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Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumer Satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Limited

By Ziauddin Chowdhury ID: 0921044

An Internship Report Presented in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Business Administration

Independent University, Bangladesh December 2012

Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumer Satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Limited

By Ziauddin Chowdhury ID: 0921044

Has been approved October, 2012

__________________________ Mr. Abul Bashar Senior Lecturer, Management School of Business Independent University, Bangladesh

November 29, 2012 To Mr. Abul Bashar Senior Lecturer, Management School of Business Independent University, Bangladesh. Subject: Submission of Internship Report.

Dear Sir, With due respect I am very pleased to enclose herewith the internship report on Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumer Satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Limited. The last three months has been the most fabulous learning experience for me. Without your guidance and help this learning experience would not have been way it has been. I have tried my best to prepare a good report with providing all of my effort and to cover all aspects regarding the matter. I think that this report contains the information that you need to get an idea about my research also. However, because of the confidentially policy of United Commercial Bank Limited it not been possible to put as many data and information as I would have liked to. I, therefore, hope that you would be kind enough to accept my internship report.

Sincerely Yours,

Ziauddin Chowdhury Id: 0921044 Independent University Bangladesh

Acknowledgement

All praises are due to Almighty Allah who enabled me to complete this report. This report entitled the Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumer Satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Limited. The study has been successfully accomplished along with considerate support and continuous guidance of few people. This is the utmost pleasure of mine to show heartfelt gratitude towards those individuals. First and foremost, I would like to express my gratefulness my respected supervisor Mr. Abul Bashar (Senior Lecturer, Management) School of Business, Independent University, Bangladesh for his support in every area of this research. He is the person of my inspiration to give best effort in this study. He was always there as an advisor, monitor and supervisor. Without his cooperation it would not have been possible to accomplish the research. My thankfulness also goes to Abu Arafat Latif (Senior Officer) of Bashundhara Branch for his continuous and cordial support during my internship. He provided me with invaluable insights about overall Consumer Credit (Retail Banking) system of this bank. I am grateful to all concerned persons who provided valuable guidance, suggestions and advices in collecting information, analyzing and preparing the report. I am particularly indebted to them whose efforts and cordial cooperation made the report possible.

Table of Contents

Executive Summary--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 01 Origin of Bank--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 02 United Commercial Bank Limited At a Glance ---------------------------------------------------- 03 Goals and Objectives ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 04 Mission ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 04 Vision ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 04 UCBLs Organizational Structure ---------------------------------------------------------------------- 05 Branch Information --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 06 Service booths at UCB- Bashundhara Branch -------------------------------------------------------- 07 Employees at UCBL - Bashundhara Branch ---------------------------------------------------------- 08 Products/ Services offered by the Bank ---------------------------------------------------------------- 09 Consumer Credit ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 10 Consumer Credit Schemes of United Commercial Bank Limited ---------------------------- 11 - 16 Objective of the Customer Credit Scheme ------------------------------------------------------------- 17 Collection Steps of United Commercial Bank Limited ---------------------------------------------- 17 About The Research -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 18 Statement of the Problem -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Purpose of the Study -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 19 Review of Literature -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 20 - 22 Conceptual Framework ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 23 Research Questions and Hypothesis -------------------------------------------------------------------- 24 Methodology ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 25 26

Data Analysis: Frequencies analysis ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 27 Crosstabs analysis -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 28 Correlation analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 29 - 41 Reliability Analysis ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 42 - 43 Significance of the Study -------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 44 Recommendation ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 45 Conclusion ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 46 References ------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------ 47 Appendix --------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 48 - 50

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Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumer Satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Limited

Executive Summary:
Internship report is mandatory in the process to pursue a Bachelors degree from countrys leading business school at Independent University. The report is divided into two parts Company Background and Research. Company Background discusses about the business where an intern is appointed to, while the Research portion of the report discusses about an aspect of the business that was never analyzed before. The report contains small background information of the bank and the branch where the internee was placed in. As you would proceed further, a service blueprint of the branch has been provided. A list of people (with respective designation) who were working at the branch, while writing this report, has been provided. A detailed picture of customer satisfaction possessed by the bank with its commercial clients has been the core of the research. As an internee I visited three branches in Dhaka city and gathered data from 40 respondents (commercial clients) to conduct analysis on the research topic. Major findings include: i. ii. iii. Front-end employees tend to be doing their job well, in terms of interacting with customers. Efficiency and clarity of discussing information is found to be the weak link. Staff training may improve the situation. Internal service is perceived to be doing better compared to efficiency and communication of information.

The most important finding, however, is that if a client has faith in the banks procedures, they can easily be satisfied through empowerment of which would lead to a lasting commitment to create pool of loyal customers and source of positive word-of-mouth. After my research I can say that service quality and employee behavior of UCB is quite satisfactory. To provide better satisfaction towards customer UCB have to improve their product line much updated and the charges should be under satisfactory level so that customers feel happy to being with UCB. Expert advice on marketing research on this topic could have provided more dimensions to this research. Having more people for brainstorming and research would have given fresh perspective. The research could have been much better if there were more variables and sample size to work on, with adequate resources i.e. time, budget, human, etc.

