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Notes on the Vowels

(as a Foundation for the Symbolism of the Claudian Letters)


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Introduction & Summary


Studying the Claudian letters I identified the vowels as the purest of all characters. Although some vowels must be considered impure some fundamentals have been well-known for ages. Only the true vowels may be considered for sacred symbolism such as vows, which excludes semivowels and consonants. Nearly all languages have at least three phonemic vowels, usually /i/, /a/, /u/. [i] and [u] are the close or high vowels, [a] is a open or low vowel, for which the tongue is positioned low in the mouth. In the PIE-sky-god's name Dyaus, respectively Dius the high vowels (I, Y, and U) are enclosing the low vowels (A, ). This overview certainly explains why I, U and A have been seen as the most important and fundamental vowels. In front vowels, such as [i], the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth, whereas in back vowels, such as [u], the tongue is positioned towards the back of the mouth. This suggests to consider the I and the U as sacred antipodes. The sky-god's name Dyaus certainly is applying a triphthong, combining glitches from I over A to U. In the original Latin alphabet, there was no written distinction between V and U, and the letter represented the approximant [w] and the vowels [u] and []. This is exactly the problem Claudius may have tried to solve with two of the Claudian letters. The missing written distinction between V and U had to be seen as an intolerable impurity in religious symbolism. Although there are 26 letters in the alphabet, there are only 5 primary vowels. Vowels carry the greatest energy where the vocal tract is most open. The aw vowel is called the perfect vowel whereas the aw and the ay vowels are called open vowels. Ee and Oo are killer vowels when singers get into their higher register. Thats also why singers love singing aw vowels on high notes, because the vowel is open or perfect. One of the most common vowels is [aI ]; it is nearly universal for a language to have at least one open vowel. In English the five primary vowels are Ah, Eh, Ee, Oh and Oo), usually encoded in the alphabetic symbols: A, E, I, O, U. These are the vowels in a standard Latin alphabet and in Spanish. IAO (IA or I-A-OU) is the rather "obvious" Greek pronunciation of YHWH. The same vowel triad has been identified in Diaus. The sky-god's name Dyaus certainly is applying a triphthong, combining glitches from the initial closed sound I over an open vowel A to a terminal closed vowel U. Variants of these vowel triads are IOU (the core for Jupiter) and (I)EU, which has been identified in French Dieu (and Zeus, respectively the Bavarian Ziu?). The Greek word (Aeon, life eternity) does imply the magical triad with the fundamental vowels IA. Additionally original three-letter Ego-pronouns (iou, ieu and iau) are still being used instead of ego in the environment of Cvria, (that is Cvria Rhaetorvm and Cvria Raetorvm) as images of the sacred vowel triad1. This sufficiently marks IAU as the most important of all words.

1 Chur

The Reconstruction of the Claudian Book "On the Alphabet's Redesign" 2 raised some new puzzling questions. If the vowels had been chosen to formulate sacred vows, then Why hadn't the vowels be defined more seriously than the records show? Why had the vowels be chosen differently in the Roman and Greek alphabets?

These questions had been raised and from further studies some relevant information had to be added to my common database. It probably might result in additional chapters to On the Alphabet's Redesign.

2 Reconstruction of the Claudian Book "On the Alphabet's Redesign"

Contents
Introduction & Summary......................................................................................................................1 Vowels and Semivowels.......................................................................................................................4
Vowel height, open sounds and closed sounds.............................................................................................4

The common three phonemic vowels I, A, U.......................................................................................6


Front (I) and Back (U) Vowels.....................................................................................................................6 The Thriphtong YAU in Dyaus....................................................................................................................6

The Claudian letters..............................................................................................................................7


Archaic Alphabets with AIU- respectively AEIOU-series of vowels...........................................................7
Persia (486 bc)...........................................................................................................................................................7 Miletus, Athens (403 bc)...........................................................................................................................................7

The Use of Vowels in Languages.........................................................................................................8


The Common Vowel A................................................................................................................................8 Two Vowel systems (IOU for Jupiter, Diu and ZIU)....................................................................................8 Three vowel systems (Arabic-type with IAU or I-A-OU)...........................................................................8 Three vowel systems (Greek-type with IA)..............................................................................................8
IAU as an ego-pronoun.............................................................................................................................................9

Four vowel systems (Egyptian-type with IAEO).........................................................................................9


Jews Jeous Eioudeon.......................................................................................................................................9

Five vowel systems (Latin and Spanish based on AEIOU)..........................................................................9


The 5 vowels in the Latin Alphabet.........................................................................................................................10 Five primary vowels................................................................................................................................................10

Seven vowel systems (Greek alphabet with IAUEHO)...........................................................................10 Multivowel systems...................................................................................................................................11


Words consisting of only vowels.............................................................................................................................11 Special words containing the sacred Triad I-A-...................................................................................................11

Singing the Sacred Words...................................................................................................................13


The perfect vowel AW...............................................................................................................................13 The killer vowels EE and OO....................................................................................................................13 Accent........................................................................................................................................................13

On the Alphabet's Redesign by Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus.............................14


Chapter 1 - On vows and vowels...............................................................................................................14 Chapter 2 - The triad of original Vowels IA............................................................................................15
The triad A-I-U........................................................................................................................................................15 The letters E and O..................................................................................................................................................15 The Hebrew Alphabet..............................................................................................................................................16 The Celtic & Greek divine Names Ziu respectively Zieus.....................................................................................16 The most sacred, central letter.................................................................................................................................16 IAOU / IA is symbolizing Life and Eternity........................................................................................................16 IAU as an ego-pronoun...........................................................................................................................................17 The polluting, consonantal vowel V........................................................................................................................17

Chapter 3 - The origins of the alphabet......................................................................................................18 Chapter 4 - Expanding to seven Vowels.....................................................................................................19


Seven Days to be represented..................................................................................................................................19 The concept of long OO- and short O-vowels........................................................................................................19

Chapter 5 - A proposal for three new letters...............................................................................................20


The design of the letter .......................................................................................................................................20 The design of the letter .........................................................................................................................................20 The design of the letter ........................................................................................................................................21

Chapter 6 - Summary.................................................................................................................................22

Vowels and Semivowels3


In phonetics, a vowel is a sound pronounced with an open vocal tract. In contrast the consonants a resistance exists at some point along the vocal tract. For this reason constriction in the vocal tract may have been considered as profane and unsuitable for vows... (?) Only the true vowels may be considered for sacred symbolism. Semivowels are produced with a narrower constriction of the vocal tract than vowels, and so may be considered consonants on that basis. Therefore a conflict arises between the phonetic definition of "vowel" (a sound produced with no constriction in the vocal tract) and the phonological definition (a sound that forms the peak of a syllable). The approximants [j] and [w] illustrate this conflict. Phonetically they seem to be vowel-like, but phonologically they may be seen as consonants.

