Vv.

AUGENEFS

EDITION,

No. niS3.

COUNTERPOINT:
AND
FREE.

BY

EBENEZER PROUT,
Hon. Mus. Doc. Trin.
Coll. Dziblin

B.A.

Lond.
Music

and Edinburgh, and

Professor of

in the University of Dublin.

SEVENTH EDITION.

AUGENER
199,
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CO.,
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LONDON:
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REGENT STREET,
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55" .

which should embrace all to follow the different branches of that art. Strict essential part of the training of every Counterpoint should form an one who aspires to be a This is the more necessary. and resolved (should life and health be spared) to prepare a complete series of treatises on composition. the first volume was " Counterpoint. it will not be out of place to set forth some considerations showing why the study of thorough musician. thoroughly. the objection would have This branch of study is the force . and even oppose it vigorously. to follow work by a treatise intention was to write a The author's practical composition. Their chief ignore it entirely. Naturally. as a companion began to think the matter to his Harmony .PREFACE. because the restrictions imposed by in practical composition. argument is of time. in most . If Strict Counteris. that the study of Strict Counterpoint is a mere waste it are never enforced The fallacy underlying this argument confounds the means with the end. that it preliminary technical work for actual composition. to treat so extensive a subject except in the most superficial manner. to the opinion that whatever is Holding firmly worth doing at all is worth doing he thereupon modified and enlarged his original plan. but this is not the case. just as Herz's or Plaidy's are the preliminary technical exercises for pianoforte " " Free Part-Writing playing . but as soon as he seriously over." Harmony Before referring to the plan and special features of the present work. and to commence at once with before learning to write in the strict style is as absurd and un- profitable as it would be for a pianist to begin to study Mozart's or Beethoven's sonatas before he had practised any scales or fivefinger exercises. within the limits of a single volume. we may add that the result would. THE that first present volume is the partial fulfilment of the promise : made in the preface to Harmony on Its Theory and Practice. point were studied for its own sake. it became apparent that it was quite impossible. book on this subject. as there is a certain school of theorists at the present day who disparage it.

or a discord nothing but . because he is allowed only to use those harmonies in a key which have no fixed progression. and even of the chorals of the Reformation. nay even in those of Cherubini and Albrechtsberger. and. are in no But the study of the "key. is One of the strongest arguments composer has ever attained the highest eminence without in favour of this study the fact that no first submitting himself to its restraints. In the advantages to be derived from this study are first place. while the prohibition of second inversions. modes had an importance in the music of that day which they no longer possess . further simplifies his work. to bring it more into conformity with the musical thought of the present day. . At the time when the science was developed. if counterpoint is to be of real use to the student. the study of Strict Counterpoint. the student learns how to make his acquires parts flow smoothly and melodiously . this. old modes. the value of the strict mental discipline involved in working Strict Counterpoint will with limited resources cannot be over-estimated. being written in these old modes. to make it conform To strictly to the requirements of modern tonality. is of little or no practical value to the student of It therefore becomes expedient. however interesting to the musical historian or antiquarian. enable him to acquire the instinct for Besides the best progressions of triads and their first inversions. secondly. not to say necescomposition. needs a certain amount of modification.iv PREFACE. like that of Harmony. Any book on Harmony will teach him how to follow a second inversion. by familiarising him in the first instance with the use of the most important notes has but a limited and chords of a key . can hardly be said to have existed. he number of notes at his disposal (chromatic notes being excluded) really facilitates his task. as we now understand the The old ecclesiastical term. and many of the finest of the old Church melodies. A revolt against all technical whatever would be just as reasonable as the outcry special cases. Many of the subjects treated in the works of Fux and Marpurg. are constructed on scales now obsolete. and these are the very chords which he does not know how to treat. sary. exercises against Strict Counterpoint. and of all essential discords." in the modern sense of that word. tonality. be equally unsatisfactory. in the author's opinion. The twofold. It should nevertheless be added that. The fact that he the instinct for correct harmonic progression.

of the major sixth. but. musical writing becomes all but impossible. or even of the diminished seventh." Without claiming all possible progressions of diatonic triads the great masters . that the beginner who studies the subject under its unfortunately his treatise on in this respect. excellent as it is of its writer's peculiar ideas. how to use those chords of which the progression is not fixed . classifying major "Good. a complete table of their first inversions. recognise this important fact Counterpoint. apparently. while the restriction of the harmony to triads and first inversions is of the utmost benefit. in melody. at the end of Chapter II. so long as this be preserved. contains so many is hampered and harassed by needless restrictions. this and 7 he will best learn if he have no other chords to use. and and minor key. for example. view . of the present volume. and his exercises sink to the level of mere mathematical problems. so to speak. that ! he would allow far more liberty in the matter of melodic proWill any one gression than was permitted by the older theorists. All honour. if properly treated ? Surely the real benefit of the study of Counterpoint may be obtained without hampering ourselves by restrictions imposed was. and of a careful examination of the practice of of much thought. both in a them as it may at least be said that it is the result perfection for this table." "Possible. to Macfarren for first enforcing the principle guidance until really modern tonality should be the basis of Strict Counterpoint In the present volume the author insists first and foremost on a clearly defined tonality . and prohibits so much that other theorists allow." and "Bad. used the very argument employed Counterpoint. maintain at the present day that any valid reason can be given for the prohibition. nevertheless. W ith a view of assisting him in this most important matter. not parallel We said above that the progressions of second inversions and discords were fixed by rules . in its when music infancy Strict ! We have here. the late Sir George Macfarren to is v credit of being the first due the . what the student wants to learn is. the author has given. then why confine the student for his harmonies endorse your " The answer is that the cases are to triads and first inversions ? by the opponents of endeavour to turn it who will doubtless because no possible good is obtained by excluding . " Very good we heartily against us by saying.PREFACE. . such intervals as we have named. and the author hopes that it will be found of material assistance to the student in the earlier stages of his work.

upon the As Counterpoint chiefly consists of technical exercises. and the volume concludes with a chapter on the application of counterpoint in practical composi- The ground explored.. But. attempt has been made in this volume how far successful it to systematize the teaching of this branch of for 'others to say that the subject. to the counterpoint of Bach.vi PREFACE. complete the first section of the volume. Chapters on combined counterpoint. As soon as the student has mastered triads and their inversions. he should begin His study of the two subjects can then elementary counterpoint. The strict style is simply preliminary to the free greater mistake. Closely connected with Free Counterpoint is the harmonization of melodies. should be considered as an outline chord. when he five species of counterpoint are then treated as usual. as in the author's Harmony. and subsequently in three and four parts. and on counterpoint in five. These subjects are therefore treated in some detail. to be here trodden had been so little must ask the indulgence of musicians for the shortcomings which he doubts not will be found in this portion of his work. or Schumann. or but slightly touched upon in existing treatises. using only triads and their first inversions. the study of two-part counterpoint is preceded by exercises on four-part harmony in the The strict style. that the author tion. be pursued simultaneously. and eight parts. to select most of the illustrations from the works of the great masters. In the author's opinion.e. feels in doubt as to what chord or chords can best folio one that he has just written. . seven. any As every two-part interval. it is very desirable that Harmony and Counterpoint should be studied side by side. Many teachers even seem to consider that the student's The labours in a contrapuntal direction are finished as soon as he can There can hardly be a write strict counterpoint of all kinds. An is is. which is obviously impossible without a previous study of cadences. even in the strictest counterpoint. Beethoven. this subject should not be commenced until the student has completed his course of Harmony. because these are very rarely written in Strict Counterpoint. it has not been possible here. and each will be found to throw light other. inasmuch as all possible harmonies are available in Free Counterpoint. first in two. six. subject of Free Counterpoint has mostly been eithei altogether ignored. It has been necessary to prepare most of the examples expressly for this work. i.

It will be seen that the important subject of Double Counterpoint is is not dealt with at . If the explanations in some of the earlier chapters be thought needlessly minute. as it is far more useful to the student to practise himself In Free Counterpoint. LONDON. the examples in this part of the volume have been. and only by the reiteration of simple elementary principles that these can be firmly impressed on the student's mind. Those who do not choose to undergo the slight labour involved L* learning these clefs must study Counterpoint from some other book than this. in order to show the student the almost infinite capabilities of even the simplest No modulations have been introduced in the examples themes. modulation has been frequently employed . the author would urge that what is very plain to a practised musician is often very confusing to a beginner . and the whole of tnem have been written on three or four subjects. though not forbidden. when will be treated together with Canon and Fugue. all in intentional it its proper place The omission the present volume. as far as possible. 1890. because. he has not the slightest toleration for the it is indolence which will not take the trouble to master the C clefs. in preference to taking a larger vn short number. February. varying the resources of one key. is in the next volume of this series. however.PREFACE. taken from in standard works. . While. For this reason the alto and tenor parts of the examples (excepting when in short score) are written in their proper clefs throughout the volume. of Strict Counterpoint. Every one who aspires to be a musician ought to be able to read and write the C clefs just as easily as those in G and F. the author has endeavoured to afford all possible assistance to the learner. they are unadvisable.

.

with faulty . 10 The use of the study of Counterpoint. 23 Repeating the same note. TABLE OF . 48 Necessity of well-defined tonality. page 20 Conjunct and disjunct motion. 14. 56 Modulation. 13 The compass of the voices. 20 16 The best leaps. 25 29 The diminished fifth and augmented fourth. 36 Root Root rising a fourth. 65 Anticipating the harmony of an A melody harmonized. 39 Root rising a third. 57-59 What to consider in choosing chords. 49-53 Position of How to begin an cadence. 18 Leap Approaching and quitting large leaps. 31 : of a seventh. The numbers refer in every instance to the sections. . 6 1 accented beat. positions of chords. 66 a note of melody. CHAPTER II. 40 Root falling a third. The harmonies available for Strict Counterpoint. ROOT PRor.. 54 The Transposition of the Subject. with one intermediate note. 19 The leap of a seventh or ninth. 47 The Subject. the chords. not to the pages. 17 The leap of an The leap of a diminished interval. 30 OverForbidden Selection of harmonies. when allowed. I Meaning Simple and Double Counterpoint. 12 The C clefs. 62-64 Repetition of exercise. 2-5 6. INTRODUCTION page 15 word Counterpoint.TABLE OF CONTENTS. 33 34 Progression of the mediant chord in the major key. MELODIC AND HARMONIC PROGRESSION . 67 The melody in the bass. 38 Root falling a fourth.RF.} PART L STRICT COUNTERPOINT. 41-43 Root rising a second. Counterpoint.xs II. augmented 21 interval. 24 Similar motion forbidden conHidden octaves and fifths. 32 lapping and crossing of parts. of the How it differs from Harmony. CHAPTER I. 45 Importance of considering root proProgressions. 22 The leap to an accented note. II Open score.. 35. THE STRICT STYLE OF A GIVEN MELODY is /--' 34 or Canto Fermo. 9 Free point. secutives. 55. 37 gressions. 46. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER SJO.s- page 30 CHAPTER THE HARMONIZING III. 44 Root falling a second. when to be used. 7 Triple and Quadruple Counter8 Strict Counterpoint. 26-28 Discords with the bass.

how used. 73-75 76-78 The student's difficulties illustrated. 148-150 Subject in the alto. 147 Subject in the treble. 119-122 The 124 Consecutive thirds and sixths. 143-145 Counterpoint in a minor key. 99 correct melodic progression. discords allowed. 102 Melody in the treble. 97 Danger of intenor. badly harmonized. 109 Species. 220 The minor seventh as a harmony note. 98 melody in a minor key harmonized. 221 Consecutives between . 183-185 The major sixth. 95. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT : THIRD SPECIES page 86 third species of Counterpoint. 68-71 The same. and minor seventh in the minor key. third. when possible. 140-142 Subject in the bass. 162 Accented and species of Counterpoint. of a chord." 127 Its real nature explained. io6 A How 107 Exceptions to the principles here laid down. 154-156 Subject in the bass. 132 An exercise worked. 164 Treatment of passing and When these are impossible. 125 Oblique motion forbidden. 130 Clear tonality essential. 188 Examples worked in a major key. 101. 72 The melody in The same. 129. in Outline chords. 114 No cadence. when used. 181 The first chord. harmony. 113 Ambiguous intervals. 134-136 Subject in the alto. the tenor. 180. 105 Melody in to acquire the instinct for good root progressions. 207-209 Their position. 163 Outline chords. 103 Melody in the alto. 186. 189-193 Ditto in a minor key. 157-159 The proper way of working. 165-169 One and two chords in a bar. 171 I 73> J 74 Fifths and octaves between unaccented notes. 161 unaccented beats. the treble. 202 The first note a concord. 175-177 How to save hidden [fifths and octaves. 218 Passing notes in the minor key. 82 The melody Harmonizing a melody in a minor key. 219 Consecutive ditto. 182 The cadence. 112 Implied harmony. notes. 96 Chord progressions in a minor key. 100 Melody in the bass. 131 The minor seventh of the minor scale. 201. 204 Arpeggio Two consecutive passing notes. 123 Contrary and similar motion. 133 Subject in the treble. 205. 194-198 CHAPTER The VI. 178 Unisons. 203 The second. 200 One and two chords to one note of the subject with counterpoint of four notes to one. 179 Implied second inversions. 187 Monotonous counterpoint. 206 Changing notes. 126 The "false relation of the tritone. and fourth notes . CHAPTER The first IV. 151153 Subject in the tenor. TWO-PART The second COUNTERPOINT : SECOND SPECIES page 73 The first bar. 83-94 Melody in the middle voice. 211-216 When \inavailable. 104. and crossing parts. harmonized correctly. no CHAPTER V. 210 Their order. 160 five Species of Strict Counterpoint. correctly harmonized. 128 How to avoid it. 108. 170 Auxiliary auxiliary notes. 137-139 Subject in the tenor. 172 Faulty progressions. 115-117 The forms of first chord.CONTENTS. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT The : FIRST SPECIES page 58 Two-Part Counterpoint. 79-81 The melody in a worked in the alto.

245-247 Directions for work ing the third species. 296 Ornamental resolutions. 297-300 The employment The commencement. 309 Need of variety in this species. 315. 236 Passing and changing notes. 310. 248. 332 . 261 Syncopation sometimes impossible. 224 226 Progression from a second to a unison . 324 The the voices. 264 The cadence. of parts. 321 Combinations Position of the parts. The CHAPTER The 250-252 VII. counterpoint. 328false relation of the tritone. 266. difficulty of avoiding monotony. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT page 124 difference of the three parts in the first Species. 243 Compound duple and simple triple time in six-note counterpoint. 323 Complete chords. 281 Two chords against one. 331.CONTENTS. CHAPTER Two IX. 307 Examples in a cadence. 238 Examples worked. 225 Harmony notes treated as 223. 325 Consecutive thirds and sixths. 239-242 Counterpoint ot six or eight notes to one. 265 Examples. 283 Examples. 228 A first chord. 322 The Hidden fifths and octaves. 318. species in a minor key . 230 Examples worked. 262 Breaking the syncopation. 227 The best position for a leap in the counterpoint. when a consonance. 229 The cadence. The penultimate chord in the 330 The commencement. 284-287 Counterpoint of the fourth species with four notes against The practical use of the fourth species. 327 Employment of the unison repetition of a note. 254 What suspensions are allowed in strict Position of harmony notes in fourth species. 290 292- quavers. 312-314 Ditto in a minor key. 253. 222 doubled leading note. 282 The cadence. 329 Root-progressions. Suspension. crossing passing notes. 2bS CHAPTER VIII. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT Employment : FIFTH SPECIES page of preceding species. 273 274-278 Transposing the subject. one. 311 The fifth species major key. when available in the bass. 260 Fourth species with two notes against one. 308 The 301-305 One chord in each bar. 278 Syncopation with three notes "Ornamental resolutions. 237 The cadence. 268-271 Double counterpoint illustrated. 326 fourth. 231-235 Counterpoint of three notes against one." 280. 244 Examples. 289. 263 Consecutive The commencement. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT : FOURTH SPECIES page 102 fourth species of counterpoint. . notes. of 115 Florid Counterpoint defined. 272 The fourth Examples. 320 The fundamental of between two-part and three-part counterpoint. 267thirds or sixths. 317. its nature explained. 316 in triple time. 279 against one note of the subject. 255-257 258 This species oftener a variation of the second than of the third. harmony xi The fifth of a chord. 249 Syncopation .

409 Second and fifth Third and fourth species. 448. choice of keys. 371 Additional subjects. 357 Exthree notes against one. 401 402 Two parts of second Two parts Two parts of fourth species.--COMBINED COUNTERPOINT defined. 390 Ditto of the fourth species. 372 in triple time. COUNTERPOINT EIGHT PARTS IN FIVE. 377.xii CONTENTS. 411 Third and fifth species. XI. 382 Four-part counterpoint of the first species. 442 Fourth species in six 441 further relaxation of the rules. 443. Ditto of the third species. 429 Third species. 364 Examples of the fifth species. 425. 342 Examples of the second species. 378 Repetition of a chord in different positions. 447 clusion. 414. working counterpoint six parts. 356 amples of the fourth species. 335-341 Ditto with of the third species with four notes against one. 381 Difference between harmony and counterpoint illustrated. 358-363 ^Cadence of the fifth species. Illustrations. 430 Fourth species. seven. repetition of the same note. 422. 431 Fifth species. 365-370 The fourth and fifth species Variation of counterpoints. 424 Relaxation of strictness of rules for five The additional parts. 399 The employment Combined counterpoint in three parts. 428 voice. 446 Ditto in Coneight parts. 383-386 The cadence in the second species. 349 Examples cadence. 416-421 The use of combined counterpoint. 423 Its increased difficulty. of third species.-Fifth 445 Combined species in six species in eight parts. 408 Second and fourth species. 439 Ditto in Second species in eight parts. 395 of dissonances. 440 Third species in seven parts. 407 Combination of second species. 412 species. SEVEN. 415 Examples. 444 Ditto in seven parts. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT page 143 general principles of four-part counterpoint. 343-348 Cadence of the third species. 433-435 Counterpoint of six. 400. CHAPTER The 376 X. 380 The cadences. The use of the unison . 35~355 Cadence of the fourth species. 391 388 Ditto of the fifth species. 373. 392. 406 and third species. 394 Its page 153 Its special diffi- Combined Counterpoint 397 two kinds. 387 Examples of the second species. 432 Combined counterpoint in five parts. Ditto in seven parts. 334 Examples of the first Cadence of the second species. 437 First species in six parts. Cadence of the first species. 403 404 Two parts of fifth species. and eight parts . 436 The best method of in many parts. . 427 Second species in five parts. AND page 165 Counterpoint in more than four parts. 405. CHAPTER culty. parts. 333 species. 389. 438 parts. 398. CHAPTER XII. 426 First species in five parts. 379 Combination of voices. 374 Overlapping of parts. 413 Combined counterpoint in four parts. Six. 410 Fourth and fifth species.

508. 474 How to Imitation by inversion. 472 species. augmentation. 482 Position of the accents in the authentic cadence.. 456 Needful bad example of free counterpoint analysed. xiii PART CHAPTER The 45 XIII. CADENCES page 198 Various forms of cadence. 488-495 Repetition of The Plagal Cadence. 521 . 460 The cadences. 451 Approaching a discord. 466. 461-463 Examples of first species. 452 The treatment of auxiliary notes. 468. page 182 object of counterpoint. MELODIES AND OTHER page 213 use of counterpoint in harmonizing melodies. 516. 515 512-514 The cadential possibilities Phrase ending on the tonic. 479 Compared to stops in punctuation. IN FREE COUNTERPOINT GENERAL . 469 Ditto of fifth Combined free counterpoint of the fifth species. tonic and dominant chords in a final cadence. 504 The plagal cadence. II. 509 The position of the Finding the place of the cadences. 517 Phrase ending on the supertonic. 511 of melodic progressions. 464. Inverted Cadence. NOTE TO CHAPTER CADENCE XV. page 187 IMITATIVE COUNTERPOINT Free Counterpoint on a Canto Fermo. 475 Example explained. FREE COUNTERPOINT UPON A CANTO FERMO. THE HARMONIZING OF CHORALS. 506 The Interrupted Cadence. 503. 458. 480 The use of cadences. 477 The use of imitative counterpoint. and diminution. 487 Leading up to a cadence.CONTENTS. 467 Ditto of third species. 520 Phrase ending on the dominant. THE HARMONIC NATURE OF THK page 211 CHAPTER The XVI. employment of the "Tierce de Picardie. 481 Authentic and Plagal Cadences. 502 Exceptional forms The Half Cadence. Example. 483-485 Varieties of the authentic cadence." A different form of 499. 453 Chromatic auxiliary notes. 470. 500 Use of the minor seventh of the key. 455 Suspensions. 501 of full cadence. 498 Preceded by an interrupted or inverted cadence . 510 Rhythm defined. 519 Phrase ending on dominant.. 457 A CHAPTER XIV. CHAPTER XV. 471 Imitative Counterpoint. cadences. 505 507 Cadences only used at the end of a phrase. 478. 486. 459 To be written in four parts. Tn e laws of root-progression in free counterpoint. 473 Direct imitation . 465 Ditto of second species. 449 The harmonies possible in free counterpoint. warnings. 496 497 Mostly used at the close of a movement. 476 write it. Phrase ending on the sub518 Phrase ending on the mediant. FREE COUNTERPOINT. 454 Anticipations.

by Bach. 527 Repetition of the same chord. 528 Harmony to be changed in approaching an accented beat.xiv the submediant. 552 The melody in a middle voice. 560. 558 Strict observance of rule recommended. 526 Length of harmony notes in chorals. The use of the chord. 568 The choral in instrumental music. or bass note. 548 Passing notes in the accompaniment. melody note. . 561 The practical use of " Plain counterpoint. 545-547 Notes of small value. 563 Counterpoint on Song" by Bach. 541-543 The harmonizing of more florid melodies. THE APPLICATION PRACTICAL COMPOSITION OF COUNTERPOINT TO page 240 Free Counterpoint used in actual composition. 578. 576 Ditto by Mozart. example by Handel. 544 Use of auxiliary notes. 577 Example by Wagner . 557 Freedom of writing by the great masters. 575. 522 CONTENTS. 550 A weak harmony. 571. 567 Ditto by Handel. 553 harmonizing of pianoforte music. 555 Rule for their treatment. 566 Counterpoint on a choral. 529 lation. 551 A The stronger harmony. 540 The choral in a middle voice. 565 The same subject treated by Chembini. 572 Combinations of different subjects . Phrase ending on the leading note. 559 532-535 The same harmonized by Exercises. conclusion. 531 A choral harmonized. 531 choral Auxiliary notes. 570 Counterpoint as an added part to ^ known theme. Bach. 536-539 Simple harmony recommended. 523 Modu525 Variety of cadence. 564. 549 A melody harmonized. 556 Examples. 554 Broken chords and arpeggios. CHAPTER XVII. 569 The choral in opera. 574 Ditto by Bach.

" In old music the notes were written as dots a point. when one melody was (Latin. or dot). * The references to " the author's Harmony " : Harmony Its " throughout this Theory and Practice. another was to be added to it. sufficient. each of which possesses independent melodic interest and importance. " note This. CHAPTER INTRODUCTION. An example point that in the '. as will be seen presently. the melody of each part separately considered is a subordinate matter in comparison with the correctness of the harmony. STRICT COUNTERPOINT.*) need to be regarded. while the different chords. The is essential difference between harmony and counter- former the construction of chords and their relation to one another are the principal subjects of study . and possess some special features of its own. .COUNTERPOINT: STRICT AND FREE. is the against note. It should be added that in the earlier stages of contrapuntal writing this is only possible to a limited extent. in such a manner that all the parts when sounded together shall produce correct harmony. PART I. need for harmonic purity is strictly insisted on. 2. punctum given." volume are (Augener in all cases to & Co. will best illustrate what has just been said. and if. above or below. may be defined as the art of combining two or more parts or voices." In its wider sense. and although the rules for melodic progression (see Harmony Chapter IV. counterpoint simplest kind of counterpoint. 1. this in itself is not Each part should move independently of the others. The word is derived from the Latin " contrapunctum. 3.). or (as we now say). By the word COUNTERPOINT is meant the art of adding to a given melody one or more other melodies. this was described as "punctum contrapunctum" dot against dot. I. and the connection of the In counterpoint. on the other hand.

the student is left absolutely without any direction as to what harmony he shall put above it. There is another important distinction between harmony and from the student's point of view. Very often more than . and the chords to be employed are indicated either by figures placed over or under the bass. Here is seen an example of florid counterpoint. making correct harmony when played together. will be Jill Here every ~ I =E rule of harmony is observed. harmony. We take the same bass 4. or (in the case of the root position of a triad). to a simple bass Supposing that we wish to add three upper parts such as the following This bass suggests as the most natural harmony a triad in root The simplest way of arranging the chords position on each note. though we have intentionally made them all begin with the same ascending passage. and use the same chord progressions above it now introduce the voices in succession. and give each of them a .X 6 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. the given melody may be in any of the voices. Now let us adopt a different plan. while the alto consists Such a passage. and even when it is in the bass. and almost no The soprano and tenor parts each lie individuality about them. 5. can scarcely be called counterpoint. exercises it is always the bass part that is given. correct perfectly it will be seen that there i* very little melody. but we as before. within the compass of a minor third. different melody separately. If the student will play each of the upper parts of this example he will see that there are here three distinct melodies above the bass. and the passage is But if the different voices be examined singly. i. however correct as entirely of two notes. on the other hand. In counterpoint. In harmony counterpoint. but each being different from the other. by the absence of figures.

the Of these. >rri "Tf^Jr rr ' ^ free If now the tenor part be written above the alto.] INTRODUCTION. allowed to be employed no unprepared discords. 7. and the twelfth. as the case may be. or if two parts of the counterpoint can be inverted with regard to one " examine the alto and tenor parts of the example given in 4. we have Quadruple Counterare much rarer than Triple and quadruple counterpoint point. In the development A great number of the compositions of the long before harmony. or fifteenth (the double octave). and can only be used in its original position. r 3 ^^ and tenor parts are therefore written in double counterin the octave. let the student another. as the science of harmony CANTO FERMO. and with four parts similarly treated. they will be found to make correct harmony by themselves. fifteenth and sixteenth centuries consisted of the addition of parts some given well-known melody either a popular air. double counterpoint at the tenth. but in actual practice the only intervals usually employed are the octave. so that each part can be either the upper. 6. very strict rules as to the accompanying were enforced. and the choice will depend on what has we have Double Counterpoint. point 8. was still parts in its infancy. counterpoint was in use 9. excepting . or lowest part of the harmony." The inversion may be at any interval. be available in such cases. or the alto an octave lower. of music. and it is very seldom that all the possible inversions will double. the harmony (*) will still r [ be ! correct. " " and. it is called a Simple Counterpoint. octave is the most frequent and the most useful. * \ *- ' r rvjT IP- r cr & i ! . If these be played together. If a counterpoint be added to a given subject. either above or below. i. The alto middle. either by placing the tenor an octave higher. Only triads and their first inversions were . or on what follows. ' ^ T"r^ l _ r J J j ' . or fixed song to . The word " double in connection simply means " invertible. we get Triple Counterpoint .Chap. omitting the treble and bass parts. is if one harmony possible. As an illustration of what has just been said. though somewhat ' P t jy 4 r _ =% f j ** -i i i [=" J * J J *\~^j r r . If three parts are so written as to be capable of inversion between themselves. But if it be so constructed as to be capable of inversion with the subject. or some The given part was usually called the old ecclesiastical theme. this preceded.

I. and a mere waste of time to the student. any combination maybe used liberty. composers. 11. as may also auxiliary notes. The important point to be regarded is the individuality of the separate The counterpoint we are now describing is called FREE voices. technical Just as a student of the pianoforte practises the hand. were allowed to be used j the interval passing notes taken by step. 12. when they write in the contrapuntal style. if strict counterpoint were studied for its sake. essential discords may be freely employed either with %or without preparation . The student should moreover accustom . that is. that as the restrictions of Strict Counterpoint are never enforced in actual composition. It is desirable that in commencing the study of counterpoint the parts to be combined should be treated as voice parts. chromatic chords in a key may be used. of such chords had not then been discovered. than in harmony. Some modern theorists argue. Second inversions are allowed. puntists are broken on every page of the works of the great This may be at . which does not violate the laws of harmony. as it allows the progression of each voice to exercises for be more clearly seen. whether diatonic or chromatic . But this is far from being the fact. as well as by step. and no chromatic chords in a key were As a matter of fact. in order that he may be able to use his freedom judiciously when the restrictions are removed. the study of the subject is useless. 10. There is no instance of any composer having attained the highest eminence without previously submitting himself to this course of discipline. mm a means to an end. Counterpoint written under these restrictions is now known as STRICT COUNTERPOINT. and there would be masters. in order to acquire freedom in the muscles of the fingers. or a fundamental discord. allow themselves much greater In modem counterpoint. the use available under any circumstances. the rules of the old contraconstantly doing. force in the argument. COUNTERPOINT. with each This is more important in counterpoint part on a separate staff. so the student of composition learns to work in the first instance under apparently arbitrary restrictions. The student is also strongly recommended to write all his exercises from the first in open score.once admitted. if ever. meet with in the pieces he will play later. with a certain show of reason. In the music of the present day. of the perfect fourth was considered as a discord between the bass and any upper part . frequently in peculiar and cramped positions such as he will seldom. that each part should be kept within the limits of the corresponding voice. and these may be taken by leap. because he finds himself forbidden to do things which all composers of eminence are In other words. No sensible teacher will ever tell a pupil that it is wrong to use a second Strict counterpoint is only inversion.1 8 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap.

as this clef is used in all the principal theoretical treatises. G staves. employ it throughout this book. where is used occasionally. Tenor. the C clef on the second !ine. As these are now entirely obsolete. as usual. line) is still it . In old music other were used. it is simply a matter of practice. whether . it be the soprano. the same note is written in : all clefs and the F clef on the third line. viz. with the 14. and even the extreme . Alto. the alto ijfeE. there is no more real difficulty in mastering it than with the F or clef. ni ihe five clefs. Bass. the student need not trouble The soprano clef (the C clef on the first himself about them. called the mezzo-soprano clef. or the as tenor is the line on which is. In the following example Treble. the G clef on the first line. Bass. called the baritone clef. - Tenor. The compass of the four voices is about as folllows We G Treble. young clef is usually looked Though the upon as a bugbear by students. All that it is needful to remember is that the line upon which the 13. clef. called the French violin clef (to be met with in some of Bach's scores) . This compass should seldom be exceeded notes should be sparingly used. sometimes found in the vocal parts of full orchestral scores but it is much less generally employed than the alto and shall therefore write the treble parts of our tenor clefs. ^*EE is . C G clef is placed.Cha P- i-i INTRODUCTION. \f **- 1 . written the note known an the " middle C "that the C which lies F between the Alto. as well as in the scores of the We shall therefore great masters. especially in France and Germany. 79 himself to the use of the C clef for the alto and tenor voices. examples. Soprano. -=.

but inasmuch as the rules by which he must now be guided are not in all cases quite the same as those which apply to Harmony (in which many things are allowed which are prohibited in Strict Counterpoint). leap of a diminished fourth. when both 17. 137). when the interval of an augmented fourth (but no other augmented interval) may occasionally be employed. 11. is allowed in Strict Counterpoint. MELODIC AND HARMONIC PROGRESSION. and the leap of a small interval." it is desirable that the should move as smoothly as melody parts they can. either to the next degree of the scale. larger interval than an octave should not A be used at all. Bad. some of these he will be already familiar from his study of Harmony . gpLL J-J^I A ^ Hzr: j j J | j-j^h^H^gEfl 19. it is needful that he should clearly understand the laws regulating the With progression both of his melodies and of his harmonies. above or below. the leap of a consonance is preferable to that of a dissonance. or seventh." When a part proceeds by leap of any interval " In a greater than a second. the interval. fifth. though some of these are repetitions of what is already known. CHAPTER II. is therefore preferable to disjunct. such as a third. the motion is called disjunct. and not beyond. excepting in one of the repetitions of a sequence (Harmony. Before the student begins to write Counterpoint. it will be advisable to give the laws which are enforced in the latter study. the best progression being to the note to . is better than that of a large one a sixth or octave. conjunct motion are possible. Good. or to the same degree chromatically altered which latter in Strict Counterpoint will only take place when there is a modulation the motion is called "conjunct. If a part proceed by step of a tone or semitone. 15. or fifth. 1 6. fourth. 1 8.20 COUNTERPOINT: :ch ap . It is forbidden for any part to move by leap of an augmented interval. provided always that the second of the two notes forming the interval proceed to a note within. If a part move by leap.

e. ninth in the melody Dad Bad. Though be sparingly used. at (/>) of the diminished fifth. Possible. II. Good. Efc Good.g. of the interval are taken case. instead of in succession. . according to the rule given in 19. Possible. Bad.Chap. the In this root and seventh of the chord of the dominant seventh. The leap of a Good. which it would have moved had the two notes forming the dissonance been sounded together. as the possible. Good. It is mostly not good to introduce a leap of a seventh or with one intermediate note. and at (c) of Diminished thirds are not allowed in the diminished seventh.. Good. : . Bad. Bad. provided that the dominant comes seventh above the dominant) first. i (c) Good.e. and that the subdominant (the In this falls one degree. i. this leap shoulcl in the position of the part will probably get the In a middle voice it will be seldom. Bad. Bad. Bad. Strict Counterpoint. case the leap may be used. 21. Possible. Possible. major seventh is prohibited but that of a minor seventh may be used in one case only when the two notes are the dominant and subdominant of the key. it is not necessary that both notes as part of the dominant harmony. 20. Bad. available without making shall see presently) is forbidden. which (as we ever. sudden change if the parts cross. Bad. student into difficulties. Good. I 1 At (a) are shown the correct and incorrect treatment of the diminished fourth. Good.] LAWS OF PROGRESSIONS. Good.

