Story, a literary magazine devoted to short stories and design. The magazine
publishes fiction by emerging writers alongside more recognizable names, such as Woody Allen, Margaret Atwood,
Haruki Murakami, Alice Munro, Don DeLillo, Mary Gaitskill, and Edward Albee; as well as essays, including ones
from Mario Vargas Llosa, David Mamet, Steven Spielberg, and Salman Rushdie. Each issue is designed, in its
entirety, by a prominent artist, one usually working outside his / her expected field. Previous guest designers include
Gus Van Sant, Tom Waits, Laurie Anderson, Marjane Satrapi, Guillermo del Toro, David Bowie, David Byrne, and
Dennis Hopper. Coppola serves as founding editor and publisher of All-Story.
Other ventures
Coppola spends considerable time in Buenos Aires, Argentina, where he is establishing a subsidiary of his
production company, Zoetrope.
He was the jury president at the 1996 Cannes Film Festival
[104]
and he also took part as a special guest at the 46th
International Thessaloniki Film Festival in Greece.
[104]
Coppola stated that The Godfather Part IV was never made as Mario Puzo died before they had a chance to write the
film.
[105]
Andy Garcia has since claimed the film's script was nearly produced.
[105]
Over the years, Francis Coppola has given political contributions to several candidates of the Democratic Party,
including Mike Thompson and Nancy Pelosi for the U.S. House of Representatives and Barbara Boxer and Alan
Cranston for the U.S. Senate.
[106]
Francis Ford Coppola
119
For quite some time, he had been planning to direct an epic movie named Megalopolis, a story about the aftermath
and reconstruction of New York City after a mega-disaster, but after the city was hit by the real life disaster of
September 11, the project was suddenly seen as being too sensitive.
[107]
In 2007 he stated that "I have abandoned
that as of now. I plan to begin a process of making one personal movie after another and if something leads me back
to look at that, which I'm sure it might, I'll see what makes sense to me."
[108]
Personal life
In February 1963, Coppola married Eleanor Neil, whom he met on the set of Dementia 13.
[104]
They had three
children: Gian-Carlo, born 1963; Roman, born 1965 and Sofia, born 1971.
Gian-Carlo Coppola, was in the early stages of a film production career when he was killed on May 26, 1986 in a
speedboat accident. His daughter Gia was born to Jacqui de la Fontaine after he died in 1987 and is now an actress.
Sofia Coppola appeared in all three Godfather films, the first two movies uncredited: as the infant being baptised at
the end of The Godfather; as a young child on board ship in The Godfather Part II and in a supporting role as
Michael Corleone's daughter Mary in The Godfather Part III and is now an Academy Award-winning writer and
nominated director. Her films include The Virgin Suicides and Lost in Translation. In 2004, she became the first
American woman to be nominated for the Academy Award for Best Director for Lost in Translation.
Coppola's surviving son, Roman Coppola, is a filmmaker and music video director whose filmography includes the
feature film CQ and music videos for The Strokes, as well as co-writing two Wes Anderson films, The Darjeeling
Limited and Moonrise Kingdom. He was also second-unit director on Bram Stokers Dracula.
[109]
Coppola often works with family members in his films: He cast his two sons in The Godfather as extras during the
street fight scene involving Sonny and Carlo Rizzi and at Vito Corleone’s funeral.
His sister, Talia Shire, played Connie Corleone in all three Godfather films.
His father Carmine, a composer and professional musician, co-wrote much of the music for The Godfather, The
Godfather Part II (for which he received an Oscar for Best Music, Original Dramatic Score, shared with Nino Rota)
and The Godfather Part III (for which he was nominated for another Oscar for Best Original Song) and Apocalypse
Now (for which he was nominated for a BAFTA Anthony Asquith Award for Film Music). In addition, Carmine and
his wife Italia appear as the couple in the elevator scene in One from the Heart.
Coppola's nephew, Nicolas Cage, son of his brother, the academic August Coppola, starred in Coppola's film Peggy
Sue Got Married and was featured in Rumble Fish and The Cotton Club.
Other famous members of Coppola's family include nephews Jason Schwartzman and Robert Schwartzman, sons of
Talia Shire. Jason Schwartzman has starred in several films, including Rushmore and Slackers. He also co-wrote
(along with director Wes Anderson and cousin Roman Coppola) and starred in the 2007 film The Darjeeling
Limited. Robert Schwartzman is the lead singer in the band Rooney and appeared in The Princess Diaries as well as
having small appearances in several films, including his cousin Sofia's The Virgin Suicides.
An interesting insight into Coppola's attitudes and feelings was given when answering the standard Bernard Pivot
questions at the conclusion of his interview episode of the Inside the Actors Studio TV programme (Season 7,
Episode 14):
• What is your favourite word?: Hope - speranza
• What is your least favourite word?: No
• What turns you on?: Life, everything
• What turns you off?: For insurance purposes, kids can't go. I don't know the word. I hate it so much I don't even
know it
• What sound or noise do you love?: The flute
• What sound or noise do you hate?: A gasoline leaf-blower
Francis Ford Coppola
120
• What is your favourite curse-word?: I don't have a favourite curse word. If I curse in front of a woman, I give her
$1.
• What profession, other than your own, would you like to attempt?: Architect
• What profession would you absolutely not like to do?: Executioner
• If Heaven exists, what would you like to hear God say when you arrive at the Pearly Gates?: Welcome
[110]
Honors
In the 2002 poll of the Sight and Sound publication, Coppola ranked #4 in the Directors' top ten directors of all
time
[111]
and #10 in the Critics' top ten directors of all time.
[112]
He featured at #17 in MovieMaker Magazine's 25
most influential directors of all-time.
[113]
He also ranked #9 in toptenreviews' list of top directors of all time
[114]
and
at #21 in Entertainment Weekly's top 50 directors of all time.
[115]
Four of Coppola's films, The Godfather; The Godfather Part II; Apocalypse Now and Patton featured in the Writers
Guild of America, West list of 101 greatest screenplays ever.
[116]
Three of his films feature in AFI's 100 Years…100 Movies: The Godfather (at #2), Apocalypse Now (at #28) and
The Godfather Part II (at #32). The Godfather also ranks at #11 in AFI's 100 Years…100 Thrills. The following
Coppola films were also nominated for the list: American Graffiti (1973) - Producer; The Conversation (1974) -
Director/Producer/Screenwriter; Patton (1970) - Screenwriter
1991, he was honored with the Berlinale Camera at the Berlin International Film Festival.
[117]
In 1992, he was
awarded a Golden Lion – Honorary Award at the Venice Film Festival.
[117]
In 1998, the Directors Guild of America
honored him with a Lifetime Achievement Award.
[117]
He was honored with a special 50th anniversary award for his
impressive career at the 2002 San Sebastián International Film Festival.
[117]
The same year he received a gala tribute
from Film Society of Lincoln Center.
[117]
In 2003, he was awarded a Lifetime Achievement Award at the Denver
Film Festival.
[117]
He was given an honorary award at the 2007 Antalya Golden Orange Film Festival.
[118]
In 2010,
the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences decided to honor him with the Irving G. Thalberg Memorial
Award at the 2nd Governor's Awards in November.
[119][120]
The honor was bestowed on him on November 13,
along with Jean-Luc Godard, Kevin Brownlow and Eli Wallach.
[121]
There are three generations of Oscar winners in the Coppola family: Carmine, his son Francis Ford, his
granddaughter Sofia Coppola and his grandson Nicolas Cage. They are the second family to do so, the first being the
Hustons - Walter Huston, John Huston and Anjelica Huston.
[122]
Coppola serves as the "Honorary Consul H. E. Francis Ford Coppola" in San Francisco for the Central American
nation of Belize.
[123]
George Lucas said that he based the Han Solo character in Star Wars on Coppola.
[16][104]
Filmography
Francis Ford Coppola
121
Film
Year Title Contribution Notes
Director Screenwriter Producer
1962 Tonight for Sure Yes Yes First film
1962 The Bellboy and the
Playgirls
Yes Yes
1963 Dementia 13 Yes Yes First feature film
1963 The Terror Uncredited co-director and associate producer
1966 You're a Big Boy Now
Yes Yes
Nominated — Palme d'Or
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or
Comedy
Nominated — Writers Guild of America Award for Best American
Screenplay - Comedy
1968 Finian's Rainbow
Yes
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or
Comedy
1969 The Rain People Yes Yes Golden Shell at San Sebastián International Film Festival
1970 Patton Yes Academy Award for Best Writing (Original Screenplay)
1971 THX 1138 Yes
1972 The Godfather
Yes Yes
Academy Award for Best Picture
Academy Award for Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay)
David di Donatello for Best Foreign Film
Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Achievement in
Feature Film
Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama
Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
Golden Screen at Golden Screen Awards, Germany
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director
Writers Guild of America Award for Best Drama Adapted from Another
Medium
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated — Best Audio Commentary at DVD Exclusive Awards
1973 American Graffiti
Yes
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Picture
Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy
Francis Ford Coppola
122
1974 The Conversation
Yes Yes Yes
Palme d'Or
Prize of the Ecumenical Jury- Special Mention
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director
National Board of Review Award for Best Director
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Original Screenplay
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Direction
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated — Video Premiere Award at DVD Exclusive Awards
Nominated — Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding
Achievement in Feature Film
Nominated — Best Motion Picture Screenplay
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
Nominated — Writers Guild of America Award for Best Drama Written
Directly for the Screen
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Picture
1974 The Godfather Part II
Yes Yes Yes
Academy Award for Best Picture
Academy Award for Best Director
Academy Award for Best Writing (Adapted Screenplay)
Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding Directorial
Achievement in Feature Film
Kansas City Film Critics Circle Award for Best Director
National Society of Film Critics Award for Best Director
Writers Guild of America Award for Best Drama Adapted from Another
Medium
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Drama
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
1979 Apocalypse Now
Yes Yes Yes
Palme d'Or
FIPRESCI Prize
Golden Globe Award for Best Director
BAFTA Award for Best Direction
David di Donatello for Best Foreign Film
Golden Screen at Golden Screen Awards, Germany
London Film Critics Circle Award for Best Film
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Picture
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Adapted Screenplay
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Film
Nominated — Best Foreign Language Film at Cinema Brazil Grand Prize
(2002)
Nominated — César Award for Best Foreign Film
Nominated — Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding
Achievement in Feature Film
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture
Nominated — Grammy Award for Best Album of Original Score Written
for a Motion Picture or Television Special
Nominated — Writers Guild of America Award for Best Drama Written
Directly for the Screen
1979 The Black Stallion Yes
1980 Kagemusha
Yes
David di Donatello for Best Producer
[124]
1982 One from the Heart Yes Yes
Francis Ford Coppola
123
1983 The Outsiders
Yes
Nominated — Golden Prize at the 13th Moscow International Film
Festival
[125]
Nominated — Best Family Feature Motion Picture at the Young Artist
Awards
1983 Koyaanisqatsi Yes
1983 Rumble Fish
Yes Yes Yes
FIPRESCI Prize at San Sebastián International Film Festival
OCIC Award at the San Sebastián International Film Festival
1984 The Cotton Club
Yes Yes
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture
Nominated — Japan Academy Prize for Outstanding Foreign Language
Film
1986 Peggy Sue Got Married
Yes
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture – Musical or
Comedy
Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Science Fiction Film
1987 Gardens of Stone
Yes Yes
Nominated — Golden Prize at the Moscow International Film
Festival
[126]
Nominated — Political Film Society Award for Peace
1988 Tucker: The Man and
His Dream
Yes
1989 New York Stories Yes Yes Co-director, co-writer
1990 The Godfather Part III
Yes Yes Yes
Best Foreign Film (Mejor Película Extranjera) at Fotogramas de Plata
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Picture
Nominated — Academy Award for Best Director
Nominated — Directors Guild of America Award for Outstanding
Achievement in Feature Film
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Motion Picture
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Director
Nominated — Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay
1992 Bram Stoker's Dracula
Yes Yes
Saturn Award for Best Direction
Saturn Award for Best Horror Film
Best Foreign Film (Mejor Película Extranjera) at Fotogramas de Plata
Nominated — Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation
1993 The Junky's Christmas Yes
1993 The Secret Garden
Yes
Los Angeles Film Critics Association Award for Best Music
Nominated — BAFTA Award for Best Actress in a Supporting Role
(Maggie Smith)
1994 Frankenstein Yes Nominated — Saturn Award for Best Horror Film
1995 Kidnapped Yes
1996 Jack
Yes Yes
Nominated — Best Family Feature - Musical or Comedy at Young Artist
Awards
1997 The Rainmaker
Yes Yes
Nominated — USC Scripter Award
Nominated — Political Film Society Award for Democracy
1999 The Virgin Suicides Yes
1999 Sleepy Hollow Yes
2001 CQ Yes
Jeepers Creepers Yes
2003 Jeepers Creepers 2 Yes
2006 Marie Antoinette Yes
Francis Ford Coppola
124
2007 Youth Without Youth Yes Yes Yes
2009 Tetro Yes Yes Yes
2010 Somewhere Yes
2011 On the Road Yes
2011 Twixt Yes Yes Yes
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Further reading
• Jeffrey Chown (1988-05). Hollywood auteur: Francis Coppola. Praeger Publishers. ISBN 978-0-275-92910-7.
External links
• Francis Ford Coppola (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm338/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Francis Ford Coppola (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p85868) at AllRovi
• Francis Ford Coppola: Texas Monthly Talks, YouTube video posted on November 24, 2008 (http:/ / www.
youtube. com/ watch?v=p20U3rdVNhs)
• 2007 Francis Ford Coppola Video Interview with InterviewingHollywood.com (http:// www.
interviewinghollywood. com/ francis-ford-coppola.php)
• Bibliography at the University of California Berkeley Library (http:/ / www.lib. berkeley.edu/ MRC/
CoppolaBib. html)
• Francis Ford Coppola Presents (http:// www. ffcpresents.com/ site. php)
• "Perfecting the Rubicon: An interview with Francis Ford Coppola" (http:// www.novusvinum.com/ interviews/
coppola. html)
• "Back to Bernalda" (http:/ / tmagazine.blogs. nytimes. com/ 2012/ 11/ 15/ back-to-bernalda/) by Coppola, T
(International Herald Tribune Style Magazine), December 8, 2012
• Works by Francis Ford Coppola on Open Library at the Internet Archive
Gettysburg (1993 film)
128
Gettysburg (1993 film)
Gettysburg
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ronald F. Maxwell
Produced by Moctesuma Esparza
Robert Katz
Screenplay by Ronald F. Maxwell
Based on The Killer Angels by
Michael Shaara
Narrated by W. Morgan Sheppard
Starring Tom Berenger
Jeff Daniels
Martin Sheen
Maxwell Caulfield
Kevin Conway
C. Thomas Howell
Richard Jordan
James Lancaster
and Stephen Lang
as 'Pickett'
Special Appearance by
Sam Elliott
as 'John Bulford'
Music by Randy Edelman
Studio(s) Turner Pictures
Distributed by United States Theatrical:
New Line Cinema
VHS/DVD/Blu-Ray:
Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) •• October 8, 1993
Running time 262 minutes / 271 minutes (director's cut)
Language English
Budget
$25 million
[1]
Box office $10,769,960
Gettysburg is a 1993 American war film. It is based on the novel The Killer Angels by Michael Shaara, a historical
fiction writer, about the decisive Battle of Gettysburg during the American Civil War. The film adaptation was
written and directed by Ronald F. Maxwell and produced by Moctesuma Esparza and Robert Katz. Randy Edelman
composed the score. The film stars Tom Berenger, Jeff Daniels and Martin Sheen, and tells the story of the Union
and Confederate armies during this pivotal battle of the war.
Though it did poorly at the box office, Gettysburg has been highly praised by critics.
Gettysburg (1993 film)
129
Plot
Opening
The film starts with spoken exposition over the image of a map that establishes the location of the battle and how the
two armies converged at Gettysburg. Confederate General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia are
making an offensive through Pennsylvania to lure the Union Army of the Potomac into a decisive battle that will end
the war. The narration states that Confederate President Jefferson Davis has prepared a letter of peace to be delivered
to the desk of Abraham Lincoln once the Army of the Potomac has been destroyed somewhere outside of
Washington.
Early scenes depict actor-turned-spy Henry Thomas Harrison spotting Union cavalry. Shortly thereafter, Harrison
locates a major body of Union infantry and, immediately, crosses the Confederate picket line in order to notify
Lieutenant General James "Pete" Longstreet, the senior lieutenant general in the Confederate Army and
second-in-command of the Army of Northern Virginia. Major General J.E.B. Stuart's cavalry, the “eyes” of Lee’s
army, has gone off on raids without keeping in touch with Lee’s army. Meanwhile, U.S. Brig. Gen. John Buford and
his cavalry division arrive at Gettysburg. Buford surmizes that if Lee's army is allowed access to the town, the
Confederates might easily take a strong defensive position that could destroy the Army of the Potomac. Buford
decides to deploy his division along Seminary Ridge in order to obstruct any Confederate advance on Gettysburg
from the west. The day ends with Buford writing a letter to Maj. Gen. John Reynolds, commanding officer of the
nearby Union I Corps infantry, inquiring if he should hold his position.
Meanwhile, miles from Gettysburg, U.S. Colonel Joshua Chamberlain of the 20th Maine regiment is awakened and
informed that his unit will be absorbing 120 recalcitrant members of another Maine regiment, the 2nd Maine. Orders
state that it is within his power to have the rebellious men shot, if necessary. Chamberlain wins over all but six (three
of whom will later fight in the second day of battle) of the soldiers with an inspirational speech.
First Day
Back in Gettysburg on July 1, the first day of battle, Buford's cavalry engages Henry Heth's division of A. P. Hill's
corps; Heth had intended to lead his troops to Gettysburg to restock the Confederacy's dwindling shoe supply.
Believing the forces at Gettysburg to be local militia, Heth engages Buford without first communicating with
General Lee.
Buford repels Heth's initial attacks, but Heth's superior numbers begin to tell. General Reynolds and the I Corps
arrive to reinforce the position. Meanwhile Lee arrives on the field but is hesitant to commit the whole of Hill's Third
Corps due to a lack of intelligence on the Army of the Potomac's position, given J.E.B. Stuart's lack of contact with
the Army of Northern Virginia. Lee's only information on the enemy is what has been relayed to him by General
Longstreet from Harrison's report.
Union forces retake Seminary Ridge, but Reynolds, while leading the Iron Brigade into battle, is killed by a
Confederate sharpshooter. Soon after Heth informs Lee that Union forces are being flanked by Lt. General Dick
Ewell's corps advancing on Gettysburg from the north. Recognizing a tactical advantage, Lee gives the order for all
forces to attack.
Union forces, out-manned and flanked, begin to retreat, but a decisive Confederate victory is compromised when
Ewell fails to follow through with orders to take the crucial strategic location of Cemetery Hill, allowing Union
troops to rally in a strong defensive position. Confederate General Isaac Trimble, attached to Ewell's command, but
disgusted by Ewell's inability to take the high ground of Cemetery Hill, reports to General Lee. Trimble asks to be
removed from Ewell's command, but Lee informs the enraged Trimble that such action would not be necessary.
At the end of the first day, one of Longstreet's division commanders, Maj. Gen. George Pickett, arrives at
Longstreet's headquarters with his three brigade commanders, Gens. James Kemper, Richard B. Garnett and Lewis
Gettysburg (1993 film)
130
Armistead. The four meet with Gen. Longstreet and begin exchanging banter around the fireside with British
Colonel Arthur Fremantle, who has been traveling with Lee's army as an observer. Armistead discusses with
Longstreet his friendship with Union General Winfield Scott Hancock and his desire to meet with him.
On the other side of the battlefield, at the center of the Union position south of the town, Hancock congratulates
Buford on a hard fight on the first day. Hancock reflects on Reynolds's death and Armistead's whereabouts, to which
Buford responds that Armistead is serving in Pickett's division. Hancock states that he would hate to meet Armistead
again while still on opposite sides. After a moment of recollection, he again congratulates Buford and instructs him
that he should reorganize his cavalry.
Second day
On the second day, Lee orders an attack on the Union left flank to be led by two divisions of Longstreet’s First
Corps. The primary focus of the attack is to be on the treacherous terrain of Devil's Den and Little Round Top. John
"Sam" Bell Hood, one of Longstreet's division commanders and a close friend tasked with flanking the Union forces,
pleads with Longstreet to allow him to bypass Devil's Den and Little Round Top in favor of capturing the taller
heights of the adjacent Big Round Top. However, Longstreet tells Hood that he has tried to argue much the same
plan with Lee and that the commanding general will not accept an attack elsewhere on the field.
Meanwhile, Chamberlain and the 20th Maine are deployed on Little Round Top as the furthermost left flank of the
entire Federal line. When Devil’s Den falls, there is little to protect Chamberlain’s regiment. Chamberlain and the
undersized 20th put up a valiant defense, repelling multiple Confederate charges, but his men become short on
ammunition. Chamberlain orders a bayonet charge and the Confederate forces retreat in confusion, many being taken
prisoner.
Late that afternoon, Longstreet visits a severely wounded Hood in a field hospital. Longstreet informs Hood that they
took Devil’s Den, but that they were unable to take Little Round Top. Hood again states that the Rebel attack should
have taken Big Round Top.
That evening, in Longstreet’s camp, General Armistead, believing he’s soon to see combat gives a package to
Longstreet to be delivered to the wife of General Hancock in the event of Armistead's death. The package contains
his personal Bible.
Robert E. Lee meets with J.E.B. Stuart, who had finally returned that afternoon, but not in time to give Lee an
advantage. Lee scolds Stuart, who attempts to resign, but Lee denies him and orders him to never leave Lee’s army
blind again.
Pickett's Charge
On the third and final day of combat, General Lee believes that the Federal line is weakest in the center and could be
divided in two. Longstreet protests, but Lee, now confident that the Army of Northern Virginia is invincible, places
Longstreet in charge of a frontal assault on the Union position on Cemetery Ridge with General Pickett’s division
forming the center of the assault which would go on to be known as Pickett's Charge.
Longstreet, not believing the attack will be successful from the beginning, orders for an extended artillery
bombardment. However, the Confederates do not realize that their guns are overshooting the Union defenses, and in
the process, the bombardment hardly does any damage to the Union center. When the bombardment ends, Pickett’s
forces begin their advance. Immediately they fall under fire of the Union’s long-distance artillery. They make it to
the Union line where numbers are further decreased by canister and the Union musket fire.
Armistead, whose brigade was at the rear of Pickett’s forces, sees General Garnett’s horse riding off away from the
line, its rider having been killed by an artillery round. This prompts Armistead to thrust his sword through his hat
and rally his fellow Virginians to follow him. His rally is enough to penetrate a low stone wall near the Union line (a
location now known as the high-water mark of the Confederacy), but his force is too small, and Armistead is
Gettysburg (1993 film)
131
mortally wounded. All Confederate forces that broke the line would be killed or captured. General Kemper is
wounded and captured, but rescued by Confederate troops.
Thomas Chamberlain, Joshua's brother, encounters the mortally wounded Armistead, who asks to see his old friend
Hancock. Chamberlain informs him that Hancock has been wounded as well. Armistead asks Chamberlain to tell
Hancock that he sends his regrets and that he is very sorry. Chamberlain agrees to do this as Armistead begins to
expire.
Lee rides out to the remains of the retreating Confederate forces and declares that everything is all his fault. He
orders a distraught General Pickett to reform his division to prepare for a possible counter attack, to which Pickett
informs Lee that he has no division.
The day, along with the battle, ends with a victorious North and Lee informing Longstreet of plans to fall back into
Virginia beginning the next day, feeling that the Union forces would be unlikely to pursue on Independence Day.
However, Lee's hypothesis proves false. The film ends with Chamberlain and his brother, Tom, hugging and in tears
knowing that they both survived the battle. The last scene in the film shows three zouaves of the 72nd Pennsylvania
with the Union flag against the sunset.
Production
The film began life as a miniseries. The producers originally pitched the project to ABC in 1991. ABC initially
agreed to back the project, but when the TV movie Son of the Morning Star about George Armstrong Custer received
low ratings, ABC withdrew. Subsequently, media mogul and Civil War buff Ted Turner took up the project and
filming began, helped considerably when the National Park Service permitted unprecedented access to Gettysburg
Battlefield, including Devil's Den and Little Round Top. However, much of the movie was shot at a nearby Adams
County farm. Thousands of Civil War reenactors from across the country volunteered to come to Gettysburg to
participate in the massive battle scenes.
[1]
When filming was completed, the miniseries was set to air on TNT. But during post-production, Turner, who made a
cameo as a Confederate officer during Pickett's Charge, was so impressed by what he saw that he decided to release
"Gettysburg" theatrically. The film was distributed by New Line Cinema, which Turner had just acquired. The film
was only shown in 248 theaters at its widest release, and was limited to one or two showings a day because of its
inordinate length. "Gettysburg" grossed nearly $11 million, but was still considered a box-office flop. However, the
film became an all-time top grosser in the home-entertainment market, and has become a staple of classroom history
lessons. Its TV premiere on TNT in June 1994 garnered over 23 million viewers, a record for cable TV at the time.
One of the longest films ever released by a Hollywood studio, Gettysburg runs 254 minutes (4 hours, 14 minutes) on
VHS and DVD. A director's cut edition, with several extended or deleted scenes, sold as part of a special "Collector's
Edition" on VHS and LaserDisc, which also included a book of Gettysburg paintings by Civil War artist Mort
Künstler, an original Civil War lead Minié ball, stock photographs of key officers from the battle, and other items.
Ron Maxwell's 271-minute (4 hours, 31 minutes) Director's Cut has been shown on Turner's TNT Station regularly
and is now available on DVD.
The movie was released on Blu-Ray as a Collector's Edition on May 24, 2011 for the 150th Anniversary of the
American Civil War.
A prequel entitled Gods and Generals was released in 2003 based on the novel of the same name, written by Michael
Shaara's son Jeff Shaara. It primarily focuses on the life of Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson and
the battles leading up to Gettysburg.
The PC strategy game, Gettysburg: Multimedia Battle Simulation was released by Turner Interactive in 1994. It
contained 67 cinematic scenes from the film,
[2]
many of them outtakes.
Gettysburg (1993 film)
132
Cast
• Tom Berenger as Lieutenant General James Longstreet (CSA)
• Jeff Daniels as Colonel Joshua Chamberlain (USA)
• Martin Sheen as General Robert E. Lee (CSA)
• Kevin Conway as Sergeant Buster Kilrain (USA)
• C. Thomas Howell as Lieutenant Thomas Chamberlain (USA)
• Richard Jordan as Brigadier General Lewis A. "Lo" Armistead (CSA)
• Richard Anderson as Major General George Meade (USA)
• Royce D. Applegate as Brigadier General James L. Kemper (CSA)
• John Diehl as Private Bucklin (USA)
• Maxwell Caulfield as Colonel Strong Vincent (USA)
• Joshua D. Maurer as Colonel James Clay Rice (USA)
• Patrick Gorman as Major General John Bell Hood (CSA)
• Cooper Huckabee as Henry Thomas Harrison
• James Lancaster as Lieutenant Colonel Arthur Fremantle (British Army, the Coldstream Guards)
• Brian Mallon as Major General Winfield Scott Hancock (USA)
• Andrew Prine as Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett (CSA)
• John Rothman as Major General John F. Reynolds (USA)
• Tim Scott as Lieutenant General Richard S. Ewell (CSA)
• W. Morgan Sheppard as Major General Isaac R. Trimble (CSA) and narrator
• Stephen Lang as Major General George Pickett (CSA)
• Sam Elliott as Brigadier General John Buford (USA)
• Joseph Fuqua as Major General J.E.B. Stuart (CSA)
• Bo Brinkman as Lieutenant Colonel Walter H. Taylor (CSA)
• Kieran Mulroney as Major Moxley Sorrel (CSA)
• Ivan Kane as Captain T.J. Goree (CSA)
• James Patrick Stuart as Colonel Edward Porter Alexander (CSA)
• Warren Burton as Major General Henry Heth (CSA)
• Buck Taylor as Colonel William Gamble (USA)
• David Carpenter as Colonel Thomas C. Devin (USA)
• Donal Logue as Captain Ellis Spear (USA)
• Herb Mitchell as Sergeant Andrew J. Tozier (USA)
• Dwier Brown as Captain Brewer (USA)
Cameos
Civil War buff Ted Turner has a cameo appearance in one of the battle scenes as Colonel Waller T. Patton. During
Major General Pickett's (Stephen Lang) charge, Confederate troops must climb a fence in their path. Turner plays the
Confederate officer who leads the charge, then gets shot down.
Former James Bond actor George Lazenby has a brief role as General Johnston Pettigrew, who, along with General
Isaac Trimble and General Pickett, helps lead the final charge of the battle.
Ken Burns, who co-wrote and directed the epic PBS documentary The Civil War, portrays an aide to Major General
Hancock (Brian Mallon) during a massive bombardment that precedes Pickett's Charge. Burns can be seen saying,
"General, please get down. We cannot spare you," to Hancock, to which Hancock replies with a famous quotation,
"There are times when a corps commander's life does not count."
Gettysburg (1993 film)
133
Soundtrack
The score was composed by Randy Edelman. The soundtrack was released through Milan Records in September
1993 and features eighteen tracks of score.
1. 1. "Main Title" (4:36)
2. 2. "Men of Honor" (2:57)
3. 3. "Battle of Little Round Top" (3:57)
4. 4. "Fife and Gun" (3:03)
5. 5. "General Lee at Twilight" (1:25)
6. 6. "The First Battle" (2:41)
7. 7. "Dawn" (1:59)
8. 8. "From History to Legend" (2:56)
9. 9. "Over the Fence" (4:11)
10. 10. "We are the Flank" (2:15)
11. 11. "Charging Up the Hill" (2:23)
12. "Dixie" (2:26) – traditional
13. 13. "General Lee's Solitude" (3:41)
14. 14. "Battle at Devil's Den" (1:46)
15. 15. "Killer Angel" (4:42)
16. 16. "March to Mortality (Pickett's Charge)" (3:18)
17. "Kathleen Mavourneen" (3:17) – composed by Frederick Crouch
18. 18. "Reunion and Finale" (5:45)
Two related albums were subsequently released: More Songs and Music From Gettysburg and a Deluxe
Commemorative Edition. The former includes popular songs from the time period and a recitation of the Gettysburg
Address by Jeff Daniels; the latter contains previously unreleased tracks from the score.
[3]
Reception
The critical reception for Gettysburg has been mostly positive, currently holding an 88% "Fresh" rating on Rotten
Tomatoes with 16 reviews.
[4]
Reception by Civil War reenactors and historians has proved particularly positive
despite a few historical errors.
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times gave the film a positive review of 3 out of 4 stars, stating "This is a film that
Civil War buffs will find indispensable, even if others might find it interminable." Ebert said that despite his initial
indifference, he left the film with a new understanding of the Civil War, and that he felt Jeff Daniels deserved an
Oscar nomination for his performance.
[5]
Ebert also gave the film a 'thumbs-up' rating on Siskel & Ebert, while
companion Gene Siskel gave it a 'thumbs-down', claiming that the film was "bloated Southern propaganda." He did
however, praise some elements of the film, including Jeff Daniels' performance (which he recommended for an
Oscar nomination on the Memo to the Academy edition of Siskel & Ebert.)
Gettysburg (1993 film)
134
References
[1] Jubera, Drew (October 9, 1993). "GETTYSBURG: Ted Turner, a cast of thousands and the ghosts of the past" (http:// articles. baltimoresun.
com/ 1993-10-09/features/ 1993282122_1_ted-turner-gettysburg-jeff-daniels). Baltimore Sun (Tribune Company). . Retrieved October 12,
2011.
[2] Gettysburg Multimedia Battle Simulation (http:/ / www. mobygames. com/ game/ gettysburg-multimedia-battle-simulation) at
MobyGames.com
[3] Gettysburg (http:/ / www. filmtracks.com/ titles/ gettysburg. html) soundtrack review at Filmtracks.com (http:// www. filmtracks.com)
[4] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1046038-gettysburg/
[5] "Gettysburg" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/19931008/ REVIEWS/310080301). Chicago Sun-Times. .
External links
• Gettysburg (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0107007/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Gettysburg (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v19615) at AllRovi
Glass Trap
135
Glass Trap
Glass Trap
Directed by Ed Raymond
Produced by Jeff Beach
Daniel Grodnik
Andrew Stevens
Robert Snukal
Written by Lisa Morton
Brett Thompson
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Stella Stevens
Siri Baruc
Brent Huff
Chick Vennera
Andrew Prine
Music by Christopher Farrell
Cinematography Andrea V. Rossotto
Editing by Randy Carter
Release date(s) 2005
Running time 90 min
Country USA
Language English
Glass Trap is a 2005 sci-fi monster movie starring C. Thomas Howell & Stella Stevens and directed by Fred Olen
Ray, credited as Ed Raymond.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Curtis
•• Siri Baruc as Sharon
• Stella Stevens as Joan Highsmith
• Brent Huff as Dennis
• Andrew Prine as Sheriff Ed
•• Chick Vennera as Paolo
• Martin Kove as Corrigan
•• Tracy Brooks Swope as Elizabeth
• Peter Spellos as Howard Brunel
• Whitney Sloan as Carly
•• John Clement as Jack Warner
• Ron Harper as Henry "Hank" Conlon
Glass Trap
136
Reception
Although there's no approval rating on Rotten Tomatoes, the Want-To-See score is currently 13%, and was met with
mixed to negative reviews from critics and audiences.
David Cornelius from Hollywood Bitchslap though the movie "looks like it was a gas to make. To watch, though?
Not so much." Super Reviewer Bruce Bruce claimed that "this movie wasn't all that bad. I've seen worst. It's Giant
Ants that are eating people. Funny how Old School Black and White Horror is always better, but still this film is
worth a rainy night."
External links
• Glass Trap
[1]
at Internet Movie Database
• Glass Trap
[2]
at Rotten Tomatoes
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0416775/ ?ref_=fn_al_tt_1
[2] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ glass_trap/
Gods and Generals (film)
137
Gods and Generals (film)
Gods and Generals
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Ronald F. Maxwell
Produced by Moctesuma Esparza
Robert Katz
Ted Turner
Mace Neufield
Robert Rehme
Screenplay by Ronald F. Maxwell
Based on Gods and
Generals by
Jeff Shaara
Starring Jeff Daniels
Stephen Lang
Robert Duvall
Music by John Frizzell
Randy Edelman
Studio(s) Ted Turner Pictures
Distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures
Release date(s) •• February 21, 2003
Running time 219 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $56,000,000
Box office $12,923,936
Gods and Generals is a 2003 American film based on the novel Gods and Generals by Jeffrey Shaara. It depicts
events that take place prior to those shown in the 1993 film Gettysburg, which was based on The Killer Angels, a
novel by Shaara's father, Michael. The film stars Stephen Lang as Stonewall Jackson, Jeff Daniels as Lieutenant
Colonel Joshua Chamberlain and Robert Duvall as General Robert E. Lee.
[1]
It was written and directed by Ronald F. Maxwell, who had previously written and directed Gettysburg in 1993.
Media mogul Ted Turner provided the entire $56 million budget.
Plot
The film centers mostly on the personal and professional life of Thomas "Stonewall" Jackson, the God-fearing and
militarily brilliant yet acutely eccentric Confederate general, from the outbreak of the American Civil War until its
halfway point when Jackson, while on a night ride with his staff to investigate the grounds of battle, is accidentally
shot by his own soldiers in May 1863 while commanding at the Battle of Chancellorsville. It also follows Joshua
Lawrence Chamberlain, a Maine college professor who is appointed a Lieutenant Colonel and becomes
second-in-command of the 20th Maine Volunteer Infantry Regiment. The film prominently features the Battles of 1st
Bull Run (1st Manassas), Fredericksburg, and Chancellorsville. The film's original running time clocked in at nearly
6 hours (much like the original running time of Gettysburg). The longer version featured the Battle of Antietam
Gods and Generals (film)
138
(Sharpsburg) as well as an entire plot following the American actor and future presidential assassin John Wilkes
Booth and his colleague Henry Harrison (from Gettysburg).
The film opens with Robert E. Lee's resignation from the Union Army, accompanied by the perspectives of various
politicians, teachers, and soldiers as the south secedes from the Union and both sides prepare for war. Jackson, who
is a professor at Virginia Military Institute in Lexington at the outset of the war, leaves his family behind to do battle
at the First Battle of Manassas. Jackson is asked by a retreating General Bernard Bee for assistance against the
Federal army who is pursuing them after a brief stand on Matthews Hill. In rallying his shaken troops, Bee launches
the name of Stonewall into history and the Confederates win the day at Henry Hill, Manassas, Virginia. Jackson
maintains steadfast discipline in his ranks during the battle despite suffering a wound to his left hand from a spent
ball.
Meanwhile, Chamberlain makes his transition from teacher to military officer and practices drilling his soldiers. He
is called to battle at the Union invasion of Fredericksburg. The southern forces lead a fighting retreat as the Union
army crosses the river and storms the town, and there are scenes of the subsequent looting of Fredricksburg by the
Union Army. Outside the city, Lee, Longstreet and Jackson have prepared an elaborate defense on the heights
outside the town, and the movie focuses on Confederate defenses behind a formidable stone wall. Several Union
brigades attempt to cross an open field and attack the wall, but are thrown back with heavy losses. At one point, two
Irish units are forced into battle against one another, to the anguish of a southern soldier who believes he is killing
his kin. Chamberlain leads an unsuccessful attack against Jackson's defenses and finds his unit pinned down in the
open field. He survives by shielding himself with a corpse until nightfall; eventually he and the surviving members
of his unit are ordered to retreat. Chamberlain and the defeated Union soldiers depart Fredericksburg. Jackson and
Lee return to the city, and Lee is confronted by an angry citizen whose house has been destroyed by the Union
forces.
Jackson spends the winter at a local plantation, where he contracts a friendship with a little girl who lives there.
Later, Jackson discovers the child has died from scarlet fever and he begins to cry. A soldier asks why he weeps for
this child but not for the thousands of dead soldiers, and another soldier states that Jackson is weeping for everyone.
Jackson is soon reunited with his wife and newborn child just before the battle of Chancellorsville.
Outside Chancellorsville, Lee identifies that the southern army faces an opposing force almost twice their size.
Jackson calls upon his chaplain, who knows the area, and asks him to find a route by which the southern forces can
infiltrate in secret. Jackson then leads his forces in a surprise attack on an unprepared Union camp. Although his men
initially rout the opponents, they quickly become confused in the melee and Jackson's attack is stalled. While
scouting a path at night, Jackson is caught in the no-mans-land between the two sides and badly wounded. During his
evacuation, his litter bearers are targeted by artillery and drop Jackson on the ground. He is then taken to a field
hospital where his arm is amputated. Lee remarks that while Jackson has lost his left hand, Lee has lost his right.
Jackson dies of pneumonia a short while later, using his last words to extol his wife and fellow officers to "Press on!"
The film concludes with a scene showing Jackson's body being returned to Lexington, Virginia, followed by text
explaining that shortly thereafter, Lee decided to take the army and march on an invasion of the north, a journey
which would conclude with the Battle of Gettysburg.
Gods and Generals (film)
139
Cast
• Stephen Lang as Lieutenant General Stonewall Jackson (CSA)
• Jeff Daniels as Lieutenant Colonel Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain (USA) - reprising role
• Robert Duvall as General Robert E. Lee (CSA) - replacing Martin Sheen
• Kevin Conway as Sergeant Buster Kilrain, the only fictional major character (USA) - reprising role
• C. Thomas Howell as Sergeant Thomas Chamberlain (USA) - reprising role
• Jeremy London as Captain Alexander "Sandie" Pendleton (CSA)
• Matt Letscher as Colonel Adelbert Ames (USA)
• Brian Mallon as Major General Winfield Scott Hancock (USA) - reprising role
• Bo Brinkman as Major Walter H. Taylor (CSA) - reprising role
• Bruce Boxleitner as Lieutenant General James Longstreet (CSA) - replacing Tom Berenger
• William Sanderson as Major General A.P. Hill (CSA) - replacing Patrick Falci
• Billy Campbell as Major General George Pickett (CSA) - replacing Stephen Lang
• Alex Hyde-White as Major General Ambrose E. Burnside (USA)
• Joseph Fuqua as Major General J.E.B. Stuart (CSA) - reprising role
• John Prosky as Brigadier General Lewis A. Armistead (CSA) - replacing Richard Jordan
• Royce D. Applegate as Brigadier General James L. Kemper (CSA) - reprising role
• Patrick Gorman as Major General John Hood (CSA) - reprising role
• W. Morgan Sheppard as Colonel Isaac R. Trimble (CSA) - reprising role
• James Patrick Stuart as Colonel Edward Porter Alexander (CSA) - reprising role
• Jonathon Demers as Brigadier General Richard S. Ewell (CSA) - replacing Tim Scott
• Andrew Prine as Brigadier General Richard B. Garnett (CSA) - reprising role
• James Garrett as Brigadier General John C. Caldwell (USA)
• J. Scott Watkins as Brigadier General Raleigh E. Colston (CSA)
• Fred Griffith as Brigadier General Robert Rodes (CSA) - replacing Graham Winton
• Tim O'Hare as Colonel St. Clair Augustine Mulholland (USA)
• Cooper Huckabee as Henry Thomas Harrison - reprising role
• Mira Sorvino as Fanny Chamberlain
• Kali Rocha as Anna Jackson
• Donzaleigh Abernathy as Martha
• Karen Hochstetter as Roberta Corbin
• Martin Clark as Dr. George Junkin, Stonewall Jackson's spiritual leader and ex-father-in-law
• Christie Lynn Smith as Catherine Corbin
Production
Ted Turner has a cameo in the film as Colonel Waller T. Patton. Colonel Patton, the great uncle of George S. Patton,
was mortally wounded at Gettysburg, a scene depicted in the movie Gettysburg. United States Senators George
Allen (R-Virginia) and Robert Byrd (D-West Virginia) also have cameo roles, both playing Confederate officers,
Phil Gramm (R-Texas) appears as a member of the Virginia Legislature early in the film and Congressman Ed
Markey (D-Massachusetts) also appeared as an Irish Brigade officer. Most of the extras were American Civil War
Gods and Generals (film)
140
reenactors, who provided their own equipment and worked without pay. In exchange, Ted Turner agreed to donate
$500,000 to Civil War battlefield preservation.
The movie was filmed in Virginia's Shenandoah Valley and in western Maryland. Actual historic locations in the
film include Virginia Military Institute and Washington & Lee University, known as Washington College during the
Civil War.
Russell Crowe was the original choice to play Stonewall Jackson, but scheduling conflicts prevented his availability
in the summer and fall of 2001 when the movie was filmed. Stephen Lang had begun to reprise his role as George
Pickett, but instead was asked to fill in the role of Jackson. Billy Campbell, who had played a 44th New York
lieutenant in Gettysburg was called in to hastily replace Lang in the role of Pickett.
[2]
Although Tom Berenger
desired to reprise his Gettysburg role as James Longstreet (which he called his favorite role) he was unavailable
because of scheduling difficulties. Bruce Boxleitner was instead cast in the role. Darius N. Couch was portrayed by
actor Carsten Norgaard. Martin Sheen was prevented from reprising his role as Lee due to contractual obligations to
The West Wing.
During post-production, Maxwell, Warner Bros. executives and Turner debated on whether to release the film as two
parts over two years or as a single film.
[3]
Maxwell decided to focus on Stonewall Jackson's history in one film.
[3]
Director's Cut
The Director's Cut was released for Blu-ray Disc on May 24, 2011. It runs 280 minutes. For the theatrical release,
almost two and a half hours of footage were removed to get the length down to approximately 3 hours, 39 minutes.
Among the footage edited includes a sub-plot which follows John Wilkes Booth, the famous actor who would
eventually become the man who assassinated President Abraham Lincoln. One scene towards the end of the
extended cut of the film features Chamberlain and his wife, Fanny, attending a production of Shakespeare's Julius
Caesar in which Booth plays Brutus. Chamberlain and his wife have a conversation with Booth and his fellow actors
following the end of the play. Another scene cut from the film features a performance in Washington, D.C. in which
Booth plays the role of Macbeth, which is being seen by President Lincoln. When he gives the famous "dagger of the
mind" soliloquy, he looks directly at Lincoln while reciting it. Later, when Booth is offered the chance to meet with
Lincoln, he refuses.
A sequence dealing with the Battle of Antietam was removed from the film. The battle was seen mostly from the
perspectives of Jackson (who played a major strategic role in the battle) and Chamberlain (whose brigade was held
in reserve). In the Director's Cut the entire sequence at Antietam is shown.
Soundtrack
In 2003, the film score was composed by John Frizzell, with some minor contributions by Randy Edelman, who
composed the score for the previous Gettysburg. The soundtrack is notable for containing a new song commissioned
for the movie and written and performed by Bob Dylan, Cross the Green Mountain. The track was later included on
the compilation album The Bootleg Series Vol. 8: Tell Tale Signs.
Reception
Gods and Generals was a critical failure and received mainly negative reviews. The film currently holds an 8%
critical approval rating from 119 reviews accumulated on review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. Generally complaints
have included its running time and that it lacked proper character development, spending too much of its time
recreating events of the Civil War instead of focusing on a concrete narrative.
Author Jeff Shaara was disappointed with the film and has said that the book is "enormously different, it’s radically
different from the film. There are characters in the film that do not exist in the book, and a great many characters in
Gods and Generals (film)
141
the book that never made it to the film. It’s just an entirely different story, and I have to tell you, I’ve heard from
literally thousands of people through my website ... and the overwhelming percentage of those that wrote me said,
“How could you let them butcher your book like that?” I have no answer to that because I had no control or power to
change what came up on the screen."
[4]
Roland Maxwell said that he "would have gone with the suggestion made by
Warner Brothers studio executives who were 100% correct to release the full film, the full five hours as two movies
over two years."
[3]
Making less than $13 million on a reported $56 million budget, Gods and Generals was a box office bomb.
Video game
Gods and Generals is a PC game centered around the American Civil War released in 2003. It was based on the
book Gods and Generals and its subsequent film adaptation. It is a first person shooter and uses the Lithtech
graphics engine, made popular by the more successful and critically acclaimed shooter No One Lives Forever. It too
received highly negative reviews.
[5]
Notes
[1] Robert Duvall claimed that he is related to Robert E. Lee on his mother's side of the family ( Interview (http:// transcripts.cnn.com/
TRANSCRIPTS/ 0302/ 15/ smn. 18. html) on CNN, February 15, 2003).
[2] http:// ehistory.osu. edu/ world/articles/ ArticleView. cfm?AID=57
[3] Wertz, Jay (December 27, 2011). "Ron Maxwell Interview - 'Gods and Generals' Extended Directors Cut" (http:// www.historynet.com/
ron-maxwell-interview-gods-and-generals-extended-directors-cut.htm). Historynet. Weider Media Group. . Retrieved October 29, 2012.
[4] http:// gcaggiano. wordpress.com/ 2011/ 01/ 24/ interview-with-best-selling-author-jeff-shaara/
[5] Metacritic: Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. metacritic. com/ game/ pc/ gods-and-generals)
External links
• Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v260378) at AllRovi
• Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=godsandgenerals. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0279111/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ godsandgenerals) at Metacritic
• Gods and Generals (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ gods_and_generals/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
Grandview, U.S.A.
142
Grandview, U.S.A.
Grandview, U.S.A.
DVD cover
Directed by Randal Kleiser
Produced by William Blaylock
Peter W. Rea
Written by Ken Hixon
Starring Jamie Lee Curtis
Patrick Swayze
C. Thomas Howell
Jennifer Jason Leigh
Troy Donahue
Music by Thomas Newman
Cinematography Reynaldo Villalobos
Editing by Robert Gordon
Studio(s) CBS Entertainment Production
Distributed by Warner Bros. (theatrical)
20th Century Fox Home Entertainment
(VHS)
Paramount Home Entertainment (DVD)
Release date(s) •• August 3, 1984
Running time 97 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $15 million
Box office $4,743,119 (USA) (sub-total)
Grandview, U.S.A. is a 1984 American comedy-drama film directed by Randal Kleiser. It stars Jamie Lee Curtis,
Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Jennifer Jason Leigh, Carole Cook, Ramon Bieri, John Cusack, Joan Cusack,
M. Emmet Walsh, Michael Winslow, Troy Donahue, and Steve Dahl. The original music score is composed by
Thomas Newman. It was filmed on location in Pontiac, Illinois.
After being out of print on VHS for many years, the movie was finally released on DVD for the very first time on
October 4, 2011.
Plot
Eighteen-year-old Tim Pearson, a soon-to-be graduate of Grandview High School, wants to go to Florida to study
oceanography. Tim's father, Roger Pearson, loans Tim his brand new Cadillac to go to the Prom with his date Bonnie
Clark. Later, while parked near a stream, Tim and Bonnie are making out in the Cadillac, when they feel the car
moving, only to discover that the car is falling into the stream. Tim and Bonnie walk to "Cody's Speedway" to get a
tow truck, Bonnie calls her father, who is so angry about the accident that he punches Tim. Mechanic Michelle
"Mike" Cody comes to Tim's defense, and has Ernie "Slam" Webster, a local demolition derby driver, tow the car,
taking Tim along. Slam stops at the bowling alley to see if his wife Candy had been there, but she wasn't.