Vowel height, open sounds and closed sounds


Vowel height is named for the vertical position of the tongue relative to either the roof of the mouth or the aperture of the jaw. In high vowels, such as [i] and [u], the tongue is positioned high in the mouth, whereas in low vowels, such as [a], the tongue is positioned low in the mouth. The letters [e o] are typically used for either close-mid or true-mid vowels. These extremes [i] and [u] and [a] seem to lead us to the oldest and most important vowels I, A and U, which had been considered as the fundamental vowels 4, which had been identified in Dyaus and its derivatives. The IPA however prefers the terms close vowel and open vowel, which respectively describe the jaw as open or closed. The parameter of vowel height appears to be the primary cross-linguistic feature of vowels in that all languages use height as a contrastive feature. No other parameter, such as front-back or rounded/unrounded, is used in all languages. Some languages have vertical vowel systems in which, at least at a phonemic level, only height is used to distinguish vowels. The International Phonetic Alphabet identifies seven different vowel heights: close vowel (high vowel) near-close vowel close-mid vowel mid vowel open-mid vowel near-open vowel open vowel (low vowel)

In the IPA Vowel Chart5 the high vowels (closed sounds) I, Y, W, U are found at the top line and the low vowels (open sounds A, , ) are found at the bottom line.

3 Source: from Vowel (Wikipedia) 4 Reconstruction of the Claudian Book "On the Alphabet's Redesign" 5 Source: from Vowel (Wikipedia) and Table of vowels

Fig. 1: IPA vowel chart (Table of vowels)

The common three phonemic vowels I, A, U


Nearly all languages have at least three phonemic vowels, usually /i/, /a/, /u/ as in Classical Arabic and Inuktitut (or //, //, // as in Quechua)6. In the PIE-sky-god's name Dyaus, respectively Dius the high or closed vowels (I, Y, and U) are enclosing the low or open vowels (A, ). This overview certainly explains why I, U and A have been seen as the most important and fundamental vowels. The E, O and their combined derivatives are found at the central locations. The letter E has been found in Greece, defining the creator god Zeus and locating it at above the gate of the Apollo-temple at Delphi. The O has been used in Roman culture, defining IOU as the core for the name Jupiter.

Front (I) and Back (U) Vowels


In front vowels, such as [i], the tongue is positioned forward in the mouth, whereas in back vowels, such as [u], the tongue is positioned towards the back of the mouth. However, vowels are defined as back or front not according to actual articulation, but according to the relative frequency of the second formant (F2). The higher the F2 value, the fronter the vowel; the lower the F2 value, the more retracted the vowel. Although the O and the U-positions are not shown in the following image the front vowel I and back vowel U seem to mark the extremes, which suggests to consider the I and the U as sacred antipodes.

2: Tongue positions of Daniel Jones' cardinal front vowels


(from Wikipedia Creative Commons7) The four large dots indicate the highest point of tongue for each vowel.

The Thriphtong YAU in Dyaus


A vowel sound whose quality doesn't change over the duration of the vowel is called a monophthong. Monophthongs are sometimes called "pure" or "stable" vowels (such as the i in hit) . A vowel sound that glides from one quality to another (such as boy) is called a diphthong, and a vowel sound that glides successively through three qualities (such as in flower, /ar/) is a triphthong. The sky-god's name Dyaus certainly is applying a triphthong, combining glitches from the initial closed sound I over an open vowel A to a terminal closed vowel U.
6 Source: from Vowel (Wikipedia) 7 Published by Badseed under GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2

The Claudian letters


In the original Latin alphabet, there was no written distinction between V and U, and the letter represented the approximant [w] and the vowels [u] and []. This is exactly the problem Claudius may have tried to solve with two of the Claudian letters. The missing written distinction between V and U had to be seen as an intolerable impurity in religious symbolism. The first Claudian letter took care to remove the distinction between V and U. The other one allowed to define a new Latin vowel which in analogy to the Greek vowel y ranged the vocal sound from I in gimnasium to U in gumnasium.

Archaic Alphabets with AIU- respectively AEIOU-series of vowels Persia (486 bc)
Alphabet : [486 bc] Old Persian script, a cuneiform syllabary of 36 characters that expresses an alphabetic system of 25 sounds. The Achaemenid King Darius I (regnavit 521-486 bc) ordered the script to be devised so that he could have monuments inscribed in the manner of the Babylonian and Assyrian kings. The first 3 characters were the vowels A, I, U, and the remaining characters were ordered with respect to the vowels, just as Sanskrit letters are ordered8. The first 3 characters were the vowels A, I, U, which are the archaic sacred vowels.

Miletus, Athens (403 bc)


alphabet : [403 bc] Greek Ionic alphabet of Miletus, which Athens adopted in 403 bc; Classical Greek alphabet of 22 letters. The original scheme of Greek consisted of merely the thirteen consonants,[18] B.G.D.Kh.L., M.N.S.PH.P., Z.K.R(Rh), and five vowels, and was later expanded to include fifteen consonants, by including T.Th., the unvoiced and aspirate forms of letter D. The Greeks later added the two letters X.Ps. Cf. Dorian alphabet [1000 bc]. alphabet : [403 bc, ABC] Cadmean characters, rearranged into the ABC order, and exhibiting the vowel order A.E.I.O.U. (=1.2.3.4.5.); Greek letters derived from Phoenician, sometimes called Pelasgian characters. Cadmus is believed to have increased the letters from their original number of 13 letters to 16 letters. Cadmean script was used in Boeotian Cadmea. Epicharmus of Sicily added the 2 letters Theta and Chi (, ). The Dionysian devotee Simonides 9 purportedly modified the Cadmean alphabet to conform to the principles of some obscure religion, and the changes of Simonides were formally adopted by the Archon Eucleides in 403 bc. Simonides devised the double-consonants Psi and Xi (, ), distinguished the short Omicron () from the long Omega (), and differentiated between the long Eta () and short Epsilon ()10. The legend has been spread that like Claudius Simonides also devised double-consonants Psi. In fact Claudius may have been convinced that these were historical facts.