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Origin of Bank:
Originally the word BANK we can easily understand the financial institution that deals with money. But there are different types of banks like; Central Banks, Commercial Banks, Savings Banks, Investment Banks, Industrial Banks, Co-operative Banks etc. But when we use the term Bank without any prefix, or qualification, it refers to the Commercial banks. Commercial banks are the primary contributors to the economy of a country. So we can say Commercial banks are a profit-making institution that holds the deposits of individuals & business in checking & savings accounts and then uses these funds to make loans. For these people and the government is very much dependent on these banks as the financial intermediary. As banks are profit -earning concern; they collect deposit at the lowest possible cost and provide loans and advances at higher cost. The differences between two are the profit for the bank. Banking sector is expanding its hand in different financial events every day. At the same time the banking process is becoming faster, easier and the banking arena is becoming wider. As the demand for better service increases day by day, they are coming with different innovative ideas & products. In order to survive in the competitive field of the banking sector, all banking organizations are looking for better service opportunities to provide their fellow clients. As a result, it has become essential for every person to have some idea on the bank and banking procedure. Internship program is essential for every student, especially for the students of Business Administration, which helps them to know the real life situation. For this reason a student takes the internship program at the last stage of the degree, to launch a career with some practical experiences.

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United Commercial Bank Limited At a Glance:

In the backdrop of economic liberalization and financial sector reforms, a group of highly successful local entrepreneurs conceived an idea of floating a commercial bank with a different outlook. For them it was competence, excellence and consistent delivery of reliable service with superior value products. Accordingly, United Commercial Bank Limited was created and commencement of business started on 17th April 1980. United Commercial Bank Ltd. is operating as a scheduled bank under the banking license issued by Bangladesh Bank, the Central Bank of the country on April 17, 1980 through the opening of its Motijheel Branch at Adamjee Court Annex Building, Motijheel commercial area, Dhaka-1000. UCBL was actually registered under the Companies Act of 1913 with its registered office at 5, Rajuk Avenue, Motijheel commercial area, Dhaka-1000 which was later shifted to Adamjee Court Annex Building, 119-120, Motijheel commercial area, Dhaka-1000. Since inception, it has committed to provide high quality financial services to the people of this country to accelerate economic development of the nation. As such, it has been working for stimulating trade and commerce, accelerating the pace of industrialization, boosting export, creating employment opportunity, alleviating poverty, raising standard of living of the people etc and thereby contributing to the sustainable development of the country. The bank is listed with DSE & CSE as a public quoted company. As a fully licensed commercial bank, United Commercial Bank Limited has being managed by highly professional and dedicated team with long experience in banking. They constantly focus on understanding and anticipating customer needs. In its 22nd year of operation in 2012, United Commercial Bank has made substantial headway in terms of business growth, profitability and establishing its image as one of the leading private commercial banks. Its march towards reaching greater heights in operation continues with full vigor and enthusiasm. United Commercial Bank has made significant progress within a very short period of its existence. The bank has been graded as a top class bank in the country through internationally accepted CAMEL Rating. The bank has already occupied an enviable position among its competitors after achieving success in all areas of business operations.

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Goals and Objectives:


To utilize all available resources properly to develop various plan, policies and procedures in each of the objective and goal areas. Synchronized and steady growth of the bank. Utilize team of professional employees. Search for a total customized solution for by establishing full automation step. Develop a plan for offering better customer service. Develop a realistic deposit mobilization plan Build up appropriate lending risk assessment system Improve capital plan Develop a structure to make sound loan and advances Develop systematic procedures and approaches by improving management efficiency. Expand scientific MIS to monitor banks activities. Ensure a sound rate of recovery of all loans & advances and other credit facilities Build up a low cost fund base Meet capital adequacy recruitment at all the time.

Mission: To assist high quality service to customer and to participate in the growth and expansion of our national economy and to satisfy clients, shareholders and employees.

Vision: To be the bank of the 1st choice through maximizing value of clients shareholder & employees and contributing to the national economy with social commitments.

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UCBLs Organizational Structure:

Chairman Board of Directors Executive Committee Top Management

Managing Director
Deputy Managing Directors Executive Level Management Senior Executive Vice Executive Vice President Senior Vice President Assistant Vice President First Assistant. Vice President Senior Executive Officer Executive Officer Principle Officer Senior Officer Management Trainee Officer Junior Officer Junior Level

Mid Level
Management

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Branch Information:
UCBL has 125 Branches in Bangladesh
Total Branch: 02

Total Branch 07

Total Branch: 14

Total Branch: 56

Total Branch: 38 Total Branch: 07 Total Branch: 01

Year No. of Branches

2007 84

2008 84

2009 84

2010 98

2011 112

2012 125

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Service booths at UCB- Bashundhara Branch:


Primarily, there are three service counters at this branch Cash, Clearance & Transfer and Card. The first queue system that one can see while entering the bank premises, is located in front of Cash Booth. A multiple server multiple queuing can be seen at this spot. Four employees are stationed to work as servers to the customers. Whoever comes first is served first. The purpose of cash booth is to deposit or withdraw funds from bank accounts. The other queue system is opposite to clearance and transfer booth. The principle is basically the same as multiple-server-multiple-queuing; however the services offered are quite different from cash booth and the queue time is usually lot less in comparison. At this booth, one can do these following tasks and more: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Open a bank account Get bank statements Learn about the deposit schemes offered by the bank Present cheques that are from other banks to debit their account Collect pay-order scripts. Acquire necessary documents from Western Union Money Transfer (to be presented to Cash booth).

The third service point deals with debit/credit cards, where all information or queries regarding it can be collected from this desk. This is located at the 2nd floor of the branch.