Grandview, U.S.A.
143
The next morning, Tim goes to see his father at his office. He talks to Tim and hints to him that he does not want
Tim to drive his car again. Tim runs into Mike and thanks her for helping him with the car.
Tim goes out to the Speedway, where he meets Mike's mentally challenged brother, Cowboy. Later on that night,
Mike goes to the bar to see her uncle, Bob Cody, and asks if she can borrow $10,000, so she can fix up the
Speedway. Bob doesn't have that kind of money, but wants to help her. Just then, they both hear a drunken Slam
beating on a video game. Mike and Bob help Slam out to her truck. Mike and Slam talk about old times they had
together.
Slam is at work the next morning, hungover, but his boss tells him to go home. Slam gets home and sees his wife
Candy with another man, Donny. Enraged, he jumps on the lover's car demanding that Candy come back to him; in
the ensuing struggle, Donny accidentally shoots himself in the foot. At the hospital, Candy declines to press charges,
but refuses to come home with him.
That night, Mike sees Slam sleeping in his truck. Mike tries to comfort him, believing that he does not really love
Candy, and is simply afraid of being alone. Later that day, Slam comes back and asks Mike if she wants to go out for
dinner, but she tells him has to go to a County Commission meeting.
Tim and his dad go the same meeting, and Tim tells Roger that he wants to go to Florida; Roger is not too happy
with his decision. At the Town Hall, Roger asks Tim to go to his office and get his rolaids. In the office, Tim sees
plans for the Speedway renovation on his dad's desk. At the meeting, Mike asks the commission for more time to
come up with the money to fix up the Speedway, but the commission won't give it to her. Tim comes in and reveals
what they have planned. He then gets into an argument with his father and leaves. He runs into Mike, who thanks
him for saving her place. They both go for a hamburger at the local restaurant, and Mike invites Tim to her house,
where they spend the night together. Mike asks Tim if he still wants to drive in the Derby, she gives him a car to
drive. In the morning, Slam shows up at the door and discovers them in bed together; he leaves, upset.
Later on that day, Roger sees Tim near the stream, and says he is sorry about the fight. He asks Tim to give Illinois
State University a chance, but Tim wants to go to Florida.
At the Speedway, Mike sells her old cars to make extra money; this upses Cowboy, who runs off crying.
Slam goes to his house and sees his stuff on the lawn. Donny stands by the door and taunts Slam, telling him he
called the cops. Slam gets his things and leaves.
Later that night, the Demolition Derby is going on, and Tim is in the race, competing against Slam. At the race's
climax, Slam crashes into Tim. Mike is mad cause she thinks Slam did it on purpose, and tells him to leave the track.
Later that night, Candy and Donny are having sex in Slam's house when, suddenly, Slam appears on a bulldozer and
knocks the walls down. The cops arrest Slam.
As Tim and Mike drive home from the hospital, they see firetrucks passing by, and discover that the Speedway has
burned down. Mike asks her mother what had happened, and she says it just started up. In the morning, however, the
police discover that the gas tank was unlocked. It is eventually revealed that Cowboy started the fire because Mike
sold the old cars. Tim and Mike talk, and she admits she is in love with Slam.
Mike goes to bail Slam out from jail. He offers to help fix the Speedway, but Mike says she will sell the land to
Roger Pearson; that way, they can afford to start a life together. Mike asks Slam for a favor.
Tim is on his way to Chicago, with his family in tow to say goodbye. The bus leaves and a car is driving by the side
of the bus; it is Slam, who gives Tim the old car and money for his trip to Florida.
Grandview, U.S.A.
144
Cast
• Jamie Lee Curtis as Michelle 'Mike' Cody
• Patrick Swayze as Ernie 'Slam' Webster
• C. Thomas Howell as Tim Pearson
• Jennifer Jason Leigh as Candy Webster
• Carole Cook as Betty Welles
• John Philbin as Cowboy
• Ramon Bieri as Roger Pearson
• Elizabeth Gorcey as Bonnie Clark
• M. Emmet Walsh as Mr. Clark
• Troy Donahue as Donny Vinton
• William Windom as Bob Cody
• Michael Winslow as Spencer
• Camilla Hawke as Mrs. Pearson
• Melissa Domke as Susan Pearson
• John Cusack as Johnny Maine
• Joan Cusack as Mary Maine
• Bruno Alexander as Forman (credited as Bruno Aclin)
• Fred Lerner as Tucker Smith
• Tim Gamble as Larry Hurlbuck
• Larry Brandenburg as Mickey
• Steve Dahl as "Moose" the DJ
• Fern Persons as Teacher
Soundtrack
1. Take Me Home To Grandview, U.S.A." by Air Supply
2. "School Is Out" by Jack Mack and the Heart Attack
3. "No One Left At All" by Angel and the Reruns
4. "Get Up And Dance" by Larry Michaels
5. "Steely Man" by Frank Musker
6. "Would It Be All Right To Come Back Home" by Rosalie Winkler Karalekas
7. 7. "Maybe We Won't Have To Say Goodbye" by Rosalie Winkler Karalekas
8. "Let's Talk It Over In The Morning" by Sammy Vaughn
9. "Nightpulse" by Roger Love
10. "Der Kommissar" by Robert Ponger and Falco
11. "This Time" by Delta
12. "Face The Odds" by Gerard McMahon
13. "Running Wild, Running Free" by Eddie & the Tide
14. "No Rest For The Wicked" by Mark Goldenberg
15. "In Need Of Love" by Herns and Ray
16. "I Want To Do It With You" by The Pointer Sisters
Grandview, U.S.A.
145
Trivia
C. Thomas Howell, who starred in this film, appeared in the episode of Revolution entitled "Chained Heat" in which
some of the episode took place in Pontiac, Illinois. "Grandview, U.S.A." was filmed there.
External links
• Grandview, U.S.A.
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Grandview, U.S.A.
[2]
at AllRovi
• Grandview, U.S.A.
[3]
at the TCM Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0087359/
[2] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v20507
[3] http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title. jsp?stid=20870
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
146
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds
Poster
Directed by David Michael Latt
Produced by David Rimawi
Written by David Michael Latt, Carlos De Los Rios
Based on The War of the Worlds by H. G. Wells
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Rhett Giles
Tinarie Van Wyk-Loots
Andy Lauer
Peter Greene
Jake Busey
Music by Ralph Rieckermann
Editing by David Michael Latt
Distributed by The Asylum
Release date(s) •• June 28, 2005
Running time 90 minutes
Country United States
Language English
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (also known as Invasion and H. G. Wells' The Worlds in War internationally, or
simply as War of the Worlds) is a science fiction horror mockbuster by The Asylum. It is one of three 2005 film
adaptations of H. G. Wells' 1898 science fiction novel The War of the Worlds.
Much like Steven Spielberg's film version, War of the Worlds is a modernized adaptation, but was released by
independent production company The Asylum, whose budget may be more on par with the Pendragon film version.
No theatrical release date had been planned; instead the film was a direct-to-DVD release. All three were released in
June of the same year.
The story tells the experience of an astronomer, George Herbert (C. Thomas Howell), who is separated from his wife
and son when a Martian army invades the planet, driving massive "walkers". He tries to make his way to
Washington, D.C. to reunite with them as the human race faces extinction.
Unlike other adaptations, The Asylum intended to make this War of the Worlds film a horror film. It was rated R in
the United States and 15 in the United Kingdom for strong violence and gore, language and some nudity. Director
David Michael Latt describes the film as The Pianist with aliens instead of Nazis, comparing the tale of one man's
story of survival.
The DVD was released on June 28, one day before Spielberg's film, and has a few notable stars including C. Thomas
Howell, Peter Greene, and Jake Busey. The alternate title of Invasion is likely for the film's overseas distribution
since Paramount claim to own exclusive film rights to the War of the Worlds title in the European Union. The film is
one of The Asylum's most successful, having sold over 100,000 copies from Blockbuster upon its release. The
original poster has a striking resemblance to the Independence Day poster.
The film was followed with a sequel in 2008, War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave, directed by C. Thomas Howell.
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
147
Plot
Astronomer George Herbert and his wife Felicity are celebrating their 10th wedding anniversary. He and his son
Alex look at Mars through their telescope. Instead, they see a meteor-like object. George's boss calls him in to
investigate the object. Felicity takes Alex to Washington, D.C. without George, who promises to meet them when he
is done working.
As George drives to work, his radio makes strange noises. His car then shuts down right as a large, flaming object
crashes into the nearby hills. He goes to the crash site and finds a massive meteor in a crater. All of the cars and
cellphones have somehow been disabled. A young woman named Audrey runs into George for help because her
boyfriend Max (Edward DeRuiter) fell into the crater. George and Audrey encourage Max to climb out, but he is
distracted by activity coming from the meteor. Suddenly, metallic tentacles grabs Max and everyone flees. Slowly, a
large, crab-like Martian walker climbs out, incinerates Audrey with a heat-ray, and starts grabbing people. George
manages to escape and makes his way home, where nothing electrical works. He starts walking toward Washington
where he hopes to find his family at the Lincoln Memorial. He sets off to locate his brother, Matt, a Army Ranger in
nearby Hopewell.
The next day, George comes to a bridge where soldiers are holding back civilian refugees. A mother, who believes
the Martians are just terrorists tells George that Washington, along with New York City and Los Angeles, were
invaded first. Another meteor crashes nearby and a walker attacks the soldiers. George escapes and runs into a
soldier named Kerry Williams, whose entire squad was lost in battle. He agrees to travel with George to Hopewell.
They meet Lt. Samuelson, who is outraged that the aliens killed his family and interested in George because he is a
scientist. He tells George that Washington was completely wiped out and there are no survivors, not even the
President. George and Kerry reach Hopewell, but the town was already invaded by walkers. They find Matt, who is
fatally wounded. He eventually dies of his wounds while George and Kerry are separated during a new attack, with
George escaping in a canoe.
After spending a day drifting downstream, George develops an extreme fever and spends two days in an abandoned
car. He is found by Pastor Victor, an Australian. They find an unscathed neighborhood and find food and clothes at
the veterinarian's home. George and the Pastor hide upstairs from the aliens' poisonous gas, where they find several
vials of rabies vaccines. A giant explosion causes the house to collapse. George wakes hours later to find that a
meteor has destroyed the neighborhood. He observes the aliens draining blood from living humans.
George plans to use a rabies vaccine against them. When a Martian enters the house, George injects it with the rabies
vaccine and it quickly retreats. The alien returns and sprays acid over Victor, killing him in seconds. George hides in
the house's ruins until the aliens abandon the crater days later. He again runs into Kerry and Samuelson. Kerry insists
that George cannot fight them, but Samuelson suddenly shoots Kerry in the head and George kills him and finally
reaches Washington, which lies in ruin. Unable to find his family, he sees a single Martian and surrenders to it,
having lost everything to the invaders. The alien however drops dead. Out of nowhere, a group of survivors appear
and reveal that the aliens have been dying for several days from an airborne virus. Alex and Felicity are among the
survivors and the family is tearfully reunited.
The Martians have been killed by bacteria, and with most of humanity wiped out, the survivors are left to rebuild
humanity.
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
148
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as George Herbert
• Andy Lauer as Sgt. Kerry Williams
• Rhett Giles as Pastor Victor
• Tinarie Van Wyk-Loots as Felicity Herbert
• Jake Busey as Lt. Samuelson
• Peter Greene as Matt Herbert
• Dashiell Howell as Alex Herbert
• Edward DeRuiter as Max
Adapting the novel
Director/editor/executive producer/co-writer David Michael Latt (who admits to never seeing the Byron
Haskin/George Pal version or the 1988 television series, but has been a fan of the H.G. Wells novel since childhood)
made it clear that his film changed certain aspects from the source material outside of the time and location. Most
notable is that the tripods have been changed to six-legged crab-like machines called "walkers" (a result of allowing
the effects team creative freedom).
The aliens are indeed Martians (though the film never states this, but is confirmed with an opening credit sequence
using shots of the Red Planet's landscape), but they bear little resemblance to their novel's counterparts. Whereas
Wells described his invaders as bear-sized tentacled creatures, the film's Martians are insect-like with four
tentacle-like legs. These aliens also have the ability to spit acid from their feet, which melts anything. At the end of
the legs three tongue-like appendages closely resemble the Martian fingers from Byron Haskin's 1953 film version of
The War of the Worlds and the 1988 television series version.
The war machines are crab-like "walkers" with six legs. A Heat Ray is built into the machine's "head", and is fired
from a single eye. The fighting machines do not appear to have protection against modern artillery (avoiding the
"invisible shields" seen in the 1953 film version and Steven Spielberg's 2005 film), leaving their ability to conquer
unexplained. The aliens do have a substance similar to the black smoke, but is more of a dense green toxic gas
unable to rise above ground level, allowing survivors to escape by getting to high places.
The protagonist is George Herbert, a reference to H. G. Wells. Rather than being a writer, as in the novel, he is an
astronomer. The film leaves the eve of the war storyline and its characters almost completely absent. He also has a
son, who is portrayed by Dashiell Howell, who is actually the son of George's actor C. Thomas Howell.
Despite these differences, George goes through much of what befalls the novel's protagonist, even in sacrificing
himself to the Martians, only for them to drop dead of infection. He is also separated from his family and tries to
reunite with once the invasion begins, Like the novel, they are alive in the conclusion. George's brother, a Ranger, is
less fortunate; he is seen only briefly after being fatally wounded in an attack by the invaders. In the book, the
narrator's brother has a much bigger role in the story.
A major deviation from the text is that the protagonist actually tries to produce a means of stopping the Martians, but
the film does not show if his efforts cause their eventual downfall.
The novel's Artilleryman is divided into two characters. The first, Kerry Williams, exhibits the defeated status. He
accompanies George as they move to unaffected areas, meeting soldiers oblivious to the danger they will soon face,
until they become separated when George takes refuge underwater to elude the Martians. After his ordeal in the
ruined house, George encounters same defeated Williams again. Instead, the other personality, portrayed in the
novel's later stages, is Lt. Samuelson.
The novel's unnamed Curate is film's Pastor Victor. While the two are very similar, the pastor is fairly calm and is
sure that the invasion is the Rapture. However, his faith is deeply shaken when he meets a congregate who screams
against God for the loss of her family, causing the Pastor to question why he himself has yet to be taken.
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
149
Unlike the Curate, the Pastor keeps his composure when he's trapped in the ruined house as he wrestles with his
thoughts. Where the Curate had to be subdued in the novel, the Pastor regains his faith just before he is killed by the
Martians.
Some of the chapters on the DVD are given the same name to chapters in the novel, a similar idea used in the
Dreamworks version.
David Michael Latt and producing War of the Worlds
David Michael Latt often expresses his fascination for H.G. Wells' novel in the DVD's Audio Commentary and
Behind the scenes features. He had written a script for War of the Worlds a year before production of the film, and
upon learning that Dreamworks were making their own War of the Worlds film, The Asylum soon began production.
David Michael Latt based the themes of the film (internationally titled Invasion) on the 2002 film The Pianist, which
tells the true story of a Polish Jew who struggles to survive the battle between the Wehrmacht and the a Jewish
resistance in the Second World War. Latt used the similar themes of a man's survival as civilization around him
reduces to ruin, stating:
"I tell my friends [War of the Worlds] is like The Pianist, but instead of Nazis you have aliens."
Like the protagonist of The Pianist, the main character of War of the Worlds is not shown to have any kind of
resistance or plans to fight back, only a persistance to keep alive. The film is considered by some to be the darkest
retelling of Wells' novel, and described by actor Andy Lauer as a "sci-fi noir".
The casting for Andy Lauer was almost sudden, himself having an interest of working with The Asylum. Latt had
concerns about Tinarie Van Wyk-Loots ' casting, assuming she may object to her naked sequence at the beginning of
the film. However, Van Wyk-Loots had no objections and was more than happy in starring in War of the Worlds,
being a fan of science fiction (admitting to have seen "every episode of Star Trek ever made"). The casting of C.
Thomas Howell seemed to be more complicated, as he was currently starring in an American TV show. David
Michael Latt and Andy Lauer were confident in getting Howell in the film, and Howell was happy to read the script
and accepted (in fact, he was so happy with the film that he would eventually direct the sequel). Howell offered his
son Dashiell as a role to play Alex Herbert, when he found that Latt was looking for an eight-year-old to fill in the
role. Jake Busey's audition was successful, having won the role on the first day of auditions. His scenes were all
filmed in one day. He tells that one of his favorite films as a child was the 1953 War of the Worlds.
The development of Invasion's plot and characters was a challenge. Adapting the characters and plot faithfully from
the novel was tricky to retell for a modern audience, so there are some significant changes. For example, readers will
notice that the "eve of the war" arch is almost absent from the film, skipping the novel's earlier characters and details
of the "safe and tranquil" world before the invasion begins. This is, however, easy to understand because of the film's
length. The film also ignores the sub-plot of Book One: The Coming of the Martians, in which the book's perspective
shifts to the narrator's brother, who accompanies two women to safety and witnesses the battle between the aliens
and the HMS Thunderchild. A sub-plot would violate the nature of the film, and also increase its length.
H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds (2005 film)
150
Sequel
On April 1, 2008, a sequel, War of the Worlds 2: The Next Wave, was released. C. Thomas Howell directed the film
and reprised the role of George Herbert, and his son Dash Howell reprised the role of Alex. The film also starred
Christopher Reid.
External links
• H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds
[1]
Official page.
• H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds
[2]
at the Internet Movie Database
• H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds
[3]
at Rotten Tomatoes
References
[1] http:/ / www.theasylum. cc/ product.php?id=10
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0449040/
[3] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 10005602-hg_wells_war_of_the_worlds/
Hidalgo (film)
151
Hidalgo (film)
Hidalgo
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Joe Johnston
Produced by Casey Silver
Written by John Fusco
Starring Viggo Mortensen
Omar Sharif
Saïd Taghmaoui
Music by James Newton Howard
Cinematography Shelly Johnson
Editing by Robert Dalva
Distributed by Touchstone Pictures
Release date(s) February 17, 2004
(Texas)
March 5, 2004
Running time 136 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Arabic
Budget $100 million
Box office $108,103,450
Hidalgo is a 2004 film based on the legend of the American distance rider Frank Hopkins and his mustang Hidalgo,
and recounts Hopkins' racing his horse in Arabia in 1891 against Bedouin riding pure-blooded Arabian horses. The
movie was written by John Fusco and directed by Joe Johnston. It stars Viggo Mortensen, Zuleikha Robinson, and
Omar Sharif.
Plot summary
In 1891, wealthy Sheikh Riyadh (Omar Sharif) sends his attaché Aziz (Adam Alexi-Malle) to invite American Frank
Hopkins (Viggo Mortensen), and his mustang, Hidalgo, to enter the "Ocean of Fire," an annual 3,000-mile survival
race across the Najd desert region, a race traditionally restricted to pure-bred Arabian horses.
Hopkins had been a cowboy and a dispatch rider for the United States government. In this capacity, he had carried a
message to the U.S. 7th Cavalry Regiment, authorizing the attack at Wounded Knee that resulted in massacre of a
band of Lakota Sioux.
While working as a stunt rider in Buffalo Bill's Wild West show, Hopkins and his horse are advertised as "the
world's greatest distance horse and rider". The Arabs consider the al-Khamsa line to be the greatest distance horses.
Aziz asks the show to stop using that phrase or to allow Hopkins and Hidalgo to enter the Middle Eastern "Ocean of
Fire" race and prove themselves.
The American cowboy and his mustang are placed against the world's greatest Arabian Thoroughbred horses and
Bedouin riders, some of whom are determined to prevent a foreigner—and especially an "impure" horse—from
finishing the race. For Hopkins, the Ocean of Fire becomes not only a matter of pride and honor but a race for his
Hidalgo (film)
152
survival, as he and his horse attempt the dangerous, near-impossible desert crossing. He intends to use the purse to
save mustangs, which were important to the Native Americans, who trained and used them, but which the US
government was trying to eliminate in order to convert the Indians to farming.
Throughout the race, competitors try to kill Hopkins and Hidalgo. Chief adversaries include the wealthy, spoiled
British aristocrat Lady Anne Davenport (Louise Lombard), who owns a rival Arabian horse and is used to getting her
own way. Another is the Sheikh's nephew, who wishes, contrary to his uncle's decree, to marry his cousin, the
sheikh's daughter Jazira (Zuleikha Robinson). A spirited girl and a horse-rider in her own right, she is rescued by
Hopkins from a raid in which the Sheikh's nephew hoped to force her marriage by dishonoring her. She grows to
trust the American.
A recurring theme in the film is the fact that Hopkins' father was European American and his mother a member of
the Native American Lakota tribe. The Lakota call him "Blue Child" or "Far Rider". As a half-breed, he feels
sympathy and pity for his mother's people, who are being driven to extinction by the settlers. However, he does not
generally reveal his heritage, especially after the Wounded Knee massacre, for which he feels partly responsible.
Jazira compares his relation to his heritage to her desire to avoid wearing a veil, saying that he mustn't "go through
life hiding what God made you.... like me."
Near the end of the race, Hidalgo is severely injured and Hopkins is dying of thirst. As he hallucinates, by Lakota
tradition he sings a prayer to Wakan Tanka as his death song. But Hidalgo struggles up, and Hopkins rides bareback
to finish the race, which he wins. After Hopkins returns to the United States, he buys many mustangs which would
have been killed by the Government in an effort to control Indians. He releases the horses, including Hidalgo, into
the wild.
Cast
• Viggo Mortensen, as Frank Hopkins, a great long-distance rider
• Zuleikha Robinson, as Jazira, determined and headstrong daughter of the Sheikh
• Omar Sharif, as Sheikh Riyadh, an insightful leader. He owns and breeds Arabian horses of the Al Khamsa
bloodline.
• Louise Lombard, as Lady Anne Davenport, British aristocrat who bets her horse against Hopkins
• Adam Alexi-Malle, as Aziz, emissary and the Sheikh's attaché
• Saïd Taghmaoui, as Prince Bin Al Reeh, Jazira's cousin who wishes to marry her by force
• Silas Carson, as Katib
•• Harsh Nayyar, as Yusef
• J.K. Simmons, as Buffalo Bill Cody
• Adoni Maropis, as Sakr
•• Victor Talmadge, as Rau Rasmussen
• Peter Mensah, as Jaffa, Jazira's personal guard
•• Joshua Wolf Coleman, as The Kurd
•• Franky Mwangi, as Slave Boy
• Floyd Red Crow Westerman, as Chief Eagle Horn, a member of Hopkins' Lakota nation, performing with him in
the Wild West Show
• Elizabeth Berridge, as Annie Oakley
• C. Thomas Howell, as Preston Webb
• David Midthunder, as Black Coyote
• Malcolm McDowell, as Major Davenport (uncredited)
Hidalgo (film)
153
Fact and fiction
The Native American historian Vine Deloria questioned Hopkins' claims of Lakota ancestry.
[1]

[2]
Based on Hopkins' account of his mixed-race ancestry, the movie production employed Lakota historians, medicine
men, and tribal leaders to be on set during every aspect of representing their culture. Many of the same Ghost
Dancers who reenact the sacred ceremony of 1890 in Hidalgo had participated in the film Thunderheart (1992) and
the mini-series Dreamkeeper, both written by Fusco. The screenwriter was adopted as a relative of the Oglala Nation
in a Hunkyapi ceremony (Making of Relatives) on September 3, 1989 on the Pine Ridge Indian Reservation.
Because the Disney Corporation marketed the movie as a true story, some historians criticized it both because of the
legendary status of Hopkins' claims and for its divergence from his accounts
[3]
. They contend many of the events,
especially the featured race, never took place.
[4]
Historians of distance riding said that most of Hopkins' claims as
depicted in the film, including the race, have been 'tall tales' or hoaxes.
[5]
The film says that descendants of the horse Hidalgo, for which the movie was named, live among the Gilbert Jones
herd of Spanish Mustangs on Blackjack Mountain in Oklahoma. By Hopkins' original account, he decided to leave
his horse in Arabia after the race.
[5]
In 2006, John Fusco, the screenwriter of Hidalgo, responded to criticism about the factual basis of the film. He had
done research on Hopkins for years and said that he used parts of Hopkins' 1891 desert memoirs (unpublished during
the rider's lifetime) and "heightened the 'Based On' story to create an entertaining theatrical film." He held that the
story of the man and his horse is true. Fusco offered quotes from surviving friends of Hopkins, notably former
distance riders Walt and Edith Pyle, and Lt Col William Zimmerman, along with information found in horse history
texts, as verification.
[5]
According to the Longriders Guild, the Yemen Government, United Arab Emirates and Saudi Arabian Government
say officially that there has never been an "Ocean of Fire" race. Hopkins never named the event; he referred to it in
his writings as an annual ceremonial ride in the region.
[5]
According to the Arab historian Dr. Awad al-Badi, such a
lengthy race was impossible. He said,
"There is no record or reference to Hopkins with or without his mustangs ever having set foot on
Arabian soil. The idea of a historic long-distance Arab horse race is pure nonsense and flies against all
reason. Such an event in Arabia any time in the past is impossible simply from a technical, logistical,
cultural and geopolitical point of view. It has never been part of our rich traditions and equestrian
heritage."
[6]
Reception
Critical response
The movie received mixed reviews from mainstream critics, receiving a 47% approval rating from Rotten Tomatoes
and a 54 from Metacritic.
Roger Ebert offers a positive review of the film (three out of four stars), saying it's "Bold, exuberant and
swashbuckling," the kind of fun, rip-snorting adventure film Hollywood rarely makes anymore. He added, "please
ignore any tiresome scolds who complain that the movie is not really based on fact. Duh."
[7]
Hidalgo (film)
154
Honors
• John Fusco won the Spur Award for Best Western Drama Script; most of the plot of Hidalgo was not set in the
American West but featured an American cowboy figure.
Box office
• US Gross Domestic Earnings: US$ 67,303,450
•• Other International Earnings: $40,800,000
•• Gross Worldwide Earnings: $108,103,450
The after life of horses
Several American Paint horses were used to portray Hidalgo. The actor Viggo Mortensen later bought RH
Tecontender, one of the horses used in the film. The screenwriter John Fusco bought Oscar, the main stunt horse, and
retired him at Red Road Farm, his American Indian horse conservancy.
References
[1] Andrew Gumbel (10 March 2004). "Disney rides into trouble with story of cowboy who conquers the Middle East" (http:// www.
independent. co. uk/ news/ world/americas/ disney-rides-into-trouble-with-story-of-cowboy-who-conquers-the-middle-east-565827.html).
The Independent newspaper. . Retrieved 2011-08-14. "Vine Deloria of the University of Colorado, is furious at the uncritical repetition of
Hopkins' claims about his role in Sioux history. He wrote: "Hopkins' claims are so outrageously false that one wonders why Disney were
attracted to this material at all, except of course the constant propensity to make money under any conditions available.""
[2] "Dr. Vine Deloria Jr. denounces Frank Hopkins as a fraud" (http:/ / www. thelongridersguild.com/ deloria.htm). . "Hopkins claims are so
outrageously false that one wonders why the Disney people were attracted to this material at all....Try this on for size - Hopkins claimed to be
the grandson of Geronimo who, he confided, was really a Sioux and not an Apache at all. Hopkins, according to himself and wife, was very
popular with the Indians because he was half Sioux himself, his mother being a lady called Nah-Kwa - her more formal name was Valley
Naw-Kwa or "Valley of Silence" - hardly fitting for a woman who had such illustrious relatives. Hopkins spoke "the Indian language" so he
was a natural interpreter for the Army - although his name does not appear on any treaty documents where the interpreters are listed or in any
correspondence in government files wherein interpreters were needed."
[3] (http:// www.thelongridersguild.com/ hopkins. htm), The Frank Hopkins Hoax
[4] "Disney's Hidalgo: A New Hollywood Low" (http:// hnn.us/ articles/ 3881.html), History News Network
[5] Basha O'Reilly, "Hidalgo - from myth to movie" (http:/ / www. thelongridersguild.com/ myth.pdf), The Longriders Guild
[6] Peter Harrigan, "Hidalgo: A Film or Flimflam?" (http:/ / archive.arabnews. com/ ?page=7& section=0& article=26134&d=13& m=5&), in
Arab News, 13 May 2003, accessed 2010-12-28
[7] Roger Ebert, "HIDALGO" (http:// rogerebert.suntimes. com/ apps/ pbcs. dll/ article?AID=/20040305/ REVIEWS/403050301/ 1023), Sun
Times, 5 March 2004
External links
• Hidalgo (http:/ /www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/hidalgo/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Hidalgo (http:/ /www. metacritic.com/ movie/ hidalgo) at Metacritic
• Hidalgo (http:/ /www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=hidalgo.htm) at Box Office Mojo
• "Frank Hopkins" (http:/ / www. frankhopkins.com/ articles. html), Official Website has articles about the
Hidalgo film, including Fusco's response to historical criticism.
• John Fusco's Spanish Mustang Conservancy (http:/ / www. red-road-farm.com/ ), Red Road Farm Official
Website
• Hidalgo (http:/ /www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0317648/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Hot Boyz (film)
155
Hot Boyz (film)
Hot Boyz
Directed by Master P
Produced by Richard Pepin, Joseph Merhi
Written by Master P
Starring Silkk the Shocker
Snoop Dogg
C-Murder
Master P
Mystikal
Distributed by Artisan Entertainment
Release date(s) 1999
Country United States
Hot Boyz is a 1999 film written and directed by Master P. It stars Silkk the Shocker, Snoop Dogg, C-Murder and
Mystikal. This film started a brief rivalry between No Limit Records and Cash Money Records as the name "Hot
Boyz" was already the name of the popular rap group, which consisted of: Lil Wayne, Juvenile, Turk, and B.G.
Plot
Kool (Silkk The Shocker) is a good kid from the inner city with ambitions of becoming a successful rap star, a black
belt in Kenpo karate, and in love with LaShawna (Shireen Crutchfield), poised and college bound. The movie starts
with Kool jumping out of a two story window running towards his red Nissan only to be given chase by the Los
Angeles Police Department he seems to have escaped police pursuit until they tail him again and the car hightails
into a river then Kool narrates his story,telling the audience "I'm not surprised this road is ending, I've been on this
road to nowhere for a while. My name is Kool, they say I'm a thug...I say I was made into one." as the movie flashes
back 6 months earlier. Kool, C-Dawg (Snoop Dogg), Pee Wee (Anthony Johnson), and Remo (C-Murder) are all
seen playing a card game at a neighborhood barbecue. Kool impresses his friends at the table by free-styling while
playing cards. Then the movie introduces LaShawna and Mrs. Ferrel (Pamella D'Pella) as LaShawna asks has Kool
gotten to the Barbecue as Mrs. Ferrel just shuns him off not liking the company he keeps around him. LaShawna gets
dressed and she goes out to the barbecue, Kool and LaShawna tries to persuade Mrs. Ferrel to let LaShawna go to
Las Vegas, in which Mrs. Ferrel declines and tells Kool to take her daughter to the museum since she said Kool was
an "artist". The movie then skips ahead to Kool sparring with other students in a Kenpo-karate class by the in which
Master Keaton (Jeff Speakman) is his mentor. Kool has made his transition from a brown belt to a black belt. The
movie then skips to the next day and introduces Tyrel (Mystikal) and he's arguing with C-Dawg about Mike Tyson
biting Holyfields ear off in the boxing match. Kool changes the subject and turns on a song that he wrote in which
his friends don't give him credit for. Then LaShawna comes they go over to Kools house and LaShawna remembers
his birthday and had a cake baked for him.
The movie cuts to an office at the LAPD precinct. Officer Mack (Brent Huff) is interrupted from his work by
Maurice (Maurice Lamont) and Mack tries to tell him that the deal is off due to there being an undercover cop on the
deal. Maurice tells Mack that the deal is still on and that he'd better be there. The movie jumps back to Kool and
LaShawna with Kool telling LaShawna that he had wrote her a song that was going to get them out of the hood and
into a better place. Which is interrupted by Tyrel knocking on the door telling Kool to hurry up because something
big is about to go down and C-Dawg and Remo are in the middle of it. LaShawna hears Tyrel screaming at the door
and she gives Kool the go ahead despite Kool not wanting her to walk home by herself as she is walking home she
Hot Boyz (film)
156
witnesses a stabbing and discovers the victim is a cop as he dies in her arms, as he dies Officer Mack, who is a dirty
cop, brandishes his gun, which causes LaShawna to run away from the crime scene just as help is arriving and
LaShawna runs all the way home where she is apprehended and taken into custody. Kool arrives and Eddy Anthony
Boswell explains that she has just been charged with murder despite he and Kool knowing that she would never kill
anyone. Eddy is reluctant to help but can't due to the fact that it isn't his murder case. Kool wants to prove her
innocence, and Tully (Gary Busey), the cynical detective in charge, ignores LaShawna's case but uses Kool to break
up an incipient crime operation. Which has Saint (Clifton Powell) jailed and LaShawna's certain release. She's in
danger because the guilty parties fear that the officer talked before he died.
While in jail, pregnant with Kool's first born child and awaiting a hearing and legal help, she's beaten to death by
Mack. While at LaShawna's funeral, Officer Mack pulls out an Uzi and fires upon the funeral. Kool gets into a
hearse and gives chase to Mack, Kool eventually catches up to Mack and destroys the van he is driving, killing him.
After being double crossed by a crooked cop and having his girlfriend wrongfully accused of murder and jailed, he
begins to find difficulty in ignoring the lure of urban gang-life, Kool vows revenge: the Hot Boyz are born. Kool is
eventually pushed over the edge by a pair of racist cops and decides to start his own gang called "Hot Boyz," who
turn out to be the toughest new gang in the city. As the Hot Boyz continue their rise of dominance, they are all at a
club and Tyrel comes and sits at the bar with them and tells them that Saint gets released from prison at 9 o'clock in
the morning, Tyrel and Remo insists that they kill him before he puts together another crew and there will be a turf
war between Saint and the Hot Boyz. Moe (Master P) is an informant who is helping out Officer Roberts (C. Thomas
Howell) with the case at hand, Moe tells Roberts exactly what he wants to know and Moe skips town after it
happens. Pee Wee makes a deal with Saint, who lets him in his organization when he told about the hit the Hot Boyz
were planning on him. C-Dawg finds out what Pee Wee did, then he and Kool confront him about it. Kool is about to
brandish a plane ticket to send Pee Wee to his hometown but Pee Wee, thinking Kool is about to kill him, runs for
his own safety and is shot and killed by C-Dawg. Kool reveals that he was going to send him home with a plane
ticket. Saint finds the warehouse where the Hot Boyz do their business and has his crew guns drawn and ready to kill
anybody, but not only Saint's crew, the corrupt police work alongside them. A 10 minute gunfight ensues, in which
most of the Hot Boyz are killed or injured. Kool and Tully have a standoff in which Kool wins due to an assist from
an injured C-Dawg, and in the end as he jumps out of the window hops into a car and jumps into the river and tells
the audience that "There was time when the world was mine, LaShawna, me, and our baby, the future looked so good
for me, and now I'm on a dead impact and a crash course with destiny. He also tells the audience that it's funny
when you're thirty-eight feet below, all the guns, and the money in the world doesn't even matter any more, and that
you find yourself thinking about the strangest things, I found myself thinking about justice, and that I realized had
not found any for myself, I had just been sinking deeper and deeper, and that now all I wonders is if I had any air to
get away, will I have anything to live for any more." He tells the audience that "Eventually they found me and I found
myself locked in prison for 30 years, without parole until Eddy got me out on a legal loophole after only serving 5
years in prison, I got a second chance to live a good life a life that LaShawna and our baby would have approved
of."
As the movie ends it shows flashbacks of LaShawna to the viewer and Kool tells the audience That a good life is
worth living because as long as I live the memory of LaShawna lives on forever, and that love is something to believe
in, and besides all I have now is memories.
Hot Boyz (film)
157
Cast
• Silkk the Shocker as Kool
• Shireen Crutchfield as LaShawna Ferrell
• Gary Busey as Tully
• Snoop Dogg as Christoper "C-Dawg" Ferrell
• Master P as Moe
• C-Murder as Remo
• Mystikal as Tyrel
• Clifton Powell as Saint
• Anthony Johnson as Pee Wee
• Jeff Speakman as Master Keaton
• C. Thomas Howell as Roberts
• Brent Huff as Officer Mack Stevens
•• Anthony Boswell as Eddy
•• Pamela D'Pella as Delores Ferrell
•• Dick Anthony Williams as Harold Ferrell
• Mia X as Police Receptionist
External links
• Hot Boyz
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0191191/
Irma Capece Minutolo
158
Irma Capece Minutolo
Irma Capece Minutolo (born 6 August 1935) is an Italian former opera singer who was one of the last companions
of King Farouk I of Egypt. In recent years, she has claimed to have been the king's last wife and now uses the name
Irma Capece Minutolo Farouk
Background
She was born in Naples, Italy, reportedly a daughter of Augusto Capece Minutolo.
However, in 1954, according to Time, Capece Minutolo's "right to be called a marchioness was recently disputed
when two Italian newsmen declared that her parents were a chauffeur and a janitor's daughter." A trial for slander
resulted, though its outcome is unknown.
[1]
Career
In addition to her opera career, Capece Minutolo appeared in several motion pictures:
• Napoletani a Milano (1953)
• Siamo Ricchi e Poveri (1954)
• Young Toscanini (1988, role: Signora Martelli), a Franco Zeffirelli film starring Elizabeth Taylor and C. Thomas
Howell
• Mutande Pazze (1992)
• Boom (1992)
• Fantozzi 2000: La Clonazione (1999, role: Contessa Serbelloni Mazzanti Viendalmare)
Declaration of marriage to King Farouk I
In 2005, in an interview with Al-Ahram Weekly, Capece Minutolo said that she married Farouk "in the Islamic
tradition" when she was 16 and that she was writing a memoir of her life as the king's wife.
[2]
Published sources such
as Time magazine indicate that Capece Minutolo was born in 1935, which would place her supposed marriage at the
age of 16 in 1951. That is the same year that the king married his second wife Narriman Sadek.
Capece Minutolo also has stated that she and Farouk had been married, at the time of his death in 1965, for a total of
eight years, which would mean that the purported ceremony took place in 1957.
[3]
However, in 1954, Time,
describing Capece Minutolo as "his current traveling companion, a voluptuous Neapolitan", stated that the singer had
declined to marry the deposed monarch, claiming, "Farouk is sensible and tender, but marriage is the tomb of
love."
[4]
Six years later, the couple's legal status had not changed, since Time described the singer as the former
king's "one conspicuous indulgence: buxom, blonde Irma Capece Minuto [sic], his on-again-off-again sweetheart,
whom Farouk may marry sometime."
[5]
However, in Farouk's death notice, published in The New York Times,
Capece Minutolo was identified as "Farouk's constant companion in recent years."
[6]
She further has stated that she was 24 when Farouk died, in 1965, which would place her birth year as 1941. In
February 1954, however, the same month that King Farouk and Queen Narriman divorced, Time referred to the
singer as the King's "latest collector's item" and gave her age as 18, which would place her birth in 1935, given her
birthday (6 August).
[7]
Capece Minutolo's claim of having married the exiled Egyptian monarch have not been substantiated.
Irma Capece Minutolo
159
References
[1] Time, 12 July 1954 (http:// www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,860975-3,00.html)
[2] Al Ahram Weekly Online (http:// weekly. ahram.org. eg/ 2005/734/ sc3. htm)
[3] Samia Nkrumah, "Thrice-Married Man?", Al-Ahram Weekly, 17–23 March 2005 (http:// weekly. ahram.org.eg/ 2005/ 734/ sc3. htm)
[4] Time, 12 July 1954 (http:// www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,860975-3,00.html)
[5] Time, 5 December 1960 (http:// www. time. com/ time/ magazine/ article/0,9171,895083,00.html)
[6] [6] "Doctor Says Farouk Had Heart Attack", The New York Times, 19 March 1965, page 35
[7] "The Fond Collector", 22 February 1954 (http:// www. time.com/ time/ magazine/ article/ 0,9171,860465,00.html)
It Happened One Christmas
It Happened One Christmas is a 1977 made-for-television movie starring Marlo Thomas and Wayne Rogers.
The film, a gender-reversal remake of the classic It's a Wonderful Life, centers on Mary Bailey Hatch, a young
woman who dreams of seeing the world but is forced by circumstances to remain in her small hometown as head of
the family's Building & Loan business. On one particular Christmas Eve, in a moment of financial crisis, a severely
depressed Mary contemplates suicide but is rescued by her guardian angel, Clara Oddbody, (Cloris Leachman) who
shows her the positive effect she's had on everyone she's met throughout her life.
Lionel Chetwynd's teleplay, directed by Donald Wrye, varies little from the original screenplay, even using most of
the original dialogue. The supporting cast includes Orson Welles, Cloris Leachman, Doris Roberts, Christopher
Guest, C. Thomas Howell, Barney Martin, Richard Dysart, Karen Carlson, Cliff Norton, and Archie Hahn.
Leachman received an Emmy Award nomination for Outstanding Performance by a Supporting Actress in a Drama
or Comedy Special.
Thomas served as executive producer for the project. The remake was first broadcast at a time when the original film
rarely was aired on television and, as a result, many viewers were unfamiliar with its source. However, once the
James Stewart-Donna Reed version returned to the airwaves on an annual basis, the remake slipped into obscurity.
The film had its premiere on Sunday, December 11, 1977, and was one of the very rare instances when the ABC
Sunday Night Movie showcased a made-for-television film rather than one that had been shown in theatres. The
reviews were mixed at best. After its initial airing, in a New York Times follow-up article, it was revealed that Frank
Capra, the director of the 1946 film It's A Wonderful Life, had denounced the remake as "plagiaristic." The ratings,
however were very good—so good, in fact, that the telefilm was re-broadcast on ABC twice in 1978 and 1979. But,
by that time, the original It's A Wonderful Life had begun its resurgence on television, and it eventually eclipsed It
Happened One Christmas.
In this version, the gender reversal makes Mary Bailey Hatch rather anachronistic for the 1940s time setting.
Revisions in the script include fleshing out and exploring some of the characters who are citizens of Bedford Falls to
a greater extent than in the original. When George, Harry (Mary's brother), and the Hatchs' friends, Bert and Ernie,
go off to fight in the Second World War, each sends letters to Mary describing their experiences. All four characters
are shown in uniform, interspersed with actual war footage. Another brief scene depicts George attempting to
readjust to civilian life after the war has ended. However, the characters of Ma Bailey (played by Doris Roberts),
Violet Bick (played by Karen Carlson), and Sam Wainwright (played by an uncredited Jim Lovelett) are practically
reduced to bit parts, in contrast to the more full-bodied performances interpreted by Beulah Bondi, Gloria Grahame,
and Frank Albertson, respectively, in the 1946 film. The musical score is by Stephen Lawrence, and the
cinematography by Conrad L. Hall.
It Happened One Christmas is rarely shown today, and has not, as of 2009, been issued on DVD. It can be viewed at
the Paley Center for Media (formerly The Museum of Television & Radio) in New York City and Beverly Hills,
California.
It Happened One Christmas
160
External links
• It Happened One Christmas
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0076213/
Jenilee Harrison
161
Jenilee Harrison
Jenilee Harrison
Harrison as Cindy Snow on Three's Company.
Born June 12, 1959
Northridge, Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Occupation Actress
Years active 1978–present
Spouse(s) Bruce Oppenheim
Jenilee Harrison (born June 12, 1959) is an American actress possibly best known for her role as the replacement
"dumb blonde" roommate Cindy Snow on the hit sitcom Three's Company, between 1980 and 1982. She went on to
play Jamie Ewing in Dallas from 1984 to 1986.
Early years
Harrison was born in Northridge, California. She was a member of the Alpha Chi Omega sorority (Epsilon Chapter)
at the University of Southern California.
Before breaking into show biz, Harrison was a cheerleader from 1978–1980 for the Los Angeles Rams. Harrison can
be seen in the opening moments of the highlight film for Super Bowl XIV, which shows the Rams cheerleaders in
their dressing room before the game. She can also be seen in a second season episode of CHiPs when Jon and Ponch
pull over a van-load of Rams cheerleaders.
She can also be seen in the music video for "Lovin' Every Minute of It" by Loverboy.
Career
Three's Company
Harrison joined the cast of the hit ABC's Three's Company in 1980. She entered the show as a replacement for
Suzanne Somers who played the sitcom's ditzy "dumb blonde" Chrissy Snow. Somers left the show just after the
show's fifth season had begun, and thereupon the producers needed a replacement and fast. Harrison caught the eyes
of the producers with her beautiful features and was cast as Somers' replacement. Harrison's character, Cindy Snow,
was created to be Chrissy Snow's cousin. Unlike Chrissy, Cindy was not a "dumb blonde"; instead, she was an
extremely clumsy farm-girl. The character of Cindy was similar enough to Chrissy, however, that producers could
use scripts already written with the Chrissy character in mind. Harrison debuted on Three's Company in the episode
en-titled "Chrissy's Cousin" (season 5, episode 7). She enters as Jack and Janet's new roommate after Chrissy's
departure. Cindy proves she's a klutz right away by knocking Jack down. Her constant "accidents" (mainly with
Jack) added to the show's gags of characters being clumsy. Even though she had replaced Somers, Harrison was not
given opening credits billing, and instead Somers still obtained opening billing (as a part of finishing off her
contract). Harrison was end-credits billed, as somewhat of a guest star.
For the sixth season of Three's Company, a new blonde roommate named Terri Alden (Priscilla Barnes), a smart
nurse, took Cindy's place in the apartment. Harrison was retained on the show and this time was given opening cast
billing. However, she now had a lesser role, appearing less frequently in the series while actually living at UCLA.
Nevertheless, since UCLA is only ten minutes away from the trio's apartment, Cindy is present in nearly every
episode. Her first appearances of the sixth season were minor, but she had a handful of good episodes mid-season
like "Maid to Order" (season 6, episode 15), in which she briefly becomes Jack, Janet, and Terri's part-time maid. By
Jenilee Harrison
162
the end of the season, however, Harrison's character was deemed obsolete, and with no explanation, Cindy Snow
disappeared from the series. Her last appearance was in "Janet Wigs Out" (season 6, episode 24), towards the end of
the sitcom's sixth season. In the made-for-TV documentary film Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of
Three's Company, Harrison was portrayed by Liz Crawford.
Later career
Harrison later portrayed Jamie Ewing Barnes on the hit drama Dallas. Beginning in 1984, she was a recurring
character in the series, first appearing in the episode titled "Jamie". She played the role until 1986 when she decided
to leave the soap. Her character was actually killed off twice, first when she starts the car belonging to her brother,
Jack Ewing, in the episode "Blast from the Past" and it explodes killing her. Turns out, the whole season was all a
dream, so Harrison agreed to return long enough for her character to die again. Early in 1987, Jamie was killed in a
mountain climbing accident.
In 1985, she appeared on Super Password with Dick Gautier, appearing again in 1986, this time with Marty Cohen,
Michael Young and Bruce Baum, and Dallas star Ken Kercheval back in 1987 with Bert Convy.
In 1984, Harrison played a reluctant prostitute in the movie Tank alongside James Garner and C. Thomas Howell.
Harrison also guest-starred on That '70s Show in 1999.
In 2005, Harrison began starring on infomercials for the Ultimate Chopper with Chef Tony.
Personal life
She dated L.A. Rams guard Dennis Harrah and baseball player Reggie Jackson.
[1]
She is married to actress Cybill Shepherd's ex-husband, Dr. Bruce Oppenheim, thus making her stepmother to
Oppenheim's twin children by Shepherd, Ariel and Zachariah.
References
[1] http:/ / www.people. com/ people/ archive/article/ 0,,20091228,00.html
External links
• Jenilee Harrison (http:// www. imdb.com/ name/ nm0365649/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Jenilee Harrison (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ name/ p30706) at AllRovi
KAMP-FM
163
KAMP-FM
KAMP-FM
City of license Los Angeles, California
Broadcast area Greater Los Angeles
Branding 97.1 AMP Radio
Slogan L.A.'s New Hit Music Channel
Frequency 97.1 MHz HD Radio HD-2 for KNX simulcast
First air date c. 1954 (as KKLA-FM)
Format Top 40 (CHR)
ERP 21,000 watts directional
HAAT 915 meters
Class B
Facility ID 25075
Callsign meaning "AMP Radio"
Former callsigns KKLA-FM (1954-mid-1960s)
KGBS-FM (mid '60s-August 1978)
KHTZ (September 1978-November 1985)
KBZT (November 1985-September 1986)
KLSX (September 1986-June 2009)
Owner CBS Radio
Sister stations KCBS-FM, KNX, KROQ-FM, KRTH, KTWV
part of CBS Corp. cluster w/ TV stations KCBS-TV & KCAL-TV
Webcast
Listen Live
[1]
Website
ampradio.com
[2]
KAMP-FM 97.1 FM, known on-air as 97.1 AMP Radio, is a Top 40 (CHR) radio station in Los Angeles, California.