8 Ancient Pre-history Timeline Concordance7 9 The chief alterations in the alphabet were vaguely attributed to Palamedes and Simonides, the latter of whom was a native of Ceos, and contemporary with Miltiades and the actors in the Great Persian War (B.C. 490-79). The tradition as to the former belongs to the pre-historic time, and the statement as to Simonides that he was the first to introduce the two double consonants S and ^, and the two long vowels H and Q, is not consistent with the evidence of inscriptions. It was not till the Archonship of Euclides, B.C. 403, that the Alphabet, in the complete form in which it has descended to us, was nationally adopted at Athens. - "A compendious Greek grammar, for the use of schools (1888) 10 Ancient Pre-history Timeline Concordance7

The Use of Vowels in Languages


The Common Vowel A
One of the most common vowels is [aI ]; it is nearly universal for a language to have at least one open vowel. This may have been leading to start the alphabet with a most common (universal?) vowel [a], I This probably suggests to consider the central A in the sky god's name Dyaus as the commonest of all central sacred cores.

Two Vowel systems (IOU for Jupiter, Diu and ZIU)


In the two-vowel systems the central vowel (originally A) may be missing or hidden. Only the antipodes I and U have been left. Jupiter's pure vowel core has been identified as *Iou11. The Jovian cult was common to the Italic people under the names Iove, Diove (Latin) and Iuve, Diuve (Oscan, in Umbrian only Iuve, Iupater in the Iguvine Tables)12. In Sicily the ego-pronoun IU and the divine name DIU directly refer to the religious core name IU13.

Three vowel systems (Arabic-type with IAU or I-A-OU)


[i] is also extremely common. The third vowel of Arabic-type three-vowel system, /u/, is considerably less common. Bailly uses the same vowel-tone arrangement as Ruelle and Poiree, but changes the vowel omega to OU in order to make it better distinguishable from the omicron. In point of fact, he does not pretend to definite knowledge of what the vowels should be, beyond the "ideal triad A, I, OU, prototype of every vocal system, whose simplest modulations complete the septenary." 14

Three vowel systems (Greek-type with IA)


IAO (IA) is the rather "obvious" Greek pronunciation of YHWH 15. And if we consider the long vowel Oo in the name Pooh16 as the U-vowel. In analogy to the English pronunciation of the written Oo-vowel the Greek letter may originally have been a long U, double U or OUcombination. The three vowel system may also be considered as a reduction of the five primary vowels (Ah, Eh, Ee, Oh and Oo) by skipping two (Eh & Oh) of the medium vowel ranges. the equivalent alphabetic set may be be reduced from A, E, I, O, U to A, I, U, or from A, E, I, O, to A, I, .
11 In Greek and Roman religion, instead, the homonymous gods *Diou- and (digamma)- evolved into atmospheric deities; by their mastery of thunder and lightning, they expressed themselves and made their will known to the community. Jovian theology 12 Source: Jovian theology 13 Spelling Thee, U and I: Etymology of the Ego-Pronoun (I) and Etymology of the Ego-Pronoun (I) 14 Source: The Mystery of the Seven Vowels by Joscelyn Godwin (1991) 15 Sophian.org :: View topic - YHWH = IAO 16 From the immortal Winnie the Pooh

IAU as an ego-pronoun
Original three-letter pronouns (iou, ieu and iau) are still being used in the environment of Chur (Cvria, Cvria Rhaetorvm and Cvria Raetorvm17) as images of the sacred vowel triad. Archaeological evidence of settlement at the site, in the Eastern Alps, goes back as far as the Pfyn culture (3900-3500 BC), making Chur one of the oldest settlements in Switzerland. Remains and objects from the Bronze and Iron Ages have been found also in the eastern sector of the current city's centre. In Roman times it was a fortified camp, called Curia Raetorum; it has been suggested that under emperor Diocletian (late 3rd century AD) Chur was the capital of the province of Raetia.

Four vowel systems (Egyptian-type with IAEO)


A. J. H. Vincent (1797-1868), had in 1859 announced his discovery of a Greek vase in the Berlin museum that seemed to corroborate Demetrius's statement about the Egyptians singing a hymn of the four archaic vowels A E I O18.

Jews Jeous Eioudeon


From numismatic studies Abbe Jean Jacques Barthelemy (1716-95) probably discovered the relation between the seven planets and the seven vowels of the Greek alphabet: Alpha, Epsilon, Eta, Iota, Omicron, Upsilon and Omega: AEHIOY. It must be noticed that the letter H (eta) has been considered as a pure vowel and the U is missing. Barthelemy found a parallel to these medals in an inscription in the theater of Miletus (Asia Minor), discovered by English explorers in the seventeenth century. This inscription, though damaged, had evidently had seven columns, each headed by a sequence of seven vowels, followed by a prayer that the city of Miletus and all its inhabitants should be preserved. The inscription is written in Greek: topos eioudeon ton kai theosebion. Translation: Place of the Jews, who are also called Godfearing (Light from the Ancient East, by Adolf Deissmann, p. 451). 19 & 20. The letter W (understood as a UU- or the OU-combination) may have been equivalent to and the graphical forms may even match the double U character: w. This might even suggest to consider the w as well as as a vowel.

Five vowel systems (Latin and Spanish based on AEIOU)


Spanish has only five vowels /a, e, i, o, u/ while classical French has sixteen of them: /a, , e, , i, o, , u, y, , , , , , , /. This set of 5 vowels AEIOU had been chosen by Frederick III as his device.21 Ninety-two Hebrew-speaking subjects judged the magnitude, brightness, and hardness symbolism of orthographic characters designating five vowel phonemes in Hindi and in Japanese. For both languages and all three symbolic dimensions, the figural symbolism of the orthographic characters was found to replicate very closely the sound symbolism of their phonemic referents. The ranking of the five vowel characters in order of increasing magnitude and decreasing brightness and hardness was as follows: i, e, a, u, o.