/u 7 r \V *+ I r j -LJI bad 23. . Good. Possible. Good. and that the seventh of the chord (the subdominant of the key) falls one degree. : 22. whether major or minor. to leaping to an unaccented note Good. to either an accented or an unaccented note. Any leap larger than a sixth should be approached and quitted in a direction contrary to that of the leap itself .22 COUNTERPOINT : fChap. in the opposite direction to that of the steps. e. In the latter case this can be frequently avoided In the by repeating the note at the distance of an octave. Good. But there is no objection Good. and it is often advisable to adopt the same course even with a leap of a sixth. : Bad. e. II. Bad. After two or three steps by conjunct motion.g. Less good.g. Bad. may also be used with one intermediate note. Better. or to leaping. middle voices the occasional repetition of a note is unobjectionable. Bad. 24. Good. Less good. A seventh. It is always weak to repeat the same note in one of the extreme parts of the harmony the treble and the bass especially in the bass. it is always to hap in the same direction to an accented note. provided that the intermediate note is a note of the dominant chord. Good. if that note be the octave. The chief exception to this is with the dominant seventh mentioned in 20.

Good. or an extreme and a middle part. when two or more first inversions are found in succession. 26. (Harmony. Perfect fifths and octaves are not allowed even by contrary motion. i Bad. in changing from one to another position of the same chord. 25. or occasionally. The fourth with the bass is always considered as a dissonance (Harmony. 103). except in counterpoint of at least seven or eight parts. (See Harmony. and its inversion. But they are seldom good when both parts leap. Consecutive unisons. it JT | | || II SEBE i i -j I |-"l HI ' ' II f ' I II I II m m \\ m m H 29. Bad. Like hidden octaves. Between two middle parts. 28. but even in a middle voice there should not be more than three repeated notes. !_ i Good. Unless in one of the repetitions of a sequence. 27. moves by step. or. and octaves. they are also allowed when the second chord is another position of the first. perfect fifths. excepting passing notes and suspensions. 30. the second inversion of a triad is therefore unallowable in Strict Counterpoint. They are only permitted in the progression from the tonic chord to the root position of the dominant chord with the fifth at the top. or more rarely the lower. 23 and indeed is sometimes necessary . i i i same chord. no discords are allowed between the bass and any of the upper parts of the harmony. Between the extreme parts. hidden octaves are not allowed. excepting between two positions of the Possible. Bad. or from root position of tonic to root position of subdominant. but in three part counterpoint it is sometimes advisable. are absolutely forbidden between any of the parts. 159). or from the subdominant to the tonic . except in a sequence of sixths. and even then they should not be used unless absolutely unavoidable. excepting in the progression from root position of dominant to root position of tonic. from one position to another of the same chord.Cha P fl -l LAWS OF PROGRESSIONS. The intervals of the diminished fifth. The laws governing harmonic progression are in the main the same which the student has learned in connection with Harmony. the augmented fourth. though forbidden between the bass and an . hidden octaves and fifths are allowed when the upper of the two parts. in both cases the upper part must move by step. Similar restrictions apply to the use of hidden fifths between extreme parts. _j J_ i i ii i Good. In four-part writing. similar motion between all the parts is almost invariably bad. 105). in both which cases the upper part must move by step .

CO UNTERPOINT . as in harmony. [Chap. the figured bass. Very bad. and this progression had therefore better not effect is not so When good. to let a higher voice descend below a note just sounded by a lower voice. 227. both the notes of the interval are consonant to the bass ( fl ) Bad. as at (c\ the rises a semitone. Such progressions are occasionally necessary. a diminished note of the diminished fifth by a perfect fifth. or between an upper and a middle part. in the first inversion of the diminished triad on the fifth may. In this case it is allowed. (b) not good for two parts to overlap that is. does not always guide him as to their position. but they should be avoided whenever possible. at least tells him what chords he is to employ. the voices should never cross. provided upper part. is probably nothing connected with counterpoint which gives the beginner so much trouble as the selection and In harmony. Not good.) (But see exceptions. to allow a lower voice to proceed to a higher note than that previously sounded in the next voice above . be employed. There . vice versb. It is Not good. or. Good. as at (b) below. excepting in the progression from dominant to tonic between tenor and bass. are allowed note. But in counterpoint he is thrown 32. when the tenor moves a semitone. is almost always bad. provided the lower If it falls a tone. 179. be followed leading note. II. between any other two parts. as above. though it position of his chords. Bad. GoodL used between two middle parts. Except in counterpoint of at least five or six parts. The leap by similar motion to a unison. 1 31.

of the mediant being the last inversion 410). 181). the root position of the chord of the thirteenth . rather than of hard and fast rule.] LAWS OF PROGRESSIONS. because a diminished fifth is not allowed with the bass ( 29). should never be doubled and the chord should either be followed by the chord see 38 below). for the same reason. being the leading note of the key. both in major and minor keys. which cannot be taken key are marked witrTaii^asterisk. this last chord is also a dissonance in its first inat all version (Harmony. or positions. like that prohibiting quently employed. the bass of the chord should move by step. Neither. his resources are somewhat limited . two things have to be taken into account progression of the roots. This is because it key requires special care in its employment. and the position of the chords themselves. and consecutive 33. the mediant chord in the major 35. . and it cannot therefore be used in strict counterpoint.chap. fifths and octaves. Tonic Supertonic in a minor POSITIONS. while the root position of the last named chord gives the first inversion of the mediant. The diminished triad on the leading note cannot be used in root position. It must be understood that what is now to be said must be regarded in the light of recommendation. some guidance in this matter. his harmonies are often very weak and It is therefore very desirable that he should have uncomfortable. The following table gives the complete list of chords available for strict counterpoint. Of the above chords. is the root position of the diminished triad on the supertonic of the minor key available. but some progressions are much more freentirely much better than others. and even if he succeed in avoiding absolute mistakes. CHORDS. and ten in a minor. As only triads and their first inversions are available in Strict Counterpoint. Mediant Subdominant Dominant Submediant Leading Note It will Root * Root * Root Root Root Root Position Position Position Position Position Position i st 1st * 1st 1st ist 1st ist Inversion Inversion Inversion Inversion Inversion Inversion Inversion be seen that this gives a total of thirteen possible major key. nor the augmented triad on the mediant of the minor key . or of the submediant (the root rising a fourth It is also possible. In considering the relation of two chords standing next the to one another. ii. Those chords. ^4. is in reality the chord of the dominant major thirteenth (Harmony. 25 upon his own resources. positions of harmony in a . and we shall therefore proceed to lay down some general principles for his assistance in this important point. The fifth of the chord.

though rather rare.26 COUNTERPOINT . (c) (d) (e) . n. or inversion of the dominant. [Chap. to follow the first inversion of the first mediant by the root position.

factory as Root falling a fourth. and best of all root progressions. When we come to Free Counterpoint. we shall similarly mark a second inversion with a third inversion with d. and we saw at (d) 35 that it was usually . It will be well to remember that when the first inversion of the dominant (V) is followed by the first inversion of the tonic (I). With the single exception of the progression from the first inversion of the diminished triad on the leading note to the mediant chord in either position (Ilia and IILS). and not fall. This is in general the strongest 38. The higher discords will be indicated by a small numeral after the root. roots. V the root position of the tonic chord will be marked la. inversion of the tonic (Ib) to the first inversion of the dominant (V). thus. and its first inversion Ib the subdominant chord will similarly be IVa and IV. it is rises a fourth.] OF PROGRESSIONS. Nearly as strong and satisIn going from the first the root rises a fourth. c. With this root progression it is generally best not to put both the chords in their first inversion.g. and so on. if both chords are in better for the bass to rise a fourth than to fall a fifth. when leap of a fourth or fifth. and alike with root position or first inversion of either chord. to the third of the tonic e. Not In general when the root their first inversion. as the bass will in that case have to move by 39. pointing out in each case which are strongest. and which are less 9 We advisable. This is the converse of the progression shown at the end of 38. Root rising a fourth. the 7 chords of the dominant seventh and ninth will be marked and : V shall now give the six progressions of respectively. I. it is better for the bass to fall than to rise. the leading note in the bass should rise. Ilia viu nit which should be avoided.Chap. the progression of the root rising a fourth is equally good on all degrees of the scale. the number in each instance showing the degree of the scale which is the root of the chord. giving great firmness to the harmony. : chord. II. II.

41. 207). II. Root falling a third. Gare must also be taken to avoid a stationary bass. like the last.g. but it seldom produces a good effect unless the lower of the two roots is on an accented beat. e. IVa An example of this has been seen at 35 (/). is generally good . Good.28 not good to have CO UNTER POINT : [Chap. possible. while the effect would have been very weak had the dominant chord been in the first inversion. At (b) the E of the third chord may be regarded as the resolution of the F in the first. where however the mediant chord could not well have been taken in root position. IV. which will probably be found. the G of the second chord being interposed . Also if the root falls from the submediant to the mediant (VI to III) the effect will be much stronger if the submediant chord is in root position than at a large interval if it is in the first inversion. . : III. Ilia Via IIU Vlt Ilia VU III* Root rising a third. This progression is mostly 40. This progression. because the discord of the augmented fourth in the first chord is never properly resolved. Not so good. if the first of the two chords is in its first inversion. but the first inversion of the diminished triad on the leading note (VII b) should not be followed by the dominant chord. does not go to the note which would be the resolution of the dissonance. unless this latter immediately proceeds to the tonic chord because otherwise the fifth in the chord on the leading note (which is in reality the seventh of the chord of the dominant seventh see Harmony. (<*) (*) VI U The progression at (a) is unadvisable. Weak. Good. which makes a dissonance with the root of the chord. first inversions on two consecutive bass notes from one another.

it is better for the leading note to rise than to fall. harsh if in root position (Ilia to IVa). II. B for C in the treble of the second chord of each 43. and the dominant chord must be followed by the root position of the tonic ( 19). to use this progression will the least (which very rarely happen). In the somewhat rare case in which the first inversion of the dominant is followed by the root position of the mediant (V to Illtf). less bad if the mediant inverted (III& to IVa). as the triad on the leading note is an incomplete form of the dominant seventh. When this progression occurs 44. however. If the root position of the subdominant be followed by the first inversion of the dominant (IVa to V#).Chap. not rise ( 18). it is between mediant and subdominant. be safer to avoid this progression altogether in strict counterpoint. Better. or possibly by the first inversion of the submediant . lllb IV a III* IV* With any other degrees of the scale. V. The harmony is virtually and second chords. 29 its resolution. because this is not one of the progressions of the mediant chord shown in If it be absolutely necessary 36. this progression is equally good with root positions or inversions. and care must be taken to introduce the octaves in the second chord by contrary motion. both chords are chord is (Illt> to Very good. It will. and best if both are inverted Not good.] LAWS OF in the first PROGRESSIONS. 42. The fall of a third from mediant to tonic (III to I) is generally not good. Root rising a second. between the discord and unchanged substituting pair. the bass must of course fall. This case will be similar to that shown at the end of 38. objectionable form will be the following Ill* la Here (as in examples (/) and (/) of 35) the chord is treated as a dominant thirteenth.

As a general rule. the effect is very weak and bad. the harmony may possibly be incorrect. APPENDIX TO CHAPTER II. or at harmonizing melodies. Possible. He will. the second of the two chords should be in its The only exceptions to this are the progression first inversion. Bad. *2z 1 Va IVa I Va IVa. the second chord should be in the first inversion. VI. Is also possible. ^ Va Good. but is not satisfactory when the third of the IVa) dominant is in the upper voice Good. found. 'from submediant to dominant when both chords are in root the first inversion of the triad on position (Via to Va). Via Va VI* VI* V* VI* Va VI* V* In all other cases when the root falls a second. If the recommendations here given are attended to. Better." and Strict must not be taken as more than approximations. whenever 45. Va _ll But if the submediant in its first inversion be followed by the dominant in root position. Not good. Root falling a second. [In the following table of all possible progressions of roots in " " " Bad " Counterpoint the words Good. In a minor key it is occasionally to be especially in a major key. but it will at least not be weak and shiftless.3 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. Many pro- ." Possible. the root falls a second. and from the leading note to the root position of the submediant (VII<5 to The progression from dominant to subdominant (Va to Via). whether the first chord be in root position or first inversion. and the matter will be found to require close attention from the student. n. arises far more frequently from want of knowledge of this subject than from any direct violation of the rules of harmony. but even there its effect can seldom be called satisfactory. for the experience of teachers proves that the crudity of early attempts at composition. Good. Table of Root Progressions. if he desires to master it thoroughly. We have entered into the question of root progressions in considerable detail. 46. however. Possible. be well repaid for taking the trouble.

j LAWS OF PROGRESSIONS.Chap." few explanatory notes are added. By consulting this table the student will be able to discover in many cases why his harmony sounds weak and uncomfortable. 3i gressions stand on the border line between one division and another.] A . when in doubt. as to the selection of the best chords. He will also find guidance. which will be found useful. The beginner is advised in all cases to avoid those marked as " Bad. ii.

32 CO UNTERPOINT . r_j \Q ^ > > ! s 2 fc 1 . II.' LChap.

cease to be mere abstractions.chap. (0 (2) (3) In these progressions the bass should leap an octave.. for example. the key of C. in a (10) Not good minor key. It will be found useful to write out the above table of root progressions in musical notation. (6) Bad See in major key . 33 NOTES. (4) (5) cadence of 2nd Species. The figures will thus .] LA ws OF PROGRESSIONS. Not good when the fifths of both roots are in the highest part. and \\\b cannot be used in a minor the sixth is when in the key (34). It will be well for the student also to note that the chords \\\b and VI3 generally produce the best effect upper voice. and on an accented beat. 183.) Only practicable the root of III be in the highest part. Ilia. 41. using. II is Only good when Only good in on an accented beat. The student must not forget that Ila. if (See Chapter V. possible in minor. n. (7) (8) (9) 45- Can See rarely be used effectively.

As the result.34 COUNTERPOINT . many of the examples given by old theorists. As the same subject has to be employed in all the voice parts in turn. given in the old text books. while in many cases we shall adhere to the ancient practice. Harmony even in two parts should (See always clearly represent. III. with our (one modern feeling for music.) was understood. the notes are always of the same length. and mostly semibreves. proceeding to two-part counterpoint. most vague and unsatisfactory for defined and always they can hardly be said to be in any key. The exercises to be given in this chapter belong. it is consequently most important that the student should know how to select his own harmonies according to the Before principles given for his guidance in the last chapter. strictly speaking. 562 564). whether in two or in a larger number of parts. In all our examples the subject will be indicated by a capital S. in fact. as for instance a very large " number of those to be found in Fux's " Gradus ad Parnassum of the recognised authorities on the subject) are. and accompanying them with correct harmony. 49. There is no necessity to restrict ourselves to this therefore. we shall also from time to time give subjects with notes of varying length. Chap. according to the voice in which it is to be used. CHAPTER STYLE. counterpoint . or CANTO FERMO (9). a moment's thought will show the student that its transposition. . In the subject. III. clearly recognisable tonality is an absolute requisite for even the strictest counterpoint of the modern school. it was. THE HARMONIZING OF A GIVEN MELODY IN THE STRICT 47. . to Harmony. but they are so distinctly preliminary to the latter study that the present is the proper place for their introduction. The same is the case with two-part Harmony. putting them in each part. rather than to Counterpoint properly so-called . practised long before tonality in its modern sense (see Harmony. A he should practise harmonizing simple melodic phrases. though without especially troubling himself as to the separate melodic importance of each of the accompanying parts. It has been already said ( 9) that Counterpoint is a far older branch of musical composition than harmony. full chords. or at least suggest. 48. it will therefore be well that .

The third note. and G D on -fy . and . It is quite clear that the melody is entirely out of the compass of either the tenor or the bass voices. if the melody had been given in the tenor. The student must be guided by the compass of the original part as to how much In the present case it is immaterial transposition is desirable. consequently if a melody given in the treble is to be used for the tenor. 50. that : If the student will refer to the table of the compass of voices given in 14.chap. but it would be unadvisable. and. into the key of C the original melody had lain in the higher part of the such had gone to the upper treble compass if. it would have been transposed an octave higher for the treble. It will further be seen that the alto has a compass of about a fourth below the treble. but. because. supposing the melody whether we put the alto in had originally been almost entirely in the lower part of the for instance. he will see that this melody. We might also have transposed if . 51. B flat) in The order to prevent the tenor from student must use his judgment. In the present case. in. would indeed be possible for the alto. the tenor and the bass being below. therefore if it were desired to place the melody now in question in the alto part. at the pitch at which it is here written. for example.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. /'/ should be transposed an octave lower. lies only within the range allowed for the soprano voice. it shou-d be transposed a fourth lower. into the key of D. the treble will have to be above it. it had been written in D. ending treble range if. thus |R. The student will observe that the compass of the tenor voice is just an octave below that of the treble . it a transposition would have been preferable. like the following 35 will almost always be necessary. as it would have left more room for the treble part above. there will be a wider interval between tenor and alto than between alto and treble. for instance. or C . E. it might have been advisable only to transpose it a third for the alto (to having to go very low. as the parts are not allowed to cross (31). g? ^ h=j | -| 1 M 1- " - it a fifth lower. r\ we take a simple phrase j Supposing. the subject would be written thus for the tenor Conversely.

"full cadence" should only be used at the end of a phrase. . . . . that the following table of trans- As even in positions will be probably found useful for for : SUBJECT. .. and it is now necessary to add that the rules for the position of parts which are enforced in harmony (Harmony.. for Bass for for for In Bass . There are several different kinds of cadence. Tenor 4th or 5th higher. for for for for for for In Alto . endeavour to keep his subject.. As there are no parts to be placed under it. 54. as in the case of the alto. .. 4th or 5th lower... 4th or 5th lower.. Treble 8ve higher.. 53. or by the first inversion of the diminished triad on the leading note... . Students are so often in difficulties from having their subject at an inconvenient pitch. as far as possible. there is not the same objection to its going low. but as some of the most important of these are unavailable in strict counterpoint... .. If the exercise contains A . The parts should either be at approximately equal distances. Treble nth or 1 2th higher. As the compass of the bass voice is an octave below the alto. Alto 4th or 5th higher. . Every exercise must end with a CADENCE.. Alto 8ve higher. .. Tenor In Tenor .... ..... . it becomes impossible to keep the four parts of the harmony in a This point has been incidentally touched on in position. in the medium range of whatever voice he places it in. . . . it...36 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. Bass nth or I2th lower.. and that it should be written with the alto.. . TRANSPOSITION.. it is clear that the transposition of the subject for the bass will be to the same key as for the alto.. if there must be a wide interval.. Bass 8ve lower. By the word cadence " is meant a close. or first inversion.. It consists of the tonic chord in root position... in. Alto . In Treble ... arises from the fact that. or possibly B flat or A... . ... .. speaking of the transposition for the alto ( 51). Treble 4th or 5th higher.. the part might also be written in C. we shall defer the full treatment of the subject till a later part of this volume. 52...... . preceded by the dominant chord in root position. . 8 ve lower.. . . Tenor 4th or 5th lower. or. . . if it be too high or too low. this must always be between the bass and the part next good above " 55.. 126 128) are to be strictly observed in all forms of counterpoint..... .. The great importance of having the subject at a suitable pitch. .

and is in the bass. the intermediate chord should be harmonized. This is the best form of cadence. and to obtain variety by changing the but will Sometimes. are different positions of the same If the first and third chords harmony (but not otherwise). and the bass moves by step from root to third. in. except to nearly related keys (Harmony. or third to root of the chord. with one intermediate chord. of course. and ends with the descent from supertonic to tonic. which we shall now proceed to explain. be necessary if the melody rises at the end from the The cadence from leading note to the tonic. The cadence at (c\ from the first inversion of dominant to root position of tonic. the tonic chord should always beginning of a bar. Chapter X. in But in no case should any this case it must. it will be preferable for the present not to use it at all. as belonging to the key of which the first and third are tonic chords. as at (d} (e) will be required if the subject is in the These bass. though we have called it here a " full cadence. (b) (c) (d) (e) fegEEt J Va 56. modulation be made. * In the rare case in which the melody ends with a fall from mediant to it will be necessary to use the peculiar form of cadence shown in 43. As a general rule. tonic. progressions and positions of his chords. a modulation will be clearly indicated by the melody itself. it is in reality an "inverted cadence" ( 505). are almost the only forms of full cadence (that is a cadence ending on tonic in root position) which can be used in Strict * Counterpoint. and should always be employed when the subject is an upper or middle part. harmonizing of simple melodies such as are now under conThe student should try to exhaust the resources of sideration. 37 more than one chord come at the (a) in a bar. VII^ to la. . is less good.Chap.). and with one exception." because it has occasionally in to be used it for a close. however. it is best to avoid modulation in the 57. The one case in which a momentary modulation is advisable is when two positions of the same chord occur. la "II g=r=^ Vllb la Va la Vb la Vllb la At (a) (b} are shown the cadence from root position of dominant to root position of tonic. one key as far as he can.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. 58. be used.

modern works as.28 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. we take in the third chord. the third of the chord of A minor. no modulation should be made. we shall take a simple melody. not another position of the second. except when it is in the bass. or the fifth of the chord of 62. the effect is much less satisfactory than when the F is sharpened. as at (a) as the first inversion of the subdominant. at (a) to harmonize the third bass It would have been possible note with the submediant chord. in which part. The first chord should be always tonic or dominant It is seldom. In the above examples. 60. as at (d). if ever. the fifth of a chord is unavailable. In order to assist him. unless the subject he has to harmonize commences on the dominant. may be the root of the chord of C. If the third chord is taken. that a piece commences with a dominant chord. for it is by no means unusual to begin with a discord. allowed in strict The . Op. intermediate notes? The first thing for him to observe is that every note may be either the root. but when the bass moves by step (though not otherwise). This. and the finale of his sonata in F sharp. it will be well to give him a few general hints for his guidance. F$. chords are the first inversion and root position of the chord of G. the modulation as at (b) is preferable. here. (generally the former) in root position. therefore. at (a) (b) the second and fourth 59. 61. the third or the fifth of a chord. as at (c\ and not Fjf. student no\* knows how to begin harmonizing his What is he to do with the melody. and in many pieces of Schumann's . and place But first it in turn in each part. excepting when In the first note of the melody is on an unaccented beat. let us take the note C. and is placed in the bass. he usually feels in a state of unutterable helplessness. adding three other parts to it. with the root position of a tonic chord. which is not counterpoint ( 29). and may be treated in any one of these three relations. and also ( 55) how to finish. 78. in. and a transient modulation made. but in the strict style no discords are allowed. instance in Beethoven's first symphony. When the student tries for the first time to harmonize a melody. To illustrate this. as at (b). and their treatment will therefore be deferred till we come to speak of free counterFor the present the student will do well always to begin point. in the key of C. In this case it is evident that a tonic chord placed above the bass would be in the second inversion. G But if the fourth chord is being treated for the time as a tonic. as we have already seen. Thus at (c) (d) the fourth chord is the first inversion of the chord of E .

the key of C begins thus and that it is that the first It has been already said ( 61). or the third of the diminished triad on the leading note. Though we have given but one example of each. C in alto. In making his selection of chords. (See Harmony. in the tonic triad. the triad on the leading note But if we take here the supertonic in root in the latter only. chord must be the tonic in root position. and submediant chords. and in root position and first inversion of the tonic. The other degrees of the 128. in the treble voice. ii j. example will best illustrate our meaning. ^H==H= U VU T===fl la \b la Via. subdominant. with C in the bass. Suppose a melody in . (3) IVa IVA Via (4) VU Bass C in tenor. Let us try them all. possible. . it The following table may be harmonized : show in how many (2) different positions (i) C in treble. will 39 F. the fifth of the la lla la lib Va la V* V1U chords are possible either in 64.chap. The note D dominant. The supertonic and dominant root position or in the first inversion. the student must consider (i) what roots are possible (2) which position of the chord An is best. 63. there are at least five or six good positions for the upper notes of the chord. C in IVa IVb la U Via VU I IVa IV* la VU Here is seen the note C in each voice in turn. and (3) the melodic progression of each voice. HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. a moment's thought will show the student that many others are For instance.) scale can be similarly treated. may be the root of the supertonic chord.

as at the beginning of Wesley's " ' hymn-tune Chichester 66. If we take the bass in the key It part . as at (b). must make consecutive here. as at (<?). 65. The dominant chord is possible in either position. We shall now illustrate the rules we have given by taking a simple melody and harmonizing it in each of the voices. of course. It is piece. for the sake of making the tenor part more melodious. octaves. where the same harmony is continued through several chords. at the beginning of the looth Psalm. as at (c] (d) . For this reason it is easiest to begin by placing the melody in the bass. A decided change of harmony on an accented beat is almost always desirable. but the triad on the leading note. the third. or We by changing the position of the same chord. it can. we shall have to take it in the first inversion. or the fifth of a chord. the same note in an extreme part ( 24). only be root or third. position as at (a). we shall evidently make consecutive 5ths and 8ths . as it can only be used in its first inversion. 67. This is a fault to which beginners are very liable.40 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. almost always weak. and is therefore unavailable from this example that only three of the five possible chords can be employed after the chord of C in the position in which we have given it. therefore if we take the supertonic chord at all. for In such cases. excepting. instance. as the student has fewer possibilities to consider. if that ' At the beginning of the second bar of this extract it will be noticed that the rule prohibiting a wide interval between the alto and tenor voices is broken. except on the first chord of a be unaccented. in the bass. We will choose for tune " Angel's this purpose the " first line of the universally known Hymn has been seen in 62 that while a note in an upper or middle may be either the root. This has clearly been done intentionally. it not seldom happens that a note is repeated. We have already mentioned that it is not good to repeat In a given melody. to anticipate the harmony of the accented beat of a bar (the first beat) on the last beat of the preceding bar. in. as. however. variety must be sought either by using a different chord on the see repetition of the note.

which has only D and C for the first five notes. the third. unless it is followed by the chord of the submediant. When the mediant chord is used in root position. fourth. or the bass should move by step In this example it is followed by the to a first inversion (35). as the next If employed at all here. 68. 156). case both the sixths would have been better in the upper part (Harmony. In this secutive first inversions.IN STRICT STYLE. which is not good ( 43). and fifth chords is 69. as well as what to do I Ilia la VIU U lib Ilia lla. that the student may learn what to avoid.j HARMONIZATION. la Here the second note of the bass is badly harmonized. rules of In the example now to be given. should have had a sixth above it but it would have been far the better to have made FJf the bass of a first inversion. the following E the submediant chord. be rather high. It tonic chord in root position. second chord . with the bass moving by step. The mediant chord It seldom produces a really good effect in root position.Chap. The progression of but from the fifth to the sixth chord are two conquite correct. it will will le crowded We will therefore to D ( 53). it should be followed by the chord of the submediant. though this is not compulsory. in the last bar but one is injudiciously 70. which is note of the melody is not a part of impossible here. chosen. This would also have improved the very monotonous treble part. and the parts above transpose it it of G. would have been much better to have harmonized FJf as the bass of the first inversion of the tonic chord. as in . III. while not violating the harmony. we have introduced several of the faults which beginners are most likely to make.

[Chap. III.CO UNTERPOINT . We will now take the same bass. the final progression is When the not one of the cadences which are permissible. 71. Besides this. The last three chords contain In each the root falls a second and in that case the second chord should be in the first inversion ( 45) except in passing to submediant or dominant. two weak progressions. and harmonize it correctly . and is in the bass. melody ends with the descent from supertonic to tonic. at 55 (*) 72. as here. the correct form of cadence is that shown .

Teachers will recognise some very old acquaintances :n the faults of the following example -fJr^ p] . making several of the mistakes which beginners are very apt to make.Chap.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. this work than when it in one of the middle voices. III. As before. being less difficult to 43 is treble. we will first work it badly.

The fifth note of the melody. These are of a kind that is allowed ( 27). From the third to the fourth chord will be seen hidden fifths between extreme parts. : (a) (6) will be impossible to avoid (c) r . for the consecutive fifths and octaves. S la la Ib lla U Va la Va badly worked example ( 73). B. on account of the That at (>) is no better . e. III. or the fifth of the submediant. will now harmonize the same melody correctly 76. as this would give consecutive fifths in outside parts. is taken in the first inversion. as at (c). The submediant is evidently impossible in root position. and we still have the bad hidden fifths with the tenor. and the third chord. which is much better than keeping it stationary. and in order to try to make the alto move comfortably. hidden fifths in the first two chords are here very bad ( 28). but bad progressions of the voices. but at the second the bass falls an octave. we begin with three repetitions of the tonic chord. there are If we try to save consecutive unisons between it and the treble. irrespective of the cadence ( 45).g. the third of the tonic. The progression of the last two chords is bad. to obtain variety. The first inversion might have been taken thus As in the . We .44 COUNTERPOINT : it [Chap. these. the alto leaps in an awkward manner.<z> I c*> *=E i VJJ r VJ la r r V6 1=3 VI* Vb la V The progression at (a) is obviously impossible. will there be a weak cadence. We have already seen ( 74) that the mediant chord here is bad. may be either the root of the mediant chord.

a far more usual.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. The reason of the difference is that the root falls a second. the student will see the Let him compare this progression from supertonic to the tonic. and also a better cadence than the one we have given. as one of the strongest chords in the key. We have chosen of the tonic. we should have taken the third chord from the end in the second inversion This is.Chap. with the same progression in the last two chords of the example in 77. In the sixth and seventh chords. in the next chords. and how good in the second. it would have been weak and monotonous for it also to precede it 1 r ' not follow the root position tc say nothing of the fact that it could It may be in 45. C . it might have involved us in difficulties further on. as 45 and followed shown here. have involved him in difficulties further can be the root 01 the chord of C. in actual composition. first inversion. second inversions are not allowed. and in 76 the second chord is in the first inversion. 73. but in the strict style. and notice how bad it is in the first case. now As the root positreated of. tion of the tonic chord has to follow the dominant. Now let the student observe the way in which the cadence is managed in the last three chords. the melody which follows. The student tonic for the fifth chord might that to take the root position of the in the The note on. If we had been writing in the free style. instead of in the strict. will now be able to see why it was said 79. as we shall to take the first inversion show directly. of the supertonic without breaking the rule the dominant chord is said that in general when in a full cadence the latter (in the strict style) is best in the preceded by the tonic. If the root position of the tonic had been taken. 73 it is not. while in See 45 for the general principle. 78. III.

A minor. 80. root position of the tonic chord. this would have been weak. We should always get as much variety of harmony as possible.46 third of the COUNTERPOINT: chord of will try [Chap. in. considerably more only two right. which we have just seen is not Besides this. than three to two that a beginner would choose one of the wrong ones 82. it or the fifth of the diminished triad on Fjf. nor by its root position. as at (a) above. We might also have taken the first inversion of the triad on the leading note. the probability is that he will find enough mistakes to We have already said that satisfy his most ardent curiosity. because of consecutive octaves. only have been progression from IL to la. as at (c\ it can neither be followed by the first inversion of the tonic. and we should have had nothing but tonic and dominant chords through the whole exercise. as at (e) . because of the bad If we We It would. or compares his own first attempt with the correct manner of working it. we fear. the first inversion of the chord of C. as at (d}. and take this chord in the first inversion. as we know. but looking at the exercise as a whole. 8 1. the advisable before the dominant in a cadence. as at (b\ we shall get very bad hidden octaves between the extreme parts. possible to take the supertonic chord in root position. for thr. part of the dominant harmony. must therefore take the because of the consecutive octaves. If we take bass will leap about in a very uncomfortable manner. there were at least three wrong ways of following it. We will now put our melody into the alto and tenor parts* After the examples of incorrect harmonizing that we have already given. we shall still be forced to follow it by the root position of the tonic . we advise him to take this melody and try to harmonize it for himself in a middle part. therefore. for if we take the latter in the first inversion. We in each relation I I la IVa la V I take the chord of C in root position. it will be needless to write specimens of mistakes in each If the student wishes to see how such an exercise is to be part. It will now be seen that if we had taken the fifth chord of f in its root position instead of its first inverthe example in 7 sion. we obviously cannot follow it by the first inversion of the tonic chord. When he brings it to his teacher. and t The chances are. triad on the leading note is. If we consider C as the third of the supertonic chord. before looking at the examples we are about to give. ! . worked wrongly.

it will be advisable to transpose it to the key of D. and if we leap up. 84. we go below the compass of the voice ( 14) . we will work it with the student step by step. as we did with the bass ( 53). Our first chord must be tonic in root position (61). is 47 in more difficult when it is a middle 83. this chord must be in root position. It is clear that if we repeat the D here we shall not only . If we take it as part of the tonic chord. to save space. here it matters We take the the treble and put The second note. may be part of the tonic. for if we descend. for if taken in the first inversion we shall have consecutive octaves between alto and bass. But in root position. we shall have to repeat the same bass note . The melody in the alto will be 12 We number very little which. Fjf. and.HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. We can put either the third or fifth at the top . for we cannot here leap the octave ( 24) . Before giving the exercise in full. mediant. the third in the tenor. will write the chords in short score. harmonizing a melody voice. we go to a much higher note than that previously taken by the tenor have anticipated the harmony of the accented note on the precannot always be well avoided see ceding unaccented (which 85. 34 will 56789 fifth in each note for convenience of reference. or submediant chord. In placing the melody in the alto.

we shall select (b). inversion. with both For the sake. therefore.. 86. Ill It will therefore example. there is. and neither the unison of the treble and alto in the second. we may point . but shall have a stationary bass. in fact. of keeping to our rules parts leaping. Clearly it cannot be in root position. in root position. nor the stationary treble in the third It is therefore better here to take the chord of the is advisable. IS Either position (b} or (c) is possible here. () r gSt e- r none of the three positions shown here are advisable.48 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. 12 . 76). to avoid the stationary bass. at (c) but this involves hidden fifths with the alto. a The progression of the tenor is better choice of advantages. be better here to take one of the other two chords of which FJf forms a part the mediant or the submediant. submediant. Before proceeding. The first evidently impossible in the second and third the leap of the tenor is not good (compare 38) . It would then have been best followed by the root position of the submediant ( 36). and the first four chords would have been harmonized thus inversion as strictly as possible. is . out that the first of the mediant chord might have been taken here. Let us first try the mediant. had we omitted the fifth in the first chord. or we get If we take the first consecutive octaves between bass and alto.

it 49 allows the inversion.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. or the root position of the tonic chord. As we have not yet had the dominant chord in the exercise.Chap. Our next note. and the presumption would be the other way but a key (like a long suit at whist) should always be established as soon as possible. Not good. because of the leap of the leading note. as far as of G. Ilia Va VU nothing to prove that the key is G. as at (a) below. belongs to the supertonic and dominant chords. it is high time we introduced it. It may either be the There are two or three continuations for the next chord. (V) 89. after what has prekey. m . to establish the If. Of course there is . 88. might be in the key Va. As this last can only be used in its first inversion it is evidently unavailable here. ceded. as also is the root position of the supertonic. to allow the bass to move by step. with the roots we have gone. we take the first inversion of the supertonic. not only because it is stronger. the whole exercise. in. E. as well as to the triad on the leading note. submediant in root position or first inversion. Foi this reason we take the dominant chord here. as at (<). The first inversion of the tonic chord would be inferior. and put it in its first inversion. but because bass to move by a smaller interval.