The station is owned by CBS Radio and as with most CBS Radio CHR's, Amp leans rhythmic being modeled after
Rhythmic CHR KLUC-FM Las Vegas and Top 40 (CHR) WBBM-FM Chicago. Mediabase and Nielsen BDS lists
97-1 AMP RADIO as a CHR reporter.
The station had long been known as KLSX before the call sign changed on June 30, 2009.
History
Early history
The 97.1 frequency had originally signed on as KKLA-FM and operated under those call letters during the 1950s
and early and mid-1960s. In the late 1960s, 97.1 FM became home to KGBS-FM, a country music station when
KKLA was purchased by Storer Broadcasting. Since its AM station KGBS 1020 was only authorized to be on the air
during daylight hours, this allowed the format to be broadcast 24 hours a day. In the early 1970s, the station
experimented with rock 'n' roll and pop music formats before returning to country in 1973, when it adopted the name
"Gentle Country". In 1976, KGBS-FM continued with its country music format while its AM sister station switched
to a top-40 format. On August 28, 1978, the call letters changed to KHTZ while continuing with its country music
KAMP-FM
164
format.
On July 31, 1979, Storer, after having sold the AM radio station which was now known as KTNQ 1020 (Ten-Q),
moved its top-40 format to 97.1 FM and began broadcasting as KHTZ (K-Hits). For a few hours the two stations
simulcasted the signal until KTNQ switched to Spanish language programming at noon. Within a few weeks the
station evolved into a more adult contemporary station, leaving top-40 to others for almost 30 years.
On November 27, 1985, the station changed its call letters to KBZT and was known as "K-Best 97".
On September 26, 1986, the station was renamed KLSX and became a classic rock radio station. The call letters
KLSX were chosen to sound like the word "classics".
In 1988, the long-running Beatles show Breakfast with the Beatles with host Deirdre O'Donoghue moved here from
KNX-FM, a show which she began doing on KMET in 1983. After she died in 2001, the show was taken over by
Chris Carter. On September 3, 2006, the station broadcasted the last airing of Breakfast with the Beatles which is
now replaced by infomercials that has drawn some local protest.
[3][4]
Current host Carter has stated that the departure
of Howard Stern can be attributed to why the program is being dropped. Paul McCartney, Ringo Starr, and Yoko
Ono have all called in to the program. In late November 2006, local classic rock KLOS picked up the show, and
broadcasts it Sundays, from 8 to 11 am.
On July 21, 1991, the station began to play the syndicated The Howard Stern Show, and took on the slogan "Howard
Stern all morning, classic rock all day."
Real Radio, Free FM and FM Talk
In August 1995, the station changed to an all-talk format on weekdays and went by the moniker "Real Radio 97.1",
and had hosts such as Susan Olsen and Ken Ober, Scott Ferrall, Riki Rachtman, Kato Kaelin, Mother Love, Carlos
Oscar, and the Regular Guys, the radio duo of Larry Wachs and Eric von Haessler. Howard Stern was critical of this
format change and referred to it as "Hindenburg Radio." In 1996, the station dropped the "Real Radio" name and
became known as "The FM Talk Station," hired new hosts and in 1997, the station began carrying the syndicated
Tom Leykis Show, becoming its flagship station. On April 1, 2002, KLSX temporarily brought back Kato Kaelin
and the "Real Radio" slogans and jingles as part of an April Fool's joke.
Tim Conway Jr. and comedy writer Doug Steckler co-hosted the evening show ("The Conway and Steckler Show")
until June 2005 when Steckler's contract was not renewed. Funnyman/impressionist Brian Whitman was brought in
as Steckler's replacement, and the show was renamed "The Conway and Whitman Show". In addition, two new Free
FM stations opened up in California, KSCF in San Diego and KIFR in San Francisco, both of which carried The
Tom Leykis Show and The John and Jeff Show. The Frosty, Heidi, and Frank Show was picked up and, until
January 2007, was syndicated to the San Diego station. On October 25, 2005, it was announced that Adam Carolla
would take over as the station's morning show host in January 2006 due to Stern's departure to satellite radio. On that
same day, the station also became known on-air as "97.1 Free FM"--so-called to highlight that its stations broadcast
free-to-air, funded by commercials, whereas satellite radio requires a subscription fee.
The year 2007 saw the addition of Danny Bonaduce to The Adam Carolla Show (replacing sportscaster Dave
Dameshek), marking the beginning of Bonaduce's career at KLSX. In 2008, he was given his own (local) one-hour
show following Frosty, Heidi & Frank, in a timeslot that had been vacant since the departure of entertainment
reporter Sam Rubin in 2003. Also in 2008, Brian Whitman unexpectedly left the station in March; as of April 2008,
Tim Conway, Jr. hosted the evening show alone. Arsenio Hall was a semi regular guest host with Tim on the Tim
Conway Jr show on Wednesday nights in 2008-09.
Hosts of programs under the talk radio format included former KIIS FM disc jockey The Nasty Man,
[5]
Jonathan
Brandmeier aka: Johnny B,
[6]
KTLA morning host Sam Rubin, Doug Steckler (former partner for Tim Conway Jr.),
Edward Tyll otherwise known as simply Ed Tyll,
[7]
Thom (The) Looney,
[8]
porn director and star Ed Powers, Sheena
Metal
[9]
(at one time partnered with former model Sam Phillips), comedian Jeffrey Dandurand,
[10]
Galen Brown and
KAMP-FM
165
Tina Jordan (both at one time teamed with Kerri Kasem—daughter of Casey Kasem),
[11]
and Dangerous Dick and
Skibba which was on 103.7 Free FM in San Diego.
[12]
Weekend programs included the syndicated motorsports show SpeedFreaks, hosted by Emmy Nominated Kenny
Sargent, Crash Gladys & Statt Mann Caruthers. SpeedFreaks originated on KLSX in 2000, went to ESPN Radio 710
for 5 years with also a TV version on Speed, ESPN and presently MavTv, before returning to KLSX in 2008
syndicated on over 50 stations; Kim Komando's "tech support" radio program,
[13]
a dining show hosted by Merrill
Schindler, a movie review program hosted by Leo Quiñones, and a show co-hosted by actor C. Thomas Howell and
Kirk Fox, and Open House Radio hosted by Howard Cohen.
KLSX was owned by Greater Media until 1997, when Greater Media swapped KLSX and sister station KRLA for
three stations: WMMR in Philadelphia, WOAZ in Boston, and WBOS in Boston. The deal enabled Greater Media to
operate larger clusters in these two markets while exiting Los Angeles. The swap led KLSX into the ownership of
CBS Radio, where it joined radio stations KTWV and KCBS-FM.
On weekends, KLSX played alternative music from 1995 until 1997 when it was acquired by CBS radio. Instead of
competing with now sister station KROQ-FM, it was asked to switch to a "Triple-A" format (a blend of album-rock
and alternative music that appealed to a 35+ demographic). That format continued on weekends until 1999 when the
talk format was expanded to weekends, leaving only Sunday morning's Breakfast with the Beatles as the only
program that played music. During that era and prior to being sold (swapped), KLSX boasted the only late-night
L.A. talk shows featuring women as hosts: "Dr. X" and subsequently a short-run of "Shrink Rap." KLSX was also
the local home of the syndicated show of novelty music host Dr. Demento.
KLSX was the last station to use the Free FM branding, having abandoned the moniker in early October 2008,
signaling the official desertion of the Free FM brand nationally by CBS Radio. The program director for KLSX was
Jack Silver. The Assistant Program Director and Creative voice of the station was Rich Boerner, who also
programmed the weekend music formats.
KLSX was the Los Angeles-area radio home of the Oakland Raiders of the National Football League.
[14]
Previously,
the station aired games from the Jones Radio Network's Sports USA service and NFL on Westwood One. In 2001, it
carried the Los Angeles Xtreme of the XFL. KLSX has also aired a sports year-in-review show from Westwood
One.
The demise of FM Talk and launch of 97.1 AMP Radio
For a few weeks prior, speculation began on whether KLSX would be soon switching formats. On February 17,
2009, information started to emerge that KLSX was to drop the hot talk format on Friday, February 20, 2009 and
start a Top 40 (CHR) format aimed at younger listeners, taking the 'AMP' format that was created by KROQ-FM
program director Kevin Weatherly on KCBS-HD2.
The station's main line up of The Adam Carolla Show, Frosty, Heidi, and Frank, Danny Bonaduce (in a solo spot
known as Broadcasting Bonaduce), The Tom Leykis Show, The Tim Conway Jr. Show and The John and Jeff Show
were all given advance notice of the format shift and afforded the opportunity to host final shows to explain the
situation and say their goodbyes. The last day of 97.1 FM Talk ended Friday at 5:00 PM (PT), giving longtime radio
veteran Tom Leykis the final sign-off and the opportunity to "blow up the station" (a radio term for ending a
particular format or station run).
[15]
The AMP Radio format launched with Kanye West's "Paranoid", beginning a
commercial-free block of ten thousand songs, similar to the 2004 debut of the current KDAY and Pirate Radio 100.3
(Conway would later reappeared on KFI as weekend afternoon host). The launch of AMP Radio was a clone of CBS
Radio's launch of other top 40 stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (WBZW-FM), Houston, Texas (KKHH) and in
San Francisco, California (KMVQ-FM).
Previously, AMP Radio was heard on KCBS-FM HD2 and also streamed online; it launched on February 21, 2008.
The station had targeted teens and young audiences by playing a mix of popular child friendly artists such as Miley
Cyrus, the Jonas Brothers, and songs from the High School Musical soundtrack and Top 40 artists (Chris Brown,
KAMP-FM
166
Paramore, Rihanna and Metro Station). With this, CBS Radio eventually looked at moving the AMP Radio format to
mainstream radio because it felt that was more cost-effective than the talk format. Eventually, AMP more closely
resembled a more mainstream Top 40 format and it was advertised the station on many of the company's radio
station websites. Finally, it was launched on KLSX. The company stated that testing AMP Radio on HD 2 and online
showed brand loyalty and the success of the format. However, others alleged that AMP Radio was launched directly
to compete with KIIS, which was the number one rated station and top revenue billing station in Los Angeles in
order for CBS to gain revenue and in order for other of CBS stations to be able to reach higher numbers, such as
KRTH and KCBS. The launch of AMP Radio marks the first Top 40 radio battle since KPWR switched to Hip Hop
in 1994. The station regularly pokes fun at KIIS as KQLZ had done 20 years earlier.
The station has since ended its "10,000 Songs In A Row" campaign; however, "Commercial-Free Mondays" are still
on the air.
CBS Radio following the launch of AMP, launched "92.3 Now FM" on sister station WXRK in New York. Beasley
Broadcasting Group launched "102.7 Now FM" KFRH in Las Vegas, both with similar sounding
CHR/Rhythmic/Top 40 formats and there are speculations that many other CBS Radio stations might flip to the
similar format. The AMP Radio branding was cloned for the first time on a Calgary radio station in Canada owned
by Newcap Broadcasting on June 20, 2009, and in addition, CBS Radio also cloned the AMP Radio branding on a
Detroit radio station on October 2, 2009 and a Boston radio station on June 28, 2012.
On June 30, 2009, the station changed its callsign from KLSX to KAMP, to go with the current format, and changed
again on July 7, 2009 to KAMP-FM in order to avoid confusion with an AM station with the same callsign.
97.1 AMP Radio
97.1 AMP Radio currently has a Top 40 (CHR) format. The format is programmed by KROQ-FM and KCBS
programming director Kevin Weatherly. However, unlike most CHR/Top 40 stations, AMP Radio is dedicated to
feature the most Top 40 popular current artists, an interactive website, ability to create artist specific online radio
stations and the ability to use mobile applications.
Playlist direction
AMP Radio's playlist is based in a more rhythmic direction (featuring more Hip-Hop, R&B, Dance and Pop) than
rock to compete with competitors KIIS, KPWR, KXOS, KXOL and KDAY.
Top artists on the AMP playlist include artists such as Lady Gaga, The Black Eyed Peas, LMFAO, Keri Hilson,
Beyoncé, Drake, and recently Nicki Minaj.
On-air staff
Michelle from 10 am to 3 pm, Chris Booker from 3 pm to 7 pm, McCabe from 7 pm to midnight, and Seena from
midnight to 6 am.
On Monday, January 4, 2010, AMP Radio added current Last Call host and former MTV VJ Carson Daly to headline
mornings from 6 am to 10am with a music-intensive program.
Ratings
AMP Radio has been enjoying substantial ratings success. In the August PPMs, AMP Radio beat competitor
KIIS-FM in the 18-34 demo. As of the November PPMs, AMP Radio is #4 overall in audience share (age 12+) with
3.7% and #3 overall in audience cume (age 12+) with 2,819,800 listeners.
KAMP-FM
167
KAMP HD2
Currently, KAMP HD2 simulcasts KEGY, a CHR formatted station from San Diego.
References
[1] http:/ / player.radio. com/ player/RadioPlayer. php?version=1. 1. 9780& station=117
[2] http:// www.ampradio.com
[3] Breakfast with the Beatles' dropping off KLSX's menu (http:/ / www. latimes. com/entertainment/ la-et-weekpop7aug07,1,2203161.
story?ctrack=1& cset=true), LA Times, August 7, 2006, , retrieved 2009-03-03
[4] , http:// www. savebreakfastwiththebeatles. com/
[5] , http:/ / home.att. net/ ~destroyerguy/bio. htm
[6] , http:/ / members.cox. net/ rwagoner/columns/ 2000/ sep2200. html
[7] , http:// www. radioguide.com/ magazine/ vol3no4/ tyldemen/ tyldemen.html
[8] , http:// www. radioguide.com/ lalist. html
[9] , http:/ / www. sheena-metal. com/ radio.htm
[10] http:// www. laradio.com/ whered. htm LA Radio.com "Where are They Now"
[11] , http:// www.kerrikasem.com/ bio. html
[12] , http:// www.1037freefm.com/ pages/ 13504. php?contentType=4&contentId=110463
[13] , http:/ / members.tripod.com/ ~chinesecookery/ radio-flash/03-01.html
[14] (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ sports/ la-sp-tvcol10aug10,0,2106220.column?coll=la-headlines-sports)
[15] Charlie Amter (February 18, 2009), FM talk radio format all talked out? KLSX-FM (97.1) going top 40 Friday (http:/ / latimesblogs.
latimes.com/ music_blog/ 2009/ 02/ klsx-going-top.html), LA Times blogs, , retrieved 2009-03-03
External links
• Amp Radio 97.1 FM official website (http:/ / www. ampradio.com/ )
• Query the FCC's FM station database for KAMP (http:/ / www. fcc.gov/fcc-bin/fmq?call=KAMP)
• Radio-Locator information on KAMP (http:// www. radio-locator.com/ info/KAMP-FM)
• Query Arbitron's FM station database for KAMP (http:/ / www1. arbitron.com/ sip/ displaySip.
do?surveyID=WI13& band=fm&callLetter=KAMP)
• MP3 of flip to "Amp Radio" (http:/ / www. justinmichael. net/ klsx-flip-02-2009/KLSX_flip_02-20-09.mp3)
• Directional antenna pattern (http:/ / transition.fcc.gov/ fcc-bin/polarplot?frame=Y&temp=14069& rotate=0.
00& p0=0.025& p10=0. 025& p20=0. 025& p30=0.029& p40=0.036&p50=0.043& p60=0.048& p70=0.
054& p80=0.066& p90=0. 087& p100=0. 113& p110=0.162& p120=0.246&p130=0.325& p140=0. 352&
p150=0. 333& p160=0. 353& p170=0.444& p180=0.558& p190=0. 681& p200=0.688& p210=0.646&
p220=0. 635& p230=0. 699& p240=0.859& p250=0.982& p260=0. 992& p270=0.904& p280=0.723&
p290=0. 503& p300=0. 335& p310=0.189& p320=0.099& p330=0. 058& p340=0.035& p350=0.029&
p360=0. 025& )
Kindred: The Embraced
168
Kindred: The Embraced
Kindred: The Embraced
Kindred: The Embraced logo
Genre Supernatural drama
Created by John Leekley
Mark Rein-Hagen
Starring Mark Frankel
C. Thomas Howell
Stacy Haiduk
Channon Roe
Jeff Kober
Brigid Walsh
Kelly Rutherford
Patrick Bauchau
Erik King
Country of origin USA
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 1
No. of episodes 8
Production
Producer(s) Mike Trozzo
Running time 45 minutes
Production company(s) John Leekley Productions
Spelling Television
Distributor CBS Television Distribution
Broadcast
Original channel Fox Broadcasting Company
Original run April 2, 1996 – May 9, 1996
Kindred: The Embraced is an American television series produced by John Leekley Productions and Spelling
Television. Loosely based on the role-playing game Vampire: The Masquerade, the series premiered on Fox on April
2, 1996, and ran for eight episodes before it was canceled on May 9, 1996.
The series focused on San Francisco Police Detective Frank Kohanek (C. Thomas Howell) who discovers his city is
home to numerous vampires while investigating alleged mobster, Julian Luna (Mark Frankel). Julian is the "prince"
of the city, ruler of five groups of vampires in the city, collectively called "The Kindred". The vampires survive
through the "masquerade", disguising themselves as humans, and Julian strictly enforces the laws that govern them
to protect their anonymity. Julian and Frank form an uneasy bond as they work together to try to prevent a vampire
war and Julian struggles with his romantic feelings for human reporter Caitlin Byrne (Kelly Rutherford).
The eight episodes of the series have been released on VHS and DVD.
Kindred: The Embraced
169
Production
The show was produced by John Leekley Productions and Spelling Television. It was filmed in the cities of Los
Angeles, San Francisco and Fillmore, California.
[1]
After the show's cancellation, Showtime negotiated to revive this
series, but the untimely death of the show's star, Mark Frankel, halted the effort.
[2]
Reception
Sci Fi Weekly's Kathie Huddleston called Kindred: The Embraced a "cross between The Godfather and Melrose
Place" that held promise, but was very confusing to viewers with the five vampire clans and a particularly confusing
pilot episode. While she felt the character of Frank appeared "to be pulled straight out of a bad cop film", she praised
the character of Julian as a "multifaceted character who's both good and evil".
[3]
Ken Tucker of Entertainment
Weekly also compared the series to The Godfather "soaked in blood," calling it "knottily mystifying". Like
Huddlestone, he disliked the character of Frank, wishing he'd been killed by a vampire early in the series, while
praising "the elegant, intelligent prince" Julian.
[4]
Distribution
The series premiered on Fox on April 2, 1996.
[3]
New episodes aired weekly until May 9, 1996, after which the
series was canceled and no additional episodes produced. The eight episodes produced for the series were released
on a two volume DVD set on August 21, 2001.
[5]
Episode listing
# Title Director Writer Original airdate
1 "The Original Saga" Peter Medak John Leekley April 2, 1996
A police detective, Frank Kohanek, has learned that vampires exist, but doesn't realise that he's surrounded by them. The businessman whom he
suspects is a mobster, Julian Luna, is the Prince of the San Francisco "Kindred" clans. Frank's girlfriend, Alexandra (Kate Vernon), is Julian's ex
and also a vampire. When she reveals herself, breaking the Masquerade, her life is forfeit.
2 "Prince of the City" Peter Medak John Leekley April 3, 1996
The feud with the Brujah is escalating. Against Masquerade policy, Eddie Fiori (Brian Thompson) has ordered the death of Boyle, an informant of
Detective Kohanek. Fortunately for Eddie, the vote by the ruling primogens is split, and Eddie is not sentenced to final death. Julian has fallen in
love with reporter Caitlin Byrne, a human who wants to do an article on him because he is wealthy, powerful, and unseen. In order to control her,
Julian buys the San Francisco Times and appoints her as the editor.
3 "Nightstalker" John Harrison John Leekley, P.K. Simonds unaired
A recently embraced and insane Kindred is making the news as a serial killer. Falling in love with human women is an issue for Julian, Cash
(Channon Roe), and Daedalus (Jeff Kober).
4 "Romeo and Juliet" Ralph Hemecker Joel Blasberg April 10, 1996
Cash and Sasha (Brigid Walsh) have become lovers and Julian grudgingly gives permission for Cash to "embrace" Sasha. He's too late, however,
because the Brujah clan, trying to provoke a war between clans, has already embraced her.
5 "Live Hard, Die Young, and
Leave a Good Looking
Corpse"
James L. Conway Aaron Mendelson, Paul
Tamasy
April 17, 1996
Zane (Ivan Sergei), a rock star embraced by Lily (Stacy Haiduk), endangers the Masquerade, but she's having trouble admitting that he's a problem.
Sasha embraces her Brujah blood.
6 "The Rise and Fall of Eddie
Fiori"
Kenneth Fink Scott Smith Miller April 24, 1996
Kindred: The Embraced
170
Lily is jealous of Caitlin and sends a P.I. to take photos of Julian and Caitlin together. The P.I. ends up capturing Eddie's assassination attempt on
film. Frank ends up with a copy of the photos and shows them to Caitlin, so she breaks up with Julian. Lily, meanwhile, has sided with Eddie, who
is still planning to kill Julian. Heads will roll, but not the ones Eddie plans.
7 "Bad Moon Rising" James L. Conway Phyllis Murphy May 1, 1996
With Brujah primogen Eddie Fiori gone, fights are breaking out all over San Francisco to determine which Brujah will succeed him. This is to be
expected. What isn't expected is the return of the Nosferatu Goth (Skipp Sudduth). Julian ran Goth out of town years ago, but he has returned,
stronger than ever. And, when he performs the ritual and drinks the blood of the human infant he has just kidnapped, he will be unbeatable.
8 "Cabin in the Woods" Ralph Hemecker Curt Johnson May 9, 1996
Julian hasn't been out of San Francisco in seven years. So when Caitlin asks him to go away with her for the weekend, Julian leaves Archon (Patrick
Bauchau) in charge and goes with her sans bodyguards to Manzanita Springs in Sonoma County where Caitlin has secured a secluded cabin in the
woods. Unbeknown to Julian, the sole survivor of that bloodbath, a Brujah named Cameron (Titus Welliver), has reunited with the three remaining
Manzanita Springs Brujah and has plans to take over Eddie's seat on the San Francisco conclave.
References
[1] "Kindred the Embraced - IMDB.com" (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0115232/ locations). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-06.
[2] "Kindred the Embraced - IMDB.com" (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0115232/ trivia). Amazon.com. . Retrieved 2010-07-06.
[3] Huddleston, Kathie (March 25, 1996). "On Screen: Backlash: Oblivion 2, Kindred: The Embraced" (http:/ / www. scifi. com/ sfw/ issue17/
movie.html). Sci Fi Weekly 2 (17). . Retrieved 2009-02-27.
[4] Tucker, Ken (April 5, 1996). "TV Review: Dark Victories" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/ 0,,292007,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. .
Retrieved 2009-02-27.
[5] "Kindred the Embraced - The Complete Vampire Collection" (http:/ / www. amazon. com/ dp/ B00005Q4DS). Amazon.com. . Retrieved
2009-02-27.
Opracowanie Wersji Polskiej:Krzysztof Mościcki Czytał:Jacek Brzostyński
External links
• Kindred: The Embraced (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0115232/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Kindred: The Embraced (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ kindred-the-embraced/) at TV.com
• Episode Guide (http:/ / epguides.com/ KindredtheEmbraced/)
• Kindred the Embraced (http:/ / www. cyberpursuits.com/ heckifiknow/kte/ kte.asp)
• White Wolf Online (http:/ / www. white-wolf.com/ )
Laws of Deception
171
Laws of Deception
Laws of Deception
Directed by Joey Travolta
Produced by David E.
Ornston
Richard
Salvatore
Joey Travolta
Written by Rollin Jarrett
Cinematography Dan Heigh
Editing by Rich Cowan
Will Wuorinen
Release date(s) 1997
Running time 98 min.
Country USA
Language English
Laws of Deception is an erotic suspense thriller produced in 1997. Written by Rollin Jarrett and directed by Joey
Travolta, it stars C. Thomas Howell, James Russo, Amber Smith, Nick Mancuso and Brian Austin Green.
Plot Synopsis
The plot involves a young man, Evan Marino, who witnessed the murder of his mob-connected parents when he was
a child. Evan (C.Thomas Howell) has grown up to become a top law student and justice has become his religion. He
has but one goal, which is to become the number one criminal lawyer in Miami. A beautiful and mysterious woman
(Amber Smith) enters Evan’s life and unbeknownst to him, has been hired by his parents’ murderer (James Russo) to
uncover what he remembers. As the truth about his past is revealed, Evan finds himself caught in a tangled web of
lies and twisted motivations, not the least of which are his own. The film features a brief cameo by famed director
John Landis as a crooked judge.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Evan Marino
• Brian Austin Green as Cal Miller
• James Russo as Gino Carlucci
• Amber Smith as Elise Talbot
• Robert Miano as Raymond Kelsey
• Nick Mancuso as Det. Sgt. Lou Mather
•• Bo Brinkman as J.W.
• John Landis as Judge Trevino
• Sam Travolta as Jury President
• Rollin Jarrett as Mr. Farina
Laws of Deception
172
References
• http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0187236
• http:/ / www. amazon.com/ Laws-of-Deception/dp/ B000NS1GG6
External links
•• tv.nytimes.com/show/53098/Laws-of-Deception/overview
• http:/ / www. movieretriever.com/ movies/ 1674332/ Laws-of-Deception
Matter of Trust
Matter of Trust is a 1997 independent film directed by Joey Travolta and written by John Penney. Model and dancer
Dita Von Teese played a small part in it. Other cast members include: C. Thomas Howell as Michael D'Angelo, Joan
Severance as Theresa Marsh, Nick Mancuso as Peter Marsh, Robert Miano as Ben and Jennifer Leigh Warren as
Janet.
External links
• Matter of Trust
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• New York Times Movie Review
[2]
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0178746/
[2] http:/ / movies. nytimes. com/ movie/ 257287/ Matter-of-Trust/overview
Mockbuster
173
Mockbuster
A mockbuster (sometimes also called a knockbuster or a drafting opportunity
[1]
) is a film created with the
apparent intention of piggy-backing on the publicity of a major film with a similar title or theme and is often made
with a low budget. Most of the time these films are created to be released direct-to-video at the same time as the
mainstream film reaches theaters or video outlets.
Though it is possible to use properties of this sort to intentionally deceive consumers into mistakenly purchasing the
derivative title (e.g., someone's grandmother thinks she is buying Transformers, but is actually getting
Transmorphers), another possible intention
[2]
is to provide legitimate add-on buying opportunity in the marketplace
(e.g., customer enjoyed Will Ferrell's Land of the Lost and wants more in the same sub-genre, and buys/rents C.
Thomas Howell's The Land That Time Forgot).
Sound-alike titling
Often, but not always, a mockbuster will use a title with a similar-sounding name to the mainstream feature it intends
to piggy-back upon. For instance, the 2006 mockbuster Snakes on a Train, written by Eric Forsberg,
[3]
traded on the
publicity surrounding the theatrically released Snakes on a Plane.
[4]
The Asylum, a Hollywood, California based
film studio known for creating several mockbusters, created Snakes on a Train, as well as Transmorphers, AVH:
Alien vs. Hunter, The Da Vinci Treasure,
[2]
and most recently the Syfy-premiered film Battle of Los Angeles.
The films tend to fit the classic B movie model, produced on a small budget and largely derivative of the target film
and other similar projects. The greatly reduced costs made available by using modern video and computer graphics
equipment, and the tie-in to the mainstream film's advertising, has allowed the mockbuster to find a profitable niche
in the home video market. Blockbuster, at one time one of the largest DVD and video-game rental chains, gave
implied support to the concept by purchasing 100,000 copies of The Asylum's version of War of the Worlds in time
to coincide with the theatrical opening week of Steven Spielberg's film based on the same novel starring Tom
Cruise.
[2]
History
Mockbusters have a long history in Hollywood and elsewhere.
[5][6][7][8]
For example, the 1959 Vanwick film The
Monster of Piedras Blancas was a clear derivative of Creature from the Black Lagoon, complete with a creature suit
by the same designer, Jack Kevan. Attack of the 50 Foot Woman spawned Village of the Giants; The Land That Time
Forgot spun Legend of Dinosaurs & Monster Birds; Star Wars gave derivative birth to a jumble of imitations —
Starcrash, Battle Beyond the Stars, among others. The success of Spielberg's 1982 family-film E.T. the
Extra-Terrestrial spawned the infamous 1988 film Mac and Me. The 1984 film Gremlins and its ensuing popularity
inspired the creation of the notoriously bad 1988 rip-off Hobgoblins.
A film does not necessarily have to be a derivative of an actual pre-existing film in order to be a knockoff, and
instead might attempt to capitalize on the popularity of an existing TV series or any other such form of media with a
public following. The 1979 film Angel's Revenge is widely considered to be a film knockoff of the concept behind
the popular TV series Charlie's Angels. This same principle can also work in reverse. The Mister Ed television series
was derived from the popular film series Francis the Talking Mule, as was the Disney film Gus. GoodTimes
Entertainment was notorious for making animated "mockbuster" counterparts to popular Disney films in the 1990s.
Similarly, Vídeo Brinquedo is a Brazilian CGI animation studio that has specialized since 2006 in producing
low-budget direct-to-video films that are for the most part considered blatant (and extremely poorly done) knockoffs
of movies created by Pixar, as well as Disney and DreamWorks. Their titles so far include Little & Big Monsters
(considered derivative of DreamWorks' Monsters vs. Aliens), The Little Cars series of cartoons (considered
derivative of Pixar's Cars), Ratatoing (considered derivative of Pixar's Ratatouille), Tiny Robots (considered
Mockbuster
174
derivative of Pixar's WALL-E), What's Up?: Balloon to the Rescue! (considered derivative of Pixar's Up), The Frog
Prince (considered derivative of Disney's The Princess and the Frog) and many other titles. In every case Vídeo
Brinquedo's knockoff is released suspiciously close to the release date of the more professional, higher-budgeted
film that inspired it.
Foreign knockoffs and illegitimate sequels
It is common for mockbusters and rip-offs to be filmed and released outside of the country that the original movie
was made in. Many Turkish, Italian and Brazilian versions/knockoffs of famous American films exist, as well as
completely illegitimate sequels.
Star Wars, its various sequels and its popularity spawned foreign knockoffs such as the 1982 Turkish film Dünyayı
Kurtaran Adam (often commonly referred to by the unofficial title "Turkish Star Wars", but its title translates to "The
Man Who Saves the World"). The 1968 Charlton Heston film Planet of the Apes inspired the low-budget Japanese
film Time of the Apes, made in 1974 but released in 1987. The 1975 film Jaws spawned the 1980 Italian rip-off
Great White, as well as Monster Shark (also commonly referred to by its alternate title Devil Fish, the title it was
featured under in an episode of Mystery Science Theater 3000), another Italian rip-off released four years later. Two
Italian directors have done movies inspired by George A. Romero's 1978 Dawn of the Dead; Lucio Fulci's Zombi 2
sold itself as the sequel to that film (which was called Zombi in Italy) and even used a line originally written for
Dawn of the Dead.
[9]
Bruno Mattei released Hell of the Living Dead in 1980, was widely considered Mattei's attempt
to rip off Dawn of the Dead. The movie even goes as far as to illegally use music from the original soundtrack of
Dawn of the Dead created by the band Goblin without the permission of Goblin, Romero, The Laurel Group or
anyone else involved with Dawn of the Dead's production. Similarly, Mattei also directed the film Strike Commando
in 1987, widely considered to be very derivative of the successful 1985 American film Rambo: First Blood Part II,
and also drawing elements from movies such as Mad Max 2. In 1988 Mattei filmed a movie titled Robowar, widely
seen as an attempt to cash in on the successful 1987 Arnold Schwarzenegger film Predator, but with this version
featuring a low-budget "military robot" (an actor in a motorcycle helmet and a black flak jacket) as the antagonist
rather than an intergalactic hunter. Both Strike Commando and Robowar featured cult-favorite American actor Reb
Brown of Space Mutiny fame in the lead role.
The Spanish film Pod People in its early stages had a plot based around evil replicating aliens, but the producers
demanded that rewrites be made of the script in order to cash in on the success of the Steven Spielberg film E.T. the
Extra-Terrestrial. The film was released in its final form in 1983 with a furry, orange rip-off of the character E.T.
with a trunk. The alien befriends a little boy (who nicknames him "Trumpy") and has seemingly magical powers that
somewhat mirror those of the original E.T., but are brought to life with lower-budgeted special effects.
In 1983, one year after the American release of Disney's cult classic science-fiction film Tron, a South Korean studio
named Namyang Planning released an animated science-fiction film called Computer haekjeonham pokpa
daejakjeon, which was later released internationally by Joseph Lai under the title of Savior of the Earth. The film's
story is centered on an average video game-fan being transported into cyberspace by a mad scientist and being forced
to play video games in order to survive. The film is often known by the unofficial title of "Korean Tron" due to the
fact that, despite being animated, it contains a number of obvious narrative and visual elements that were lifted from
Disney's Tron. These include the luminous body-armor, the identity-discs, several of the vehicles featured in Tron,
and direct animated adaptations of characters from the original film, including SARK. Both films even feature a
cameo appearance of the popular video game character Pac-Man.
Japanese animation has also been the target of mockbusters. When Mazinger Z was popular in South Korea in the
1970s, animation director Kim Cheong-gi created Robot Taekwon V as the Korean counterpart. After the success of
Taekwon V, 70 animated features were produced in South Korea between 1976 and 1986, many of which lifted
stories, characters and designs from Japanese anime. In 1983, South Korea released Space Gundam V. Despite its
name, the series is not related to Mobile Suit Gundam; instead, it is a knockoff of the Super robot genre featuring an
Mockbuster
175
unauthorized depiction of the VF-1 Valkyrie from Macross. The 2010 Chinese animated series Astro Plan has been
criticized for being a ripoff of Macross Frontier and Mobile Suit Gundam 00.
Low-budget studios in foreign countries may produce completely illegitimate sequels to pre-existing higher budgeted
movies or movie franchises that began in other countries. These sequels are unofficial and often even unknown to the
creators and producers of the original franchise. These unofficial sequels are rarely or never released in the country
where the original film franchise is made, usually due to licensing issues. In 1990, an Italian-made
science-fiction/horror film titled Terminator II was released in Italy as a supposed sequel to the 1984 American film
The Terminator. This was almost a full year before the release of the James Cameron film Terminator 2: Judgment
Day in America. Despite its title, the film's plot is actually closer to being a mockbuster of James Cameron's 1986 hit
film Aliens, though one of the characters featured is a robot disguised as a human that is presented and played in
such a way that it's a clear rip-off of Arnold Schwarzenegger's iconic character in the movie The Terminator.
The Gamera film series rips off of the Godzilla series.
In 1995, a low-budget made-for-TV movie debuted in Italy called Jaws 5 (also called Cruel Jaws). However, only a
Jaws 2, Jaws 3 and Jaws 4 were ever officially released by Universal Pictures as sequels to the 1975 Steven
Spielberg movie Jaws. Jaws 5 even features stock footage illegally taken from the original Jaws and its sequels (and,
ironically enough, Great White, another Italian rip-off of Jaws), as well as use of a mangled version of the Star Wars
theme.
Both Terminator II and Jaws 5 were directed by Bruno Mattei, an Italian director infamous for both low-budget,
poorly-reviewed B-movies and exploitation films, as well as illegitimate sequels to famous American films. The
script for Terminator II was written by cult-famous Italian B-movie writer/director Claudio Fragasso, most notable
for being the director of the cult classic horror film Troll 2.
A rare alternate title for the film Pod People is Return of E.T..
The first two films in the Evil Dead trilogy of films were released in Italy under the titles of La Casa and La Casa 2.
In 1988 Joe D'Amato acted as producer for a completely unrelated sequel called La Casa 3, also called Evil Dead 3.
This was a full five years before Sam Raimi would direct and release Evil Dead III: Army of Darkness in the US. La
Casa 4 was another further unrelated sequel to the Evil Dead franchise, also produced by Joe D'Amato and also
released in 1988, starring David Hasselhoff and Catherine Hickland. The film alternately bills itself as both Evil
Dead 4 and Return of the Exorcist, also making it an unofficial/illegitimate sequel to the 1973 American film The
Exorcist, 11 years after the official US release of Exorcist II: The Heretic. D'Amato would again act as producer for
yet another illegitimate Evil Dead sequel in 1990 with the release of La Casa 5, also called Evil Dead 5 and this time
directed by Claudio Fragasso.
The 1975 low-budget Italian film Naked Exorcism (Un urlo nelle tenebre) also bills itself under the title The Exorcist
3. This was a full 15 years before William Peter Blatty directed and released The Exorcist III and a full eight years
before he wrote the novel it was based on.
The 1987 Italian war film Eroi dell'inferno was released in America by Asiavision under the title of Inglorious
Bastards 2: Hell's Heroes. Despite the original The Inglorious Bastards/Quel maledetto treno blindato being a war
film set in World War II, Inglorious Bastards 2: Hell's Heroes is set during the Vietnam War. Oddly enough, both
films feature actor Fred Williamson, but playing different roles.
Mockbuster
176
Pornographic movies
Frequently, successful films will spawn pornographic knock-offs with punned titles. Examples include: Gilligan's
Bi-Land (Gilligan's Island), Edward Penishands (Edward Scissorhands), Forrest Hump (Forrest Gump) Raiders of
the Lost Arse (Raiders of the Lost Ark), and Flesh Gordon (Flash Gordon).
Even some classics of the genre are mockbusters: the 1973 film The Devil in Miss Jones is a mockbuster of the 1941
film The Devil and Miss Jones, and the 1985 film Black Throat is a mockbuster of the 1972 film Deep Throat.
In other media
The term has also been used for mediums besides film, such as video games capitalizing on the success of a known
franchise like Grand Theft Auto or Call of Duty. A notable example of this are games developed by the French studio
Gameloft.
[10]
Most of the games in their portfolio bear similarities to popular video game series, with reviewers
commenting about the company bringing the experience from those games into mobile platforms.
Further reading
• Brian Raftery (December 21, 2009). "Now Playing: Cheap-and-Schlocky Blockbuster Ripoffs"
[11]
. Wired.
Retrieved June 25, 2011.
References
[1] "Low-budget knockoff movies benefit from Hollywood blockbusters" (http:// www. latimes. com/ business/
la-fi-ct-knock-offs-20120624,0,2854764.story?track=lat-pick). Los Angeles Times. June 24, 2012. . Retrieved 2012-06-25. "The animated
knockoff is what's known in the film industry as a 'drafting opportunity.' ... The Asylum, a production company in Burbank that built much of
its business with what staffers lovingly call 'mockbusters,' ..."
[2] Potts, Rolf (October 7, 2007). "The New B Movie" (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ magazine/ 07wwln-essay-t.html?_r=2&
ref=magazine& oref=slogin). The New York Times. . Retrieved February 6, 2009.
[3] http:// www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0843873/
[4] Lumenick, Lou (July 26, 2006). "B-list knockoffs of summer hits are fool's gold". The New York Post.
[5] Editorial Writer(s) (January 21, 2000). "Faux Film Festival" (http:/ / www. suck.com/ daily/ 2000/01/21/ ). Suck.com. . Retrieved May 10,
2009.
[6] Gagliano, Rico (March 17, 2008). "Bollywood's copycat film industry" (http:// marketplace.publicradio.org/ display/ web/ 2008/ 03/ 17/
bollywood_copycats/). Marketplace. . Retrieved May 18, 2009.
[7] Lovece, Frank (May 7, 1993). "Faux Lee Artists" (http:// www. ew. com/ ew/ article/0,,306450,00.html). Entertainment Weekly. . Retrieved
May 20, 2009.
[8] Baby, Sean. "Turkish Star Wars, E.T., Wizard of Oz" (http:/ / www. thewavemag.com/ pagegen. php?pagename=article&articleid=22122).
Wave Magazine. . Retrieved May 20, 2009.
[9] Glenn Kay (2008). Zombie Movies. Chicago Review Press. p. 95. ISBN 1-55652-770-5.
[10] "Gameloft: The Asylum of Games - Destructoid" (http:/ / www. destructoid. com/ blogs/ th+ best+ thing+ ever/
gameloft-the-asylum-of-games-217428.phtml). Destructoid. . Retrieved 20 December 2012.
[11] http:// www. wired.com/ magazine/ 2009/ 12/ ff_the_asylum/ all/ 1
External links
• The Mockbuster (http:// tvtropes.org/pmwiki/ pmwiki.php/ Main/ TheMockbuster) at TV Tropes
Ordinary Miracles
177
Ordinary Miracles
Ordinary Miracles
DVD cover of Ordinary Miracles
Genre Drama
Directed by Michael Switzer
Produced by Kyle A. Clark
James Wilberger
Written by Bud Schaetzle
Starring Jaclyn Smith
Lyndsy Fonseca
Music by James Dooley
Editing by Cari Coughlin
Country United States
Language English
Original channel Hallmark Channel
Release date •• May 7, 2005
Running time 99 minutes
Ordinary Miracles is a 2005 television film directed by Michael Switzer.
Plot
Kay Woodbury is a powerful and tough judge who has not spoken to her father since he tried to involve her in a
scam. At her latest case, she deals with Sally Powell, a troubled and rebellious teenager who has been in several
foster homes in her life. Feeling abandoned by her biological parents, she expresses her anger to anyone who tries to
grow close to her. She is given up by her latest foster parents and, because there are not any replacements available,
she is put in juvenile prison.
Sympathizing with her, Kay decides to take Sally into her home. Sally is initially reluctant to trust Kay and steals
some of Kay's jewelry. She pawns it off in the hopes of getting enough money to move to San Francisco with her
boyfriend, who is a typical bad boy. However, it only earns them $200. Kay and Sally soon grow to like each other,
and Kay is especially impressed with Sally's intelligence. Sally especially seems to enjoy chess. Sally tries to help
Kay impress her ex-husband Davis, who is about to marry a much younger woman.
Meanwhile, Kay is going through Sally's files and finds out her biological father, James, lives near her home. She
contacts him for landscaping work and they soon befriend each other. Kay does not tell him about Sally. Later, when
Kay tells him, he argues with her and refuses to talk to his daughter, claiming that she would not accept him. Sally,
meanwhile, has found her files and feels betrayed by Kay, as she always made clear that she has no interest in
meeting her biological parents.
She steals more of Kay's jewelry and runs away with her boyfriend. Her boyfriend, instead of simply selling the
jewelry, robs the pawn shop and involves Sally without a warning. Upset, she demands that he drop her off, and he
leaves without her. Sally returns home and is welcomed back by Kay. In the end, she decides to give her father a
second chance.
Ordinary Miracles
178
Cast
• Jaclyn Smith as Judge Kay Woodbury
• Lyndsy Fonseca as Sally Anne Powell
• C. Thomas Howell as James 'Jim' Powell
• Sarah Aldrich as Miranda Powell
• Corbin Bernsen as Davis Woodbury
•• Erik Eidem as Pete Smalling
References
External links
• Ordinary Miracles (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/tt0184799/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Patrick Swayze
179
Patrick Swayze
Patrick Swayze
Swayze greeting fans after Guys and Dolls, September 27, 2006
Born Patrick Wayne Swayze
August 18, 1952
Houston, Texas, U.S.
Died
September 14, 2009
(aged 57)
[1]
Los Angeles, California, U.S.
Cause of death Pancreatic cancer
Nationality American
Occupation Actor, dancer, singer-songwriter
Years active 1978–2009
Spouse(s) Lisa Niemi
(m. 1975–2009, his death)
Relatives Don Swayze (brother)
Patrick Wayne Swayze (pron.: /ˈsweɪziː/; August 18, 1952 – September 14, 2009)
[1]
was an American actor, dancer
and singer-songwriter. He was best known for his tough-guy roles, as romantic leading men in the hit films Dirty
Dancing and Ghost, and as Orry Main in the North and South television miniseries. He was named by People
magazine as its "Sexiest Man Alive" in 1991. His film and TV career spanned 30 years.
Diagnosed with Stage IV pancreatic cancer in January 2008, Swayze told Barbara Walters a year later that he was
"kicking it".
[2]
However, he died from the disease on September 14, 2009.
[3]
His last role was the lead in an ill-fated
A&E TV series, The Beast, which premiered on January 15, 2009. Due to a prolonged decline in health, Swayze was
unable to promote the series, and it was cancelled by June 2009.
[4]
Patrick Swayze
180
Early life
Patrick Swayze was born on August 18, 1952, in Houston, Texas, the second child of Patsy Yvonne Helen (née
Karnes; born 1927), a choreographer, dance instructor, and dancer, and Jesse Wayne Swayze (1925–1982), an
engineering draftsman.
[5][6][7]
He had two younger brothers, actor Don Swayze (born 1958) and Sean Kyle (born
1962), and two sisters, Vickie Lynn (1949–1994) and Bambi.
[5][8]
He was a sixth cousin, once removed, of news
commentator John Cameron Swayze, and a relative of noted Texas Revolution soldier Henry Karnes.
[9]
Swayze was
raised Roman Catholic.
[10]
Until the age of twenty, Swayze lived in the Oak Forest neighborhood of Houston, where he attended St. Rose of
Lima Catholic School,
[11]
Oak Forest Elementary School,
[12]
Black Middle School,
[12][13]
and Waltrip High
School.
[12]
During this time, he also pursued multiple artistic and athletic skills, such as ice skating, classical ballet,
and acting in school plays. He played football for his high school and was hoping to receive a football scholarship
for college until a knee injury ended his career. He studied gymnastics at nearby San Jacinto College for two years.
In 1972, he moved to New York City to complete his formal dance training at the Harkness Ballet and Joffrey ballet
schools.
Career
Swayze's first professional appearance was as a dancer for Disney on Parade. He then starred as a replacement
playing the role of Danny Zuko in the long-running Broadway production of Grease
[14]
before his debut film role as
"Ace" in Skatetown, U.S.A.. He appeared as Pvt. Sturgis in the M*A*S*H episode "Blood Brothers"
[15]
and had a
brief stint in 1982 on a short lived TV series The Renegades
[16]
playing a gang leader named Bandit. Swayze became
known to the film industry after appearing in The Outsiders as the older brother of C. Thomas Howell and Rob
Lowe. Swayze, Howell, and Howell's friend Darren Dalton reunited in Red Dawn the next year, and Lowe and
Swayze reunited in Youngblood. He was considered a member of the Brat Pack.
[17]
His first major success was in the
1985 television miniseries North and South, which was set during the American Civil War.
[18]
Swayze and Paula Abdul at the 1990 Grammy Awards
Swayze's breakthrough role came with his performance as
dance instructor Johnny Castle in the 1987 film Dirty
Dancing, alongside his Red Dawn co-star, Jennifer Grey.
Dirty Dancing, a coming of age story, was a low-budget
film that was intended to be shown in theaters for one
weekend only and then go straight to video, but it became
a surprise hit and achieved massive international success.
It was the first film to sell one million copies on video,
and as of 2009, it earned over $214 million worldwide
and spawned several alternative versions, ranging from a
television series to stage productions to a computer game.
Swayze received a Golden Globe Award nomination for
the role and also sang one of the songs on the soundtrack,
"She's Like the Wind", which he had originally co-written
with Stacy Widelitz for the film Grandview, U.S.A. The
song became a top ten hit and has been covered by other artists.
After Dirty Dancing, Swayze found himself typecast and appeared in several flops, of which Road House was the
most successful. His biggest hit came in 1990, when he starred in Ghost, with Demi Moore and Whoopi
Goldberg.
[19]
In 1991, he starred alongside Youngblood cast mate Keanu Reeves in another major action hit, Point
Break, and was also chosen by People magazine as that year's "Sexiest Man Alive".
Patrick Swayze
181
Swayze was seriously injured in 1998 while filming HBO's Letters from a Killer near Ione, California, when he fell
from a horse and hit a tree. Both of his legs were broken and he suffered four detached tendons in his shoulder.
Filming was suspended for two months, but the film aired in 1999. Swayze recovered from his injuries, but he had
trouble resuming his career until 2000, when he co-starred in Waking Up in Reno, with Billy Bob Thornton and
Charlize Theron, and in Forever Lulu, with Melanie Griffith.
In 2001, he appeared in the cult classic Donnie Darko, where he played a famous motivational speaker revealed to be
a closet pedophile, and in 2004, he played Allan Quartermain in King Solomon's Mines. He also had a cameo
appearance in the Dirty Dancing sequel, Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights as an unnamed dance instructor.
Swayze made his West End theatre début in the musical Guys and Dolls as Nathan Detroit on July 27,
2006,
[20][21][22]
alongside Neil Jerzak, and remained in the role until November 25, 2006. His previous appearances
on the Broadway stage had included productions of Goodtime Charley (1975)
[23]
and Chicago.