17 18 19 20 21

Chur The Mystery of the Seven Vowels by Joscelyn Godwin (1991) See: Jewish Inscription at Miletus Theater Obviously the name Jews does contain a high number of vowels, which may indicate a religious content. The A.E.I.O.U-device of Frederick III

The results were interpreted to suggest that sound patterns and visual patterns tend to carry crossculturally consistent connotations, and that the symbolic implications of sounds have been embodied in the pattern of orthographic characters in natural languages22. The ranking of the five vowel characters in order of increasing magnitude and decreasing brightness and hardness was as follows: i, e, a, u, o, which initially more ore less follows the divine name IEAOU Yahweh.

The 5 vowels in the Latin Alphabet


In writing systems based on the Latin alphabet, the letters A, E, I, O, U, and (initially for Greek words only) sometimes Y are all used to represent vowels. The Greek letter Y had been considered as a special case which may represent I and U, such as in the word gymnasium, in which the sound for the vowel y may range from the Isound gimnasium to the U-sound in gumnasium. Some of them, especially W and Y, are also used to represent approximants. Independent vowel letters in extended Latin alphabets are , , , , , and . The phonetic values vary considerably by language, and some languages use I and Y for the consonant [j], e.g., initial I in Romanian and initial Y in English. In English spelling, the five letters A E I O and U can represent a variety of vowel sounds, while the letter Y frequently represents vowels (as in e.g., "gym", "happy", or the diphthongs in "cry", "thyme").

Five primary vowels23


Although there are 26 letters in the alphabet, there are only 5 primary vowels. Vowels carry the greatest energy where the vocal tract is most open. Tension is the biggest enemy to the singer. The five primary vowels are: Ah - as in father Eh - as in met Ee - as in meet Oh - as in home Oo - as in blue This is awkward: In English the U-sound ( blue) is to be encoded as OO the equivalent alphabetic set (for Ah, Eh, Ee, Oh and Oo) may be A, E, I, O, U

Seven vowel systems (Greek alphabet with IAUEHO)


It is commonly said that the Hebrew alphabet has no vowels, but Fabre d'Olivet states that the language derived from Egyptian, including seven vowels: Aleph, Heh, Cheth, Vav with point hirek, Vav with point halem, lod and Ain - to which Fabre d'Olivet adds an eighth "implied consonantal vowel" of varying value24. and also the Greek alphabet has been suggested to have seven vowels25.

22 23 24 25

The symbolic implications of vowels and of their ... - SpringerLink How - to - Sing - the - Five - Basic - Singing Vowels See The Mystery of the Seven Vowels by Joscelyn Godwin (1991) See The Mystery of the Seven Vowels by Joscelyn Godwin (1991)

In his overview Joscelyn Godwin correctly describes the various religious symbols hidden in the vowels of ancient languages. The number of vowels may vary between three (I, A, U), five (I, A, U, E, O) or seven (I, A, U, E, AE, O, OO), or even more.

Multivowel systems
The Germanic languages have some of the largest inventories of vowels: Standard Norwegian and Swedish has eighteen/seventeen contrasting simple vowels, nine long and nine/eight short (/i e o u y a /), while the Amstetten dialect of Bavarian has been reported to have thirteen long vowels: /i y e a o u/. Otherwise, the usual limit on the number of contrasting vowel heights is four. Some Scandinavian dialects apply single vowel ego-pronouns like , which just like I is a pure vowel word26. Theoretically Claudius might have been informed from expeditions to Denmark, that the barbarians had been using ego-pronouns like , but I decided to hide this unrealistic event from the concept of Claudius' redesign of the alphabet. Scandinavian dialects are prone to use surpluses of vowels in their wordings. They even manage to generate sentences which exclusively have been designed for vowel structures. Words consisting of only vowels Words consisting of only vowels are eye, awe, owe, and in non-rhotic accents air, ore, err. Vowelonly words of more than one syllable are generally foreign loans, such as ai (two syllables: /.i/) for the maned sloth, or proper names, such as Iowa (in some accents: /a.o./). In old-English and w symbolizes custom, tradition, law27. and w ( Awe?) may also refer to marriage (in German: Ehe). Awe certainly may be understood as a sacred word. In English the word 28 certainly is a single vowel word which is loaded with a sacred symbolism. In many western, northern, and southwestern Norwegian dialects, and in the western Danish dialects of Thy and Southern Jutland, has a significant meaning: the first person singular pronoun I, and it is thus a normal spoken word; usually, it is written as when these dialects are rendered in writing.

Special words containing the sacred Triad I-A-


A sacred word seems to be the symbolic definition for life, eternity: Aeon, derived from . The word aeon, also spelled eon, originally means "life" and/or "being", though it then tended to mean "age", "forever" or "for eternity". It is a Latin transliteration from the koine Greek word (ho aion), from the archaic (aiwon). In Homer it typically refers to life or lifespan. Its latest meaning is more or less similar to the Sanskrit word kalpa and Hebrew word olam. A cognate Latin word aevum or aeuum (cf. ) for "age" is present in words such as longevity and mediaeval. 29
26 Documentation in (The Creation Legend encoded in a Singular Vowel) , The Etymological Fieldlines and The Dictionary of sacred Vowel Triads 27 From Proto-Germanic *aiw, *aiwaz (law), from Proto-Indo-European *oiw- (). Cognate with Old Saxon o, Ol Frisian ewa, we, , , Old German wa, ha, a, (German Ehe). 28 (The Creation Legend encoded in a Singular Vowel). As a letter of the Old English Latin alphabet, it was called sc ("ash tree") after the Anglo-Saxon futhorc rune ( ), which it transliterated; its traditional name in English is still ash //. 29 Source (Wikipedia): Aeon

(life eternity) does imply another variant of the magical triad with the fundamental vowels I-A-. Original three-letter pronouns (iou, ieu and iau) are still being used in the environment of Chur (Cvria, Cvria Rhaetorvm and Cvria Raetorvm30) as images of the sacred vowel triad. In local dialects each ego- pronoun (iou, ieu and iau) is or may have been accompanied by a corresponding divine name (Diou, Dieu and Diau). This more or less suggests that the relevant ego-pronouns according to the prototype I*U basically symbolize eternal life. This probably has been understood as a magical formula in a superstitious environment. the same basic principle has been identified in e.g. Provencia, Italia, Sicilia, Hispania, Romania and Lusitania31: In their local dialects each ego- pronoun (ieu, io, iu, yo, eu, eu which basically all are pure vowel words) is or may have been accompanied by a corresponding divine name (Dieu, Dio, Dius, Dios, Zeu and Deus)32. The divine name is generated by inserting a leading D or Z to the ego-pronoun.