It is always needful in part. we to treat the sixth note. if treated as the fifth of the submediant. Ill here that the mediant chord in either position will be distinctly bad. G. and in the first inversion a We must leaping bass with sixths above ( 36). as well as what has preceded. We now make a sketch of the rest of our exercise. as part G . (Harmony. inversion ( 78).) are now getting near the end of the exercise. that chord will be wrongly followed if in root position. E . and the bass will be stationary if we take the first inversion. and if we follow it by another first inversion on the next degree of the scale. it will be advisable to look ahead before finally deciding which of the chords shown in 89 (a) (b) to select. We therefore harmonize this note as part of the tonic chord. we shall either have a stationary while. 90. note of the melody is not part of the submediant chord . For instance. . As we harmonizing a melody to consider what is to follow. when they ought to be in the upper 156. therefore harmonize as either the third of the supertonic chord little 91. i If treble. taken in root position. as at or a bad hidden fifth in its first (c). This appear at first sight. the sixths are in the alto. is either the submediant. good for in root position it will give us consecutive octaves. Ff . or a first inversion on the next degree The former is impossible here. We know already that the last two notes. ( which can here only be taken as part of the tonic chord for. have to be part of the chords of the dominant and is The third note from the end 55). sketch gives us more guidance than would can see that it will not be of the subdominant chord. we shall either have consecutive fifths with the bass ( Via to Va). taking the first tonic in root position . or the bad progression VI to Va while if taken as a note of the mediant chord.Co UNTERPOINT : It is instructive to notice [Chap. enough inversion. as the next of the scale ( 35). taking only the parts which we know. though it can be taken well as at (d\ it cannot be properly The proper chord to follow the mediant followed in this position.

we shall either get a bad hidden octave. as well as in the bass will be very weak. repetition of the notes C. a unison between treble and alto. or as part of the triad on the leading note. as at (a\ knowing already ( 90) that the seventh chord is also a sixth. 0) i (c) j If now we take the chord of the sixth on E. . 92. it is clear that the sixth bass note must in any case be E. as at (b) (c).00 J i t to consider the position of the parts 93. Though not absolutely forbidden in more than two-part writing. therefore preferable. As this can only be used in its first inversion. It only remains now It is in general best to conclude with the the final cadence. from the here. in . Having fixed our bass. D. but if we do so tonic in the upper part. () . the end of the treble part D. This naturally indicates D as the fifth note of the bass. . the sixth chord must be also a first inversion. C. and this can now be v/ell followed by a chord of the sixth. . as at (a) below for if we make it the supertonic chord. (which evidently must here be in root position).(<*> 4567 We now have four consecutive sixths between the extreme parts. we must keep the sixth in the upper part. III.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. the filling up is comparatively easy. . The tonic chord given at 89 (b) is these are better avoided. If for our fifth chord we take VL (as at 89 (a) ).Chap. because conjunct motion is better than disjunct. or a stationary treble.

now give the whole exercise in score. part. It will be seen that. except in the tenor roots below each chord.COUNTERPOINT It will therefore [Chap. III. fall. there are We no repetitions of the same note . and let the treble be better here to deviate from the usual practice. marking the 94. leaving the final chord without the fifth.

and that the mediant chord could not be used at all. we have fewer chords to select from than in the major. All the chords of the minor key are derived from the harmonic minor scale. between the leading note and the mediant. which contains among its intervals an augmented second. can only be used under special limitations (19). . in. he has acquired considerable facility general rules for chord progression given in Chapter minor and to major keys. We chord step by step . In harmonizing a melody in a minor key. interval of the diminished fourth. there is much greater danger of incorrect melodic progression than in the major key. that is. its The student inversion. but though permitted.j HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. because there is so little to choose from. In this position it is often easier. and submediant) on which. though mostly very objectionable in the major These are from VI to Va. The apply alike to from lib to la sparingly. II. and the dominant can only take a chord in root position. except sometimes when it is in the bass. so far. the augmented fifth. and two augmented The fourths. A full cadence in the middle of a phrase should always be avoided (55). they had better be used take a simple melody in a minor key. But there are two progressions which. It was seen in 34 that the supertonic chord in the minor key was unavailable in root position. The case is The difficulty different arises when the melody is in any other from the fact that while we have fewer chords to select from. and key. none of which are available in strict writing. Three degrees of the scale (the supertonic. and We shall write one containing all those notes of the scale the harmonizing of which is likely to give any trouble We will now it harmonize in all the voices.Chap. as a matter of fact it is harder. the student will by But it will be a time understand the principle well enough. 53 not on the accented beat of the bar. . 99. 98. a choice of harmony is . subdominant. mediant. and leading note) can only take a first inversion. There are therefore only three notes of the scale (the tonic. him to endeavour to find different harmonizations good plan for shall not explain every this of the same melody for himself. also. and all. 97. cannot be used at is therefore advised not to attempt harmonizing till melodies in minor keys with the major key. when in the bass. as the chords can be used in the minor key. is possible. part. are possible in the minor. It might be supposed that it would therefore be easier to harmonize a subject in the minor than in the major key but. 100.

54 1 CO UNTERPOINT : 01. we shall first put the melody in the bass. III. As before. this being the easiest . [Chap.

\a la comment. with the bass leaping in every case. the fourth note of the melody as part of the dominant chord. with the bass moving by step). it becomes needful to go below G. We might have avoided the sixths by harmonizing the passage thus bass. but this would not have been so good. Occasionally. while find Here we more matter Via for U IV6 la. . We next put the subject in the alto la Va bass goes to the lowest note of the compass given to it in 14. therefore no bass note but D available here. because of the leaps in the and the use of \a in the last chord but two. as recommended in 78. 104. If in the present often advisable in a minor than in a major key. and sixth chords the rule as to keeping the sixths in the upper part when two or more occur in succession is not adhered to. and he will at once see why. we There is shall have consecutive fifths in the following chord. and there is no objection to Had we taken the upper F we should have this for a single note. is because the upper part is already given. if the sixth chord is in the first inversion. The D the chord in root position) would have given objectionable hidden We also cannot here treat fifths and octaves with alto and tenor. case we had put the chord into its first inversion. This. in. in the bass (with had a bad hidden octave with the treble. the harmony would have been very weak . instead of in This is much more the first inversion.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. 55 inversions (except a series of ascending or descending sixths. we treat the sixth chord as the submediant. is that at 105. fifth. Another point to notice in the above example the sixth chord the tonic is taken in root position. for we should then have consecutive octaves between bass and alto. of course. again. could not mend this by taking the fifth chord in root position. there would have been three sucWe cessive first inversions. Notice also that in the fourth. Let the student try it.chap. as here. seldom produce a good effect. ^f. and put B2 in the bass.

we take the subject in the tenor . CO UNTER POINT : Lastly. III. IChap.56 1 06.

The student should mark the root and position of each chord. as we have done in the examples . At a later stage the student will learn how to ornament the harmony by the addition of passing notes. to have recourse to the more doubtful ones. first in the bass. given in the treble clef. Some which we have indicated as not good will sometimes be met with in the works of the We were very careful to say great masters. Almost any progression is possible.) (XI. Only one chord. then in the treble. (ii.) . One word in conclusion. They should be placed. at this stage of his progress. No modulation is necessary.) . either a common chord in root position. but those that we have warned the student against are so difficult to manage effectively. if 57 difficulty tion . (in 32) that we were giving recommendations.Chap. is to be placed against each note of the melody. L (X.] HARMONIZATION IN STRICT STYLE. The all worked in this chapter. they in four parts in all the voices. or a first inversion. and last of all in the middle parts. that is firm. not hard-and-fast rules. available that he never need be driven. of the progressions EXERCISES TO CHAPTER III. but 08. that he is strongly advised to abstain from their employment until he has obtained sufficient experience to know when they can be There are so many good progressions judiciously introduced. &c. Though these exercises are should each be harmonized needful transpositions will be seen in 53. the young composer will have no in building 1 upon it. in.

109. must be accompanied by two notes of to the : no. In the first species of counterpoint in two parts. and. may have for the present only one melody at a time to trouble himself about. the subject. with syncopations. FIRST SPECIES. as regards making the accompanying melody interesting. iv CHAPTER TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT : IV. and at the same time to possess a certain amount of independent melodic interest. except the last. and with regard to the Some species. the accompanying melody. so therefore. and avoids absolute mistakes. counterpoint against each note of the subject. More than two notes of equal value against (3) Third Species. The only possible intervals between the parts therefore are the perfect concords the unison. and octave. few notes that can be used that.* Each note of the subject is accompanied (4) Fourth Species. we shall begin with counterpoint in two parts.. but theorists include counterpoint of three notes to one in the second it will be seen later that it belongs more suitably to the third.e.58 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. no discords whatever are allowed. 112. in most respects. will have sufficiently prepared the In order that he student for beginning to work Counterpoint. each note of the subject. according t : equal value. so as to make correct harmony with it. Two notes against one i. is accompanied by notes of various lengths. or melodies. by two or more notes of equal length. as compared with those of the given subject. perfect the major and fifth. each note of (2) Second Species. Of these five species the first is clearly the simplest. in this species. There are. The beginner may therefore be content if he obtains correct melodic progressions. the easiest. however. . Florid counterpoint. in which the subject (5) Fifth Species.e. it is the most difficult of all. in which to a given part one other part has to be added. one note of the (1) First Species. Strict Counterpoint is divided into five number and arrangement of the notes of species. The exercises on harmonizing melodic phrases which were given in the last chapter. Of these. in. and the imperfect concords minor thirds and sixths. i. without. The five species are the following Note against note. striving after more. the unison is only permitted on the * first or last note of an exercise .

G 113. 114. 1 1 6. . the imperfect concords are mostly preferable to the perfect. Now let us take the same four thirds and we shall. But (d) can only be a either root positions or first inversions. (47). The fourth with the excepting passing notes and suspensions. . in the minor key. 115. while on other degrees one or the other may be impossible. (c) (d) In the key of C major (a) might represent either the root position of the supertonic chord or the first inversion of the triad on the taken as indicating Similarly () and (c) can be leading note. It is true there is no fourth at () above.() The chord perfect fifth at (a) may represent either a major or a minor there is no third to show us which but the sixth at (6) can . If. In the major key nositions or first (a) (b) and (c) could in all represent either root (a) inversions. but to call it the second inversion of the chord of E minor would imply the fourth . that in two-part counterpoint the lower part must always be considered as the bass of the harmony . represent either a root position or a first inversion. he has written a note at the distance of a third above or below his given subject. E and between the bass and an upper part no discords are allowed. But C minor and ($) can . no matter what the number of parts.g. 59 other intervals. . It is very important to remember that every two-part combination has to represent some chord. and the student should accustom himself while writing to think what chord is indicated by the notes before him. iv. only represent the first inversion of major. for the root position of the diminished not allowed. for instance. and no second inversions are therefore allowed in strict counterpoint. bass is always considered a dissonance ( 29). triad is first inversion . on certain degrees of the scale.chap. j TWO-PART: FIRST SPECIES. the interval may. and it is just as wrong to imply incorrect harmony as it is to use it. as the fifth is 'dissonant with the bass. get quite different results. An example n (a) will make (b) this clear. because they define the harmony better e. The student may naturally inquire. Why may not (b) also represent the second inversion of the chord of minor? The answer to this question is.

so as to allow the counterpoint to move by step. when these are It must be noticed here that the sixth on the employed. But there can be no doubt as to the octaves of the supertonic. which in short exercises is unC minor this interval would either represent the first inversion of the mediant chord. for a first inversion on the dominant would give the prohibited mediant chord. ( 34). and not on its third or fifth. but in two- The last part counterpoint it is generally considered best to take this chord in the inversion. and the counterpoint should always (in two parts) end on the tonic itself. and dominant in the minor key. course.s= ^== ^ . first Best. The forms of cadence in the first species of counterpoint are very simple. The last third. (d\ will have the same meaning as in C . though the hidden octave is among those usually allowed. . neither of which can be used. 1 1 8. or the second inversion of the tonic. be a modulation. In supertonic to tonic rarely. Possible. sometimes. of is possible on each of those degrees." because. iv. instead of by leap to the last note. It is. for the root positions of the triads on the supertonic and mediant cannot be used in the minor key On the other hand (c) can only represent a root position . 119.60 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. provided the bass leaps in contrary motion to the subject. because only one chord The leading note cannot. If the subject is in the upper be the part. especially in the major key. 1 1 7 major. the dominant chord should always be in root position. There can be no doubt as to what chords are indicated by fifths (except on the first note) and sixths. A moment's thought will show the student that there may be similar ambiguity about the octaves. dominant of the minor key is unavailable. The subject generally ends with the step from unless there desirable. the penultimate chord of the cadence should dominant (55). however. though more (fy rises from the leading note to the tonic &^\ ^ || chord must be the tonic chord in root position. be doubled. it ^ =gr=I = :. possible to take the dominant chord in root position. only represent first inversions . Not good. it is best in two-part counterpoint to avoid hidden octaves and We fifths altogether. have marked the third progression as " not good. mediant. In counterpoint of more than two parts.

not C. but it would not be good here to put the root of the chord instead of the fifth in the upper part. Bad. this must be accompanied by the : g:= The harmony here represented is. tonic. The second of these cadences is bad because the chord of the supertonic cannot precede the chord of a tonic in a cadence . if the third be taken as implying clearly defined. which would therefore have to resolve on E. It must therefore be only chord available in this cadence ( 56). 61 120. There is nothing here to prove that the interval represents a chord of the sixth. Not the subject is in the bass. Bad. is and in the with the first S Best Possible.Chap IV. and the penultimate the leading note. the cadence may be made either inversion of the triad on the leading note which is best. as or with the root position allowing the bass to step of the dominant chord. . taking care that the two parts move to the last octave by contrary motion.- Good. if the penultimate note the supertonic. the first inversion of the dominant chord . . supertonic ^EE|| 122. and not a common chord in root position and the first inversion of the triad on the leading note is the . is 121. of which we have already spoken (115). is When note jfo= = i =^| S^ of course.] TWO-PART : FIRST SPECIES. Besides this. When the subject is in the bass. and the third is bad because of the ambiguous nature of the interval of the third. If the subject ends with the step from leading note to upper part. it should always be accompanied by the leading note. a chord of the sixth. the middle note of the chord B would make a diminished fifth with F.

we no longer have counterpoint of note . because there are not more than three by similar motion. though the latter is sometimes neces- An example will make this quite clear. and that is v. as the third shows whether the key is major or minor. 126. on the dominant. mostly This is the practice of the older rather than with a third. sary for a while. but to give a satisfactory reason for it. but the passage is not bad. Except when the subject begins exercise should It is commence with the tonic chord in root position considered best to begin with a perfect concord. because of the weak effect of a stationary outside part ( 24). which (as we know) is part of the dominant harmony.hy it is mentioned here . first of these cadences we have an awkward leap to the and in the second there is a bad hidden octave. because if a note is repeated. and both the parts in two-part counterpoint represent the outer parts of the harmony . and. In the tonic . every 123. The only chord that can be taken on Efe is the first inversion of the tonic . r if & ' ^-' ~i 1 ' p ' ' g? ** i This restriction does not apply contrary motion the position ! is changed by T Here there are five consecutive thirds . one melody accompanied by a copy of itself on another part of the scale The second chord here is ~r~i . it is difficult theorists. it is desiiable to have as much contrast as possible in For this reason. secondly. instead of a combination of two different melodies. because then we have. which neither the fifth nor the octave does. contrary motion is the character of the parts. 124. Oblique motion should not be used at all in two parts in this species first. and we have in a posing key the supertonic and mediant following one another Sup- minor s the inversion of the diminished triad on the leading note. our subject is in the lower part. 125.62 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. . But it is forbidden in two-part counterpoint to have more than three consecutive thirds or sixths. mostly preferable to similar. iv. the leading note in the second chord had better therefore rise in similar motion to the subject. As Counterpoint is the art of combining different melodies. . The student is not to suppose that similar motion is forbidden.

the false relation of the tritone is. is proved by the fact that it is possible to have these notes in the same relative position to one another without producing a bad effect. rise or will see that all 130. instead of other. and at (<:) (ct) (e) the chords of the dominant and subdominant. that is to say. That it is not the mere presence of these two notes of the scale in consecutive chords. note. but in this latter position it is not objectionable. as marked. he will see that one of the two intervals is the same in each But though the tritone is still to be seen. moving by fall a fourth.] T^O-PART : FIRST SPECIES. n <a) (3) (c) <X) VII3 IV* IVa VIU Va 1U IU Va in If the student will compare these examples with those given 128. because now one of the two chords is in the first inversion. This interval is found between the subdominant and leading note of both the major and the minor scale. 127. are among those which he is recommended to avoid. but of two notes against one. we get the " false relation of the tritone (c) " (*) (d) {e) At (a) (^) the chords of the mediant and subdominant are next to one another in root position . an augmented fourth. except the last one. which in the position (e) is the least objectionable of the five. This is what is known as the " false relation of the tritone. It is also to be met with between the submediant and supertonic of the minor key. between the upper note of one chord and the lower note of the it no longer produces a bad effect. IVfl to Va. while the other contains the leading note as the higher The relation of the two is indicated by a line. 128. This illustrates the importance of considering his root progressions The simplest rule for the avoidance of in writing his exercises. If the subdominant chord in root position be either preceded or followed by the mediant or dominant chord in root position. . the student (he root progressions of the examples in 128. provided there is a leap in one of the voices. case. that whenever the subdominant . There is one progression of chords now to be explained which is apt to give beginners a good deal of trouble. 129. as before. In each case it will be seen that one of the chords contains the subdominant of the scale as its lower note. it 63 therefore belongs against note. but the progression of the roots that causes the false relation of the tritone." By the word " " tritone is meant an interval of three tones. and to the second species. step.Chap. and the roots. iv. ]3y referring to Chapter II.

119 122). In adding a counterpoint to a given subject. and endeavouring to get as much variety as we can in the melody. instead of falling In a middle or upper part of the harmony. We will take for our subject the simple phrase that we gave in 49.We shall now illustrate the rules we have given by working an exercise in every possible position. In the minor key. At (a) is is at (b} We will place this subject in each part in turn. iv. . for instance. the laws of melodic progression. there will be little danger of any confusion of key in the earlier stages of counterpoint with exercises in major keys. the minor seventh of the scale cannot be used without producing a modulation. and the passage at (c) is wrong. The same is true easiest to harmonize when it was in the bass. for him to write twelve counterpoints on the same subject. part. I 33. it is also very important that the chords should be indicated as clearly as is possible in two parts. one of the two parts should move by leap of a third. to the submediant. because after the sixth on Bj? the bass rises. by introducing a sixth upon the dominant. impossible to vary the cadences much ( The student in all. is in the lower part of one chord. set forth in 16 24. as. must be strictly attended to . than to write one counterpoint each on twelve different subjects. adding a counterpoint for each of the other voices. 131. It will. 132. be We shall. well-defined tonality is also essential. and in a descending passage from tonic to submediant. The minor seventh of the minor scale (Harmony. and a bass We . but as chromatic notes cannot be employed. It will be far more profitable will do well to follow the same plan. of counterpoint in three or four parts but with only two parts there is so little difference that we will take the subject first in the treble. adding to it in succession an alto. a tenor. and the leading note in the higher part of the next chord. before or after. work twelve exercises on the same subject. in which case it must bear a sixth A above it ^ The passage shown the correct way of using this note wrong. said in the last chapter (67) that a melody was 134. 190) can only be employed in the bass. of course. and is in the key of E flat . care must be taken not to modulate into the relative major.64 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. because the second chord is not a first inversion.

We now write the counterpoint in the tenor The counterpoint just given for the alto would also have been possible as a tenor part. there would have been five consecutive thirds by similar motion is ( 125). have marked the root of each chord below it. it will imply consecutive fifths with the fourth chord. Had the tenor note been G. We At (a) is seen the progression mentioned in If the third 44. and therefore the progression is not mentioned among those possible in 35. chord here is considered as II. because Ilia (45). Note thai U. but it would not have been good. The counterpoint next placed in the bass. . iv. it is possible." This would be so in three or four-part harmony. 136. but in two parts. as here. because it would he too much in the higher part of the compass.j TWO-PART: FIRST SPECIES.Chap. At (b) is seen a progression (lllb to Vb) which was spoken of in 40 as "very weak. and not as III*. We will write an altogether different melody. at (a) the third is marked as would be bad after IVa 135. It also could not have been followed by IVa in tne next chord ( 35).

It cannot represent the root ambiguity about the octave at (3). Counterpoint in the tenor 135. In taking our subject in the alto. and the must be considered as the bass of the harmony. D ( 51). latter IVa \b VIU la At because it can (a) the mediant chord is taken be properly followed by the root position of the submediant. . we shall transpose it to . see 120. progression at (b) is the same shown at (a) of example For the cadence in the last two bars. IV. would not be followed by the first inversion of the dominant. in this position. 138. The treble will now be above the alto. The in root position. 137.66 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. position of the mediant chord because that chord.

142. instead of Ilia. that which is to show ( that this possible. and in the next following counterpoint (141). because the harmonic progression is much more satisfactory. for the sake of variety. the notes naturally suggest. IV. Ilia to VII. We might have removed all in the treble. and 123). G D 141. but put in preference. Counterpoint in the S .Chap. J TWO-PART: FIRST SPECIES. Here. instead of with a perfect consonance At (a) the third is marked L. we have begun with a third. and is besides. is not a very commendable progression. iii ambiguity by writing crder to get as much variety as possible. though possible. Counterpoint in the alto la lb IV* \b VII* la This example needs no remark.

We counterpoints in a minor key. and add below it a counterpoint for each of the other voices in turn. because we are so restricted as to the harmony we can use . C would have been possible here. but we have done enough to show that even under these restrictions a good deal of variety is possible. command of chord and root progressions that cannot possibly be obtained in any other way. place the subject in the treble. before. at (b] is rather awkward. The student will find it most beneficial to deal in the same systematic manner with the subjects we shall give him at the end of this chapter. instead of oh the tonic. because it would have made the false relation of the tritone.Counterpoint in the tenor CChap. but if we had written here. have now given twelve different counterpoints on the 146. work with. We will purposely choose a not very easy subject to work with 147. The best proto a note within the interval (19). Necessarily some of these are better than others. same subject. the end of the alto part would have been very weak A . and to work each He will thus get an insight into and a in all possible ways. IV. beginning with the alto 148.68 COUNTERPOINT: 145. but this would have The leap given the same chord as at the end of the second bar. shall We now work some more which is generally difficult to r 1 . s la *- Ib l\b \a lib Ib Vllb la At (a) we returning gression (to C) is unavailable here. This subject begins on the dominant. see the leap of a diminished fifth in the counterpoint. manage than a major. and ends with the less usual form of cadence from leading note We have now only ten possible positions of chords to to tonic. instead of thirteen ( 34). first As we S la Via IVa la VU Ib IVb la \llb la The leap of the octave at (a) saves the repetition of the same note.

The two notes of the tenor in this bar might have been B2. C.] TWO-PART: FIRST SPECIES. E. IV. D. for the sake of variety. The subject will now be in the alto it as la 1U is U IV 6 Va IU U V* la Here the counterpoint begin with the dominant chord ( 61). At (b) F is taken in the melody 148. 151.Chap. as far as practicable. because of the two leaps of a fifth. rather than C. E. to avoid the octave in two-part counterpoint. Evidently we can only At (a) is seen the same lower part in the next chord. 150. cannot be called the dominant chord. we have begun with the dominant Let the student ask himself why the chord at (a] is marked VIL. but far inferior The upper A would to F. 132. VIU la chord. We now put the counterpoint in the tenor lb VIU la IVa Va IV6 la. (Compare (6) of example. because of the leap by similar motion with the in the treble. because it is well. In this place a fall to A would have been possible.) weak repetition. except at the beginning and end of an exercise. the first four notes of both would have been As it At (a) is seen the chord referred to in identical. Our next example has the counterpoint in the bass la U VIU la VU * IV6 . we have not marked V. because of the contrary motion with the subject. . D. but the counterpoint given is better. Here. 69 We chose E2 149. we saw in the major at (a) of progression in the minor key which to avoid the example in 145. but have indicated it with an asterisk. The leap at (b) is for the same reason as in the last example. have been weak. la VIU la Here we have begun with the tonic chord had we done so also in the last exercise.

to avoid the repetition of the notes F E in the tenor. If the second chord of the bar had been marked II. It is may be that both possible harmonies are. It is therefore the less evil here to depart from the usual rule as to chord progression given in 45. Subject in aito : : [Chap. which it has been already said ( 30) is not very good. Subject in alto At : la Via IVa la IVa Va IVb la VIU la only needful to say of this example that the second chord equally well considered as the first inversion of the subIt seldom happens dominant. 155. however. equally good. Subject in tenor counterpoint in alto : . as here. it would have implied the progression false relation of the tritone (128). Subject in tenor : Va A-t IVa U Vb J< (a) will be seen the progression Va to IVa. and on the whole less (a) we have introduced advisable form of cadence. counterpoint in treble 154. counterpoint in tenor - Va Via U VIU U Va la the less usual. one of those which produces the This.CO UNTERPOINT 152. In three or four-part counterpoint the root position of the dominant would be distinctly best. which is not the case here. counterpoint in bass 153. IV. or root position of the submediant. only occurs when the leading note is actually present in the dominant chord. to the following chord.

TV.Chao. I TWO-PART: FIRST SPECIES. .

Subject in bass COUNTERPOINT: : [Chap IV. r-H r^-^~ . counterpoint in tenor P s -: --.72 159.

or a passing or auxiliary note. the note of the counterpoint which comes upon the stronger half of each beat in other words. the first is the accented. Best. is possible to write two notes of the counterpoint against the first note of the subject. equally to cases in which the notes of the subject have more than one beat on them.Chap. Possible. of course. the note which is sounded at the same time with the note of the subject must always be a consonance. 163. either perfect or imperfect the note which falls on the weaker half of each beat (that is. 73 CHAPTER V. may be either a consonance. As with the first species of counterpoint. two crotchets against a minim. the latter being What we have just said as to the stronger generally preferable. If it begins at the same time. It subject. every combination . Best. It will scarcely be needful to remind the student that of the two minims which equal a semibreve. and with the first note. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT: SECOND SPECIES. if it only enters at the half of the first note of the subject. it cannot be. or of the two crotchets which go to a minim. reason why it is better to precede the first note of the counterpoint by a rest. which is sounded between two notes of the subject). two notes of equal length are to be written against each one of the subjecttwo minims against a semibreve. and to introduce its first note on the second half of the first note of the 162. and the second the unaccented. it may possibly be first species . is that more attention is called to the character of the counterpoint by its commencing after the subject. The . to be mentioned later. but it is more usual. the first half always bears a stronger accent than the second. and weaker half of each beat. 1 64. Possible. In the second species of Counterpoint. and also far preferable to precede the counterpoint by a rest. Excepting in one case. applies.i TWO-PART: SECOND SPECIES. If any note is divided into halves. and so on excepting with the last note of the subject (which should always be accompanied by a single note). 1 6 1. v.

74 COUNTERPOINT: ichap. 254) is rare. of two notes which are sounded together must be considered as representing a complete chord. Even the passing notes that we are now describing should not be employed too freely. to another note of the harmony. 165. v. was inserted. clearly cannot represent chords. and only in an upper part. but as passing notes are to be taken quitted by step. Passing and auxiliary notes in Strict Counterpoint must invariably be taken by step and in the second species they must be also quitted by step. excepting in one case now to be explained. Two notes of the same chord must be at a distance of at least a third from one another. and and . The extremely reverse progression (for an example see Harmony. it is far better to quit passing notes. examine this example. as well as to take them. If one harmony note is followed by another on the next degree of the scale. the counterpoint will flow more smoothly. by step. ." sentence the qualifying clause. Here each harmony note is at the distance of a second below the preceding one. In general. notes. and F. a passing note may be taken by step from the first harmony note. as these If the student will last would be second inversions. U 1 Va 113 Here the note of the counterpoint which is sounded against each note of the subject is a harmony note and the harmonic progression will be clearly seen by omitting the passing 66. The student will now be able to see why it was said in 163 that a passing note was generally preferable. the passing note will have to be above it. Evidently if the second harmony note be below the first. and the passing note is always taken a second above the harmony note. and G and C. 167. In the first and third bars of the above. are pass-ing The fourths between C notes on the second half of each bar. and falls a third to the next chord note. and proceed by leap of a third to the second harmony note. for the second note of the counterpoint. and had better not be used at all in strict writing. he will see why in the " which are sounded together. we shall with these have conjunct motion. .

In the following example. V.] TWO-PART: SECOND SPECIES.Chap. 75 also 68. The same consideration of smoothness of melody allows an occasional departure from the rule that the note of the counterpoint which is sounded against a note of the subject must be a harmony note. quoted from 1 Cherubini. .

(*)| f no hidden fifths at the second bar. 173. are not absolutely forbidden. the progression is bad . and save an incorrect harmonic progression.76 COUNTERPOINT: staff [Oha P v. to have only notes. e. whether harmony notes or passing notes. still conveys so distinctly to the mind the impression of consecutive fifths and octaves from accent to accent. The harmony from one chord to another must always be correct. Intermediate notes on the unaccented beats. The student will notice that in all the examples we have hitherto given (except in the last bar but one of (a) in 168) there has been only one chord in a bar. that. But in general one chord is distinctly preferable to two. even where there were two Note that at (b) there are because the F is It is always better. however. hownot a note of the harmony. : This. it is better. however. Two chords. ever. between the second and third bars as if E and C were semibreves. passing notes are preferable to auxiliary notes. 172.g. not to repeat the same accented note. that is. as we are studying counterpoint from a harmonic point of view. Between two consecutive unaccented notes. 175. both the fifths or octaves be either the higher or the lower of the notes of the IT oving counterpoint. and returning to the same harmony note which preceded them may be employed on the unaccented half of the subject shows the way in which (a)\ . Their employment also will occasionally help us out of a difficulty. 174. and although this need not be so strictly avoided as in the first species. one chord against each note of the subject. such progressions as the above should be altogether avoided. if possible. where possible. as we shall see later harmony (183). Some of the older theorists allowed such consecutive fifths and octaves provided that the intermediate note took a large leap. The upper here shows the chord progression. and are indeed necessary in one of the most frequently used cadences. In general. because the latter involve the use of the same harmony note for two consecutive bars . the lower it should be rilled up. perfect fifths and octaves are allowable in certain If positions only. auxiliary notes taken by step of a second from a note of a chord. . Besides passing notes. will never justify a faulty proThus at 1 68 (b) there are just as much perfect fifths gression. notes 171.