Swayze also provided the voice for Cash the country music band dog in The Fox and the Hound 2 and in 2007
starred in the film Christmas in Wonderland. Swayze played an aging rock star in Powder Blue, co-starring his
younger brother Don in their first film together. Swayze starred in the A&E FBI drama The Beast,
[24]
filmed in
Chicago, as FBI Agent Charles Barker.
[25]
Personal life
Swayze and his wife, Lisa Niemi, arrive at the 1989 Academy
Awards ceremony
Swayze was married to Lisa Niemi from June 12, 1975,
until his death. The couple first met in 1970 when
Swayze was 18 years old. Niemi, 15 years old at the
time, was taking dance lessons from Swayze's mother.
Swayze and Niemi had no children.
[26]
In a 2008
interview, Swayze stated that Niemi was the inspiration
for his 1987 hit song, "She's Like the Wind".
[27]
As a reaction to his father's death at age 57 from a heart
attack in 1982, Swayze began to drink heavily.
[28]
In
1989, Swayze said, "I've always felt there was
something different in there (my personality), but I was
scared to look for fear I wouldn't find anything. That's
the reason I got into Buddhism, took est training, was
into therapy, into Scientology, into Transcendental
Meditation. I was trying to support that side of myself.
But, you know, in Texas there isn't much support for
that part of you."
[29]
His sister Vicky committed suicide by drug overdose in 1994,
[28]
leading him to seek treatment
for alcoholism. After initial recovery, he temporarily withdrew from show business, retreating to his ranches in
California and Las Vegas, New Mexico, to breed Arabian horses. His best-known horse was Tammen, a chestnut
Arabian stallion.
[30]
Swayze, who was a certified pilot with an instrument rating, made the news on June 1, 2000, while flying with his
dogs in his twin-engine Cessna from Van Nuys, California to Las Vegas. His plane developed a pressurization
problem, causing Swayze to make a precautionary landing on a dirt road in a housing complex in Prescott Valley.
The plane's right wing struck a light pole, but Swayze was unharmed. He locked the cockpit, left the aircraft in the
subdivision, and obtained a ride—with his dogs—from a passing vehicle, allegedly in order to telephone the
authorities. According to the police report, witnesses said that Swayze appeared to be extremely intoxicated and
asked for help to remove evidence—an open bottle of wine and a 30-pack of beer—from the crash site.
[31]
He made
himself unavailable to police for several hours. It was later determined that the alcohol in question was not in the
Patrick Swayze
182
cabin, but stored in external storage compartments inaccessible in flight and that the probable cause of the accident
was Swayze's physical impairment due to the cumulative effects of carbon monoxide from engine exhaust
by-products, carbon monoxide from heavy tobacco use, and the loss of an undetermined amount of cabin
pressurization.
[32]
Illness and death
In late January 2008, Swayze was diagnosed with Stage IV pancreatic cancer (specifically, intraductal papillary
mucinous neoplasm). He traveled to the Stanford University Medical Center for chemotherapy and treatment with
the experimental drug Vatalanib, the latter of which doctors hoped would cut off the blood supply to the tumor.
[33]
On March 5, 2008, a Reuters article reported that Swayze "has a very limited amount of disease, and he appears to be
responding well to treatment thus far."
[34]
Swayze's doctor confirmed that the actor was diagnosed with pancreatic
cancer, but insisted he was not as close to death as reports suggest. Despite repeated tabloid claims that his death was
imminent, Swayze continued to actively pursue his career.
[35]
In early May 2008, it was widely reported in a number of tabloids that Swayze had undergone surgery to remove part
of his stomach after the spread of the cancer and that he had rewritten his will, transferring his property to his
wife.
[36][37]
In a statement made on May 28, Swayze said that he continued to respond well to treatment at Stanford
University Medical Center. In late May 2008, he was seen at a Los Angeles Lakers basketball game, his first public
appearance since his diagnosis.
[38]
In 2008 Swayze was treated with Cyberknife radiotherapy cancer treatment.
[39]
In late July 2008, six months after reportedly being given just weeks to live by medical experts, a
healthy-appearing
[40]
Swayze was asked by reporter in Los Angeles airport about his health. He replied, "I'm
cooking. I'm a miracle dude. I don't know why".
[41]
Swayze appeared on the ABC, NBC, and CBS simulcast of Stand Up to Cancer in September 2008, to appeal to the
general public for donations for the initiative. Swayze said to a standing ovation "I dream that the word 'cure' will no
longer be followed by the words 'it's impossible'. Together, we can make a world where cancer no longer means
living with fear, without hope, or worse".
[42]
After the show ended, Swayze remained on-stage and talked to other
cancer patients; executive producer Laura Ziskin said, "He said a beautiful thing: 'I'm just an individual living with
cancer'. That's how he wants to be thought of. He's in a fight, but he's a fighter".
[42][43]
In late 2008, Swayze denied
claims made by tabloids that the cancer had spread to his liver.
[44]
Swayze told Barbara Walters in January 2009 that
he wanted the media to report that he was "kicking it".
[2]
When Barbara Walters asked him if he was using any holistic or alternative methods of treatment besides the
chemotherapy, Swayze admitted to using some Chinese herbs, but not much. He then voiced his opposition to the
unsupported claims made by proponents of alternative therapies, as noted by ABC News journalist Joseph
Brownstein:
Because of the grim prognosis, many patients turn to alternative therapies without scientific evidence behind
them. Swayze did not.
"That's one thing I'm not gonna do, is chase, is chase staying alive. I'm not, you know, you'll spend so
much time chasing staying alive you won't live, you know? I wanna live. If anybody had that cure out
there like so many people swear to me they do, you'd be two things: you'd be very rich, and you'd be
very famous. Otherwise, shut up," he told Barbara Walters in an interview that aired in January
[2009].
[45]
His last role was the lead in an A&E TV series, The Beast, which premiered on January 15, 2009. Owing to a
prolonged decline in health, Swayze was unable to promote the series, and on June 15, 2009 the show was
cancelled.
[4]
In an interview with Barbara Walters which aired in January 2009, Swayze admitted that he had a "tiny
little mass" in his liver. On January 9, 2009, Swayze was hospitalized with pneumonia. The pneumonia was said to
be a complication of chemotherapy treatments for Swayze's cancer.
[46]
On January 16, he was released from the
Patrick Swayze
183
hospital to rest at home with his wife.
[47]
On April 19, 2009, doctors informed Swayze that the cancer had again
metastasized to his liver.
[48]
Swayze stated that his chain smoking probably "had something to do with" the
development of his disease. Photos taken of a gaunt Swayze in the months before his death showed him continuing
to smoke.
[49][50]
Swayze died with family at his side on September 14, 2009, at age 57, 20 months after being diagnosed.
[51][52]
Swayze's publicist, Annett Wolf, confirmed to CNN that he had died of pancreatic cancer.
[53]
He was cremated and
his ashes scattered over his New Mexico ranch. He is survived by his wife Lisa Niemi, along with his mother, both
brothers and one sister.
Trivia
Swayze's name has become a commonly used term in hip hop songs.
[54]
Lyrics will use the phrase "...and I'm
Swayze," meaning that the speaker has become "like a ghost", meaning he disappeared or is otherwise gone. This is
a reference to the title character of Swayze's 1990 film Ghost. It is known to have begun in the early 1990s, by
prominent rappers such as EPMD, Black Sheep, CL Smooth, and more recently by such rappers as The Notorious
B.I.G. in 2Pac's song Runnin' (Dying to Live), Method Man, Aesop Rock, and in Mistah F.A.B.'s Ghost Ride It. The
expression has become such a hip hop staple that it was even used in the Saturday Night Live hip hop parody, Lazy
Sunday.
Filmography
Year Title Role Notes
1979 Skatetown, U.S.A. Ace Johnson
1980 The Comeback Kid Chuck TV movie
1981 M*A*S*H Pvt. Gary Sturgis TV Series Season 9 Episode 18 - "Blood Brothers"
1983 Uncommon Valor Kevin Scott
The Outsiders Darrel "Darry" Curtis
1984 Red Dawn Jed Eckert
Grandview, U.S.A. Ernie "Slam" Webster
1985 North and South Orry Main TV miniseries
1986 Youngblood Derek Sutton
North and South, Book II Orry Main TV miniseries
1987 Dirty Dancing Johnny Castle Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion
Picture Musical or Comedy
Steel Dawn Nomad
1988 Tiger Warsaw Chuck "Tiger"
Warsaw
1989 Next of Kin Truman Gates Nominated - Razzie Award for Worst Actor
Road House James Dalton
1990 Ghost Sam Wheat Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion
Picture Musical or Comedy
Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Actor
Saturday Night Live Guest Host, Oct. 27,
1990
Memorable for sketch with Chris Farley auditioning to be
Chippendales dancers
1991 Point Break Bodhi Nominated – MTV Movie Award for Most Desirable Male
Patrick Swayze
184
1992 City of Joy Max Lowe
1993 Father Hood Jack Charles
1994 Heaven & Hell: North and South,
Book III
Orry Main TV miniseries
Uncredited; archive footage from previous episodes
1995 Tall Tale: The Unbelievable
Adventures of
Pecos Bill
Pecos Bill
Three Wishes Jack McCloud
To Wong Foo, Thanks for
Everything! Julie Newmar
Vida Boheme Nominated – Golden Globe Award for Best Actor – Motion
Picture Musical or Comedy
1998 Letters from a Killer Race Darnell
Black Dog Jack Crews
2000 Forever Lulu Ben Clifton
2001 Donnie Darko Jim Cunningham
Green Dragon Gunnery Sergeant Jim
Lance
2002 Waking Up in Reno Roy Kirkendall
2003 One Last Dance Travis MacPhearson Directed by his wife, Lisa
11:14 Frank
2004 Dirty Dancing: Havana Nights Dance class instructor Prequel to Dirty Dancing
George and the Dragon Garth
King Solomon's Mines Allan Quatermain
2005 Keeping Mum Lance
Icon Jason Monk
2006 The Fox and the Hound 2 Cash (voice) Animated film
2007 Jump! Richard Pressburger
Christmas in Wonderland Wayne Saunders
2009 Powder Blue Velvet Larry
The Beast Charles Barker TV series
References
[1] "Actor Patrick Swayze Dies at 57" (http:// www. cbsnews. com/ stories/ 2009/ 09/ 14/ entertainment/main5310962.
shtml?tag=cbsContent;cbsCarousel). CBS. September 14, 2009. . Retrieved September 14, 2009.
[2] "Patrick Swayze: The Truth — A Barbara Walters Special" (http:/ / abcnews. go.com/ Video/ playerIndex?id=6600287) (video). 20/20
(ABC). January 7, 2009. . Retrieved January 10, 2009.
[3] 'Dirty Dancing' star Patrick Swayze dies at 57 (http:// seattletimes. nwsource.com/ html/ entertainment/2009865739_apusobitswayze. html)
[4] "A&E's 'Beast' gets canceled" (http:/ / www. variety.com/ article/ VR1118004500?refCatId=14). Variety. June 3, 2009. . Retrieved January 5,
2012.
[5] Biography at Don Swayze's Official Site (http:// www. donswayze. net/ biography.html).
[6] "Patrick Swayze Biography" (http:// www. filmreference.com/ film/ 56/ Patrick-Swayze.html). Film Reference (http:// www. filmreference.
com). .
[7] "Ancestry of Patrick Swayze" (http:/ / www. genealogy. com/ famousfolks/ patricks/ index. html). Genealogy.com. .
[8] Bernstein, Adam (September 15, 2009). "Patrick Swayze, 57" (http:// www.washingtonpost. com/ wp-dyn/ content/ article/2009/ 09/ 14/
AR2009091403090_2.html). Washington Post. . Retrieved May 17, 2011.
Patrick Swayze
185
[9] Barnes, Michael (March 18, 2008). "Patrick Swayze’s Austin aunt speaks out" (http:/ / www. statesman. com/ blogs/ content/ shared-gen/
blogs/ austin/ outandabout/ entries/ 2008/ 03/ 18/ diana_latham_ps. html?cxntfid=blogs_out_about). . Retrieved September 15, 2009.
[10] "Hollywood rallies around Patrick Swayze as he vows to continue work during his cancer battle" (http:// www.dailymail. co. uk/
tvshowbiz/article-527009/Hollywood-rallies-Patrick-Swayze-vows-continue-work-cancer-battle.html). London: Daily Mail. March 7, 2008.
. Retrieved July 31, 2010.:("Swayze was raised Roman Catholic.")
[11] "Patrick Swayze" (http:/ / www. telegraph. co. uk/ news/ obituaries/ celebrity-obituaries/6192600/ Patrick-Swayze.html). The Daily
Telegraph. September 15, 2009. . Retrieved September 11, 2010.
[12] Distinguished Houston Independent School District Alumni (http:/ / www. houstonisd. org/ HISDConnectDS/ v/ index.
jsp?vgnextoid=c3783acb02efc010VgnVCM10000052147fa6RCRD). Retrieved on April 20, 2009.
[13] " F.M. Black Middle School, Houston, Texas - General Information. (http:/ / ms. houstonisd.org/ blackms/ general_information.htm)
Retrieved on April 20, 2009.
[14] Grease (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ productionreplacements. asp?ID=3641), Replacement Cast at Internet Broadway Database
[15] M*A*S*H (episode #9.18, April 6, 1981) (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0638258) at the Internet Movie Database.
[16] The Renegades (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0085078) (TV series) at Internet Movie Database.
[17] Tim Molloy (September 14, 2009). "Patrick Swayze Dies at 57" (http:/ / www. tvguide.com/ News/ Patrick-Swayze-Dies-1009711.aspx).
TVGuide.com. . Retrieved September 14, 2009.
[18] (in German) Patrick Swayze - Biografie (http:/ / www. gala.de/ starbase2/ index/ profile/name/ Patrick+Swayze/ biografie/Patrick+
Swayze) auf Gala.de
[19] Dirty Dancing, The E! True Hollywood Story, first aired September 3, 2000
[20] "Swayze Set To Make West End Début" (http:/ / news. bbc. co.uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/5040164.stm). BBC News. June 2, 2006. .
Retrieved June 18, 2009.
[21] "Patrick Swayze Postpones Run in West End Guys and Dolls" (http:/ / broadwayworld.com/ article/
Patrick_Swayze_Postpones_Run_in_West_End_Guys_and_Dolls_2006070). BroadwayWorld.com (http:// broadwayworld.com). July 7,
2006. . Retrieved April 22, 2009.
[22] Nathan, John (July 27, 2006). "Swayze Makes London Debut in Guys and Dolls July 27" (http:/ / www. playbill.com/ news/ article/
101104-Swayze_Makes_London_Debut_in_Guys_and_Dolls_July_27). Playbill. . Retrieved June 18, 2009.
[23] Goodtime Charley (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ production. php?id=3728) Opening Night Cast at Internet Broadway Database.
[24] Bryant, Adam (November 25, 2008). "Patrick Swayze Wraps Filming on New TV Show" (http:/ / www. tvguide.com/ News/
Patrick-Swayze-Beast-1000208.aspx). TV Guide. . Retrieved November 26, 2008.
[25] Lafayette, Jon (June 7, 2008). "A&E Puts Swayze's 'Beast' Into Production" (http:// www. tvweek. com/ news/ 2008/ 06/
ae_puts_swayzes_beast_into_pro. php). http:/ / www. tvweek. com. . Retrieved May 29, 2009.
[26] "Patrick Swayze Battling Pancreatic Cancer" (http:// www.baltimoresun.com/ topic/ zap-patrickswayzecancer,0,6874651.story).
Baltimore Sun. March 5, 2008. . Retrieved May 29, 2009.
[27] "Patrick Swayze - RIP" (http:/ / luckybogey. wordpress. com/ 2009/ 09/ 14/ patrick-swayze-rip/). LuckyBogey's Blog. March 11, 2011. .
Retrieved March 11, 2011.
[28] Middlehurst, Lester (November 29, 2005). "Drink, Suicide and Why I Turned Against Hollywood" (http:// www. dailymail.co.uk/
tvshowbiz/article-370048/Drink-suicide-I-turned-Hollywood.html). London: Daily Mail. . Retrieved May 24, 2009.
[29] "Patrick Swayze - Trying to make all the right moves - The former dancer is still fighting for some respect". St. Petersburg Times: p. 18.
May 19, 1989.
[30] Actor, dancer, equestrian Patrick Swayze dies at age 57. (http:/ / news. horsetrader.com/ 2009/ 10/ 01/
actor-dancer-equestrian-patrick-swayze-dies-at-age-57/ ) Online Horsetrader. 1 October 2009.
[31] "Prescott Valley Police Department Report" (http:// www. avweb. com/ other/swayze024b. html). Prescott Valley, Arizona: AVWeb,
Aviation Publishing Group. June 8, 2000. .
[32] "NTSB Identification: LAX00FA213" (http:/ / www. ntsb. gov/ ntsb/ brief.asp?ev_id=20001212X21252& key=1). .
[33] Mann, Denise (2009-09). "Patrick Swayze Dies of Pancreatic Cancer -Star Had Advanced Pancreatic Cancer, Served as Cancer Research
Advocate" (http:/ /www. webmd. com/ cancer/pancreatic-cancer/news/ 20090915/ patrick-swayze-dies-of-pancreatic-cancer). .
[34] Whitcomb, Dan (March 5, 2008). "Dirty Dancing Star Patrick Swayze Has Cancer" (http:// www. reuters.com/ article/ domesticNews/
idUSN0562427520080305). Reuters. .
[35] Huso, Deborah (September 2009). "Patrick Swayze Dies from Pancreatic Cancer" (http:// www.aolhealth.com/ health/
patrick-swayze-pancreatic-cancer). AOL Health. . Retrieved September 2009.
[36] Hall, Christi (May 9, 2008). "Patrick Swayze Continues His Brave Battle With Cancer" (http://www. nationalledger.com/ cgi-bin/ artman/
exec/ view. cgi?archive=25&num=20462). The National Ledger (http:// www. nationalledger.com). . Retrieved February 4, 2009.
[37] "Patrick Swayze Transfers Millions to Wife" (http:/ / entertainment.oneindia.in/ hollywood/ top-stories/ scoop/ 2008/
patrick-swayze-property-wife-070508.html). One India (http:// www. oneindia. in). May 7, 2008. . Retrieved May 20, 2009.
[38] "Patrick Swayze 'Responding Well'" (http://news. bbc.co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/7423397.stm). BBC News. May 28, 2008. . Retrieved
February 4, 2009.
[39] Thomas, Liz (July 21, 2008). "Patrick Swayze Has Cyberknife Radiotherapy" (http:/ / www. dailymail. co. uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1036899/
Patrick-Swayze-smiling-miracle-response-cancer-treatment. html). London: Daily Mail. . Retrieved May 29, 2009.
Patrick Swayze
186
[40] Anita Singh (July 21, 2008). "Patrick Swayze says he is a 'miracle' following treatment for pancreatic cancer" (http:// www. telegraph.co.
uk/ news/ newstopics/ celebritynews/ 2439558/ Patrick-Swayze-says-he-is-a-miracle-following-treatment-for-pancreatic-cancer.html). The
Daily Telegraph (London). . Retrieved January 3, 2010.
[41] "Patrick Swayze: ‘I’m A Miracle’" (http:// www. accesshollywood. com/ article/10437/ patrick-swayze-im-a-miracle). Access Hollywood.
July 22, 2008. . Retrieved June 4, 2009.
[42] "Dreaming of a Cure" (http:/ / www. people. com/ people/ archive/article/ 0,,20230576,00.html). People. September 22, 2008. . Retrieved
May 29, 2009. (Swayze on Stand Up to Cancer).
[43] "Swayze 'May Live Only Two Years'" (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 2/ hi/ entertainment/7815115.stm). BBC News. January 7, 2009. .
Retrieved February 4, 2009.
[44] Patrick Swayze Calls Tabloid Reports on Condition "Lies" (http:// www. tvguide.com/ News/ Patrick-Swayze-Calls-1000415.aspx)" TV
Guide. December 2, 2008. Retrieved on December 3, 2008.
[45] Joseph Brownstein, Did Swayze's Dancing Help in Cancer Battle? (http:/ / abcnews. go. com/ m/ screen?id=8583819& pid=26) ABC News
Medical Unit, Sept. 16, 2009
[46] Santos, Kristin Dos; Godwin, Jennifer (Jan. 9, 2009) "Patrick Swayze Hospitalized With Pneumonia" (http:/ / www. eonline.com/ uberblog/
watch_with_kristin/b78327_patrick_swayze_hospitalized_with. html). |E! Entertainment.
[47] "Actor Patrick Swayze Released From Hospital" (http:/ / www. reuters.com/article/ mediaNews/ idUSN1626463420090117). Thomson
Reuters. January 16, 2009. . Retrieved February 4, 2009.
[48] King, Tim (April 19, 2009). Patrick Swayze Gravely Ill But Very Much Alive (http:/ / www. salem-news. com/articles/april192009/
swayze_update_4-19-09.php) Salem (Oregon) News. April 19, 2009.
[49] MacIntyre, April (January 8, 2009). "Patrick Swayze's Smoking Regrets" (http:// www. monstersandcritics.com/ people/ news/
article_1452191. php/ Patrick_Swayzes_smoking_regrets). Monsters and Critics. . Retrieved May 29, 2009.
[50] "Gaunt Patrick Swayze Defiantly Chain-Smokes As He Battles Cancer" (http:// www. dailymail.co.uk/ tvshowbiz/ article-1145486/
Gaunt-Patrick-Swayze-defiantly-chain-smokes-battles-cancer. html). London: Daily Mail. February 14, 2009. . Retrieved May 29, 2009.
[51] Lemire, Christie. "'Dirty Dancing' star Patrick Swayze at 57". (http:// seattletimes. nwsource. com/ html/ entertainment/
2009865739_apusobitswayze. html) Seattle Times. September 14, 2009.
[52] "US film star Patrick Swayze dies." (http:// news. bbc. co. uk/ 1/ hi/ entertainment/8256033.stm) BBC. September 15, 2009.
[53] "Patrick Swayze dies of cancer at 57". (http:/ / www. cnn.com/ 2009/ SHOWBIZ/Movies/ 09/ 14/ patrick.swayze/ index.html) CNN.com.
September 14, 2009.
[54] "Patrick Swayze: Hip Hop Icon" (http:// www. hiphopisread.com/ 2009/ 09/ patrick-swayze-hip-hop-icon.html). Ivan. hiphopisread.com.
2009-09-14. . Retrieved 2011-03-07.
External links
• Patrick Swayze (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm664/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Patrick Swayze (http:/ / www. ibdb. com/ person. asp?ID=79810) at the Internet Broadway Database
• Remembering Patrick Swayze (http:// www. life.com/ image/ first/in-gallery/24451/
remembering-patrick-swayze) - slideshow by LIFE magazine
• Patrick Swayze (http:/ / www. findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg. cgi?page=gr&GRid=41963010) at Find a Grave
Payback (1995 film)
187
Payback (1995 film)
Payback
Directed by Anthony Hickox
Produced by Natan Zahavi
Sam Bernard
Written by Sam Bernard
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Music by Anthony Marinelli
Cinematography Allison Gordon-Kohler
Editing by Anita Brandt-Burgoyne
Distributed by Tapestry Films
Release date(s) January 10, 1995
Running time 93 Minutes
Country United States
Language English
Payback is a 1995 thriller film directed by Anthony Hickox and written by Sam Bernard. It stars C. Thomas Howell.
Plot
Oscar Bonsetter tells a dying prisoner that he will take revenge on the sadistic guard who killed him. In exchange,
Oscar is told of a stash of money. Oscar is eventually released from prison but when he is goes to get his revenge, he
gets sidetracked by the now-handicapped guard and his alluring wife, Rose. The tension builds as Oscar becomes
more and more attracted to Rose. It has a very famous love making scene of Joan Severance.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Oscar Bonsetter
• Joan Severance as Rose Gullerman
• Marshall Bell as Tom "Gully" Gullerman
• Richard Burgi as Al Keegan
• R. G. Armstrong as Mac
• David Anthony Higgins as Jim Koval
Payback (1995 film)
188
DVD release
Lions Gate Home Entertainment has yet to announce any plans to release the film onto DVD.
External links
• Payback
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0110803/
Rae Dawn Chong
189
Rae Dawn Chong
Rae Dawn Chong
Born February 28, 1961
Edmonton, Canada
Years active 1974—
Spouse(s) Owen Baylis (1982–?; divorced)
C. Thomas Howell (1989–1990; divorced)
Rae Dawn Chong (born February 28, 1961) is a Canadian actress.
Life and career
Chong was born in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, the daughter of Maxine Sneed and Tommy Chong. She and her
sister Robbi were raised by her grandmother, Tommy Chong's mother.
[1][2]
Chong's father is of Chinese,
Scottish-Irish, and French ancestry and her mother is of Afro-Canadian and Cherokee descent.
[3]
Her sister Robbi
Chong is a model and actress.
Chong is known for appearing in the films Quest for Fire (1981), The Color Purple (1985), Choose Me (1984), Beat
Street (1984), Commando (1985), Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers (1984), and Far Out Man (1990), in the
latter two appearing with her father. Chong won the Genie Award for Best Performance by an Actress in a Leading
Role in 1983 for Quest for Fire.
[4]
Chong saw her most active period in films during the late 1980s and throughout
the 1990s. However, she continues working in television and film.
Chong also played the love interest in Mick Jagger's video "Just Another Night".
Chong has been married twice and has one son named Morgan. Her second husband was actor C. Thomas Howell,
her co-star in the feature film Soul Man. They divorced in 1990. She was considered for the role of Anne Lindsey in
Highlander:The Series
Filmography
Films
• Stony Island (1978)
• Quest for Fire (1981)
• Choose Me (1984)
• Cheech & Chong's The Corsican Brothers (1984)
• Beat Street (1984)
• Fear City (1984)
• City Limits (1985)
• American Flyers (1985)
• Commando (1985)
• The Color Purple (1985)
• Soul Man (1986)
• Running Out of Luck (1987)
• The Squeeze (1987)
• The Principal (1987)
• Walking After Midnight (1988)
• Rude Awakening (1989)
Rae Dawn Chong
190
• Tales from the Darkside: The Movie (1990)
• Far Out Man (1990)
• Chaindance (1990)
• Denial (1990)
• The Borrower (1991)
• Prison Stories: Women on the Inside (1991)
• When the Party's Over (1992)
• Amazon (1992)
• Time Runner (1993)
• Boulevard (1994)
• Boca (1994)
• Power of Attorney (1995)
• Crying Freeman (1995)
• The Break (1995)
• Hideaway (1995)
• Starlight (1996)
• Mask of Death (1996)
• Highball (1997)
• Goodbye America (1997)
• Small Time (1998)
• Dangerous Attraction (1999)
• The Black And The White (1999)
• The Visit (2000)
• Constellation (2005)
• Max Havoc: Ring of Fire (2006)
• Force of Impact (2006)
• Cyrus (2010)
• Jeff, Who Lives at Home (2011)
• Pegasus Vs. Chimera (2012)
Television series
• Top of the Hill (1980)
• Badge of the Assassin (1985)
• Curiosity Kills (1990)
• Nitecap (1992)
• Melrose Place (1992–1993)
• Father & Son: Dangerous Relations (1993)
• Highlander: The Series (1996)
• Valentine's Day (1998)
• Mysterious Ways (2000–2002)
[5]
• Wild Card (2003)
• Deadly Skies (2005)
• That's So Raven (2007)
Rae Dawn Chong
191
References
[1] Chong, Tommy. Cheech and Chong, 2008.
[2] Rae Dawn Chong Biography (1961-) (http:// www. filmreference.com/ film/62/ Rae-Dawn-Chong. html)
[3] Pratt, Paul E. "Growing Up a Chong" (http:/ / www.asianweek.com/ 2005/ 11/ 18/ growing-up-a-chong/), AsianWeek, 18 November 2005.
[4] Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television official website (http:// www. academy. ca/ hist/ history.cfm?nname=rae+dawn+ chong&
winonly=1&awards=0& rtype=1&curstep=4), last accessed October 22, 2007
[5] Vision TV Drama (http:/ / www. visiontv. ca/ Programs/ drama_mysterious_ways.html)
External links
• Rae Dawn Chong (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ name/ nm1044/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Red Dawn
192
Red Dawn
Red Dawn
Original theatrical poster
Directed by John Milius
Produced by Sidney Beckerman
Buzz Feitshans
Screenplay by John Milius
Kevin Reynolds
Story by Kevin Reynolds
Starring Patrick Swayze
C. Thomas Howell
Lea Thompson
Ben Johnson
Harry Dean Stanton
Ron O'Neal
William Smith
Powers Boothe
Music by Basil Poledouris
Cinematography Ric Waite
Editing by Thom Noble
Studio(s) United Artists
Distributed by MGM/UA Entertainment Co.
Release date(s) •• August 10, 1984
Running time
114 minutes
[1]
Country United States
Language English
Russian
Spanish
Budget $4.2 million
Box office
$38,376,497
[1]
Red Dawn is a 1984 American war film directed by John Milius and co-written by Milius and Kevin Reynolds. It
stars Patrick Swayze, C. Thomas Howell, Lea Thompson, Charlie Sheen, and Jennifer Grey. It was the first film to
be released with the MPAA rating of PG-13.
[2]
The film is set in an alternate 1980s in which the United States is invaded by the Soviet Union and its Cuban and
Nicaraguan allies.
[3]
However, the onset of World War III is in the background and not fully elaborated. The story
follows a group of American high school students who resist the occupation with guerrilla warfare, calling
themselves Wolverines, after their high school mascot.
Red Dawn
193
Plot
An introductory text explains how the United States has gradually become strategically isolated after several
European nations, excluding the United Kingdom, withdraw their membership in NATO. At the same time, the
Soviet Union and its Warsaw Pact partners aggressively expands its sphere of influence. In addition, the Ukrainian
wheat harvest fails while a communist coup d'etat occurs in Mexico.
On a September morning, in the small town of Calumet, Colorado, a local high school teacher pauses mid sentence
when he sees Russian paratroopers landing in a nearby field. The paratroopers open fire when the teacher confronts
them. Pandemonium follows as students flee amid heavy gunfire. In downtown Calumet, Cuban and Soviet troops
are trying to impose order after a hasty occupation. Shortly thereafter, the Cuban Colonel Bella instructs the KGB to
go to a local sporting goods store and obtain the records of the store's gun sales on the ATF's Form 4473, which
includes the names of citizens who have purchased firearms.
Brothers Jed and Matt Eckert, along with their friends Robert, Danny, Daryl, and Aardvark, flee into the wilderness
after hastily equipping themselves at the sporting goods store, which is owned by Robert's father. While on the way
to the mountains, the teens run into a Russian roadblock, but are saved by an attacking U.S. Army helicopter
gunship. After several weeks in the forest, they sneak back into town; Jed and Matt learn that their father has been
captured and is being held in a re-education camp. They visit the site and speak to him through the fence; Mr. Eckert
orders his sons to abandon him, and to "avenge" his inevitable death.
The kids then visit the Masons, neighbors of the Eckerts, and learn that they are behind enemy lines in "Occupied
America". Robert's father is revealed to have been executed because of the missing inventory from his store. The
Masons charge Jed and Matt with taking care of their two granddaughters, Toni and Erica. After killing Soviet
soldiers in the woods, the youths begin an armed resistance against the occupation forces, calling themselves the
"Wolverines." The occupation forces initially try reprisal tactics, executing groups of civilians following every
Wolverine attack, in hopes of intimidating the local population and compelling the Wolverines to surrender or desist.
During one of these mass executions, the fathers of Jed, Matt, and Aardvark are killed.
[4]
Daryl's father, Mayor
Bates, acts as collaborator and tries to appease the occupation authorities.
The Wolverines find a downed F-15 and its pilot, Lt. Col. Andrew Tanner, who informs them about the current state
of the war: several American cities, including Washington, D.C., have been obliterated by nuclear strikes; America's
Strategic Air Command has been crippled in a surprise attack by Cuban saboteurs who had posed as illegal
immigrants from Mexico; and the paratroopers the youths encountered were dropped from fake commercial airliners
to seize key positions in preparation for subsequent massive assaults via Mexico and Alaska. The middle third of the
US has been taken over, but American counterattacks have halted Soviet progress and the lines have stabilized.
Concerned about nuclear fallout, both sides refrain from the further use of nuclear weapons.
Tanner assists the Wolverines in organizing raids against the Soviets. Soon after, in a visit to the front line, Tanner
and Aardvark are killed in the crossfire of a tank battle. As a result of the escalating attacks, Soviet commanders now
view the Wolverines as a serious threat. Using threats of torture, KGB officers force Daryl to swallow a tracking
device, then release him to rejoin the guerrillas. Spetsnaz are sent into the mountains following signals from Daryl,
but are ambushed and killed by the Wolverines. The group discovers that their pursuers are carrying portable radio
triangulation equipment and trace the source of the signal to their friend. Daryl confesses and pleads for mercy, but is
coldly executed by Robert after Jed executes a Soviet soldier captured during the battle.
The Wolverines' morale erodes as the war of attrition takes its toll. The remaining members are ambushed by three
helicopter gunships after being baited by a truck dropping supplies on the road. Robert and Toni are killed in the
attack, leaving the group reduced to four. Determined to save at least some of their number, Jed and Matt attack the
Soviet headquarters in Calumet to distract the troops while Danny and Erica escape to liberated territory. The plan
works as Danny and Erica escape, while Jed and Matt are wounded. Though Colonel Bella encounters the brothers,
he cannot bring himself to kill them and lets them go. Still, it is implied that the brothers die in the park where the
two spent time as kids.
Red Dawn
194
The film's epilogue is narrated by Erica and suggests that the United States repelled the Soviet invasion some time
later. A plaque is displayed with "Partisan Rock" in the background, which has been a recurring motif throughout the
film as each dead comrade's name has been inscribed upon it. The plaque reads:
...In the early days of World War III, guerrillas – mostly children – placed the names of their lost upon this
rock. They fought here alone and gave up their lives, so that this nation shall not perish from the earth.
Cast
• Patrick Swayze as Jed Eckert
• C. Thomas Howell as Robert Morris
• Lea Thompson as Erica Mason
• Charlie Sheen as Matt Eckert
• Darren Dalton as Daryl Bates
• Jennifer Grey as Toni Mason
• Brad Savage as Danny Bates
• Doug Toby as Arturo "Aardvark" Mondragón
• Powers Boothe as Lt. Col. Andrew "Andy" Tanner, USAF
• Harry Dean Stanton as Tom Eckert
• Ron O'Neal as Col. Ernesto Bella
• William Smith as Col. Strelnikov
• Vladek Sheybal as Gen. Bratchenko
• Ben Johnson as Mr. Jack Mason
• Roy Jenson as Mr. Samuel Morris
• Pepe Serna as Mr. Mondragón
• Lane Smith as Mayor Bates
• Radames Pera as Sgt. Stepan Gorsky
Development
The script for Red Dawn was written by John Milius and Kevin Reynolds from a story by Reynolds. The original
story, called Ten Soldiers, was more akin to Lord of the Flies, the classic novel about the aggressive nature of man,
than to the action film it eventually became. Some of the changes included a shift in focus from conflict within the
group to conflict between the teens and their oppressors, and the acceleration of the ages of some of the characters
from early teens to high school age and beyond.
The movie was filmed in and around the town of Las Vegas, New Mexico. Many of the buildings and structures
which appeared in the film, including a historic Fred Harvey Company hotel adjacent to the train depot, the train
yard, and a building near downtown, which was repainted with the name of "Calumet, Colorado", are still there
today. An old Safeway grocery store was converted to a sound stage and used for several scenes in the movie.
[5]
Before starting work on the movie, the cast underwent a realistic, intensive eight-week military training course.
During that time, production crews designed and built special combat vehicles in Newhall, California. Soldier of
Fortune reported that the movie's T-72 tank was such a precise replica that "while it was being carted around Los
Angeles, two CIA officers followed it to the studio and wanted to know where it had come from".
Red Dawn
195
Reception
Red Dawn was the 20th highest grossing film of 1984, opening on 10 August 1984 in 1,822 theatres and taking in
$8,230,381 on its first weekend. Its box office gross is $38,376,497.
[1]
It was the first film to be released in the US
with a Motion Picture Association of America PG-13 rating.
[4]
Red Dawn received mixed reviews, receiving a score of 53% on Rotten Tomatoes.
[6]
At the time it was released, Red Dawn was considered the most violent film by the Guinness Book of Records and
The National Coalition on Television Violence, with a rate of 134 acts of violence per hour, or 2.23 per minute.
[7]
The DVD Special Edition (2007) includes an on-screen "Carnage Counter" in a nod to this.
[8]
National Review Online has named the film #15 in its list of "The Best Conservative Movies."
[9]
Adam Arseneau at the website DVD Verdict opined that the film "often feels like a Republican wet dream
manifested into a surrealistic Orwellian nightmare".
[8]
According to Jesse Walker of Reason:
The film outraged liberal critics, but further to the left it had some supporters. In a witty and perceptive piece
for The Nation, Andrew Kopkind called it "the most convincing story about popular resistance to imperial
oppression since the inimitable Battle of Algiers," adding that he'd "take the Wolverines from Colorado over a
small circle of friends from Harvard Square in any revolutionary situation I can imagine."
[10]
Libertarian theorist Murray Rothbard argued that the film was "not so much pro-war as it is anti-State."
[11]
Rothbard
gave the film a generally positive review, while expressing some reservations with the story:
One big problem with the picture is that there is no sense that successful guerrilla war feeds on itself; in real
life the ranks of the guerrillas would start to swell, and this would defeat the search-and-destroy concept. In
Red Dawn, on the other hand, there are only the same half-dozen teenagers, and the inevitable attrition makes
the struggle seem hopeless when it need not be.
Another problem is that there is no character development through action, so that, except for the leader, all the
high school kids seem indistinguishable. As a result, there is no impulse to mourn as each one falls by the
wayside.
[11]
References in the film
• The NRA slogan, "I'll give you my gun when you take it from my cold, dead fingers", is seen on a truck's bumper
sticker as the paratroopers take over Calumet before a dead man's M1911 pistol is taken from him.
[12]
• The movie being shown to American prisoners at the Soviet camp near Calumet is Alexander Nevsky (1938),
Sergei Eisenstein's Soviet anti-Nazi film. It is also playing in the town cinema across from the drugstore.
[13]
• One of the radio announcements is "John has a long mustache", which is the same message the French resistance
gets before D-Day in The Longest Day (1962) .
• Much of the story is set in the Arapaho National Forest, and a group of Soviet soldiers refer specifically to the
Colorado War, which was fought there between the Arapaho and Cheyenne Indian insurgencies and the
occupying U.S. government.
[14]
Red Dawn
196
In popular culture
Film and television
• In the Family Guy episode "Hell Comes to Quahog", Peter stars in Red Dawn: The Musical.
[15]
• Numerous references occur in the movie Hot Tub Time Machine.
[16]
• In the television show Scrubs, Elliot and Turk watch and discuss Red Dawn in the episode "My Heavy
Meddle".
[17]
• "Grey Dawn" is a South Park episode which parodies Red Dawn.
[18]
Video games
• The plot of Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 includes an invasion of the United States by an ultra-nationalist
Russia, where members of the United States Army's 75th Ranger Regiment have to repel the attack. The
achievement "Red Dawn" is awarded for completing the American "Wolverines!" and "Exodus" missions in
Veteran difficulty. "Wolverines!" itself is a reference to the movie.
[19]
• Freedom Fighters is a 2003 video game that takes place during a Soviet invasion of New York. This game is
based heavily on Red Dawn in terms of characters, costumes and design, and the last mission closely resembles
one of the final scenes when the Wolverines attack the Soviet base.
[20]
• Homefront, a video game also written by John Milius, is about a North Korean invasion of America.
[21]
One
notable "easter egg" relating to the film is a large billboard at a school sport stadium which reads "Go
Wolverines!!!".
• Operation Flashpoint: Cold War Crisis is a 2001 tactical shooter that takes place in a fictional conflict between
the United States Army and unknown invaders presumed to be Russian Soviets on several fictitious islands. The
final, climactic chapter in the game is called "Red Dawn."
[22]
Operation Red Dawn
The operation to capture former Iraqi dictator Saddam Hussein was named Operation Red Dawn and its targets were
dubbed Wolverine 1 and Wolverine 2. Army Captain Geoffrey McMurray, who named the mission, said the naming
"was so fitting because it was a patriotic, pro-American movie." Milius approved of the naming: "I was deeply
flattered and honored. It's nice to have a lasting legacy."
[23]
Remake
The remake takes place in the modern day, with North Korea invading the United States.
References
[1] "Red Dawn (1984)" (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=reddawn.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved December 5, 2012.
[2] "This Day In History – August 10th" (http:/ / www. history. com/ this-day-in-history/red-dawn-first-pg-13-movie-is-released). History
Channel. .
[3] Richard E. Sincere, Jr. (October 1984). "Schoolkids Battle Red Army in Red Dawn". Journal of Civil Defense (The American Civil Defense
Association): 17.
[4] Fernandez, Jay A.; Borys Kit (2008-07-09). "'Red Dawn' redo lands director, scribe; MGM will remake the 1984 action drama" (http:/ / www.
hollywoodreporter.com/ hr/content_display/ film/news/ e3i28e0d4f7991010721fa8d721c07ce0eb?imw=Y). The Hollywood Reporter. .
[5] "Red Dawn Movie Filming Locations – The 80s Movies Rewind" (http:// www. fast-rewind.com/ locations_reddawn.htm).
Fast-rewind.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-27.
[6] "Red Dawn" (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1017321-red_dawn/). Rotten Tomatoes. . Retrieved December 5, 2012.
[7] "Red Dawn Condemned As Rife With Violence" (http:/ / query.nytimes. com/ gst/ fullpage.
html?res=9504E1DA1038F937A3575AC0A962948260). The New York Times. 1984-09-04. .
[8] Arseneau, Adam (6 August 2007). "Red Dawn: Collector's Edition" (http:/ / www. dvdverdict.com/ reviews/ reddawnce.php). DVD Verdict.
. Retrieved 13 September 2010.
Red Dawn
197
[9] Miller, John (February 23, 2009). "The Best Conservative Movies" (http:/ / nrd.nationalreview.com/ article/
?q=YWQ4MDlhMWRkZDQ5YmViMDM1Yzc0MTE3ZTllY2E3MGM=). National Review Online. . Retrieved August 19, 2009.
[10] Walker, Jesse (January 28, 2008). "The Ghost of Rambo" (http:// reason.com/ archives/ 2008/ 01/ 28/ the-ghost-of-rambo/singlepage).
Reason. .
[11] Rothbard, Murray. Red Dawn (http:// www. lewrockwell.com/ rothbard/rothbard64.html), Libertarian Forum (July–August 1984)
[12] Name (2009-03-09). "Interview with John Milius « The Implied Observer" (http:/ / impliedobserver. wordpress.com/ 2009/ 03/ 09/
interview-with-john-milius/ ). Impliedobserver.wordpress.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-27.
[13] Maslin, Janet (1984-08-10). "Red Dawn (1984) FILM: 'RED DAWN,' ON WORLD WAR III" (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ movie/
review?res=9404E5DD1438F933A2575BC0A962948260). nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2012-07-16.
[14] Stephen Prince (1992). Visions of Empire: Political Imagery in Contemporary American Film. Praeger. p. 57. ISBN 0-275-93662-7.
[15] Dan Iverson (2006-09-25). "Family Guy: "Hell Comes to Quahog" Review – TV Review at IGN" (http:// tv.ign.com/ articles/ 735/
735065p1. html). Tv.ign.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-04.
[16] Critic, Movie (2010-03-25). "'Hot Tub Time Machine': At last, a fun, idiotic movie that lives up to its name" (http:// articles. chicagotribune.
com/ 2010-03-25/entertainment/ sc-mov-0324-hot-tub-time-machine-20100325_1_hot-tub-time-machine-hot-dog-movie). Chicago Tribune. .
[17] "DIALOGUE DRAFT – "My Heavy Meddle"" (http:/ / scrubs. mopnt.com/ scripts/ 116.php). Scrubs.mopnt.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-27.
[18] "Grey Dawn (Season 7, Episode 10) – Episode Guide" (http:/ / www. southparkstudios. com/ guide/ 710/ ). South Park Studios. 2003-11-05.
. Retrieved 2010-10-04.
[19] Mark Bozon (2009-10-02). "Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 2 Achievements Unveiled – Xbox 360 News at IGN" (http:/ / xbox360.ign.
com/ articles/ 103/ 1030987p1. html). Xbox360.ign.com. . Retrieved 2010-10-04.
[20] Aaron Boulding (2003-09-22). "Freedom Fighters – PlayStation 2 Review at IGN" (http:// ps2. ign.com/ articles/ 451/ 451106p1.html).
Ps2.ign.com. . Retrieved 2011-08-27.
[21] "News: Video game set to take place in Montrose (Montrose, CO)" (http:/ / montrosepress. com/ articles/ 2010/ 01/ 05/ news/
doc4b429cb30ce1d546616580.txt). Montrosepress.com. 2010-01-14. . Retrieved 2010-10-04.
[22] "Walkthrough:Cold War Crisis" (http:// community. bistudio.com/ wiki/ Walkthrough:Cold_War_Crisis#Red_Dawn). Bohemia Interactive.
2007-08-03. . Retrieved 2011-12-13.
[23] "Red Dawn Imitated Art" (http:/ / www. usatoday. com/ life/ movies/ 2003-12-17-red-dawn_x.htm). USA Today. 2003-12-17. .
External links
• Red Dawn (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0087985/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Red Dawn (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v40667) at AllRovi
• Red Dawn (http:/ / tcmdb. com/ title/ title.jsp?stid=13173) at the TCM Movie Database
Secret Admirer
198
Secret Admirer
Secret Admirer
Theatrical release poster
Directed by David Greenwalt
Produced by Jim Kouf
Written by David Greenwalt
Jim Kouf
Starring C. Thomas
Howell
Kelly Preston
Lori Loughlin
Corey Haim
and Fred Ward
Music by Jan Hammer
Cinematography Victor J. Kemper
Editing by Dennis Virkler
Distributed by Orion Pictures
Release date(s) June 14, 1985
Running time 90 min.
Country  United States
Language English
Budget $2 million
Box office $8,622,757
Secret Admirer is a 1985 romantic comedy film directed by David Greenwalt starring C. Thomas Howell, Lori
Loughlin, Kelly Preston and Fred Ward. The screenplay was written by Greenwalt and Jim Kouf. The original music
score was composed by Jan Hammer.
The film was produced at the height of the teen sex comedy cinema craze in the mid-1980s, and was the directorial
debut of David Greenwalt. The film has received a MPAA rating of R.
Plot
Michael Ryan (Howell) is a high school student who receives an anonymous love letter. Michael is obsessed with
Deborah Ann Fimple (Preston), the class beauty, and his best friend, Roger (Siemaszko), convinces him that the
letter is from her. However, he is totally oblivious that his friend Toni Williams (Loughlin) is in love with him.
Michael writes Deborah Ann an anonymous love letter in return, and asks Toni to give it to her. Toni realizes the
letter is poorly written and unromantic (since Michael had copied words from greeting cards), so she rewrites it.
Elizabeth Fimple (Taylor-Young), Deborah Ann's mother, discovers the letter. Her jealous police officer husband,
Lou Fimple (Ward), sees her reading it. He steals the letter, and believes that his wife is having an affair. He suspects
his neighbor (and bridge partner) George Ryan (DeYoung). George also mistakenly reads the letter because Lou's
wife is his night school teacher and it somehow ends up in his book. When George asks her about it he assumes she
wants to have an affair with him despite the fact his wife and she are friends. Meanwhile Lou shows the letter to
George's wife, Connie (Wallace-Stone), and proposes that they expose the adulterers. Receiving no response from
Deborah Ann, Michael writes a second letter, which Toni again rewrites.
Secret Admirer
199
Michael experiences a series of wacky adventures with his friends throughout the summer. After Toni arranges a
meeting between the two; He tells Deborah Ann that he wrote the love letters, and she finally agrees to a real date
during which they are almost caught by Debbie's jock college "quasi boyfriend" Steve but Toni intervenes by
pretending to seduce him and later ditches him. After a short while Michael realizes Deb is snobby and shallow, not
like he expected her to be; they break up after his birthday party when he realizes he can't sleep with her as she
intends for his birthday present. Eventually, Lou and Connie cannot control themselves at a bridge party: Lou
assaults George, and Connie breaks down in front of her friends. When Lou confronts his wife about the letter,
Deborah Ann overhears him reading the words and tearfully accosts her father for reading her private mail. Debbie
runs to her rooms and cries, while both sets of parents make up after the misunderstanding with the letters. Michael
also blasts his parents for reading his letter and invading his privacy.