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Employees at UCBL - Bashundhara Branch:


Designation Vice-President & Head of Branch First Assistant Vice-President & Operation Manager Senior Executive Officer Senior Officer Name Mr. S.K. Sirajul Kabir Workstation Managers Cabin (2nd Floor) FAVPs Cubicle (1st Floor) SEOs Desk (2nd Floor) Senior Officer Desk (2nd Floor) Officers Desk (2nd Floor) Cash Booth (1st Floor) Clearance & Transfer Booth (1st Floor) Clearance & Transfer Booth (1st Floor) Clearance & Transfer Booth (1st Floor) Cash Booth (1st Floor) Cash Booth (1st Floor) Cash Booth (1st Floor) Card Officers Desk (2nd Floor) Card Officers Desk (2nd Floor)

Mr. Md Akhter Hossain

Mr. Golam Idrees Mr. Abu Arafat Latif

Officer Officer Cash Junior Officer

Mr. Hafizur Rahman Mr. Shahjahan Chowdhury Mrs. Rezwana Khanam

Junior Officer Junior Officer Probation Assistant Cash Officer Assistant Cash Officer Assistant Cash Officer Probation Credit Card Service Officer Debit Card Service

Mr. B.M. Borhan Uddin

Mr. Ali Rawshan Ibne Alam Mrs. Kaniz Fatema Mr. MD. Morshedul Alam Mr. MD. Rafiqul Karim

Mr. S.M. Saifullah Mr. Ariful Haque

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Products/ Services offered by the Bank:


UCB Multi Milionaire UCB Money Maximizer UCB Earning Plus UCB DPS Plan Western Union Money Transfer SMS Banking Service Online Service Credit Card One Stop Service Time Deposit Scheme Monthly Savings Scheme Deposit Insurance Scheme Inward & Outward Remittances Travelers Cheques Import Financing Export Financing Working Capital Finance Loan Syndication Underwriting and Bridge Financing Trade Finance Industrial Finance Foreign Currency Deposit NFCD (Non Resident Foreign Currency Deposit Account) All These services can be broken down to Consumer Credit (Retail) Banking; commercial (includes SME and Corporate) banking; and miscellaneous services.

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Consumer Credit:
It is one of the core businesses for United Commercial Bank Limited and has been targeted for significant further growth. This reflects the potential of consumer credit scheme to produce high levels of economic profit and perceived demographic trends toward an expanded middle class and higher income levels. Asset quality is generally expected to be higher in personal lending than corporate lending due to variety of factors including:

Diversification of risk Security Cultural values The increasing need for individuals to have access to bank credit for the conduct of normal daily activities.

United Commercial Bank is a conservative lender in consumer credit as part of its corporate philosophy. However, conservatism does not mean simply minimizing bad debts, but incorporates the concept of lending against acceptable risks. The Banks overriding goal is not only to increase total shareholder return but also to contribute to the socio economy by improving the life style of the limited income segment of the country and that can be achieved optimizing profits, rather than just minimizing losses, profit optimization will follow from: Good-planning and control of approval process Well-designed products with appropriately focused marketing The use of statistical techniques and decision support system that permit risks to be managed predictably Gathering high quality management information, which is then read and used.

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Consumer Credit Schemes of United Commercial Bank Limited:


The United Commercial Bank with their financing items under CCS loan is given below: Household Durable Loan: Motor Cycle, Personal Computer, Photocopier, Fax machine, Small PABX system, Television, Mobile Phone set, Refrigerator, Audio-video equipment, Other home electric appliances, Furniture and any other household items.

Household Durable Loan Car loan

For purchasing household durables. Car, Jeep, Station Jeep, Pick up Van, Cover Van, Bus, Truck, Ambulance and any other vehicle for own use.

Doctors Loan Loan against salary Any purpose loan Education loan Travel Loan Marriage loan CNG Conversion Loan Hospitalization Loan

For the Doctors only. Any qualified person For emergency need For Study purpose only For traveling purpose, For wedding only. To convert into CNG

For treatment in hospital

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Car loan: Customer Segment Any Bangladeshi individual who has the means and capacity to repay the loan. In specific terms the target customers should cover salaried executives of multinational companies, middle to large size local corporate, Government officials, Officials working in Semi-government, Autonomous and reputed Non-Government Organization, International aid agencies and any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income. Purpose Purchase of non-commercial new and reconditioned vehicles for personal use only by individual.

Doctors Loan Customer Segment Any Bangladeshi citizen who is a graduate in Medical Science/Dentist/Eye/Allopathic as self-employed or salaried people has the means and capability to repay the loan. Purpose Small scale purchase of different medical equipments, machineries, items to support professional tools or other relevant needs (e.g. run or set up a clinic/hospital/dispensary).

Household Durable Loan Customer Segment Any Bangladeshi individual who has the means and capacity to repay the loan. In specific terms the target customers should cover salaried executives of multinational companies, middle to large size local corporate, Government officials, Officials working in Semi-government, Autonomous and reputed Non-Government

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Organization, International aid agencies and any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income.

Purpose Purchase of household durables like Television, Refrigerator, Air conditioner, Washing Machine, Computers, other household furniture etc. for personal use only.

Marriage loan Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons. Any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income. Purpose To meet the financial need for marriage purpose.

Any purpose loan Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, Government officials, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons Purpose The customer has to declare the purpose of the loan but submission of supporting document is not mandatory. Purpose may be as follows:

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House renovation Marriage in a family Advance retail payment Hospitalization or other emergency medical needs Trips abroad Purchase of Miscellaneous household appliances Purchase of personal computer Purchase of electronic items Purchase of furniture

Education loan: Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons. Any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income. Purpose For educational purposes like study in abroad or within the country.