But the octave first bar is clearly that of the chord of at the beginning of the second bar must inversion of the either represent the supertonic chord. are not consecutive. and Similarly at (d) the lowest note. The reason of the difference in the two cases is. to D. instead of and in the examples (c) before. here. and the fifths there is a chord between them. (Harmony. G. of the two notes in the successive bars of the counterpoint. in octaves with the while at (b) the two extreme parts are moving in fifths. the highest note of the next. writing the two minims as semibreves. even if the fifths or octaves were notes in both bars. now falls to the consecutives are not between the same parts of the (d) E . as if they were sounded together. C D.j TWO-PART: SECOND <> SPECIES. as regards the harmony. the progression to i is allowable ! J . rising. and thus making (a) three-part (if) harmony ^ (f) (d) ^ It will moves bass . however. Let us apply this 192. for . therefore. WS n u 176.) to the above examples. one of the fifths or octaves be the higher. Bad. If the Here the harmony of the F. But at (c) the mistake at (a) is corrected . there must be two chords in the bar. to C. as be seen that at (a) E. be the dominant chord. for the E is now to be considered as being followed by F. the highest note of the first chord. e. harmonic progression were such as definitely to two chords in the second bar. that being the higher note of the next chord. : 177. and the other the lower. 77 S i i (*> o If.Cha P . or the first The second half of this bar can only triad on the leading note. that when two notes of the same chord are sounded in succession. Bad.v.g. there would be no conimply the upper or lower secutives. they produce the same result. harmony.

which is forbidden in the first species excepting on the first and last notes. overlapping of parts (31) can frequently be saved in the same manner.78 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. provided the second harmony note be approached The by contrary motion Bad. v. if the intermediate note leaps beyond the next harmony note. J Good. Good. J Good. also permitted that the parts shall cross on an unaccented note only c J ' w 1 \ . is allowed on an unaccented It is note of the second species. 179. The unison. . unless it be the leading note. so as to return to it by contrary motion . t Bad. Hidden fifths and octaves between two consecutive harmony notes can be saved in this species. J JBad. Bad. Good. 178.

tne Dar given at the begin- In the former case we ning of this section gives ife_J^_~ have the impression that the fifth is the lowest note of the chord. Like the first species of counterpoint. 181. in this case the in relation to the fifth root is the lower of the two notes. and not a passing. For if we think of the two successive harmony notes as forming part of the same 180 chord.to la does so. the first note of the counterpoint must invariably be a harmony note. indeed. the impression would have been less distinct *S Here there is nothing to prevent the assumption that there are two chords in the first bar. and its position makes all the difference.chap v. The best rule to guide the student will be that when the counterpoint is in the lower voice. 79 not been present as the upper note. the second must commence with the root position of the tonic chord. not the same objection when the root rises to the fifth as when it falls. if the third of the chord is in the subject. are the following : Of these. There is. 182.j TWO-PART : SECOND SPECIES. therefore. The cadence at (a) must imply two. or auxiliary note. is. There is not the same objection to the counterpoint rising from the root to the fifth. the second being the dominant. In this case. when the subject is in the lower voice. or falling from the fifth to the root. and in the latter we have not. the only cadence given in some text-books but in many cases the cadence at (fi) will be better. and . while VIL5. 183. because the chord progression lla to la does not form a cadence (55). B cannot here be considered as a passing note. except when the subject begins on the dominant. the counterpoint should not fall from the root to the fifth. It has been already said ( 162) that it is best to begin the counterpoint on the second half of the first note of the subject. because it only implies one chord in the bar. that at (a) is the more used. we shall see that the first bar of example (a) gives the combination rep^JF^ wm e * . The best forms of cadence in this species of counterpoint. .

If the subject is in the upper voice. If the G were an octave higher. 184. (a) the progression of the upper part saves the hidden octaves This will not be the case if the precedes G. and the dominant chord is therefore best in root position ( 1 1 9). The best forms will be At ( 178). and had fallen to the D. we should have had the mental ( effect of a . the major sixth and minor seventh of the scale. against which the student has been warned 1 180). the cadence should take one of these three forms to Possible. but not as harmony notes. V. 86. while we take the minor . the augmented second which lies between the sixth and seventh degrees of the harmonic minor scale (Harmony. As the two notes of a first inversion. Notice that at (f) the fifth of the dominant chord is above the root. Of these. D At (b) the root of the dominant chord is repeated in the octave. and such a close will not be very comfortable for a cadence in the second species. 180. 181. passing notes only.8o COUNTERPOINT : LChap. the form at (a) is preferable. because the root is below At (b) we have something of the mental impression of the third. progressions of augmented intervals in the melody are prohibited in strict counterpoint. as 171) is unavailable. all As We S either in ascending or descending.) (Compare the counterpoint both belong to the harmony. therefore use. 185. they produce with the subject the effect of a three-part chord. The former is employed in passing between the dominant and the leading note. It is seldom that a subject for strict counterpoint ends with the step from leading note to tonic.

as at (). thereof counterpoint the minor seventh fore. v. be We A D /-4 1- . 81 seventh in ascending or descending between tonic. in two consecutive bars. because the root makes The only other thing to be with it the dissonance of a fourth. as at (<:). under certain limitations. the second note being know that the following chord must have What is to be the intermediate note? It flat in the bass. outline of the harmony. for this must be capable of being taken in any part. it is a dissonance to the G above it. and still more rarely needhis counterpoints. may nwer bass when the root is in an upper part. It is rarely good. submediant and S *== 187.Chap. that in the second species of the minor key cannot be used as a harmony note. that the minor seventh of the scale could also be used as a harmony note in the But bass. It is clear. We saw in the last chapter ( 132).j TWO-PART: SECOND SPECJES. though a note of the harmony. to say nothing of the leap of an augmented fourth immediately afterIt is very important to remember that the. because passing notes should only be left in this manner when they are in an upper part ( 166). for though D is a note of the harmony. will be still worse. Afe ( 165). and the note would therefore be wrong when the subject was not in the bass . done is to follow the bass note B by a passing note C. It clearly cannot be in the subject. this note cannot be used. To take At left (a) to we have the filled up. and this cannot be done here. to repeat the same figure exactly for the e. in the second species of counterpoint. ful. which were then explained. and as it must descend to the submediant for the next harmony. fifth of any wards. be sounded in the chord. cannot be G. it will be seen that it is im- possible to follow it properly. second note.g. which leaps a third to the next harmony note. It will be well to warn the student against monotony in 1 88. for this will give us the root position of a chord which may only be used in the first inversion.

instead of ( 188). Even if we leap from the passing note. D (165). following would also be very weak In this case for the A little thought will always enable the student to avoid faults of this kind. B. it would be just as easy. whether strict or free. the former would have to be followed either by A (making consecutive fifths) or by C. because of the monotonous repetition of the three notes In bar 4 we have taken the harmony note. E. it will not be needful to work our examples in all possible positions. . will We now second species.82 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. give a few specimens of counterpoint of the After the full explanations given in the last chapter of the general principles of chord selection. We take first a simple subject in a major key 189. and much better. for a similar ABC reason. V. The only possible passing note after C would be B or D. which is dissonant to tiie subject. the last four bars of the counterpoint would have been This would have been much weaker than the one we have given. to put D Such a passage as the second note of the first bar. 190. and cannot then get a good cadence ( 183). the passing note. and write a counterpoint above in the treble "" T ~l 1 ?~~ 1 C-' 1 II \a Va Via IV a VIU Notice that at (a) it is impossible to have a passing note for the second note of the counterpoint. to get the other form of cadence. which apply alike to all kinds of counterpoint. We will first it take this subject in the alto. we are in this case no better off. while D could only havo been followed by E or C. for we must leap to B. at the second half of the bar. If in the sixth bar we had taken a leap from C to G.

because it the submediant. Va la Notice how at (a) the hidden fifths in the harmony are saved by second note of the bar. 1 Via lb I -==&E lla Vllb Va Ilia la At is (a) the root position of the possible to follow it case. Let us now put the subject in the treble. as it . marked VII rather than Ha. It is not needful to mark \b under the E of the tenor. and put Va. the tenor might have fallen an octave to the root. 191. Our last example will have the subject in the bass. if they enable the counterpoint. 193. and compare At (b) two 178. unless there are two chords against one note of the But this principle subject. to flow more smoothly. We next place the subject. This is done intentionally. the counterpoint in the tenor (a) (*) 1 la. need not be always avoided.] TWO-PART: SECOND SPECIES. to illustrate its possibility it would have been The second chord is quite easy here to have only one chord. and the . because the former is here better than the latter to precede \b. chose the 180. and the counterpoint in the bass I* V* Via IV* 1Mb VI \b \!. instead of to the third of the chord. Octaves on the accented beats. We because large leaps are to be avoided as much as possible. as here. Had this not been the by would have been better to take the third chord as I/>. The accented beat determines the harmony. does not prevent the necessity for observing the caution given in latter. chords are introduced against one note of the subject. 192. as in the fourth bar. as before in the a counterpoint below it in the tenor alto. At the sixth bar. mediant chord is used.Chap. V.

We now place the subject in the lower voice VII* la . of course. as it is important that the student should not associate the different species of counterpoint with notes of a fixed length for example. below the subject. V. We now take the same subject in a minor key. 197. that he should not always think of the second species of counterpoint as being in minims^ We will we shall vary the lengths of notes in our subjects. 195.84 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. step to a passing note at tenor rather high. Our next example subject in alto. therefore now write the subject in minims . and the last bar but one would have had two leaps of a sixth D m bass i Notice at (b) the minor seventh of the scale taken as a passing note between submediant and tonic ( 186). and two above it. counterpoint in S Via is la so simple as to need no explanation. At (b) we have employed the form of in the example to 190. In our first example the subject is in the treble. the counterpoint We will give two counterpoints must. counterpoint in the tenor ss L'll tt la IVa la Va la The downward leap of the octave at (a) is better here than the the latter would have taken the . In the 194. be in crotchets. cadence which implies two chords in the bar. 196. and the written in . older books on Counterpoint the subject is almost invariably semibreves but.

example. as in 140. natural flow of the counterpoint which results. the passage would have been wrong. for counterpoint of the student may also work exercises on some of the subjects given at the end of Chapter IV. In our last example it and Va U Via IU U VII* la illustrated at (a) the treatment of passing notes left by Here their use is fully justified by the leap of a third ( 165). but there is need not be enforced. The SUBJECTS.. a perfect concord in no valid reason for the At (a) 141- we have begun with the third of the The old theorists always began with ( two-part counterpoint restriction. We now give a few subjects second species. but an accented passing note. 198. 199. It looks the same as the cadence which we have already seen in a major key in 193. | TWO-PART: SECOND SPECIES. In this form of cadence. chord. V. The cadence at (b) must be specially noticed. 123). but he is advised to avoid for this species subjects with notes of unequal length. taken and left by step ( Had the note of the 168). therefore.Chap. counterpoint preceding Efl been G instead of D. not (as in the major key) two chords on one note of the subject. The cadence at (b) will almost always be better in a minor key than that shown in we have our last. rrrrr m ^ H =r" 4=1 1*" i . as a passing note between dominant and leading note ( 186). we have. but in reality it is The major sixth in a minor key can only be used quite different.

1. because there is not the same necessity for it. we shall therefore speak of it first. that is.1 Va Possible. not incorrect . and on the fourth at (b). As in the first and second species. Bad. Usually a two chords . each be of half the length of the note of the subject. moreover. and never on the second or fourth. and fourth notes of the counterpoint may be either notes of the harmony. The second. as in the second species. but in the third species of counterpoint in a bar seldom produce a good effect. it is always In this respect. The reason for this is that the two chords must. If against each note of the subject more than two notes of equal value are to be placed. it is best to have only one chord against each note of the subject . the first note of :he counterpoint. the note sounded together with the subject. With four notes against one. Of these. I ' 0) I I I J IVb . 203. At (a) the second crotchet is clearly a harmony note . THIRD SPECIES. hardly ever necessary. changed on the third note of the counterpoint. the counterpoint is said to be of It is possible to have either three. it is easier than either the first or second species. eight notes to each one of the subject . CHAPTER TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT : VI. it would here be above the harmony note ( 165). though it is possible (as in the second species). four. or passing notes. 200. is not allowed here. must be a concord. In this species. the harmony must always be against one note. rchao. possible to make the counterpoint flow smoothly.86 COUNTERPOINT . indeed. the latter is by far the more important . 204. it were a passing note left by leap of a third. fr) J I IVb Via Via IV 6 Via 202. but the only combinations at all frequently met with are those containing three or four notes in the counterpoint. third. of taking a passing note by step against a note of the subject. Similarly the F in example (b) must be a harmony note . and in both these examples the change it of second crotchet at (c) is harmony takes place at the wrong part of the bar on the The progression at (a). and are. (*)J I 1 Bad. The license occasionally permitted in the second species ( 168). six. or the Third Species. 201. as in those already treated of. also to have two chords In this case.

If two harmony notes are at an interval of a fourth from one another. 253. (Harmony. as a counterpoint consisting ot only the arpeggio of a chord has mostly a rather weak effect. when But in the third species passing or they were a second apart. (Harmony. returns to the first passing note. At A A somewhat fully. 206.) not return to the first passing note (even though by a change of chord the latter may have become a harmony note). first chord.. though it is not absolutely prohibited. < 208. and left by step. If a second passing note follows the first.i TWO-PART : THIRD SPECIES. but must proceed in the same direction till it reaches the next note of the This rule is observed in the above examples. _ the second passing note. but they can also be used in other ways. real nature is frequently go wrong than these notes. of counter207. the latter may 257. because their We shall therefore explain their employment misunderstood. Auxiliary notes were defined in the last chapter " as notes taken by step of a second from a note of a chord. C. said in 170 that it was im- We possible in the second species to use a passing note between two harmony notes lying a fourth apart. but has now become a fact that note of the harmony. two passing notes can be introduced between them. 205. chord. At () they belong to two different chords. The rule for their treatment is precisely the same as in harmony. belong to the same At (a) the two harmony notes. exactly as in the second species . to show the incorrect progression G We fr) (</) . instead of going on to the (c) It does next harmony note. will now vary them. and also. 87 combination of the two is taken. auxiliary notes can be employed in both these cases. and . very important part is played in this species notes. The treatment of passing and auxiliary notes in this Such notes can be taken species will require careful attention. to i (*) and C. B. in some cases. point by the notes known as changing There is nothing about which students are more apt to 258). the same thing at (d\ and the progression is not justified by the is no longer a passing note.

' D Not good v l-n . they should be taken on the second and third notes of the counterpoint. j i J_. 211. but only auxiliary notes wrongly treated. 209. so that the harmony note lying between them may be heard as part of the same chord.. now leaps over it to the auxiliary note. on the other side. the auxiliary notes which are taken in this manner are called " changing notes. Good. Such passages as the following are very bad m j ' _j i . At (d) the second note of example (b) is similarly treated. rather than on the third and fourth. and not continue in the other direction. When changing notes are employed in counterpoint of four notes against one. he will see that at (c) the higher of . first leaps a third to another auxiliary note on the opposite side. ! =! l-t-J We shall see presently (237).88 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. . Now By comparing (c) with (a) it will be seen that the F. vi Such returning to the same harmony note which preceded them. and then returns to the harmony note lying between the two." if. 210. If the student looks at the two examples of changing notes at (t) and (d) of 208.L c-<&- The notes F and of these examples are not now changing notes at all. which before returned direct to E. that if changing notes are used in counterpoint of three notes against one this weak effect cannot be avoided but with four notes to one the rule given here should be strictly attended to." notes may be taken either above or below the harmony note one of these notes instead of returning immediately to the harmony note. It is absolutely necessary that the second of the changing notes should return to the note which it leapt over. If the harmony note is not heard till the following chord the effect is not good. D. and then returns.

If the harmony note moves by step. . B. reversed.chap. It is also generally not good to anticipate an accented note of the melody on a less accented beat. the second of these two will come on the half accent. or a third lower. The case is different when the two harmony notes lie If we now take the changing notes a distance of a third apart. (<:) as at and i (d) in the last section. if the next harmony note is a second higher. . and at The answer to (d} the lower. 212. depends entirely on what is the next note of the harmony. i i i ! the effect will not be satisfactory. It was said in 66 that it was mostly bad to anticipate the chord of an accented beat on the preceding unaccented beat. does the same in example (b}. the question. The progression is now in every way better. (Compare Here therefore the order of the changing notes should be 23). which of these two forms should be taken in any one instance. As the changing notes are to be the second and third of the four notes of the counterpoint. thus D S at "^ 213. Anticipations in their harmonic sense (Harmony. . The general rule may be thus stated: notes above and below the same harmony notes are employed. and more sym- metrical. 263) are not available in strict counterpoint. the harmony note moves by step. therefore. When. the upper changing note should be taken first . and whether that note is taken by leap or by step. will evidently anticipate it. it is best for the second changing note to be at the distance of a third from it. for we now precede a leap to an accented note by a step in the same direction. vi. W . if it be the same as the following harmony note. the second changing note. 89 the two notes comes first.j TWO-PART: THIRD SPECIES. S ** Here the third crotchet. at (a) anticipates the accented B of the next bar . When changing 214. if the next harmony .

When two harmony notes are at a distance of a fourth apart. the same rule will apply as with the leap of a third.. it will seldom be necessary to use changing notes at all. 215. instead of to another passing note. not to another passing note. the major sixth and minor seventh. 218. The second note. or a third higher. 1 Bad. V1 . 216. under the same conditions as with the second species ( D 1 86).90 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. 217. it is . A little thought will show the student that changing notes are impossible when there are two chords on one note of the subject . and then at once return . If the following harmony note leaps more than a third. B. One of the commonest made by beginners will be seen in the following : examples 4 _ Bad. . : 220. In this case. When. note is a second lower. leap to the next note beyond it. B leaps a third to a harmony note. When the sixth and seventh of the minor scale are taken consecutive passing notes between dominant and tonic. J J <!Ll- At is a passing note. instead of moving direct to the second harmony note. the lower changing note should come first. must be a passing note. for the harmony cannot be changed on the second note of the counterpoint (201). There is the same mistake at (b). another note of the same chord. These will also be available as changing notes. but it leaps. 219. however. It must never be forgotten that the second of two changing notes must ahuays return at once to the note lying between itself and the first changing note. The chord is the first inversion of the chord of C. at a distance of a third from the first note. but we have already said ( 202) that this is seldom either necessary or desirable in the third species of counterpoint. but to a harmony note . There is another case in which we can employ changing notes in this species of counterpoint. instead of the repetition of the same harmony note for the fourth note of the counterpoint (as in all the cases we have hitherto been considering). e. the passing note lying between the two may. and it then returns to a passing note. In the minor key. is taken. we take as passing notes. for the sixth and seventh degrees of the scale.g.() i i J i (fl i . mistakes changing notes are unavailable. (a) the chord is that of F .

the fifths and octaves 'are not both the progression is not bad.j TWO-PART: THIRD sixth in descending SPECIES. though even then it is best to avoid it between two accented notes Good. in ascending. under the same restrictions as in the first species It must be followed by the submediant as the next (132). though not in the second. Not so good. but in a descending passage we require the fall of a semitone to the dominant. . and therefore use the leading note . and it will therefore be needful here to use changing notes feel the The reason need of the &C. A comparison why Bad. VJ. The older masters occasionally used the major sixth and seventh also in descending. (See the quotation from Handel in Harmony. best to use the major sixth and seventh minor seventh and and the I of the difference is that in an ascending passage we rise of a semitone to the tonic. provided the fijths or octaves are the extreme notes of the harmony. harmony note. 222. 170. however. and represents the chord accompanying the note of the subject. Such progressions will also be bad between other notes of the counterpoint than the first. r r of this example with 187 will show the student the minor seventh can be thus employed in the third species. If. The minor seventh of the scale can be used as a harmony note in the bass.) 221. As the first note of the counterpoint must be a harmony note. extreme notes.Cnap. consecutive fifths and octaves are not allowed from one first note to the next.

(a) Good. (b) Good. G. allowed in an arpeggio of the dominant chord. 223. w^^ . because But in the it stood at the interval of a fourth below that note. a passing note. * r Bad. (d) Bad. G A (c) Good. A. should be but sparingly used. however. the C. at (c) is. It would be possible. (d) Bad. This is possible doubling of the leading note in this species. though tolerated for the sake of the melodic progression. The student will see the reason of the difference by referring to 175178.92 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. provided the It is leading note is not the first. is correctly inThe F troduced. because in the former the fifth is the highest. At (a) (ft) (f) the fifth of the chord. * (^) ' ' r Good. both as regards time and place. because it is the middle note of an arpeggio. Such a passage. somewhat parallel case to that just noticed is the 225. highest. or lowest note. G. and in the These examples latter it is the lowest note of the counterpoint. when it has the character of a passing note. The are also weak because they are only arpeggios (204). and E being the The examples at (d) and (e) are three notes of the harmony. nor the highest or lowest of the four. at the end of the first bar is passage at (/) is wrong because both the highest and the last note of the chord of C. (c) Good. We said in the last chapter (187) that the fifth of a chord could not be sounded in the bass below the root. bad. third species. to use the progression at (g). of course. however. r (e) * (/) ' * Bad. continuing in the same direction till it reaches the next harmony note. r ( r F r r L F T F i u * ~~t r F r r 224. it comes between other notes of the same chord that is to say that it is not the last note (obviously it cannot be the first). (*) Gcod. last. in which case the last note (G) of the first bar has the character of a second passing note. also permitted when taken in the middle of a passage in conjunct motion. VI . the fifth can be used in the bass provided that.

to passing note.Chap. make the matter clearer. (c) _ Bad. and. at 223 (g) how a note which was 226. 93 saw just now. \d) Good. unavailable as a harmony note might be used if considered as a Example (e) of 225 is a case in point. vi. (b) Good.] TWO-PART: THIRD SPECIES. we add a few others. ^t . (a) We Bad.

The best forms of cadence in this species will be the following () : (*) (f) (d) (e) ST-TFor the management of the changing notes.vi Like the second ( 162). (d) Not so good. As patterns for his guidance. If the student has thoroughly understood the instructions given. he will find counterpoint of four notes against one much easier to write than either the first or second species. see 214. S . than that at (d). we give a few examples. and afterwards one above it. counterpoint begins with the dominant. is less good leading note. though possible.^" (a] (b) At is are by the supertonic . in order to give him a better opportunity of comparing the different species of We will first take a subject in a major key. of the third species should begin with a rest of the same value as the note that follows it. put one counterpoint below it. shown the cadence when the tonic in the subject I 1 . and counterpoint. We do this in preference to taking new subjects. L s It is hardly needful to remind the student that the note following the rest must be a concord ( 182). The student will readily see why such forms of : cadence as the following are not permissible preceded preceded by the r f we have r f 231.94 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. and at (c) (d) when it is The cadence at (<?). 230. choosing some of the subjects we have already worked with in previous chapters.

for it implies Vila. first note. is one that cannot be used in the bass. though a note of the chord. note. At (a) we see the fifth of the chord in the middle of an arpeggio. it is generally better to vary the figure in two consecutive bars. if E be considered as a harmony note. the preceding G will be a passing note left by leap while if E be taken as a changing note. as other notes are interposed. next place the subject in the bass 233. ally This subject was used for counterpoint of the first species (88 1*4 -145). This is a mistake often made by students we therefore warn them At against it. the the same as the first note in the bar. have gone wrong. As we have written this counterpoint without look- There is no objection to this. preceding is 232. serves to show how practically exhaustless are the resources of counterpoint. . we have here a new series of root-progressions which we had not previously used for this subject. We IV 6 . because G is treated as a At (f) the beginner would very probably passing note ( 226). he will find that although we had already written cwelve different counterpoints on it. 95 ing at those previously given.Chap. so as not to repeat exactly the figure of the counterpoint in the preceding bar. VI. and written the counterpoint ii*r^-=*-J~j~["^~ Here. . G. In the second bar of this counterpoint. (d) we have written B as the second note instead of a changing . and the rule against the repetition of the same note in the lower voice does not apply in such a case. according to the rule given in At 223. ]. the following F$. Though this would not have been absolutely wrong. If the student will compare the examples there given with the present one. TWO-PART: THIRD SPECIES. (b) no second inversion is implied. even under the restrictions we are now imposing on ourselves. Ff. the fact that we have here accidentobtained a different harmony.

necessary. gressions. 235. We now take a subject in a minor key. it is clear that we can introduce two con- . In this case each note of the subject must evidently be a dotted note. At (b) is a case in which changing notes are advisable. tonic to dominant ( 220). 234. At (a) the major sixth of the scale is taken as the passing note between dominant and leading note ( 186). This is not so necessary here as when there is only one note of the counterpoint to each note of the while to is Va IVa Observe also that subject. and less weak. As there will be two intermediate notes between each note of the harmony. Only one chord should be used against each note of the subject. and an arpeggio of a chord is more often necessary. 237. and at (e) Efl is a changing note (219). Ib. Counterpoint of three notes to one is much less frequently employed. At (b) the minor seventh and sixth are used as passing notes in descending from For the treatment of the note D at (c).96 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. compare (b} of example (231). 236. VI. though the following harmony note This was not absolutely is a fourth from the preceding ( 215). (Compare 195-198-). than with four notes to one. sixth and minor seventh of the scale is the same as in the last (a) At we commence with more usual) with the root or example. We now put a counterpoint above the subject the third of the chord. (See Table of Root Proin the three consecutive first inversions (lid. but we get a better melody than by working it in The treatment of the passing notes with the major another way. VII). instead of (as is fifth. and less useful than that with four notes to one. At (d) the minor seventh is taken as the passing note."} only a possible one. the sixth is not the upper note on each accented beat.

rather than to the second. because the D comes. I . provided that the note to which the second passing note must proceed ( 206) be a note of the following chord. r Changing notes may also be employed under the same conditions . of changing notes. now give a few specimens of this variety. Had D been the first note. Bad.Chap. and F the second. both in time and place. WJ i (OS J sr first r' r ^ r* I.. J j I i j I f but as the harmony note following the second changing note forms part of a different chord. the pro- gression would have been wrong. and against one. vi. in which neither of these devices are available. The best forms of cadence in this variety of the third species are the following : () g ! i I. which makes counterpoint of three notes to one belong to the third species. 238. Good. 97 secutive passing notes.I . ] TWO-PART: THIRD SPECIES. between other notes of the same chord. the effect is less satisfactory here than with four notes It is the use of two consecutive passing notes. or of a different position of the same chord. . same subjects as before We . taking the 239.. 3 . i Notice that at (ft) the octaves between the second crotchet of the bar and the last note are not objectionable.

as both the notes of the seventh are unaccented notes. the progression would not have been good. vi. G . though it involves the leap of a seventh with one intermediate note ( 21). The leap at (c) from seen changing notes. In our next example the subject is below the counterpoint. to B. is here not bad.98 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. 240. If either had been accented.

Chap. 245. the beat one). counterpoint. For instance. Such a procedure should be sparingly resorted to. the following passage is quite good in compound time. or simple triple. shall conclude this chapter with a few words about 243. and the minor subject for the eight-note . 244. but the latter may not be employed as the last two notes. 99 242. At (b) we have intentionally introduced a seventh with only one intermediate note. in each of the bars. in order to point out that it is possible to do so when one of the notes of the interval is a passing note. one note of the subject are possible (as with four notes against this license six and eight notes. In counterpoint of six notes to one. harmony note following the changing notes should always be on the same note of the Two chords against subject as the changing notes themselves. varieties of the third species are very common. vi] TWO-PART: THIRD Our last SPECIES. because small leaps are always preferable to large ones. example (a) <) la Va U Via IVa Ib VIU la. IS 12 because of the repetition of the same group of two notes. It will be sufficient to give two specimens of each of We choose the major subject for the six-note these forms. marked i. will be easily understood. the student must notice whether the time is compound duple. rules needful to be given. Neither of these counterpoint with six or eight notes to one. or especially We useful . but it will be well that the student should work a few There are no new exercises of this kind for the sake of practice. . Notice at (a) how the hidden fifths from the preceding accented note have been saved ( 178). Passing notes and changing notes may be freely used. 2. as this makes a difference in the place of the secondary accents. but would be very weak in triple time. as with four. provided the change of harmony takes place at the half but one chord is generally preferable. With being confined to three notes against one.

U Note that the cadence at V3 would have been weak. will write the We . 4 Let next counterpoin'. where practicable. in 246. tme. and observe how often a dissonance is introduced on them. VI.100 COUNTERPOINT : L Chap. as just mentioned. to give more piquancy to the counterpoint. is better than a consonance on a secondary accent. in triple time. In general a dissonance. the student notice the place of the secondary accents.

101 248. better avoid subjects 3. three. and It will also be useful for alter the time signature accordingly. with four. six. these contain notes of different lengths. . chapter. it will be far is needless to more give profitable for him to write as many exercises as possible on those already given. and V. on any He had.] TWO-PART: THIRD S SPECIES. species. 6. and to try to find different counterpoints him additional subjects here . vi. The student can now work counterpoint of the third notes against one. it will be trouble. him to take the same subjects that we have worked in this It for them. and 8 of Chapter IV. or eight of the subjects given at the end of Chapters IV. which will cause him In writing counterpoint of three or six notes.. needful for him to put a dot after each note of the subject.Chap. as however.

monic progression such as the following (less We - : be seen that here the first note of each bar (a harmony note) is accented. FOURTH SPECIES. it is simply given for comparison with the preceding example. for nothing is sounded afresh on that beat . But we have just said that the first half of a note always bears a stronger accent than the second. and the second (a passing note) is unaccented. rcha. This is true as a general rule . therefore. half of which is in one bar. vn CHAPTER TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT : VII. The second minim of the bar. a word of which we must now explain the meaning. is called Syncopation* * The example of Syncopation here given is not to be regarded as a model specimen. -take a simple harposition of the accents. It will tr 6 m the position of the accented note in the upper voice is reversed. and half in the next. instead of moving by step to the passing note. and that if two or three notes in one voice be sounded against one note in another. 251. are varied by means of SYNCOPATION. but there is one case in which it is possible 'to reverse the Let us. in which passing notes were employed. In the fourth species of counterpoint. divided into halves. the second note of each bar leaps to the following harmony note at the half bar. . and that this second note is tied to the first note of the next bar.COUNTERPOINT. the first half always bears a stronger accent than the second. There can be no accent now on the first note of the bar. the first of the notes thus sounded will be the accented note. and frequently) the third species. bears a stronger accent than the This tied minim which follows at the beginning of the next bar. being in this case the first half of a semibreve. have already learned ( 163) that if any note is 250. the second. the two minims in the upper part which are tied make together a semibreve. 249. for instance. Now suppose that.

of the chord of C is suspended by the ninth . may not be shorter than the note to which it is tied. Each of the above suspensions may be taken with the third of the chord. vii.chap. Syncopation may be defined therefore as a reversal of tht naturalposition of the accent. the note on the unaccented beat). Such a progression is called a SUSPENSION (Harmo?iy. the tonic is suspended by the leading note. 253. in strict counterpoint. XIX). Every suspension implies also syncopation. It is not always needful that all the tied notes should be It is also possible to concords. though it may occasionally (as will be seen later) be longer. Either the root. ing the same letter in the suspension at (c). or (more rarely) the fifth of a chord can be suspended by the note above it. We shall see directly which suspensions can be used in provided counterpoint. it moves by step to one of the notes of that chord. in first inversion the bass. We have added a At (d) third part to the harmony. by tyin% the accented half of a bar or beai to the unaccented half of the It is important preceding bar or beat. to show the chords more clearly. But the only note which.] TWO-PART: FOURTH SPECIES. 103 252. -g> ^ \ -&- ^=$=&^=~ ^"^-T^T"^ O -&^f. strict though every syncopation does not involve suspension. which we saw was ambiguous in its root position. for it can no two is unavailable longer represent two chords. and at (c) the fifth is (ft) suspended by the sixth. the third. 254. is quite satisfactory in this inversion . at suspended by the fourth . is allowed to be suspended by the note below it is the tonic of the key. Chap. This last named suspension is less good than the other two. Any note of a chord can be syncopated if it be also a note of the following chord. as the first of the . hold a note of one chord over another of which it forms no part. because of the ambiguous nature of the sixth. to remember that the first of the two tied notes (that is. in their 256. At (a) the root the third is Let the student compare each example with the one bearIt is needful to remark that 255. or if it be at such a distance from one of the notes of that chord as to be available as the preparation of a suspension. instead of the root. which may be taken to imply a different chord. as in the example given in 251. 255.

VI I. as at (a) (b) But the suspension of the fifth by the sixth. The suspension of the root by third by the fourth can also be taken in the bass. Neither can the suspension at (d) reprein strict counterpoint. and the suspension of the tonic by the leading note. pEl i " . had better be sparingly used in strict counterpoint. evidently cannot be so taken.j 04 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. () 0) i fc> i <<*> . the ninth and of the 257. sent two chords . as at (c\ below. as at (d\ though possible. for the mediant chord in root position cannot be followed by the first inversion of the tonic ( 35).

It will. this should never be necessary to break the syncopation. as at (&) . Lastly. is always bad. it would be impossible to follow it by any note which could be syncopated If we take Efe. the note sounded with the subject as in the second species. and if treated as a suspension. therefore. unavoidable. and under no circumstances should the syncopation be broken for two consecutive bars . its resolution will make consecutive fifths. when The repetition of the resolved. syncopation had better not be used at all. every note of the counterpoint. it will often below. and must be a harmony note . 262. When the subject moves. with three or four notes to one. occasionally happen that it is impossible to introduce a syncopation at all. by step. but done unless. F.Chap. (See (a) consecutive thirds or sixths should not be employed. treat of the fourth species with two notes to one. however. Neither can we go to A. because the upper C is out of the range of the voice. here takes the place of the first note in the preceding species. a note which we know ( 1 1 8) is unavailable as a harmony note in the moves from submediant minor key above the dominant. ---i Let us suppose that the subject is in the bass.] TWO-PART : FOURTH SPECIES. An example will make this A . for this suspension. same note. and If the syncopated note to dominant. Where practicable. in a minor key. vi i. it would be absolutely 263. otherwise we have counterpoint of the second species. passing note cannot be syncopated. The second note. the first note may be either a harmony note or a suspension. is It must be remembered that whenever the syncopation will be the harmony broken. The rise of an octave is here impracticable. if C move to the only other possible note. as in these examples. Syncopation is much more frequently used as a variation of the second species (with two notes of the counterpoint to one of the subject) than of the third. except the last. which comes between the notes of the subject. as here. cannot be held over G as a harmony note ( 118). of the counterpoint were C. and should never be employed. In this progression. because the first half of a syncopated note must always be a concord. should be syncopated. as here. will give consecutive octaves. instead of the fourth.) . 261. note. which is rare at all We shall first times. 105 260. as at (a) this note over the G of the subject. In counterpoint of six or eight notes to one. as at (4 this note being dissonant to G must be treated as a suspension. and will resolve upon E. As in the first and second species. more than three 264. C.