Just as the fall semester is about to start, Michael (by comparing Debbie's letter's to Toni's handwriting) realizes that
Toni wrote the original love letter. He races to her home but is told that she has left for a study abroad program
aboard a ship that will keep her away for a full year. Michael rushes to the dockyard after a brief scuffle with Steve,
screaming his love for Toni. After shouting her love for him as the ship continues to sail away he dives into the
water, but cannot reach the ship. Toni dives into the water, too. The lovers embrace in the water and kiss.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Michael Ryan
• Kelly Preston as Deborah Ann Fimple
• Lori Loughlin as Toni Williams
• Fred Ward as Lt. Lou Fimple
• Dee Wallace as Connie Ryan
• Cliff DeYoung as George Ryan
• Leigh Taylor-Young as Elizabeth Fimple
• Casey Siemaszko as Roger Despard
• Scott McGinnis as Steve Powers
• Corey Haim as Jeff Ryan
• Janet Carroll as Toni's Mother
External links
• Secret Admirer
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Secret Admirer
[2]
at AllRovi
• Secret Admirer
[3]
at Box Office Mojo
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0089981/
[2] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v43431
[3] http:/ / www.boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=secretadmirer.htm
Side Out
200
Side Out
Side Out
Directed by Peter Israelson
Produced by Gary Foster
Russ Krasnoff
Jay Weston
John Zane
Written by David Thoreau
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Peter Horton
Courtney Thorne-Smith
Music by Jeff Lorber
Cinematography Ron Garcia
Editing by Conrad Buff IV
Distributed by TriStar Pictures
Release date(s) March 30, 1990
Country United States
Language English
Side Out is a 1990 film about a beach volleyball competition, featuring C. Thomas Howell, Peter Horton, Harley
Jane Kozak and Courtney Thorne-Smith.
The term “side-out” refers to an obsolete rule in volleyball under which the winning point could only be scored by
the serving team. A side-out is now defined as when the receiving team earns the right to serve whether they get a
point when they do so or not. Side-out can also refer to a type of scoring in a game of volleyball where only the
serving team can score points.
Plot
Monroe Clark moves to southern California to begin a law career. He encounters a former professional volleyball
player, Zack Barnes.
It isn't long before Monroe gets distracted by the beach, the women there and the game played on the sand, as he and
Zack team up to become the new stars of the beach volleyball circuit and contenders to upset the favorites at a major
tournament.
Side Out
201
External links
• Side Out
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• Side Out
[2]
at AllRovi
• Side Out
[3]
at Rotten Tomatoes
• Volleyball Sideout Video
[4]
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0100613/
[2] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v44586
[3] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ side_out/
[4] http:// www.volleyball1on1. com/ volleyball-side-out/
Sofia Shinas
202
Sofia Shinas
Sofia Shinas
Genres Pop
Dance
Occupations Singer-songwriter, Actress
Years active 1991–present
Labels Warner (1992)
Sofia Shinas is a Canadian television and film actress and recording artist. She is best known for her hit single, "The
Message", and her role as Brandon Lee's murdered fiancée, Shelly, in The Crow.
Career
Music
In 1992, Shinas released her debut, eponymously titled album on Warner Bros. Records. She co-wrote every song
and worked with various noted producers and remixers, including Steve Peck, Daniel Abraham, Mitch Kaplan, Mark
'MK' Kinchen, Roger Sanchez, Tommy Musto, Ben Grosse and Boris Granich.
[1]
Her first single, "The Message", reached #20 on Billboard's Dance/Club Play chart and was a crossover pop hit,
peaking at #75 on the Hot 100 chart. The second single, "One Last Kiss", didn't fare well enough to chart at all,
except in her native Canada, where it became a minor hit. Her third and last single, "State of Mind", peaked at #16
on the Dance/Club Play chart.
[2]
Shinas left the music business to pursue an acting career and has yet to release
another album.
Acting
Shinas made her film debut in the 1994 action thriller The Crow, starring Brandon Lee. The film was a box office
success and, since its release, has become a cult favorite.
[3]
After The Crow, Shinas landed a role opposite Charlie
Sheen and Nastassja Kinski in Terminal Velocity. In 1995, she starred alongside C. Thomas Howell in the
independent action/drama, Hourglass. Two years later, Shinas would again co-star with Howell in the 1997 action
film, Dilemma. In addition to her film work, she has also appeared in two episodes of The Outer Limits (in the
"Valerie 23" and "Mary 25" episodes) and an episode of The Hunger.
Recent activity
Shinas attended USC School of Cinema-Television in Los Angeles, California and graduated in 2008. While
attending, she directed a thesis film starring Jude Narita and Sebastian Segiel called Spring Eternal.
[4]
Filmography
Sofia Shinas
203
Film
Year Film Role Notes
1994 The Crow Shelly Webster
Terminal Velocity Broken Legs Max
1995 Hourglass Dara Jensen
1996 Ripper Man Gena
Dilemma Lydia Cantrell
1997 Hostile Intent Gina Alternative title: Lethal Games
2000 Red Shoe Diaries 12: Girl on a Bike Woman on Train Segment: "Borders of Salt"
2004 Planet of the Pitts Fay Kennedy NBC News Anchor
2009 DaZe: Vol. Too (sic) - NonSeNse Rosabel
Television
Year Title Role Notes
1994 Red Shoe Diaries Woman on Train 1 episode
1998 The Hunger Claire 1 episode
1995–1998 The Outer Limits Mary 25/Valerie 23 2 episodes
Discography
Albums
• 1992: Sofia Shinas
Singles
•• 1992: "The Message"
•• 1992: "One Last Kiss"
•• 1992: "State of Mind (You Make Me Feel Good)"
References
Citations
[1] "Sofia Shinas: Album credits" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r57014). allmusic.com. . Retrieved 2008-09-25.
[2] "Sofia Shinas Chart History" (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ album/ r57014). allmusic.com. . Retrieved 23 February 2010.
[3] McDonnell, Jen (2008-07-17). "The Show Must Go On" (http:/ / www. canada.com/ montrealgazette/ news/ arts/ story.
html?id=294acff0-167c-4608-a58f-e70857069f83). The Montreal Gazette. . Retrieved 2008-09-25.
[4] Ishizuka, LiAnn (2008-05-016). "Los Angeles Asian Pacific Film Festival 2008: Seasons of Love short films" (http:// www. asiaarts. ucla.
edu/ 080516/ article.asp?parentID=92308). Asia Pacific Arts. . Retrieved 2008-09-25.
Sofia Shinas
204
External links
• Sofia Shinas (http:// www. imdb. com/ name/ nm0793836/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Sofia Shinas (http:/ / www. discogs. com/ artist/ Sofia+Shinas) discography at Discogs
• Sofia Shinas (http:/ / www. allmusic. com/ artist/ p23401) at Allmusic
Soul Man (film)
205
Soul Man (film)
Soul Man
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Steve Miner
Produced by Donna Smith
Steve Tisch
Written by Carol Black
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Rae Dawn Chong
Arye Gross
James Earl Jones
Leslie Nielsen
Cinematography Jeff Jur
Editing by Dave Finfe
Studio(s) Balcor Film Investors
The Steve Tisch Company
Distributed by New World Pictures
Release date(s) October 24, 1986
Running time 104 Minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $27,800,000
Soul Man is a 1986 comedy film about a man who undergoes racial transformation with pills to qualify for a
black-only scholarship at Harvard Law School. It stars C. Thomas Howell, Rae Dawn Chong, Arye Gross, James
Earl Jones, Leslie Nielsen, James B. Sikking and Julia Louis-Dreyfus.
The title refers to the Sam and Dave song "Soul Man".
Plot
The movie's protagonist is Mark Watson (Howell), the pampered son from a rich family who is about to attend
Harvard Law School along with his best friend Gordon (Gross). However, all of a sudden his father's neurotic
psychiatrist talks his patient into having more fun for himself instead of spending money on his son. Faced with the
horrifying prospect of having to pay for law school by himself, Mark decides to take up a scholarship, but the only
suitable one is for African Americans only. So he decides to cheat by using tanning pills in a larger dose than
prescribed to appear as an African American. Watson then sets out for Harvard, naïvely believing that blacks have no
problems at all in American society.
However, once immersed in a black student's life, Mark finds that people are less lenient than he imagined and more
prone to see him as a black person instead of a fellow student. He meets a young African-American student named
Sarah Walker (Chong), whom he first only flirts with; gradually, however, he genuinely falls in love with her. As it
turns out, she was the original candidate for the scholarship which he had usurped, and now she has to work hard as
a waitress to support herself and her son George while studying. Slowly, Mark begins to regret his deed, and after a
chaotic day—in which Sarah, his parents (who are not aware of his double life) and his classmate Whitney (Melora
Hardin), who is also his landlord's daughter, drop in for surprise visits at the same time—he drops the charade and
Soul Man (film)
206
openly reveals himself to be white.
The film ends with Mark declaring to his professor (Jones) that he wishes to pay back the scholarship and do charity
work to make amends for his fraud, and Sarah decides to give him another chance.
Reception and controversy
The film was widely criticised for blackface.
[1]
When the film was released, some protests took place within the
black community because Howell is in blackface make up throughout most of it.
[2]
In 2008, New York Press's
contrarian critic Armond White would cite the movie as predicting the rise of Barack Obama, who entered the
real-life Harvard Law School in 1988, and White declared that Soul Man was "easily the best movie ever set at
Harvard."
[3]
Box office
Despite the controversy the movie was a box office success.
[4]
Influence
Defunct mathcore band Botch has a track named "C. Thomas Howell as the 'Soul Man'" on their release, We Are the
Romans.
DVD Releases
Soul Man was released for the first time on DVD in March 19, 2002 by Anchor Bay Entertainment.Special Features
included a theatrical and teaser trailer along with an audio commentary by director Steve Miner and C.Thomas
Howell.
[5]
It was released again by Anchor Bay Entertainment as a double feature along with Fraternity Vacation on November
20, 2007.
On October 20, 2011 it was released again as a double feature by Image Entertainment along with 18 Again!.
References
[1] "Soul Man' Just Goes To Show Discrimination Isn't Funny" (http:/ / articles. orlandosentinel.com/ 1986-10-25/lifestyle/
0260350201_1_black-girlfriend-soul-man-tootsie). Orlando Sentinel. . Retrieved 2010-11-12.
[2] "NAACP, Black Students Protest Film `Soul Man" (http:/ / articles. latimes. com/ 1986-10-29/entertainment/ ca-7953_1_black-student). The
Los Angeles Times. October 1986. . Retrieved 2010-11-09.
[3] "Our Soul Man" (http:/ / www. nypress. com/ article-18899-our-soul-man.html). New York Press. October 2008. .
[4] "Reagans on 'Soul Man': Thumbs Up" (http:// articles. latimes. com/ 1986-11-13/entertainment/ ca-25214_1_soul-man). The Los Angeles
Times. . Retrieved 2010-11-12.
[5] "Soul Man" (http:/ / www. dvdtalk. com/ reviews/ 3459/ soul-man/ ). DVD Talk. . Retrieved 2012-05-18.
External links
• Soul Man (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0091991/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Soul Man (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v45727) at AllRovi
• Soul Man (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=soulman. htm) at Box Office Mojo
Southland (TV series)
207
Southland (TV series)
Southland
An intertitle from the series
Genre Police procedural, drama
Starring Kevin Alejandro
Arija Bareikis
Clifton Collins, Jr.
Michael Cudlitz
Shawn Hatosy
Regina King
Michael McGrady
Benjamin McKenzie
Tom Everett Scott
C. Thomas Howell
Theme music composer Frederico de Brito and Ferrer Trindade
Opening theme "Canção Do Mar", by Dulce Pontes (instrumental version)
Country of origin United States of America
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 5
No. of episodes 36 (List of episodes)
Production
Executive producer(s) Ann Biderman
Christopher Chulack
John Wells
Location(s) Los Angeles, California
Production company(s) John Wells Productions
Warner Bros. Television
Broadcast
Original channel NBC (Season 1)
TNT (Season 2 – present)
Original run April 9, 2009 – present
External links
Website
[1]
Southland (stylized as SouthLAnd) is an American drama series
[2]
created by writer Ann Biderman and produced by
Warner Bros. Television. It premiered on NBC on April 9, 2009. On May 1, 2009, NBC announced that Southland
had been renewed for a second season with an initial 13-episode order to begin airing on Friday, September 25, 2009
at 9:00 pm, one hour earlier than its original time slot.
[3]
On August 27, 2009, shortly before its scheduled premiere,
Southland (TV series)
208
NBC moved the opening of its second season to October 23, 2009, citing the need to promote the show more fully.
[4]
On October 8, 2009, NBC announced that the series had been canceled.
[5]
On November 2, 2009, TNT announced it had purchased the rights to Southland's original seven episodes, as well as
six completed episodes from its second season. Southland began airing on TNT on January 12, 2010.
[6][7]
On April
26, 2010, TNT announced it had picked up Southland for a ten-episode third season to begin airing on January 4,
2011.
[8]
TNT's renewal of the show included a substantial budget cut and corresponding cast reduction.
[9]
Southland
was renewed for a ten-episode fourth season on March 22, 2011,
[10]
which premiered on January 17, 2012.
[11]
The series was renewed for a ten-episode fifth season which began airing February 13, 2013.
[12]
Plot
According to NBC, Southland takes a "raw and authentic look" at Los Angeles and the lives of the LAPD officers
who police it. The show's first season centers on the experiences and interactions of LAPD patrol officers and
detectives, and is more a character-driven drama than a police procedural.
[13][14]
Among the characters are rookie
Officer Ben Sherman and his training officer, John Cooper (who, unknown to most of his colleagues is homosexual);
Detective Lydia Adams, who must balance work with responsibility as a single mother; Officer Chickie Brown, who
aspires to be the first woman on the LAPD's elite SWAT team; and Detective Sammy Bryant, whose home life
interferes with his working life.
[13]
Ultimately, it was the dark tone of the series, deemed inappropriate for 9:00 pm,
that led NBC to shut down production and cancel the show after previewing the first six episodes of the second
season.
[5]
TNT began negotiating a move from NBC shortly after the show's cancellation, a process that took nearly
a month.
[7]
TNT's rebroadcast of the first season was less heavily censored, with only the more extreme profanity
bleeped out.
Cast
After its first season on NBC following the change of network to TNT, the second season, which premiered on TNT
following the rebroadcast of the first season, de-emphasizes the ensemble cast and focuses more on the Adams and
Sherman characters and their partners. Stories now center more on how crimes come together, with less-serialized
storylines.
[15][16]
Main cast
Actor Character Rank Notes
Michael
Cudlitz
John Cooper Police Officer III+1
(Season 1–)
Hollywood Division, Officer Sherman's former FTO (Season 1–3), Officer Tang's former
partner (Season 4), Officer Steele's FTO (Season 5). Senior Lead Officer.
Benjamin
McKenzie
Ben Sherman Police Officer I
(Season 1–3) Police
Officer II
(Season 4–)
Hollywood Division, Officer Cooper's former boot. (fictional) Alvarado Division, Officer
Bryant's partner.
Regina King Lydia Adams Detective II,
sergeant
(Season 1–)
West Bureau Detectives.
Shawn Hatosy Sammy Bryant Detective II
(Season 1–3) Police
Officer III
(Season 4–)
Gangs & Narcotics Division, Detective Moretta's former partner. (fictional) Alvarado
Division, Officer Sherman's partner.
C. Thomas
Howell
Bill "Dewey"
Dudek
Police Officer III
(Season 5,
Recurring 1–4)
Hollywood Division, Officer Brown's former partner.
[17]
Southland (TV series)
209
Kevin
Alejandro
Nate Moretta Detective II
(Season 1–3)
Gangs & Narcotics Division, Detective Bryant's former partner. Killed in Season 3
(EP04).
Arija Bareikis Chickie Brown Police Officer III
(Season 1–3)
Hollywood Division, Officer Dudek's former partner. Transferred to Metro Division in
Season 4.
Michael
McGrady
Daniel "Sal"
Salinger
Detective III
(Season 1–3)
Gangs & Narcotics Division, Supervisor.
Tom Everett
Scott
Russell Clarke Detective II
(Season 1,
Recurring 2–3)
West Bureau Detectives, Detective Adams' former partner.
Recurring cast
Actor Character Rank Notes
Denise Crosby Susan Salinger Captain I
(Season 1–2)
Detective Salinger's wife.
Patrick Fischler Kenny
"No-Gun"
Detective I
(Season 1–2)
Gangs & Narcotics Division.
Lex Medlin Andy Williams Detective I
(Season 1–2)
Gangs & Narcotics Division.
L. Scott Caldwell Enid Adams —
(Season 1–5)
Detective Adams' mother.
Emily Bergl Tammi Bryant —
(Season 1–)
Detective Bryant's ex-wife.
Yara Martinez Mariella
Moretta

(Season 1–3)
Detective Moretta's widow.
Hedy Burress Laurie Cooper —
(Season 1–3)
Officer Cooper's ex-wife.
Marty Ryan Sgt. Wallace Sergeant I
(Season 1–2)
Hollywood Division, Supervisor.
Roxana Brusso Alicia
Fernandez
Detective III
(Season 1–4)
West Bureau Detectives, Detective Adams' Supervisor.
Amaury Nolasco Rene Cordero Detective I
(Season 2)
West Bureau Detectives, Detective Adams' interim partner.
Laz Alonso Gil Puente Detective II
(Season 2–3)
Gang Task Force Detective, with Detectives Bryant & Moretta.
Mario Cortez Officer Munoz Police Officer
III
(Season 2–)
Division within West Bureau.
Jenny Gago Josie Ochoa Detective II
(Season 3)
West Bureau Detectives, Detective Adams' former partner.
Bokeem Woodbine Officer Jones Police Officer
III
(Season 3–4)
(fictional) Alvarado Division.
Jamie McShane Sgt. Hill Sergeant I
(Season 3–)
Hollywood Division, Supervisor.
Southland (TV series)
210
Lucy Liu Jessica Tang Police Officer
III
Sergeant I
(Season 4)
Hollywood Division, Officer Cooper's former partner. West Los Angeles Division,
Supervisor in Season 4(EP10).
Dorian Missick Ruben
Robinson
Detective I
(Season 4–)
West Bureau Detectives, Detective Adams' current partner.
Lou Diamond
Phillips
Danny
Ferguson
Police Officer
III
(Season 4)
(fictional) Alvarado Division.
Carl Lumbly Joel Rucker Captain I
(Season 4)
(fictional) Alvarado Division, Commanding Officer.
Chad Michael
Murray
Dave Mendoza Police Officer
II
(Season 5)
New character.
[18]
Lesley Fera Sgt. Waters Sergeant
(Season 5)
New character. (fictional) Alvarado Division, Supervisor.
Derek Ray Gary Steele Police Officer
I
(Season 5)
New character. Hollywood Division, Officer Cooper's new boot.
Anthony Ruivivar Hank Lucero Police Officer
III
(Season 5)
New character. Hollywood Division
[19]
Yvette Saunders Officer Mailer Police Officer
III
(Season 5)
New character. (fictional) Alvarado Division. Credited as Cop #1 in Season 4 (EP03).
[20]
Crew
The series was created by Emmy Award-winning writer Ann Biderman, who began her television writing career on
the first season of police drama NYPD Blue. The series' executive producers are Biderman, Christopher Chulack, and
John Wells. Wells and Chulack, both also Emmy Award winners, had previously worked together on critically
acclaimed medical drama ER and emergency services drama Third Watch. Many other crew members had previously
worked with Wells and Chulack on these series. Wells and Biderman also write for the series and Chulack is a
regular director. Biderman left her executive producer position after the second season but continued to write for the
series' third season.
Ex-police officer Angela Amato Velez served as a consulting producer and writer for the first season; she had
previously worked for the executive producers on Third Watch. Dee Johnson also served as a consulting producer
and writer for the first season; she had previously worked with Wells and Chulack on ER. Emmy Award-winning
writing team Mitchell Burgess & Robin Green were hired as executive consultants and writers for the second and
third seasons; they had previously worked together as executive producers on The Sopranos. Diana Son served as a
consulting producer and writer for the second season; she had previously worked on the crime drama Law & Order:
Criminal Intent.
David Graziano became a co-executive producer for the second season. Andrew Stearn was a producer for the first
two seasons and was promoted to co-executive producer for the third season; he had previously worked on Third
Watch. Jonathan Lisco was hired as a co-executive producer for the third season; he is a former lawyer and created
the New Orleans police drama K-Ville. Jason Horwitch, creator of AMC's Rubicon, joined the show as consulting
producer for the fourth season.
[21]
Southland (TV series)
211
ER and Third Watch veteran Nelson McCormick is also a regular director for Southland. Steadicam expert J.
Michael Muro serves as a regular cinematographer and occasional director for the series. Dana Gonzales is the other
regular director of photography.
Critical reception
Southland has received positive reviews from critics. At Metacritic, which assigns a weighted mean rating out of 100
to reviews from mainstream critics, the first season received an average score of 69, based on 22 reviews
[22]
and the
second season received an average score of 77, based on 12 reviews
[23]
both indicating "Generally favorable
reviews". Upon returning for its third and fourth season the series received wide critical acclaim, receiving an
average score of 81, based on 9 reviews for the third season
[24]
and an average score of 87, based on 7 reviews for
the fourth season both indicating "Universal acclaim".
[25]
Season 5 has a rating of 85/100 based on 7 reviews.
[26]
Alessandra Stanley for The New York Times compared Southland favorably to series like The Shield, Rescue Me and
The Wire in citing the series debut as "one of the most gripping opening episodes of any network crime series".
Noting the show's "bold, contemporary tone", Stanley concluded that "Southland is commendably stinting and cold,
a series that doesn’t aim to please, and is all the more pleasurable for it."
[27]
In a second review a year later, Mike
Hale was less effusive in his praise. While commending the series for fine performances from its cast—in particular
Cudlitz, McKenzie and Hatosy—and its combination of straightforward immediate plots and long-range storytelling,
Hale criticized the "heavyhandedness" he saw in some of the writing, noting especially the "sententious lectures
about the nature of police work" delivered to Sherman by Cooper in the pilot episode. He finds the show "worthy"
but in need of work to qualify as a classic.
[28]
Dorothy Rabinowitz of The Wall Street Journal says "Prattle is, in any case, a minor note compared with the
crackling pace of the first script, its evocative mood of menace at every turn, each police car racing to destinations
that will reveal who knows what tragedy or unspeakable sight."
[29]
The Kansas City Star stated the show in even a
more positive light saying "Southland is built to be bigger, and in that sense it succeeds immediately, thanks to
excellent casting (especially Michael Cudlitz and Regina King as a cop and a detective), gritty location shooting
around L.A. and storytelling that doesn’t hold the viewer’s hand."
[30]
DVD release
Shortly before its TNT premiere, Warner Home Video released the first season on DVD in an uncensored version,
with the profanities intact.
In May 2011, they also released the second season in a similarly uncensored version. This title is currently only
available through the studio's manufacture-on-demand (MOD) program.
On February 5, 2013, a box set titled Southland: The Complete Second, Third, and Fourth Seasons is coming to
DVD; it will include over an hour of bonus features.
[31]
The studio is not currently considering Blu-ray releases for any of the show's three seasons.
Southland (TV series)
212
DVD
Name
Region 1
Release Date
Region 2
Release Date
Region 4
Release
Date
Ep
#
Discs Additional Information
Season 1
January 26,
2010
[32]
- TBA 7 2 Southland: Redefining the Cop Drama. Available in HD from iTunes
Season 2
May 24,
2011
[33]
- TBA 6 2 This DVD is made available through the Warner Bros. Made on Demand
DVD Program at WBShop.com, Amazon.com, Walmart.com, and
Target.com. Available in HD on iTunes.
Seasons 1
and 2
TBA September 26,
2011
TBA 13 3 Southland: Redefining the Cop Drama Southland: Crime Tour Pods
Season
2,3, and 4
February 5,
2013
TBA TBA 26 6 Available in HD on iTunes and Amazon
International broadcasting
Country Network Series Premiere
 Argentina Space June 10, 2010
 Australia GEM
Foxtel
November, 2010
 Belgium (French)
RTBF April, 2012
 Brazil
SBT
[34]
Space
March 14, 2011
 Bulgaria PRO.BG January, 2010
 Canada (English)
 Quebec (French)
CTV
Super Channel
Séries+
April 9, 2009 (season
1)
[35]
March 15, 2010
[36]
June 5, 2010
 Finland
MTV3
[37] February 23, 2011
 France
Orange CinéChoc January 10, 2010
 Germany
kabel eins
[38] August 28, 2012
 Hungary
Viasat3
[39] June 2, 2011
 Iceland
Stöð 2 April 6, 2010
 Ireland 3e June 6, 2010
 Israel
HOT Zone
October 23, 2012
[40]
 Italy
AXN January, 2010
 Lithuania TV1 March, 2011
 New Zealand TV1 November, 2011
 Norway
TVNorge September 28, 2009
 Portugal
Fox Portugal November 30, 2009
 South Africa
M-Net Action May 2010
 Slovenia Kanal A September 2011
Southland (TV series)
213
 Sweden TV3 October 7, 2009
 Turkey
DiziMax January 2010
 United Kingdom
More4
[41] July 1, 2010
References
[1] http:/ / www.tnt.tv/ series/ southland/
[2] Wyatt, Edward. NBC's Latest Drama Has a (Temporary) Home (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 04/ 09/ arts/ television/ 09sout.
html?ref=arts), New York Times, April 8, 2009. Accessed August 5, 2009.
[3] Littleton, Cynthia; Schenider, Michael (May 1, 2009). "NBC picks up 'Southland'" (http:// www. variety.com/ article/VR1118003122.
html). Variety. . Retrieved 2009-05-02.
[4] Bryant, Adam (27 August 2009). "NBC Pushes Southland's Premiere to October" (http:/ / www. tvguide.com/News/
Southland-Premiere-Delayed-1009248.aspx). TVGuide.com. . Retrieved 2009-08-27.
[5] Andreeva, Nellie (October 8, 2009). "Southland Cancelled" (http:// www. hollywoodreporter.com/ blogs/ live-feed/
nbc-cancels-southland-premiere-52356). The Hollywood Reporter. . Retrieved 2010-01-16.
[6] "TNT Picks Up Acclaimed Drama SOUTHLAND" (http:// news. turner.com/ article_display.cfm?article_id=4777). TNT. 11/2/2009. .
[7] Stetler, Brian. "Turner Entertainment Sees the Broadcast Networks as Its Fattest Target" (http:// www. nytimes. com/ 2009/ 11/ 02/ business/
media/ 02tnt.html), The New York Times, November 1, 2009. Accessed January 15, 2010.
[8] "TNT Renews Acclaimed Series SOUTHLAND for Third Season" (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20100429143934/ http:// news. turner.
com/article_display. cfm?article_id=5111). Turner Broadcasting System. April 26, 2010. Archived from the original (http:// news. turner.
com/article_display. cfm?article_id=5111) on April 29, 2010. . Retrieved March 22, 2012.
[9] Andreeva, Nellie. "‘Southland’ Facing Budget & Cast Trims –" (http:/ / www. deadline.com/2010/05/
southland-faces-budget-reduction-cast-trims-on-tnt/ ). Deadline.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[10] "Southland Renewed for Fourth Season by TNT - Ratings | TVbytheNumbers" (http:// tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/ 2011/ 03/ 22/
tnt-renews-southland-for-a-fourth-season/ 86671). Tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com. 2011-03-22. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[11] TNT - Southland: Home (http:// www. tnt. tv/ series/ southland/ )
[12] "'Southland' Renewed by TNT For 10 Episode Fifth Season" (http:/ / tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/ 2012/ 05/ 04/
southland-renewed-by-tnt-for-10-episode-fifth-season/ 132488/). Tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com. 2012-05-04. . Retrieved 2012-05-04.
[13] http:// www.nbc. com/ southland/ about/
[14] Sullivan, Brian Ford. The Futon's First Look: "Southland" (NBC) (http:/ / www. thefutoncritic.com/ rant. aspx?id=20090401_southland),
The Futon Critic, April 1, 2009. Accessed January 24, 2010.
[15] Sullivan, Brian Ford. NBC at TCA: Leno, Silverman Draw Focus (http:// www. thefutoncritic.com/ news. aspx?id=8239), The Futon
Critic, August 6, 2009. Accessed January 24, 2010.
[16] Borzillo-Vrenna, Carrie and Megan Masters. " NBC at TCA: Chuck Update, Southland Retools & More (http:// www. eonline. com/
uberblog/watch_with_kristin/ b137891_nbc_tca_chuck_update_southland_retools.html)". E! Online, 5 August 2009.
[17] http:/ / tvline. com/ 2012/ 11/ 08/ southland-season-5-spoilers-c-thomas-howell-dudek/
[18] http:/ / tvline. com/ 2012/ 11/ 28/ chad-michael-murray-southland-season-5/
[19] http:/ / www.deadline. com/ 2012/ 12/ anthony-ruivivar-annie-monroe-join-tnt-drama-southland-as-recurring/
[20] http:/ / www.spoilertv. com/ 2013/ 01/ southland-season-5-casting-news. html
[21] "Jason Horwitch" (http:/ / www. inbaseline. com/ person. aspx?person_id=4097981). .
[22] "Southland - Season 1 Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic" (http:/ / www.metacritic. com/ tv/ southland). Metacritic. CBS
Interactive. . Retrieved February 1, 2013.
[23] "Southland - Season 2 Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic" (http:/ / www.metacritic. com/ tv/ southland/ season-2).
Metacritic. CBS Interactive. . Retrieved February 1, 2013.
[24] "Southland - Season 3 Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic" (http:/ / www.metacritic. com/ tv/ southland/ season-3).
Metacritic. CBS Interactive. . Retrieved February 1, 2013.
[25] "Southland - Season 4 Reviews, Ratings, Credits, and More at Metacritic" (http:/ / www.metacritic. com/ tv/ southland/ season-4).
Metacritic. CBS Interactive. . Retrieved February 1, 2013.
[26] "Southland - Season 5 Reviews, Ratings, Credits and More at Metacritic" (http:/ / www.metacritic.com/tv/ southland/ season-5).
Metacritic. . Retrieved February 15, 2013.
[27] "From the Pampered Life to Police Work on the Mean Streets" (http:/ / tv.nytimes. com/ 2009/ 04/ 08/ arts/ television/ 08stan. html?_r=0). .
Retrieved 2013-02-01.
[28] Hale, Mike (2010-03-01). "Patrolling for Felons and Kudos on Sun-Blinded Streets" (http:/ / www. nytimes. com/ 2010/ 03/ 02/ arts/
television/ 02southland. html). Nytimes.com. . Retrieved 2013-02-01.
[29] Dorothy Rabinowitz (April 3, 2009). "Truth and Consequences" (http:/ / online.wsj. com/ article/SB123870613377483923. html). The Wall
Street Journal. . Retrieved 2013-02-01.
Southland (TV series)
214
[30] Aaron Barnhart (April 8, 2009). "New network shows: Haven't I seen you before? (http://www. kansascity.com/entertainment/
columnists/aaron_barnhart/story/ 1130409. html),"]. The Kansas City Star. .
[31] http:/ / www.cinemablend. com/ television/ Southland-Complete-Second-Third-Fourth-Seasons-Coming-DVD-February-48594.html
[32] "Southland DVD news: Press Release for Southland - The Complete 1st Season: Uncensored" (http:/ / www. tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
Southland-Season-1-Press-Release/12957). TVShowsOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[33] "Southland DVD news: Announcement for Southland - The Complete 2nd Season (Uncensored)" (http:// tvshowsondvd. com/ news/
Southland-Season-2/ 15288). TVShowsOnDVD.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[34] Ronei. "Séries Da Tv Aberta: Sbt Estreia Mais Uma Nova Série" (http:// seriesdatvaberta.blogspot.com/2011/03/
sbt-estreia-mais-uma-nova-serie. html). Seriesdatvaberta.blogspot.com. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[35] "SOUTHLAND Debut Wins Timeslot with 1.34 Million Viewers on CTV" (http:// www. channelcanada. com/ Article2819.html).
channelcanada.com. April 13, 2009. . Retrieved March 30, 2010.
[36] "Super Channel Southland schedule" (http:/ / www. superchannel.ca/ series/ view/ 43080967/ Southland/ ). Super Channel. . Retrieved
2010-03-10.
[37] "Southland" (http:// www. mtv3. fi/ southland). MTV3.fi. 2011-08-21. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[38] "Kabel eins zeigt 2010 Southland" (http:// www. wunschliste. de/ news/ 5373). Wunschliste.de. 2009-07-31. . Retrieved 2011-09-02.
[39] "Emlékeztető: Terepen" (http:/ / www.sorozatjunkie. hu/ 2011/ 06/ 02/ emlekezteto-terepen/) (in Hungarian). . Retrieved 2013-02-01.
[40] "ב 23.10-המ לחה -"דנל'תואס" םיחבשה תרוטע תיתרטשמה המרדה" (http:// www.scooper. co. il/ pr/ 1024162/ ) (in Hebrew). . Retrieved
2013-02-01.
[41] Holmwood, Leigh. More4 buys LA cop show Southland (http:// www. guardian.co. uk/ media/ 2009/ aug/ 28/
southland-more4-channel-4-uk), The Guardian, August 28, 2009. Accessed January 15, 2010.
External links
• Official website (http:// www. tnt.tv/ series/ southland)
• Southland (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt1299368/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Southland (http:/ / www. tv.com/ shows/ southland/ ) at TV.com
Summerland (TV series)
Summerland
Intertitle
Genre Drama
Created by Stephen Tolkin
Lori Loughlin
Starring Lori Loughlin
Shawn Christian
Merrin Dungey
Ryan Kwanten
Jesse McCartney
Taylor Cole
Kay Panabaker
Nick Benson
Zac Efron
Opening theme "Beautiful Day"
by Steve Plunkett
Country of origin United States
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 2
No. of episodes 26 (List of episodes)
Summerland (TV series)
215
Production
Executive producer(s) Stephen Tolkin
(season 1)
Remi Aubuchon
Aaron Spelling
E. Duke Vincent
Camera setup Single-camera
Running time 42 minutes
Production company(s) Baby Owl Works
The Lion And The Rose (season
1)
Spelling Television
CBS Paramount Television
Broadcast
Original channel The WB
Original run June 1, 2004 – July 18, 2005
External links
Website
[1]
Summerland is an American drama television series created by Stephen Tolkin and Lori Loughlin. It is centered on
a clothing designer in her 30s, Ava Gregory (Loughlin), raising her niece and nephews after their parents die in a
tragic accident. They live in California with three of Ava's friends who also help raise the kids.
Summerland premiered on June 1, 2004 on the defunct television network The WB. The series ran for a total of 26
episodes over two seasons. Its cancellation was announced on May 15, 2005
[2]
and the last episode aired on July 18,
2005. A soundtrack was released on March 19, 2005 and the show has been syndicated in many countries.
Synopsis
Overview
The series follows Ava Gregory (Lori Loughlin), a fashion designer, and her house mates and niece and nephews as
they learn to cope with a life-changing event and each other. After the death of their parents, Bradin (Jesse
McCartney), Nikki (Kay Panabaker), and Derrick Westerly (Nick Benson) leave their home in Kansas to live with
their Aunt Ava in Playa Linda, California. They live with three other house mates; Johnny Durant (Shawn Christian),
Ava's ex-boyfriend, Susannah Rexford (Merrin Dungey), Ava's best friend and business partner, and Jay Robertson
(Ryan Kwanten), an Australian surfer who owns a local surf shop. The show follows the struggles that these friends
and family face as they adapt to their new lives together. Jay has an on-again-off-again relationship with Erika
Spalding (Taylor Cole), who becomes Bradin's surfing instructor. Cameron Bale (Zac Efron) is Nikki's boyfriend
and classmate.
Summerland (TV series)
216
Cast
Main characters
Summerland initially featured a main cast of eight characters. In the second season, after appearing as a recurring
member in the first season, Zac Efron was added to the main cast. This brought the total number of main characters
to nine.
• Ava Gregory (Lori Loughlin) is a woman in her mid 30s who is raising her niece and nephews, Bradin, Nikki, and
Derrick Westerly, after their parents' tragic deaths. She lives in a beach house with the children, her on again/off
again boyfriend Johnny, her best friend Susannah, and another close friend, Jay. Ava has a very hectic life and
also faces the stressful task of raising three children, who are all devastated at the loss of their parents and who
deal with their loss in very different ways.
• Johnny Durant (Shawn Christian) is Ava's ex boyfriend who still remains her roommate until Season 2. He gets
along tremendously with the kids and opens up his own restaurant. Despite hiding it, he is desperately still in love
with Ava.
• Susannah Rexford (Merrin Dungey) is Ava's best friend, business partner and roommate.
• Jay Robertson (Ryan Kwanten) is an Australian native, who lives with Ava in Playa Linda and is the "big brother"
to the children. He was dating Erika, despite his notorious behavior for being a playboy.
• Bradin Westerly (Jesse McCartney) is the oldest of the three children. He copes with the loss of his parents by
drinking, getting involved in drugs and earns a reputation as a wild child. He is also as an exceptional surfer and
is offered a sponsorship by many major companies but his personal problems seem to get in the way on more than
one occasion.
• Erika Spalding (Taylor Cole) is Jay's girlfriend. She helps coach Bradin with his surfing. She leaves to take care
of her mother, but returns and begins dating Bradin.
• Nikki Westerly (Kay Panabaker) is an exceptionally bright child. She starts off trying to take over the "mother"
role, but eventually settling in and making many friends including Cameron, who would later become her on/off
boyfriend.
• Derrick Westerly (Nick Benson) is the youngest child. Despite being very close to his Aunt Ava, he can't quite get
over the loss of his parents at such a young age.
• Cameron Bale (Zac Efron) is Nikki's best friend and on/off boyfriend. He lives with his troubled, divorced,
alcoholic father (portrayed by C. Thomas Howell). In season two, Efron became a part of the main cast after
appearing as a recurring star in season one.
Recurring characters
• Sarah Borden (Sara Paxton) is a troubled teen with an addiction to pot, and problems with pathological lying. She
becomes Bradin's girlfriend and pressures him into using drugs and having sex.
• Mona (Carmen Electra) is Johnny's partner, who invests in a bar with him and eventually asks him to move in
with her. However in a tragic automobile accident Mona is killed leaving Johnny heartbroken. He changes the
name of his bar to "Mona's Sandbar" in memory of Mona who transferred her share of the property to Johnny
before she died.
• Callie (Danielle Savre) is a girl from the Midwest who becomes one of Bradin's girlfriends and helps him recover
from his relationship with Sarah.
• Amber (Shelley Buckner) is one of Nikki's friends and Cameron's past girlfriend. Amber and Nikki didn't get
along at first, but eventually they became best friends.
• Chris (Tyler Patrick Jones and Cole Petersen), is Derrick's best friend and often plays with Bradin, too.
• Simon O' Keefe (Jay Harrington) is Nikki's principal at Playa Linda Middle School. He and Ava go on their first
date after meeting each other at Nikki's school and soon they fall deeply in love with each other. In the season 1
Summerland (TV series)
217
finale, Ava asks Simon to marry her, but in season 2 Simon calls off the wedding because he knows that Ava and
Johnny still have deep feelings for each other.
Production
Music
Each episode of the show features a number of songs from various artists in addition to an original score. The music
is usually used as a background element and is non-diegetic, although occasionally the music comes from a diegetic
source. In the second season episode "Where There's a Will, There's a Wave" Christy Carlson Romano stars as a
fictional pop star and performs her song "Dive In".
Other artists heard in the show include The Beach Boys, The Penguins, Howie Day, John Mayer, Ryan Adams,
Blink-182, Maroon 5, and Lifehouse.
Soundtrack
Summerland
Soundtrack album by Various artists
Released March 19, 2005
Genre Soundtrack
Length 41:40
Label Image Entertainment
On March 19, 2005, a soundtrack was released featuring music from both seasons of the show. It included the
opening theme as well as a song by cast member Jesse McCartney, "Get Your Shine On", which also appeared on his
first album and was released as a single.
Track listing
1. "Undertow" - Bowling For Soup
2. "General Attitude" - Collective Soul
3. "All Downhill from Here" - New Found Glory
4. "Get Your Shine On" - Jesse McCartney
5. "Feel So Free" - Ivy
6. "The Crying" - Kristian Leontiou
7. "My Paper Heart" - The All-American Rejects
8. "Struggle" - Ringside
9. "Try" - Lisa Loeb
10. "Alive" - Kenny Wayne Shepherd
11. "My Way Home" - Citizen Cope
12. "Beautiful Day" - Steve Plunkett
Summerland (TV series)
218
Broadcast history
Cancellation
On May 15, 2005, The WB released early information on their 2005-06 season. Summerland, along with eight other
shows, was canceled.
[2]
Jesse McCartney responded to the cancellation in an interview, saying the show was "in a
crazy time slot and...the writers were having trouble, and it was just a bad call."
[3]
Syndication
The series has been syndicated on The N & Ten Network in Australia, Living in the United Kingdom and Ireland,
TV2 in Norway, and on MBC 4 in the Middle East. In Spain, Summerland (which retains its English language title)
has been used as a filler during the summer months. In July 2008, Telecinco aired all of the episodes again in the
9am time slot, the same time slot in which it aired in the summer of 2007. It is currently
[4]
aired on Sweden's channel
5, kanal5, however only on weekend mornings.
Awards
Year Award Result Category Recipient
2005 Teen Choice Awards Nominated Choice TV Actor: Drama Jesse McCartney
Young Artist Awards Nominated Best Performance in a TV Series (Comedy or Drama) - Leading Young Actor Jesse McCartney
Best Family Television Series (Drama) -
Won Best Performance in a TV Series (Comedy or Drama) - Leading Young
Actress
Kay Panabaker
2006 NAACP Image
Awards
Nominated Outstanding Directing in a Dramatic Series Janice
Cooke-Leonard
PRISM Awards Won Performance in a Drama Series Storyline Lori Loughlin
References
[1] http:/ / web. archive. org/web/ 20050906183007/ www. thewb. com/ Shows/ Show/ 0,7353,%7c%7c1849,00.html
[2] "Breaking News - Nbc, Abc, FOX and the WB Set Initial 2005-06 Season Orders" (http:// www. thefutoncritic.com/ news. aspx?id=6904).
TheFutonCritic.com. . Retrieved 2013-02-09.
[3] (http:/ / www.muchmusic. com/ tv/ transcripts/ index. asp?artist=1123& tranID=552)
[4] "På Kanal 5 idag tablå och programinformation" (http:// www. tv. nu/ kanal/ kanal5). www.tv.nu. . Retrieved 2013-02-09.
External links
• Official website (http:// web. archive.org/ web/ 20050906183007/ www.thewb. com/ Shows/ Show/
0,7353,||1849,00. html) (archived)
• Summerland (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0400037/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Summerland (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ summerland/ ) at TV.com
Tank (film)
219
Tank (film)
Tank
Directed by Marvin J. Chomsky
Produced by Irwin Yablans
Written by Dan Gordon
Starring James Garner
Shirley Jones
C. Thomas Howell
Jenilee Harrison
G. D. Spradlin
James Cromwell
Dorian Harewood
Mark Herrier
Music by Lalo Schifrin
Cinematography Donald H. Birnkrant
Editing by Donald R. Rode
Distributed by Lorimar Productions
Universal Pictures
Release date(s) March 16, 1984 (USA)
Running time 113 min.
Country United States
Language English
Box office $11,302,884
Tank is a 1984 comedy, drama, and action movie starring James Garner, Jenilee Harrison, and C. Thomas Howell.
The film was written by Dan Gordon and directed by Marvin J. Chomsky. It was produced by Lorimar Productions
and was commercially released in the United States by Universal Studios on March 16, 1984.
This film was rated PG by the MPAA.
Plot summary
US Army Command Sergeant Major Zack Carey (played by Garner) is about to retire from the military after taking
his last post, in rural Georgia (loosely based on Fort Benning and filmed there, as well as the small town of Zebulon,
GA). Despite being offered the position of Sergeant Major of the Army, he insists he just wishes to finish his tour
and retire in peace to spend time with his family. Several years earlier, his older son had been killed in an accident,
and his relationship with his only surviving son, Billy (played by Howell), is strained. He is shown to be a tough but
fair NCO, who quickly earns the respect and admiration of his troops.
Zack owns a vintage Sherman tank from World War II that he has restored with his son's help, and he uses it for
parades and public relations. While visiting an off-base bar, he sees a deputy sheriff (James Cromwell) beat a hooker
named Sarah (Jenilee Harrison) and defends her. Unfortunately, Sarah had been forced into prostitution by Cyrus
Buelton, the corrupt sheriff (G. D. Spradlin). Sheriff Buelton tries to arrest Sgt. Major Carey, but finds his
jurisdiction won't let him touch him while he's on the base, which is Federal territory. To get revenge on Carey,
Sheriff Buelton frames Billy for drug possession by planting marijuana in his gym locker at school.
Tank (film)
220
Sheriff Buelton offers to drop the charges, if Sgt. Major Carey would give the Sheriff a hefty bribe, approximately
equal to his retirement savings. However, Zack's wife, LaDonna (Shirley Jones) refuses to take part in "good old
boy" justice and calls a lawyer. The lawyer is thrown into jail himself on trumped-up contempt of court charges,
Billy is put on trial immediately and is promptly found guilty and sentenced to several years of hard labor at the
county work farm. LaDonna, finally realizing the depths of Sheriff Buelton's cruelty, goes to Carey and tells him
what happened. When Sgt. Major Carey tries to offer the bribe, Buelton accepts the money, but refuses to release his
son, simply stating that it will prevent him from being shot "accidentally" or while "attempting to escape", or from
being raped by other inmates – temporarily.
Carey decides to take matters into his own hands, and climbs into his vintage tank. To prevent the police from
following him immediately, he destroys the local jail & police station, shoots the local telephone exchange, and
destroys the parked police cars with his tank's cannon. He then liberates Billy (and all the other prisoners) from the
county work farm and takes him, as well as Sarah, away. Once away from town and the jail, he reveals his plan: to
escape to Tennessee, where they can get a fair hearing in a court of law regarding extradition, which will at least be a
fair hearing instead of the kangaroo court that Billy received in Georgia.
The matter quickly escalates. Sheriff Buelton demands military intervention from Carey's commanding officer, but
the commander points out that Carey had already retired from the Army, so he's broken no military law (other than
breaking a small section of fence to leave the base); he hasn't stolen the tank, which is legally his; and all his
violations are of civilian law. He also happily points out the Posse Comitatus Act, prohibiting him from providing
any military aid to civilian law enforcement. In a running joke of the movie, Sheriff Buelton does not understand the
name of the act, and thinks he's being called a "pussy communist".
Through a long series of chases and evasion through rural Georgia, including being aided by relatives of people he
broke out of jail earlier, the tank and its crew quickly become folk heroes throughout the country. Despite Sheriff
Buelton insisting they are criminals, the nation rallies behind them as a sort of modern-day Robin Hood, meaning the
Sheriff has little public support for his hunt for the tank. On the Tennessee side of the line, thousands of people
gather to welcome the tank. Meanwhile, LaDonna has met with the Governor of Tennessee, and using the threat of
public electoral opinion manages to get a formal guarantee that they will be given a proper extradition hearing (and
informal implication that they will be granted asylum should they reach the state line).
However, a showdown brews at the Tennessee state line, where a huge crowd of supporters for the tank and its crew
have gathered, including LaDonna and the Governor of Tennessee, who arrive via helicopter. Buelton has managed
to block the road with tractor-and-semi-trailer rigs and set up an ambush, including a large mud trap to inhibit the
tank's freedom of movement. Using a vintage bazooka, (actually a German "Panzerschreck") Buelton manages to
disable the tank within sight of the state line. However, the tank's firepower is unaffected and the Careys and Sarah
are able to hold the Sheriff and his forces at bay. Carey, who had been injured earlier while attempting to repair the
tank, instructs Billy and Sarah to sneak over the state line at night. They refuse. With his father going from bad to
worse, Billy is even willing to surrender to Buelton in exchange for his father getting hospitalized.
Meanwhile, seeing the tank in dire straits, a motorcycle gang steals the materials to build a ramp, and one of their
number jumps into the muddy field where the tank is trapped, sending them a rope (connected to a tow cable in
Tennessee). Billy gets out through the escape hatch at the bottom of the tank and quickly goes to the aid of the biker
with the cable, while Sarah holds the Sheriff and his posse back with the tank's machine gun. Once the tow cable is
attached, the collected people on the other side of the line begin to pull the tank out of the mud. Sheriff Buelton
orders his posse to open fire on the crowd, but as the deputies pull their guns, the Tennessee Highway Patrol pulls
their guns on the Sheriff's men and shouts over the megaphone that if he opens fire, it will be "another Little Big
Horn".
