November, 2000

doc.: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0

Adaptive Frequency Hopping Implementation Proposals for IEEE 802.15.1/2 WPAN Hongbing Gan, Bijan Treister Bandspeed Pty Ltd

Submission

Slide 1

Hongbing Gan, Bijan Treister, Bandspeed Pty Ltd

November, 2000

doc.: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0

Outline
• What is frequency hopping and why?

• Adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) and why • Brief overview of previous work on AFH • Proposals of implementing AFH in IEEE 802.15.1/2 WPAN

• Conclusions

Submission

Slide 2

Hongbing Gan, Bijan Treister, Bandspeed Pty Ltd

November. 2000 doc. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .15-00/367r0 What is Frequency Hopping? Frequency hopping is formed by linearly modulating a train of symbols with a sequence of pseudorandomly generated frequency shifts f fn fn-1 Frequency f3 f2 f1 t Time Submission Slide 3 Hongbing Gan.

Bijan Treister. 2000 doc.: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0 Why Frequency Hopping? • To combat frequency-selective fading • To combat narrow-band interference • To protect against intentional jamming and hostile surveillance P Fading minimum Narrow-band interference f Submission Slide 4 Hongbing Gan.November. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .

Melbourne.November. 2000 doc. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Distance and Frequency in 2.0:1 for all bands • Linear polarization • Omni-directional • Surface mounted • 50 impedance (matched with network analyzer) All Measurements at Bandspeed Laboratories. Australia Submission Slide 5 Hongbing Gan.4 GHz ISM Band • Transmit signal at +0dBm • Non-line of sight signal • Room size 400m2 office floor • Measurements done in 3cm increments • Antenna: • VSWR less than 2. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0 Fading of Signal vs.

November.15-00/367r0 Microwave OFF Baseband TX sent: Baseband RX received: Microwave ON Baseband TX sent: Baseband RX received: Channel: 2.45GHz Modulation: FSK Symbol Rate: 20Kb/s Submission Slide 6 Hongbing Gan. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . 2000 doc.

Bandspeed Pty Ltd .November. frequency.15-00/367r0 Adaptive Frequency Hopping (AFH) and Why While conventional frequency hopping is blindly passive.selective fading • Better BER performance • Reducing transmitter power. Advantages: • Active avoidance of narrow-band interference. Good or Bad) and adaptively selects from the pool of ‘Good’ channels.: IEEE 802. Bijan Treister. adaptive frequency hopping (AFH) classifies channels (say. up to 30 dB • Working with adaptive channel equalizers will further enhance system performance Submission Slide 7 Hongbing Gan. 2000 doc.

Royal Institute of Technology..15-00/367r0 Overview of Previous Work on AFH • Zander et al. Radio communication systems laboratory. Sweden d FH Channel number FH RF Channe l Channel number ˆ d Frequency Map PN generator Frequency Map PN generator LQA Link quality analysis Results: Submission • 30+ dB LESS transmitter power • Low probability of interception by enemies Slide 8 Hongbing Gan.November.: IEEE 802. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . 2000 doc. Bijan Treister.

: IEEE 802.S. 2000 doc. patent 5418839: Environment adaptive mechanism in cordless telephones Submission Slide 9 Hongbing Gan.November. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .15-00/367r0 Knuth et al. U. Bijan Treister.

a score is applied to each channel • Selecting preferred channel subset base on score • Channels within the Preferred Channel Subset which experience no or little interference over an extended time is then assigned to Clear Channel Subset • Communication is carried out in Clear Channel Subset • Channel scanning is done periodically Submission Slide 10 Hongbing Gan.S. patent 5418839: Environment adaptive mechanism in cordless telephones Adaptive hopping scheme: • Pre-scanning the channel during idle time. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .15-00/367r0 Knuth et al. 2000 doc.: IEEE 802. U.November. Bijan Treister.

which is substituted for channels in the First Group upon which the interference is detected Submission Slide 11 Hongbing Gan.: IEEE 802.S. U. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Bijan Treister. by measuring the interference level.November. patent 5323447:Apparatus and method for modifying a frequency hopping sequence of a cordless telephone system Adaptive hopping scheme: • Either the base or handset determines the quality of each channel of the First Group of predetermined channels. • Selecting one or more channels from a Second Group of predetermined channels. 2000 doc.15-00/367r0 Gillis et al.

patent 5323447:Apparatus and method for modifying a frequency hopping sequence of a cordless telephone system Submission Slide 12 Hongbing Gan.15-00/367r0 Gillis et al. Bijan Treister. 2000 doc.: IEEE 802. U.S. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .November.

15-00/367r0 Lawrey et al. update rate is 330 times per second. Multiuser OFDM. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802.November. • Adaptive hopping increases received power by 5-20 dB in a frequency-selective fading channel. users are in different locations and have different fading pattern • Each user is allocated carriers which have the best SNR for that user. Australia • In a multiuser OFDM system. ISSPA’99. A velocity of 60 km/Hr. • Most users can be allocated the best carriers for them with minimal clashes • Carriers are updated every 5 cm. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Adaptive hopping virtually eliminates frequency selective fading Submission Slide 13 Hongbing Gan. at 1 GHz. 2000 doc.

Multiuser OFDM.15-00/367r0 Lawrey et al.November. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Bijan Treister. 2000 doc.: IEEE 802. ISSPA’99. Australia Submission Slide 14 Hongbing Gan.