Hospitalization Loan: Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, Government officials, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons Any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income.
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Purpose To meet the financial need for treatment purposes in the following hospitals/clinics of Dhaka and Chittagong: BIRDEM Holy family Hospital Central Hospital Monwara Hospital Samrita Hospital Medinova Bangladesh Medical Metropolitan Hospital Sikder Medical Islami Bank Hospital Dhaka Renal Centre Ibne Sina Hospital Lab Aid Cardiac Hospital National Heart Foundation CMH, Dhaka Apollo Hospital Health Care, Chittagong Health Home, Chittagong Poly Clinic, Chittagong CMH, Chittagong etc

Loan against salary Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, Government officials, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons
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Purpose To meet the financial need for any acceptable purpose.

Travel Loan Customer Segment Employees of reputed multinational companies and large local corporate Employees of medium sized or mid-range local corporate such as reputed schools and colleges, insurance and leasing companies, Non-Government Organization, reputed trading firms and all other salaried persons. Any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income. Purpose To meet the financial need for travel purpose.

CNG Conversion Loan Customer Segment Any Bangladeshi individual who has the means and capacity to repay the loan. In specific terms the target customers should cover salaried executives of multinational companies, middle to large size local corporate, Government officials, Officials working in Semi-government, Autonomous and reputed Non-Government

Organization, International aid agencies and any tax paying businessmen of repute and self-employed tax-paying individual having a reliable source of income

Purpose For converting vehicles from carbon based fuel to Compressed Natural Gas system.

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Objective of the Customer Credit Scheme:


United Commercial Bank Limited started the Consumer Credit Scheme program with a view to fulfill its benevolent institutional objectives through financing the middle class limited income group. To ensure the credit facility to the both middle class Limited income group and upper class income group. To improve the living standard of limited income group through financing in purchasing necessary goods. To participate in the socio-economic development of the country.

Collection Steps of United Commercial Bank Limited:


Days Past Due Collection Action

1-14 days 15-29 days 30-44 days

Letter, Follow up and Persuasion over phone 1st Remainder Letter and first step follows 2nd Reminder letter single visit of credit officer 3rd Reminder letter Group visit by team members Follow up over phone Letter to Guarantor, Employer Reference all above effort follows Warning of legal action by next 15 days Call up of loan Final Reminder and serve legal notice Legal proceeding begins Repossession starts Telephone calls Legal proceeding continues Collection effort continues by officer & agents Letter to different Banks and Associations

45-59 days

60-89 days

90 and above days

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About The Research:


Consumer Credit (Retail Banking) is one of the vital functions for any bank. Lion share revenues of banks comes by meeting the financial requirements of the SMEs and corporates. Credence product by nature, financing services by banks to commercial institutions are difficult to measure. While demand for, and supply of funds in the money market intersect at a point that makes most of the financial service-availing institutions indifferent for selection of bank. In this scenario a stronger bank has an edge. Simultaneously, banks in recent times have taken fostering of relationship with present clients with great care, as it is inexpensive and profitable for the business than attracting new ones and establishing relationship. United Commercial Bank Ltd. is among the first banks that took relationship banking seriously through Happy Banking campaign, dated back in 2007. The bank offers innumerable flexible options and benefits to their clients along with emphasizing professional bonds between bank employees and clientele. An award winning service research journal on relationship benefits and quality for serviceoriented business authored by Hennig-Thurau, Gwinner and Gremler (2002) has been the backbone of my research. The journal encompasses a multivariate study that probes several aspects of relationship between service provider and customers with thorough analysis on this field of study. With assumption that the structural equation model devised by the author to be exhaustive, outcomes from processing fieldwork data will lead to the most imperative aspects the bank needs to focus on for improvement to cater their customers better. The Credit Department (Retail Banking) policy of UCB is prepared in line with the guidelines of Bangladesh Bank to handling it in a disciplined way. Credit Department plays a very important role in bank as they evaluate the risk and take decision about giving loan to the customers. In this report I have tried to study the literatures instruments about customer satisfaction process and also the credit operation of United Commercial Bank Limited.

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Statement of the Problem:


Credit risk and customer dissatisfaction corresponds to potential financial loss as a result of customers inability to honor the terms and conditions of credit facility. This report will mainly focus on managing credit risk by providing proper satisfaction towards the customers as well as achieving organizations profit.

Purpose of the Study:


The purpose of the internship program is to familiarize students with real market situation and compare it with bookish concept. The main purpose of the study is to have an assessment about Consumers Credit Schemes of United Commercial Bank Limited and customer satisfaction gaining from those credit schemes. Major purpose of the study are To examine customer satisfaction towards UCB credit schemes. Find out the relationship between service quality, Updated products, charges and employee behavior about in the context of customer satisfaction. To find out the real picture of UCB in terms of deposits and other financial products. Establishing favorable employee attitude to provide better satisfaction towards customers. Developing new products and ideas to create brand awareness as well as for proper customer satisfaction.

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Review of Literature:
In this research I have go through some variables which must be needed to create best customer satisfaction in United Commercial Bank Limited.