Thus the Sheriff is forced to stop the crowd another way; he and his men all run for the mud field and begin pulling
on their end, resulting in a tug of war between the crowd and the posse. The crowd find themselves unable to help
pull the tank free this way and decide to try something else. The posse cheers their victory, and Sheriff Buelton
Tank (film)
221
climbs on top of the tank and demands its occupants surrender. Zach motions to Billy to turn the tank's turret, which
he does, knocking the gloating Buelton facedown into the mud. And on the other side of the state line, the tow cable
is affixed to a bulldozer and the crowd renews their pulling efforts. This time, the posse's attempts to stop them are
completely futile, and the tank is hauled out of the mud and over the state line to safety. LaDonna happily greets her
husband and son, as well as Sarah, as they climb out of the tank to a hero's welcome by the people and the Governor
of Tennessee.
Cast
• James Garner as CSM Zack Carey
• Shirley Jones as LaDonna Carey
• C. Thomas Howell as William "Billy" Carey
• Mark Herrier as SSG Jerry Elliott, Soldier Magazine Reporter
•• Sandy Ward as MG V.E. Hubik
• Jenilee Harrison as Sarah
• James Cromwell as Deputy Euclid Baker
• Dorian Harewood as SFC Ed Tippet, Provost Marshal's Office
• G. D. Spradlin as Sheriff Cyrus Buelton
• John Hancock as Mess MSG Johnson
• Guy Boyd as SGT Wimofsky
• Randy Bass as Governor's Aide
Apocryphal
Tank was filmed on-location at Fort Benning, Georgia, across the river from Phenix City, Alabama. Phenix City was
notorious for corruption in the '40s and '50s, but the problem apparently predates the Second World War. During the
1930s, General Patton was in command of a much-expanded Fort Benning, training via the Louisiana Maneuvers for
a probable American entry into World War II. Supposedly, so many of his men wound up in the jails of Phenix
City—just across the river—on dubious charges that he showed up in a tank and threatened to blow the jail unless
his men were released. So the tale goes, they were. This story is said by some of the residents to have been at least
part of the inspiration for the film.
[1]
External links
• Tank
[2]
at the Internet Movie Database
• James Garner Interview on the Charlie Rose Show
[3]
• James Garner interview
[4]
at Archive of American Television
[1] Netflix, user comments, http:/ / movies. netflix.com/ WiMovie/ Tank/1025448?trkid=8104286
[2] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0088224/
[3] http:/ / video.google. com/ videoplay?docid=8844857220560459276& q=%22James+ Garner%22+%22Charlie+Rose%22& total=4&
start=0&num=10& so=0& type=search& plindex=0
[4] http:/ / video.google. com/ videosearch?q=%22archive+of+american+television+ interview+with+ james+ garner%22
Television Preview
222
Television Preview
Television Preview (also known as "New TV Preview") is a market research company that purports to test pilots of
new television shows while actually looking for audience's reactions to commercials presented in a "home-like"
atmosphere between breaks in these shows. Based in Evansville, Indiana, Television Preview is a division of RSC
the Quality Measurement Company, a member of the ArsGroup. The preview offer is considered a scam because,
even though Television Preview takes no money from viewers, the company is not associated with any actual
television producers and the "pilots" they preview are years old.
[1]
Viewers are instead asked to rate the commercials
they see. Also, under the guise of selecting prizes they'd like to win in a drawing, viewers choose their "favorites"
from pages of pictures of consumer products. In addition, while invitations are distributed to adults of all ages, most
of the attendees are senior citizens aged 50 or over, with the commercials and questions slanted towards them.
The process
Television Preview randomly sends out invitations and tickets to specific screenings, usually held in hotel
conference rooms. The invitation contains text insinuating that the viewer will help decide what will be featured on
television's next fall lineup:
You have been selected to participate in a survey whose findings will directly influence what you see on
television in the future.
You have been selected to evaluate not-yet-released television material that is being considered for nationwide
broadcast.
You have been selected to help represent the television viewing preferences of the entire country.
[2]
Instead, viewers are shown old television pilots that were never picked up. They are asked to give a thumbs-up or
thumbs-down style rating, and then fill out pages of questionnaires about their purchasing preferences, brands they
like, products they are likely to use, and so forth.
The programs
The programs can vary from screening to screening, but most often they seem to be two shows: a 1997 drama called
Soulmates
[3]
featuring Kim Raver, and a comedy called City starring Valerie Harper.
[2]
City was, in fact, a
short-lived show from 1990, although its page at IMDb reveals that it would probably be largely forgotten if not for
these screenings.
[4]
Audience members are either told that Valerie Harper is looking to make a comeback, and wants
viewers to judge her likability, or that screenwriter Paul Haggis, who wrote the show, wants to retool it for next fall,
but needs viewer's opinions on its feasibility first. Other attendees have reported being shown the pilot of Dads
[5]
, a
show from 1997 starring C. Thomas Howell.
Television Preview
223
Associated companies
Within a few business days after the viewings, most participants receive phone calls come from a California based
company called "Datascension", in which participants are asked additional questions about the presentation. The
company has been known to make frequent, repeated calls, in the event no one at the participant's number answers,
or if they reach an answering machine.
References
[1] Dubinsky, Zach (September 7, 2000). "Spot the TV ad: Lured by invite to judge TV, viewers end up helping to sell soap" (http:// www.
nowtoronto.com/ news/ story. cfm?content=124409&archive=20,1,2000). Now (Toronto, Ontario). . Retrieved October 18, 2010.
[2] Pflaum, Nadia (July 15, 2004). "Viewer Discretion Advised: Beware of envelopes containing four free tickets to test new shows" (http://
www.pitch. com/ 2004-07-15/news/ viewer-discretion-advised/). The Pitch (Kansas City, Missouri). . Retrieved October 18, 2010.
[3] http:// www.imdb. com/ title/ tt1258160/
[4] "City" (1990) - IMDb user comments (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0098768/ usercomments)
[5] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0799994/
External links
• Television Preview's official site (http:// www. televisionpreview. com/ index. htm)
• Datascension's website (http:/ / www. datascension. com)
Articles and individual testimonies:
• Nicole Rogers in the Wisconsin State Journal (http:/ / www. madison. com/ archives/ read.php?ref=/wsj/ 2005/
06/ 17/ 0506170254. php)
• Beth Gottfried Lisogorsky in The National Ledger (http://www. nationalledger. com/ cgi-bin/artman/exec/
view. cgi?archive=16&num=15381)
• Blogger Keith Cowan (http:/ / members.shaw. ca/ beachis/ TVPreview.html)
• Blog "South Dakota Dark" (http:/ / southdakotadark.blogspot. com/ 2006/ 06/ friends-i-have-been-to-land-of.
html)
• Blogger Darren Barefoot (http:// www. darrenbarefoot.com/ archives/ 2005/ 11/
television-preview-thinly-veiled-ad-focus-groups. html)
• Blogger Preston Wily (http:/ / www. prestonwily.com/ archives/ television-preview-lame)
Teresa's Tattoo
224
Teresa's Tattoo
Teresa's Tattoo
Directed by Julie Cypher
John E. Vohlers
Produced by Lisa M. Hansen
Philip McKeon
Marc Rocco
Written by Georgie Huntington
Marc Cushman (additional dialogue)
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Lou Diamond Phillips
Melissa Etheridge
k.d. lang
Kiefer Sutherland
Music by Andrew Keresztes
Distributed by CineTel Films
Release date(s) March 1994
Running time 88 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Teresa's Tattoo is a 1994 action–comedy–crime film directed by Julie Cypher and John E. Vohlers. The film is also
known as Natural Selection. The film stars C. Thomas Howell, Lou Diamond Phillips, Melissa Etheridge, who also
performed songs for the film, k.d. lang, and Kiefer Sutherland. It was filmed in Los Angeles, California, USA.
Teresa's Tattoo was produced by CineTel Films, Trimark Pictures, and Yankee Entertainment Group Inc. It was
distributed by Trimark Pictures.
Plot
Mathematician Teresa just wanted to study during the College spring break. But her friends, who wanted her to live a
little, dragged her out to parties. The next thing she knows, she has been drugged, kidnapped, made a redhead,
tattooed, and is wearing leather! It's the old switcheroo in this action comedy that follows the exploits of desperate
extortionists. Gloria is a fluffhead with a Chinese dragon tattooed upon her chest. She wears lovely holograph
earrings that just happen to contain classified detail of the U.S. space program. She is taken hostage by the bumbling
extortionists and their leader Carl, former head of a freezer treat company. Unfortunately for them, Gloria
accidentally drowns in their pool when she tangles with a beach ball. Now the crooks must find a lookalike for
Gloria. They find her in Teresa, a college girl with a talent for mathematics. She is captured and tattooed. She soon
escapes leading the crooks on a merry chase. Joining in the hunt for Teresa is an FBI agent and her new
boyfriend.
[1][2]
Teresa's Tattoo
225
Availability
The movie was released on VHS in the U.S. by Vidmark Entertainment and in Canada by Malofilm Video. The
movie has been released on DVD in the UK, but as of December 26, 2009, Lions Gate has not yet announced any
plans to release the movie onto a Region 1 DVD, most likely because of music copyrights.
Cast
• Matt Adler as Titus
• C. Thomas Howell as Carl
• Nancy McKeon as Sara
• Lou Diamond Phillips as Wheeler
• Casey Siemaszko as Michael
• Brian Davila as Elvis
• Jonathan Silverman as Rick
• Melissa Etheridge as the hooker
• Adrienne Shelly as Teresa / Gloria
• Diedrich Bader as Higgins
• Anthony Clark as Mooney
• Eric Gilliland as the police officer
• Lisa M. Hansen as the hooker with bird
• Tippi Hedren as Evelyn Hill
• k.d. lang as Michelle
• Kiefer Sutherland as road block officer (un-credited)
• Sean Astin as Step-Brother (un-credited)
Production Crew
• Lisa M. Hansen (producer)
• Philip McKeon (producer)
• Paul Hertzberg (executive producer)
• Marc Rocco (executive producer)
• Georgie Huntington (associate producer)
• Catalaine Knell (co-producer)
• Donald C. McKeon (co-producer)
• Russell D. Markkowitz (line producer)
• Nancy Gayhart (post-production coordinator)
Sound Track
• "2001" Written and Performed by Melissa Etheridge
• "I Really Must Be Going" Written and Performed by Melissa Etheridge
• "All American Girl" Written and Performed by Melissa Etheridge
• "Do It For The Rush" Written and Performed by Melissa Etheridge
• "Save Myself" Written by Melissa Etheridge Performed by Mare Winningham
• "No Strings Attached" Written by Simone Lazer and Audrey Koz Performed by Betty Ball
• "When You're Near" Written and Performed by David Adjian
• "Pool Cue Music" Written and Performed by Richard Friedman
• "All Night Long" Written by Mark Gast Performed by Raging Storm
Teresa's Tattoo
226
• "Betrayal Of Kings" Written by Mark Gast Performed by Salem's Wych
• "Lover Lay Down" Written and Performed by K.O.
• "Alah" Written and Performed by Andrew Kereazies
• "I Feel You" Written and Performed by Andrew Kereazies
• "Silver Bullet" Written by Leigh Lawson & Jack Marsh Performed by Leigh Lawson
• "Coming Down On Me" Written by Leigh Lawson & Pete Sadony Performed by Leigh Lawson
References
[1] Brian W Martz http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0111397/
[2] http:/ / www.allmovie. com/ cg/ avg. dll
External links
• Teresa's Tattoo (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0111397/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• Teresa's Tattoo (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v132311) at AllRovi
That Night
227
That Night
That Night
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Craig Bolotin
Produced by Arnon Milchan
Stephen Reuther
Written by Novel:
Alice McDermott
Screenplay
Craig Bolotin
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Juliette Lewis
Eliza Dushku
Helen Shaver
Music by David Newman
Cinematography Bruce Surtees
Editing by Priscilla Nedd-Friendly
Studio(s) Le Studio Canal+
Regency Enterprises
Alcor Films
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) August 27, 1993
Running time 89 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget $7,000,000
Box office $20,473
That Night is a 1992 romantic drama film written and directed by Craig Bolotin, and starring C. Thomas Howell and
Juliette Lewis. It is based on the novel of the same name by Alice McDermott.
[1]
This film is notable for the fact that both Eliza Dushku (of Buffy the Vampire Slayer fame) and Katherine Heigl (of
Grey's Anatomy fame) made their first film appearances in it, sharing a few scenes. Dushku was 11 years old at that
time, and Heigl was 13.
Plot
In 1961 Long Island, Alice Bloom (Eliza Dushku) is a ten-year-old girl that is trying to understand how love works.
She is infatuated with the girl across the street, 17-year old Sheryl O' Connor (Juliette Lewis). She often looks at her
from across the street, as their bedroom windows are level with each other. Alice starts to copy every detail about
Sheryl, including her perfume and the record she listens to. As Alice and her mother pick up her father from work,
she notices Sheryl speeding up to the train station to pick up her own father. She then tells her mother about how
amazing Sheryl is: about how she could travel long distances in her car in no time at all, how she was slapped in the
face by one of her Catholic School teachers and never cried, and how she ran the mile in gym and never broke a
sweat. Alice's mother does not believe what she is saying.
That Night
228
One day she decides to go bowling with some of her friends and is ridiculed by them when she rolls a ball into the
lane next to hers, and her friends award her with a score of "minus zero" and calling her a dufus. Reeling from
comments made to her, she immediately becomes excited when Sheryl walks into the bowling alley along with a
group of guys trying to win her affection. Sheryl, seemingly innocent and moral, rejects their advances. She rings the
bell at the front desk, and from under the counter a boy named Rick (C. Thomas Howell) appears. They are instantly
attracted to each other. As Alice continues to bowl with her friends, she constantly watches Sheryl's every move. Her
friends then mention that they think Sheryl's breasts are fake, because they do not move. Alice insists they are real,
so they make her walk over to Sheryl to ask her. But before she can get there, Rick pages her to come back to the
desk, and a police officer tells her that her father just died.
During the funeral, Sheryl is obviously upset. As she is sitting in the bathroom, she notices her bowling shoes on the
floor and goes to the bowling alley to return them. There she finds Rick repairing one of the pin returns. He tells her
they are closed, and she starts crying over her father. After some conversation, Rick walks Sheryl home, and leads to
their first kiss. This is observed by Alice, who earlier had spotted Sheryl running to go to the bowling alley. The next
day Rick comes back with his gang, and they take Sheryl to the beach, where they have oysters and tequila and
Sheryl pours her heart out over her father's death. They spend the whole day and night together.
Cast
• Juliette Lewis as Sheryl O'Connor
• Eliza Dushku as Alice Bloom
• C. Thomas Howell as Rick
• Helen Shaver as Ann O'Connor
• J. Smith-Cameron as Carol Bloom
• John Dossett as Larry Bloom
• Katherine Heigl as Kathryn
Reception
The film itself received mildly positive reviews, but the performances by Dushku and Lewis were praised. David
Stratton, in Daily Variety wrote "This isn't exactly riveting material, and the film's modest production values seem
more suited to the small screen. Nevertheless, [D]ushku makes the hero-worshiping moppet an engaging character,
and Howell is just right as every suburban mom's idea of a daughter's undesirable boyfriend. Lewis, her hair dyed
blond, is more than adequate as the vivacious Sheryl."
[2]
Janet Maslin in the New York Times expressed detailed
disappointment in the number and depth of changes made in the film, and found Lewis' "slinky, demonstrative
performance is way out of proportion to the tepid film built around it."
[3]
Entertainment Weekly graded the film "B-",
remarking that director Bolotin "leans too heavily on period detail, but That Night clicks whenever it taps into the
crazy, stupid madness of teen lust."
[4]
In Rolling Stone magazine, Peter Travers wrote that while book author
McDermott made clear how the intensity of the teen romance changes Alice's life, first-time director Bolotin offers a
"pale facsimile that traffics in too many coming-of-age clichés", but concluded, "what makes That Night worth
seeing is a knockout performance from Lewis, who evokes the joy and confusion of sexuality. You can't take your
eyes off her."
[5]
That Night
229
References
[1] Alice McDermott - biography, plus book reviews & excerpts (http:// www. bookbrowse.com/ biographies/ index.cfm?author_number=274).
Bookbrowse.com.
[2] Stratton, David (December 9, 1992) That Night (http:/ / www. variety. com/ review/VE1117901116?refcatid=31). Variety. Retrieved
2011-03-25.
[3] Maslin, Janet (August 6, 1993) That Night (http://movies.nytimes. com/ movie/review?res=9F0CE7D61E30F935A3575BC0A965958260&
partner=Rotten Tomatoes). New York Times.
[4] Burr, Ty (August 20, 1993). That Night (http:/ / www. ew.com/ ew/ article/0,,20294907,00.html). Entertainment Weekly.
[5] Travers, Peter (August 27, 1993). That Night (http:/ / www. rollingstone.com/ movies/ reviews/ that-night-19930827). Rolling Stone.
External links
• That Night (http:// www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0105572/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
230
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
The Amazing Spider-Man
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Marc Webb
Produced by Laura Ziskin
Avi Arad
Matt Tolmach
Screenplay by James Vanderbilt
Alvin Sargent
Steve Kloves
Story by James Vanderbilt
Based on Spider-Man by
Stan Lee
Steve Ditko
Starring Andrew Garfield
Emma Stone
Rhys Ifans
Denis Leary
Campbell Scott
Irrfan Khan
Martin Sheen
Sally Field
Music by James Horner
Cinematography John Schwartzman
Editing by Alan Edward Bell
Pietro Scalia
Studio(s)
Laura Ziskin Productions
Marvel Entertainment
[1]
Distributed by Columbia Pictures
Release date(s)
• June 30, 2012 (Tokyo première
[2]
)
• July 3, 2012 (United States)
Running time
136 minutes
[3]
Country United States
Language English
Budget
$230 million
[4]
Box office
$752,216,557
[4]
The Amazing Spider-Man is a 2012 American superhero film directed by Marc Webb, based on the Marvel Comics
character Spider-Man. It is a reboot of the Spider-Man film series, portraying the character's origin story and his
development into a superhero while a high school student. The film stars Andrew Garfield in the title role, with
Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy and Rhys Ifans as Dr. Curt Connors.
Development of the film began with the cancellation of Spider-Man 4 in 2010, ending director Sam Raimi's
Spider-Man film series that had starred Tobey Maguire, Kirsten Dunst and James Franco. Opting to reboot the
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
231
franchise with the same production team, Sony Pictures Entertainment announced a July 2012 release date for The
Amazing Spider-Man. James Vanderbilt was hired to write the script while Alvin Sargent and Steve Kloves helped
fine-tune it. Pre-production involved auditioning many actors for the roles of Parker and Stacy. New designs were
introduced from the comics such as artificial web-shooters. Using Red Digital Cinema Camera Company's RED Epic
camera, principal photography started in December 2010 in Los Angeles before moving to New York City. The film
entered post-production in April 2011. 3ality Technica provided 3D image processing, Sony Imageworks handled
CGI and James Horner composed the film score.
Sony Entertainment built a promotional website, released three trailers and launched a viral marketing campaign,
among other moves. Tie-ins included a video game by Beenox. The film premiered on June 30 in Tokyo and was
released in the United States on July 3 in 2D, 3D and IMAX 3D. Critical reaction was mostly positive, with a 73%
"certified fresh" score from review aggregator Rotten Tomatoes. The film was also a box office success, becoming
the 47th highest-grossing film of all time and the seventh highest-grossing film of 2012. The first of at least two
sequels, The Amazing Spider-Man 2, is scheduled for release in 2014, with director Marc Webb and most of the first
film's main cast set to return.
Plot
As a child, Peter Parker discovers his father Richard's study has been ransacked. His father gathers concealed
documents before Peter's parents take him to stay with his Aunt May and Uncle Ben. His parents leave, but are later
killed in a plane crash.
As a teenager, Peter is a student at Midtown Science High School, where he is bullied by Flash Thompson, and is
romantically interested in the beautiful Gwen Stacy, the daughter of police captain George Stacy. At home, Peter
discovers his father's documents, and learns he had been working with scientist Dr. Curt Connors at Oscorp to
combine human and animal DNA to cure illnesses. Peter sneaks into Oscorp to meet Connors, who is pressured by
his superior Dr. Ratha to complete his serum, and cure the terminally ill head of Oscorp Norman Osborn. Connors
wants the cure himself to restore his missing arm. Meanwhile, Peter breaks into a lab where a "bio-cable"—a high
strength strand of webbing—is created by genetically modified spiders, one of which bites him. During a subway
ride home, a fight reveals that he has developed superhuman speed, strength, the ability to stick to surfaces, and a
heightened sense of danger.
Peter finds an algorithm in his father's documents and gives it to Connors−the missing key to his serum. In school,
Peter damages school property during a confrontation with Flash and Ben is forced to work late so that he can pick
up Peter. Ben tells Peter to escort May home that night. Peter ignores Ben in favor of helping Connors test their
serum on a three-legged mouse. After he returns home, Peter argues with Ben about not picking up May. Ben then
recounts Richard's philosophy of responsibility to Peter, who only leaves in anger after pointing out the hypocrisy.
At a grocery store, the clerk rudely refuses to let Peter buy a drink, and when a thief steals money from the register,
Peter lets the thief escape. Ben, searching the streets for Peter, confronts the thief, but is shot and killed. Peter
responds to the gunshot and finds Ben's body. After seeing a police sketch of the suspect, Peter realizes it was the
thief he let go.
Peter hunts the killer, taking out other criminals as a result and attracting police attention for his vigilante actions.
During one confrontation he falls into an abandoned gym, where a luchador-wrestling poster inspires him to create a
mask to hide his identity. He creates a costume for himself with a spandex suit, and builds wrist-mounted mechanical
devices that shoot biocable strands. Peter, after going to Gwen's house for a dinner "date" with her family, later
reveals he is the vigilante to Gwen and they kiss.
Seeing that the test mouse has regrown its missing limb using lizard DNA, Ratha demands human trials begin
immediately. Connors refuses to risk innocent lives and is fired. Desperate, Connors tests the serum on himself and
his missing arm regenerates. He learns that Ratha is going to test the serum on human subjects and goes to stop him,
but his body begins to mutate. By the time he finds Ratha on the Williamsburg Bridge Connors has transformed into
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
232
a large Lizard-like creature, tossing cars, including Ratha's, over the side of the bridge. Peter, now calling himself
Spider-Man, manages to save Ratha and other civilians. Connors retreats into the sewer and reverts to human form.
Peter later meets Connors in his office and suspects he is the Lizard, and later unsuccessfully confronts Connors'
Lizard form in the sewers, leaving behind his camera. Connors learns Peter's identity via the name on the camera and
pursues him to Midtown Science High School where they fight. In response, the police start a manhunt for both
Spider-Man and Lizard. Connors heads to Oscorp, intending to disperse his serum across the city and make everyone
into lizards, while Gwen develops an antidote in Oscorp's lab. The police corner Spider-Man and Captain Stacy
discovers that he is Peter, but lets him escape to go save Gwen. With the help of the father of a boy he rescued
earlier, Spider-Man reaches Oscorp in time. Spider-Man manages to replace Connors' serum with the antidote,
reverting Connors to human form, but not before Connors mortally wounds Captain Stacy. Spider-Man nearly falls
to his death, but Connors saves him. Before his death, Captain Stacy makes Peter promise to stay away from Gwen
for her safety. He initially keeps the promise, but later admits to Gwen that failed promises are the best kind; she
responds to this with a smile.
In a post-credits scene, Connors, in a dark prison cell, is confronted by a man in the shadows who asks if Connors
told Peter the truth about his father. Connors replies, "No", and demands Peter be left alone before the man
disappears.
1
Cast
• Andrew Garfield as Peter Parker / Spider-Man
[5]
An unpopular adolescent struggling to find his place in life ever since his parents disappeared when he was a
child.
[6][7]
Garfield described Parker as someone he can relate to and stated that the character had been an
important influence on him since he was little.
[8][9][10][11]
Garfield drew from his life experiences as
inspiration for the role, revealing, "I was thinking of my history and thinking of the kid at school who I wasn't
as strong as, who behaved badly to a lot of people – including myself – and who I constantly tried to stand up
to but never had the physical prowess to".
[12]
Discussing his predecessor, Garfield said he respects Tobey
Maguire as an actor and that when he first saw Maguire play Spider-Man he "was blown away by his
interpretation."
[12]
Garfield said in interviews, including one in which he was interviewed by Maguire, that
when he watched the film Spider-Man when he was younger, he would jokingly recite Maguire's lines in the
mirror with a friend who joked that he would never be Spider-Man.
[12][13]
On accepting the role Garfield
explained, "I see it as a massive challenge in many ways... To make it authentic. To make the character live
and breathe in a new way. The audience already has a relationship with many different incarnations of the
character. I do, as well. I'm probably going to be the guy in the movie theater shouting abuse at myself. But I
have to let that go. No turning back. And I wouldn't want to."
[14]
After taking the role, Garfield studied the
movements of athletes and spiders and tried to incorporate them, saying Parker is "a boy/spider in terms of
how he moves, and not just in the suit."
[15][16]
He did yoga and Pilates for the role in order to be as flexible as
possible.
[17]
When first wearing his costume Garfield admitted to shedding tears and trying to imagine "a
better actor in the suit",
[18]
which he described as "uncomfortable" and admitted to wearing nothing beneath it
since it is skintight.
[19]
When filming Garfield explained that he had four months of training and described his
physical roles on stunts as terribly challenging and exhausting.
[20]
• Max Charles portrayed Peter Parker as a 5-year-old.
• Emma Stone as Gwen Stacy
A high school classmate and love interest of Parker's,
[21]
a smart, charismatic and rebellious girl who is the
chief Intern at Oscorp.
[6][7]
For the role, Stone dyed her hair blonde, her natural color, even though she is
better recognized as a redhead.
[22][23]
She felt that she had a responsibility to educate herself on Spider-Man,
admitting she "hadn't read the comic book growing up, and my experience was with the Sam Raimi movies... I
always assumed that Mary Jane was his first love",
[24]
and having only been familiar with Bryce Dallas
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
233
Howard's portrayal in Spider-Man 3.
[25][26][27]
Stone said, "There's a part of me that really wants to please
people [who] love Spider-Man or Gwen Stacy and want her to be done justice. I hope they'll give me license to
interpret her my way."
[23]
• Rhys Ifans as Dr. Curt Connors / Lizard
[28][29]
One of Oscorp's leading scientific minds who attempts to engineer a revolutionary regeneration serum to help
regrow limbs and human tissue. Something goes wrong and he is transformed into the monster known as
Lizard.
[6][7]
In a September 2011 interview, Ifans said his character spends the majority of the film as a
human. While playing the 9-foot tall reptile, Ifans was required to wear a CGI suit. Initially, a large
stunt-double was used as a stand-in for the role, but Ifans insisted on portraying the transformed character.
Commenting on the technology used to bring his character to life, Ifans continued, "I had a green suit on, and
then this cardboard head, and these small claws... Each and every time you see the Lizard, the technology is so
advanced now that when the Lizard's eyes move, they're my eyes. If I frown or show any emotion, they're my
emotions. That's how spectacularly advanced technology is."
[30]
Ifans said that he voiced the man-beast as
well explaining, "I'm sure the voice will be toyed with in the eventual edits, but when I was shooting the CGI
moments, when I wasn't actually human, when I was Lizard, I looked like a crash-test dummy in a green
leotard thing. There were many moments when I had to speak to Andrew Garfield and Emma Stone as the
Lizard."
[31]
• Denis Leary as Captain George Stacy
"This is a Denis Leary you've never seen before — he's not the cool cat bucking the system, he is the system. He's got wit, he's got
an attitude, and he's got 500 officers looking for Spider-Man — who just happens to be dating his daughter."
—Matt Tolmach explaining Leary's character.
[32]
Gwen's father and a New York City Police Department captain who hunts both Spider-Man out of distrust and
Lizard for his rampage.
[33]
Leary explained that he did not know much about Spider-Man in the comics and
was "more of a Batman guy. Not the '60s [TV version] but the really dark Batman. But my wife was a
Spider-Man nut, which was why I went to Tobey Maguire ones."
[34]
He added that long before he was cast as
George Stacy his friend Jeff Garlin, a Spider-Man fan, "said to me, 'The first time I met you, I thought you
were George Stacy!' This was like 30 years ago. I was like, 'What?!'"
[34]
Director Webb said of his casting,
"[W]e all trust Denis Leary. He's got this attitude, but you love him. In this movie, he puts pressure on Peter
Parker. He's on Spider-Man's case, but you understand him. I've said this before, but good drama comes from
competing ideas of what's good."
[35]
• Martin Sheen as Ben Parker
Peter's uncle.
[36]
Sheen admitted he was unfamiliar with Spider-Man other than Maguire's portrayal, and knew
little of the character Ben Parker except for knowing Cliff Robertson had played the part.
[37]
Sheen described
his character as a surrogate father, saying, "I'm dealing with this adolescent who is having problems with
changes, with hormones changing and his getting out of hand. I have to give him the marching orders and so
forth."
[38]
Webb said, "You think of Martin Sheen as President Bartlet [of TV's The West Wing]. He has that
sense of benevolent authority, but there's something else that's important, in terms of the dynamic that I
wanted to explore, vis-à-vis Peter's relationship with his absent parents." Webb felt that unlike the
scientifically-inclined Peter, Uncle Ben represented the blue collar working man, a gap that could create a
dynamic between the characters.
[35]
• Sally Field as May Parker
Ben Parker's wife and Peter's aunt.
[39][40]
Field said the main reason she felt she had to be in the film was
because of producer Laura Ziskin (they worked together on the 1985 film Murphy's Romance) because she had
an instinct that this was to be Ziskin's last film. After Ziskin's death Field expressed her gratitude of being a
part of both her first and last film.
[41]
Director Webb felt that "when you cast someone like Sally, they come
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
234
with a certain level of awareness and real genuine affection, which for Aunt May is an incredibly important
thing to have." Webb said that while "we all love Aunt May", he wanted to create a tension between May and
Peter. "He's got bruises on his face, and what happens in that moment? That can create some tension, but you
want there to be love there. That's what someone like Sally Field gives you."
[35]
• Irrfan Khan as Dr. Rajit Ratha
[6][42]
An Oscorp executive, Connors' immediate superior.
[43]
Khan said he was offered what he described as this
"pivotal role" after appearing in the TV drama series In Treatment.
[44][45]
Webb described himself as a fan of
the actor when watching the series along with the films The Namesake and The Warrior.
[43]
Khan said he was
uninterested in the project at first but that his sons were excited about it and insisted he take the role.
[46]
• Chris Zylka as Flash Thompson
A high school nemesis who picks on Parker.
[47]
Of playing the role, Zylka said, "You just try to focus. As an
artist or as an actor, you just try to focus and stay in that world and block it all out."
[48]
Campbell Scott and Embeth Davidtz portray Peter's parents, Richard and Mary Parker.
[49][50]
C. Thomas Howell
plays a character named Ray whose son is saved by Spider-Man in the Williamsburg Bridge scene.
[51]
Hannah
Marks portrays Missy Kallenback, an unpopular girl who has a crush on Peter.
[52]
Kelsey Chow has a small role: she
identified her character in an interview as high-school classmate Sally Avril,
[53]
but who is unnamed onscreen and
credited solely as "Hot girl". Unlike the previous films, J. Jonah Jameson does not appear.
[54]
Spider-Man co-creator
Stan Lee has a cameo appearance, as he did in the previous films. At the 2011 Dallas Comic Con, Lee detailed that
he plays a librarian listening to music on his headphones while stamping books, oblivious to the ongoing battle.
[55]
Michael Massee plays the mysterious man in the shadows who talks with Connors in his prison cell in a teaser scene
during the end credits.
[56]
As to the man's identity, director Marc Webb said, "It's intentionally mysterious. And I
invite speculation..."
[57]
Themes and analysis
"I have tried to capture how Peter copes with the feelings of being an underdog, his confusions and his self-doubt. This, I hope, has
brought, a certain empathy and sensitivity to his character that explains how it helps him become the hero that he eventually turns
out to be."
—Andrew Garfield
[58]
Webb described the film as "a story about a kid who grows up looking for his father and finds himself."
[59]
Both
Webb and star Garfield described Parker as an outsider by choice, someone hard to get close to.
[59][60]
As in the
early comic books, the character "is a science whiz. If you look back to the early Stan Lee and Steve Ditko comics,
he's a nerd with big glasses," said Webb. He explained "the idea of what a nerd is has changed in 40 or 50 years.
Nerds are running the world. Andrew Garfield made a movie [called The Social Network] about it. ... What was
important in those early comics was this notion that Peter Parker is an outsider and how we define that in a
contemporary context."
[61]
Garfield compared his Spider-Man façade as a metaphor for internet anonymity, saying,
"You feel the power of it, the power of not being seen, the power of the mask. Peter becomes witty when he's got
that protective layer. It's like he's on a message board. He's got the anonymity of the Internet within that suit, and he
can say whatever the hell he likes, and he can get away with anything."
[62]
Garfield tried to explore Parker as an
orphan, whom he feels "are the strongest human beings on the planet."
[58]
He said Parker is "a human hero [who]
goes through all of the same struggles that we all have gone through, especially the skinny ones [who] want more
power than they feel they have." He believes Parker represents "a very inspiring, aspirational character that
symbolizes goodness — and how difficult it is to be good — but how worth it is."
[16]
Rhys Ifans compared this film
to William Shakespeare's Hamlet on the grounds that Spider-Man can be redone over and over in different ways. He
felt that they are similar in that they both represent meaningful archetypal young men grappling with the loss of their
father.
[63]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
235
Stone described her character as "a daddy's girl" who is very responsible and protective of her family and loves
science.
[24][64]
She said her character "offers Parker a world of stability, of a family unit not marred with parental
loss and, beyond physical allure, the two forge an intellectual connection over their shared love of science."
[24]
Her
character, she explained, "is stuck between [her father] the Captain and Peter Parker and Spider-Man, who have
different ways about going about finding justice in their lives" which she felt was a fun thing to explore.
[25]
Rhys Ifans described the character that he is portraying
as a villain as similar to Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde from
the classic book of the same name.
Webb felt that Lizard was the best villain because, "He's the literal
embodiment of the theme of the movie, which is we all have a
missing piece. He has no arm. Peter has no parents, and he fills
that void with Spider-Man."
[65]
Producer Avi Avrad felt likewise,
explaining, "[Y]ou look at Peter, he misses the parents, [and]
Connors has one arm. ...[E]motionally, [it] is a very similar
problem. It is a cautionary tale."
[66]
Webb said Lizard "is not the
worst villain on the planet. He's not a mustache-twirling guy who
wants to terrorize people. He believes he's doing the right
thing."
[67][68]
Actor Rhys Ifans described his character as a flawed
character, much as with Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde.
[69]
"Curt
Connors is by no means an evil villain," Ifans stated. "He's not like
the Batman villains, like the Joker, who are the embodiment of
evil. Curtis Connors is a great man who makes a bad decision. ... [T]hat's the whole magic of the Spider-Man idea.
These people are the embodiment of our flaws and our desires that lead to tragedy."
[70]
Ifans described Connors as a
force for good throughout his life: "He's a geneticist who wants to help people, like him, who are limbless. In his
eagerness to advance that science, he makes a mistake and that's an occurrence we've seen throughout time,
sometimes to our benefit, sometimes to our detriment. ...He is a broken man who wants to fix himself."
[71]
Ifans
added, "I'm not portraying a villain in any sense. Connors does feel cheated by God, and he's looking for answers in
science. God seems to intervene."
[67][68]
Webb said that Oscorp Tower is pivotal as a part of a new mythology of the film. He liked that Parker was connected
to the building in some way and to think of it as "a Tower of Babel in the middle of Manhattan that has something
dark and seedy going on in there."
[72]
Production
Development
Following the release of Spider-Man 3, Sony Pictures Entertainment had announced a May 5, 2011, release date for
Sam Raimi's next film in the earlier series. By this time, screenwriters James Vanderbilt, David Lindsay-Abaire and
Gary Ross had all written rejected versions of a script and Ziskin's husband Alvin Sargent, who wrote the second and
third films was working on yet another attempt.
[73][74]
Raimi wanted John Malkovich to play his next villain.
[73]
However, on January 11, 2010, Columbia Pictures and Marvel Studios announced that rather than continue the
earlier saga, they were rebooting the series with a new cast and crew. Industry reports claimed that Raimi had
admitted that he could not meet the scheduled release date and retain creative integrity.
[75]
Avi Arad, Matt Tolmach
and Ziskin continued as producers.
[75]
Arad later explained, "We were working on what we called Spider-Man 4 and it was the same team [as with the first
three films]. The problem was we didn't have a story that was strong enough and warranted ... another movie. And
Sam Raimi ... realized we [didn't] have a good reason to make another one. And between [him] and Tobey and
obviously the studio, we all went into it not feeling good about the next story."
[76]
Tolmach said one reason to restart
the series was that the producers felt the core Spider-Man story was that of a boy becoming a man.
[77]
Screenwriter
Steve Kloves did a polish of Sargent's script, saying he had originally declined the opportunity to do so but relented
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
236
"as a favor" to the filmmakers.
[78]
"I also really wanted to write for Emma Stone, because I like to write for women
and I particularly like Emma," he explained. "So ...I did basically character and dialogue, and that was enjoyable for
me. So that was my hand in it. And I did a little plot work, but a lot of the plot was done." He did "a little bit" of
dialog for Andrew Garfield's Peter Parker / Spider-Man.
[78]
In April 2012, writer-director Paul Feig said that Webb
"invited me on set, and I did a little bit of writing for that movie, for one of the high school scenes".
[79]
"When you walk out of the theater, I want the world you see to resemble what you saw on the screen. Part of the joy of cinema [is
that] you make the impossible look real. I wanted it to be more grounded and more realistic and that went for the emotion of the
scenes, the physical action and wardrobe. It's less based in Steve Ditko world and probably closer visually and more influenced by
"Ultimate Spider-Man" but it is also very much a world of our own devising."
—Marc Webb in an interview with the Los Angeles Times
[61]
Days after announcing Raimi's departure, the studio announced that Webb, whose previous film (500) Days of
Summer was his directorial debut, would direct the reboot.
[80][81]
Tolmach, now president of Columbia Pictures and
Amy Pascal, co-chairman of Sony Pictures Entertainment, said they looked for a director who could give sharp focus
to Parker's life.
[80]
Webb said he "was a little sceptical at first — you feel the presence of those other movies. But
then I was like, 'How could I walk away from this? What an opportunity!'"
[82]
Webb said in the press release
announcing him that, "Sam Raimi's virtuoso rendering of Spider-Man is a humbling precedent to follow and build
upon. The first three films are beloved for good reason. But I think the Spider-Man mythology transcends not only
generations but directors as well. I am signing on not to 'take over' from Sam. That would be impossible. Not to
mention arrogant. I'm here because there's an opportunity for ideas, stories, and histories that will add a new
dimension, canvas, and creative voice to Spider-Man."
[80]
Webb felt Spider-Man is different from the Harry Potter
franchise, which is based on a small number of novels and "more like James Bond" because "there's so much
material in Spider-Man that there are so many stories to tell and so many characters."
[83]
He described the film as
"not a remake" explaining that "we're not making Sam's movie again. It's a different universe and a different story
with different characters."
[84]
Casting
Rhys Ifans portrays Dr. Curt
Connors, who transforms into a
humanoid lizard after experimenting
upon himself.
In May 2010, The Hollywood Reporter said the actors who met with Webb to be
considered for the lead role included Jamie Bell, Alden Ehrenreich, Frank
Dillane, Garfield and Josh Hutcherson.
[85]
In June 2010 the Los Angeles Times
reported that the shortlist had expanded to include Aaron Johnson and Anton
Yelchin.
[86]
At least Bell, Ehrenreich, Garfield, Yelchin, Logan Lerman and
Michael Angarano had screen tests.
[87]
On July 1, 2010, the choice of Garfield
was confirmed.
[5]
Webb stated that he felt he knew Garfield was the right guy
when they were filming a cutscene where he was eating a cheeseburger while
telling Gwen to calm down.
[88]
Sony then held auditions for the role of the young Peter, who needed to resemble
Garfield.
[89]
Webb said, "I think we saw the origin of Spider-Man before but not
the origin of Peter Parker." Webb felt that when you try to build the film you
must build the protagonist from the ground up. That's why he wanted Parker to
begin as a child.
[59]
It was reported originally that the film would feature both Mary Jane Watson and
Gwen Stacy as love interests,
[90]
but the website The Wrap later reported that
only Gwen Stacy would appear.
[91]
In August 2010, the list of candidates included Imogen Poots, Ophelia Lovibond
and Lily Collins, with Teresa Palmer, Mary Elizabeth Winstead and Emma Roberts cited by The Hollywood
Reporter as "potentially in the mix".
[92]
In September 2010, Variety reported that the shortlist had expanded to
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
237
include Stone and Mia Wasikowska.
[93]
The shortlist was reported to then include Dianna Agron, Georgina Haig and
Dominique McElligott.
[94]
On October 5, 2010, the choice of Stone was confirmed.
[21]
Webb noted that the
chemistry between Emma and Garfield made her the clear choice.
[21]
That chemistry inspired their off-screen
romance.
[11]
On October 11, 2010, Rhys Ifans was confirmed to be the unnamed villain and two days later his character was
revealed to be Dr. Curt Connors/Lizard.
[28][95]
Arad said that Lizard is his favorite Spider-Man villain and he had
long wanted to use him in a film.
[26]
Well before the choice of villain, Arad had had conceptual drawings prepared
for the character.
[26]
In November 2010, Martin Sheen was reported to be Uncle Ben while Sally Field was in negotiations to play Aunt
May.
[36][39]
Also that month, Denis Leary was reported to accept the role of George Stacy.
[33]
In December 2010,
Campbell Scott and Julianne Nicholson were in negotiations to play Peter's parents. Khan was originally reported as
playing Van Adder until the character's name was revealed to be Dr. Ratha.
[42][49]
Embeth Davidtz then replaced
Nicholson.
[50]
Annie Parisse was originally reported to play "the villain's wife" and Miles Elliot was reported to
portray Billy Connors, son of Dr. Connors; but they did not appear in the final cut of the film.
[29][49]
Design
Webb felt a responsibility to reinvent Spider-Man, stating that he and the crew wanted to keep the stunts more
grounded physically, a challenge for a superhuman character.
[61]
Webb liked the Mark Bagley art in Ultimate
Spider-Man for the hero's body.
[96]
One reinvention for the film was to adopt the convention from the mainstream
Spider-Man that gave him artificial web-shooters.
[97]
Writer Geoff Boucher of the Los Angeles Times was skeptical
of the change feeling that it was too hard to believe that a financially strapped young man could conceive a
wrist-worn device that can instantly produce a strand of synthetic webbing.
[98]
Despite the skepticism, Webb felt that
"the web-shooters were able to dramatize Peter's intellect". Webb paid attention to the question of "How would a kid
make it?" And then took some license with it. About the new costume, Webb explained that he and the crew "wanted
a design that would make the body longer and more lithe, more of an acrobat, someone incredibly agile and the legs
of the spider [symbol on the chest] were something we used to emphasize that."
[97]
He revealed that the film used
varying suits for different lighting conditions.
[97]
They made the webbing on the costume a little bit darker.
[97]
Webb
stated that "With the costume and the web-shooters we wanted to emphasize that these are things that Peter Parker
made".
[97]
While Webb introduced a few elements from Ultimate Spider-Man, he wanted to keep the mainstream version of
Gwen Stacy instead of that world's punk rocker.
[96]
The release of Lizard merchandise designs along with unconfirmed concept art featuring a humanoid-shape with a
layer of scales on top instead of a pronounced snout (similar to a dinosaur or crocodile) as in the most recent comics,
produced a mixed reaction. Many commenters compared it to other fictional characters instead of his rendering in
comics.
[99][100][101]
Russ Fischer of /Film described the character as looking more "Steve Ditko derived" (the
character's original artist).
[102]
Webb felt that there are different incarnations of Lizard in the comic book. He felt
that he should do it without the snout because he was interested more in human emotions, because he wanted to keep
Rhys' presence in the creature. Webb wanted him to have emotion, have a face and have feeling.
[35]
He stated "that
in a comic book, you just put that thing up there, and you can say, oh, thought bubble, whatever. But when you try to
do that and make it look real, it's a different challenge, and I'm creating a movie, I'm not creating a comic book. That
was part of the design."
[96]
Webb "wanted to do something that felt more contemporary, and was less based in representing panels from the
comics" and focus on spirit over style.
[103]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
238
Filming
Principal photography began on December 6, 2010, in Los Angeles.
[104][105]
The working title was Fiona's Tale.
[106]
The 90-day shoot included two weeks in New York City, while the bulk of filming occurred in and around Los
Angeles, including such locations as the Henry Fonda Theater in Hollywood, St. John Bosco High School's Gym,
Immanuel Presbyterian Church in Mid-Wilshire and various locations around South Pasadena, San Pedro and
Woodland Hills.
[107]
Sony Entertainment spokesman Steve Elzer explained, "[T]here is a comfort level in producing
a project of this size and scope on your own backlot. ...Basing the film on the lot also makes it easier for producers to
interact with Sony's in-house visual effects team, and gives the studios greater control of quality and security."
[107]
Some location shooting took place in New York City. The Alexander Hamilton U.S. Custom House served as the
exterior for NYPD headquarters and an apartment house at 15 West 81st Street, on Manhattan's Upper West Side,
was used as the exterior for the home of Gwen Stacy and her family. A row of houses on Fuller Place in the
Brooklyn neighborhood of Windsor Terrace stood in for the Forest Hills, Queens neighborhood of Ben and May
Parker. A web-swinging stunt sequence takes place along the Riverside Drive Viaduct in Harlem.
[108]
The film was the first Hollywood production to be filmed with the Red Digital Cinema Camera Company's RED
Epic camera and was shot in 3-D at 5K resolution.
[105]
Cinematographer John Schwartzman had this to say about the
camera: "Today was Epic, Monday December 6 marks the first day the Red Epic camera was used to shoot a major
studio motion picture. I can say for certainty the camera does exist and boy is it ready for primetime, as a matter of
fact it's a true game changer."
[105]
Schwartzman felt that the 3D would have been impossible without it. He said, "I
can tell you without these cameras it would be impossible to move a 3D rig in the ways that this story demands, if
Jim and the crew hadn't made these cameras available to us I don't think we could have shot this movie the way our
director envisioned it in 3D."
[105]
Webb wanted cameras small enough to fit on the rigs and swing around very fast,
saying that the "RED Epic cameras were the right cameras to do that." Webb continued that "you need to shoot it
with a level of velocity and 3D cameras can be very large... and so we need those cameras to mount on rigs that
could fly to the air and run to the streets in a certain pace. That allowed us to do it."
[109]
The Amazing Spider-Man's
climax was filmed in a 1:78:1 aspect ratio for its IMax DMR release.
[110]
Some of the filming locations in New York City
were near East River close to the Williamsburg
Bridge as shown above. However, most of the
action scenes could not be done there. A 150-foot
replica of a piece of the bridge near a tank had to
be replaced for some of the action scenes in Los
Angeles and some tighter shots and close-ups
were done on a soundstage in New York
City.
[103]
On April 2011, Stone revealed that the cinematography had wrapped
and that post-production began in May although some reshooting took
place in New York City in November 2011 and in Los Angeles in
December 2011.
[111][112][113]
Stunts
The stunt performers included the Armstrong family,
[61]
Vic
[114]
and
Andy, along with Richard Norton who plays a SWAT team
member.
[115][116]
Andy Armstrong was the stunt coordinator while Vic
was the second unit director.
[109]
To determine how Spider-Man
should swing Andy videotaped an Olympic Games gymnast swinging
on a horizontal bar.
[117]
Andy noted that in the computer-generated
swing in the earlier Spider-Man films, "he swings down at the same
speed as he swings up," and this "constant" speed is unlike a real
gymnast's movement where "he's accelerating until he reaches the bottom, then as he starts to come up, he's
decelerating until he gets to the top of his swing and he actually gets negative gravity, where he'll go weightless for a
second, and then the next swing starts, and it becomes another violent swing again."
[118]
Vic felt that Spider-Man
moves were comparable to those of Tarzan and he wanted to add that in the film.
[119]
While filming in New York
City, they swung a man through traffic down the street. Then, while the crew built a rig hundreds of feet long over
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
239
Riverside Drive in Harlem, Andy built a car rig with a series of wires to help with effects which Webb said required
an "incredible wealth of acrobatics".
[116]
These rigs were over 200–300 feet long and demanded months of
rehearsals and design.
[109]
According to Andy, operating the rigs "was a combination of a lot of human skills and
mechanical engineering."
[118]
The purpose of the rigs was to depict Spider-Man's swing in a way that wasn't
computer-generated.
[61]
Garfield was reported to be involved with some of the stunts.
[120]
Leaked pictures reveal
Garfield with a nosebleed that reports claimed was from swinging.
[121]
Arad explained that "Andrew is not only a
brilliant actor but he is a sportsman. This gave us the opportunity to try things with him that were it not so it would
have been almost impossible."
[66]
Effects
The company 3ality Technica of Burbank, California produced some of the equipment.
[122][123]
The film was
reported to be the first to adopt 3ality Digital's TS-5 wireless and handheld beamsplitter mirror rig.