For the sake of obtaining a good close. Better. The best form of cadence in this species one might is a variation of the say the only satisfactory form cadence of the first species ( 119. With this subject it would be far better to . it is always of the same length as the last note of the subject 265. these examples the cadence is made by suspending the leadBut if the subject ends as at (). and the it is clear that some other form of it. as at (b). if the counterpoint were an octave lower) between the Ds in the last bar but one and the final Cs. which would not be at all satisfactory here. is the^/?^. and cannot be used in the bass when the root is in an upper part (187). 1 would both be bad for the former would give bad hidden fifths. VII. because there is no syncopation. Another possible syncopation would be bad because of the unisons (or octaves. almost S In all r We ing note by the tonic. lib and Va. as in other species. The following syncopations i . and the latter would imply two chords in the bar. Here the in the third bar is counted as the harmony note. counterpoint is below cadence is necessary.) by means of a suspension. be better to break the syncopation for one bar. though a note of the chord. A Weak. the last note of the counterpoint is never syncopated .io6 Co UNTERPOINT / [Chap. because C. cannot now suspend B by C.

except when subject.g. and use species cadence of the second S A moment's thought will show the student that if the subject ends and is in the bass. choosing first the give same subject which we worked for the second species ( 189. If the subject given at (c) were in the upper voice. =*3=E *7 c -^ (a) (b] it is immaterial whether the we but at (<r) if we begin with counterpoint begins with C or must break the suspension . 266. 107 break the syncopation. syncopation will also be impossible. that the fourth species is the most difficult of all to work properly. it is here a less evil to begin with the The form inversion than to have no syncopation in the first bar. a few specimens with two notes against one. should therefore be chosen. we should either have to break the syncopation in the first bar. G r\ x ' r Though T I I it is always best to begin with the root position of the tonic chord. (ti) 268. on the half of the first note of the The first chord should always be the tonic. At G . e.] TWO-PART : FOURTH the SPECIES. and it is quite impossible to We now obtain as much variety of harmony as in other species. This species of counterpoint should begin after a rest (like the second and third). for a second cannot move to a unison. where possible. or to commence with a first inversion.) VIL* . 267. the subject begins on the dominant. The necessity for the employment of syncopation restricts the student's choice so much. Which note of the chord is taken in the counterpoint depends on what follows.Chap. VII.

In our next example. in order to obtain more variety. while the lower F. little explanation. 269. there would have been sixth. we begin with the third at the top. Notice that at (a) the octave of the subject is taken in preference to the fifth or Had E been written instead of A.io8 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. therefore chose the octave for the sake of a more flowing melody. would have involved two successive leaps of a fifth and a sixth in the counterpoint. though possible. with both parts leaping . VII. This counterpoint requires We its? 2 . had we taken the upper F. there would have been five consecutive sixths with the bass . objectionable hidden fifths.

Chap. VII. J

TWO-PART : FOURTH

SPECIES.

109

compare the suspension at (a) with that in the last example other progression would be good here. The counterpoint at deserves attention. At first it looks as if we
rule
(
1

No
(ft

the bar. chord, la ; because II a cannot be followed by la. We have here therefore two chords in the bar. The C in the bass must represent la; for if we take it as VIJ, we shall certainly imply consecutive fifths with the following chord. 272. If the student will compare the example last given with that in 268, he will see that the counterpoints are identical, in the one case above the being subject, and in the other below it.

sight had broken our 80), and implied a second inversion at the beginning of That this is not really the case is shown by the following

Here, therefore, we have an example of Double Counterpoint in
the octave
(

6).

273. In the minor key our difficulties in this species are increased by the limited number of chords available. To illustrate
this

we

will

choose a subject which gives very

little

variety.

Here the
third,
it.

first

sixth,

inversions,

The
will

and last chords must evidently be la. The second, and seventh, notes of the subject can only bear first and the dominant can only take a root position above

We

now

only note of this subject whiqh allows any choice is F. write two counterpoints above the subject, and then

put two below it. 274. In our first example

*/

1

1

N
(a)

X

N

^

S

^fel-^

-H

9
1

^
1

'
1
1

~

=

HO
last

CO UNTERPOINT :

[Chap. VII.

The close of this counterpoint at (b] is rather example. But, if we weak, owing to the repetition of the two notes Fjf G. had taken the upper D instead of Fjf, we should have objectionwould have given the unison, able hidden octaves ; the lower which should be avoided on an accented beat, except on the first and last notes. We cannot repeat the note A ; there is therefore This no other good note, without breaking the syncopation. might have been broken from (a) thus

D

but we have preferred to work the exercise as strictly as possible, and thus to show the difficulty often to be found in making a
that shall keep closely to the regards musical effect, it would certainly be preferable here to break the syncopation. now place the counterpoint below the subject. 276.
really

satisfactory counterpoint

fourth species.

As

We

Chap, vii.]

TWO-PART: FOURTH

SPECIES.

in

the same as in the last example. We therefore take the octave C at the half bar. At (b) is seen the last inversion of the suspended ninth. In general it is not good that the note on which a susresolves should appear above it pension but it is possible when ; all the parts move by step (Harmony, 517). In the present case the implied harmony shows that all the must do so.
parts

be taken as a suspension; for its resolution would be on Dfl which would give as the chord Vila. If we go to A for the second note of the next bar, the rest of the counterpoint must be

up the four-part harmony in the most natural the fourth note of the subject been instead of A, the suspension of the ninth below the root would have been bad. Notice how at (c) the effect of an implied second inversion is saved by the position of the notes, as at 270. (b) of 278. In both the counterpoints last given the subject is in the alto voice ; but the student will notice that in the first it is in C As it has a compass of minor, and in the second in E minor. We only a fifth, it lies equally well for the alto in both keys. have transposed it a third for the second example, because the tenor part, had it been written in C minor, would have been too low. The student must always exercise his judgment in the selection of the key for his subject, bearing in mind not only the compass of the subject itself, but the probable compass of the counterpoint he intends to write above or below it. 279. Syncopation is much rarer in counterpoint of three notes The extra note of the counterpoint against one, than of two. often makes this form easier to work, especially when the subFew new rules will be necessary. It will ject is in the bass. never be needful with three notes to one to break the synThe first note of the counterpoint must be either a copation. tied harmony note, or a suspension ; the third must always be a harmony note. If the first note be a harmony note, the second may be either another harmony note, or a passing note. If the first note be a suspension, the second will generally,
filled

Here we have

position.

Had

G

though not invariably, be its resolution. 280. In the species we are now explaining it is sometimes allowed to introduce an ornamental resolution of a suspension. " " By an ornamental resolution is meant the interposing of a note between the suspension and its proper resolution. The resolution itself will of course then be the third note of the counterpoint.

281.

The note

interposed between the

suspension and

its

112
resolution
is

COUNTERPOINT :

[Chap. VII

the suspension changing note
this

usually in this species a note of the chord over which is held ; but it is possible for it also to be a
(

208).

The

following example

will

illustrate

nrj

J

r

Chap. VII.]

TWO-PART: FOURTH

SPECIES.

same subjects

as before. After the full explanations given of previous examples very few notes will now be needful.

V*

U

Via

IVa

U

V1U

la

small notes at (a) give the alternative ornamental resolution of the suspension. The same thing will be seen at the end of the following example. 285. The counterpoint becomes more difficult to work well when in the bass.

The

S

I

here. with an ornamental resolution. No new rules are necessary . a changing note in the ornamental resolution. that we shall content ourselves with giving shows the use of a G two examples. and he will almost certainly find himself in trouble.ii4 COUNTERPOINT: at (a) [Chap. At (c} we see the form of cadence given in 283. 288. do what he will. or. on the third. and this species is of so little practical utility. Counterpoint of four notes against one with syncopation Here the fourth note of one bar is tied to the is extremely rare. and try to continue the counterpoint for the next two bars. vn. s ilf- . and if there be a suspension it may either resolve on the second note of the bar. first of the next . At (b) new chord on the third crotchet gets us out of a Let the student take any other note instead of serious difficulty.

and.0 291. j . course. either | minims (a) much more usual to substitute for one of the two crotchets. or a crotchet followed by two quavers.Chap. i (*) _ ^-* ix s i r II J *L*-y _^ |_ M At (a) two crotchets replace the first minim. The second species. if it be. We shall for the present take only subjects with notes of uniform length. Still it is to a certain extent true that the various preceding species. are used in florid counterpoint. species as that in of different lengths. in explaining this species. however. TWO-PART: FIFTH SPECIES. in which case the notes of the will be of only half the counterpoint length which they would be It is. and we shall first show how and what modifications are necessary. SPECIES. speaking of those which contain notes of different lengths when we come to treat of Free Counterpoint. The fifth species of Counterpoint is known as Florid Some theorists speak of this species as a comCounterpoint. to consider the subject as always written in semibreves it is. and at (6) a crotchet . generally in a modified form. though not absolutely forbidden. II5 CHAPTER VIII. be simpler and better to define the which the subject is accompanied by notes it will case. see. is very rarely used. The first species can only be employed against the last note of the subject. It will be convenient. while others describe it as a variation of the fourth species. TWO-PART COUNTERPOINT: FIFTH 290. 292. VIH. pound of the four preceding. i^s i ^ =^--"fc=^ . . possible to write it also in minims. far this is the were the subject in semibreves. is quite fifth accurate . the second note should be tied to the first note of the following bar. Neither as we shall definition. which here (as in all the other species) must be accompanied by a note of its own length. of .

because of the false impression produced by the rhythm.n6 retained. simply because of its longer The passage will sound as if written thus duration. But the treatment of this differs in one essential particular from that shown in the last chapter. 294. The fourth species is never employed here in the simple form given in the last chapter. We shall explain the treatment of quavers later in this chapter (301). except in the last bar but one. 295. As this is a matter which is often very imperfectly understood by students. that is by the arrangement of the accents. he will involuntarily give a stronger accent to the minims than he does to the shorter notes. When an ornamental resolution is employed in the fourth species. it will be well to explain it. 293. note of the subject may be employed. and two quavers do the same. as at (a) and (b) of 292. COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. taken on the second half of a bar after shorter notes in the first half. which should only be done when the minim is syncopated. of the minim is naturally greater. 297. At (c) (d) the first minim is and shorter notes are substituted for the second. vm. But in . it takes the place of the regular resolution. unless he takes special care to mark strongly This is because the mental effect the first crotchet of each bar. with the limitation to be given presently ( 310) but generally two quavers are substituted for one of the unaccented crotchets the second or fourth. The student will notice that at (a) and (b) of this example It is very imthe minim is tied to a crotchet in the next bar. except with syncopations. Though syncopation is often used in the fifth species. it is invariably with ornamentation ( 280). . such a first half. which is deferred one beat later. passage as this m7 p* will r r * i * * J * !* u-* i r &c I i * i be distinctly bad. The third species is the only one of the four which is fre- Four crotchets against one quently used in florid counterpoint. T3 We know already I J J ^E that the first half of each bar should bear the But if a minim is strongest accent. but it is inappropriate in contrapuntal writing. in counterpoint of three notes to one. portant to remember that this should always be done when a minim on the second half of a bar follows shorter notes on the For example. If anyone plays the above melody on the piano. 296. it throws the accent on to that second half. In actual practice such an effect is not infrequent .

it is very common to -use two quavers taken by In this case. VIII. it must return to the suspension. as at (c\ is not good in this species. and the second crotchet (the ornamentation) is a note of the chord. the position of the resolution is not changed. TWO-PART: FIFTH SPECIES. there is another variety peculiar to the fifth.Chap. as in the fourth species . as in examples (a) and (b) of 292. of the two quavers is the note on which the suspension is going to resolve. and not above it . resolves. -i Not good . The ornamentation by means of a changing note. 1 17 the fifth species. but the suspended note itself is shortened by one half. because. its second half being occupied by the ornamental resolution. In addition to the forms of ornamental resolution available for the fourth species. If the first quaver is the note above the suspension. 298. except occasionally in triple time. k^~l i i- I S we see the plain syncopation. it is (a) (b) At never necessary. as we shall see immediately. The resolution comes. as before. ** (J) ** t With the suspended leading note. the of course. second quaver should be above which resolves upwards. if the first step. as at (b) and (c} of 297. at the suspended note is only a crotchet instead of a minim. because the repetition of the suspension and resolution will produce a very weak Good. which then * # r-/- . effect. Instead of following the suspension by a crotchet.*+ in this species. for the same reason. the second quaver should be below the first. on the third crotchet of the bar.

If the syncopated note be a harmony note instead of a suspension. When two quavers are used they should not be at a greater distance than a second from one another. 303. the second or fourth. stituted for a crotchet. when the second or fourth crotchet is undivided. ^ ^ . we get the same kind of disturbed accent which we have already spoken of in 293. The employment of quavers in this species is a matter It is not generally advisable to introrequiring some attention. and for the same reason. the tied note at the beginning of the bar should be only a crotchet. s -& 301. duce more than one group of quavers into the same bar. that is to say. C<O * Bad. leap between them is bad. * (c) Bad. (a) Good. and two When two quavers are subquavers are mostly better than four. it should always be on an unaccented beat If taken on the first or third crotchet.n8 this COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. A All the above examples are objectionable. Students are especially prone to make the mistake shown at (a). 304. it should be treated after the same manner . and should be followed either by another crotchet or by two quavers Not good. (J) Good. * 302. ^ fGood. follow them. and to use changing notes of smaller value than the harmony notes which precede and This is invariably bad. vui. passage will therefore be wrong The following 300. but group of four quavers is possible on either half of a should not be employed on the first (or accented) half. if a consonance. must take place on the third beat of the bar. ) |^ Good. A it bar . . provided it is left by step. The first of two quavers may be taken by leap.

when it returns by conjunct motion to the resolution of the suspension. 306. half of the bar is thus divided into shorter parts. and to follow this by a minim. when the harmony note will of course be on the third beat. . It is possible to use the fourth species with four notes against one ( 288) also in this species. Though not We ^ 0) (f) S (d ) (f) Not so good. With four quavers the rule given with regard to two may be relaxed where. as here. as in the preceding. to begin with a crotchet As the first (after a crotchet rest). the minim. it 305. The too fre- student advised not to use groups of four quavers quently. and fourth species 308. 119 tied to the last note of the quaver preceding bar. have seen in the second. tying the fourth crotchet of the first bar to the first of the next absolutely prohibited. 307. If four quavers are taken is not necessary that the first is on the second half of the bar. The same rule applies As notes of different lengths are used here.] TWO-PART: FIFTH first is SPECIES. that it is best for the first bar of the counterpoint to begin with a rest of the same value as its first note. be tied to the first note of the next bar ( 293). one should be tied. and by far the best. At (b) the second quaver is taken by leap from the first. must. it is possible to begin either with a minim or with a crotchet. otherwise the longer notes following the quavers produce the effect of misplaced accent of in spoken 294. The passage is * an embellishment of jj}~ j ^^j) . we have an ornamental resolution of a suspension. but it is most usual. to the fifth species. and its employment is therefore not to be recommended. It will be best in this species. the effect of such a counterpoint as this can hardly be called satisfactory . to employ only one chord in each bar. of course. unless there be a syncopation. The first quaver leaps to a harmony note. viii. third. M Not good.chap. The first note of each bar must be a harmony note. Good - unless the / Good.

if we vary the counterpoint (b} of the last example thus in the a change in the third bar both There is so much scope for A variety in this species that there is no excuse for monotony. . he will be already over the worst of it ceases to be so weak.120 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. and is in the upper part. Thus. There is. It will be seen that the . and the best forms of cadence will be -fc =P= species offers us much more is most desirable that the student should as far as possible make use of the opportunities For this reason it is rarely good that two or thus afforded him. 309. If the subject ends as the second half would require to be tied. Observe in these cadences the exception to the rule given in In any other bar than the last but one. the minim in 293. Such passages as the following are therefore not good exactly i i 311. If he has thoroughly grasped the general principles laid down in preceding chapters. for two-part counterpoint. than the fourth. fifth variety than any of the others and it more consecutive bars of counterpoint should be constructed on the same pattern. for there is melodic and rhythmic pattern. at (I)} above. vin. The student will find the fifth species of counterpoint much easier. that is. are ornamented forms of the cadences for the fourth species shown in 265. The best forms of cadence in this species. however. ic will (as in the fourth species) be impossible to have a syncopation. which contains a syncopation in every bar except counterpoint the last should always be avoided as monotonous. provided that the ornamental resolution be not identical in all. as well as much more interesting to work. 312. 310. not the same objection to two or even three consecutive bars of syncopation. should resemble one another both in rhythmic and melodic outline.

four consecutive sixths between counterpoint and subject. for the sake of comparison. we examples. Observe also that there are not. because at (a) the note C. but will and fourth bars of be seen that they are differently preceded. VIII. as would appear at first sight. consecutive bars are of exactly the same pattern. is a harmony note.Chap. though tied from the preceding bar. illustrative will It will not be needful to give more than a very few As before. take the same subjects which we worked in the last chapter. We now put a counterpoint below the same subject 313.] TWO-PART . 314. student should also notice that no S ff?= . 121 his troubles. this At the it tions. la Va third Ib IVb Ib VIU la example are syncopaand The two differently followed. FIFTH SPECIES.

be needful for this . In our last example. VI 11. It will be seen that the cadence is almost identical with that which was employed with the subject in common time. as bad: to have taken F instead of quaver. and one in a minor key.122 CO UNTERPOINT : it [Chap. This device should be seldom employed . Counterpoint of the fifth species can also be written in No new rules will triple time. with the subject in dotted notes. . at (a) 302. but it may be as well to say that groups of four quavers can be more freely and advantageously introduced here than when the subject is in common time. taking the same subjects as before. give two examples. because of the momentary consecutive octaves. la Vb we have used for the first time four consecutive quavers at (a). which would have been objectionable though the F is only part of an ornamental resolution At (a) would have been D the first 316. one in a major. are of the same value as the preceding and following harmony notes. we have introduced it here to show its possibility. Mark the difference between this passage and that given is. The only point to notice in our last example la VII* Ib VII* la that at () changing notes are used as the second and third There is no objection to this when (as here) the notes quavers. 317. 318. We S 3^ la la IVa IV* la la This example requires no explanation.

] TWO-PART: FIFTH SPECIES.chap. When he has done this. We The student point in three and four parts will give can work in the fifth species any of the subjects already given in which the notes are of uniform length. he will find that counter319. comparison. point. vin. He him very little trouble in . 123 have now completed the study of two-part counteris strongly advised not to proceed to that in three parts until he has thoroughly mastered the five species in two parts.

Tenor. howsee presently. in the latter it always possible (though. bass) will frequently be less good than the others. All these combinations are available 323. third. or three basses that it would be almost impossible to secure good melodies. treated later in this volume. but there are reasons why in practice only a few combinations are used. for example. ferent voices. 320. Treble..124 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. parts single The rule given in 54 as to the position of the voice must be . but the third (treble. viz is : Treble. and it with three-part harmony than with four. It is therefore best not to employ even two voices of the same comThere are only four possible combinations of three difpass. tenor.g. not always advisable) to have all chords in their complete shape. If. in very rare cases. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. alto. more . Treble. chord should never be a wider interval between the highest and the middle part than between the middle and the lowest. and fifth all present. shall is sometimes impossible. (and. he will be preIt must pared to begin the study of counterpoint in three parts. Tenor. difficult and bass . with root. be understood that two of the three parts will always be in the first species . . Bass. 322. Tenor. we were to try to write a counterpoint for three voices of the same compass e. is Except occasionally for a carefully attended to. or outline chords. There is not the same objection to a wide interval between the two lowest parts . but the best position will be often that which allows the three parts to ever. as we This. As this presents Counterpoint. The fundamental difference between two-part and threepart counterpoint lies in the fact that while in the former we have never anything but incomplete. Alto. three we should find ourselves so cramped trebles. is also more difficult. CHAPTER IX. if more than one part is in some other species than the first. Alto. Alto. ix. possibly even for two) there lie at approximately equal distances. Bass. Any combination of voices is possible in three-part counterpoint . because there is a greater risk of a bad position of the parts. if the generally three parts are soprano. If the student is able to write two-part counterpoint in any of the five species with ease and correctness. we have Combined and special features of its own. it will be 321. Bass. as we shall see presently.

witt or parts have sufficient variety. ceases to unpleasant effect in three or four parts. subject. Compare the following the parts moving passages Not good. though more rarely. . however. the diminished though unavailable intervals with the bass. The false relation of the tritone carefully to be avoided in two parts.g. It was said in In three point to avoid hidden fifths and octaves altogether.J THREE. are available between the upper parts. Although the fourth is always a discord with the bass 29). 1X. 26 restrictions given in 327. and its inversion. between upper parts in counterpoint of more than two parts.PA RT Co UNTER POINT. But it will frequently be necessary to omit the fifth . It is desirable that all the three notes of a chord should be present. 125 324. which is of paramount importance. not bad. Good 129) though produce the same provided that the root ( 127 Bad. progression is. and are contrasted part in thirds or sixths. More than three if the other tolerated between any two of three or more parts. > Good. e. and may always be used ter melodies can be obtained thereby. it is advisable to omit the root.Chap. and to retain the third and fifth of the chord. Similarly the fifth.g. where this can be managed without sacrifice of melodic interest. provided that each of these parts is consonant with the Two or three fourths may even be used in succession bass. Examples of both cases will be given later in this chapter. 325. it is not considered as a dissonance between two upper ( parts. augmented fourth. to the 28. e. if betparts they are less objectionable. IVa Va IVa Ilia consecutive thirds or sixths may be 328. 119 that it was best in two-part counter326. sometimes.

The unison. Correct harmony is just as important. except when the subject is in the bass is species dominant the bass. 333. when counterpoint of the fourth in the bass). the root. It will very often be advisable to omit the fifth in the first chord . The cadence in three-part counterpoint is different for each of the five species . The third. even in the strictest counterpoint. 3rd species. culty. and it will be well in no case to repeat the same The pendent motion note more than once in three-part counterpoint. if the melodic progression is improved thereby. the table of root-progressions given at the end of Chapter II. 1 X. As in two-part counterpoint. 330. ist species. (See example to 340. 331. the chord must. and to begin with only the octave of the root. 2nd species. putting the subject in the bass. though it is not good in an extreme part . progression at (a) is not good. in any of the three voices. for here the similar motion of the two upper parts in sixths is contrasted by the contrary motion of the bass. but there is one important general rule to be observed. later in this chapter. It ought to be hardly needful to remind the student that the root-progressions must be just as carefully attended to in In case of doubt or diffithree-part as in two-part counterpoint. unless the subject commences on the dominant. each exercise must begin with the root position of the tonic chord (I#). 5th species. occasionally. the part which is not in the first species should (as in two-part counterpoint) begin after a rest of the same value as its first note. 4th species. the last chord but one must always be the chord in root-position (Va). give an example of the commencement of a counterpoint in each of the five species. which in the two-part counterpoint is only allowed on the first or last note. though it should not be used too freely.26 CO UNTER POIN T. (or. and fifth should all be present .) better be retained where practicable. third. may be employed in more than two parts. The penultimate chord should always be complete that is. and the moving counterpoint in the upper part. as it reduces the number of It is also allowed occasionally to repeat parts of the harmony. the same note in a middle part. will be found of service. because there is no indeThat at (b) is better. which affects all the species alike. however. In three-part counterpoint other than of the first species. [Chap. had We 332. and. sometimes it is best also to omit the third. as a good melodic progression. be VIIA last and the is the . of course. 329. the subject is in When note but one (as is generally the case) supertonic.

G. Either the upper or the lower in the bass of (a) (b) and (c) is the selection will depend upon what has . written upon two staves .] THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. which we have indicated by an S is placed in each of the three voices in turn. Our next example Via IV a lla . and that at (b) we take lla rather than Vlltr to avoid the weak repetition of F. but we shall now write in score. that the progression cf each voice may be more clearly seen. The only points to note here are that at (a) there is not really similar motion in all three parts. We strongly advise the student to adopt the same plan. in order to save space. The subject. in the alto. lla Ib \a 336. preceded.Chap. and will place it in turn in the upper. The 127 334. Possible. and lower voice. as the power of being able to write easily in open score will be of great advantage to him. We now give some examples of three-part counterpoint of the first species. 337. IX. choosing a different combination of voices for each example. 335. because the repetition of a note at an octave's distance (as here in the bass) does not change the harmony . We will first take a subject which we have already treated in two parts. possible G M Cfl la la Via. We have hitherto. principal forms of cadence in the first species are the following. middle.

^ . IX. . and bass voices. but also because the two fourths D in succession in the alto part. not only because it is better to have the third of the chord present than the fifth. for the first or last chord To take as the first note of the alto would not of an exercise. 338. It is often desirable.128 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. has an effect of great strength in the harmony. For the choice of chord at compare the corresponding passage of the last example. to break the rule given in 323. be good here. as here at (a). For our next counterpoint we choose the combination of treble. would have been bad ( 21). tenor. because all the chords but one are in root position. as being rather more difficult than those we have given above.

IX. The following are the principal forms available. for the sake of in the tenor. in the treble . 129 begin with soprano and alto in unison . . it is chord ()S Possible. we have preferred to introduce the third in the first chord. This is for the sake of getting a better melody in the alto.] THREE. Va Ib IV* Ib VII* la of the tonic only needful to point out that at (a) the root is omitted. 340. getting a better melody in three parts is often 342 The cadence in the second species somewhat troublesome to manage. as in the example to 339. and avoiding the repetition of the same note. E.PART Co UNTER POINT. the upper notes are rather better. (rf) Possible. it might have been improved by taking instead of the first Fjf . Notice also that in this second chord the root is omitted (324). (*) Better. Our next example A la V* la II* IV* la la needs no remark except that we begin with the root only (331) to avoid the repetition F. 341.Chap. In our last illustration of the first species la. and that the bass can take either the upper or lower octave from the fourth to the seventh chord . E. The end of the alto part is rather weak . (*) Better. we have not done this because the harmony would have lost as much as the melody would have gained. because it keeps the parts at more equal distances. F.

subjects as before. as the subject in any of the three parts may be accompanied by the second species in either of the other two parts. The cadence fourth at (b) is note rises instead of species. Here (g) is better than (f) because of the note interposed between the octaves. [Chap. choosing the same Six variations of position are now possible . culty. all the combinations in turn.130 Not very good. IX Rare. COUNTERPOINT : Better. We shall work Via lla Va fifth At (a) we begin without a contrary third or for the sake of getting motion between treble and alto in the next . To obtain this form of cadence it is sometimes permitted to let the bass in the last bar but one go below its proper compass. 347. The cadence at (/). below. because the chord is complete throughout the bar. is borrowed from the fourth species. the cadence is almost always difficult. either (d) or (e) is possible . better than that at (a) because the leading That at (c) is borrowed from the and is occasionally allowed to evade a diffithe subject is in the upper part. At (/) and (g) care must be used that the octaves are taken by contrary motion. The remaining cadences given above When require no explanation. and the second species is in the bass. We now give examples of this species. When the subject is 343. but the latter is much better. falling. 343. and the second species above. like that at (c).) (See the examples to in the middle. We give four forms.

Chap. The melody the alto is also .] THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. . 344. in 131 if bar. better than we had written =7^= Our next counterpoint =j For the descent of the bass at (b) see the last paragraph. ix.

.132 is CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. 347. p r | . rather than fall to because the two major thirds in the same direction (giving an augmented fifth with one intermediate note) would have been It is better to take the octaves by contrary very unmelodic. I X. 340. we make the alto rise to G. T" [ ii "~ i I! -~- i -- -1 f^f- i la. motion with the bass. with which the student will find advantage in The h last comparing it. V6 la IU IVb la Va J la is a variation of that given in 348. example we shall give of the second species f Ah j ^t-. Our next counterpoint that at (a) B!?.

the examples of the third species will require hardly any remarks.THREE. because it is best.- The cadences at (/) and (j) are perhaps slightly less good than the others.PART Co UNTER POINT. take the We same subjects as before. to finish with the tonic in the upper voice. to With three notes to one the best forms are ' : 1 i 1 (/) ir- i Si ->=*-. la . if practicable. After the full explanations already given.. 350.

134 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. The student will see the reason by referring to 218. IX. not Ila la III* lid I IVa la Va la 352. Our next example needs no explanation. 351. The chord at (a) must be considered here as VIL. The only point to notice in the following counterpoint .

different. 355. IX ] THREE.Chap. so '35 illustrate we have made both quite methods of procedure. two example* it will not be needful to have to do more than offer one in a major. this with the counterpoint in G it viu which the student should compare with that in 348. In our next example. but the bination of voices to get so good a position as here student should always try to keep the tenor and treble as near together as he can. and one in a minor key. The third species with three After the explanations given of it in 236 242.i as to both fft m U Via 116 la VIU la 347. the bass is tenor being transposed to B minor. . * . This is done to allow the For only one nearer to the treble without going too high. Except the first Compare and the last two chords. instead ot minor. -bu. to keep the alto in a more convenient compass. placed note (and that an unaccented one) is the tenor more than an It is not always possible with this comoctave from the treble. Note also the transposition of the subject to F minor.PART COUNTERPOINT. the harmony is different throughout. little employed. notes to one is comparatively 356.

The explanation. The principal forms of cadence for the fourth species the following 358. are 357. In our next example the subject is transposed to E. of which it is a variation. to enable the tenor at the cadence to approach the treble without lying very high. example is given to illustrate working in a cramped position. 359. examples now to be given require very little This counterpoint is the same as that in 268. The middle part of the second difference in the fourth bar. I P i _ . IVa VIU \b Let the student compare the first of these examples with that in and notice the reason of the 240. IX. because The of voices has left so little room for the alto to move in. with the addition of a middle voice. the choice example is necessarily somewhat monotonous. .i 36 CO UNTERPOINT tChap.

instead of VI I/. 361.Chap. because of the resulting hidden fifths. as the student will soon see. This would not have been allowable had the subject been in the treble. The following counterpoint . the leap of an octave being quitted by similar motion.. ix. for the chord. or IV.] THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. But no other leap is possible here. S 137 Let the student notice why the syncopation is broken at (a). The progression of the bass at (b) is awkward . The following counterpoint illustrates some of the culties of this species. 360. Neither will it improve matters to take II. for the third of this chord is the only note which can be taken in the bass. which are not forbidden with a middle voice. if he tries for solves himself. diffi- ^ (*) la V* Via VI* VII* Observe that at (a) the suspended leading note in the bass redownwards.

with the first inversion of the tonic chord. 275 been retained exactly the only possible root-propoint of gression for the last four chords would have been Va. 363. our object is to retain the fourth species unaltered . is possible in a minor. part to the counterpoint given in At (a) we commence.CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. IX. improves the harmonic progression. which would have had to be repeated in the next bar. The which would have been very monotonous. as here. There is apparently. is un- . no objection to this when. At (a) is seen the not very common progression II to la. or G. In the above example an upper voice was added to a In the one now to be given counterpoint previously worked. because this note would have been a dissonance below the root. la. the root of the chord is added in the bass immediately. Compare (b) of the present example with (c) of 277. which would not have been excused by the later addition of the octave of the root below. la. and notice that the fifth of We the chord. though breaking the syncoHad the counter pation. and added a student will see one alteration in the upper fifth and sixth bars. 362. Va. In our last example of this species la la IV b Va. Here it may be occasionally excused if nothing better is possible. the only other notes possible would be the upper D. allowable in the bass of the former counterpoint. making an augmented fourth from At?. if we thus obtain a better melodic procould not have begun with the fifth of the chord gression. instead of the third in the alto. though always bad in a major key. la. which. which. two-part counterpoint in 275. Vt> la we have added a middle There are only two 2 7 7. points to note here. we have taken the bass below part in the it.

should be employed. or an ornamentation of the same. as in two-part counterpoint. and will 365. as Compare each 357. ones in at (K) (i) above in . available here because of the presence of the root above it in the alto. It is therefore needful to modify the close of the exercise. (*) to I gS id) feEEt of the cadences (#) to (g) with the corresponding It is sometimes impossible to get a syncopation in the penultimate bar when the counterpoint is in the bass In this case.Chap IX. 364. species. the third (see 309). The best forms of cadence in the fifth species are generally variations of those already given for the fourth. THREE-PART COUNTERPOINT. species following examples sufficiently illustrate this . and it cadence not three V The parts the must always be remembered that in a dominant chord must be V#.

will CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. This require no explanation. lib IVb la Va la 367. IX. S . We in next give a variation of the example i 359.140 366. In our next counterpoint we add an upper part to the example in 314. la V* la.

369. 141 is varied from that in 361.J THREE-PA RT Co UNTER POINT. we can avoid the awkward progression of the treble in the previous counterpoint. 1X. with which the student should comAs we are no longer obliged to have a syncopation in pare it. every bar. The counterpoint next to be given ~f^ .Chap.

) fe^EE! (VII.) . . conclude this chapter by giving the student a few 373.1 42 will COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. SUBJECTS. IX worked strongly recommend. be found a most useful exercise.) (VIII. He will. which we therefore The student should also observe the various The contranspositions of the subject in the different examples. however. We another one. that he may not get tired of always writing on a very few subjects.. more subjects to work. sideration which has in every case guided the selection of key has been the keeping of all the voices in the best part of their cOmThis is a point which should never be overlooked.) IN! (VI. do well always to treat one subject in many different ways before proceeding to work on pass. (V.