Service Quality:
Research has indicated that service quality has been increasingly recognized as a critical factor in the success of any business (Parasuraman et al., 1988) and the banking sector in this case is not exceptional. Service quality has been widely used to evaluate the performance of banking services (Cowling and Newman, 1995). The banks understand that customers will be loyal if they receive greater value than from competitors (Dawes and Swailes, 1999) and on the other hand, banks can earn high profits if they are able to position themselves better than their competitors within a specific market (Davies et al., 1995). Therefore, banks need focus on service quality as a core competitive strategy (Chaoprasert and Elsey, 2004). Moreover, banks all over the world offer similar kinds of services, and try to quickly match their competitors innovations. It can be noted that customers can perceive differences in the quality of service (Chaoprasert and Elsey, 2004). Moreover, customers evaluate banks performance mainly on the basis of their personal contact and interaction (Gronroos, 1990). Moreover, many scholars agree that service quality can be decomposed into two major dimensions (Gronroos, 1984; Lehtinen and Lehtinen, 1982). The first is referred to by Zeithaml et al. (1985) as outcome quality and the second by Gronroos (1984) as technical quality. However, the first dimension is concerned with what the service delivers and on the other hand; the second dimension is concerned with how the service is delivered: the process that the customer went through to get to the outcome of the service. The study of McCleary and Weaver (1982) indicated that good service is defined on the basis of identification of measurement behaviours that are important to customers. The study of Newman and Cowling (1996) reports that two British banks used the SERVQUAL model and this model improved quality of service, as well as both banks enjoying substantial increases in profit. Moreover, Zeithaml (2000) also found evidence about the influences of service quality on profits and Heskett et al. (1997) argued that a direct and strong relationship exists among service quality, customer satisfaction and profitability.Vimi and Mohd (2008) undertook a study of the determinants of performance in the Indian retail banking industry based on perception of customer satisfaction. The finding of the study reinforces that customer satisfaction is linked with performance of the banks. Berry (1980) along with Booms and Bitner (1981) argue that, due to intangible nature of services, customer use elements associated with the physical environment when evaluating service quality. Levitt (1981) proposes that customers use appearances to make judgements about realities. Hostage (1975) believes that a service firms contact personnel comprise the major determinants of service quality, while Lewis and Booms (1983) propose

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that service quality resides in the ability of the service firm to satisfy its customer needs i.e. customer satisfaction.

Updated Products:
From the beginning of the 1990s until the middle of July 2007, change in the banking industry was driven by the twin forces of deregulation and technological change. Updated products refer to the use of information and communication technology by banks to provide services and manage customer relationship more quickly and most satisfactorily (Charity-Commission, 2003). Burr (1996) describes it as an electronic connection between the bank and the customer in order to prepare, manage and control financial transactions. Electronic banking according to Al-Abed (2003) is an umbrella term for the process by which a customer may perform banking transactions electronically without visiting a brick-and-mortar institution. Lustsik (2004) describes electronic banking as a variety of the following platforms: Internet banking, telephone banking, TV-based banking, mobile phone banking, and PC banking. Banks customers taste and desire have begun to raise the stakes of expectation of exceptional services. Customers want to transact their banking transactions at any time and location convenient for their life-style. They want to pay their regular household bills, buy and sell stocks and shares (Carse, 1999). Historically, banks have taken the attitude that they will provide customers with the services and products that they, the banks, wish to provide. In order to survive both from domestic and the increasing level of global cross-border competition, banks need to change their process of servicing their customers. Firstly, to capture and retain the most profitable customers and secondly to redirect unprofitable customers into service channels which can limit the costs and maximise potential revenues (Mols, 1998).

Charges:
Data from private vendors indicate that average fees for insufficient funds, overdrafts, returns of deposited items, and stop payment orders have risen by 10 percent or more since 2000, while others, such as monthly account maintenance fees, have declined. During this period, the portion of depository institutions income derived from noninterest sourcesincluding fees on savings and checking accountsvaried but increased overall from 24 percent to 27 percent. Changes in both consumer behavior, such as making more payments electronically, and practices of depository institutions are likely influencing trends in fees, but their exact effects are unknown.

Employee Behavior:
Employees are key stakeholders in value delivery and brand/supplier success, and they frequently represent the difference between positive experiences or negative experiences and whether customers stay or go. It has been found that employee commitment and advocacy

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behavior have a direct and profound relationship to the loyalty of customers, and also to corporate sales and profitability. Work environment influences the way how employees feel about their company, boss, and coworkers, and they impact the productivity, satisfaction, and intent to turnover of the workers (Ferris & Kacmar, 1992). Drory and Romm (1988) In fact, the Drory and Romm study found that employees perception of employee behavior are dependent upon circumstances and that as circumstances or elements of a situation vary so do perceptions regarding the politics. Gerald.R.Ferris, Dwight.D.Frink (1996) studied Politics as a potential source of stress in the work environment.

Customer Satisfaction:
According to the disconfirmation paradigm, customer satisfaction is understood as the customers emotional or feeling reaction to the perceived difference between performance appraisal and expectations (e.g., Oliver 1980; Rust, Zahorik, and Keiningham 1996; Yi 1990). Several studies provide evidence for the significant influence of satisfaction on loyalty and word-of-mouth communication. However, more recent studies suggest the impact of satisfaction on customer loyalty is rather complex (e.g., Bloemer and Kasper 1994; Oliva, Oliver, and MacMillan 1992; Oliver 1999; Reichheld 1993; Stauss and Neuhaus 1997). In their service profit chain model, Heskett et al. (1994) proposed customer loyalty to be the result of a complex causal chain. Although satisfaction is modeled as the only immediate antecedent of loyalty, other key drivers of loyalty include service quality, employee loyalty, employee satisfaction, and internal service quality. Several (but not all) of the relationships hypothesized in the service profit chain model have been confirmed empirically by Loveman (1998). Relationship quality is generally considered to be composed of satisfaction and commitment. Drawing on Hennig-Thurau and Klee (1997), we postulate satisfaction to positively influence commitment. A high level of satisfaction provides the customer with a repeated positive reinforcement, thus creating commitment-inducing emotional bonds. In addition, satisfaction is related to the fulfillment of customers social needs, and the repeated fulfillment of these social needs is likely to lead to bonds of an emotional kind that also constitute commitment (Hennig-Thurau and Klee 1997). The relevance of satisfaction in gaining loyal customers and generating positive word-ofmouth is largely undisputed (e.g., Anderson and Sullivan 1993; Oliver 1996). Indeed, studies have found satisfaction to be a (and often the) leading factor in determining loyalty (e.g., Anderson and Fornell 1994; Rust and Zahorik 1993). Similarly, satisfaction has been identified as a key driver in the generation of (positive) customer word-of-mouth behavior (e.g., File, Cermak, and Prince 1994; Yi 1990).