30 Chur 31 As with the Roman names of many European countries, Lusitania was and is often used as an alternative name for Portugal, especially in formal and literary or poetic contexts. Lusitania (Portuguese: Lusitnia, Spanish: Lusitania) or Hispania Lusitania was an ancient Roman province including approximately all of modern Portugal south of the Douro river and part of modern Spain (the present autonomous community of Extremadura and a small part of the province of Salamanca). It was named after the Lusitani or Lusitanian people (an Indo-European people). Romans first came to the territory around the mid 2nd century BC. Source: Lusitania 32 Spelling Thee, U and I: Etymology of the Ego-Pronoun (I)

Singing the Sacred Words


The perfect vowel AW
The aw and the ay vowels are called open vowels because of the physical position of the vocal chords to create those vowels. The aw vowel is called the perfect vowel 33. When we sing an aw vowel the vocal chords are at their widest open position. This suggests to consider awe as an expression for sacred definitions. On an ay vowel the vocal chords are a little closer together, vibrate together, and create sound34. This suggests to consider the ego-pronoun I as a sacred word. The ooh and ee vowels are called your closed vowels, once again because of the actual physical position when those vowels are created.

The killer vowels EE and OO


ee and oo are killer vowels when singers get into their higher register. Thats also why singers love singing aw vowels on high notes, because the vowel is open or perfect and naturally spreads itself out because there is a wider stream of breath coming from the vocal chords on an aw vowel. The Italian language is full of aw vowels (listen to Ave Maria for instance) and thats one reason that Italian is called the language of love. Classical singers love singing in Italian for just that reason. That may explain why A (and not E or O) has been chosen as the standard central core for the Arabian triad IAU and the sky god Dyaus. The Greek central core E (in Zeus) and the Latin O in (IOU for Jupiter) is suboptimal. All your sound is created on the mask of the face. The mask of the face may be seen as the personality for sounding through (per-sonare ?) Your low notes vibrate at a much slower frequency than your high notes, use much less breath, and as a result creates a weaker signal. That explains why I and U may have be most prominent religious symbols in relation to the minor A, E and O -vowel symbols.

Accent
Whereas spoken vowel values vary according to languages and dialects, in singing they cannot depart from the coincidence of a vowel pitch and a harmonic of the sung pitch. This is an absolute of singing. This is one of the reasons why a person can sing a foreign language without an accent but cannot speak it without an accent35.

33 Aiming The Voice 34 Aiming The Voice 35 Shirlee Emmons: The Tongue as Master of Your Singing: Vowel

On the Alphabet's Redesign by Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus


Chapter 1 - On vows and vowels

, Tiberius Claudius Caesar Augustus Germanicus, the son of Drusus and Antonia Minor, studied the Greek, Hebrew and Roman alphabets and having observed the asymmetry between the Roman character symbols and the Greek and Hebrew symbolic poles I suggest to introduce one new vowel, redefine a consonant to define a vowel and add another consonant to synchronize the basic fundamental triads for the religious systems. Based on the censorship of my ancestor Appius Claudius Caecus, who used his authority to introduce the trill36 named littera canina37 which sounds like a growling dog38, I will also use my authority to introduce these three new letters39. The first true alphabet was probably invented by Egyptian scribes in the military, although there is a theory that Semitic copper-mining slaves created an alphabet as a code to help synchronize their escape40. The most significant of ancient alphabets was the Greek or Hellenic alphabet, one of the oldest alphabets still in use, as any visitor to Greece knows. The Greek alphabet was a parent to several other writing systems, such as the Roman alphabet which is currently in use. Therefore I started by analyzing the Greek letters, which have been ordered as sonants41 and consonants. The difference between these letters must be explained to understand their hierarchical order, which for most uneducated readers may hardly be understandable without the help of explanatory literature. The perpetually sounding sonants are any alphabet's sacred symbols, whereas the consonants merely are what their name states: they are additional sounds and may be considered as of minor importance. Therefore I will start by investigating these sonants, which also be named vowels, because they have been reserved for the sacred vows. The vowels' definition thus directly define their sacredness and religious roots for the vows are the most sacred utterances a man and the gods divine may produce.

36 Trill consonant - In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. Standard Spanish <rr> as in perro, for example is an alveolar trill 37 canine letter 38 the letter "R" 39 Besides this he [Claudius] invented three new letters and added them to the alphabet, maintaining that they were greatly needed; he published a book on their theory when he was still in private life, and when he became emperor had no difficulty in bringing about their general use. These characters may still be seen in numerous books, in the daily gazette, and in inscriptions on public buildings. Source: Suetonius Life of Claudius 40 DJ Misc: May 2007 Archives subtopic: new writing systems 41 Sonants = vowels

Chapter 2 - The triad of original Vowels IA The triad A-I-U

T T

he Achaemenid King Darius I (regnavit 521-486 bc) ordered the script to be devised so that he could have monuments inscribed in the manner of the Babylonian and Assyrian kings. The first 3 characters were the vowels A, I, U, and the remaining characters were ordered with respect to the vowels42. This sufficiently marks the vowels A-I-U as the fundamentals for the alphabet's symbolism. In most languages, including our Roman language, the A, I, U are the initially Ab Urbe Condita43 available triad of fundamental core vowels44. The Greek alphabet uses seven vowels for their most sacred utterances and we all know these vowels are A, I, U, E, O to which 403 BCE the two characters Y and or OU45 have been added46.

The letters E and O


he letter E is well known to have been imprinted above the Apollonian temple's gate at Delphi and the short vowel O merely completes the fivefold Pythagorean structure, which as a sacred structure had been known at the Pythagorean era 47. The fivefold planets' universe distinguishes between the two inner planets, Mercury and Venus, and the three outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn. It might be natural to relate the ancient trio A, I, U to Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, respectively the latest acquisitions E and O to Mercury and Venus, but there is no evidence or proof for these or other relationships. In Latin the vowel will often be translated to the long vowel OO, but according to my studies the correct transcription is OU, which may be derived from the roots for Jupiter, whose original name must have been IOU-piter48, or backwardly transcribed in the related Greek alphabet: I-piter. Jupiter, who has been seen as a I-father & -mother49, is the creator parent of all peoples, and responsible for justice (which originally might have been spelled IOUstice). This father of fathers and mother of mothers, respectively parent for all parents is to be found in all religions, which remains to be proven.