143 CHAPTER X. . or a better position of the chord can be This permission should not be taken advantage of too secured. 377.j POUR-PART .COUNTERPOINT. to the difficulty of his task. 113). 375. does not apply to counterpoint. The addition of a fourth voice adds much to the completeness of his harmony. but only when other means of obtaining a good progression or position have failed. Before attempting to work any exercises in four parts. especially those relating to chord progressions. and it is much better not to repeat it more than once. it will be well for the student to refresh his memory as to the general laws of melodic and harmonic progression given in Chapters II. 376. but very little. but the same note should never under any circumstances be sounded more than three times consecutively in the same voice. or even in two parts . After the will full few remarks be necessary before we proceed explanations given in previous chapters. While the crossing of the parts is still strictly forbidden in four-part writing. in accordance with the general principle that as the number of the parts increases the We stringency of the rules. middle voice the repetition of the same note is allowed more freely than with three parts . must be just as strictly attended to as when writing in three. and to the position of the chords. but in some subordinate points greater freedom will now be allowed. The recommendation given in harmony. if by this means either a better melodic progression of a single voice. may be employed. because of the greater importance of giving each voice separate melodic interest.Chap. x. The most important of these laws. in less important matters. if anything. very to give illustrative examples. As in three-part counterpoint. FOUR-PART COUNTERPOINT. to well defined tonality. freely. 374. The general principles by which the student must be guided in writing four-part counterpoint are in all cases those with which he is already familiar from the study of that in three parts. relaxes. the In a unison may be sometimes used in the course of an exercise. and III. so in the present kind. now proceed to show in what details more liberty than heretofore is permitted. the occasional overlapping of two voices ( 31). as to the advisability of retaining the same note in the same voice when it occurs in two consecutive chords (Harmony.

383. be used in the treble. The repetition of the same note is much mere objectionIt may occasionally able in an extreme than in a middle voice. it will generally be found best. as far as possible. but in no case should there be in the treble more In the bass it should be avoided than one repetition of a note. In harmonizing a melody in the strict style. e. attach quite as much weight to the separate melodic interest of each part. As twelve different combinations are possible in every species except the first the subject being available in each of the four parts. the cadences of all the species in four parts are the same as those in three parts. It is this. 382. taking. as already said. however. 379.144 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. At first sight. of which we shall speak presently. The different forms will be so clearly understood from the examples that it is needless to give a separate table of cadences for each species. . We now give some examples of four-part counterpoint. to make all the parts. move to a new note of the chord . and the counterpoint of other . the exercises now to be worked in the first species would appear to be almost identical with those in Chap- There is. to each voice. alto. The consideration of the melodic flow of the voices will also often render it advisable to omit one of the notes of a chord. 381. Not good. Good. where its introduction would have involved the repetition of the same note. and bass) to which the student is accustomed in harmony. In consequence of the importance of giving separate melodic interest. though it will very seldom be necessary even then . with the addition of another voice. Good. subjects which we have already treated in two and three parts. because this gives the best With two or more voices of the same positions for the chords.g. as we did in three-part counterpoint. Excepting in the second species. one great distinction between them. In four-part counterpoint it is best to use the same combination of voices (treble. x 378.proter III. or at least three of them. altogether . the student had to consider the correctness of the harmony and of the root. tenor. that constitutes the real difference between harmony and counterpoint. la \b la Ib la Ib 380. when the same chord is repeated in a different position. Now he must gressions as the matters of chief importance. for the sake of comparison. kind the harmony will very likely become cramped. because a stationary bass always makes the harmony sound weak.

* We have introduced them here in preference to making the bass move to F and return to G for the sake of a stronger harmonic progression. Besides. J . are not objectionable. We now put the subject in the tenor E vw 113 VIIJ I v * It may be well. being from tonic to dominant. 385. '45 than the first species in each of the other three parts it would render this book unnecessarily bulky to work each example in all Four counterpoints of each species will be quite possible ways. however.] STRICT AND FREE. 384. though they would be so between other degrees of the scale. to caution students that it might be advisable not to introduce this perfectly sound progression in an examination paper. In the following examples we give counterpoint of the first species la Va Via Ila Note that at (a) the octaves by contrary motion between treble and bass. X. no other choice of chords would have given so good melodies to all the parts.Chap. and we shall use the different combinations in turn. as some examiners are extremely strict in prohibiting it. note. sufficient to enable the student to understand how to work . At (b) the fifth of the chord is omitted to avoid the repetition of the note G in either the alto or In the whole example there is only one repetition of a tenor.

in the The cadences somewhat from those in . The following are the principal forms of cadence 387.146 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. X At (a) the progression of all the parts by similar motion is allowed. because of the frequent opportunity afforded of the introduction of the seventh of the dominant as a passing note. a better position for the final chords than if we had ended thus 386. because it is from one to another position of the same At (b) the treble and alto parts overlap. because we get chord. quire The two examples now to be given in a minor key re- no explanation. ill Vllb 16 lib Va Ib VIU la V3 la VIU U la Va la second species in four parts differ three parts.

(m) i S A^ The -^ following examples will illustrate the treatment of difficult form will generally be found to be that in which the subject and the second species are the two 388.] STRICT AND I<REE> 147 (c) r (/O I I (/) Rare. The most middle voices. this species. X.Chap. fi .

la Ff" 1 .

X.] FO UR-PA RT CO UNTERPOINT. I 49 Ia Va Ilia Via 113 U VII3 la A \ la V3 la U \ Va la 4 " I 1==-! E is*s 13 ^!^ la 13 VII3 390. For the sake of completeness we give two examples of the less frequently used third species in triple time. S 13 Via 113 VII* 13 V< .Chap.

^ .

] Fo UR-PA RT Co UNTERPOINT.t . A S m -I i- la V* VL IVa la la fe lllb lib VIU lb Va la =1 i ^=1-^1-1^ la V. ^ la 392. X.fegEi IV* la lb Va la . la VII* lb V IVa U VII* few examples of the fifth species in four parts will conclude this chapter.Chap. he can easily analyze those now given without any explanatory notes. If the student has thoroughly understood the previous illustrations.

393. viu m Va Vllb la. that it needless to give examples of them.COUNTERPOINT : [Chap X. . The student should now work exercises on the various As soon as he has subjects given at the end of the last chapter. fourth and fifth species are so little used in triple time. he will toe prepared for the more difficult work of comis The bined counterpoint next to be studied. acquired facility in four-part counterpoint as treated in this chapter.

we are working counterpoint of the second species in two voices both of which are above the subject in the bass. for example. In all the examples of counterpoint which the student has as yet had to work all the parts except one have invariably been of the first species. which must be most carefully attended to. and no combination is allowed above that part which would not be allowed above the bass. xi. If. and two in the fifth. as com- pared with the simpler varieties which the student has at present worked. depends on the given subject that it is impossible to lay down any rule as to which varieties are likely to prove the less troublesome. and a third in the fifth . three. arises from the unequal length of the notes in the different voices. however. and present the same sort of difficulties to the student . but some of the combinations are often easier to work than others. is to be considered as the bass of the harmony for the time being. So much. may have two. 395. some of the combinations difficult In the examples which were very in with one of the subjects we had chosen. the lowest moving part. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. it is clear that with the unaccented notes of the two upper parts there will be no note of the subject sounded.Chap. The rule. whichever it may be. &c. If more than one of the parts be in some other species than the first. we have what is called Combined Counterpoint. third. or there might be one part in the third species. . or any combinations of the different species may be made. the possible combinations of the species even in four parts are practically almost exhaustless. COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. we shall presently give. . &c. or even more parts all in the same species other than the first the second. 394. Both these kinds of counterpoint are governed by the same general principles. In fact. There are two kinds of combined counterpoint. and from which When in combined the student's chief troubles will rise is this counterpoint any of the lower parts are stationary. a four-part We counterpoint might be written in which one part was in the second species. another in the fourth. 396. 397. 153 CHAPTER XI. for example. and one par- ticular position turned out to be comparatively easy with another subject and a different disposition of the parts. The special difficulty of combined counterpoint.

The example at (d} illustrates a somewhat different second minim are both passing notes. XI. Bad. e. Except against a note of the subject. e. fa) Co UNTERPOINT : (Chap.g. will make (C) I this clear(d) J I At (a) i 1 is sounded between the two upper parts . Good. I Here the notes B and D 1 At (a) the at (b) they moving passing notes make a chord of the sixth . An I example (/') | . i 1 At (a) the discord ^ is taken and left by step. make a second inversion. permitted for two moving parts to sound a discord against one another provided such discord is taken and quitted in both parts by conjunct and contrary motion. At in both chords is a passing note . but is that it is 400. but they are quite correct because they are consonant with one another. and in the the second bar the F (also a harmony note) is right because it is con- D G sonant to D. and although both notes are notes of a fourth bass being the chord. passing notes may be employed in any number of parts at the same time provided they make correct harmony among themat the selves. but the sounded at the same time makes the harmony correct. 1 Good. though a harmony note .g. Bad. point. The only exception to the rule above given Good. in the first bar (c) the note above it is wrong. 399. the fourth above the lower. because for the time being the middle voice is the bass.154 398. above which a fourth is forbidden. At (b) though left . The hidden fifths between the two moving parts at the second half of the bar are justified by the fact that the chord merely But at (b) the upper moving part sounds changes its position. the progression is bad.

it is taken by leap .g. it is possible to continue by step of both always in contrary motion till another reached. that after taking a dissonance in two parts by step in contrary motion. e. An extension of the above principle which may occasionally be found useful to extricate the student from a difficulty is. .Chap. the passage is therefore faulty. by 401. step. but not under any other conditions. and should be corrected as at (c). This permission should not in any case be used too freely. J COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. harmony note is Very bad. parts. XI. Possible.

other on the fourth part must of course be a harmony note. here. The use of this device. Any combination in which one of the parts is in this species will always be found more or less troublesome . is the most difficult to work. as the root is not actually present above it. For this reason it is allowed to break the syncopation more frequently than hitherto. which will often save the striking of a dissonance between the moving parts. Any other note of the chord would have been dissonant with the passing note in the upper The the fifth part. We have already seen ( 268) that the fourth species.156 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. 405. but care must be taken not to break it in both voices at the same time. renders this one of the easiest varieties of combined species. . we get one of the hardest varieties of all. XL only point to notice here is that at (a) of the second example This may be allowed of the chord is taken in the bass. When two parts are in the third species it is best to one on the second beat and the introduce them in succession The first note of each rather than together. even in its simplest forms. and if two parts are both in the fourth species. The student will see further examples of this procedure in the second counter- point. tfr^Trrrr IT rr i^r**i _ m^ i irri In the three bars marked (a) in the first of these counterpoints are given illustrations of the way in which changing notes in one voice can be used against either harmony notes or passing notes in another voice. 404. and besides the preceding Gjf distinctly gives the impression that the harmony is a first and not a second inversion.

That of the fifth by the we know ( 255). When two parts are in the fifth species. and it would be unadvisable to break the syncopation of one of the parts in the very first bar. the fifth. XI. less good than others. It will also be well.j COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. as in the third species. 4- a3 TrsHgg: . 407. At sixth is. This is possible here because both parts move by step Notice that at (c) the root of the chord is placed below 277). as () is a double suspension. as in the examples we shall give. as the student will soon find out if he tries for himself . variety should be sought by taking longer notes in one of the parts against shorter notes in the other. to let one of the voices enter on the second and the other on the fourth beat. so as not to imply a second inversion ( 181). At (b) in the second example the note on which the suspension resolves is sounded above ( it.Chap. but it is here the only one possible. W^=\ 406.

but it is often useful in combined counterpoint if (as here) another voice moves at the commencement of the second crotchet. This would not be good were there only one part in the fifth species . We shall now show the combinations of two different first take the second and species in three-part counterpoint. 408. third species together.158 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. XI. crotchet but it is example a dissonance is sounded at the fourth allowed here because both the voices move by At (b) is seen a dotted crotchet followed by a quaver. . step. At (a) in the first . changing their relative positions in the two We examples we give.

III. The combination of the second and fifth species is. generally far easier than that of the second and fourth. '59 This is mostly a difficult combination. who must learn to overcome.Chap. especially when. as in OUT second example.] COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. The only other point to notice in the above examples is that at () (c) in the ( a third first example passing notes are quitted by leap of 165) for the sake of getting a better melody in the upper voice. XI. . combinations have been intentionally selected as patterns for the student. and not to shirk the difficulties. He will be amply repaid for his trouble by the freedom he will thus have acquired when he comes to work at free Note that at (a) in the first example we have not counterpoint. but a suspension of the fifth of the dominant by the sixth. owing to the greater flexibility of the latter. the subject is in the middle and the fourth In several of our illustrations troublesome species in the bass. 410.

i6o 411. COUNTERPOINT The : [Chap XI. following specimens of the combination of the third and fourth species ^ .

it will be seen that the third species has only the arpeggio of a chord. 413. and at (b) (c} of the second.Chap. This is seldom good when the third species is used alone . is that of S . xi. The only remaining combination of three parts the fourth and fifth species. but it may be more freely allowed when it is combined with other species.j COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. 161 At (a) of the first example.

or of each voice in a different A few examples will serve as models for the student. We first take our major subject in the alto. It has been necessary to break the syncopation twice in the 418. Our next combination is chosen as being one of the most difficult possible. Here the subject species above it. We have not taken any in which one of the parts is in the first species. The subject. . The wide interval between the alto and tenor at the sixth bar is not very good. 1 3=fpHF%Fff^g5ff? This needs no explanation. species. 416. XI. or of two voices in one species and one in another. which may be in either by three parts all of the any one voice may be accompanied same species. putting i second species above it and two fifth species below it.162 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. is in the tenor with two parts of the fourth and one of the third species below it. but (as has been more than once remarked) in difficult combinations of this kind more freedom is allowed. as it will be more useful to the learner to see the more difficult combinations exemplified. 417. In the following example alto.

to Its frequent employment extricate the student from a difficulty. below it the fourth. as one of the other voices. is entry of the tenor is delayed till the second bar. and second species. \b and W. This is allowed species. so as to introduce all the moving It might also have entered at the same time parts in succession.Chap. I&3 iJj5F=^-g:^Egm ^ m the subject species. 421 below. would be unadvisable. the treble alto of the third. accompanying it with the fifth. In the fifth in combined 3ES c . and third species. 420. as here. placing 419. second.) (See the example in now take our minor subject in the treble. We next take the same subject in the tenor. 1 COMBINED COUNTERPOINT. and the in the bass. XI. but it should only be permitted. third. and tenor are of the fifth The We bar there are two chords.

1

64
fifth

COUNTERPOINT:
bar there
is

[Chap.

XL

Notice that at the

though the

fifth is

below the

root,

no implied second inversion, because the next bar has the

same chord. The fifth is therefore only sounded in arpeggio, which is always allowed when the root is not sounded above it at
the

same
421.

time.

Our

last

example gives three

parts,

all

of the

fifth

species.

iT

5=

This

is

one of the most
combinations.

useful,

and by no means one of the most

difficult

parts of the fifth

In treating of the combination of two species ( 407), we spoke of the desirability of

When, as varying the lengths of notes in the different voices. here, there are three parts, two must necessarily resemble one another to a considerable extent. Compare the alto and tenor of this example, and observe how variety is sought by difference of melody when the rhythms are identical. 422. The counterpoint dealt with in this chapter will be found the best preparation for the free counterpoint to be later studied. The student should work at combined counterpoint perseveringly until he can write it with tolerable fluency, but he must not expect to find that it will ever become absolutely easy.

Chap, xii.1

IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS.

165

CHAPTER
COUNTERPOINT IN
423. Although
it

XII.

FIVE, SIX, SEVEN,
fairly

AND EIGHT

PARTS.
is

may

be said that four-part writing

the

basis of musical composition, it not infrequently happens that a It will therefore be most larger number of parts is desirable.

advantageous to the student to practise counterpoint up to eight real parts, not only for its own sake, but because of the increased facility which he will thus acquire in the simpler task of writing in four parts. Beyond eight parts it will not be necessary for him
to go.

424. It will be evident that the addition of each fresh voice For this reason increases the difficulty of the student's task.
is allowed in many respects when writing for a number of parts than when writing for only three or four. At the same time, the student should be warned not to abuse his The more strictly he accustoms himself to write, the liberty. more successful he will be in the later treatment of free counter-

greater liberty
large

point.

given

points in which the strictness of the rules already relaxed will be best shown in the examples we shall presently give ; but a few general principles may be here laid down, which will apply to all counterpoint in more than four parts. Naturally greater liberty will be allowed in seven or eight parts than in five ; in the latter, in fact, the rules should be nearly as strictly observed as in four. As five-part counterpoint is more often required than six, seven, or eight part, we shall treat of it separately. 426. In a large number of parts it is often impossible to obtain the same amount of melodic interest in each separate voice as with fewer parts ; but when there are not more than five, a little ingenuity on the part of the student will generally enable him to avoid the too frequent repetition of the same note. The rules we have given for four parts (377, 378) should be also observed with five. On the other hand, overlapping of the parts may be more freely used. Crossing of the parts should still be avoided as a rule; but when the subject is in a middle voice, it is sometimes expedient to cross the parts for the last note only of the counterpoint. In (See examples below, 428, 430, 432.) working combined counterpoint of five parts crossing may be

425.

The may be

employed more

freely.

(See example

434.)

The

leading note

also occasionally fall to the fifth of the tonic chord, instead of rising to the root ; but this should never be done when the leading

may

1

66

COUNTERPOINT :
and

[Chap. XII.

note is in the highest part,

The

progressions from unison
as
also consecutive
;

the tonic chord is in the root position. to octave, and from octave to

octaves by contrary motion, are but they produce the best effect when the Hidden fifths and octaves may voices leap a fourth or a fifth. be taken without hesitation, even when both parts move by leap ; but it is better to avoid them, as far as possible, between the extreme parts. The above are the principal relaxations of the rules permitted in five-part counterpoint ; other details will be noted as they occur in the examples given below. 427. It matters little which is the additional voice employed In our examples we will therefore take them for the fifth part. all, second bass is probably the least often used, because of the risk, with two low voices, of getting a bad position of the chords. It will, however, be well to practise this combination also, for the have given one sake of learning to avoid this pitfall. specimen below ( 432) with two bass parts. shall now give two examples of each species in five 428. parts, taking our major subject for one, and our minor subject for the other, and putting our subjects in different positions.
unison,

allowed in

five parts

A

We

We

S
ta

v-

s=^_ S

"
|

Ej

r;
|

^.-J=^=j==

m

(a)

m

Chap. XII.]

IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS.

167

These counterpoints are both altered from those in four parts given in 384, 386, with which the student should compare them. Notice in the second example at (a) the fall of the leading note spoken of above ; and at (b} the crossing of the tenor above the subject (426), to obtain a good melody for the cadence.
429.

Our next counterpoints show the second

species.

(*)

alto parts of the first of these examples illustrate what was above as to the difficulty with a large number of parts of If one part is obliged to getting melodic interest in every voice. be somewhat monotonous, it should always be a middle, rather than an outside part. At (a) of the second example is seen a doubled leading note. This is justified here by its being taken in an arpeggio.

The
said

430.
require

The examples we now
no explanation.

give of the

third species

will

i68

COUNTERPOINT

:

[Chap. XII.

=i=

&33^-

The

first of these examples is made from the first counterpoint in 389? with which it should be compared. 431. The following examples of the fourth species

fifth from those 432. 169 t^" t m are made from after the second and fourth counterpoints of 391.ciiap. Similarly.) IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS. xii. and what has been already said require no further explanation. our examples of the in 392. species are adapted |= .

second. We conclude this part of the subject by giving two specimens of combined counterpoint in five parts (a) m It need scarcely be said that such a combination as the above. especially in combined counterpoint. . first. and the progression is allowed occasionally in more than four parts. We shall meet with it from time to time later in this chapter. 434. As the fifth species is by far the in actual composition. a passing note . X ! 1 It will repay the student for his trouble to note in all these examples the alterations necessitated by the addition of the fifth voice. the second and third crotchets is seen the progression. At (a) the second treble and alto parts cross. containing counterpoint of the third. and to try to find out the reason of the changes made. greater freedom is counterpoints already shown. is far more difficult to work than the simple For this reason. of forbidden. 433.170 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. all of the fifth species. above the subject. as a less evil than igb-j J=^l J=j which would involve striking the dissonant G against the F of the tenor. Our last example of five-part counterpoint shows the combination of four parts. and fifth species below the subject. the most frequently employed which all working of combined counterpoint in the parts are in this species will be found of great practical utility. and the student is advised to use it It is introduced here sparingly. and at permitted. from the second into the unison. hitherto The second is. course.

The B in the second tenor is resolved upwards. as well as downwards (Harmony. xn. 171 In this example the first and second tenor parts cross very freely. the only upward suspension This usually allowed is that of the tonic by the leading note. downwards. 504). and the deviation from rule here is justified by the fact that here is a double suspension. 436. provided . allowed by contrary motion. the crossing of the parts is decidedly preferable for the sake of giving more melodic interest to the voices. but as this would have involved holding the A in the second tenor for nearly two bars. instead In harmony any suspension may resolve of. In counterpoint of six. and eight parts. as usual. At (a) of the above example is a point requiring a little explanation. even more Not only are consecutive octaves liberty is allowed than in five. but also consecutive fifths. and also by the melodic progression of the alto and the two tenors in chords of the sixth. suspension is seen at (a) in the first tenor. This might easily have been avoided by interchanging the two voices from the fourth to the seventh bar . seven. 435. as we have seen ( 255).Chap. upwards.] IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS. but in strict counterpoint.

other than the first species. a bar of the first species may be (See the fourth bar of the first tenor in occasionally introduced. seven. in order to leave sufficient room for the numerous middle parts. The examples which it will often of consecutive fifths We . If the bass is to be in any unless this happens to be the subject. Having done this. not to try to patch up a bad counterpoint. it will generally save time. The best way of beginning to work counterpoint in six. superfluous. or indeed required. All these points will be examples we shall presently give. . it had betted be only sketched in the to harmony notes. 437. it is often freely. in fact. If the parts are titions whatever are allowed. especially The inimpossible otherwise to avoid forbidden consecutives. even with eight note more than parts. it is often difficult to obtain much melodic interest in all . In combined counterpoint. One more point there should be no repetition of the same note. In writing in seven or eight parts. This will be especially advisable if he is The advice may also not be writing combined counterpoint. terval of a seventh with one intermediate note is allowed in a note except the leading note may be doubled . will often be necessary that the extreme voices should lie mostly in the outer part of their compass. one part mostly in the first species. and eight parts and it would also be superfluous. 438. excepting in an arpeggio. it will seldom be necessary to use the same In any other species than the first no repethrice consecutively. and in the bass. or eight parts. xn. But consecutive that the roots of the two chords move a fourth. with seven or eight parts . if the student has mastered counterpoint in five parts. The repetition of the same note is also allowed to a 434. is for the student. It would occupy too much space to give a complete series of examples of all the species of counterpoint in six. in melody. speak from painful experience. In eightfirst instance by indicating the filled be part counterpoint take quite as long to correct a pair or octaves that have accidentally slipped in. at any rate. but the student will do well to avoid this. leaving the details up later. as in our second example in 429. he should next write his bass. to decide upon his chord progressions. as it will to write a fresh exercise. though. but to make an altogether fresh start. it remains to be mentioned.172 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap.) greater extent than with fewer parts. where more than is of the fifth species. but the extreme parts should in any case be provided with good melodies. that if he finds he has got into a hopeless muddle (which is very likely to occur with his early attempts in seven and eight parts). Any old authorities it is not doubled in counterpoint of uncommon even many parts to find the leading note . seven. as soon as he has settled illustrated in the in which part he will place his subject. fifths and octaves by similar motion are as strictly forbidden even The crossing of parts may be used in eight parts as in two.

or at least very adIn the visable. We tt p m is well to have as many different notes as possible sounded one time . above example four out of the eight chords contain six notes. 439. We now give the same subject with seven parts in the It at first species. . species in six parts. placing the subject in one of the middle voices.] IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS.Chap XII. to introduce the unison with two adjacent voices. Observe also that there is only one crossing of the parts between the first and second tenors in the third bar. to show all that is first take the first necessary. '73 and follow will be quite sufficient to illustrate the method of working. but it is very often necessary.

as in the last example. We . This example illustrates the difficulty of getting independent melodic interest with so many voices. XII. the only parts afterwards. this counterpoint will require explanation. Notice also in that cross are the two tenors (in bars 7 and 8). Our example of the first species will be in eight After what has been said above. from the octave to the seventh bars the the sixth and unison ( progression and the second tenor. Let it be noticed that the most important melodies are given to the first treble and the As a matter of is any note repeated. and the others filled in fact. these two parts Here again.174 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. 426) between the second alto last 440 parts. in neither of which were written first. bass. no now take our minor subject for a six-part counter441. point of the second species.

sary. there is no crossThough it is sometimes absolutely necesing of the parts here. The only point that calls for notice is that. the 'student should try to avoid crossing as much as possible.j IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS. Our next counterpoint of the third species. for a we have put the subject in the bass. excepting on the unaccented part of the sixth bar.Chap. and the third species . parts. Here. much more crossing than the preceding. We have placed both the subject and the second species in middle parts. in seven contains change. xii. 442.

COUNTERPOINT :
in the highest voice.

[Chap. XII.

Observe in the second alto, from the third a seventh with one intermediate note ( 436). It will be seen that there is at the fifth bar no other note than A to which the part can move. Note also how very few repetitions of the same note are necessary even with so large a number of parts. In the first treble the descent of the leading note from the second to the third bar is allowed because the tonic chord is in its first inversion. In the root position, though possible in a middle voice, it would have been inadmissible in the upper part.
to the
fifth bar,

443.

The

following six-part counterpoint of the fourth species

3CP

in the last two bars of the contains only one repeated note second tenor, and no crossing of the parts, excepting at the same As the combination here employed (both the subject and point. the fourth species being in middle voices) is one of the more difficult ones, the example is instructive, as showing how little real occasion there often is to avail one's self even of the freedom

which

is

permitted in this many-part writing.

444.
species.

We

now

give

an eight-part counterpoint of the

fifth

chap, xii.]

IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS.

177

S
-

m

pi

The

only point to notice here is the progression of the second and second bass in the last two bars. From the first note of the seventh bar to the last are consecutive fifths by similar motion. These are technically saved by the bass falling an octave, so that the fifths are taken by contrary motion ; but this evasion (for such we fear we must admit it to be) would not be tolerated with fewer than eight parts, and should in any case be
treble

have inserted it to show its possibility other courses were open to us ; we might have doubled the instead of C in the second treble, and leading note, taking Many theorists allow this ; but it is best to letting it fall to F. avoid doubling the leading note at all, except in an arpeggio. The other possible course would have been to take the second but in this particular case it treble for the last note up to ; would not have been good to cross .above the subject, which is in the highest part.

most sparingly used.

We

Two

A

D

445. We shall, in conclusion, give examples of combined counterpoint in six, seven, and eight parts, writing each part in the fifth species. We do this in preference to combining the different species, because in actual composition it is very rare to find any other species than the fifth employed for more than a We place the subject in turn in a middle, few notes together. highest, and lowest voice.

178

COUNTERPOINT

:

[Chap. XII.

Notice at (a) the progression between second treble and alto from the second into the unison, which is allowed here, though it would not be good with a small number of parts. At (b] is seen a minim on the second half of the bar following crotchets in the first half, and not tied to the first note of the next bar. This would not be good with few parts ( 293), but it is one of the comparatively minor matters in which greater freedom is allowed

when

writing for

many

parts.

take our minor subject in the treble for a seven446. part counterpoint, with six parts of the fifth species below it.

We now

ni
CJ

all the voices are introduced in succession; the counterpoint therefore not in seven real parts till the end of the third bar. At (a) is seen in the first bass a similar case to (b] in the last example. At this same point the second tenor crosses below the first bass to prevent the striking of the AJf in the first alto as a
is

Here

This would have been dissonance with the lowest moving part. technically justified by the fact that the dissonant notes were taken in contrary motion by step in both parts ; but the effect would not have been very satisfactory because of its coming on the second

iSo
accent of the bar.

COUNTERPOINT:

[Chan- XII.

At (b} and (c) are doubled leading notes ; observe that in both cases they are taken in arpeggio. 447. For our last example, we add seven parts, all in the fifth
species,

above our subject, making eight-part counterpoint.

tr

m

1

It is Here.Chap. and the proper choice of root progressions. but not in the same voice. difficult to over-estimate the value to the earnest student of such a course as has here been laid down for him. therefore. . from its diligent study two most important things the management of independent melodies. In the free counterpoint. many of the restrictions hitherto enforced will be relaxed. the first part of our subject is completed. he will not use strict counterpoint in actual composition. Though. It would be possible. as already said. more than one bar of that in four places a bar of the this species 448. though very difficult. which we shall treat in the second part of this volume. and the mental discipline he has undergone will render the continuation of his task comparawill learn tively easy. or altogether removed. xii. to write strict counterpoint in more than eight parts but it is of so little practical utility as to be hardly worth the labour it involves. he . neither of which can be so thoroughly mastered in any other way. Any one who can write really good counterpoint up to eight parts will have acquired as much knowledge of the subject as he is likely to need. is 181 The first is only point to notice here species is found . but the benefits derived from a strict course of training in the first instance will be found invaluable.] IN MORE THAN FOUR PARTS.

As in strict counterpoint. we now have to speak of its principal features in fuller detail. although so many new chords and new positions are now allowed. FREE COUNTERPOINT. and ten in a minor ( 34). . all those which have not hitherto been used are more or less fixed in their Thus. ninth. FREE COUNTERPOINT IN GENERAL. The rule on this matter is very simple. 449. Obviously. eleventh. The student will therefore know what may follow all his discords . 164 166) . too often insisted upon. that the study of strict counterpoint is The object to be simply the means to an end. and the independent melodic interest of each separate voice. CHAPTER XIII. The student will know that all fundamental discords are derived from the tonic. there are definite rules both for approaching progression. This is what is called attained is the power of free part-writing.j #2 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. With regard to the former. how he may approach them. there are two considerations which the student must keep before him as of always equal importance good root progressions. the student must not commence this branch of the subject until he has completed his course of harmony. PART II. bination or position may be used which is harmonically correct. and for quitting second inversions (Harmony. so also in free. there have been only thirteen chord positions possible in a major key. X 1 1 i. on the other hand. we have Free Counterpoint. 451. any com450. and it cannot be tical account. 452. briefly described this kind of counterpoint . the one point on which he will need guidance is. not the end itself. The student who has completed the course of strict counterpoint prescribed in the first part of this volume will now be in a position to turn the knowledge he has acquired to pracWe have more than once said. In free counterpoint. therefore. the laws as to the resolutions of chords of the seventh. because. supertonic. and dominant of the key. and thirteenth are no less clear and decided. Hitherto the harmonies which the student has been permitted to use have been very few in number . In our introductory chapter ( 10). and knows how to use all possible chords. very few new rules will be needful .

xiii. be good. discords " He will also know that the so-called "diatonic part of dominant harmony. Chapter XVIII.) The table of root progressions. 71. which would be of very doubtful effect in strict counterpoint. 401). II. the following progression. A very important difference between strict and free counterpoint is the method of employing auxiliary and passing notes. is only permitted when both notes are approached by step and in contrary motion ( For example. (Harmony. will be found just as serviceable to him for the free style of writing as for the strict.chap.] FREE COUNTERPOINT. given at the end of the second chapter of this volume. When a discord has been introduced. Ef" 5 . provided that it is made without violating the laws of melodic progression. 453. 400. is quite allowable in free. shall frequently sound dissonant notes together a procedure which in strict counterpoint. or V. the rules of harmony of course show its possible resolu- tions. the progression to a discord on the same roots are will also be good. Whereas they have hitherto only been allowed on unaccented beats. they may now be freely taken on the accented The necessary result of this will be that we parts of the bar.) all 183 (Harmony. He has only to remember that if the progression to a concord on I. as we already know.

either of which is correct. c. The restrictions as to the resolution of suspensions in the fourth and fifth species may also now be relaxed . 458. as in the present case. that a harmonic combination is capable of two The fifth bar. and in this case.184 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. like that in the fourth bar. In order that the student may the better understand the cautions we have just given him. seldom. although modulation is not forbidden. The occasions for the appropriate employment of such extreme harmonies are very rare. contains a chromatic auxiliary note taken by leap but it shows how the hitherto prohibited melodic interval of the augmented fourth may be used in an unobjectionable manner. unless clearly indicated by the given subject. or when. xin. In harmonizing larger melodies. It has been already said that the entire series of discords is now at our disposal . provided it move by step to a note of the following chord. or as an eleventh from the root. the second of At the beginning of the sixth the two notes is an auxiliary note. such as hymn ttmes. . The best effects are mostly obtained by simple means and the student is advised to be extremely sparing of the use of extreme discords. be found. is now . if introduced. like the explanations. it should not be used too freely. 254) or as a dominant It will often thirteenth. anticiIt is pations (Harmony. resolving by leap of a third to the tonic. 263) may be occasionally employed.. however. they are best in the upper part. also 455. and making the dissonance of an augmented fifth with the bass. In short exercises it will be best avoided altogether. have intentionally introduced two dominant discords. The note E in the seventh bar. The student will see from the example in 454 that he In that example we entering on a new field of work. or as a thirteenth from the root. It should 457. and it will be well to remember that. either as an accented passing note. but it is necessary to give an earnest warning against the abuse of the liberty now permitted. taken by step. as here. further be said that. a modulation to a nearly related key is almost always preferable to that to a more remote one. at Similarly. we subjoin an example of free counterpoint of the fifth species in three parts above the subject . In free counterpoint an augmented interval may be taken either in the arpeggio of a chord. some amount of modulation is mostly advisable. bar is a chromatic passing note. In addition to the auxiliary notes just spoken of. 456. that they can be used with good effect. The C at the beginning of this bar may be regarded seventh. may be regarded either as an auxiliary note. the end of the bar may be either considered as an auxiliary note E quitted by a leap of a third (Harmony. first. any suspension may be resolved upwards as well as downwards. the resolving on the third at the second crotchet. such as tonic and supertonic thirteenths.

tion. (HarIn the following bar the music returns abruptly to mony. which will afford " how not to do it. 248. is proved by end of the third bar the auxiliary note. g?- In the above counterpoint not a single rule is broken. the tonic chord of E major is suddenly introduced. keys in as many bars. That it is the tonic of E major." m \$v frr 6*7. which in its We have thus three turn is quitted as the dominant of D minor. the B? 1 in the treble at the most injudicious here. because the key is not clearly established before their introduceffect of the third. fourth. The use . but this chord is resolved on A major. in harmony note.] FREE COUNTERPOINT. and fifth bars are too vague in their In the third bar there is a modulation to the dominant of A minor. must be A D . him an excellent illustration of so often treated. and not the dominant of A minor. because of its harsh The six effect against the E of the bass and the Fjf of the alto. This note." scribed as pulling in a key by the hair minor to E major is here from tion to an unrelated key Cj in the treble. are not to be recommended.of chromatic passing notes in the first bar of the treble is unwise.Chap. XIII. is Besides this. in the tenor of the fifth bar. though possible in free quavers At the sixth bar counterpoint. The tonality. without any connection with what has preceded. yet the whole could hardly be more unsatisfactory.) C major. being above the the diatonic scale of the key. This sixth bar is an example of what Mozart de" modulaof its head.

