Managing Communications, Knowledge & Information

Individual Assignment: Adil








Batch: BM-25

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Managing Communications, Knowledge & Information

Individual Assignment: Adil

Assignment brief
Included in this assignment is the firstly, the general idea of how organizations of different type make use of effective decision making and how stakeholder analysis helps to make these decisions. Examples from the industry were evaluated related to the decision making and stakeholder analysis process. Secondly, the communication process, its flaws and methods to improve the existing communication process of an organization of choice was shown. This was illustrated using tables and figures to elaborate on the existing system. Furthermore, communication flaws within a unit of the organization; the employees, were identified using various methods and recommendations for improving the communication skills of the identified people were addressed. In the presentation, an organization of choice was analyzed into its existing information technology system used to manage information and knowledge. Furthermore, its effectiveness was analyzed and proper systems of information were brought up as recommendations for improvement. Illustrated with it were tables.

Batch: BM-25

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Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil TASK 01ESSAY Batch: BM-25 Page 3 .Managing Communications.

an organization will have to consider the types of information it will have to gather. The colloquial decisions that are usually taken in organizations are that of a basic nature and/or routine. these organizational officials will also have to undergo certain personal decisions. since the influence of others in the organization will not help him make a proper decision. unstructured or semi structured. On the contrary. they can be further dissected into being either structured. and an example could be telecommuting which is considered a decision he had to take personally. hence being taken by the managing director himself. Larger organizations tend to take more complex decisions. However. Basic decisions are timely. which are taken by higher officials of an organization. In order to efficiently make a decision at pre-implementation stage. organization being an importer of automobiles may take decisions regarding to the types of vehicles to be imported. At the same time. Managing Director. Chief Accountant. Batch: BM-25 Page 4 . as these are mostly based on that certain officials mentality. the petty cash. where mistakes will be tolerated only at huge costs to the organizations. following standard import procedures and allocating funds to purchase the desired vehicles for import are all of complex nature. deserve a lot of thought and tend to be more centralized. the appropriate pricing for domestic customers. routine decisions such as deciding which vehicle to repair. Based on the above mentioned decisions.Managing Communications. book-keeping and employee grievance handling are carried out in a decentralized format. a certain degree of intervention from the top hierarchy level will be needed when it comes to conflicts between lower hierarchical employees in making these decisions. the price range to be selected when purchasing. the way vehicles are parked. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil An organization can make use of various decisions in order to successfully achieve its goals or objectives. whereas routine decisions are delegated to employees on the lower hierarchical level since they are decisions take are taken on a frequent basis. Delegation of such decisions will also be ineffective since as other individuals wouldn’t possess the same mentality as the managing director himself. whilst smaller organizations take simpler decisions.CEO. Delegating the task of taking such decisions of major complexity to other employees will only result in conflict of ideas and lead to an inefficient decision making process. These decisions that have to be taken in relation to the organization are called organizational decisions. For example. This decision will have to be taken by the higher level officials of the company and will reflect the policy on which the company acts and what the employees adhere to. Gathering information from different sources will aid in the comprehensive decision making process. an efficient foreign dealer. since each employee will have different views which contradict the views of others. where workers under the higher hierarchical employees are allowed to take. selecting the appropriate importers. Example:.

These decisions are taken at 3 different levels of management. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Structured decisions are basically decisions with similar characteristics to that of routine decisions. so it is highly risky if stepped on the wrong foot. with the higher officials of an organization. Strategic level decisions are carried out at the top of the hierarchical level. thereby helping to ensure that these tasks have a smooth Batch: BM-25 Page 5 . which means they can be done on computerized systems. The resources according to the example are the employees and their productivity levels. Tactical level decisions are quite routinely and is basically a managerial control used to ensure the efficient and effective uses of resources in order to attain the organizations objectives. or a department within the organization. hence giving it a similar characteristic to that of an un-programmed decision.Managing Communications. These are complex and do not necessarily have a fixed solution. but rather at specific points. And at the bottom of the triangle is the operational level. and can prove very costly to the organization. or rather. An example could be to provide an incentive plan to employees to encourage increased production within the organization. as they require high levels of strategic planning and implementation to deal with complex issues. Selecting a partner is a timely decision and a wrong move on this part will prove costly for the business on a large scale in the long run. On a further note. These decisions are of high value to the organization. These decisions are related to the core attributes of the company and its policies. resource controlling & allocation and objectives and hence such decisions are authorized to be taken by high level workers in either the organization. by issuing incentives. that were set upon by the strategic level decision makers. hence considering how economically are these resources used. and involves lots of judgment and brain storming. employees tend to increase their productivity and thereby the production. The decision maker would be the Human Resources manager. which in the end proves an economically efficient tactical decision made. These decisions relate to the use of resources within an organization in such a way that its objectives are reachable. Unstructured decisions are decisions with similar characteristics to that of basic decisions. These can be exemplarily Inventory Control Systems (stock reordering) since they have to be taken on a frequent basis. can be considered similar to basic decisions. These decisions are not taken on a repetitive basis. tactical level and the operational level. namely the strategic level. and they also possess the feature of being programmed. These decisions focus on the efficiency and effectiveness of tasks carried out on a daily basis. and thereby. most decisions are classified by organizations in terms of the hierarchical level of the people who take them. Hence. An example would be to select a partner for an organization.