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Conceptual Framework:
The framework for the projected study is presented below:

Service Quality

Updated Products Customer Satisfaction Charges

Dependent Variable

Employee Behavior

Independent Variables

Figure 1: Framework of Research Variable and their Relationships

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Research Questions and Hypothesis:

RESEARCH QUESTIONS Q1: Does service quality effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB? Q2: Does updated products effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB? Q3: Does charges effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB? Q4: Does employee behavior effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB?

HYPOTHESIS

H1: Service quality effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB. H2: Updated products effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB. H3: Charges effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB. H4: Employee Behavior effect customer satisfaction in the context of UCB.

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Methodology:
Research design:
The projected framework (Figure: 1) represented the outline and arrangement of relationships among the set of considered variables. The purpose of the study was to measure correlations among variables. Thats why it is a causal studies. More specifically it is an ex post facto study because this study involves after the fact report on what happened to the measured variables. With the above findings in the literature, this study aims to inspect the possible relationships among service quality, updated products, charges, employee behavior and customer satisfaction with organizational performance.

Sampling:

Sample unit: In this study as a researcher I found some factor really that whether effects on customer satisfaction or not. To get proper satisfaction idea from customers i targeted the population who has an experience dealing with UCB. Our sampling technique will be simple random sampling under the probability sampling method so that we can select randomly from our existing customers. Cooper and Schindler (2003) stated that in this type of probability sampling method each population element is known and has an equal chance of selection. Sample Size: Sample size relates to how many people to pick for the study. For this kind of study researcher need to do select a sample size. I picked both male and female from different ages and professional back ground and the sample size was N=40.The study will be conducted only in some branches of Dhaka city due to time and budget constraints. Our research is a Quantitative Research. Sample Procedure: Their as a researcher i used probability sampling to collect information. We have used purposive probability sampling to know the characteristics or experiences, attitudes, perception of participants. Here i selected participants randomly from UCB and give them the questionnaire so that we can know about all those characteristics.

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Instruments:
Questionnaires will permit us to gather information that cannot be found elsewhere from any secondary information such as books, newspapers and internet resources. So the questionnaire survey is the most successful method for this study to collect the data. We used a structured questionnaire. In a structured questionnaire, quantitative data is required. Because of this reason, the researcher will use questionnaire. According to interval scale the response choices will be arranged. There are Five (5) response choices. Five-point of Liker type scales were used in all measures. This are-

1 = Strongly Disagree
2= Disagree 3= Neither Disagree nor Agree 4= Agree 5= Strongly Agree

Data Collection, Types of Data and Sources:


There are two types of data collection Primary Data & Secondary Data. Primary Data are those collected for the first time .Secondary Data are those which have already been collected and analyzed by someone else. In the context of UCB, as researchers I used primary data to examine the research problem and verify hypothesis. As a researcher I use questionnaire method to collect data from the primary sources. Because this research work is exclusively carry out for Bank. In this study mostly primary data will be used to draw a recommendation. We will confirm our respondents that all the data collected from them will be kept confidential and exclusively used for academic purposes and their individual identity would be kept undisclosed individuals, each taking Twenty Five (25) questionnaires to be filled out by respondents from the devised sample. While filling out the questionnaires the researchers assisted the respondents to get a better idea of their actual behaviors to minimize the margin of error.

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Data Analysis:
Frequencies analysis: The sample consists of 32 male and 08 female customers. 80% of male and 20% of female customers participates in this survey which is shown at below. Among the responding 08 customers age was between 15-25 years, 12 customers age was between 26-35 years, 15 customers age was between 36-45 years and 5 customers age was between 46 and above which is shown below. There are four income ranges. 15% respondents were in 15000-20000 taka range, 35% respondent was in the range of 21000-30000 taka, 27.5% respondent was in the range of 31000-40000 and 22.5% respondent was in the range of more than 41000 taka.

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Crosstabs Analysis We survey 40 respondents with different gender, age and income. The resonance rate is 100%. Table shows that between 15000-20000 income ranges there are 4 male and 2 female. Again between 21000-30000 income ranges there are 11 male and 3 female. In 31000-40000 income ranges there are 9male and 2 female. And in the income of above 41000 ranges there are 8 male and 1 female.

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Correlation analysis Correlation analysis was conducted on all variables to explore the relationship between variables. The bivariate correlation procedure was subject to a two tailed of statistical significance at two different levels highly significant (p<.01) and significant (p<.05). According to Nadim Jahangir the classification of correlation coefficient is as follows:

0.0 to 0.2 0.2 to 0.4 0.4 to 0.7 0.7 to 0.9 0.9 to 1.0

Very weak, negligible Weak, low Moderate Strong, high, marked Very strong, very high

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Relationship between Service quality and customer satisfaction: According to Spearman correlation coefficient between service quality and customer satisfaction is 0.638 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 5.1074

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Spearman Correlation test there is a relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, which means that service quality effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Pearson correlation coefficient between service quality and customer satisfaction is 0.656 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 5.3741

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Pearson Correlation test there is a relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, which means that service quality effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Kendall's tau_b correlation coefficient between service quality and customer satisfaction is 0.504 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 3.5971