[124]
3ality
technology helped make it possible to avoid 2D to 3D conversion.
[122]
Webb wanted a new 3D experience for
Spider-Man: "Because we're shooting in 3D, I wanted to conceive of certain things very specifically for 3D. There's
an experimental component to 3D that's fascinating and we're experimenting with generating that point of view – so
you feel what Peter Parker feels, you feel what Spider-Man feels when he's jumping over buildings and over the
streets."
[116]
He felt that Spider-Man was ideal for 3D, admitting that they "started making the movie around the time
Avatar came out" which made every studio want 3D. This was Webb's first film using the technique and he did not
want a force-fit or clumsy conversion as he had seen in other films.
[83][125][125]
Webb cited childhood films such as
Creature from the Black Lagoon and House of Wax for inspirations to push the 3D in his film even further than the
type of depth that James Cameron uses in his film.
[35]
An entire staff was dedicated to make Lizard lifelike. They started by thinking about lizard biology and how his
muscles would work.
[126]
A large man referred to as "Big John" stood in as the character during shooting,
performing much of the interaction with other characters.
[35]
The computer-generated lizard replaced him in
post-production.
[35]
Ifans used motion capture for Lizard's speaking parts, which Webb found challenging to
incorporate into the character's final version.
[35][96]
In February 2012, Sony Pictures Imageworks gave the film a digital touch-up in Vancouver.
[127]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
240
Music
James Horner scored the film.
[128]
Webb described Horner's first musical cue as "spectacular". Webb said, "I wanted
to to create a score that felt massive and huge but also intimate and small."
[129]
The film also features music by
Coldplay, the song: 'til Kingdom Come, from the Album X&Y.
[130]
In May 2012, Sony Classical revealed details
about the soundtrack.
[131]
Marketing
Spider-Man's stunt double shoots a
Hardees/Carl's Jr. commercial
promoting the film.
In February 2011, with the launch of the official website, the title and first
official image of Garfield as Spider-Man were revealed.
[132][133]
Geoff Boucher
of the Los Angeles Times noted "the suit lives up to the challenge of being
different from the Sam Raimi films but not too different from the classic suit that
stands as one of the great comic-book costumes ever."
[98]
Matt Goldberg of
Collider admitted the he was not crazy about it, explaining that the bug-yellow
eyes felt weird to him and the mesh-pattern felt too busy. He explained that the
design of the gloves caused flashbacks to the Spider-Man 2099 costume which
he didn't like, although he felt that the web-shooters looked fine.
[134]
Walmart provided tours for the film and offered exclusive never-before-seen
footage.
[135]
Merchandising
A Spider-Man and Lizard PEZ dispenser revealed at the Comic-Con in
November 2011 first depicted the film-Lizard.
[136]
In December 2011, it was
revealed that Mega Brands had the rights to produce construction sets.
[137][138]
A Marvel Select Spider-Man action
figure by Diamond Select Toys was announced on January 2012 — the fifth Marvel Select Spider-Man figure, but
the first based on a film.
[139]
The first look at a Hasbro action figure of the film's version of Spider-Man was
revealed in Comic-Con in July 2011.
[140]
Hasbro made a radio control speed-climbing figure.
[141]
Minimates made
action figures from the film.
[142]
Other companies releasing action figures for the film include Hot Toys, MediCom
and Kaiyodo.
[143]
OPI Products released a collection of The Amazing Spider-Man nail polish.
[144]
Trading cards are
available.
[145]
CKE Restaurants, parent company of Carls Jr. and Hardee's, helped sponsor the film. Chief marketing officer Brad
Haley said they would market a new burger as part of the promotion.
[146]
The burger was dubbed "The Amazing
Grilled Cheese Bacon Burger". It was promoted through film-themed commercials and radio ads featuring Stan Lee.
Spider-Man themed premiums were offered as part of the Cool Kid's Combo. Tours and PlayStation 3 game prizes
were part of the promotion along with a video game.
[147]
Big Cola was reported to enter a deal for promoting the
film.
[148]
The Kellogg Company and the Keebler Company built marketing campaigns around clips from the film.
[149]
Sony
launched a new augmented reality mobile application for the film using Qualcomm's Vuforia platform. Sony's
Dwight Caines felt that the "use of augmented reality technology is a fun way of embracing the 3D aspects of the
movie while nurturing the playful kid inside all of us who wants to collect items from their favorite superhero
character to share with their friends and family."
[150]
Twizzlers challenged fans nationwide to help the hero build a
virtual web of Twizzlers Twists to unlock prizes and exclusive content.
[151]
D-Box Technologies provide motion
simulation for the film in select theaters.
[152]
As is common in Sony films, Sony product placements abounded, replacing the ubiquitous Apple Computer products
often used by other studios. The film's mobile phones, tablets, monitors and laptops all came from other Sony
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
241
divisions. Other placements included Microsoft's Bing search engine.
[153]
Previews
A teaser trailer was leaked on the Internet and aired at San Diego's Comic-Con International in July 2011, attached to
the superhero film Captain America: The First Avenger.
[154]
Rob Keyes of Screen Rant felt that "it takes on a
noticeably different tone from that of Raimi trilogy of Spider-Man movies, and presents itself in a similar fashion to
what Christopher Nolan did with Batman Begins."
[155]
Some writers have observed that the trailer closely resembles
the 2008 video game Mirror's Edge.
[156][157][158]
After the third trailer was released, Webb defended the point of
view footage, saying it was an early rendering and that the CGI was still in production.
[35]
A "sneak peek screening" of The Amazing Spider-Man was held on February 6, 2012 in 13 cities internationally:
Berlin, London, Los Angeles, Madrid, Mexico City, Moscow, New York City, Paris, Rio de Janeiro, Rome, Seoul,
Sydney and Tokyo.
[159]
On January 8, 2012, the Spider-Man logo appeared on some of the world's most iconic
buildings such as the Sydney Opera House, the Colosseum of Rome, the Kremlin in Moscow and the Arc de
Triomphe in Paris.
[160][161]
The screening revealed a second trailer in 3D, which thereafter appeared online. Glen
Levy of Time magazine felt that the trailer's "dialogue goes hand in hand with the action, rather than be dominated
by it" and that the action scenes from the film looked "polished and slick".
[162]
The special screening included an
eight and a half minute extended trailer.
[163]
Scott Mantz of Access Hollywood felt that the extended footage seemed
is edgier and more character-driven and that "the Lizard looks like a great villain".
[164]
Peter Sciretta of /Film said
that the trailers had left him "impressed" and had captured a feeling of dark naturalism alongside Spider-Man's
trademark wisecracking.
[165]
With the second official trailer and the sizzle reel, Webb felt that it was important to
provide a more specific idea of the film, such as showcasing Peter and Gwen's relationship and the visual effects, just
to display the attitude of the film that he and the crew were trying to create.
[166]
On February 7, 2012 it was reported
that the latest official trailer revealed a link to the viral marketing internet site for the film.
[167]
A third official trailer debuted on iTunes on May 3, 2012. The trailer was attached to the 3D première of The
Avengers, the day after.
[168][169]
The trailer contains what most reporters called a better and more fleshed
Lizard.
[168][170][171][172]
Adam Chitwood of Collider said, "The webslinging has an edge to it and The Lizard has
much more texture. I like Andrew Garfield a whole lot, and the biggest draw for me here is the character work
between Garfield and Emma Stone. They look to have some great chemistry and Garfield brings out a... side of Peter
Parker that we didn't really see in Sam Raimi's trilogy."
[173]
Sandy Schaefer of ScreenRant felt that "the darker color
palette and 3D visuals shown here look overall quite crisp, even without the benefit of the big screen."
[169]
Webb felt
that "there's a small, intimate little indie movie at the heart of Spider-Man".
[35]
In May 9, 2012 the first television trailer was revealed which teased an "4 minute Super Preview" on NBC with the
season premiere of America's Got Talent on May 14.
[174]
The super preview revealed Spider-Man saving a boy near
a bridge.
[175][176]
Fans and writers rated that scene the highest in the trailer.
[177][178]
Angela Watercutter of Wired
the rescue scene as "pretty freaking epic."
[178]
Kofi Outlaw of Screen Rant felt that the biggest thing to note "is the
tone and composition of the film" and that most of the footage "manages to showcase a version of Peter
Parker/Spider-Man that is both familiar and fresh."
[179]
A six-minute 3D preview was tied in with IMAX 3D showings of Men in Black 3.
[180]
Sony's Rory Bruer explained
that the audience of Men in Black 3 should be a perfect match for this footage and that the six minutes should get
everyone excited.
[181]
The footage revealed an exchange between Peter and Gwen that Brad Williams from
WhatCulture.com described as "brief and cutesy". Brad found the CGI pretty clean and felt that the film seemed like
a perfect match for 3D.
[182]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
242
Viral campaign
Graffiti of the logo of Spider-Man done in
Seattle, Washington by operatives for the viral
campaign for The Amazing Spider-Man.
The main viral marketing site was revealed in the second trailer in
February 2012.
[167]
The official Twitter account revealed a scavenger
hunt by posting "Property of Peter Parker... Lost" with the longitude
and latitude coordinates of direct markets in major US cities. The
missing items included a JanSport backpack. One of the clues hidden
in the backpack was a link to a page on the viral site that unlocked
countdown timers for the cities of Los Angeles, New York City,
Atlanta, Denver, Seattle and Phoenix, Arizona.
[183][184]
Once the
countdown was up, each of the city-specific Twitter accounts for the
marketing campaign sent out five locations in each city. A person at
each spot waited to give the first person with the password a package
and the tag-name "operative".
[185]
These operatives painted the
Spider-Man logo as graffiti.
[186]
They could view the first scene.
[187]
The main viral website revealed hints to other
websites, such as a photo blog that expressed Peter Parker's point of view.
[188][189]
An unlocked puzzle there
revealed the words "evolve", "through" and "engineering" which when put together led to another website with
design sketches on how to build a web-shooter.
[189][190][191]
A Daily Bugle website revealed Denis Leary as George Stacy lamenting the appearance of the wall-crawler and
asking whoever spots Spider-Man to e-mail him. The site hosted the best fan-made Spider-Man scenes.
[192][193]
People who uploaded images of "Spider-Man" on the "Webbed Menace" viral site received a poster that sent them to
a website for a boxing gym called "Jerera's Boxing Gym".
[194]
The Gym was funded by Peter Parker's school. A
viral website of that class was discovered. Entering the correct password revealed Parker's class schedule. The
Midtown High School site then revealed a Twitter user tracking down Lizard and asked people in Los Angeles, New
York City, Atlanta, Chicago, Salt Lake City, Las Vegas, Phoenix, Austin, Tampa, Minneapolis and New Orleans to
stay tuned for details.
[195][196]
A viral site for Oscorp Industries was available.
[197]
The Twitter account that
coordinated a nationwide effort to track Lizard sightings revealed locations that had packages containing Connor's
shredded lab coat, an Oscorp ID badge and scientific samples of reptilian skin. When unscrambling the letters listed
on each sample, the words "animal dynamics lab" led players to a new Oscorp Industries site focusing on a science
program about reptile genetics. The site depicts Doctor Connors search for interns who could begin applying on May
14.
[198]
Completing the application and supplying the keyword "Mutagen" unveiled a Lizard featurette.
[199][200]
The
Oscorp Industries website contained puzzles that revealed two in-game documents, two video updates featuring
Connors and a following cipher that as of July 2012 had yet to be cracked. From there images were then
unscrambled, revealing a research project with spiders, a letter from Mary Parker to Richard Parker that exposed his
workaholic habits and a Daily Bugle newspaper that contained notes about Oscorp.
[201]
On May 30, 2012, the third (and apparently final) set of challenges in the Animal Dynamics Lab was launched with
two new video updates of Doctor Connors, an image of Richard and Mary Parker, letters from Rajit Ratha to Doctor
Connors, one from Doctor Connors to Richard Parker and another note to Richard from Mary.
[202]
In June 1, 2012, a
Carl's Jr. in Glendale, California hosted the next viral campaign by decorating webs and declaring a crime scene due
to Spider-Man's apprehension of a serial car and motorcycle thief. It was announced via The Mark of the Spider-Man
Twitter feed and with the code word "Web of Crime", a hidden message was discovered, entitled a "Spider cipher".
The code name "adhere" named another sub-site of the Mark of the Spider-Man campaign that revealed crime
reports.
[203]
Oliver Lyttleton of indieWire felt that viral ads such as the webbed menace website seemed a little forced and
cribbed heavily from the example set by The Dark Knight with viral games.
[204]
Silas Lesnick of SuperheroHype!,
on the other hand, described the film's viral as "one of the most comprehensive film virals to date".
[195]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
243
Philanthropy
T-shirts depicting the film's Spider-Man to help the cause for Stand Up to Cancer were available. Garfield wore the
shirt, explaining that "these shirts underscore the idea that anyone has the power to be a hero. Cancer is one of our
greatest villains. I'm proud to join others in standing up to this disease."
[205]
Ziskin's death from cancer was used as
inspiration for the cause.
[206]
Sony created a website for the cause.
[207]
Columbia Pictures teamed up with New York
City cultural institutions to create "Spider-Man week" by helping out in the community.
[208]
Release
On February 10, 2010, Sony announced that the film would be released in 3D and IMAX 3D on July 3, 2012.
Release dates outside the US were moved up to June in other countries to increase first-week sales.
[209][210][211][212]
Premieres took place in Tokyo, Japan on June 13.
[2]
Critical reception
The Amazing Spider-Man received mostly positive reviews by critics upon release. The review aggregator film site
Rotten Tomatoes reported a 73% approval rating, based on 275 reviews, with an average rating of 6.7/10. The
consensus: "A well-chosen cast and sure-handed direction allows The Amazing Spider-Man to thrill despite revisiting
many of the same plot points from 2002's Spider-Man."
[213]
On Metacritic, as of July 5, the film had received an
average score of 66 out of 100, based on 42 critics, signifying "Generally favorable reviews".
[214]
CinemaScore's
audience graded it an A-.
[215]
Jordan Mintzer of The Hollywood Reporter felt that the film was satisfying, explaining that Webb directed with
emotional and comedic touches and provided a darker depiction and a stronger romance than the original.
[1]
Boyd
Van Hoeija of Variety described the film as a "mostly slick, entertaining and emotionally involving recombination of
fresh and familiar elements". He said Garfield makes an interesting hero of the film because "his struggles involve
real people — and real lives."
[216]
A columnist of The Village Voice, Chris Pakham felt that the film was faithful to
the comics and that "Garfield's spindly physicality evokes the Marvel illustrations of the 1960s."
[217]
Conversely,
Lou Lemenick of the New York Post wrote that the film was dull and uninspiring and felt that it did not compare to
Batman Begins and was "a pointless rehash in the mode of Superman Returns."
[218]
New Yorker critic Anthony Lane
described the film as "running out of nimbleness and fun, and the promise contained in its title seems ever more
tendentious."
[219]
Kenneth Turan of the Los Angeles Times called the film "memorable in pieces but not as a whole"
and said that its best element is the relationship between Peter and Gwen, while the Lizard is not quite an opponent
for the ages."
[220]
Lisa Schwarzbaum of Entertainment Weekly gave the film an A- describing the film as "a friskier, sweeter-natured
variation when compared to Raimi's work. She explained that the most "amazing" element was "not the...
blockbuster wow!" but instead "the... intimate awww."
[221]
Claudia Puig of USA Today explained that "as a new
chapter in the superpowered arachnid saga, it stands on its own quite nicely, focusing more on human emotions than
on a panoply of special effects." She said "where Tobey Maguire in the original Spider-Man trilogy was earnest,
Garfield's Spider-Man is whip-smart and likably cheeky, with an undercurrent of teenage angst." She also described
the film "as much a coming-of-age story as a crime-fighting action saga."
[222]
Christy Lemire of the Associated Press
described Garfield' Spidey as an arrogant and misunderstood outsider, giving the film a "restless, reckless energy and
a welcome sense of danger." She also concluded that Webb was a different sort of director, saying that while Webb's
big set pieces lacked Raimi's imagination, they conveyed "emotional truth" and "a pervasive sense of humanity".
[223]
However, Ty Burr of The Boston Globe felt that the film lacked the original's pop grace and the pulpy joy saying the
film was "dumbed down, tarted up" and "almost shockingly uninspired". Burr evaluated it as "the worst superhero
film since Green Lantern".
[224]
Also Colin Covert of the Star Tribune felt that it is weaker than its predecessor and
described it as "The Notebook in spandex".
[225]
Roger Ebert of the Chicago Sun-Times felt that the reboot provided
better reasons for why Peter Parker adopts his superhero role, even if the origin story didn't need to be told once
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
244
again. He also remarked that it was "probably the second best" of the four Spider-Man films after Spider-Man 2
explaining that Lizard was lackluster compared to Doctor Octopus and had the dramatic range of Godzilla.
[226]
Joe Morgenstern of The Wall Street Journal, pointed out that "the truly amazing thing is that most of what happens
to Peter Parker in the first half of the film has already happened in previous chapters of the Spidey saga", that "what's
old is old again."
[227]
However, Randy Myers from the San Jose Mercury News found it "the best Spidey yet",
describing it as "strong, bold and well-acted." He felt that you can't help but feel déjà vu, but that the work shows
greater "dimension".
[228]
Dana Stevens at Slate magazine believed that the film was "absolutely unnecessary"
retelling the origin story, although it avoided "the common comic-book adaptation trap of gloomy
self-seriousness".
[229]
Peter Travers of Rolling Stone also opined that the "unnecessary" reboot pulled stellar
performances from Garfield and Stone and touches the heart.
[230]
The comic-book website Newsarama placed The Amazing Spider-Man on its top-10 list of comic-book movies.
[231]
Rotten Tomatoes placed the film as number 32 on its list of best comic book movies as of 2012.
[232]
Andrew Garfield received good notices for his performance. Bob Mondello of NPR said, "Here comes another
Spider-dude: This Andrew Garfield guy. So he'd better be really something, right? Well, as it happens, he is." Tom
Charity of CNN found Garfield's "combination of fresh-faced innocence, nervous agitation and wry humor ...
immediately appealing." Stephanie Zacharek of Movieline said she "had no specific desire to see the series
resuscitated. But watching Garfield and Stone made me think doing so wasn't such a bad idea." Mary F. Pols of Time
said that even though the story was familiar Garfield and Webb made it feel "convincingly fresh and exciting."
Box office
The Amazing Spider-Man earned $262,030,663 in North America and $490,185,894 in other countries, for a
worldwide total of $752,216,557.
[4]
Worldwide, the film is the 46th highest-grossing film, the 7th highest-grossing
2012 film,
[233]
the tenth highest-grossing superhero film,
[234]
the lowest-grossing Spider-Man film and the sixth
highest-grossing film distributed by Sony/Columbia.
[235][236]
In North America, the film earned an estimated $7.5 million during its midnight run at 3,150 locations, including
$1.2 million from 300 IMAX venues.
[237]
On its opening day, a pre-holiday Tuesday, it set a Tuesday-gross record
with $35 million (previously held by Transformers).
[238]
The next day, the film dropped 33.4 percent to
$23.3 million—the second-highest non-opening Wednesday.
[239]
Over the three-day weekend, it grossed
$62.0 million. This pushed the film's six-day gross to $137.0 million, which was smaller than those of Transformers
($155.41 million) and Spider-Man 2 ($180.07 million) among past Fourth-of-July releases.
[240]
Although the film
did not match its predecessors, Sony pictures stated, "In the world of relaunched franchises, this is a spectacular
success by any measure".
[241]
For example, both Batman Begins ($79.5 million) and X-Men: First Class
($69.9 million) (both were non 3D-movies) opened significantly below The Amazing Spider-Man.
[242]
It remained at
the #1 spot for ten consecutive days, until the opening day of Ice Age: Continental Drift.
[243]
Outside North America, The Amazing Spider-Man grossed $51.1 million on its five-day opening weekend (June 27 –
July 1, 2012) from 13 markets, with strong openings in many Asian countries.
[244]
In India, it earned $6.0 million, a
record opening for a Hollywood film.
[245]
Kercy Daruwala of Sony Pictures in India felt very confident that the
presence of famed Indian actor Irrfan Khan would enhance attendance.
[210][246][247]
Opening in an additional 61
markets, the film made $127.5 million over its second weekend. The movie ranked number one in over 30 countries.
In Indonesia, it broke the opening-weekend record with $4.5 million while, in the UK, it opened to £11.1 million
($18.1 million) which is about equal with Spider-Man 3 (£11.8 million).
[248][249]
In its last market, China, The
Amazing Spider-Man grossed $33.3 million over its seven-day debut, which is more than Spider-Man 3’s lifetime
box office in China.
[250]
As of August 27, 2012, the movie's highest-grossing territory is the United Kingdom,
Ireland and Malta, where it has grossed $40.4 million.
[251]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
245
Accolades
List of awards and nominations
Award Category Recipients and nominees Result
Annie Awards
[252] Best Animated Effects in a Live Action
Production
Stephen Marshall, Joseph Pepper, Dustin Wicke
Pending
Best Character Animation in a Live Action
Production
Mike Beaulieu, Roger Vizard, Atushi Sato, Jackie Koehler,
Derek Esparza, Richard Smith, Max Tyrie
Pending
Golden Trailer
Awards
[253]
Best Motion/Title Graphics "Domestic Trailer 2"
Nominated
Teen Choice
Awards
[254]
Choice Summer Movie: Action Nominated
Choice Movie Villain Rhys Ifans Nominated
Choice Summer Movie Star: Male Andrew Garfield Nominated
Choice Summer Movie Star: Female Emma Stone Nominated
People's Choice
Awards
[255]
Favorite Movie Nominated
Favorite Action Movie Nominated
Favorite Movie Franchise Nominated
Favorite Movie Actress Emma Stone Nominated
Favorite Movie Superhero Andrew Garfield as Spider-Man Nominated
Favorite On-Screen Chemistry Andrew Garfield and Emma Stone Nominated
Favorite Face of Heroism Emma Stone Nominated
Screen Actors Guild
Awards
[256]
Outstanding Performance by a Stunt
Ensemble in a Motion Picture
Nominated
Home media
The Amazing Spider-Man was released by Sony Pictures Home Entertainment on Blu-ray, Blu-ray 3D, DVD and
digital download on November 9, 2012 in North America.
[257]
Other media
A video game of the same name developed by Beenox was announced at the 2011 New York Comic Con. They were
the development team behind the previous two Spider-Man games, Spider-Man: Shattered Dimensions and
Spider-Man: Edge of Time. The game was released on June 26, 2012, in Xbox 360, PlayStation 3, personal
computer, Wii, Nintendo DS and Nintendo 3DS.
[258][259][260][261]
Dee Brown of Beenox noted, "The fact that our
game is based on the movie, and the movie is re-approaching the universe in a completely different way — a more
grounded, more realistic approach — gives us an incredible setting to play with".
[262]
The game takes place after the
events of the film .
[258]
Sony and Gameloft teamed up again to create an official mobile game for the film.
[263]
Sky
Betting and Gaming's online casino website Sky Vegas created a related casino game.
[264]
The comic was released in June, named "Amazing Spider-Man: The Movie" #1–2", written by Tom Cohen and
illustrated by Neil Edwards.
[265]
A trade paperback was published collecting the two-parter a week before the film's
release, entitled Amazing Spider-Man: The Movie Prelude, which also included The Amazing Spider-Man issues
#75–77.
[266]
The soundtrack album of the film was released the same day as the film, under the Sony Classical banner.
[267]
The Amazing Spider-Man (2012 film)
246
Footnote
1. Ifans said of the scene, "Connors is sent to an asylum, a high-security asylum... [a]nd he's visited by, shall we say,
a representative from Oscorp. How he gets into that cell and how he leaves that cell without the guards knowing?
We have yet to find out."
[268]
The unnamed character, played by Michael Massee, is credited as "Man in the
shadows".
References
[1] Mintzer, Jordan (June 21, 2012). "The Amazing Spider-Man: Film Review" (http:// www. hollywoodreporter.com/ review/
amazing-spider-man-film-review-340662). The Hollywood Reporter. Archived (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 68am2Tc3o) from the original
on June 21, 2012. . Retrieved June 21, 2012.
[2] Gallagher, Chris; Lies, Elaine (June 14, 2012). "Spider-Man swings into Tokyo for "Amazing" premiere" (http:// news. yahoo.com/
spider-man-swings-tokyo-amazing-premiere-141126080.html). Reuters. Yahoo! News. . Retrieved June 17, 2012.
[3] "The Amazing Spider-Man" (http:// www. bbfc. co. uk/ AFF281471/ ). British Board of Film Classification. August 8, 2012. . Retrieved
August 10, 2012.
[4] "The Amazing Spider-Man (2012)" (http:/ / boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=spiderman4.htm). Box Office Mojo. . Retrieved July 16, 2012.
[5] "It's Official! Andrew Garfield to Play Spider-Man!" (http:// www. webcitation. org/ 67VoF6orY). CraveOnline. July 1, 2010. Archived from
the original (http:// www. comingsoon. net/ news/ movienews. php?id=67468) on May 8, 2012. . Retrieved July 1, 2010.
[6] "Official website" (http:/ / theamazingspiderman. com/ site/ ). Columbia Pictures. . Retrieved December 15, 2011.
[7] Goldberg, Matt (December 15, 2011). "Official Website for The Amazing Spider-Man Provides New Wallpapers and Character Bios" (http://
collider.com/ amazing-spider-man-movie-wallpapers-character-bios/132508/ ). Collider.com. . Retrieved December 15, 2011.
[8] "Andrew Garfield on awards and Spider-Man" (http:/ / www.bbc. co. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-12089185). BBC News Online. March 1,
2011. . Retrieved December 29, 2010.
[9] "This Week's Cover: 'The Amazing Spider-Man' – plus, our annual Comic-Con preview!" (http:/ / www. webcitation.org/67VofJs6T).
Entertainment Weekly. Archived from the original (http:// popwatch.ew. com/ 2011/ 07/ 14/
amazing-spider-man-comic-con-this-weeks-cover/ ) on May 8, 2012. . Retrieved November 26, 2011. "I related to Peter Parker [Spidey's alter
ego] so much because I felt like someone else inside. I loved the comic books and the animated TV series and I even dressed up as
Spider-Man as a kid."
[10] Rick, Katey (September 11, 2010). "Interview: Andrew Garfield Says Playing Spider-Man Is Every Skinny Boy's Dream" (http://www.
webcitation.org/ 67Vp35a8M). CinemaBlend.com. Archived from the original (http:// www. cinemablend.com/ new/
Interview-Andrew-Garfield-Says-Playing-Spider-Man-Is-Every-Skinny-Boy-s-Dream-20600. html) on May 8, 2012. . Retrieved November
29, 2011. "I'm going to approach it like I approach any other role. I'm just going to work as much as I can, because it's been such an important
symbol to me since I was four years old."
[11] "This Week's Cover: 'The Amazing Spider-Man' heads up your Summer Must List" (http:// www. webcitation. org/67vkAAi9C).
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External links
• Official website (http:// www. theamazingspiderman.com/ site/ )
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt0948470/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v423293) at AllRovi
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/ m/ the_amazing_spider_man/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. metacritic.com/ movie/ the-amazing-spider-man) at Metacritic
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=spiderman4. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• The Amazing Spider-Man (http:/ / www. the-numbers.com/ movies/ 2012/ SPID4.php) at The Numbers
The Asylum
258
The Asylum
The Asylum
Type Film
TV DVD Distribution
Founded 1997
Founder(s) David Michael Latt
David Rimawi
Sherri Strain
Headquarters Hollywood, Los Angeles, California, United States
Owner(s) Privately held
Divisions Faith Films
Website
www.TheAsylum.cc
[1]
The Asylum is an American film studio and distributor which focuses on producing low-budget, direct-to-video
productions. The studio has produced titles that capitalize on productions by major studios, usually resorting to film
titles and scripts very similar to those of current blockbusters in order to lure customers. These titles have been
dubbed "mockbusters" by the press.
[2][3][4][5][6]
Its titles are distributed by Echo Bridge Home Entertainment.
History
The Asylum was founded by former Village Roadshow executives David Rimawi, Sherri Strain, and director David
Michael Latt in 1997.
[2]
The company focused on producing straight-to-video low-budget films, usually in the horror
genre, but were unable to find a market due to competition from major studios, such as Lions Gate Entertainment.
[2]
In 2005, the company produced a low-budget adaptation of H. G. Wells' The War of the Worlds, which was released
in the same year as Steven Spielberg's adaptation of the same material. Blockbuster Inc. ordered 100,000 copies of
The Asylum's adaptation, a significantly larger order than any of the company's previous releases, resulting in Latt
and Rimawi reconsidering their business model.
[2][6]
In 2007, similarities between the distributor's titles and those of major studios were reported. For example, the film
Transmorphers bears a number of similarities to the film Transformers, which was released theatrically two days
after the release of Transmorphers.
[2][3][6]
According to Latt, "I'm not trying to dupe anybody. I'm just trying to get
my films watched. Other people do tie-ins all the time; they’re just better at being subtle about it. Another studio
might make a giant robot movie that ties into the Transformers release and call it Robot Wars. We’ll call ours
Transmorphers."
[2]
In 2008, 20th Century Fox threatened legal action against The Asylum over The Day the Earth
Stopped, a film capitalizing on The Day the Earth Stood Still.
[7]
In May 2012, Universal Studios filed a lawsuit against The Asylum for their film American Warships, claiming
infringement on their movie Battleship.
[8][6]
In November 2012, Warner Bros., New Line Cinema, MGM and The Hobbit producer Saul Zaentz commenced legal
action against The Asylum for their film Age of the Hobbits, claiming that they were "free-riding" on the worldwide
promotional campaign for Peter Jackson's forthcoming films. The Asylum claimed its movie is legally sound
because its hobbits are not based on the J. R. R. Tolkien creations.
[9]
The lawsuit resulted in a temporary restraining
order preventing The Asylum from releasing the film on its scheduled release date.
[10][6]
The Asylum
259
Production
The Asylum work schedule is typically four months from decision to create a title to finished product, with the script
finished within four to six weeks.
[5]
Pre-production is afforded only a few weeks, production is "a couple of weeks"
(In the case of Mega Piranha, it took longer because it was shot in Belize).
[11]
Filming takes an average of 12 to 15
pages of the script a day.
[5]
Output
The Asylum's usual budget for a production is reportedly "well under a million dollars", and it typically breaks even
after about three months. The Asylum has never lost money on a film.
[11][12]
The studio's productions have been
called B movies
[2]
and "mockbusters".
[2][4]
Latt prefers the term "tie-ins" to "mockbusters",
[2]
stating that The
Asylum's productions, even those that capitalize on major releases, contain original stories.
[2]
Latt states that the
studio plans its productions around the word of mouth of the financial prospects of upcoming films.
[4]
The studio's
films are usually released on video shortly before the theatrical release of a major studio film with similar themes or
storylines.
[4]
The Asylum has also produced films with strong religious themes.
[2]
For example, The Apocalypse was initially
developed as a straightforward disaster film in the style of Deep Impact, but Latt states that certain buyers wanted
the company to develop a religious film.
[2]
As a result, the company consulted priests and rabbis in order to
incorporate faith-based elements.
[2]
The division Faith Films was created in order to distribute titles with such
themes.
[2]
Sunday School Musical was produced after The Asylum staff attended a seminar for marketing to a
Christian audience where the seminar's host suggested that the perfect film would be a Christian version of High
School Musical.
[5]
The Asylum productions sometimes feature more overt sexuality or graphic violence than their major studio
counterparts, because The Asylum's releases are not in competition with films rated PG-13 by the Motion Picture
Association of America.
[4]
Rolf Potts of The New York Times described Transmorphers as having "no recognizable
actors, no merchandising tie-ins and a garbled sound mix. Also unlike Transformers, it has cheap special effects and
a subplot involving lesbians."
[2]
The 2008 release Death Racers featured the hip hop group Insane Clown Posse and wrestler Scott "Raven" Levy in
major roles.
[13]
In 2009 the Asylum released their first 3D comedy, Sex Pot, and in 2010 they produced SyFy's top
rated creature film so far that year, Mega Piranha starring Barry Williams, Paul Logan, and the 80's pop star,
Tiffany.
[14]
Filmography
Year Title Director Notes Mockbuster of
1999 Bellyfruit Kerri Green The Asylum's first feature film. N/A
2005 H. G. Wells' War of the Worlds David Michael Latt War of the Worlds
The Asylum
260
2006 Snakes on a Train The Mallachi Brothers Snakes on a Plane
The Da Vinci Treasure Peter Mervis The Da Vinci Code
Halloween Night Mark Atkins Halloween
Pirates of Treasure Island Leigh Scott Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead
Man's Chest
Dragon Eragon
2007 Transmorphers Transformers
The Apocalypse Justin Jones N/A
I Am Omega Griff Furst I Am Legend
The Asylum
261
2008 Allan Quatermain and the
Temple of Skulls
Mark Atkins Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of
the Crystal Skull
Death Racers Roy Knyrim Death Race
Journey to the Center of the
Earth
Scott Wheeler and
David Jones
Journey to the Center of the Earth
Monster Eric Forsberg Cloverfield
Street Racer Teo Konuralp The Fast and the Furious: Tokyo
Drift
Sunday School Musical Rachel Lee
Goldenberg
The Asylum's first family musical under
Faith Films.
High School Musical 3: Senior Year
100 Million BC Griff Furst 10,000 BC
The Day the Earth Stopped C. Thomas Howell The Day the Earth Stood Still
War of the Worlds 2: The Next
Wave
Sequel to H.G. Wells' War of the Worlds N/A
2009 The Land That Time Forgot Land of the Lost
Mega Shark Versus Giant
Octopus
Ace Hannah N/A
Sex Pot Eric Forsberg
Princess of Mars Mark Atkins Avatar
The Terminators Xavier Puslowski Terminator Salvation
Transmorphers: Fall of Man Scott Wheeler Transformers: Revenge of the Fallen
Paranormal Entity Shane Van Dyke Paranormal Activity
2010 Titanic II N/A
Paranormal Entity 2: Gacy
House
Anthony Fankhauser Paranormal Activity 2
Mega Piranha Eric Forsberg Piranha 3D
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's
Sherlock Holmes
Rachel Lee
Goldenberg
Sherlock Holmes
Mega Shark Versus
Crocosaurus
Christopher Ray N/A
2011 Almighty Thor Thor
Paranormal Entity 3: The
Exorcist Tapes
Jude Gerard Prest Paranormal Activity 3
Battle of Los Angeles Mark Atkins Battle: Los Angeles
200 mph Cole S. McKay Fast Five
11/11/11 Keith Allen 11-11-11
The Amityville Haunting George Meed N/A
Zombie Apocalypse Nick Lyon
Mega Python vs. Gatoroid Mary Lambert
Princess and the Pony Rachel Lee
Goldenberg
The Asylum's first family film not
marketed under Faith Films.
The Asylum
262
2012 2-Headed Shark Attack Christopher Ray
Abraham Lincoln vs. Zombies Richard Schenkman Abraham Lincoln: Vampire Hunter
Alien Origin Mark Atkins Prometheus
American Warships Thunder Levin Title changed from American Battleship
due to legal issues.
Battleship
Clash of the Empires Joseph Lawson Title changed from Age of the Hobbits due
to legal issues.
The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey
Nazis at the Center of the Earth Retitled Bloodstorm in the UK. Iron Sky
Grimm's Snow White Rachel Lee
Goldenberg
Snow White and the Huntsman and
Mirror Mirror
Hold Your Breath Jared Cohn N/A
Rise of the Zombies Nick Lyon N/A
2013 Hansel & Gretel Anthony Ferrante Hansel and Gretel: Witch Hunters
Jack the Giant Killer Mark Atkins Jack the Giant Slayer
References
[1] http:/ / www.theasylum. cc/
[2] Potts, Rolf (October 7, 2007). "The New B Movie" (http:// www. nytimes.com/ 2007/ 10/ 07/ magazine/ 07wwln-essay-t.html?_r=2&
ref=magazine& oref=slogin). The New York Times. . Retrieved February 6, 2009.
[3] Borrelli, Christopher (July 3, 2009). "Bizarro Blockbusters" (http:// articles. chicagotribune.com/ 2009-07-03/entertainment/
0907010536_1_asylum-parallel-universe-dreamworks). Chicago Tribune. . Retrieved October 12, 2010.
[4] "Movie 'Mockbusters' Put Snakes on Trains" (http:/ / www.npr. org/templates/ story/ story.php?storyId=16986812). National Public Radio.
December 8, 2007. . Retrieved February 6, 2009.
[5] Solomon, Dan (August 23, 2011). "How to Make a Mockbuster (In Five Easy Steps)" (http:// www. adultswim. com/ blog/ interviews/
how-to-make-a-mockbuster. html). Adult Swim. . Retrieved August 24, 2011.
[6] Somma, Brandon (2013-01-04). "Masters of the Mockbuster:What The Asylum Is All About" (http:// the-artifice.com/
what-the-asylum-is-all-about/ ). The Artifice. . Retrieved 2013-01-05.
[7] "Fox takes action against 'Day the Earth Stopped' " (http:// login. vnuemedia.com/ hr/login/ login_subscribe. jsp?id=ES0iIblMoA+88kva/
K775HP+MWDGdHmVkvfquUAHmu+ CSsG3RMNzRp5028HMxTj+ QahO6lGTHR/ X D4rklCatECLxQyWqoLgf0U6q4brNwaS+ec/
JOJhEePAVLUYAfZkB0lUM29YS4U4Io0ju9EuqXixm Y9KNvVHM/
N4nBwfHjMHCZqP8qPla1WOfZ3T2vj7kfrAhrL5kLPN393gymA8HBdiPQ9gwGnNUENr6 ZecsnIbn+/H65qFTyODOP8+
f3XflLZVTT3wKJPSiOpU0WA0vIsr5OeSCa/FhZ06g9WoYfblMBV1s YauNgNcPiuSUJq0QIvFDJaqguB/ RTqrhus3BpMBgUcPA+ + Dz).
The Hollywood Reporter. November 11, 2008. . Retrieved February 6, 2009.
[8] "Someone Finally Decides to Sue The Asylum: Universal Not Happy About Battleship Knock-Off" (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/
tt1758570/news#ni27391885). Internet Movie Database. .
[9] "The Hobbit producers sue 'mockbuster' film company" (http:// www.bbc. co. uk/ news/ entertainment-arts-20252820). BBC. 2012-11-08. .
Retrieved 2012-11-10.
[10] Fritz, Ben (December 10, 2012). "'Hobbit' knockoff release blocked by judge" (http:/ / www. latimes. com/ entertainment/envelope/ cotown/
la-et-ct-age-hobbits-blocked-20121210,0,6595906. story). Los Angeles Times. . Retrieved December 11, 2012.
[11] Latt, David. " (http:// www. bbc. co. uk/ programmes/p008y121)" 'Interview, 'Front Row', BBC Radio 4', July 16, 2010.
[12] Patterson, John. " Seeking Asylum: the rise of Hollywood's Z-movies (http:/ /www. guardian.co.uk/ film/2009/jul/ 30/
asylum-hollywood-z-movies)" The Guardian, July 30, 2009.
[13] McLendon, Gary (September 16, 2008). "Henrietta actor has had varied life". Democrat and Chronicle (Rochester, New York).
[14] Mega Piranha (http:// www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1587807/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Asylum
263
External links
• Official website (http:// www. theasylum. cc/ )
• Official YouTube channel (http:// www. youtube.com/ user/ asyluminternational)
• The Asylum (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ company/ co0163862/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Crimson Code
264
The Crimson Code
The Crimson Code
Directed by Jeremy Haft
Produced by Beau Rogers
Jeff Schenck
Jim Wedaa
Written by Alex Metcalf
Starring Patrick Muldoon
Cathy Moriarty
C. Thomas Howell
Fred Ward
Tim Thomerson
Distributed by Fine Line Features
Release date(s) 3 April 1999 (premiere)
Running time 100 min.
Language English
The Crimson Code, also known as Red Team, is a 1999 crime thriller film starring Patrick Muldoon, C. Thomas
Howell, Cathy Moriarty, Tim Thomerson and Fred Ward.
Story
FBI Agent Jason Chandler (Patrick Muldoon, "Stigmata," "Starship Troopers") has devoted his life to enforcing the
law. But on the trail of a series of mysterious murders surrounding some of society's deadliest serial killers, Chandler
is forced down a path where no one can be trusted. It develops that psychopathic killers are themselves being
meticulously murdered in grisly circumstances. As he searches for the truth, Chandler finds his own life at risk.
External links
• The Crimson Code
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0167367/
The Da Vinci Treasure
265
The Da Vinci Treasure
The Da Vinci Treasure
DVD cover art
Directed by Peter Mervis
Produced by David Michael Latt
David Rimawi
Sherri Strain
Written by Paul Bales
Carlos De Los Rios
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Lance Henriksen
Nicole Sherwin
Alexis Zibolis
Elvis Naumovski
Distributed by The Asylum
Release date(s) May 23, 2006
Running time 1 Hour and 30 Minutes
Country United States
Language English
Budget 850.000 $
The Da Vinci Treasure is a 2006 mystery film produced by American studio The Asylum, and directed by Peter
Mervis.
This direct-to-video film release was noted as being an exploitation of the film The Da Vinci Code (also called a
mockbuster) since it uses part of the title and several of the plot elements of the Dan Brown story. It was released to
video in the same month as the The Da Vinci Code movie.
[1]
Plot
The film centres on Michael Archer (C. Thomas Howell), a forensic anthropologist who inadvertently discovers a set
of subtle clues within the works of Leonardo da Vinci, that, when interpreted correctly, will lead the finder to
"enlightenment".
Archer, convinced of the authenticity of the clues, sets out to locate the treasure by travelling around the world,
following each clue in turn. As time passes, however, Archer soon realizes that he is not alone in the quest for the
treasure, and that he must combat other more determined treasure-seekers who would sooner see him dead.
The Da Vinci Treasure
266
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell - Michael Archer
• Lance Henriksen - Dr. John Coven
• Nicole Sherwin - Giulia Pedina
• Alexis Zibolis - Samantha West
References
[1] David Cornelius, The Da Vinci Treasure, review on 05/19/06 efilmcritic.com (http:// www. efilmcritic.com/ review. php?movie=14569)
External links
• The Da Vinci Treasure at The Asylum (http:/ / www.theasylum. cc/ product.php?id=119)
• The Da Vinci Treasure at the Internet Movie Data Base (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0810817/ )
The Day the Earth Stopped
267
The Day the Earth Stopped
The Day the Earth Stopped
The Day the Earth Stopped DVD cover
Directed by C. Thomas Howell
Produced by David Michael Latt
Written by Darren Dalton
Carey Van Dyke
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Judd Nelson
Darren Dalton
Distributed by The Asylum
Release date(s) •• December 9, 2008
Running time 90 minutes
Country United States
Language English
The Day the Earth Stopped is a 2008 direct-to-DVD science fiction film made by American studio The Asylum,
directed by and starring C. Thomas Howell. Its title and premise are similar to those of the 2008 film The Day the
Earth Stood Still (of which The Day the Earth Stopped is a mockbuster) but the film's plot also incorporates elements
from other science-fiction films involving aliens, such as Independence Day and Earth vs. the Flying Saucers. The
film is Howell's second Asylum film in which he was attached as director, the first being War of the Worlds 2: The
Next Wave. It was released with an R rating in the United States and a 15 rating in the United Kingdom.
The film stars director C. Thomas Howell as the protagonist Josh Myron who witnesses the arrival of giant alien
robots that threaten to destroy the earth unless they are shown the value of human existence. Myron becomes a
fugitive to protect the aliens' messenger Skye (Sinead McCafferty) and tries to meet her demands, while the aliens
begin to tilt the earth on its axis and all military defense is defeated.
Due to its similarities to the 2008 remake of The Day the Earth Stood Still, the film was met with legal threats by
20th Century Fox, who felt that the film's producers had committed plagiarism.
Plot
The film centers on Josh Myron (C. Thomas Howell) as six hundred and sixty six gigantic interplanetary robots land
on Earth.
As the robots are landing, two humanoids arrive, one male and one female (Sinead McCafferty). Both are eventually
captured by the military who tries to communicate with them. Eventually, the female starts talking to Myron and
reveals that she can read his mind along with others. Myron is told that the entire human race is a threat to the rest of
the galaxy and unless she is shown the value of humanity by sunset, the planet will be destroyed.
Attempts to communicate with the robots fail as they vaporize anyone that tries to attack them or even fires a rifle to
get their attention. An effort is made to destroy the robots using Sidewinder Missiles, delivered by YF-22s. The
missiles are ineffective and the attacking planes are destroyed by laser attack.
The woman, who reveals that her name in its closest English translation is Skye, also displays the ability to harness
surrounding energy to protect herself. However, after using that, the military officer in charge of the "mission" starts
to use a Taser on Skye, forcing Myron to intervene and be thrown off the project. He goes AWOL and as he is
The Day the Earth Stopped
268
driving away, he is contacted by Skye telepathically and he returns to rescue her. The effort proves successful and
starts a city-wide search for him and Skye.
The male also manages to escape as the robots begin a systemic attack on the planet, first with an EMP (which aids
in Josh rescuing Skye). It's also discovered that the robots are slowing down the Earth's core and stopping the
planet's rotation.
An effort is made to destroy one of the robots with a nuclear explosion, sacrificing 9000 inhabitants of a small
island. When the bomb goes off, the machine emerges unharmed and Skye feels the pain of the people dying and
almost passes out. Josh takes the time to comfort Skye before the military finds them again. Myron and Skye come
across a married couple and have to put the wife in the back of a 4x4, as she is in labour. The husband delivers the
child but is unaware of a complication until he realizes that his wife has stopped breathing. Myron hands the infant to
Skye and tells her that if she wants to know the value of humanity, "you're staring at it". Myron and the husband
desperately try to revive the wife but are unsuccessful. Myron realizes that the wife is dead and stops applying CPR.
Skye, despite her earlier statement that she would not get involved, changes her mind and uses her powers to
resurrect the wife.
Skye, now convinced of the value of humanity, needs to get to the closest robot to return home and end the invasion.
Before they can get to the robot, Skye is shot by the military. Both are taken back to the base where Skye is treated
for the injury as the planet's rotation stops and a major global earthquake hits.
The commander realizes, finally, that Myron was telling the truth and helps Myron move Skye to a vehicle. As they
leave, they are chased by the psychologist, who is convinced that keeping Skye will prevent the robots from
attacking further.
At the feet of the robot, Myron is shot by the psychologist; the robot, reacting to a perceived threat, vaporizes him.
The robot man arrives, sees both Skye and Myron possibly dead and uses his own powers to revive both. Skye, in
gratitude, hugs Myron before both the unnamed man and Skye are beamed aboard. The invasion ends and the robots
depart the planet leaving behind major damage (such as half of the Eiffel Tower being destroyed), but the planet
intact.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell — Josh Myron
• Judd Nelson — Charlie
• Darren Dalton — Prewitt
• Sinead McCafferty — Skye
• Bug Hall — Man
• Patrick Ian Moore — Guard
• Gary Daniels - Himself (uncredited)
The Day the Earth Stopped
269
Controversy
Due to its similarities with The Day the Earth Stood Still, The Asylum has been threatened with legal action by 20th
Century Fox over the release of The Day the Earth Stopped.
[1]
As of today, however, no action has yet been taken.
References
[1] "The Day Fox Stoppped The Asylum | Horror Movie, DVD, & Book Reviews, News, Interviews at Dread Central" (http:/ / www.
dreadcentral. com/ story/ the-day-fox-stoppped-the-asylum). Dreadcentral.com. . Retrieved 2012-09-21.
External links
• The Day the Earth Stopped at The Asylum (http:/ / www. theasylum.cc/ product.php?id=150)
• The Day the Earth Stopped (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/ tt1290471/) at the Internet Movie Database
• "The Day the Earth Stopped" article by [[Annalee Newitz (http://io9. com/ 5051196/
screw-day-the-earth-stood-still-and-watch-this)] on i09.]
The Hillside Strangler (film)
The Hillside Strangler is a 2004 film, directed by Chuck Parello and written by Stephen Johnston, based on the true
story of the Hillside Strangler serial killers. Kenneth Bianchi was played by C. Thomas Howell and Angelo Buono,
Jr. was played by Nicholas Turturro
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Kenneth Bianchi
• Nicholas Turturro as Angelo Buono, Jr.