The workers at the lower levels. These places are known as sources. an effective decision is based on the information used to make those decisions. paperwork or anything related to make decisions that can be found from within the organization or its departments. In summarization. Furthermore internal information is information that can be obtained within the organization. requires a degree of stakeholder involvement in order to make it effective. The decision making process. example: Production manager seeking information on the distribution channel existing currently in a certain country. for example. On the contrary. and external information is the information obtained from sources out or away from the organization. Furthermore these sources can be classified based on where they are taken from. Stakeholders can be an individual or a group that is affected or has an interest in the way the business is run. grapevines. example: Human resources manager obtaining employee attendance sheet or having access to payroll systems of the organization. Therefore. An organization. Informal external sources can be in the form of rumors word of mouth. Internal information sources for an organization can be documents. it is essential to maintain a good relationship with stakeholders in order to obtain effective and efficient input from them to contribute to the decision Batch: BM-25 Page 6 . either internally or externally will have to be obtained from various places. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil flow and help the organization to achieve its objectives set. Formal external sources can be in the form of documents or statements related or made by officials of the company. employee grievances and stock controlling.Managing Communications. in an organization with a flatter hierarchy structure. Whereas. An exemplar decision could be the daily allocation of resources (finance) for raw material purchases for the daily targets of production. since their decisions are mostly of repetitive nature relating to the internal activities of a business such as organizations daily expenses management. either internally or externally. whereas external sources of information for an organization can be furthermore classified into two criteria for more specificity. namely formal and informal. And this information can be retrieved either internally or externally. would have a taller hierarchical structure with many levels of management. or the activities of it. The information used. presumably the tactical or operational level tend to use more information that is internal to the organization. such as suppliers and consumers. Various types of information can be used to make decisions of different natures. whether it be complex or simple. meeting with external parties such as customers or suppliers or even attending governmental business conferences. The decision makers can be front-line managers of lower level managers. it is important to note that the use of information to make decisions will vary depending on the type or structure of the organization. it is vice versa. presumably a large one. where mostly strategic level of management uses more of external information since their organization is larger and has more relation to external parties.

investors. who are manufacturers and importers of Chinese automobile. employees. Yet it is essential to understand that the type of decisions taken will depend on the hierarchical structure of the organization. suppliers and customers. media. video-conferencing and telephone calls. shareholders. before entering the market. To carry out proper ways to engage with stakeholders. After the analysis of these information. newspapers. probably a long-time supplier. or the board of directors. media. and management consultancy offices in Sri Lanka. Questionnaires and surveys could also be used to obtain input from quite external stakeholders such as customer feedbacks and community opinions. If all mentioned is not possible for an organization. By importing to Sri Lanka. competitors. internet or newspapers to obtain general information from external stakeholders such as political climate. an organization can hold meetings within the company where the most relevant stakeholders are invited to participate in making decisions and voice out their opinion as to what they think satisfies them the most. It attempts to analyze. consumer questionnaires and surveys and government officials. GEELY would have made use of mostly external information for decision making about Sri Lanka such as the economic climate. they are entering a new market. governmental authorities. The sources of this information are a mix of secondary as well as primary nature and might have been the internet. whereas secondary stakeholders have an indirect influence on the organizations activities and are less likely to be affected by it. Primary stakeholders have a direct influence on the organizations activities. To do this. so that its decision making is more relative to the organizations goals and objectives. This could aid in analyzing feedbacks and allocating resources for betterment and hence satisfying them. which means they are enabling an extension to their stakeholder lineup. whose contribution in the form of managing resources within the organization results in the efficient production of goods and services. example: shareholders. thereby making the decision process more effective. GEELY would have tried to improve relationship with its potential shareholders as mentioned above. After all. stakeholder satisfaction is key to improving input to decision making. Stakeholders can be either primary or secondary. Presumably. Therefore. example: A supplier. customer base. It could make use of media.Managing Communications. a stakeholder analysis can be carried out. an organization is most likely to improve its contact with stakeholders who are highly influential to it. foreign competition within Sri Lanka. who are likely to be impacted by organizational decisions. Batch: BM-25 Page 7 . they could make use of emails. Stakeholder relationship improvement seeks to create partnerships and encourage constructive dialogue between all parties so that all sides can learn from and listen to each other to produce a better decision output and make an efficient final choice. etc. assess and identify stakeholders. directors. community. An industrial example could be GEELY EMGRAND. whose supplies are essential for the production process of the organization and its final output quality to the consumers. Examples are the Sri Lankan government. example: politicians. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil making process. government and community. political stability and consumer taste.

