Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management

Pretty Good Privacy
Mahalingam Ramkumar Mississippi State University, MS

November 15, 2004

Ramkumar

PGP

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management 1 Introduction PGP Services PGP Operation PGP Components PGP Message Generation and Reception PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings 2 3 Ramkumar PGP .

3-DES in conjunction with RSA) Compression (Lempel-Ziv) E-mail compatibility (Radix-64 conversion) Segmentation (to overcome maximum message length of 50. IDEA.000 bytes for SMTP) 3 4 5 Ramkumar PGP .Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Services Services Provided by PGP 1 2 Digital Signature (DSS/SHA or RSA/SHA) Message Encryption (CAST-128.

IDEA.Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Services PGP Modes of Operation 1 2 Authentication (DSS/SHA or RSA/SHA) Confidentiality (CAST-128. 3-DES in conjunction with RSA) Authentication and Confidentiality 3 Ramkumar PGP .

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Services PGP Modes Source A KRa M H EP || Z Z-1 M EKRa[H(M)] Destination B KUa DP Compare H KRb DP DC Z-1 M (a) Authentication only KUb Ks M Z EC EP || EKUb[Ks] (b) Confidentiality only KUb KRa M H EP || Z EC || Ks EP EKUb[Ks] KRb DP EKRa[H(M)] KUa DP DC Z-1 M Compare H (c) Confidentiality and authentication Figure 15.1 PGP Cryptographic Functions Ramkumar PGP .

X X ¨ EKUb[Ks] || EKs[X] Signature required? No Yes strip signature from X verify signature convert to radix 64 X ¨ R64[X] (a) Generic Transmission Diagram (from A) (b) Generic Reception Diagram (to B) Ramkumar PGP . X K ¨ DKRb[EKUb[Ks]] X ¨ DK[X] Compress X ¨ Z(X) Decompress X ¨ Z–1(X) Confidentiality required? No Yes encrypt key.Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Services Transmission and Reception of PGP Messages X ¨ file convert from radix 64 X ¨ R64–1[X] Signature required? No Yes generate signature X ¨ signature || X Confidentiality required? No Yes decrypt key.

Sending and Receiving Messages Keys 1 Four types of keys .Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management PGP Components PGP . one-time session keys. 2 3 4 5 Ramkumar PGP . private keys Two key rings . public keys.private and public Private key ring is encrypted with passphrase Every user has a public-private key pair Can have multiple pairs.passphrase.

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management PGP Components PGP .Sending and Receiving Messages PGP Message Components 1 2 3 Session key component Signature Message Ramkumar PGP .

Sending and Receiving Messages Format of PGP Message Content Key ID of recipient's public key (KUb) Session key (Ks) Timestamp Signature Key ID of sender's public key (KUa) Leading two octets of message digest Message Digest Filename Timestamp Message Data ZIP EKs EKRa R64 EKUb Operation Session key component Ramkumar PGP .Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management PGP Components PGP .

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management PGP Components PGP .Sending and Receiving Messages PGP Message Generation Public key ring passphrase Private key ring IDA select encrypted private key Key ID private key KRa message digest RNG public key KUb H IDB select Key ID DC H Message M EP || session key Ks signature + message message EP encrypted signature + message || Output EC Ramkumar PGP .

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management PGP Components PGP .Sending and Receiving Messages PGP Message Reception H Public key ring select passphrase Private key ring select encrypted private key DC private key KRb public key KUa sender's Key ID Encrypted digest receiver's Key ID Encrypted session key DP session key Ks encrypted message + signature DP Compare DC message H Ramkumar PGP .

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Private Key Ring 1 2 3 4 5 Timestamp Key ID Public key Encrypted Private key (encrypted with passphrase) User ID Ramkumar PGP .

User ID. Key ID. Public key. Owner Trust (OT) Key legitamacy (KL) Signature(s) Signature Trust(s) (ST) Ramkumar PGP .Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Public Key Ring 1 2 3 4 5 Timestamp.

for OT and ST 1 2 3 4 5 6 Undefined Unknown Usually not trusted Usually trusted Always trusted Ultimate trust Ramkumar PGP .Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Numerical Trust Assignment .

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Numerical Trust Assignment .KL 1 2 3 4 Undefined or Unknown Not trusted Marginally trusted Complete trust Ramkumar PGP .

B and C . ST and OT 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Consider public key of A signed by B and C rA . KL is a function of “weighted” STs If any ST is “ultimate” . Legitamacy entry for A depends on the “signature trusts” of B and C in row rA . rB and rC . ST of B in rA .KL is assigned “complete trust” X “usually trusted” signatures or Y for “always trusted” signatures for A (or any combination) would result in “complete trust” of A’s public key Ramkumar PGP .copy of the OT in row rB ST of C in rA .rows in the public key ring corresponding to A.copy of the OT in row rC “Owner Trust” manually assigned by the PGP user.Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Relationship between KL.

Outline Introduction PGP Operation PGP Key Management Structure of Key Rings Trust Propagation You A B C D E F ? ? G H ? I J K L M N O ? X Y P = unknown signatory = X is signed by Y = key's owner is trusted by you to sign keys = key's owner is partly trusted by you to sign keys = key is deemed legitimate by you Q R ? ? ? S ? Figure 15.7 Ramkumar PGP Trust Model Example PGP .

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