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Kendall's tau_b Correlation test there is a relationship between service quality and customer satisfaction, which means that service quality effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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Relationship between Updated products and customer satisfaction: According to Spearman correlation coefficient between updated products and customer satisfaction is 0.616 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 4.8204

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Spearman Correlation test there is a relationship between updated products and customer satisfaction, which means that updated products effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Pearson correlation coefficient between updated products and customer satisfaction is 0.587 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 4.4695

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Pearson Correlation test there is a relationship between updated products and customer satisfaction, which means that updated products effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Kendall's tau_b correlation coefficient between updated products and customer satisfaction is 0.487 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know, = 3.4372

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Kendall's tau_b Correlation test there is a relationship between updated products and customer satisfaction, which means that updated products effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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Relationship between charges and customer satisfaction: According to Spearman correlation coefficient between updated products and customer satisfaction is -0.208 shows negative relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= -1.3108

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we can accept the null hypothesis as T value falls in (-2.021 to +2.021) and reject alternative hypothesis. So according to Spearman Correlation test there is no relationship between charges and customer satisfaction, which means that charges is not effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB which reflect that customers are not satisfied by charges in UCB.

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According to Pearson correlation coefficient between charges and customer satisfaction is 0.018 shows negative relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= -0.1109

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we can accept the null hypothesis as T value falls in (-2.021 to +2.021) and reject alternative hypothesis. So according to Pearson Correlation test there is no relationship between charges and customer satisfaction, which means that charges is not effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB which reflect that customers are not satisfied by charges in UCB.

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According to Kendall's tau_b correlation coefficient between charges and customer satisfaction is -0.155 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= -0.9671

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we can accept the null hypothesis as T value falls in (-2.021 to +2.021) and reject alternative hypothesis. So according to Kendall's tau_b Correlation test there is no relationship between charges and customer satisfaction, which means that charges is not effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB which reflect that customers are not satisfied by charges in UCB.

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Relationship between employee behavior and customer satisfaction: According to Spearman correlation coefficient between employee behavior and customer satisfaction is 0.352 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 2.3182

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Spearman Correlation test there is a relationship between employee behavior and customer satisfaction, which means that updated products effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Pearson correlation coefficient between employee behavior and customer satisfaction is 0.549 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 4.0490

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we cannot accept the null hypothesis as T value dont falls in (2.021 to +2.021) and accept alternative hypothesis. So according to Pearson Correlation test there is a relationship between employee behavior and customer satisfaction, which means that updated products effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB.

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According to Kendall's tau_b correlation coefficient between employee behavior and customer satisfaction is 0.265 shows positive relationship between two variables. Now we have to test r for other calculations or comparisons.

We know,

= 1. 6941

Hypothesis testing: Ho: null hypothesis = no relationship Ha: alternative hypothesis = relationship At 5% level of significance we can accept the null hypothesis as T value falls in (-2.021 to +2.021) and reject alternative hypothesis. So according to Kendall's tau_b Correlation test there is no relationship between employee behavior and customer satisfaction, which means that employee behavior is not effect customer satisfaction in context of UCB which reflect that customers are not satisfied by behavior of employees in UCB.

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Reliability Analysis: The reliability of a scale that predicts a variable should be measured in order to see whether it actually affects the dependent variable. Reliability is the extent to which measurement of particular measure of particular test are repeatable. If the reliability of scale for any particular variable is below .5 then it should be deemed unacceptable. The most highly recommended measure of internal consistency is provided be cronbachs Alpha () as it provides a good reliability estimate in most situations. 50-.60 coefficient or cronbachs alpha is sufficient. In this study the coefficient alpha for different constructs were computed using the reliability procedure in SPSS (version 17.0). The cronbachs alpha of service quality is 0.811 which means it is highly reliable.

Updated products are also fall to the reliability test because cronbachs alpha is 0.811. It is between the standard, so it is reliable.

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The reliability of charges is 0.784 which is between the standard, so it is reliable.

Again the cronbachs Alpha () of employee behavior is 0.625 which is reliable.

Again the cronbachs Alpha () of customer satisfaction is 0.800 which is reliable.

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Significance of the Study:


Business significance: Our research hopefully will help various corporations to be concerned about the present condition of UCB as a bank. Because a trend has been changed over the past few years, customers attitude toward business products or service also changed. So, sticking with the obsolete business plan will no longer be effective for making profit. Various law suits has already been posted against MNCs as well as national companies. So it would be really beneficial for the company s to change their policy and get concerned about the customer satisfaction rather than making profit .Our study reveals the relationship between the customer satisfaction with the service quality, updated products, charges and employee behavior respectively: anyone who will go through these, get crystal clear idea about the significance of customer satisfaction. Academic significance: We know, now a day research is also used for academic purpose. While any student is going for making any new business plan they are must needed to go for a research. Thus faculties also need to study and implement those studies (researchers) to their students so that it can help the students for their study. As my research is based on customer satisfaction this research may helpful for students who are keen to know about UCB recent position in front of customers. Students will also get the knowledge about current position of UCB as a private bank in Bangladesh through this research. Implication for future research: As i mention earlier, our research will help various corporations thus far, it could also be effective and efficient analysis for the future researchers. I analysis various kinds of data that is given in various journals, newspapers, govt.bureaus and websites so, future researchers would get the information about the scale that has been used in my study and hypothesis testing will give them an idea whether there is a relationship between our variables or not and reliability tests will give an information whether our question adjust with the variable.