Managing Communications. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil TASK 02PORTFOLIO Batch: BM-25 Page 8 .


Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Acknowledgement It is with heartfelt gratitude and appreciation I place on record the unstinted guidance of lecturer. Adil.Managing Communications. Mrs Niluka Samarakoon. Sincerely. Batch: BM-25 Page 10 . all my batch mates for the valuable ideas we exchanged with each other on the assignment and my parents who have been behind my every effort.

.................. .............. [3......................................................1] Existing processes of communication in an organization 14 ..............Managing Communications.. ....................... ............. ....................................................... [3........................... Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Table of Contents 12 ..........3] Implementation of improvements 22 ............... . Executive Summary 13 . ......... ............. .... ................................. [3..................................................................................... ...................... SWOT Analysis to aid in preparing the personal development plans effectively Batch: BM-25 Page 11 ...........................2] Designing ways to improve appropriateness 16 ........... ................

Further. Various methods of analysis of the current system and its weaknesses have been used throughout the portfolio. along with questionnaires to evaluate weaknesses in people’s communication skills and the use of Action plans to effectively improve the communication skills of those identified to a desired level suitable for the organizations objectives. the weaknesses identified. Initial findings proved that the flow of communication from lower level to higher level was not very effective and efficient. which resulted in not being able to provide further methods of analysing and evaluating such as interviews and observations into the communication process of the organization and its employees. And lastly.Managing Communications. assess and find more information on the organizations communication process. linguistic skills of the employees in the organization are evaluated and proper focus and recommendations for improvement are given to those in need of improving their communicational skills. it is essential to the organization that these areas of weakness have to be given continuous focus in order to effectively eliminate in the long run. Lack of time to carry out findings was a major concern. After analysing and assessing the findings. Further findings showed that there was an improper set up of the communication system within the organization which lead to certain barriers in communication. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Executive Summary The report provides a description of the existing communication process adopted by an organization to communicate to its employees amongst a line of branches. The weakness in the communication process of the organization is identified and methods of eliminating these weaknesses are assessed as a justification for recommendation and improvement of the communication process within. Gantt charts were used to design ways to improve and implement the communication system within the organization. it was found that 80% of the workers in the organization had communication skills in par with industrial standards and requirements while certain workers in the organization lacked proper communicational skills. Drawbacks and limitations were faced and acted as an obstacle to research. Analysis and assessment of the communication processes within the organization resulted in findings that aided the recommendation and improvement process. Yet. the organization and the workforce were brought forward. recommendations for improvement in the communication systems of both. and proper methods were set up to effectively implement these systems on the areas of weakness. analyse. Batch: BM-25 Page 12 .

it was found that the organization had intact a mostly top-down sort of communication. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Importance of Managing Communication for a successful business [3. thereby we can say that the organization has a formal method of communicating. who is the owner encodes the information in the form of anything mentioned above and choses the right communication channel to pass the information. The sender. Responsibility lies with him as to choosing the right communication channel.Managing Communications. knowledge or data is passed or exchanged between people in a way that each other is able to decode them in an understandable way. telephone calls and Short Messaging Services to communicate with employees in the lower level. understand and interpret the information further down the hierarchy. since the way the receiver understands the information will depend on how rich the communication is. a messenger is sent to each branch to set up posters or letters on notice boards in each branch. The owner (and CEO) of the organization currently uses posters. which is semi-computerized. In order to effectively transmit understandable information to the receiver. which has 3 branches around Kandy. The communication channel within the organization is more of an offline (personal & non personal) form. Throughout the research. The communication process used in Royal Auto Mart. making it rather direct. telephone calls and Short Messaging Services are passed down by the owner himself. On the contrary. uses a rather basic communication system by nature. notice boards. the sender will have to possess certain characteristics such as the right attitude and linguistic skills so that the receiver is able to decode. and it was noticed that bottom up communication was rather inefficient. letters. If information had to be passed down.1] Communication process is the way information. Batch: BM-25 Page 13 .

