# 3/12/13

Heat of combustion - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Heat of combustion

The heat of combustion ( ) is the energy released as heat when a compound undergoes complete combustion with oxygen under standard conditions. The chemical reaction is typically a hydrocarbon reacting with oxygen to form carbon dioxide, water and heat. It may be expressed with the quantities: energy/mole of fuel (kJ/mol) energy/mass of fuel energy/volume of fuel The heat of combustion is conventionally measured with a bomb calorimeter. It may also be calculated as the difference between the heat of formation of the products and reactants.

Contents
1 Heating value 1.1 Higher heating value 1.2 Lower heating value 1.3 Gross heating value 1.4 Measuring heating values 1.5 Relation between heating values 1.6 Usage of terms 1.7 Accounting for moisture 2 Heat of combustion tables 3 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.4°C)[citation needed] 4 Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources 5 See also 6 References 7 External links

Heating value
The heating value (or energy value or calorific value) of a substance, usually a fuel or food (see food energy), is the amount of heat released during the combustion of a specified amount of it. The energy value is a characteristic for each substance. It is measured in units of energy per unit of the substance, usually mass, such as: kJ/kg, kJ/mol, kcal/kg, Btu/lb. Heating value is commonly determined by use of a bomb calorimeter. Heating value unit conversions (for more visit Wolfram Alpha (http://www.wolframalpha.com) ): kcal/kg = MJ/kg * 238.846 Btu/lb = MJ/kg * 429.923
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 1/10

in which case the water produced by combustion is liquid. Gross heating value en. GPSA currently uses 60°F). This is more easily calculated from the higher heating value than when using the preceding definition and will in fact give a slightly different answer. in a gas-fired boiler used for space heat). The distinction between the two is that this second definition assumes that the combustion products are all returned to the reference temperature and the heat content from the condensing vapor is considered not to be useful. as opposed to the higher heating value (HHV) (a. Another definition.k. minus the heat of vaporization of the vapor content of the combustion products.Wikipedia. and in particular condensing any vapor produced. Higher heating value The quantity known as higher heating value (HHV) (or gross energy or upper heating value or gross calorific value (GCV) or higher calorific value (HCV)) is determined by bringing all the products of combustion back to the original pre-combustion temperature. The LHV assumes that the latent heat of vaporization of water in the fuel and the reaction products is not recovered. Such measurements often use a standard temperature of 25°C.wikipedia.a.56°C). LHV. It is useful in comparing fuels where condensation of the combustion products is impractical. The above is but one definition of lower heating value adopted by the American Petroleum Institute (API) and uses a reference temperature of 60°F (15. Lower heating value The quantity known as lower heating value (LHV) (net calorific value (NCV) or lower calorific value (LCV)) is determined by subtracting the heat of vaporization of the water vapor from the higher heating value. The energy required to vaporize the water therefore is not realized as heat. is the enthalpy of all combustion products minus the enthalpy of the fuel at the reference temperature (API research project 44 used 25°C. the free encyclopedia Btu/lb = kcals * 1. HHV assumes all the water component is in liquid state at the end of combustion (in product of combustion) and that heat above 150°C can be put to use. LHV calculations assume that the water component of a combustion process is in vapor state at the end of combustion. and is useful in calculating heating values for fuels where condensation of the reaction products is practical (e. or heat at a temperature below 150°C cannot be put to use. This treats any H2O formed as a vapor. used by Gas Processors Suppliers Association (GPSA) and originally used by API (data collected for API research project 44).. In other words.8 The heat of combustion for fuels is expressed as the HHV. This is the same as the thermodynamic heat of combustion since the enthalpy change for the reaction assumes a common temperature of the compounds before and after combustion. minus the enthalpy of the stoichiometric oxygen (O2) at the reference temperature. or GHV. gross calorific value or gross CV) which assumes that all of the water in a combustion process is in a liquid state after a combustion process. The higher heating value takes into account the latent heat of vaporization of water in the combustion products.g.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 2/10 .