In our next chapter we shall give almost always of bad effect. . he will see how much better effect is to be obtained by simplicity and directness 01 expression than by searching after strange and unusual combinations. xin. examples of good counterpoint in the free style on the same subject . if the student will compare them with that here given.186 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap.

it will be well for the student to commence work in this direction by writing exercises upon a Canto Fermo. the dominant chord be preceded by the second inversion of the tonic. every combination used must represent some comtonality must always be unmistakable. Although free counterpoint is chiefly used in actual composition. In free counterpoint. as in strict. full four-part harmony must still be clearly implied. where its The falling an octave would take it below the range of the voice. the penultimate chord of a cadence should be the root position of the dominant .j FREE COUNTERPOINT* 187 CHAPTER XIV. of a kind similar to those which he has written in the strict style. far But in free counterpoint. There will be no necessity for the student to practise free counterpoint in fewer than four parts. however. 460. and the 461. These will be chiefly used in the cadences. One in actual composition. now be introduced. the latter must in strict counterpoint be either in root position or in the first plete chord. The exercises in two and three parts which he has previously worked are to be regarded as preliminary to that four-part writing which is the basis of actual composition.Chap. such as the addition of harmony to a given melody. As has been so often insisted upon. 459. . These we shall proceed to explain. but if the dominant chord be itself preceded by the tonic. is and if a better effect mostly obtained triad. dominant seventh may also be used instead of the dominant inversion. Good. which will make the work much easier. it will be allowed to repeat the same note in the bass. Several important modifications will. In this case only. of the most important differences between strict and free counterpoint is to be found in the admissibility in the latter of second inversions. But it must be borne in mind that if at any time it is desirable to write in two or three parts. IMITATIVE FREE COUNTERPOINT UPON A CANTO FERMO COUNTERPOINT. xiv.

We shall deal fully with the subject of cadences in our next chapter . as at (<r). It is best.i88 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. XIV. if possible. but where this would involve the use of a very low note. if the bass rises an octave here. for example. the third note from the end of the subject were the subdominant the best chords to precede the dominant are the root position of the subdominant. (a) (V) Pp^ . it will note. 462. as at (a) above . it will suffice to add now that if the dominant in a cadence be not preceded by the tonic if. and the root position and first inversion of the supertonic. to make the dominant in the bass leap an octave. as at (b\ it is preferable to repeat the same bass Obviously. be above the tenor.

At (b) the root of the tonic chord is omitted. the counterpoint being of the first At (a) is seen a second inversion. to avoid the repetition of At (c) is the third inversion the same note in the alto or tenor. it is no longer obligatory that it be in the same voice throughout. (Harmony. have 432. it is often very difficult to make the parts flow smoothly. We now take the minor subject in the treble. . moving A . which will greatly So long as the characteristic movelighten the student's labours. In working any other species of free counterpoint than the first. to show one of the rarer forms of 4 cadence alluded to 463466. ment of the species is retained in some one of the parts. an important innovation will be made. and at (b] a chord the dominant seventh in all other respects this counterpoint species. various species. of is quite strict. We i fe !=^Si 1 The subject is here in the alto. of the dominant minor thirteenth. At (#) is the first inversion of a dominant minor ninth. in the strict style. using the same two subjects as hitherto. 189 now give a few examples of free counterpoint in 464. in which. The liberty now permitted in this respect will be found especially valuable in the second species.) We introduced this chord here instead of the more common on the in dominant. 465.] FREE COUNTERPOINT.Chap. XIV.

transfer the moving counterpoint from one voice to another. The chord at (a) may either be regarded as a second inversion of a dominant seventh. combine with it a bar of second species.) by step. (Harmony. not used cadentially. but also. 202. also a chord. but none of these parts is in the second species throughout. has counterpoint of the second species against it in one or other of the parts . is no bars of combined species. will sufficiently illustrate what has just been Every note of the subject. or as the first inversion of the triad on the leading note.) 468. counterpoint may a]so be introduced. but illustrates some other At (a) and (b) are seen accented passing notes at (a) . except the last. XIV. with (Harmony 165. moving 4 At (c) is a dominant seventh. 467. the bass therefore . '. we can not only. The above example said. thus giving occasionally one or more bars of combined counterpoint. with an accented auxiliary note. as in the second species. as in the following example. an ornamental resolution. in more than one part at once. The following counterpoint () ' (*) contains points.100 CO UNTERPOINT . if desired. In writing free counterpoint of the third species. or even a bar containing a minim followed by two crotchets. if desired. [Chap.

of course. voices. consecutive octaves between the last two bars.] FREE COUNTERPOINT. the root-progression both to and from it will be far less good than if we look at it as Lr. The bar of second species in the tenor at (c) is advisable here for the sake of getting the leading note in the latter half of the bar. Observe the consecutive octaves between tenor and bass on the accented beats of In free writing. 469. At first sight the above example looks like a combined counterpoint of the fifth species . and sometimes In the bar now under notice will be seen the mixed advisable. counterpoint just spoken of. A. in the present case they are sufficiently saved by the intermediate F of the tenor. At (b) the F in the alto should be regarded as an accented auxiliary note taken by leap . in the alto the first half of the bar being in the second. tonic and dominant are not absolutely prohibited. or as indicating a second chord in the bar. instead of continuing in the same direction to the next harmony note ( 206). in the first species) always permissible. 191 S The E in the bass at (a) may either note. and the second half in the third species. be considered as a passing In free counter- point two chords against one note of the subject are (except. because if we consider this chord as III. besides which we shall have a second passing note. Our next example s .Chap XIV. returning to the first. that it is not so in reality is proved by the absence of suspensions or syncopations in any of the .

contains three different positions of the chord of the dominant Notice in the fourth and fifth bars the rising of the seventh. 470. XIV. being merely introfifth ( 289). as well as by the first. 471. which would have been bad.) motion in all four parts at this point is not objectionable here. The similar seventh in the second inversion. The resolution of this chord in the following bar renders the usual form of cadence in free counterpoint (Ic to Va) unavailable here . and could only have been well avoided by taking B for three consecutive bars in the tenor. fourth species of counterpoint. In the following counterpoint . also be accompanied. need not be worked separately in free counterpoint. with which the student is familiar from his exercises in strict counterpoint. and the fifth may be used either with plain or It may ornamental resolutions of syncopations and suspensions. we therefore take the cadence \b to V#. The ductory to the -h^ttai' At (a) in the above example is introduced the second inversion of a dominant major ninth.192 CO UNTERPOINT : [Chap. by either the second or third species. if found advisable. 211. (Harmony.

to which free counterpoint is a We preliminary. now give two examples of combined counterpoint. XIV. in which all the voices are of the fifth species. The Gjf in the alto is here an auxiliary note on the accented beat . if it were a harmony note.Chap. or on the first note of the next. The harmony should not be changed on the second crotchet of the bar. In the seventh bar of this example are two chords against the same note of the subject. one in four parts and the other in five. '93 is seen at the fourth bar the second inversion of the dominant eleventh resolved in the next bar on the first inversion of the tonic chord. It is very seldom that in actual composition any species of counterpoint excepting the fifth is used continuously for any It is for this reason that in the length of time in the same voice. This is neither unusual nor undesirable in free counterpoint 472. and have also freely combined the different species.] FREE COUNTERPOINT. and its resolution would then be either on the third note of the same bar. the chord would be the last inversion of a dominant minor thirteenth. Our object has been to prepare the student for composition. -r r m p m . examples given in this chapter we have transferred the moving parts from one voice to another.

' . to accompany the rest of the subject.194 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap xiv j i i ii r r After what explanation. has been already said. This is what is known as Imitative The subject of imitation in its wider aspects Counterpoint. these examples require no 473. There is another variety of counterpoint which it will well also to practise. as in the following example. and to show its application to the particular branch of study on which the learner is at present engaged. will be dealt with in a later volume of this series in connection with Canon. It will add greatly to the musical interest of combined counterpoint of the third and fifth species. and at different intervals. if the same figure or pattern which is used as a counterpoint to the first note of the subject is also employed in the other voices. now be X 474. It will be sufficient now to explain what is meant by the term.

It is recognised. with especial regard to its harmonic possibilities. for harmonic reasons . This was the plan adopted in writing the will In imitative counterpoint it is often well to just given. all ascending intervals in the pattern may be answered example by corresponding descending intervals. and then complete the harmony afterwards. and imitated in each succeeding bar. . other devices are possible. of the pattern set. and frequently useful.j FREE COUNTERPOINT. He should fill these in first in his sketch.Chap. In addition to the direct and simple imitation explained A above. in notes of double the length or by and either diminution that is. in succession. XIV. then to examine his subject. but the figure is none the less an The example imitation. 475. though a free one. 476. the figure he has chosen can be used with the subject. and to see in which voices. The easiest way to write exercises of the above kind shown be for the student first to select a figure for imitation. The imitanot necessary that the tions are indicated by r~~i. imitation be always exact. as here. and vice versd by augmentation that is. and at what intervals. in notes of half the length . figure propounded in one part may be imitated by inversion that is. introduce the^voices. 195 (a) In this counterpoint. only be near enough to be easily moves a third instead of a second. if it Thus at (a) the tenor just given is written in strict counterpoint. the first four notes of the treble are taken as a pattern.

we have counterpoint. XIV. the pattern by inversion. the treble. Observe in the fourth bar the upward resolution of the suspension. case the bass of the second inversion moves. augmentation or diminution may be combined with inversion. in fact. chosen the free style for the present illustration. thus having two chords in this bar (IW. Examples of these kinds of imitation will be seen in the following As that last given was in the strict style. It is also possible here to regard the in the bass of the fourth bar as the fifth of the subdominant In this chord. they At (c) the bass gives may be freely used in this manner. while at (e) is a free imitation by inversion in the treble. according to rule. which would not be allowed in strict counterpoint. . E CO -<s> I n (c) 477. the student will not the same objection in free counterpoint as in strict to sounding dissonant notes together . the last note being altered to avoid consecutive octaves with the is G sounded with the Qjf of the that there is remember D . At (d) the tenor has the pattern by augmentation by step. VIL). Here the pattern to be imitated is announced at (a) in At (b) it is answered in the fifth below by the tenor.196 CO UNTERPOIN T [Chap. placing the subject in a middle voice. the chord being the third inversion of the dominant seventh. when they form part (as here) of a fundamental discord. The treble .

By this means. practise the different kinds of free counterpoint described in this chapter until he can write them with fluency. strict style. as well as with those of uniform will then be ready to proceed to the next stage the length. IV. nution . possesses .Chap. 197 tenor.. should which he has already worked in He now work He harmonizing of a given melody. and any one who aspires higher than a ballad or a waltz will find himself well rewarded for the labour involved in acquiring a complete therefore strongly advise the student to mastery of it. as well as to the artistic Free imitative counterpoint is one of the unity of the work. V.. and IX.J FXEE COUNTERPOINT. At (/) is seen the pattern given by inversion and dimiand at (g) it appears by diminution. XIV. For this purpose let him take any of the subjects given at the end of sufficiently form instead of inverted. These student the of working imitative will be seen when we come to method We Chapters the also with the subjects containing notes of different lengths. two examples 478.. most valuable of the resources of the composer. writing adds much to the interest. III.. and the amount of invention which he he will at all events become a sound theorist. though he may not necessarily become a good composer that will depend largely upon his natural gifts. of which more treat cf the harIt will be readily perceived that such monizing of chorals. but in the direct will the show counterpoint.

A FULL CADENCE. dominant triad or chord of the . inasmuch as it is found only at the end of a complete musical sentence . but some of the other forms of cadence which are distinguished from the full closes by being called "inter" mediate " or " middle cadences. just as in poetry. which may be considered as the musical analogy of Further." has been employed. one line being. 482. though they present certain of analogy to commas and semicolons. at least regulated by some plan. full cadences should only be used mark the completion of a musical sentence. cannot be taken as points the exact musical equivalents of either of those stops. only one variety of close. it is absolutely necessary that the student should be well acquainted cadence has been already with the various forms of cadence. rather than of poetry. recitative. because their effect differs much according to the way in which they are introduced. it would be equally absurd for every phrase of music to end with a full cadence. but in the short subjects which have hitherto been worked. 481. the effect of the music would be extremely monotonous. 480. described as a "close" ( 55).198 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. also frequently spoken' of as a PERFECT CADENCE. writing. consists of the tonic chord in root posipreceded either by the tion. CHAPTER XV CADENCES. The comparison is accurate A full cadence resembles a full stop in only to a limited extent. so in music it is needful that cadences should be introduced at more or less reguThe only exception to this rule is in larly recurring periods. for every line of a poem to end with a full stop. xv. if not always the same. balanced by another. because if none but full cadences were used in a composition. to As we said just now. the length of the lines is. just as it would be absurd prose. Before proceeding to the harmonizing of melodies. 479. and the end of each line being for the most part rendered perceptible by the cadence of the verse. The general question of rhythm and the construction of musical phrases will be treated in detail in a subsequent volume of this series . The different varieties of cadence have often been com- pared to the stops in punctuation. so to speak. needful to enter more fully into the subject . it will only be necessary here to say that. that known A as It will now be the " full cadence.

" Creation. But to this rule there are numerous exceptions. in root position. and the preceding dominant or subdominant chord on the last beat of the previous bar.Chap.) If the penultimate chord be the dominant. (Exceptional forms of full cadence will be spoken of later. also in root .position." HAYDN. the cadence 483. the tonic chord which ends a full cadence should come on the first beat of a bar. 199 dominant seventh. if it be the subdominant. XV. One of the most familiar is the final cadence in the last chorus of As Haydn's " Creation. the cadence is said to be Authentic . ' . is Plagal* a general rule.l CADENCES. or by the subdominant triad.

" . Sonata. "The Nightingale. v I No." Op. without producing a cadential effect. HAYDN. that it is wrong to place the tonic chord elsewhere than at the beginning of a bar. Op. unless the construction of the melody which he has to harmonize be such as to render some other course necessary. 484.2OO COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. If the piece be in triple time it is much less unusual to take the tonic chord on some other beat than the first. 7. No. 4 i n ^ ^ JfcJt Though just it cannot be said. It is then generally found on the second beat (see examples (a) and (b) below) . MENDELSSOHN. but sometimes. ^ BEETHOVEN. 4. is employed when it is desired to use the harmonic progression Va. _CHOPIN. XV. as in the cadence of a Polonaise. as at (c) below. in the face of such passages as have been quoted. the student is strongly advised in his earlier attempts to adhere to the general rule. r * 59. both being in root position. 485. " Gott erhalte Franz den Kaiser. Sometimes the reversal of the usual position in the bar of the tonic and dominant chords. iv S /T\ AAi J- 5^^?E^fTf N -. Polonaise. it will be taken on the third. i. 40. la. Op.

was probably the first to fully recognize this fact. 8. 2. 486. In this passage. eleventh. The following extracts from his works will illustrate the way in which these discords can be used cadentially. Though the tonic chord in an authentic cadence is mostly preceded either by a dominant triad or by a chord of the dominant seventh. XV.] CADENCES. 6. one of the most daring harmonic innovators of the present century. of the dominant and tonic chords. known SCHUMANN. it is also possible to use the higher dominant discords (the ninth.Chap. Op. No. j? S > . No. It must be observed that we have still a full cadence provided that both dominant and tonic chords are in their root position. as regards the accent. ti H*- S^- -I*- /T\ SCHUMANN. the cadential feeling is therefore avoided by altering the relative position. ^P" +-" "Papillons. 201 which is the commencement of Haydn's well" " Austrian Hymn it would have been unsuitable to introduce a full cadence at the end of the first line . /i Novellette. Schumann. 21. or thirteenth) instead of the seventh." Op.

the top. This form of cadence has been already referred to in 43. g_jf 0) J J J ^fc * + - . (Harmony -. 165. HANDEL. uncommon Another very good example of this form of cadence will be found " in No." Book 3. is no restriction as to what chord is to precede the dominant in an authentic cadence. V H : 'J. "St. At (/>) is seen a very rare cadence the dominant eleventh resolving on the tonic chord. we must confine ourselves to giving a few of the more common and usual forms of cadence. either in the root but between either of these position or in the first inversion chords and the dominant the second inversion of the tonic is often interposed. 489. 43.) MENDELSSOHN. third. Examples might easily be found of almost every possible chord in the key being thus complete series of passages would occupy too employed. In this case it must not be placed on a less strongly accented part of the bar than the dominant chord which . fi . Example (c) above shows the tonic chord preceded by the dominant thirteenth in its simplest form with only the generator. much space . and thirteenth present. An example of In the inversion of the subdominant chord preceding the domibe seen at (c) of 484 . 4 of Grieg's Lyrische Stiickchen.202 COUNTERPOINT: ichap. follows it. " Messiah. though not in a plagal cadence. n Paul. "Third Mass. while example (c) of the present section shows us \c interposed between these chords. We now give extracts in which the supertonic triad used in approaching a cadence. HAYDN. the first nant ' will 490. xv." first of these examples the dominant chord is preceded by the root position of the subdominant . Op. at (b) the second inversion of the tonic (!<:) comes between these chords. instead of the subdominant. There A and characteristic examples. a position very unusual in an authentic. is . as well as some rarer 488. The chords most commonly used to lead up to a cadence are the subdominant and supertonic chords.

" BEETHOVEN.' T~ fr I W 0) I I SCHUBERT. HANDEL. p 8&j ." 203 Fidelio. Op. 42.Chap. XV. " Messiah.] CADENCES. Sonata in A minor.

Instead of a triad on the supertonic a chord of the seventh. either diatonic* or chromatic. "Elijah. is frequently employed . "Samson. 492. it is more often met with in an inversion than in root position. HANDEL. XV." . 1 MENDELSSOHN. in this case.204 COUNTERPOINT : [Cliap.

as at (b). XV. It may be preceded by the tonic chord as (a) below. in a full chord. "St. r . r-0 \J\ r ^ a* .' 20 5 i i Two other methods of approaching the dominant chord cadence are not infrequently met with. _.] CADENCES._ . or by the submediant 494. MENDELSSOHN.Chap. Paul.

The use of the plagal cadence differs from that of the authentic in one very important respect. In the present day it is comparatively seldom to be met with. it When is 497. The PLAGAL CADENCE (IV a to la) was formerly much more frequently used than now. Cantata. 496. or of the tonic chord alone. BACH. the plagal cadence is seldom to be met with. as in the following example. except at the close of a movement. The plagal cadence is very often preceded by an " or by an " inverted" cadence ( 505. Occasionally the authentic cadence is used for this. As well-known examples of its employment in this way may be mentioned the three choruses in the " " And the glory of the Lord. 507) on the domirupted nant. It will be familiar to every one in the " Amen " which is generally sung at the end of the last verse of a hymn. except in church music. This manner of concluding a piece is so common that it is needless to give examples of it here. Op." Messiah. 498. . Jesu Christ. " Gelobet seist du." each of which concludes with a plagal cadence. Whereas the latter may be used to conclude any musical phrase.206 COUNTERPOINT: MENDELSSOHN. an authentic cadence is also the final cadence of a often followed by repetitions either of the dominant and tonic chords alternately. The following passage shows this cadence in its simplest form. at (b) it is preceded by the Neapolitan sixth. but the plagal is far more usual. At (a) the cadence is approached from the second inversion of the minor ninth on the supertonic ." " Lift up your heads. and at (c) by the chord of the augmented sixth." and "Hallelujah. at all events in modern music. 41. No. " Es (c) fiel [Chap ein Reif. " inter499." xv 3. where its employment is still not uncommon. piece.

" Op. It must also be noticed that. the effect of a modulation to the subdominant key. have here also a plagal cadence repeated. The ending directly afterwards with a tonic chord neutralizes the impression that would otherwise be produced. it is occasionally used in this way. Cantata." When a plagal cadence is employed in a minor key. In old music it is by no means unusual. as in the passage from Bach quoted in This produces nearly 499.Chap. somewhat different form SCHUMANN. occurring twice in succession. were it not at the final close of a piece. . Paul. to introduce the minor seventh of the key.] CADENCES. seen at the third and fourth bars an " inverted cadence " (505) the tonic chord not being in root position. though the key of the passage is B minor. it would indicate such a modulation. The subdominant chord of the plagal cadence is here in its second inversion. la. is We 502. "St. XV. BACH. 207 " Nimm was dein ist. instead of on the tonic triad. instead of its root position . 20. 501. the last chord is major the " Tierce de Picardie. and." This example is instructive in more than one respect. In the following passage MENDELSSOHN. The following passage shows a of plagal cadence. the progression IVa. At the beginning of the second bar the dominant seventh resolves on a tonic discord. The suspension over the tonic with its ornamental resolution is frequently used in such a close as this. it is very seldom that a minor chord is used on the tonic. 500. in approaching a plagal cadence. " Humoreske.

fe . other forms of 503.208 COUNTERPOINT : LChap. and preceded by a chord of the dominant thirteenth. The subdominant chord is here (as in the example in 499) in the second inversion. and plagal cadences. Besides the authentic We subjoin a few examples. Here the minor (chromatic) chord on the subdominant is used in the major key. full cadence are occasionally used. XV.

g. " Theodora. Sonata in 209 G.] CADENCES. usual forms. it will 506. (a) ' Don Juan.. Op.Chap. the inverted cadence just mentioned." As a plagal cadence is rarely used except for a final close. There is no restriction as to what chord shall precede the dominant in a half cadence. BEETHOVEN." because any other cadence than a perfect (e." (*) HANDEL. evidently not be capable of inversion in that position.' i J^es r I y-ylv v 8 1 : 1 r 1 1 1 1 1 1 H . "St. 31. Some theorists call it an " imperfect " cadence but this term is less satisfactory and " clear than half-cadence. MOZART. or the interrupted cadence to be described directly) would equally be an imperfect cadence. No. A cadence which ends with the root position of the dominant chord is called a Half Cadence. i. XV. s e MENDELSSOHN. Paul. We show a few of its more .

31. The chord most frequently used for such a cadence is that of the submediant in root position .210 CO UNTERPO1NT : BEETHOVEN. a. ." . though much less often than a full cadence. is occasionally to be found in an inverted form. N HANDEL. Op. If the dominant chord in a cadence be followed by some other chord than the tonic. we have an Interrupted Cadence. The half cadence The student will easily find other examples for himself. 507. D minor. No. Sonata in [Chap. but almost any chord is possible here after the dominant. XV. provided that it comes upon an accented beat. " Samson.

to which ii finally returns.) {Harmony. this may or may not induce a modulation. and eleventh) of the dominant chord (Harmony. As the present volume deals with practical rather than theoretical questions. the mental effect of which is not one of finality. or V a. and 7 tonic (both in root position. At the cadences D V NOTE TO CHAPTER XV. at first sight. or division of a sentence. la). ^s the whole material of a key is developed from the tonic. not a To full. and in the latter the higher part." 211 (a) and () the dominant chord is followed by the submediant. every full cadence is. ninth. for the sake of completeness.j CADENCES. notes (the seventh. of the fundamental chord on the dominant precedes the tonic. in reality. and the difference between an authentic and a plagal cadence is that \ 75) in the former the lower. chapter we shall show the student how to know where a phrase begins and ends. but. of course. For example. self-evident little consideration apparent with regard to the plagal cadence (IVa. 7 but it is not. following passages on the piano. the music goes to E minor. minor. A however. and cadence. xv. 508. . It is quite possible to introduce any of them in the course of a phrase without producing a cadential effect at all. the progression from the dominant narmony to that of the tonic. the tonic would be its dominant. because this note cannot be a generator in a key. #. make this clear. how great is the difference in the effect. . the third and fourth chords are the dominant seventh. will. In exHere Bach has followed it by chords leading to amples (d) and (e) the music modulates after the interrupted At (e) after the double bar the time is quickened. the author uas not thought it either necessary or desirable to distract the attention of the student by entering into any discussion as to the harmonic nature of cadences . a few words may be appropriately said here upon this subject. at (c) in 490. la). s-> la. It must always be remembered that the progressions spoken of in this chapter are only cadences when they occur at the end of a musical sentence. la] this is.Chap. In the case of the authentic cadence (V<z. "Lohengrin. and by the first inversion of the subdominant . but there is no cadence here In the next because the passage occurs in the middle of a phrase. prove let the student play the two . WAGNER. The subdominant chord cannot be harmonically derived from the subdominant itself. but a half cadence . ami the progression from the subdominant to the tonic chord would give. the music remaining in the same key. If the subdominant were really the generator of the subdominant chord. At (c) is seen the chromatic chord on the minor sixth of the scale as the final chord of the interrupted cadence . It is in reality a selection from the upper 70.

and the last two chords.212 (a) i COUNTERPOINT i i i : [Chap. eleventh (Harmony write it in five-part harmony. We 1 . At (a) the root of the final chord is a derived note in the key of F .) '. 381. In the first passage (a). which before produced the effect of a half cadence. At (^) the same harmonic progression is given in the key ot very C (substituting Bfc] for B?) . though not at (a). the dominant of C. XV. springs . which is in the key of F. derived from G. at () it is the note from which the whole key. consequently the chord of F is here. now no less distinctly produce the effect of a full cadence. there is an unmistakable half cadence. The cadence with the chord of the " added sixth " (see example (a) of 503) This chord is the third inversion of the dominant strongly confirms this view. including of course the penultimate chord.

Just as by the time of a piece of music we mean the regular recurrence of its accents. as. applying alike to all kinds of melody. 511. while in some metres of hymn tunes. not only because of the ease with which he will be able to make the accompanying parts move freely and melodiously. quite regular. discussed in a subsequent volume . As the harmonizing of chorals or hymn-tunes differs in several respects from that of more florid and ornamental melodies it will be well to treat them separately . some general rules should be given. the same time is usually maintained unaltered but with rhythm there is. In attempting to harmonize a given melody. AND OTHER MELODIES. It was said in our last chapter ( 481) that in most music cadences were introduced at approximately equal distances . it is shown by the last note of each line being double the length of the others. it is in some regular rhythm. one important difference between the two. so by RHYTHM is meant the regular recurrence of its cadences. the time of a piece of music remains unchanged throughout a movement that is to say. the student will now have to harmonize. in the following passage. but before doing this. 512. but still more because of the insight he will have obtained into the laws of harmonic progression. of whatever character. the rhythm will mostly be . 509. . This question will be more fully not always the same uniformity. or in triple time (with an accent on every third beat). In many of the older chorals. xvi. With very rare exceptions.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. There is. in other words. the student will find his contrapuntal studies of the utmost value to him. however. The chief difficulty which the beginner has to overcome is the selection of the best chords for accompanying the melody . ' THE HARMONIZING OF CHORALS. which is the beginning of a tune in what is called ' Sevens ' metre. . for instance. 510.Chap. and there is little danger that anyone who can write good counterpoint will make any serious mistakes in this important matter. the position of the cadences is indicated by a pause (^) put over the last note of each line . to assist the student in one of the most important matters which he will have to consider the determining the position and the nature of his cadences. 213 CHAPTER XVI. it is only needful to refer to it In the simple melodies which here to avoid misapprehension. if it begins in common time (with an accent on every second or fourth beat).

514. note will most likely be a dotted minim. Familiarity with the cadential possibilities of a melodic A progression will greatly assist the student in harmonizing. be found on the third beat of the bar. In the following 516. if the melody were regular in form. O/) Rare. and shall assume that the last note of the cadence comes. I. the student will almost always to be some multiple of two. the cadences throughout. xvi. 515. upon the accented beat of the bar. character of the melody itself will show him which it is. are of two or four bars in length. in an enormous His first majority of cases. and that these phrases. the student must reckon the two incomplete bars as one. which may itself be approached from any other degree. and a large variety of cadence is therefore possible. the melody may either consist of four The phrases of three bars each. It is important to remember that if the melody begins with an incomplete bar for instance on the last beat the cadences must be looked for in the corresponding positions of the bar For example. fours. (e) (f) (g) Very rare. Phrase ending on the tonic. with suggestions as to methods of harmonizing them. not a semibreve. Each pair of notes may be harmonized in several different ways. . and even with In counting the short melodies it is not invariably observed. a melody in 4 time begins with the last crotchet of a bar. as usual. and in common time. now proceed to give the chief forms of melodic cadence. it will most probably finish with a bar which contains the completion of the first bar. in the case just supposed. bars. he must bear in mind that if the whole melody. shall put them all in the key of C major. he have little difficulty in finding the places of the cadences. If the two number of We We () (b) (c) Rare. if he remembers that most melodies contain an even number of phrases. will generally assistance is afforded to the student. procedure should therefore be to count the number of bars in the In doing this. or of three phrases of four. If. phrase may finish on any degree of the scale. for 513. would. progressions. Where no such instance. most often it will be into four twos. This rule does not apply to long compositions . not the last as two. find the number Having counted his bars. the tonic is preceded by each note of the scale. and sixteen into four fours.2 T 4 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. Obviously eight divides eight or sixteen. melody begins with an incomplete bar. or bars should happen to be twelve.

because it is seldom good to introduce a full cadence in the tonic key except for a final close. or V& la. The progression at (g) is very rare . XVI. and followed either by the tonic or submediant chord. and be harmonized in that key as Va la. taking the octaves by contrary motion. if as a middle cadence. it The progression might also. being the fifth of the dominant chord> a half cadence ( 506) will almost always be implied if a phrase ends upon this note. The progression at (e) will seldom be found close. \b Va. If it is. in a middle cadence. Phrase ending on the supertomc. The progression at (c) is rare in a cadence if V . or Via Va (a) the best harmonies to use will be la Va. As a middle cadence it is best harmonized as an inverted or interrupted cadence. At (f) the note E should be treated as a dominant thirteenth. like ( f) (d). but if they should occur in the course of a melody. met should be harmonized as a plagal cadence at the close of a melody . but at ($) the progression indicated will most probably be la Va introduce a modulation to it would be possible here also to At D minor. an inversion of a plagal cadence will probably be best. as a final should be treated as an authentic cadence. it will be better to use either some form of the inverted cadence ( 505) either or to Lz. 2I 5 The progressions (a) and (b) naturally suggest for their harmonies the authentic cadence (Va. Va I&. 517. it The same remark will apply to (d).Chap. and to harmonize the passage thus . J HARMONIZING MELODIES. la] . Va Via ( 507). with. The supertonic 518. be taken as implying a modulation to A minor. or V \b employ the interrupted cadence. if met with it is best treated as an inverted plagal cadence. II.

a chord of the dominant seventh followed by the tonic or submediant. or a half cadence (IV a Va) in minor. When it is. The passage at (c) will give either a full or an inverted cadence (Va la. At (e) the first chord should be \b . it will be best harmonised as a half cadence (la Va) in the key of A minor V 13a la in C major would also be possible. either the subdominant or the supertonic chord. III. 00 0?) progression at (a) can be harmonized either in the key of C la. or to its is . As the sub520. either to the key of the subdominant. At (a) (b) the most natural harmonies would be the chords of the dominant and tonic in the key of F . or a half cadence in The as Va A A A as at (f) by no means common if it should be met with. . XVI. (b) may imply a plagal cadence in C. Similarly. though (a) might also be . Ha Va. or Vb At (d) and (e) we may use either a plagal cadence in la) in C. a modulation is mostly implied. mediant should be treated either as the third of the tonic chord. also in C. In the large majority of cases. The repetition of the mediant.216 COUNTERPOINT . relative minor. In this case the 519. in which key there will be a half cadence. or (in a middle cadence) as IV b Va in the key of minor. here the harmony should be Via Va. [Chap. dominant is not a note of either the tonic or dominant triad. the progression The progression at (d) is less being IV'a Va. a half cadence will be At (c) the note F should be harmonized as part of preferable. common. because if the first note is treated as part of the supertonic or subdominant chord we shall have unpleasant hidden fifths. IV. Phrase ending on the subdominant. it is seldom found at the end of a phrase. Phrase ending on the mediant. or as the dominant of the relative minor. however. C. and if the supertonic is repeated in the melody as at (f) it is best to harmonize the first note as part of the supertonic chord. or lib Va. minor.