Managing Communications. This is further elaborated in the diagram below. accuracy and ease in the future communication processes. This response/feedback is sometimes essential to ensure that the information was understood. as mentioned earlier.2] With the objective of the organization being to grow into more branches in and around the city in order to capture higher market share. and he decodes it. bottom-up communication system within this organization was researched and proved to be ineffective and inefficient. The reason behind this is that “Noise” existed and was seen to disrupt the communication process. a response is given back to the other party. The noise created within the communication process is the weakness identified and ways to tackle this issue will be brought forward for implementation. Batch: BM-25 Page 14 . which can be in the form of understanding or reading it. Figure 1 As seen above. So the organization will have to design ways to remove the Noises mentioned above by implementing certain methods. However. making it effective. whilst simultaneously eliminating the use of manual systems to ensure greater efficiency. By further research. And if understood properly. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Then the receiver receives the information through the communication channel that the information was sent. the current communication system proves to be ineffective if needed to ensure greater control and management of these branches. it was found that the organization wants to adopt a fully computerized system. Geographic proximity between the branches is a main reason for the organization to seek an extensive/complex communication system. [3. the Noise that centres around the process acts as a barrier for effective and smooth flow of information in the organization.

This requires taking off the old system in place for the new one. The following factors will determine the effectiveness and feasibility of the implementation. and ultra-fast transfer of information Complexity: The computerized system will offer an efficient user-friendly interface which will make it easier for employees to use and cope with. After the implementation. Cost: Is probably the only disadvantage since advanced computer systems along with their set up is very costly. The new computerized system starts off with the implementation and set up of advanced computer systems at all branches. Time: Less time since travelling will not be needed. video conferencing facilities at all branches which is altogether connected to a central/core server system called an intranet. It includes setting up of email addresses to all the employees within the organization. since it can be transferred within the network of computerized systems within a short span of time. can prove effective in the long run. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil The idea is to adopt a more real time computerized approach to the communication process. Batch: BM-25 Page 15 . but.Managing Communications. employees at all levels will be able to pass information directly to their receiver without having the need to face communication barriers/noises. This enables instant and more efficient communication between workers from top to bottom and bottom to top. The move from semi-computerized to fully computerized. Distance: There is no need to travel a distance to pass information.

the questionnaires were short listed and categorized into workers with good communication skills and workers who needed more attention and focus into the improvement of their communication skills. Table 2 Royal Auto Mart – Employee Linguistic Skills Evaluation Name of person under evaluation: Manoj Samarathunga Weak Oral skills: Batch: BM-25 Page 16 Moderate Good . some tasks overlap others. where the management will analyse and assess through the feedbacks the employees give. as seen. The results of how feasible the implementation was will be done at the final stage. the implementation process spans over a period of one month. Inorder to evaluate them. so that it effectively can achieve efficiency in the process. a questionnaire was created and distributed amongst 15 employees. Thereafter. This is to ensure that no lag remains within the process.Managing Communications. Table 1 In the above gantt chart created. over which the tasks are divided into a set of days. As can be seen. since these will cause discontinuation of the process and may exceed the proposed goal of fully implementing the system within a span of one month. To further improve the communication flow within the organization the owner spared some time into looking into the communication skills of all his employees.3] For an effective implementation process. the following Gantt chart was created in order to ease the process. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil [3.

Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil - Pronunciation Vocabulary base Grammar use Fluency Delivery/interpretation √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Written skills: Spelling Clarity Letter writing Report writing Reading Speaking/ Presentation skills Listening/ Understandability Body Language Table 2 Batch: BM-25 Page 17 .Managing Communications.

1 Batch: BM-25 Page 18 . Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Royal Auto Mart – Employee Linguistic Skills Evaluation Name of person under evaluation: Ahmed Abdal Weak Oral skills: Pronunciation Vocabulary base Grammar use Fluency Delivery/interpretation √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Moderate Good Written skills: Spelling Clarity Letter writing Report writing Reading Speaking/ Presentation skills Listening/ Understandability Body Language Table 2.Managing Communications.