This is particularly relevant for natural gas. the two heating values are almost identical.. For gasoline and diesel the higher heating value exceeds the lower heating value by about 10% and 7% respectively. and for natural gas about 11%. Note: Higher heating value (HHV) is calculated with the product of water being in liquid form while lower heating value (LHV) is calculated with the product of water being in vapor form. For hydrogen the difference is much more significant as it includes the sensible heat of water vapour between 150°C and 100°C. For hydrocarbons the difference depends on the hydrogen content of the fuel. the free encyclopedia Gross heating value (see AR) accounts for water in the exhaust leaving as vapor. two moles of hydrogen and one mole of oxygen) in a steel container at 25° is initiated by an ignition device and the reactions allowed to complete.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 3/10 . and includes liquid water in the fuel prior to combustion. The vessel and its contents are then cooled to the original 25°C and the higher heating value is determined as the heat released between identical initial and final temperatures. All in all.wikipedia.[1] Most applications that burn fuel produce water vapour. This value is important for fuels like wood or coal. the lower heating value is generally used to give a 'benchmark' for the process. The gross energy value is relevant for gas burned in condensing boilers and power plants with flue-gas condensation that condense the water vapour produced by combustion. for true energy calculations the higher heating value is correct.out is the moles of water vaporized and nfuel. When the lower heating value (LHV) is determined. recovering heat which would otherwise be wasted. water vapor is produced. and the sensible heat of the condensed water between 100°C and 25°C. whose high hydrogen content produces much water. 120 MJ/kg).out/nfuel.2% above its lower heating value (142 MJ/kg vs. When hydrogen and oxygen react during combustion. which will usually contain some amount of water prior to burning. The limit of 150°C is an arbitrary choice. The combustion of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer (e. In contrast. Relation between heating values The difference between the two heating values depends on the chemical composition of the fuel. cooling is stopped at 150°C and the reaction heat is only partially recovered.in ) where hv is the heat of vaporization of water.g. nH2O. the difference being the sensible heat content of carbon dioxide between 150°C and 25°C (sensible heat exchange causes a change of temperature. the higher heating value of hydrogen is 18. latent heat is added or subtracted for phase transitions at constant temperature. A common method of relating HHV to LHV is: HHV = LHV + hv x (nH2O. the latent heat of condensation at 100°C. which is unused and thus wastes its heat content. In such applications. In the case of pure carbon or carbon monoxide. Measuring heating values The higher heating value is experimentally determined in a bomb calorimeter.Wikipedia.3/12/13 Heat of combustion . Examples: heat of vaporization or heat of fusion).in is the number of moles of fuel combusted. Usage of terms en. however.

AR. especially when pulled (incorrectly) into electrolysis calculations etc. Heat of combustion tables en. While in the US. Accounting for moisture Both HHV and LHV can be expressed in terms of AR (all moisture counted).Wikipedia. This has the peculiar result that contemporary combined heat and power plants. this does not seem to be the case nowadays and most countries are tending to correctly use HHV for true efficiency figures. MF (Moisture Free) or Dry indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured after the fuel has been dried of all inherent moisture but still retaining its ash forming minerals.3/12/13 Heat of combustion . may report efficiencies exceeding 100%. the free encyclopedia For historical reasons. and MAF are commonly used for indicating the heating values of coal: AR (As Received) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured with all moisture and ash forming minerals present. although any initial investigation may reveal that the US is still tending to use LHV in some circumstances.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 4/10 . if only to avoid confusion. and in any case the value or convention should be clearly stated. the efficiency of power plants and combined heat and power plants in Europe may have once been calculated based on the LHV. whether technically correct or not. values may have been reported to be generally based on the HHV. MF and MAF (only water from combustion of hydrogen). MAF (Moisture and Ash Free) or DAF (Dry and Ash Free) indicates that the fuel heating value has been measured in the absence of inherent moisture and ash forming minerals. where flue-gas condensation is implemented.wikipedia. Using LHV in other energy calculations brings similar errors. For simply benchmarking part of a reaction the LHV may be appropriate. However. The difference between HHV and LHV definitions causes endless confusion when quoters do not bother to state the convention being used. Many engine manufacturers rate their engine fuel consumption by the lower heating values. American consumers should be aware that the corresponding fuel-consumption figure based on the higher heating value will be somewhat higher. but HHV should be used for overall energy efficiency calculations. MF.[2] since there is typically a 10% difference between the two methods for a power plant burning natural gas. This is becoming noticeable in modern UK energy publications with the increase of energy awareness and based on the simple fact that it is correct.