42 Ancient Pre-history Timeline Concordance7 43 An expression from the beginning of the City's foundation as documented by Titus Livius Patavinus (59 BC AD 17)known as Livy in English 44 On the Symbolism of the Vowels A... E ... I... 0 ... U and The Sacred Vowels in Pronouns - notes to The Mystery of the Seven Vowels (1991) Joscelyn Godwin 45 The additional Greek letter is 46 In the chapter Vowels and Tones of The Mystery of the Seven Vowels by Joscelyn Godwin (1991) it is explained that the Greek alphabet did not have seven vowels until classical times: upsilon and omega were formally adopted only in 403 B.C.E. Greek originally had five vowels, like the Minoan Linear B script and the Phoenician alphabet (following modern authorities rather than Fabre d'Olivet). There may even have been less vowels before: the three basic elements I, A and U. - Source: The Y-Proceedings (The Y-Key to the English Ego-Pronouns) 47 The inner planets, Mercury and Venus, and the outer planets, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn, were identified by ancient Babylonian astronomers in the 2nd millennium BC.[3] source: Timeline of discovery of Solar System planets and their moons 48 The Latin name Iuppiter originated as a vocative compound of the Old Latin vocative *Iou and pater ("father") and came to replace the Old Latin nominative case *Ious. Source: Jupiter (mythology) 49 Jupiter IU-piter is being called "simultaneously father and mother" (Source: St. Augustine in Twenty-two books to Theocracy) Quotated from: Spelling Thee, U and I

The Hebrew Alphabet

T L T T

he Hebrew alphabet is said to be hiding their sacred core vowels, but at least the A, I, U seem to have been conserved in their divine name IA50, which has been encoded in the consonants YHVH51. IAO (IA) is the rather "obvious" Greek pronunciation of YHWH52.

This at least synchronizes the ancient vowel triad IAU to the most sacred Hebrew words. And even as an emperor I hesitate to reveal such secrets, but it will have to be done in order to redefine the original vowels and to redesign our Roman alphabet, which needs to regain the most solid shape in order to help our people to rule the world. For this purpose the letter U must be reconverted from an undefined consonant/vowel state to the original, pure vowel status. In order to perform this transformation a new consonant needs to be introduced. Another new vowel needs to be added to the alphabet to symbolize the intermediate the sonus medius, which will be explained later in this manuscript.

The Celtic & Greek divine Names Ziu respectively Zieus


ittle has been known of the IU-letters in the Celtic barbarian population, where the Boii 53 have been reported to adore Ziu or Zui54, whose name seems to be identical to the Germanic creator god Tyr, Tis, Tuis, Tuisco55 and similar other names. The spelling for these gods will remain difficult as long as none of the northern peoples refuse to accept the idea of documenting their historical records. Anyway the names generally have been based on either a combination of a vowel I and U, or alternatively on a vowel Y, which graphically seems to have been built as a vertical combination of a vowel U over a vowel I. In their form the very graphics are explaining the bipolarity of the letter Y as a mixture of I and U. And in the end this bipolarity has not been restricted to the graphical form, but also includes the vowel's sound.

The most sacred, central letter


hese divine names all seem to have been designed according to a general pattern, using two characters I and U, which basically symbolize the male, respectively female organs for the reproduction as their road to eternity. These are the more profane vowel symbols I and U we may identify in Ziu, Zieus, Tuis, IU-piter, IaOU (Ia or YHWH) and others. Alternatively some of these names have been encoded Zy, or Tyr, in understanding the identity of Y = IU or Y = UI.

IAOU / IA is symbolizing Life and Eternity


he Greek word (Aeon, life eternity) does imply the magical triad with the fundamental vowels A-I- and therefore we should consider the set of these three pure vowels I, A, U as a fundamental symbol for life and eternity.

50 Some patristic sources give evidence to a Greek pronunciation Iao for YHVH.[5]source: the TetragrammatonYHVH 51 Hebraic names of God are: Iao, Sabaoth, Adonai, Eloai. The name , to which is sometimes added, is found with this figure even more frequently than , and they are often combined. Beside an Abrasax figure the following, for instance, is found: IA ABPAA AN , "Iao Abrasax, thou art the Lord". Source: Abraxas 52 Sophian.org :: View topic - YHWH = IAO 53 The Boii (Latin plural, singular Boius; Greek ) were a Gallic tribe of the later Iron Age source: Boii Wikipedia 54 Tuesday (Tui's day) Named after Tui, the Germanic or Norse god of war. Also called Twia or Tyr. Source: Where did the name Tuesday come from. 55 Tuisco has been documented by Tacitus in Germania.

At a central position the divine name may have been equipped with an uttermost sacred core element, which for its sacredness often may be hidden or skipped from the spoken or written name. This sacred core is another vowel A, E or O, which symbolizes the reproduction link as a key to eternal life. This is the vowel E which has been located above the gate of Apollo's temple at Delphi56. And it must be noticed that the antipodes I and U have to be sung with a closed jaw, whereas A has to be uttered with an open jaw. The eternally stretchable open sound A therefore must be considered as the most sacred symbol.

IAU as an ego-pronoun
Original three-letter ego-pronouns (iou, ieu, iau along with two-vowel pronouns such as io, eu) are still being used in the environment of Chur 57 (Cvria, Cvria Rhaetorvm and Cvria Raetorvm) as images of the sacred vowel triad58. And from remote Alpine and trans-alpine provinces the magistrates and clerks report that people are using corresponding divine vowel-names for Jupiter like Diou, Dieu, Diau, Dio, Deu (or Zeu) and so on. These strange correlations suggest us to consider the involved vowels as sacred symbols, respectively magical tools which (by fertility mechanisms) might lead us to eternal life.

The polluting, consonantal vowel V

n our current alphabet the five vowels AEIOV 59 may already be understood as a most impressive religious string, but the system will remain imperfect as long as the letter V is to be mistaken for a consonant, which clearly pollutes the sacredness of the vowels' symbolism. No set of sacred symbols is allowed to be impure, which automatically generates the need for corrective action by imperial order.