•• Allison Lange as Claire Shelton
• Marisol Padilla Sánchez as Christina Chavez
• Jennifer Tisdale as Erin
•• Damon Whitaker
• Kent King as Gabrielle
• Aimee Brooks as Felicia Waller
• Natasha Melnick as Karyn
• Zarah Little as Carrie Ploskonka
•• Molly Brenner as Matilda Ploskonka
•• Brandin Rackley as Janice Cooley
•• Jessica Allegra as April
• Roz Witt as Frances Bianchi
• Lin Shaye as Jenny Buono
• Tricia Dickson as Heather Brewer
• Julia Lee as Lisa Erwin
•• Kylie Rachel as Peaches
•• Charles Andre Allen as Herb
•• Geneviere Anderson as Tina Mayfield
•• Sarah Ann Morris as Sharon Oates
•• Kevin Mukherji as Raj Patel
•• Dyanna Podilla as Kate Sugar
•• Robbie Peron as Jason Branes
The Hillside Strangler (film)
270
•• Aaron Behr as Dan Forney
•• Cletus Young as Charlie Lloyd
•• Tom Jermaine as Brandon Calhoun
•• Kiva Hargrove as Kathy Ricci
•• Bill Pirman as Gary Danesi
•• Kelly Lohman as Sue Radigan
•• Ken Rosier as Kenyon Duncan
External links
• The Hillside Strangler (film)
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0376649/
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting
271
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting
The Hitcher II: I've Been
Waiting
Directed by Louis Morneau
Produced by David Bixler
Written by Molly Meeker,
Charles R.
Meeker,
Leslie Scharf
Starring Kari Wuhrer
Jake Busey
C. Thomas Howell
Distributed by Universal Pictures
Release date(s) •• July 15, 2003
Running time 93 min.
Language English
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting is the 2003 horror sequel to The Hitcher, which stars C. Thomas Howell,
returning as Jim Halsey, Kari Wührer as his girlfriend Maggie, and Jake Busey as psychotic hitchhiker Jack.
Plot
Fifteen years after surviving the events of The Hitcher, Jim Halsey (C. Thomas Howell) now works as a police
officer. He has recently been suspended for using excessive force on a kidnapping suspect, and decides to visit
retired Captain Esteridge in Texas to talk about his lingering mental issues on what happened to him. Jim's girlfriend,
Maggie (Kari Wührer), is unaware of Jim's past and pleads to come along.
The couple arrive in Texas, and pick up a car Esteridge left for them to drive to his house. The drive on the lonely
road triggers Jim's PTSD, and when they see an RV that has been run off the road, blood dripping through the door,
Jim refuses to stop and help. Soon, a motorcycle speeds past them and crashes. The driver is seemingly all right, and
Maggie insists they take him on board. The Hitcher (Jake Busey) is insistent on making small talk and joking with
them, but Jim is overwhelmed and evicts him from the car.
Jim and Maggie continue their journey. They are eventually pulled over by a cop, but have been also followed by the
Hitcher, who has hijacked an 18-wheeler truck and killed its driver. The Hitcher shoots the cop and tries to grab Jim
and Maggie but is successfully thrown off the car when they escape.
The couple arrive at the Esteridge residence late at night, but the Captain and his wife have been killed by the
Hitcher. Jim and Maggie find themselves caught in a shootout between the Hitcher, who is in the hayloft of the barn,
and the local police, who have arrived on the scene. During the melee Jim pushes Maggie out harm's way and is shot
by the Hitcher. Maggie manages to escape in her car, but Jim dies, his last words being to tell her to kill the Hitcher.
Maggie falls asleep in the desert. When she wakes up she is knocked unconscious and put inside an abandoned water
tower that is on the verge of collapsing. The Hitcher taunts her and then leaves, but Maggie manages to escape and
use the 18-wheeler from earlier in the film to get away. She arrives at a gas station, makes a phone call and cleans
up, but the Hitcher has followed her and killed the clerk. The Hitcher intends to frame Maggie for all the killings that
have happened, and as part of this plan cuts off his own finger. The police arrive at the gas station. The Hitcher spin
his story and Maggie is arrested. She is transported by the sheriff's van, but during the journey the vehicle is knocked
The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting
272
on its side by an excavator. The Hitcher kills all the police officers of the escort, and tosses the key and a revolver to
Maggie to make it look like she killed all of them.
Maggie and the Hitcher have a final showdown, where the Hitcher drives a stolen tanker truck and Maggie pilots a
mail carrier plane from a nearby airfield (she is shown to have a crop dusting business earlier in the film). Maggie
kamikazes the plane into the truck, but manages to escape the ensuing explosion. Maggie finds the unconscious
Hitcher and ties him to the truck, ignoring his pleas for mercy.
However, the police show up again and, still thinking Maggie is responsible for all the killings, they free the Hitcher
and shoot Maggie in the leg as she attempts to enter the truck's cab. Once free, the Hitcher kills the cops. Maggie
manages to make a safe distance away and shoot the tanker, which explodes and kills the Hitcher. The film then ends
with Maggie dropping the shotgun to the ground and standing in the road facing the remains of the burning truck.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Jim Halsey
• Kari Wührer as Maggie
• Jake Busey as Jack, the Hitcher
• Janne Mortil as Sergeant Kibble
• Mackenzie Gray as Lieutenant
•• Shaun Johnston as Sheriff Castillo
• Steve Railsback as Police Officer (uncredited)
Notes
External links
• The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting (http:/ / www.imdb.com/ title/ tt0299988/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Hitcher II: I've Been Waiting (http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v285755) at AllRovi
The Hitchhiker (TV series)
273
The Hitchhiker (TV series)
The Hitchhiker
The Hitchhiker title screen
Genre Anthology
Starring Page Fletcher
Nicholas Campbell
Composer(s) Shuki Levy
Michel Rubini
Haim Saban
Country of origin U.S.A.
Canada
France
Original language(s) English
No. of seasons 6
No. of episodes 85
Production
Executive producer(s) Lewis Chesler (1986-1987)
Riff Markowitz
(1986-1987)
Richard Rothstein
Jeremy Lipp
Jacques Methe
David Perlmutter
Running time 30 mins. (approx)
Broadcast
Original channel HBO (1983-1987)
First Choice (1983-1987)
USA Network (1989-1991)
Original run 1983 – 1991
The Hitchhiker is a mystery anthology series that aired from 1983 to 1987 on HBO and First Choice in Canada. The
series later moved to the USA Network from 1989 to 1991.
The Hitchhiker (TV series)
274
Synopsis
Each episode is introduced and concluded by a mysterious wanderer known only as "The Hitchhiker," and explores
the foibles of humanity and its dark spirit. The title character was played by Nicholas Campbell from 1983-1984 (3
episodes), and Page Fletcher from 1984-1991 (82 episodes). There were a total of 85 episodes over six seasons (39
first runs on HBO & 46 first runs on USA).
Production notes
The series was a United States/Canada/France co-production. It was filmed in Vancouver and Toronto, Ontario,
Canada and France. The show was produced by Corazon Productions (Season 1 for a total of three episodes),
Quintina Productions (Seasons 2-4 for a total of thirty-six episodes), and Atlantique & Quintina Productions
(Seasons 5-6 for a total of forty-seven episodes).
The Hitchhiker was created by Lewis Chesler and Riff Markowitz, later joined by Richard Rothstein. The pilot
episode consisted of three stories. Richard Rothstein wrote two and Jeph Loeb and Matt Weissman wrote the third.
Cast
Like the much earlier Twilight Zone series, with which it had a lot of other commonalities, The Hitchhiker served as
starting point for many actors, some of whom would go on to gain greater recognition elsewhere. Notable cast
members (in alphabetical order):
• Kirstie Alley: Angelica in "Out of the Night" (1985), Jane L. in "The Legendary Billy B." (1987)
• Sandra Bernhard: Rat in "O.D. Feelin" (1986)
• Rachel Blanchard: Karen O'Neill in "Riding the Nightmare" (1990)
• Karen Black: Kay in "Hired Help" (1985)
• Timothy Bottoms: Star in "Joker" (1987)
• Gary Busey: Reverend Nolan Powers in "W.G.O.D." (1985)
• Robert Carradine: Frank in "Garter Belt" (1989)
• Peter Coyote: Alex in "Last Scene" (1985)
• Willem Dafoe: Jeffrey Hunt in "Ghostwriter" (1985)
• Joe Dallesandro: Star in "Fashion Exchange" (1988)
• Michael Des Barres: The Wise Man in "O.D. Feelin;" (1986)
• Brad Dourif: Billy B. in "The Legendary Billy B." (1987)
• Louise Fletcher: Mother Birch in "Offspring" (1991)
• Zach Galligan: in "Toxic Shock" (1990)
• John Glover: in "Striptease" (1989)
• Elliott Gould: Star in "A Whole New You" (1990)
• Erin Gray: Leslie in "Together Forever" (1989)
• Bruce Greenwood: Star in "Shattered Vows" (1983)
• Antony Hamilton: Jim Buckley in "Man of Her Dreams" (1986)
• C. Thomas Howell: Star in "White Slaves" (1990)
• Helen Hunt: Donette in "Why are You Here?" (1987)
• Lauren Hutton: Tess O'Neill in "Riding the Nightmare" (1987)
• Claude Jade: Monique in "Windows" (1990)
• Margot Kidder: Star in "Nightshift" (1986)
• Klaus Kinski: Kurt Hoffmann in "Love Sounds" (1985)
• Lorenzo Lamas: in "Trust Me" (1990)
• Kelly Lynch: Theresa/Melissa in "Joker" (1987)
The Hitchhiker (TV series)
275
• Michael Madsen: John Hampton in "The Man at the Window" (1985)
• Virginia Madsen: Christina in "Perfect Order" (1987)
• Darren McGavin: Old Man in "Nightshift" (1986)
• Belinda Montgomery: in "The Man at the Window" (1985)
• Carrie-Anne Moss: Lookalike in "My Enemy" (1989)
• Ornella Muti: Sister Teresa in "True Believer" (1987)
• Franco Nero: Star in "Murderous Feelings" (1985)
• Jerry Orbach: Cameron in "Cabin Fever" (1987)
• Geraldine Page: Lynette in "W.G.O.D." (1985)
• Joe Pantoliano: Brother Charles in "The Miracle of Alice Ames" (1988)
• Bill Paxton: Trout in "Made for Each Other" (1987)
• James Remar: Ron in "Homebodies" (1987)
• Michael Schoeffling: Lance in "Dead Man's Curve" (1986)
• Gene Simmons: Mr. Big in "O.D. Feelin" (1986)
• Tom Skerritt: Detective in "True Believer" (1985)
• Shannon Tweed: Barbara in "Videodate" (1984)
• Robert Vaughn: Star in "Face to Face" (1984)
• Fred Ward: Luther Redman in "Dead Heat" (1987)
• Alberta Watson: Jill Friedlander in "Remembering Melody" (1984)
• Bruce Weitz: Ray in "Hit and Run" (1989)
Syndication and DVD releases
In 1996, The Hitchhiker entered syndication and was re-edited (to remove the violence and/or nudity/sexuality that
were featured on the HBO runs). The first three episodes had some footage edited and/or re-shot to replace Nicholas
Campbell with Page Fletcher, in order to preserve continuity during the syndication runs. The Hitchhiker was
syndicated by Rysher up until 2000.
HBO Home Video released 3 volume sets on DVD between 2004–2006, featuring various episodes from the series.
The 2-disc sets contain a selection episodes, most from the HBO-produced episodes but also including some that
were made for the USA Network.
[1][2][3]
These releases were discontinued and are now out of print, but can still be
found at some retailers as discounted/liquidated stock.
In Canada, Koch Entertainment (now known as (Entertainment One) released Canadian seasons 1 and 3 (which
correspond to US Seasons 1-3 and 5, respectively) on DVD in 2004.
[4][5]
These releases were discontinued and are
now out of print. Canadian Season 2 (US Season 4) was not released due to an ownership/rights situation.
Alliance Home Entertainment released The Hitchhiker: The Complete Collection on DVD in Canada for the very
first time on October 11, 2011.
[6]
The release does not contain all episodes of the series as the title indicates, it only
features 30 episodes from various seasons.
Awards and nominations
The Hitchhiker (TV series)
276
Year Award Result Category Recipient
1987 CableACE
Awards
Nominated Actress in a Dramatic Series Jenny Seagrove (For episode "Killer")
Actress in a Dramatic Series Kirstie Alley (For episode "Out of the Night")
Actor in a Dramatic Series Michael O'Keefe (For episode "Man's Best Friend")
Won Actor in a Dramatic Series Gary Busey (For episode "WGOD")
1999 Gemini Award Nominated Best Sound in a Dramatic
Program or Series
Tim Archer, W. Michael Beard, Rick Ellis, Thomas
Hidderley, and Anthony Lancett
References
[1] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ dp/ B00013D54Y
[2] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ dp/ B0006Z2NYA
[3] http:/ / www.amazon. com/ dp/ B000HEVZ94
[4] http:/ / www.amazon. ca/ dp/ B0001E7LL6
[5] http:/ / www.amazon. ca/ dp/ B0002J9T5G
[6] http:/ / www.tvshowsondvd. com/ news/ Hitchhiker-Complete-Collection/15837
External links
• Official site (http:// www. thehitchhiker.com) at HBO.com
• The Hitchhiker (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0085031/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Hitchhiker (http:/ / www. tv. com/ shows/ the-hitchhiker/) at TV.com
• The Hitchhiker (http:/ / epguides. com/ Hitchhiker) at epguides.com
• Profile and photograph of Michel Rubini (composer of the TV series soundtrack score) (http:// www.manhunter.
net/ soundtrack/ michel-rubini.html)
The Jailhouse
277
The Jailhouse
The Jailhouse
Directed by Billy Lewis
Produced by Billy Lewis
Heath Franklin
Brandon Luck
Written by Billy Lewis
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Lindsey McKeon
Darren Dalton
Rey Valentin
Siri Baruc
Sahr Ngaujah
Nate Panning
Mark Darby Robinson
Ken Aguilar
Madison Weidberg
Phillip Troy Linger
Keith Minor
Music by Alex Beard
Cinematography Joe Stauffer
Editing by Joe Stauffer
Distributed by American World Pictures, 3L Productions, Galvanized Films
Release date(s) May 4, 2010
Running time 86 minutes
Country USA
Language English
The Jailhouse is an American psychological thriller film released in May 2010, starring C. Thomas Howell, Lindsey
McKeon, Rey Valentin and Darren Dalton. It was written and directed by Billy Lewis and produced by Brandon
Luck and Heath Franklin.
[1]
In this movie, a family moves into a house that used to be a jail and discovers it's
haunted. The Jailhouse was released in 16 theaters in 10 states beginning May 4, 2010. The Jailhouse made its world
television premiere on the Chiller Network on February 4, 2011
[2]
Tagline
Every old jail has a past.
Plot
Small town, the American dream. A blue-collar family living the idyllic rural lifestyle. Nothing is out of place except
for the lack of white picket fences and the old jail that occupies the second floor of their century old home. Seth
Delray (C. Thomas Howell) knew the possibilities before he moved his wife and two kids into the old jailhouse, but
the Sheriff assured him that it would be an act of God to put that place back in to service. Times are tight, and it was
just too good of a deal to refuse. That is, until the county jail caught fire. The Sheriff hands were tied and he had to
put the displaced inmates anywhere he could find iron bars with a locking door. The Delray's were his only option.
The Jailhouse
278
For Seth the worst wasn't the locked up criminals above his living room, it was the mortal fear in his children's eyes,
the piercing cold looks from his wife. The deep, dark creeping recognition that something had happened there,
something terrible, something that would rip his soul with a hundred year old hands.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Seth Delray
• Lindsey McKeon as Maddy
• Darren Dalton as Donnie
•• Rey Valentin as Stark
•• Siri Baruc as Grace
•• David Schifter as Calvin Simpkins
•• Madison Weidberg as Jillian
•• Brandon Luck as Jim Kenton
•• Phillip Troy Linger as Sheriff Hooper
References
[1] THE JAILHOUSE (Film Review) (http:// www. fangoria.com/ reviews/ 3-dvd-a-blu-ray/4310-the-jailhouse-film-review.html)
[2] http:/ / www.starnewsonline. com/ article/20110203/ ARTICLES/110209882
External links
• Official website (http:// www. thejailhousemovie. com/ )
• The Jailhouse (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt1318516/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Land That Time Forgot (2009 film)
279
The Land That Time Forgot (2009 film)
The Land That Time Forgot
Theatrical poster
Directed by C. Thomas Howell
Produced by David Michael Latt
David Rimawi
Paul Bales
Screenplay by Darren Dalton
Based on The Land That Time
Forgot by
Edgar Rice Burroughs
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Timothy Bottoms
Stephen Blackehart
Lindsey McKeon
Anya Benton
Patrick Gorman
Cinematography Mark Atkins
Distributed by The Asylum
Release date(s) •• July 28, 2009
Running time 90 minutes
Country United States
Language English
German
Budget $600,000
The Land That Time Forgot (promotionally titled Edgar Rice Burrough's The Land That Time Forgot, release in
other countries as Dinosaur Island) is a 2009 science fiction film by independent American film studio The Asylum.
The film is an adaptation of the 1918 Edgar Rice Burroughs novel of the same name, and a re-make of the 1975
Amicus film starring Doug McClure. As with many recent Asylum films, this might be considered a low budget
mockbuster, made to capitalize on a larger-budgeted film with a similar name - in this case the 2009 film Land of the
Lost.
Plot
The film takes place in the present, when two newlywed couples are enjoying a charter boat cruise through the
Caribbean. Passing through a bizarre storm, they emerge off the shore of the mysterious island of Caprona.
The island, which seems to exist within a time void inside the Bermuda Triangle, is full of anachronistic inhabitants,
including dinosaurs and a crew of a stranded German U-Boat. The newlyweds, along with the charter boat's captain
and the Germans, must battle a variety of obstacles to escape the island and get back to their own time.
At first the plan is to rescue a woman named Karen from the Germans and then take their boat away, but their guides
Jude and Conrad betray them and steal the boat, leaving them to the Germans. Eventually, the captain convinces the
Germans for them to work together to get off the island and they are able to free the U-Boat and make diesel fuel
from oil on the island. Unfortunately, Frost is left behind as he can't get to the sub in time and his wife Karen joins
him on the island again. The sub gets away, but it is unclear if it ever returned to civilization. Frost writes down his
The Land That Time Forgot (2009 film)
280
story and puts in a thermos and throws it in the ocean. He and Karen have found a life on the island and Karen is
pregnant.
Tie-ins
Burroughs' novel itself was arguably an attempt to capitalize on the success of earlier Lost World stories by Jules
Verne (The Mysterious Island) and Arthur Conan Doyle (The Lost World), among others. When the Amicus film
became a hit, its success coincided with the 1970s Land of the Lost TV series by Sid and Marty Krofft. The 1991 TV
revision of Land of the Lost starred Timothy Bottoms, who also stars in the 2009 Asylum film, which itself appears
timed to be released on DVD at around the same time as the comedically re-imagined big-budget Land of the Lost
film starring Will Ferrell.
Cast
• C. Thomas Howell as Frost Michaels
• Timothy Bottoms as Captain Burroughs
• Darren Dalton as Cole Stevens
• Stephen Blackehart as Lonzo
• Lindsey McKeon as Lindsey Stevens
•• Anya Benton as Karen Michaels
• Christopher Showerman as Stack
• Patrick Gorman as Conrad
•• Scott Subiono as Zander
•• David Stevens as Jude
•• Lew Knopp as Cooper
•• Christian Stoehr as Lukas
•• Jonathan Sanders as Oliver
Reception
The Land That Time Forgot received mixed reviews from critics and audiences. There's no approval rating on Rotten
Tomatoes but the Want-To-See score is currently 38%. Despite being a rip-off of Land of the Lost, as most films by
The Asylum are, many critics and audience members had sighted this film to be better than Land of the Lost.
References
External links
• The Land That Time Forgot (http:/ / www. theasylum. cc/ blog/ 2009/ 04/ the-land-that-time-forgot-in-production/
) announcement at The Asylum
• The Land That Time Forgot (http:/ / www. theasylum. cc/ product. php?id=157/ ) main listing at The Asylum
• The Land That Time Forgot (http:/ / www. imdb.com/ title/tt1410205/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
The Outsiders (film)
281
The Outsiders (film)
The Outsiders
Theatrical release poster
Directed by Francis Ford Coppola
Produced by Gray Frederickson
Fred Roos
Screenplay by Kathleen Rowell
Based on The Outsiders by
S.E. Hinton
Starring C. Thomas Howell
Matt Dillon
Ralph Macchio
Patrick Swayze
Rob Lowe
Diane Lane
Emilio Estevez
Tom Cruise
Leif Garrett
Music by Carmine Coppola
Cinematography Stephen H. Burum
Editing by Rob Bonz
Anne Goursaud
Melissa Kent
Roy Waldspurger
Studio(s) Zoetrope Studios
Distributed by Warner Bros.
Release date(s) •• March 25, 1983
Running time 91 minutes
Country United States
Language English
Box office $25,697,647
The Outsiders is a 1983 American drama film directed by Francis Ford Coppola, an adaptation of the novel of the
same name by S. E. Hinton. The film was released in March 1983. Jo Ellen Misakian, a librarian at Lone Star
Elementary School in Fresno, California, and her students
[1]
were responsible for inspiring Coppola to make the
film.
The film is noted for its cast of up-and-coming stars, including C. Thomas Howell (who garnered a Young Artist
Award), Rob Lowe, Emilio Estevez, Matt Dillon, Tom Cruise, Patrick Swayze, Ralph Macchio, and Diane Lane.
The film helped spark the Brat Pack genre of the 1980s. Both Lane and Dillon went on to appear in Coppola's related
film Rumble Fish.
The Outsiders (film)
282
Plot
In mid-1960s Tulsa, Oklahoma, the Greasers are a gang of tough, low-income teens. They include Ponyboy Curtis
(Howell) and his two older brothers, Sodapop (Lowe) and Darrel (Swayze), as well as Johnny Cade (Macchio),
Dallas Winston (Dillon), Two-Bit Matthews (Estevez), and Steve Randle (Cruise). Their rivalry is with the Socs
("socials"), a gang of wealthier kids. Five of the Socs jump Ponyboy and cut his neck with a switchblade; Johnny had
been similarly attacked the month before. Two Socs, Bob Sheldon (Garrett) and Randy Adderson (Dalton), confront
Johnny, Ponyboy, and Two-Bit, who are talking to the Socs' girlfriends, Cherry (Lane) and Marcia (Meyrink), at the
drive-in. The girls defuse the situation by going home with the Socs. Later that night, Ponyboy and Johnny are
attacked in a park by Bob, Randy, and two other Socs. They begin dunking Ponyboy in a fountain, but Johnny pulls
out his switchblade and stabs Bob, killing him.
On the advice of Dallas, Ponyboy and Johnny leave town, and hide out in an abandoned church in Windrixville.
Ponyboy dyes his hair blonde with peroxide in case anybody spots him. He reads Gone with the Wind and quotes the
Robert Frost poem "Nothing Gold Can Stay". Dallas arrives with news that Cherry has offered to support the boys in
court. They go out for food, then return to find the church on fire with children trapped inside. Johnny is hospitalized
with severe burns and a broken back after he, Ponyboy, and Dallas rescue the children. The boys are praised for their
heroism, but Johnny is charged with manslaughter for killing Bob, while Ponyboy may be sent to a boys' home.
Bob's death has sparked calls from the Socs for "a rumble," which the Greasers win. Dally then drives Ponyboy to
the hospital to visit Johnny. Johnny is unimpressed by the victory, and dies after telling Ponyboy to "stay gold,"
referring to the Frost poem. Unable to bear Johnny's death, Dally robs a grocery store at gunpoint and is killed by
police. Ponyboy is eventually cleared of wrongdoing in Bob's death and allowed to stay with his brothers. Turning
the pages of Johnny's copy of Gone with the Wind, Ponyboy finds a letter from Johnny saying that saving the
children was worth sacrificing his own life. The story ends as it began, with Ponyboy writing a school report about
his experiences.
Cast
Greasers
• C. Thomas Howell as Ponyboy Curtis
• Ralph Macchio as Johnny Cade
• Matt Dillon as Dallas "Dally" Winston
• Rob Lowe as Sodapop "Soda" Curtis
• Patrick Swayze as Darrel "Darry" Curtis
• Emilio Estevez as Keith "Two-Bit" Mathews
• Tom Cruise as Steve Randle
• Glenn Withrow as Tim Shepard
Socs
• Diane Lane as Sherri "Cherry" Valance
• Leif Garrett as Bob Sheldon
• Darren Dalton as Randy Adderson
• Michelle Meyrink as Marcia
Others
• Tom Waits as Buck Merrill
• Gailard Sartain as Jerry Wood
• S. E. Hinton as nurse in Dallas's hospital room.
• William Smith as store clerk
The Outsiders (film)
283
Production
Francis Ford Coppola had not intended to make a film about teen angst until middle-school students from Lone Star
Elementary School in Fresno, California wrote to him about adapting The Outsiders. When Coppola read the book,
he was moved not only to adapt and direct it, but to follow it the next year by adapting Hinton's novel Rumble Fish.
The latter film's cast also included Matt Dillon, Diane Lane, and Glenn Withrow.
The film was shot on location in Tulsa, Oklahoma.
[2]
Coppola filmed The Outsiders and Rumble Fish back-to-back
in 1982. He wrote the screenplay for the latter while on days off from shooting the former. Many of the same
locations were used in both films, as were many of the same cast and crew members. The credits are shown at the
beginning of the film in the style normally found in a published play.
Coppola's craving for realism almost led to disaster during the church-burning scene. He pressed for "more fire", and
the small, controlled blaze accidentally triggered a much larger, uncontrolled, fire, which a downpour fortunately
doused.
[3]
Critical reception
The film was met with generally mixed to positive reviews from critics and audiences. Rotten Tomatoes gives The
Outsiders a 64% "Fresh" rating on its site. One recent book said that the film's realistic portrayal of poor teenagers
from the wrong side of the tracks "created a new kind of filmmaking".
[4]
Awards and nominations
The Outsiders was nominated for four Young Artist Awards, given annually since 1978 by the Young Artist
Foundation. C. Thomas Howell won for "Best Young Motion Picture Actor in a Feature Film". Diane Lane was
nominated for "Best Young Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture". The film was nominated for "Best Family
Feature Motion Picture". Francis Ford Coppola was nominated for the Golden Prize at the 13th Moscow
International Film Festival.
[5]
"The Complete Novel" re-release
In September 2005, Coppola re-released the film on DVD, including 22 minutes of additional footage and new
music, as The Outsiders: The Complete Novel. Coppola re-inserted some deleted scenes to make the film more
faithful to the book. In the beginning of the film, he added scenes where Ponyboy gets jumped, the gang talks about
going to the movies, and Dally, Pony and Johnny bum around before going to the movies. In the end, Coppola added
the scenes taking place in court, Mr. Syme talking to Ponyboy, and Sodapop, Ponyboy and Darry in the park. Also,
much of the original score was replaced with music popular in the 1960s. The film was re-rated by the MPAA as
PG-13 for "violence, teen drinking and smoking, and some sexual references".
The director also removed several scenes in order to improve pacing, but they could be found on the second disc as
additional scenes. In addition, Swayze, Macchio, Lane, and Howell gathered at Coppola's estate to watch the
re-release, and their commentary is included on the DVD. Dillon and Lowe provided separate commentary.
The Outsiders (film)
284
Music
The original film score was composed by the director's father, Carmine Coppola; the main theme, "Stay Gold", was
sung by Stevie Wonder. The original soundtrack included one rock song, Them's "Gloria".
The re-release removed much of Coppola's score, replacing it with songs from the 1950s and 1960s, including:
• "Real Wild Child" - Jerry Lee Lewis
• "Out of Limits" - The Marketts
• "Tomorrow is a Long Time" - Elvis Presley
• "Mystery Train" - Elvis Presley
•• "We're Gonna Move" - Elvis Presley
• "Lend Me Your Comb" - Carl Perkins
•• "Milky White Way" - Elvis Presley
• "Teen Beat" - The Ventures
Discography
The CD soundtrack composed by Carmine Coppola is available on Music Box Records label (website
[6]
). The song
"Stay Gold" performed by Stevie Wonder is also included.
References
[1] "American Zoetrope: Films" (http:// www. zoetrope. com/ zoe_films.cgi?page=films&action=show_one& film_id=25). Zoetrope.com. .
Retrieved 2012-06-04.
[2] "The Outsiders" film, shot in Tulsa, page 1 (http:/ / tulsatvmemories. com/ outside1.html) from tulsatvmemories.com
[3] G. Phillips, Godfather: the intimate Coppola, p. 208 (http:// books. google. com/ books?id=ALT9c80ZIncC&pg=RA1-PA208&
lpg=RA1-PA204& dq="the+ outsiders"+ coppola+ tulsa+ northside& lr=&as_brr=3&ie=ISO-8859-1&output=html)
[4] Hirshenson, A Star is Born, p.86 (http:// books. google. com/ books?id=jc1BxqyoKXAC& pg=PA86&lpg=PA86& dq="the+outsiders"+
"beach+blanket+ bingo"& source=bl& ots=X7NgIVsNim& sig=Tign8T49rg8el_G1vjbrdFVY9qM&hl=en&ei=jE0LS4XjOcHllAfi9_ifBA&
sa=X& oi=book_result&ct=result& resnum=5& ved=0CBYQ6AEwBDgo)
[5] "13th Moscow International Film Festival (1983)" (http:/ / www.moscowfilmfestival.ru/miff34/eng/ archives/ ?year=1983). MIFF. .
Retrieved 2013-01-31.
[6] http:/ / www.musicbox-records.com/ en/ 34-the-outsiders.html
External links
• Official website (http:// www. theoutsidersbookandmovie. com/ Index.html)
• The Outsiders (http:/ / www. imdb. com/ title/ tt0086066/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
• The Outsiders (http:/ / www. allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v36919) at AllRovi
• The Outsiders (http:/ / www. boxofficemojo.com/ movies/ ?id=outsiders. htm) at Box Office Mojo
• The Outsiders (http:/ / www. rottentomatoes.com/m/ outsiders/ ) at Rotten Tomatoes
• Coppola Pays a Return Visit to His 'Gone With the Wind' for Teenagers (http:// movies. nytimes. com/ 2005/ 09/
09/ movies/ 09choi. html), a New York Times review of the 2005 version
The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film)
285
The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film)
The Poseidon Adventure
Directed by John Putch
Produced by Mary Church
Written by Paul Gallico (novel)
Bryce Zabel (screenplay)
Starring Adam Baldwin
Alexa Hamilton
Rutger Hauer
Steve Guttenberg
Bryan Brown
Tinarie Van Wyk
Aimee Anderson
C. Thomas Howell
Amber Sainsbury
Nathalie Boltt
Peter Weller
Music by Joe Kraemer
Cinematography Ross Berryman
Editing by Jennifer Jean Cacavas
Distributed by Buena Vista Home Entertainment
Running time TV version: 154 min.
extended version: 173 min.
Country United States
Language English
Budget $14,000,000 (estimated)
The Poseidon Adventure is a 2005 action and adventure made-for-TV film based on Paul Gallico's novel of the
same name. It is a remake of the 1972 film of the same name.
Plot
The plot centres on the SS Poseidon, a 135,000-ton state-of-the-art luxury cruise ship on a cruise from Cape Town,
South Africa to Sydney, Australia as well as the stories and dramas of some of the 3,700 passengers and crew.
Passenger and father, Richard Clark, is having an affair with Shoshana, a crew member. His family is drifting away
from him and his wife, Rachael, kicks him out of the family's stateroom. Dylan, their 12-year-old son witnesses this
and is devastated. His older sister, Shelby, is in nursing school and falls in love with the ships doctor Ballard. On
New Year's Eve, a bomb planted by a terrorist explodes. A second bomb is planned to explode, but was earlier
dismantled by sea marshall, Rogo. Because water is now entering only one side of the ship, it tips over throwing
many people to their deaths. As the ship continues to tilt, the centre of gravity on the ship causes it to flip completely
into an upside-down position. Many passengers and crew are injured, crippled, or killed. Ballard's arm is seriously
injured. Shelby and one of the showgirls are trapped on a table that is secured to the floor, which is now the ceiling.
They are both rescued. Shelby and Ballard then begin helping the injured. A small group of survivors, including
Shelby's mother, prepare to escape the sinking ship through the hole left by the bomb. The cruise director convinces
most survivors in the ballroom to stay, telling them the ship is not sinking. Shelby decides to stay and help the
The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film)
286
injured, but knows her mother and younger brother need to leave before it's too late. The others leave the ballroom as
Shelby's mother promises to leave traces where the group has gone. They then painfully depart and Shelby waves to
her mother with a bloody hand as episode one ends.
Episode two begins with the navy realizing that the S.S. Poseidon has gone missing, and they send out a rescue team.
In one of the Poseidon crew quarters, Richard and Shoshana reach the ballroom through an air vent. Shelby
confronts Shoshona, as Richard decides to follow Rachael and the others with Ballard, Shelby, and Shoshana. As
they leave the ballroom, a huge amount of water rushes into the ballroom, killing everyone who didn't listen to
Richard. Meanwhile, Rogo's group splits up with Rogo taking the terrorist into deeper water to question him, while
the rest of the group continues on the path to rescue. Rogo meets up with Richard's group and they all meet up again
in the area where the bomb exploded. The debris is too packed to get through. When the navy arrives, their
explosives make it even more impossible to get out that way. They are forced to go through the engine room to
detonate the other bomb and blast their way out. As they cross a fiery abyss left by the engines on a fallen cat walk,
Shoshana and the terrorist die as the others escape. They find the other bomb, detonate it and successfully open a
hole in the hull. The survivors jump into the water, swim to nearby rescue boats. The survivors watch as Poseidon
sinks, while a British agent, who had been helping out, laments the fact that there are so few survivors.
Production
The film was made for television by Larry Levenson Productions, directed by John Putch, written by Bryce Zabel,
starring Adam Baldwin, Rutger Hauer and Steve Guttenberg. It was first aired on NBC as a single three-hour event
on November 20, 2005. It also aired in 2005 on the Seven Network in Australia (with the name The New Poseidon
Adventure), and in 2006 on the USA Network in the United States. In this adaptation, the plot differs from the
original book and first feature film in that the ship capsized because of a terrorist act. Though many of the characters
remained the same, several were added. Some were dropped altogether. The character of Mike Rogo was changed to
a sea marshal who works for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security. The story was altered because it was felt
that the original's disaster was unrealistic since a tsunami out at open sea is only a few inches high and does not have
the strength and size to seriously affect a large vessel.
The film's final scenes include details from the novel of the Poseidon's sinking that were not part of the 1972 film
adaptation. The final shot was from the air as the ship's propellers slipped beneath the surface, which, by design or
coincidence, matches several photographs taken by a news plane of the final moments of the SS Andrea Doria in
1956.
Primary cast
• Rutger Hauer as Bishop August Schmidt, survivor
• Alexa Hamilton as Rachel Clarke, survivor
• Adam Baldwin as Sea Marshal Mike Rogo
• Steve Guttenberg as Richard Clarke
• Bryan Brown as Jeffrey Eric Anderson, survivor
• Tinarie Van Wyk-Loots as Aimee Anderson, survivor
• C. Thomas Howell as Doctor Matthew Ballard, survivor, crippled
• Amber Sainsbury as Shelby Clarke, survivor
• Nathalie Boltt as Shoshanna, burned alive
• Peter Weller as Captain Paul Gallico, killed by terrorist
• Alex Kingston as Suzanne Harrison
• Clive Mantle as James Martin, fell down the ships funnel into the ocean
• Sylvia Syms as Belle Rosen, died of heart failure painstakingly close to rescue
•• Rory Copus as Dylan Clarke, survivor,video taped the ordeal
The Poseidon Adventure (2005 film)
287
•• Geoffrey Pierson as Admiral Jennings
• Peter Dobson as Agent Percy
• Andrew Brent as Ronald Acre, crushed by stove
• Peter Butler as Badawi, terrorist, burned alive
External links
• The Poseidon Adventure (2005)
[1]
at the Internet Movie Database
• The Poseidon Adventure (2005)
[2]
at AllRovi
• The Poseidon Adventure
[3]
at Rotten Tomatoes
References
[1] http:/ / www.imdb. com/ title/ tt0419358/
[2] http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v340748
[3] http:/ / www.rottentomatoes. com/ m/ 1156154-poseidon_adventure/
The Return of the Musketeers
288
The Return of the Musketeers
The Return of the Musketeers
Directed by Richard Lester
Produced by Michelle de Broca
Pierre Spengler
Written by G. MacDonald Fraser
Based on novel Twenty Years After by Alexandre Dumas
Starring Michael York
Oliver Reed
Music by Jean-Claude Petit
Cinematography Bernard Lutic
Editing by John Victor Smith
Distributed by Entertainment (UK)
Universal Pictures (USA)
Release date(s) •• 1989
Running time 102 min.
Country United Kingdom / France / Spain
Language English
The Return of the Musketeers is a 1989 film adaptation loosely based on the novel Twenty Years After by Alexandre
Dumas, père. It is the third Musketeers film directed by Richard Lester, following 1973's The Three Musketeers and
1974's The Four Musketeers. Like the other two films, the screenplay was written by George MacDonald Fraser.
The character of Mordaunt, Milady de Winter's son in the original novel, is replaced by Milady's daughter, called
Justine de Winter.
Several cast members from the first two reprised their roles in this one. Jean-Pierre Cassel, who played Louis XIII in
the original films, has a cameo appearance as Cyrano de Bergerac.
While filming was taking place in September 1988, character actor Roy Kinnear died following an on-camera
accident in which he fell off a horse. His role was completed by using a stand-in, filmed from the rear, and dubbed-in
lines from a voice artist.
Plot
Twenty years after the events of The Four Musketeers, Cardinal Mazarin has imprisoned the Duke of Beaufort.
Mazarin hires d'Artagnan to bring together Athos, Porthos, and Aramis, to work for him. Porthos accepts, but Athos
and Aramis decline. By this time, Athos has a son named Raoul.
Milady de Winter's daughter, Justine, questions the headsman that the musketeers hired to kill her mother. After
finding out from the headsman that "Comte de la Fere" hired him, she kills the headsman. Raoul, who was in love
with her before witnessing this event, leaves her and tells d'Artagnan, Porthos, and Athos that Justine wants to kill
them.
Count de Rochefort helps Beaufort escape from his prison, and is subsequently arrested by Mazarin. Mazarin sends
d'Artagnan and Porthos after Beaufort, but Beaufort escapes them due to interference from Athos and Aramis, who
are working for Beaufort. This starts a fight amongst the musketeers, in which d'Artagnan slices Aramis' hand.
The Return of the Musketeers
289
Aramis breaks his sword and rides away. d'Artagnan and Porthos are fired by Mazarin for not catching Beaufort.
Rochefort goes into hiding until he finds Justine, and tells her the names of d'Artagnan, Porthos, and Aramis,
revealing to her that "Comte de la Fere" is Athos.
King Charles I of England is to be executed, so Queen Anne of Austria sends d'Artagnan, Athos, Porthos, and Raoul
to rescue him. They attempt a rescue by knocking out the headsman, however Justine takes his place and executes
Charles.
The musketeers have several encounters with Justine: in one, Raoul's true allegiance is revealed to her; in another,
Justine and Rochefort attempt to kill the musketeers by blowing up their ship but the musketeers escape and
Rochefort is killed.
Justine attempts to kill King Louis XIV, but is stopped by the musketeers, and their battle concludes with Justine
jumping out the window into the water. Aramis rejoins the musketeers, and they force Mazarin to sign several forms
in favour of them, including making Porthos a baron, Aramis a bishop, and Raoul commissioned in the guards. The
film ends with the Musketeers riding together again.
Cast
• Michael York as d'Artagnan
• Oliver Reed as Athos
• Frank Finlay as Porthos
• Richard Chamberlain as Aramis
• C. Thomas Howell as Raoul
• Geraldine Chaplin as Anne of Austria
• Kim Cattrall as Justine de Winter
• Philippe Noiret as Cardinal Mazarin
• Christopher Lee as the Count De Rochefort
• Roy Kinnear as Planchet
Production
The movie was shot in Spain. Roy Kinnear was killed during filming in an accident.
[1]
Release
Though completed in 1989, The Return of the Three Musketeers made its U.S. debut on cable television's USA
Network on April 3, 1991.
[2]
References
[1] George MacDonald Fraser, The Light's On at Signpost, HarperCollins 2002 p12-16
[2] Burlingame, Jon (April 3, 1991). "Tune in Tonight: It's CBS's turn to honor the troops" (http://news. google.com/
newspapers?id=zCgxAAAAIBAJ& sjid=MwcEAAAAIBAJ& pg=1483,1798900&dq=return+of+ the+musketeers& hl=en). Ocala
Star-Banner (The New York Times Company): p. 9C. . Retrieved April 2, 2011.
The Return of the Musketeers
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External links
• The Return of the Musketeers (http:/ / www.allrovi.com/ movies/ movie/ v41104) at AllRovi
• The Return of the Musketeers (http:/ / www.imdb.com/ title/ tt0098194/ ) at the Internet Movie Database
Thomas Chamberlain
Thomas Davee Chamberlain
Thomas D. Chamberlain
Nickname Tom
Born April 29, 1841
Brewer, Maine
Died August 12, 1896 (aged 55)
Bangor, Maine
Place of burial Castine, Maine
Allegiance United States of America
Union
Service/branch United States Army
Years of service 1861–1866
Rank Lieutenant Colonel
Unit 20th Maine Infantry, Army of the Potomac.
Other work Miscellaneous was the best
Thomas Davee Chamberlain (April 29, 1841 – August 12, 1896) was an officer in the 20th Maine Volunteer
Infantry Regiment during the American Civil War, the brother of Union general Joshua L. Chamberlain, the
commanding officer of the 20th Maine Infantry.
Thomas Chamberlain
291
Early life
Thomas D. Chamberlain was born in Brewer, Maine, the youngest of five children. Young Tom grew up on the
family farm in Brewer with his four older siblings: Joshua Lawrence (born in 1828), Horace Beriah (1834), Sarah
Brastow (1836) and John Calhoun (1838). Their upbringing seems to have been strict and religious but also loving.
Thomas was a mischievous and likable boy - his brother called him a "little rogue" - and, as the baby of the family,
he was his mother's favorite. Thomas was the only son not to attend college. Whether this was due to lack of
intelligence, application or inclination, is unknown. By his mid-teens Thomas was working as a clerk in a grocery
store in Bangor.
Civil War service
Chamberlain's great-grandfathers were soldiers in the American Revolutionary War and his grandfather had served
during the War of 1812. His father also had served during the abortive Aroostook War of 1839. His brother Joshua
was also in the army.
In 1862, Chamberlain joined the Union Army. His motives were mixed—personal, patriotic, and religious.
He was soon placed in the newly formed 20th Maine Infantry along with his brother Joshua, who was made
lieutenant colonel of the regiment.
The 20th Maine regiment marched to the Battle of Antietam, but did not participate in the fighting. They fought at
the Battle of Fredericksburg, suffering light casualties in the assaults on Marye's Heights, but they were forced to
spend a miserable night on the freezing battlefield among the many wounded and dead from other regiments. They
missed the Battle of Chancellorsville in May 1863 due to an outbreak of smallpox in their ranks, which kept them on
guard duty in the rear. In June 1863, Joshua was promoted to colonel of the regiment, after the promotion of its first
colonel, Adelbert Ames, to brigade command. Thomas Chamberlain was involved in most of the other battles in
which the 20th Maine fought, most notably the Battle of Gettysburg.
The Battle of Gettysburg
During the defense of Little Round Top, the 20th Maine came under heavy attack from the Confederate 15th
Alabama regiment, part of the division led by Maj. Gen. John Bell Hood, and after about 3–4 hours of fighting the
20th Maine completely ran out of ammunition. Chamberlain's brother Joshua recognized the dire circumstances and
ordered his left wing to respond to the rebels by charging downhill with fixed bayonets, thus ending the Confederate
attack on the hill. The 20th Maine and the 83rd Pennsylvania together captured over 400 soldiers from the attacking
Confederate forces. Joshua was slightly wounded in the foot by a spent bullet. Thomas was unhurt, except for
"several scratches". As a result of their valiant defense of the hill, the Chamberlain brothers, Joshua Chamberlain
especially, and the 20th Maine gained a great reputation and they were the subject of many publications and stories
After Gettysburg
After Gettysburg, the major battles in which Thomas Chamberlain and the 20th Maine were involved were the Battle
of Spotsylvania Court House and the Siege of Petersburg. At the Siege of Petersburg, the 20th Maine was in reserve,
while Joshua (against his better judgment) led his Pennsylvania Bucktail brigade in a charge on a section of the
Confederate defenses known as Rives's Salient. Turning to direct his troops, Joshua was struck by a minié ball,
which entered just below his right hip, nicked his bladder and urethra, and stopped at his left hip. Such a devastating
wound should have been fatal, and when he arrived at the field hospital, three miles behind the lines, his life was
feared over. Thomas Chamberlain, back with his regiment, eventually heard the news. He and the surgeon of the
20th Maine, Dr. Abner O. Shaw, went to the hospital where Joshua was dying. As Thomas waited, Dr. Shaw, with
Dr. Morris W. Townsend of the 44th New York, worked all night to try to save Joshua Chamberlain's life.
Thirty-five years later, Joshua Chamberlain wrote that, after the surgeons had finished: "Tom stood over me like a
Thomas Chamberlain
292
brother, and such a one as he was." Remarkably, Col. Chamberlain survived to enjoy his "on the spot" promotion to
brigadier general, although he never returned to full fitness. A number of biographers of Joshua Chamberlain say that
his life was saved through the activity of his brother, Thomas.
Appomattox Campaign
After Petersburg, Thomas Chamberlain and the 20th Maine were involved in the Battle of Five Forks and the Battle
of Appomattox Courthouse. At the end of the war, the 20th Maine marched from Appomattox, Virginia, on May 2,
reaching Washington, D.C., on May 12, where it was then finally mustered out of service on July 16, 1865.
Postbellum
After the war, despite his distinguished military record, Chamberlain drifted from one job to another. He suffered
from alcoholism as well as severe lung disease and heart disease.
Death
Thomas D. Chamberlain died at age 55 in Bangor, Maine. He is buried at Castine, Maine.
In Popular Media
Chamberlain was a character in Michael Shaara's Pulitzer Prize-winning historical novel, The Killer Angels. He was
also portrayed in the movie based on that novel, Gettysburg, played by actor C. Thomas Howell, who repeated that
role in the Gods and Generals prequel, based on the novel, Gods and Generals, written by Jeff Shaara, Michael
Shaara's son.
Further reading
• Michael, Shaara, The Killer Angels, Random House, 1974, ISBN 1-58663-524-7.
External links
• Thomas D. Chamberlain, the Brother of Joshua Lawrence Chamberlain
[1]
• "Thomas Chamberlain"
[2]
. Find a Grave. Retrieved 2008-07-03.
• Photograph of Thomas Chamberlain from the Maine Memory Network
[3]
References
[1] http:/ / www.users. globalnet. co. uk/ ~pardos/ TomC. html
[2] http:// www.findagrave.com/ cgi-bin/fg.cgi?page=gr&GRid=7209693
[3] http:/ / www.mainememory.net/ bin/ Detail?ln=4332
Torchwood: Miracle Day
293
Torchwood: Miracle Day
Title card for the Miracle Day series
Country of origin United Kingdom
United States
No. of episodes 10
Broadcast
Original channel BBC One (UK)
Starz (U.S.)
Original run
8 July - 9 September 2011 (Starz)
[1]
14 July - 15 September 2011 (BBC)
[2]

Torchwood: Miracle Day is the fourth series of the British science fiction television series Torchwood, a spin-off
from the long-running show Doctor Who.
[3]
In contrast to the first three series, which were produced by the BBC, the
fourth series is a British-American co-production involving the BBC's drama production house BBC Cymru Wales
for BBC Worldwide and the U.S. premium network Starz. It was broadcast in ten episodes beginning 8 July 2011
(U.S.) and 14 July 2011 (UK).
[4][5]
The central plot of Miracle Day is that suddenly no one on Earth can die, which incites increasingly troublesome
legislative changes around the world as the global population soars.
[3]
In addition to a number of new American cast
members and guest actors, showrunner Russell T Davies recruited several American television writers to write for
Miracle Day, including Jane Espenson, John Shiban and Doris Egan. British writer John Fay also returned to write
for the series, under Davies as head writer.
[6]
Production was partially divided along trans-Atlantic lines, with Kelly
Manners producing in the US, and Brian Minchin in the UK.
[7]
The majority of the filming took place in Los
Angeles, California, with two weeks' additional shooting in Wales.
[8]
Although the series premiered to a high Audience Appreciation Index rating (85, considered 'excellent') and solid
ratings in the UK, American critics were on the whole less favourable to the series opener. Reviews on both sides of
the Atlantic became increasingly mixed as the series went on. Several commentators felt the series would have
worked better as a five-episode series, highlighting concerns with inconsistent pacing, dangling plot threads, and a
repetitive feel to mid-series episodes.
The series has a 10-episode companion web series entitled Torchwood: Web of Lies, referenced in the Starz website
(but not in the BBC One website) related to the series,
[9]
which can be obtained as an app from iTunes Store,
[10]
and
the first episode can be obtained for free, or also viewed in the Starz's YouTube channel.
[11]
It is available in its
entirety (less interactive