0 393.75 45.0 4.370 12.300.700 20.8 9.500 21.50 47.0 3.5 19.90 50.20 44.400 19.35 45.4 Fuel Methanol Ethanol Propanol Acetylene Benzene Ammonia Hydrazine Hexamine Carbon en.690 8.500 Higher heating value of some less common fuels [3] HHV MJ/kg BTU/lb kJ/mol 22.800 12.300.4 30.4 41.9 41.100 726.wikipedia.5 286 889 1.900 20.6 49.80 55. the free encyclopedia Fuel Hydrogen Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Gasoline Paraffin wax Kerosene Diesel Coal (Anthracite) Coal (Lignite) Wood (MAF) Peat (damp) Peat (dry) Higher (HHV) and Lower (LHV) Heating values of some common fuels [3] HHV MJ/kg HHV BTU/lb HHV kJ/mol LHV MJ/kg 141.80 46.96 50.020.0 1.500 6.00 43.900 22.000 9.00 46.400 21.560 2.Wikipedia.800 14.7 33.877 119.900 14.0 2.700 2.000 8.000 23.50 51.862 19.8 22.50 15.270.80 32.00 21.0 622.0 1.0 382.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .30 46.00 61.900 19.500 18.35 44.200.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 5/10 .300 14.000 8.220 2.00 47.00 15.7 29.35 49.50 43.0 32.7 6.

9 49.272.752 — 21.009 — 47.0 45.3 10.4 7.2 19.427 31.7 44.000 23.6 4.752 29.0 27.82 19.1 11.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .241 27.11 18.1 6/10 en.163 4.003 6.0 44.504 3.7 7.023 6.30 19.357 28. the free encyclopedia Heat of Combustion for some common fuels (higher value) Fuel kJ/g kcal/g BTU/lb Hydrogen Gasoline Diesel Ethanol Propane Butane Wood Coal (Lignite) Coal (Anthracite) Natural Gas 141.9 47.3 45.0 29.0 61.48 19.34 20.437.000 Lower heating value for some organic compounds (at 15.200 6.000 8.908.504 802.2 15.000 14.5 44.683.074.934 2.651.673 2.6 44.856.87 19.0 54.294.194 32.23 19.0 45.3 44.wikipedia.8 13.7 49.454 3.0 15.311 31.794 — 46.9 11.000 20.614 2.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .613 — 19.659.70 19.519.566 30.104 5.551 1.000 19.357 — 45.4°C)[citation needed] Fuel Methane Ethane Propane Butane Pentane Hexane Heptane Octane Nonane Decane Undecane Dodecane Isobutane Isopentane MJ/kg MJ/L BTU/lb kJ/mol Alkanes 50.054 5.983 7.39 21.8 3.147 33.264.2 19.300 12.0 33.9 11.000 21.Wikipedia.8 44.000 21.9 44.240 33.044.29 19.706 3.465.6 Isoparaffins 45.