These questionnaires were made and passed down to the branch managers. who conducted these evaluation sessions at their respective branches. lack of motivation. mood or unwillingness to communicate either by the superior or the subordinates. It was evaluated that three employees from the operational level (one vehicles condition reporter and two vehicle sales representatives) of the organizations hierarchy needed attention and focus into improving their communication skills.Managing Communications. Each Batch: BM-25 Page 19 . Furthermore. in order to improve the communicational skills of the identified employees. other forms of evaluation such as interviews and observations weren’t carried out due to lack of time and ineffectiveness in doing so since it would disrupt the business activities. However. the owner/management decided to create personal plans for each employee to improve their skills.2 Above are the 3 questionnaires that were short-listed from the 15 questionnaires. Carrying out other methods such as interviews and observations would have added to the feasibility of identifying the weaknesses since they’re more personal and real-time. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Royal Auto Mart – Employee Linguistic Skills Evaluation Name of person under evaluation: Janaka Tissera Weak Oral skills: Pronunciation Vocabulary base Grammar use Fluency Delivery/interpretation √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Moderate Good Written skills: Spelling Clarity Letter writing Report writing Reading Speaking/ Presentation skills Listening/ Understandability Body Language Table 2. The only self-criticism here is that these questionnaires results wouldn’t be very reliable since there could have been personal barriers such as attitude.

Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil employee had an action plan set up for them that they had to adhere to in order to effectively bring up their skills. Batch: BM-25 Page 20 . The action plan covers the need to improve skills in all forms of communication types.Managing Communications.

write. interpretational speaking skills and Assign basic 6 months. so that speaking understanding skills improve and Holding examinations to test linguistic skills and use findings for further improvement of skills To be able to - Training familiarize to 8 months. Obtaining feedback of about their communicate by sending and receiving with simultaneously with first workers computer systems two objectives in order to carry out instant satisfaction with the way top-down. evaluative purposes Improve presentational. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil Action plan Objectives To be able to read. Retrieving audience for presentations carry out to simultaneously with first feedback as to the clarity and objective of presentations present in front of an audience On the job Assess and recommend any improvements to the tasks delegated by the or superior training Assign delegate tasks of a superior. training Ask for practice reports to be understandable reports done by a superior made after each sale. communication processes within the organization Motivate workers to speak out their needs to the Familiarize workers with other workers so that they create mutual which understanding enables them to pass Page 21 Batch: BM-25 . bottom-up information to and fro the higher hierarchical level communication is done.Managing Communications. handle and provide Methods Off the Duration job 6 months Reviewing methods Close observations and instant clarifications.

Competing to gain knowledge resources between workers in order to gain competitive advantage Batch: BM-25 Page 22 .Cost-free learning opportunities Threats .Future potential promotions opened due to the increase in this particular set of skills. Unwillingness to take responsibility. Weaknesses: Lack of incentive to do further out-of-job activities related to improving linguistic skills. Language barrier (Ability to adapt to better communication skills in another language would be weak) Opportunities . Proper social networking skills identified amongst these workers. Access to public lectures. essential to complete and achieve the objectives within the given time.Lack of time to allocate for these activities by workers . and thereafter recommend understandable way and improvements Table 3 SWOT Analysis to aid in preparing the personal development plans effectively Strengths: Access to wide range of knowledge resources to hone linguistic skills. Ability to grasp things quick and punctually. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil management level Getting information and information in the future effectively Giving trials for workers to demonstrate their interpreting it to other works in an effective and skills obtained in the period of learning.Managing Communications. Out-of-the-box thinking displayed. in order to adopt the linguistic skills of such professional people.Task delegation from superior to involve greater experience and aid in improvement of skills .Training camps can be organized within the organization . .

R.Managing Communications.customer-insight. Available: http://smallbusiness. G. D. Available: http://www. Last accessed 7th Jan 2013 K.accessed 6th Jan 2013 Bryson. 62:5 Batch: BM-25 Page 23 . Stakeholder Analysis. How to Improve Communication Skills in the (2002) 'What to Do When Stakeholders Matter: Public Administration Review. Cunningham.. (2011).chron. Last . J. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil List of references used: Ingram. (). and

Managing Communications. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil TASK 03PRESENTATION Batch: BM-25 Page 24 .

org/education/aladin/paldin/pdf/course02/unit_05. (). Information and Knowledge. BASICS OF INFORMATION DISSEMINATION. Last accessed 5th . Last accessed 29th Dec 2012 The Differences Between Data. Available: .html.http://www.Jan 2013 Batch: BM-25 Page 25 .org/decision/dss. Knowledge & Information Individual Assignment: Adil List of references used for presentation: (). D. Four Questions Every CEO Should Ask About IT For starters: Are we thinking big enough?. Last accessed 1st Jan 2013 Dhawan.unesco.. Available: http://online. Available: . Types of Decision Support Systems (DSS).types.wsj.html.infogineering. S. P.Managing Communications. W ().http://www.)( .gdrc. Last accessed 1st Jan 2013 Ross. Available: http://www.pdf.htm.

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