: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0 Current Hop Selection 23/79 mode UAP/LAP 28 bits Selection box Clock 27/28 bits Hop frequency Submission Slide 15 Hongbing Gan.November. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Bijan Treister. 2000 doc.

Bandspeed Pty Ltd .November.15-00/367r0 Current Hop Selection 0 2 4 6 62 64 78 1 73 75 77 Segment 1 Segment 2 Segment 3  Segment length 32. Bijan Treister. =16 Submission Slide 16 Hongbing Gan.: IEEE 802. 2000 doc.

15. Bijan Treister. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Submission Slide 17 Hongbing Gan. 2000 doc.11b • HomeRF • Cordless phone • Microwave oven • Baby monitor • etc.: IEEE 802.15-00/367r0 Current hopping scheme is blind !! Adaptive Frequency Hopping could be applied to IEEE 802.1/2 to avoid interference from: • Frequency-selective fading • WLAN IEEE 802.November.

15. Submission Slide 18 Hongbing Gan. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . but robust.: IEEE 802.1/2 • A channel classification scheme – simple. • Quasi AFH (adaptive slave TX slot) – requires no modification of Bluetooth standard for full interoperability.November. Bijan Treister. • Full AFH – requires ‘Bluetooth enhanced mode’ for full interoperability. 2000 doc.15-00/367r0 Bandspeed AFH proposals for IEEE 802.

November.1/2 Submission Slide 19 Hongbing Gan. 2000 doc.: IEEE 802.15. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Bijan Treister.15-00/367r0 A Proposed Channel Classification Scheme for 802.

November. 2000 doc. don’t bother • Default at start .: IEEE 802. Bijan Treister.all channels clear. first choice of group of channels Class 2: Good. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . • Upper bound on # of dead channels to adhere to FCC • The dead channel will be visited to see whether it becomes better Submission Slide 20 Hongbing Gan.15-00/367r0 Class 1: Clear. second choice of group of channels Class 3: Dead.

15-00/367r0 Channel Classification Criterion: • Correlation (Error checking) of channel access code • Error checking of head error control (HEC) • Error checking of cyclic redundancy check (CRC) • BER test by modified LMP • BER test by new packet type (or known sequence) • RSSI Based on the performance of error checking. 2000 doc.November. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. each channel is assigned to respective class. Dead channels redeemed after timeout or other scheme. Submission Slide 21 Hongbing Gan. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .

15-00/367r0 Proposal 1: A New Packet Type to Transmit New Hopping Sequence Submission Slide 22 Hongbing Gan. 2000 doc. Bijan Treister.November. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .: IEEE 802.

Bijan Treister. Submission Slide 23 Hongbing Gan.: IEEE 802. 2000 doc.November. say type 0101. x slots) • After the sequence. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . • The master broadcast this packet to all slaves • The slaves adjust their hopping sequence after a timeout (say. either revert to Bluetooth sequence or repeat current sequence.15-00/367r0 CAC HEADER PAYLOAD (new sequence) with 1/3 FEC AM_ADDR 000 TYPE 0101 Flow ARQN SEQN HEC • A new packet type is proposed.

Bandspeed Pty Ltd . Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. 2000 doc.15-00/367r0 Proposal 2: Master Appends 3 byte to the Payload to Indicate the Channel Number for the Slave to Transmit in Next Time-slot Submission Slide 24 Hongbing Gan.November.

Bijan Treister. only master listening to it • Channel classification table regularly updated because master transmits on all frequencies evenly. 2000 doc.November. Submission Slide 25 Hongbing Gan. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .15-00/367r0 3 bytes appended (1/3 FEC) Next channel CAC Header Normal Payload • Master transmits on regular Bluetooth hopping frequency • Slave transmits on preferred frequency.: IEEE 802.

Bandspeed Pty Ltd . 2000 doc. or • Update of dead channels done after a predefined Timeout Submission Slide 26 Hongbing Gan. .November. 1 2 3 4 . 77 78 79 Slave 1 Slave 2 Slave 3 Slave 4 Slave 5 Slave 6 Slave 7 • Good Clear Good Bad Clear Good Bad Clear Good Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Bad Clear Bad Good Clear Clear Good Clear Clear Good Good Good Bad Good Good Bad Good Bad Bad Bad Good Bad Good Good Clear Bad Clear Good Clear Good Good Clear Clear Good Complexity can be reduced by grouping channels in chunks of coherence bandwidth • Update of table forced from higher layers. . . Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. Salves Channel No.15-00/367r0 Table of Channel Classification vs.

15-00/367r0 f(2k) (regular) Next channel f’(Clear) f(2k+2) (regular) Next channel f’(Good) Master t Slave X t Slave Y 625 ms Submission Slide 27 Hongbing Gan. Bijan Treister. 2000 doc.November.: IEEE 802. Bandspeed Pty Ltd .

HEC. Bandspeed Pty Ltd . modified LMP or new packet type.1/2/3 based on channel classification. etc.November.15-00/367r0 Conclusion • AFH could be applied to 802. • Bandspeed’s proprietary ‘AFH + equalizer’ could even enhance system performance further Submission Slide 28 Hongbing Gan.15. as a Non-collaborative Coexistence Mechanism • Channel classification could be based on error checking of CAC. Bijan Treister.: IEEE 802. lower the transmitting power (important for battery-operated device) and increase throughput. and CRC. • A new packet type is proposed to broadcast hopping sequence information • A quasi-adaptive hopping is also proposed • AFH could potentially avoid interference. 2000 doc.

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