850.799 — 44.5 Naphthenes 2.613 — 44.193 3.458.195 — 45.061.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .756.7 44.590 — 45.450 33.217 — Aromatics 40.Wikipedia.682 29.693 — Acetylenes 48.193? 3.310 30.5 Cyclopentane Methylcyclopentane Cyclohexane Methylcyclohexane Ethylene Propylene 1-Butene cis-2-Butene trans-2-Butene Isobutene 1-Pentene 2-Methyl-1-pentene 1-Hexene 1.4-Trimethylpentane 44.659 29.wikipedia.426 — Diolefins 44.636 33.241 — 46.259.85 18.3-Butadiene Isoprene Nitromethane Nitropropane Acetylene Methylacetylene 1-Butyne 1-Pentyne Benzene Toluene o-Xylene 44.43? 19.799 — 45.078 Nitrous derivated 10.513 — 20.133 4.496 30.380 33.7 44.636? 33.129.961 — — — — — — — 7/10 — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — — en.848.92 19.684 3.18 19. the free encyclopedia 2-Methylpentane 2.40 18.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .053 5.170 — 40.3-Dimethylbutane 2.656.203 3.49 19.055 — 45.653 4.8 43.194 — 45.124 — 45.0 44.334 — 45.589 — 40.52 19.031 — 44.56 19.6? 43.2.213 6.3-Dimethylpentane 44.194 — 45.5 Monoolefins 47.

0 37.727 28.930 15.568.43 14.329.76 15.163 — — 4.959 26.570 28.843.45 14.412 1.415.9 32.061.193 — 41.416? 35.Wikipedia.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .8 30.9 30.092 1.55 1.wikipedia.548 22.112 — 18.563 2.3? Ethers 28.9 33.88 16.2 36.769.012 2.192 1.798 — 40.442.075 26.509? 2.82 8/10 — — — — — — — — — 28.2.2 31.56 293.3 33.78 8.64? 13.65 13.156 — 28.610 — Other species 32.798 28. the free encyclopedia m-Xylene p-Xylene Ethylbenzene Propylbenzene Cumene Methanol Ethanol n-Propanol Isopropanol n-Butanol Isobutanol Tert-butanol n-Pentanol Isoamyl alcohol Methoxymethane Ethoxyethane Propoxypropane Butoxybutane Methanal Ethanal Propionaldehyde Butyraldehyde Acetone Carbon (graphite) Hydrogen Carbon monoxide Ammonia Sulfur (solid ) 40.018 3.322.829.984 — 19.938 — 41.933 3.217 — Alcohols — — — — — — — — — — — — 638.680 24.342 1.222 2.501.633 3.971 — 10.172 2.961 — 40.24 317.3 34.4 Aldehydes and ketones 17.940 — 283.253 4.889 — 31.6 32.865 22.348 8.259 — 24.447 23.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion .16 14.703 — 12.646 — 9.510.808 — 120.93 13.922.28 14.587 25.77 12.4-Trimethylbenzene 40.355 26.79 14.017 244 en.867 24.62 — 52.

320 kJ/m³ Norway: 39.900 kJ/m³ Russia: 38.org/wiki/Heat_of_combustion 9/10 .000 kJ/m³ Canada: 38. Higher heating values of natural gases from various sources The International Energy Agency reports the following typical higher heating values:[4] Algeria: 42.877 kJ/m³ Pakistan: 34.000 kJ/m³ United Kingdom: 39.000 kJ/m³ Bangladesh: 36. BTU/lb values are calculated from MJ/kg (1 MJ/kg = 430 BTU/lb). carbon monoxide and sulfur since no water is formed in combusting those substances.200 kJ/m³ Indonesia: 40.Wikipedia.231 kJ/m³ Saudi Arabia: 38. the free encyclopedia Note that there is no difference between the lower and higher heating values for the combustion of carbon.889 kJ/m³ The lower heating value of natural gas is normally about 90 percent of its higher heating val.wikipedia.710 kJ/m³ United States: 38.600 kJ/m³ Netherlands: 33.3/12/13 Heat of combustion .416 kJ/m³ Uzbekistan: 37. See also Adiabatic flame temperature Combustion Energy density Energy value of coal Exothermic reaction Fire Fuel efficiency#Energy content of fuel Food energy Internal energy Thermal efficiency Wobbe index: heat density ISO 15971 Electrical efficiency Mechanical efficiency Figure of merit Relative cost of electricity generated by different sources Energy conversion efficiency References en.