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Recommendations:
United Commercial bank Limited has an efficient and excellent credit management team and performing with great expertise and care. There are some limitations that can be overcome by some measures to make the performance outstanding. There are some suggestions for United Commercial banks consumer credit management team from my observation. Proper consumers credit budget for each branch should be established. A budget is a record that shows the flow of money in and out of the Branch. Budget is necessary because it gives customers a clear view of the branch Consumers Credit. United Commercial Bank training institute should introduce training program on Consumer Credit of their executives to provide unique solution for their financial situation. Strengthening the Marketing ability. The present marketing ability to pursue the consumers is not so strong. So UCBL should increases the promotion activities as possible. UCBL should develop short procedure for taking the consumer credit loan. The processing time for taking consumer credit scheme should simple as possible. Introducing the new feature of product may attract the customer to take loan from the UCBL. Introducing the appropriate client judgment system: the existing client judgment system for consumer evaluation is not so rigorous. The system should be developed. Stopping the diversion of loan: the major portion of the loan goes to the pocket of those who are wealthy. This means that the targeted people are not getting loan. The diversion of loan is also prevailing. For example- the consumer taking loan by showing a quotation of furniture but he is not buying that item. So the monitoring system should be improved. Credit officer measures the risk associated with the credit facility. He should not be liberal in this respect; he should strictly follow the credit evaluation principle followed by the bank. The analysis should contain information about the borrower, credit purpose, credit repayment sources, details of collateral security with valuation and guarantee. The ATM facility of UCBL is weak than other competitor banks so they should try to improve this facility as soon as possible.

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Conclusion:
As an internee of UCBL. I have truly enjoying my internship from the learning and experience viewpoint. I am confident that this three months internship program at UCBL will definitely help me to realize my further carrier in the job market. As there are lots of local and foreign banks in Bangladesh the UCBL is promising commercial Bank among them. In this competitive market UCBL has to compete not only the others commercial banks but also with the public Bank. UCBL is more capable of contributing towards economic development as compared with other bank. UCBL invested more funds in export and import business. It is obvious that the right thinking of this bank including establishing a successful network over the country and increasing resources will be able to play a considerable role in the portfolio of development. Success in the banking business largely depends on effective lending. Less the amount of loan losses, the more the income will be from Credit operations the more will be the profit of the UCBL Limited and here lays the success of Credit Financing. During the course of my practical orientation I have tried to learn the practical banking activities to realize it with my theoretical knowledge, which I have greathearted and going to acquire from various courses of my BBA program.

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References:
Jahangir, Nadim. (2003). Perceptions of Power: A Cognitive Perspective of Natinalised Commercial Banks in Bangladesh, Dhaka: SUBARNA. http://www.ucbl.com Several Booklets from UCB Seeral Newsletter from UCB Credit Operational Manual of UCB Chowdhury, A.H.M., Nurul Islam and T.A. Chowdhury (1992). Financial liberalization in Bangladesh, Conceptual Issues and Impact on Banking financial institutions Bank Parikrama, Vol 18, No.3 &4, Sep. & Dec. P.59. Howard R. Goldsmith, A guide To Growth, Profits and Market share, 2004 Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall Bagozzi, R. P., Tybout, A. M., Craig, C. S., & Sternthal, B. (1979). The construct validity of the tripartite classification of attitude. Journal of Marketing Research, 16, 88 95. Breckler, S. J. (1984). Empirical validation of affect, behaviour and cognition as distinct attitude Ethical Consumer Research Association: About practice: A review and recommended two-step approach. Psychological Bulletin, 103, 411 423. Bangladesh Bank. (2010). Schedule Bank Statistics, Various issues. Dhaka, Bangladesh Bank.

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Appendix QUESTIONNAIRE
Hello!! We are conducting a survey to find out information regarding Consumer Credit Schemes and Consumers satisfaction of United Commercial Bank Ltd (UCBL).There is no right or wrong answer. All information will be used for the purpose of this specific research. This research is conducted for academic purposes only. So please do not hesitate to answer. Your information will be kept confidential.

Personal Information
Male Female

Age:

15-25

Income per month:

15000-20000 Taka 26-35

21000-30000 Taka
31000-40000 Taka

36-45

41000 and above

46 and above

Occupation ________________

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1= Strongly Disagree 2= Disagree 3= Neither Disagree nor Agree

4= Agree

5= Strongly Agree

Service quality: 1. 2. UCBL is an excellent bank to have banking services. The procedure of our services and the transactions are clear to you. You feel safe dealing with us. The service quality should be improved. UCBLs services are up to mark. Updated Products: Products are up to date The installment policy is easy. External appearance of bank is good. 1 1 2 2 3 3 4 4 5 5

3. 4. 5.

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

6. 7. 8.

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

9.

Availability of ATM in several locations. Charges:

10. Compared to our quality, we charges extra. 11. We do not have any hidden charges. 12. Sometimes you get services at cheaper price than our listed rate. 13. The time limit to repay the payables should be increased. 14. The interest rate charged on credit scheme is high.

1 1 1

2 2 2

3 3 3

4 4 4

5 5 5

1 1

2 2

3 3

4 4

5 5

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15. UCBL charges higher amount for down payment compare to others. Employee Behavior: 16. You feel discomfort in the transactions you do with this bank. 17. We meet your expectation level. 18. You have confidence on our work. 19. Employees are skilled and efficient. 20. Employees provide fast and efficient service. Customer Satisfaction: 21. In general you are satisfied with services of UCBL. 22. You would like to deal with us in future. 23. You will tell others about us. 24. You are satisfied with the online customer service of the UCBL. 25. With UCBL your purpose is properly fulfilled.

1 1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5 5

1 1 1 1

2 2 2 2

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

5 5 5 5

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