56 Plutarch presents himself as a young man giving his interpretation of the mysterious letter E inscribed on the Delphic temple of Apollo. - source: E - of the E-symbol Engraven Over the Gate of Apollos ... 57 Documentation: The Etymological Fieldlines and The Fourth Vowel 58 Chur 59 See The A.E.I.O.U-device of Frederick III and Designing a new Language - The Dictionary of sacred Vowel Triads

Chapter 3 - The origins of the alphabet

t was the Egyptians who first symbolized ideas, and that by the figures of animals. These records, the most ancient of all human history, are still seen engraved on stone. The Egyptians also claim to have invented the alphabet, which the Phoenicians, they say, by means of their superior seamanship, introduced into Greece, and of which they appropriated the glory, giving out that they had discovered what they had really been taught. Tradition indeed says that Cadmus, visiting Greece in a Phoenician fleet, was the teacher of this art to its yet barbarous tribes. According to one account, it was Cecrops of Athens or Linus of Thebes, or Palamedes of Argos in Trojan times who invented the shapes of sixteen letters, and others, chiefly Simonides, added the rest. In Italy the Etrurians learned them from Demaratus of Corinth, and the Aborigines from the Arcadian Evander. And so the Latin letters have the same form as the oldest Greek characters. At first too our alphabet was scanty, and additions were afterwards made60. In particular the legend claims it was Carmenta, the Cimmerian Sibyl, who altered fifteen letters of the Greek alphabet to become the Latin alphabet, which her son Evander introduced into Latium, supposedly 60 years before the Trojan War. Originally the archaic Roman alphabet therefore started as61:

A, B, C, D, E, F, Z, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X,
in which the A, E, I, O are the sacred vowels and the V unfortunately must be considered as a rather misinterpreted half-vowel, blurring the difference between the sacred and the profane symbols. In a sound religious concept the uncertainties clearly must be readjusted and this action requires a redesign of the concept. After the Roman conquest of Greece in the 1st century BC, Latin adopted the Greek letters Y and Z62 to write Greek loanwords, placing them at the end of the alphabet. Of these additional words the Y clearly must be considered as a vowel, the so-called sonus medius, a short vowel sound (likely [] or []) used before labial consonants in Latin words such as optumus/optimus. From my studies I now concluded that in the Roman alphabet three letters were missing. These three were a consonantal U to distinguish it from U, the vowel; a letter to correspond to the Greek Upsilon (which is a vowel between Latin I and U) for use in Greek words which have become Latinized; and a letter to denote the double consonant which we now write in Latin as BS but pronounce like the Greek Psi. It was important, I decided, for provincials learning Latin to learn it correctly; if the letters did not correspond to the sound how could they avoid mistakes in pronunciation?63 And yes, if additionally the letters did not correspond to the religious symbolism, how could the provincials avoid mistakes in identifying the similarities between Jupiter and their own gods? This is the very topic of this book and to explain the suggested three letters I documented these similarities.

60 Following this precedent Claudius added three letters, which were employed during his reign and subsequently disused. These may still be seen on the tablets of brass set up in the squares and temples, on which new statutes are published. Source: Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars - The Life of Claudius [11.14] 61 Latin alphabet 62 or to be more precise: readopted 63 As a special reverence to the author this quotation (in a slightly modified form) has been taken from the novel I, Claudius by Robert Graves (published 1934). Although I knew it may be phantasy I figured out the author might be correct in his derivations, which are documented in chapter 17 on page 79 of the web-document. Graves' thesis Claudius probably is thought to have tried to make Latin truly phonetic. probably is incorrect.

Chapter 4 - Expanding to seven Vowels Seven Days to be represented

ubsequent discoveries64, not invented, but originally documented by Aristarchus of Samos, did lead to another viewpoint, in which six planets and the moon were considered to circle the Sun: Mercury (1), Venus (2), Earth (3), Mars (4), Jupiter (5), and Saturn (6). This idea had been symbolized in the seven days of the week 65, starting with Sunday, day of the sun, Monday, the day of the Moon, mardies for Tuesday, the day of Mars, mercredies for Wednesday, the day of Mercury, jeudies for Thursday, the day of Jupiter, vendredies for Friday, the day of Venus and saturdies, the day of the last planet Saturn. Note that central father Jupiter's day has been included between the two days representing Mars & Mercury and the two days representing Venus & Saturn. Mars & Mercury are the most important assistant ministers or adjutants for Jupiter. In the Boiis' religious system these adjutants may have received symmetrical names Thyr and Thur. Recently Posidonius constructed a planetary model, as a new planetary Orrery,66 representing the new planetary universe which of course also required a redesigned alphabet. In Greece the scientists had decided to symbolize this universe with the vowels A, I, U, E, O, Y and . Although a sevenfold structure lost the common synchronization to the Hebrew religion these letters still share the A, I, (OU)-core elements. In contrast the Roman alphabet cannot even provide us with a pure vowel-related core for the A, I, (OU)-core elements, because the U/V cannot be considered as a pure vowel. Of course we may identify the first and the last vowels A and are marking the beginning and the end of the Greek alphabet, and basically, if the U might be restricted to its vowel symbolism, the A and U have been defined as the first, respectively the last vowel of the Roman alphabet. In this case both alphabets are including the vowel I at a central position between the A and or A and U.

The concept of long OO- and short O-vowels


I never really intended to make Latin truly phonetic67 and restricted my concern to the strict differentiation for vowels and consonants. The long OO- and short O-vowels are both clear vowels and do not interfere with each other. For this reason no new letter is needed to discern these vowels. The effect may be demonstrated at the Greek letters O-micron and O-mega , which unlike the U/V-related letters never have been involved in the introduction of a new Roman vowel symbol for either the Omega or the O-micron. In Roman alphabets the long and short O-vowels in the words thorax (derived from the Greek -word ), respectively tholus (derived from the O-word , hill) cannot be discerned by the letter, unless the long ( thrax) and short ( thlus) Ovowels are to be marked. If Claudius really would have intended to make Latin truly phonetic he would have introduced a new letter for the Omega or alternatively O-micron as well.

64 By Aristarchus of Samos, and later in Nicolaus Copernicus' heliocentric system (De Revolutionibus Orbium Coelestium, 1543) the Earth came to be considered a planet revolving with the other planets around the Sun, in the following order of distance from the Sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. The Sun, now situated near the center of revolution, was no longer considered a planet. 65 In fact, the names of the days of the week in English bear the same meaning, just in a less explicit form. Say, Tuesday is so named because it's a "Tiw's day", and Tiw is a god in Norse mythology who is quite similar to Roman god Mars. Source: Planetary Hours And Days: Planets and the Days of the Week 66 According to Cicero, the Roman philosopher who was writing in the first century BC, Posidonius constructed (such) a planetary model. 67 Graves' thesis Claudius probably is thought to have tried to make Latin truly phonetic. probably is incorrect.

Chapter 5 - A proposal for three new letters

A
I

fter these studies I suggested, for consonantal U, the upside down f 68 (which is used for

that purpose in Etruscan): thus LAINIA instead of LAUINIA; and a modified E 69 for Greek Upsilon70: thus BBLIOTHECA instead of BIBLIOTHECA; and an upside down 71 C for BS: thus AQUE for ABSQUE. The last letter antisigma is not so important, but the other two, the sonus medius and the consonant variant V of the vowel U, seemed to me essential, I suggested the modified E 72 and the upside-down F and C because these would cause the least trouble to the men who use letter-punches for metal or clay: they would not have to make any new punches73.

The design of the letter


invested considerable time in designing the letter and considered the idea of deriving this letter from another sacred vowel symbol E by simply skipping the upper and lower bars:

E
This should be sufficient to set a link between both sacred vowels E and the UI or IU-synthesis Y, which had been required to provide a qualified symbol for the Greek vowel, aternatively named Ypsilon, Ipsilon or Upsilon.

The design of the letter

he consonant somehow has to be expressed like a V or soft F and therefore the upside down F is quite suitable for this purpose. It seems to be important that the sacred vowel U will clearly be distinguished from the profane consonants V and .

68 By a lack of a capital letter F I used the best fit lower case symbol f. 69 Usually this Claudian letter is explained as a broken H such as in I, Claudius by Robert Graves 70 Opinions also differ as to exactly what sound was represented by ; other opinions are that it was the same as the Greek (but then, why?); and a sound between e and i. According to Gordon again, it is always found replacing the Greek upsilon. we merely have an elegant half-H designed to nest nicely into the T preceding it, and the man's name was C. Nonius Thyr. (CIL XI.4896). The full inscription is here. Source: Thayer's Note in note # 104 to Suetonius, The Lives of the Caesars - The Life of Claudius 71 This obviously must be a 180 rotated letter C. 72 Originally: broken H 73 With slight modifications this quotation has been copied from I, Claudius by Robert Graves (published 1934). Robert Graves proceeds with the following additional explanation for the book's (bad) result: I published the book and one or two people said that my suggestions were sensible; but of course it had absolutely no result. My mother told me that there were three impossible things in the world; that shops should stretch across the bay from Baiae to Puteoli, that I should subdue the island of Britain, and that any one of these absurd new letters would ever appear on public inscriptions in Rome. I have always remembered this remark of hers, for it had a sequel. source: I, Claudius by Robert Graves (published 1934).

The design of the letter

imonides74 devised the double-consonants Psi and Xi (, ), distinguished the short Omicron () from the long Omega (), and differentiated between the long Eta () and short Epsilon ()75. And especially for the double-consonant Psi the Roman alphabet lacks a special character. For this purpose, that is for the PS- and BS-sounds, another upside down character may be used. The antisigma is to be a reversed C, used for the or in lower case (psi)76 to express the consonant combination bs and ps, much like the or in lower case (chi)77 is used for the consonant combination cs and gs78. This in fact merely is a profane consonants' problem, in which the relevance cannot be compared to both sacredness-related vowel-related problems.

74 The chief alterations in the alphabet were vaguely attributed to Palamedes and Simonides, the latter of whom was a native of Ceos, and contemporary with Miltiades and the actors in the Great Persian War (B.C. 490-79). The tradition as to the former belongs to the pre-historic time, and the statement as to Simonides that he was the first to introduce the two double consonants S and ^, and the two long vowels H and Q, is not consistent with the evidence of inscriptions. It was not till the Archonship of Euclides, B.C. 403, that the Alphabet, in the complete form in which it has descended to us, was nationally adopted at Athens. - "A compendious Greek grammar, for the use of schools (1888) 75 Ancient Pre-history Timeline Concordance7 76 Psi (letter) 77 Chi (letter) 78 The antisigma was a reversed C, used for the bs and ps sound, much like the X was used for the cs and gs sound. Because no inscription bears this letter, the form and its use remain in question. It is possible the form looked like two Cs back to back, or perhaps a different symbol altogether. - Source: Antisigma

Chapter 6 - Summary

aving identified the identity between the divine names Jupiter, IA, YHWH and Ziu, respectively Zieus, the author suggests to synchronize the fundamental vowel symbols A, I and U in the Greek and Roman alphabets by adding a qualified vowel in lieu for the Greek Y and a dedicated alternative as a consonant to distinguish the consonantal V from the vowel U. A third letter, the antisigma, may be added as a reversed C, used for the or in lower case (psi)79 to express the consonant combination bs and ps, much like the or in lower case (chi)80 is used for the consonant combination cs and gs81. The proposal for these three new letters , and has been documented with the relevant religious fundamentals. The letters will synchronize the number of genuine vowels A, I, U of the Roman Alphabet82 to the equivalent set of the Greek vowels: A, I, OU/ respectively the Hebrew symbols YHWH, which as a vowel structure are to be understood as IA. Original three-letter Ego-pronouns (iou, ieu and iau) are still being used instead of ego in the environment of Cvria, (that is Cvria Rhaetorvm and Cvria Raetorvm) as images of the sacred vowel triad83. This sufficiently marks IAU as the most important of all words. Basically the vowels A-I-OU, respectively A-I- symbolizes life and eternity. In order to intensify a people's convincing belief in eternity it must be immersed by the purest religious vowel symbols, otherwise the empire might collapse as if its currency would have been debased. This is why the redesign of the alphabet is to be understood as a mighty tool in strengthening the Roman Empire. QED

79 Psi (letter) 80 Chi (letter) 81 The antisigma was a reversed C, used for the bs and ps sound, much like the X was used for the cs and gs sound. Because no inscription bears this letter, the form and its use remain in question. It is possible the form looked like two Cs back to back, or perhaps a different symbol altogether. - Source: Antisigma 82 , B, C, D, 83 Chur

E, F, Z, H, I, K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, V, X,