Phrase ending on the dominant. A plagal cadence in the tonic key is. If the dominant is repeated in the melody. however. especially if the submediant is approached from either the leading note.Chap. XVI.) pp 1 . monest forms of middle cadence. The progression at (g) is very rare . of course. or the tonic. (d) The progression from submediant to dominant. seldom advisable to use a full cadence possible. as at (/). as at (a) mostly implies a modulation to the dominant key. (Compare 517. possible in both these cases . but a full cadence (Va la) is also It is. if met with it should be harmonized as a full cadence in the dominant key. The progressions at (b) (c) (d) and (e) all indicate a half cadence in the tonic key. At (c) the key of D minor would be preferable to F . in the tonic key in the course of a melody. One of the com521. 217 harmonized by the dominant and tonic chords of D minor. but this form of cadence is rarely used except at the close of a piece. it will mostly be best to use the half cadence \a Va . V. but this progression will be rarely met with in a cadence.] HARMONIZING MELODIES.

are mostly those of the dominant. but (b) and (c) may also be used for a modulation to the key of the dominant . and 524. the same cadence twice in harmonizing a melody. . for instance. and has put good cadences in the right places. it is mostly best for the harmony to proceed in notes of uniform The length. advisable to introduce a modulation.2 1 8 CO UNTERPOINT : l) (*) [Chap. in order to avoid the monotony resulting from too The best keys to modulate into long prevalence of one tonality. and the relative minor. as. Similarly the augmented fifth of the key would show a modulation to the relative minor. consequently neither the subdominant nor its relative minor should be introduced till the key has been fairly established 526. 525. . full cadence in the tonic key should mostly be avoided as a middle We A A cadence in longer melodies. for example. 243) . the augmented fourth of the key is seen in the melody. as (or IVa) Va. it is almost certain that a modulation to the dominant is intended. or in A minor at \b V#. now give him a few general principles to guide him in making his selection from the large assortment of chords from which he may choose." 527. must always be borne in mind that a modulation to the subdominant side of a key produces a more disturbing effect on the tonality than one to the dominant side (Harmony. In many cases a modulation will be indicated by the notes of the melody itself. In harmonizing chorals or hymn-tunes. he will find little trouble in harmonizing the rest of the melody. very important point to be considered by the student is that of It is seldom good to use obtaining variety of cadence. and never good to repeat the same cadence for two consecutive phrases. We have entered in considerable detail into the question of the varieties of cadence. if possible. Ha and (f) can be harmonized either in C major. and the minor seventh will most probably indicate the key of the In a melody of any extent it will mostly be subdominant. because if the student has once mastered these. it is less objectionable than in short ones. XVI. unless the note is merely a chromatic passing note. If. and IVa Va. and It (more sparingly) the subdominant. progressions (e) la V#. and it loses some of its character of finality if some other note than the tonic is in the upper voice of the last " Hundredth chord. and its relative minor. (O (*') (/) All these passages can be harmonized with a half cadence in the tonic key . while (a) (b) and (c) can be treated as The indicating a half close in the key of the relative minor. in the first phrase of the Psalm. to some nearly related key. however.

It is best never to use a cadential i . rest of the changed. The student will easily determine. though it is seldom either necesIf it is done. be anticipated on the preceding unaccented beat.Chap. his knowmelody. it is best to If a vary its position. 528. what is what may be termed the measurement/' In a choral in triple time. but it is best in this case for the upper voice to move to and from the chord by step. a O on the dominant. the harmony should always be changed in approaching an accented note. mark the place of the cadences . He will do well to 514. he must next discover the position of the cadences. and the bass should move. rather than with too lavish a use of chromatic chords. however. the chord above it should always be sary or good. If it is desired to repeat the same chord. 219 is generally written either in minims. chords.g. as directed in 511 melody of a choral This will give him but little difficulty. that is. 529. allowed to begin a of this important principle. and chromatic harmony should be regarded as the seasoning of the music. new phrase with the same chord with which the preceding phrase closed. We strongly advise him to harmonize his melodies with simple and diatonic progressions. and write them in his exercise before proceeding to harmonize the If his cadences are well chosen. for a bass note to be repeated. Much of the weakness of badly harmonized melodies arises from ignorance or disregard It is. will probably assist him. in the middle of a phrase. ledge of counterpoint will make the remainder of the work comIn case of doubt as to the selection of his paratively easy. if ever.) Having decided whether his harmony shall move in minims or crotchets. not as the substance of it. and then. A followed by a chord on the next degree of the scale may be used more freely . in this case each chief note of the melody should be accompanied by a chord of its own length.j HARMONIZING MELODIES. a reference to the table of root-progressions at the end of Chapter II. to select from the large variety given in 516 523 those which appear most suitable. generally also to change the bass note.. the harmony should generally be It is occasionally possible changed. by " unit of examining the melody. In other words. cr in crotchets with occasional quavers. xvi. The best effects are often produced by the simplest means. 530. The harmony or the bass note of an accented beat should seldom. it often happens that the melody is composed of notes of unequal length e. (See the first line " of Angels' Hymn. note of the melody is repeated. minims and crotchets . e. taking the two notes of the melody which form each cadence." harmonized in Chapter III.g . with occasionally two crotchets instead of a minim.

It will frequently make the harmony more flowing. if passing and auxiliary notes are introduced. what cadences shall be used. 533. measurement" (527) here student will see without difficulty that the "unit of is a crotchet. as chorals. It must be noticed that in every case the cadence comes on the second. This is by no means uncommon with slow music. The . We shall now take a choral. consequently the harmony should move in crotchets. the notes on which the cadences occur by figures. " Jesu. in The student's knowledge of counterthe accompanying parts. At (i) a half cadence in G may be used. it naturally divides itself into two-bar phrases. point will guide him in seeing where this can be effectively done. The first We have marked thing to decide is. 532. excepting at the cadences. n ES [] 531. Not so good. .220 C O UNTERPOINT : | I [Chap. (2> (4) (5) (6) (7) (S) We here once that It will be seen at give the melody in its simplest form. Leiden Pein und Tod. and the position of the cadences is clearly indicated by the longer notes at the end of each phrase (512)." as affording plenty of variety in the cadences. such where two accents in a bar are distinctly felt. to show the student how he is to proceed in treating the melodies we shall We select the old German choral give at the end of the chapter. where practicable. and harmonize it. XVI. and the passage might also be harmonized as an inverted cadence. or less accented half of each bar.

No. because the difference of the melody prevents its At (8) we being a mere repetition of a cadence already used. the third in the upper . or a full cadence in A minor . though we have already had a halt cadence at (3). We shall choose the former.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. inserting merely the cadences 534. we choose it.Chap. in the tonic key. XVI. or a half cadence in E minor . No. we select the half cadence in G. We we have selected. (2) clearly gives 221 a full cadence cadence in G. have. because we are at present going to give the No. but this would here be less good as a middle cadence than we may have either a half At (5) the the inverted cadence. G.I (uf . which we therefore choose. (4) might be a plagal cadence in simplest harmony we can. simplest harmony is a full cadence in The Cjf in the next two bars part prevents the feeling of finality. now sketch the choral. a full cadence in At (3) D. (7) will give either a half cadence in G. at (6) we clearly shows a modulation to the dominant key ( 525) shall therefore take a full cadence in D. 3 1 i . a full cadence in G. the former being the simpler. G . of course.

" . J -4 ^ -j- J3. The cadences being now fixed. Let the two half cadences at (a) and (c) be compared. ' I A J J. J. Let the student ask himself why. John. taken from the works of Bach. obviously impossible here to use at (d) the second inversion of the tonic chord ( 461). for the sake of comparison. 536.222 COUNTERPOINT: [Chap. and of various degrees of elaboration. though both end on the dominant. the accompanying chord In the final cadence it is position (528).J -* J -J- A Very little explanation is needful for this example. In the simple harmonizing of a choral or hymn tune. In the above example more attention has been paid to therefore changes good strong harmonic progression than to the special contrapuntal interest of the middle voices. the student's practice counterpoint should enable him to harmonize the rest of the melody without difficulty. At (b] a note is repeated in the melody its . We give a simple harmony in full. which is found in the according to St. XVI. in 535. and let the student notice how different they are. we shall now give three different harmonizations of this same choral. which the parts too elaborate. it is not always advisable to make the middle But. We begin with the " Passion simplest version. student will find very instructive. i j J.

] .tap. XVI.

Other unusual points in this setting are the ending of the lines at (a) and (b) on an inversion of a chord of the seventh. and is an excellent illustration of the application of counterpoint in actual composition. previously given. Though A BACH. which is It is especially resolved at the beginning of the next line. there being a greater amount of melodic interest in the middle voices. taken from one of Bach's Church Cantatas. " Sehet. I * J " . 539. wir gehen hinauf. and had the composer begun here as in the 536. the effect of the tonic and dominant chords setting given in of A major directly after a close in the relative minor would have been harsher than that of the harmony which he has employed. minor. this The explanation of Bach's version clearly begins in Fjj. beginning out of the key is that the choral immediately follows a song in Fj minor. as that which divides the melody into equal parts The present version is more contrapuntal than the one at (b). Cantata.224 COUNTERPOIN'I : the key of the choral is unquestionably major. is the most elaborate of the three. Our last example. uncommon to find the most important of the middle cadences thus treated." /T\ J 1 .

When he has done this. we give the same choral which we have been treating. Notice also how the whole feeling of the music is altered by changing the key from major to E flat. widely as they differ in other respects. 540. . cadences. 541. Bach has harmonized the third line of the choral with a half cadence in the relative minor. as he can obtain. 225 -C j j -J- J] -J2-~_ J J^ ^ ^ - The first three bars of this version show the practical use of the fourth species of counterpoint. At the end of this chapter we give a number of chorals as exercises for the student. instead of in the treble. None the less. with whom. and then in the tenor part. these are seldom met with It is somewhat curious that in each excepting in the upper part. not in strict counterpoint. xvi. of the three examples we have quoted. in simply harmonized chorals the melody is always in the treble. in showing what boundless resources are open to the composer. The fifth and sixth lines also here acquire quite a new character by the different selection of chords. the study of Bach's chorals will be of great value. As it is impossible to find examples of this method of treatment in the works of Bach. if he only have the requisite knowledge and skill to avail himself of A them aright. first in the alto. with as much variety in chords.Chap. He should in this case especially aim at getting a good melody in the treble. as in the pattern set him in 535> instead of trying to imitate the wonderful florid part-writing of the greatest contrapuntist that the world has ever seen. ing to obtain as much variety as possible. putting the subject in the alto and tenor parts. as before. and modulations. he should also practise the harmonizing of chorals. their first inversions. who is strongly recommended to harmonize each in two or three different ways.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. will do well. as well as firmly moving progressions in the bass. At (a) is seen a somewhat rare lisa of anticipations in the bass . while endeavourpossibilities of one simple melody. to triads and These chorals are to be harmonized in free. and thus lowering the pitch of the melody. to harmonize his chorals with plain chords and occasional passing notes. These exercises will be the continuation of those given at the end of Chapter III. at least in the earlier stages of his work. The three examples we have just given are inserted less as models for the student's imitation than to show the harmonic The learner. because in this voice it will not make good cadences . but with this important difference that the student is no longer restricted. It is not advisable to put the melody in the bass.

We r err i i 'r &^^a r r r T J: J- J E -& At (^) the perfect fifths by contrary motion between tenor and bass are not objectionable. now put the same melody into the tenor. because of the roots of the two chords . In the following version. 542. the harmony being quite simple.226 but as bass.[^ i p i \ i r i f \f ** ^~ ' ' ' M i i i ! the choral No is in the alto voice . / ft i i ' i i i *=z-t=! >:* r\^' * ' ^. N| tr I if -f ~ I I r ii r 11 ^ r i i i "i . 543. XVI we give among number of basses for extremely useful to write harmony above an unfigured the exercises at the end of this chapter a the student to harmonize for himself. it is COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. for the transposition see 53 explanations are required.

In harmonizing melodies of a more florid character. If the student compares this example with the preceding. A very important point to remember is that it is hardly ever good to harmonize each note of the melody with a different chord. the effect will be very uncomfortable. Both are examples of " the art of counterpoint as combining different melodies. as stiffness will almost inevitably result. and to harmonize the passage thus I is very important that the student should understand which notes of a melody can be used as auxiliary notes. Let of variety possible in the cadences of even a simple melody. we have preferred to keep them. in the cadence of the third excepting line of the example. If.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. while only a few in either version are the same as those given in This illustrates the large amount 535. It . and VL. it be also noticed that the treble parts of these two settings of the choral are absolutely different throughout. It will therefore be far preferable here to treat some of the shorter notes as passing notes. for we take the first line of " Rule Britannia. and may be even t* ludicrous." and instance. accompany each note with different harmony. clearly and which are unavailable as such. The importance of a good moving bass cannot be too strongly impressed on the student. 542. 544. The rules which govern the treatment of auxiliary notes in strict counterpoint have been fully rules given in Chapters V. 227 being at a distance of a fourth from one another. a different method should be adopted from that which is advisable with In this case. and it will be often expedient to vary the length of the accom- panying chords. there is not a single repetition of a bass note in either version.Chap. and the extent to which these 545. he will see that not one of the eight cadences is identical with the corresponding one in 542. there will be no " unit of measurement. It would have been quite easy to avoid the fifths. but as the harmonic progression would have been weaker." chorals." It must be also observed that. XVI. in which there is greater variety in the lengths of the notes.

even if such a note leaps only a third.() . that no note of a melody which is left by leap of a larger It is not interval than a third can be treated as an auxiliary note. unless it can be used as a changing note. or (more rarely) if it is approached by step. e. <> . and leaps a third downwards to a harmony note (see 165).228 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. advisable.g. The general principle which the student has to bear in mind is. may be relaxed in free counterpoint has been shown in Chapter XIII. XVI. to treat it thus.

no absolute rule can be given. Here the first semiquaver is an accented auxiliary note. than to harmonize the second as part of the supertonic chord. it would be passing note. the quavers had been semiquavers). again. when two notes of the melody belong to the same harmony. however. as much will depend upon what follows. It will also be sometimes advisable. . can only say that those notes should be selected which give This point has been sufthe strongest harmonic progressions. see felt at once how much more satisfactory this harmony It will is be at (a). 229 take F and D as harmony notes.Chap. ficiently illustrated in examples (a) and (b) of the last paragraph. 548. It is impossible to lay down any hard-and-fast rule as to which notes of a melody should be treated as harmony notes.) (For. We of C we find it will probably be much better to treat both notes as part of the dominant chord. as so much will depend upon the speed of the music. XVI.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. This. Here. 547. For an instance of this see the treble and tenor in the fourth bar of the example in 542. the explanation of the Cjf in the tenor. for instance. 58. for instance. because the cadence is much time had been very quick (if. treating G and E as accented auxiliary notes. it is generally best to consider both as If. in the key belonging to the same harmony. must be taken rather as a recommendation than a rule. than that If the better approached. the whole group might also have been harmonized as belonging to the supertonic chord. the fourth and fifth (E and G) are changing notes. If two notes of small value follow one another at an the first of the two being on the stronger accent. interval greater than a second. very weak to continue the same chord through so many notes of the melody. and the seventh is a But if the movement were at all slow. to change the position of the chord in one or more of the accompanying parts.

(2) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) It will be seen at once that this melody divides into equal portions of two bars. G D 551. and that the cadences occur in every second bar after We have indicated their position by the third crotchet ( 514). there will probably be less . cadence. for frequent employment than when. or a half cadence in minor. XVI. For (6) we have considerable choice . Here. No. . occasion their chorals or hymn We illustrate the principle here laid down. The passage following (6) is clearly a sequence . of F . now give a melody which has been written to 550. this must be borne in mind in harmonizing it. or a modulation to minor. therefore (3) will probably be either an inverted or an interrupted cadence in C . Passing notes may be used in the accompaniment of any but if the melody be florid. the student must be guided by his experience and judgment . and introducing no modulation excepting the one to the dominant which is indicated by the melody. At (2) is clearly a half cadence. At (7) an interrupted cadence looks the most natural . The B2 after (4) shows the return to the key. The Bfl in the sixth bar shows a modulation to the dominant . the feeling of finality being avoided by having the third of the tonic chord at the top. melody 549. as we did in 532. (i) will be evidently a full figures. the notes are mostly of greater value. as it will anticipate the full cadence evidently intended at (4). we may take either a full cadence in C a half cadence in F. a full cadence here will be bad. again. taking first as simple a harmony as possible.230 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. as with tunes. and the close will of course be a full cadence. We will now harmonize this melody in two different ways. no fixed rules on the subject are possible. and (5) may indicate either a half cadence in that key.

and at (b) the chord of the dominant seventh is held over the tonic bass ( 491). of the whole is somewhat weak and monotonous. Had the dominant been repeated in the bass here. At (a) are seen changing notes . 552. because of the long prevalence of the key of F.Chap. r J ^j. now give a much more satisfactory harmonization of the same.] HARMONIZING MFT. 231 difficulty. if he examines this example. the effect would have been bad. Though the effect We r r r J. because both the harmony and the bass note of an accented chord would have been anticipated on the preceding unaccented beat The student will have no in seeing . It will therefore be much better. (529)there is nothing incorrect in the above harmony. and where they are left by leap of a third. to introduce a few modulations. which are the auxiliary notes let him notice where they are accented. in a melody of this length.ODIES.jj UC J- J- - J tes . XVI.

XVI. will : To save space. These few bars will sufficiently illustrate the method of working. arrangement be compared with the preceding. and then in the tenor. as would appear at first sight. 553. At (c) a modulation is made into G minor. as in the cases for example.) 554. At (a) the Efe of the alto indicates a transient modulation to the key of the subdominant . the two quavers Here the chord being treated as belonging to the same harmony. In concluding this chapter. 103. or melodies with a pianoforte accompaniment. melodies such as the above should also be placed in the middle voices and harmonized. because the F of the bass is not a note of the harmony. that the chord is not a tonic seventh is shown by its resolution. We see at (d] an illustration of the point mentioned in 548. At (e) is a modulation to D minor. Lastly. the difference be felt at once. we give merely the first four bars of the melody we have been treating. but an accented auxiliary note. The hidden octaves between the extreme parts at the beginning of the fourth bar of (b) are allowed. . between the second and third crotchets of the tenor and bass. placing it first in the alto. instead of with other voice parts. and notice how much better an effect is produced here by treating the accented notes as passing notes instead of notes of the harmony (compare 546). in writing the previously treated version. at the corresponding passage in the preceding example the same position was retained. with a half cadence in that key. because the second chord is a second in- (Harmony. changes its position for the second quaver . Similarly at (V) the key of A minor is touched on for a moment the C in the melody is a rare example of an auxiliary note left by an upward leap of a third. let the student compare the harmonizing of the sequence at (/) with that in 551. Observe that at (a) of the first example there are no consecutive fifths.232 If this COUNTERPOINT : [Chap. a few words should be said as to the harmonizing of pianoforte music. Like the chorals already spoken of.

233 The general principles as to chord for a song. progressions. or taken in arpeggio. instead of the notes In such cases. license. even the greatest being all sounded together. and sounded C C at the bottom is the bass.. together. contains consecutive fifths and octaves. E is the tenor. cadences. Though it is therefore impossible to lay down fixed and absolute rules on this matter. the the treble of the harmony. G progressions should be avoided which would be incorrect were the notes sounded together. at (d t are arpeggios of the same chord. The general rule which should guide the student in writing broken chords or arpeggios is. Thus at (d) above. ference is to be found in the fact that in pianoforte music the chords are often broken. " 557. such a progression as the following is perfectly correct. The commencement " is Wohltemperirtes Clavier of the 2ist Prelude of Bach's a good example of this use of broken chords. that each note thus taken must be considered as a separate voice of the harmony. For instance. if more than two notes of the chord are all struck in regular succession. broken chord is one in which one or more of the notes 555. The following example will show the difference between the two.] HA R MONiZING MEL ODIES.Chap. we have an arpeggio. as the student will easily On the other hand. just as if the four notes were In a series of arpeggios. 556. A struck after another part of the same chord . . &c. the following passage see. or broken chords. a few general principles may be given for the guidance of the student. XVI. no two is being sounded together. will be in all cases those with which But a very important difthe student is already acquainted. masters frequently allow themselves a considerable amount of accompaniment and progressions are to be met with which would not be tolerated in strict part-writing. the alto. At (e) (a) (b) (c} are various forms of the broken chord of C .

even in the works of the acknowledged masters. HAYDN. instead of rising a semitone to the tonic. [Chap. Sonata in E flat. Prelude 5. which nobody knew better how to observe than Haydn. This passage contains three violations of the strict rules of harmony. with the notes of Wohltemperirtes Clavier. At (a) the leading note. Wohltemperirtes Clavier. by no means unusual to find much laxity of part-writing. and EP of the arpeggio make evident consecutive fifths with the G^ and Db of the preceding bar and at (c) the Gb (the dominant . which is the lowest note of the arpeggios in the preceding bar. e. It is. Not infrequently passing notes are mixed the harmony. Prelude 21. BACH. instead. however. 558. as in the following passage. of falling to F. when arpeggios are introduced.g. seventh of the previous chord) rises to Ai?. . XVI. descends to the fifth of the tonic At (b) the A!? chord.234 CO UNTERP01NT : BACH.

or written with a special view to their melodic capabilities. They will not give the student much n trouble. but nobody can successfully emancipate himself from the rules until he has first learned to obey them. xvi. Some of these. chorals. and it is doubtful if many who attempt it will discover the very familiar melody of which it is the bass. to adhere strictly to the general principles we have laid down here. We therefore earnestly advise the student. mostly selected from the works of the great masters. we give a selection of unfigured basses for harmonizing. The exercises now to follow are divided into three We give first a selection of several of the finest German groups." . and it will tax the student's ability somewhat severely to write good upper The other basses have either been adapted parts to the bass. " Mach's mit mir. 20 and 21) are fairly easy. he may. being taken from instrumental to be harmonized. When he has ceased to be a pupil. (A. The chorals are basses taken from the works of Bach.g. should be placed in the middle parts also. 560. or takes more speedy vengeance on its author than in the writing of a simple accompaniment. as well as in the treble. which are from Haydn's quartets). or a song with pianoforte accompaniment. and 12. it is taken from one of the Church cantatas . The passage just quoted. like other masters. shows itself There is nothing in which helpless and shiftless work more clearly.) Nos. Gott.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. exceed the compass of the treble voice. 24 is somewhat harder. and in the alto and tenor. and become a master (if that desirable consummation should ever arrive). No. Next comes a number of melodie?. if the spirit should move him to write a pianoforte piece. It not be advisable for the student to imitate them in this respect. 235 559. nach deiner GUt'. EXERCISES. and they will be found more The simple melodies difficult than the others to harmonize well. and must not be treated It will be useless to attempt to put such melodies as voice parts.) CHORALS TO BE HARMONIZED. No.Chap. shows that they allowed themselves much more free- dom will in writing for the piano than in stricter part-writing. Lastly. as these into the middle voices . which should be harmonized in different ways. from existing compositions. 27 is by far the most difficult . which is only one of many similar ones which might be given from the works of the great composers. works (e. Those first given (Nos. such as Nos. be a law unto himself . 15 and 16. at least in the earlier stages of his work.

XVL "Erhalt" uns.236 COUNTERPOINT : [Chap.bei deinem Wort. Herr." p .

the chorals VIII. As others. to assist the (B. From GLUCK.) 11 Es wollt uns Gott genadig rein. and X. .) HARMONIZING MELODIES. the places of the cadences has student.) Andante. xvi. " Es 1st 237 kommen her.Chap. MELODIES TO BE HARMONIZED.) das Heil uns - (X." I JJ* .) (XI.) Andante." ( IX. are less regular in rhythm than the been marked with a "^. ^ (XIV.

) Moderate. SCHUMANN. .) (XX.) Andante. (XVIII. BASSES TO BE HARMONIZED. (C.) Choral. WEBER.(XVII.

) Choral.ggf=fl (XXVI. Ij .) Melody. TJwMrj.) Melody. J ^ (XXVII.) Melody.) Hymn Tune. a . xvi.chap.) Choral.] HARMONIZING MELODIES. (XXV. Allegretto. Lai ^ it* 1 =t (XXII. (XXIII.) Choral. (XXIV. 239 (XXI.

240 COUNTERPOINT: tchap. our range of illustrabut without referring at tion will be considerably narrowed present to that invaluable branch of composition. counterpoint thus used by modern writers to find examples of the latter we should have to go back some three centuries. secondly. of course. in heightening the interest of a composition by adding a new melody to one already familiar . CHAPTER XVII. and the finest examples of it are to be found in the works of Bach. Apart from the strength which it gives to the harmony. as in his Church " Meine Seele erhebt den Herrn " Cantata. first. a good knowledge of counterpoint is beyond all price in giving the ability to combine melodies absolutely contrasted with one another. we shall have no difficulty in showing what great resources even simple counterpoint places at the disposal of anyone who has mastered it. we compress the score. As double (that is. To save space. it only remains in concluding this volume to give a few characterIt will hardly be needful to istic examples of their procedure. at the same point. and in the Credo " of his great Mass in magnify B minor. and the power of making each of the parts flow naturally. chiefly to be sought in Church music. 564. it is almost invariably free. shall now illustrate the practical use of counter563. and not strict. 562. The theme on which both are built is the We say that which is . in the artistic treatment of the plain song and choral . We following : . THE APPLICATION OF COUNTERPOINT TO PRACTICAL COMPOSITION. have more than once had occasion to refer inci561. It is not generally known that Cherubini has used the same melody in his Mass in F. . and thirdly. xvu. dentally to the practical use made of counterpoint by composers. who has also occasionally used the older Gregorian intonations. (My soul doth " the Lord). invertible) counterpoint is not included in the scope of the present volume. We give the commencement of each for comparison. The contrapuntal treatment of a choral is. and the passages we should quote would be of no value to the student. point in three aspects . in combining totally different melodies.

] PRACTICAL APPLICATION. BASS. ^4 A . 241 It should be explained that the lowest line in the following extract from Bach. CONTINUO.Chap. SOPRANO." is the part for the basses and organ. which is marked " continue. TENOR. XVII. ALTO. JJ- ^ -fcfc 1 ' m . BACH. Mass in B minor.

and Cherubini's the modern school of counterpoint. I i It has been impossiblej without transcribing the orchestral score in full. .242 COUNTERPOINT: ^ SOP3ANO. is only in three parts. the motion of the different parts . Like Bach. CHERUBINI. We have already said that the finest counterpoints on a choral are to be found in the works of Bach. however. [Chap. Bach's setting represents the ancient. His Church Cantatas are full of them but they are far too long to quote in their entirety." as a remarkably fine specimen of Imitative Counterpoint (473) the subject in minims being accompanied by itself in . r JBASS. and there is throughout. His fugue. a florid orchestral accompaniment. We quavers /*. doubly diminished. "Vom Himmel hoch da komm' ich her. but a sufficient idea will be formed from the condensed arrangement. to show as clearly as could be wished.*. Cherubim treats his theme fugally. Mass VOICES ORCHESTRA. as in the extract we have quoted. will give the first line of an arrangement of Luther's Christmas choral.. 567. xvn in F.

with the voices.J PRACTICAL APPLICATION. We HANDEL. which are in unison. extract from his Foundling Anthem (one of his least known works) is therefore especially interesting as an almost unique example. " O come. in his Chandos Anthem. Foundling Anthem. " which is The choral here Aus tiefer an independent fugue. treats old Church melodies works as." in which the magnificent openhe very rarely ing chorus is founded upon the fifth Gregorian tone 568. let us sing unto the Lord.-4 j m-4-~ JJTI ^ I Hi r ^-F &c. omitting the instrumental parts.Chap. It will least be seen that the theme of the choral is present in at one of the accompanying voices in every bar. Though Handel sometimes in his sacred uses the choral as a Noth. for instance. or octaves is The following subject for counterpoint." accompanied by have only space for a short extract. In the conof the piece tinuation each succeeding line of the choral is similarly treated. . XVli. 243 V J.

244

COUNTERPOINT ;

[Chap.

XV 11

569. Though the choral is chiefly used in Churoh music, \ve occasionally find it employed in music written for the concertroom, and even for the stage. Most students will be familiar with Mendelssohn's music to Racine's " Athalie." In the second chorus of that work, at the passage, " They, Lord, who scoff at Thee," the " Ach, Gott, von Himmel composer has introduced the choral, sieh darein," with an accompaniment for all the strings in octaves, first in the second, and then in the third species of counterpoint. The work is so accessible that it is needless to quote the passage " here. Reformation SymMendelssohn, in the finale of his " Ein feste Burg," with much phony," has treated the choral, elaborate counterpoint; and in the allegro of his third organ sonata we find the choral *' Aus tiefer Noth," as a Canto Fermo on the pedals accompanied by a fugue. " Les 570. Meyerbeer, in Huguenots," has made much use " " Ein of the choral the whole of the orchestral feste Burg ; introduction to the opera is founded upon this theme. give a few bars in which the choral is accompanied by counterpoint of the third species.

We

MEYERBEER. " Les Huguenots.'

example of the use of a choral in operatic music the second finale of Mozart's " Zauberflote." The song of the two armed men, which is accompanied by florid and imitative counterpoint for the strings, is the same " choral, Ach, Gott, von Himmel sieh darein," which, as mentioned above, Mendelssohn has used in "Athalie." Unfortunately the passage is too long to give in full, and impossible to condense in a few lines ; we must therefore refer students to the
still

A

finer

is

to

be seen

in

score

itself.

Chap. XVII.]

PRACTICAL APPLICATION?.

245

571' A second and very important use of counterpoint is that of increasing the interest of a composition by adding a new

melody as an accompaniment to one already known. A good example of this will be found in the Allegretto of Beethoven's
in A. The theme of the movement is by the lower stringed instruments in plain chords. BEETHOVEN.
first

symphony

given out
A.

Symphony

in

-999p

ZJ^ -*-t-g"J T

J T

'

'

J *

.

J rjj J + JJf -<f +-*-*
l

.

^

then taken by the second violins an octave higher, and accompanied by a new and beautiful melody for the violas and
It is

violoncellos.
BEETHOVEN.

Symphony

in

A.

572. Haydn's
quartet,

Variations
3,

on

the

Austrian

Hymn,

in

his

Op. 76, No.
;

furnish

give the opening bars of the first and first, which is in two-part harmony entirely, for the violins only, the first violin plays a counterpoint of the third species round the theme given to the second violin ; in the second variation the violoncello has the melody, the coumerpoint of tho first violin is in the fifth species, the second violin mostly in the first, while the viola occasionally sup-

kind of counterpoint.

We

some good

illustrations

of this

second variations

in the

plies the bass of the

harmony.
HAYDN'S
Quartett, Op. 76, No.
3.

VAR.

i.

246

COUNTERPOINT :
-~~^
*

[Chap XVII.

-*--^* r * i^gj.
.

^^

si-

Gounod's " Faust."
574.

As 573. The same device is often employed in vocal music. well-known examples may be named the duet, " I waited for the " Lord," in Mendelssohn's Hymn of Praise," in which, when the second voice enters with the theme, the first has an entirely new melody ; another familiar illustration is the violoncello solo which " accompanies the second part of the song Quando a te lieta," in

A

different subjects.

third use of counterpoint is that of combining totally This is often made use of with fine effect in

fugal writing, the

two subjects being

subsequently worked together. " Dettingen Anthem," Handel
shalt give subject
:

We

first treated separately, and In his give two examples. commences the chorus "Thou

him

everlasting felicity," with a fugue

on the following

HANDEL.

Dettingen Anthem."
.

,

I

I

!

I

&c.

^.

^

rrr

After developing this theme for a while, the composer introduces a fresh subject for the words, " Make him glad with the joy of thy countenance."

I
After this second theme has been worked in all the voices. introduces the one as a counterpoint to the other.
I

&C.

Handel

J
&C.

Chap xvii.i

PRACTICAL APPLICATION.

247

575.

A more
is

cedure
first

is

elaborate example of the same method of profound in one of Bach's organ fugues in C minor. Its
as follows
BACH.

subject

Organ Fugue,

in

C

minor.

tr

&c.

At the 37th bar a new subject

is

presented.

M
This

-

j Jjfrnagg
rg*-*-***

is

developed by

itself

till

the 7oth bar,

when

the two are

combined thus

.

^/

f.

ff

y

""

~

-

MOZART. " Don Juan."

i (

!>**

'V-J^^^rrrT-^-^^^L^^,^^^^:^ =d^

&C.

r

578. Our last illustration is irom the Prelude to "Die Meistersinger," in which three of the most important themes of the opera are treated simultaneously.
WAGNER.
"Die
Meistersinger."

labours under a great Let him be delusion.) PRACTICAL APPLICATION. content to work on the lines on which all the great masters have worked . acquired his freedom (as we know from Nothing himself) by a long and severe course of strict study. first left off. but it is important to remember that Wagner. great is to be achieved without hard work and strict mental The student who fancies he can begin where Wagner discipline. and write good free counterpoint without having acquired a mastery of the strict style. from which he will awake. XVII. .Chap. lasting success can only be achieved by honest and conscientious work. like other great composers. and let him not be tempted aside into the seemingly easy paths of the "Free Part Writing" so much in vogue with a There is no such thing as a short cut certain school of theorists. if ever. to musicianship . THE END. 249 It need scarcely be added that such counterpoint as this is extremely free . too late.

.

\ . (c). free counterpoint. . defined. second species. . church music. . except in a few instances where so indicated. The figures refer to the paragraphs. I. 479 . 491. 501 . 490 (a. defined. '. 483 (b}. CADENCE. 492 supertonic chromatic (c. or in 55. seventh on. \ I. AUXILIARY in Jree AND PASSING NOTES . 508. 164-171 third species. origin of the word (see note to page 199). 492 (a. augmented sixth. c] supertonic diatonic seventh. treatment of in harmonizing. not the pages. d] supertonic chromatic minor ninth. ment defined. 555 . 549. 495 of. triad on mediant of minor in strict counterpoint. of. Alto staff. 495 (a) submediant chord.) at end of a musical sentence. defined. Alto voice. strict use of C clef. 1 68. 219-221. 502 minor key. Chords used to lead up to dominant chord. 482 (see note to Chap. PLAGAL CADENCE. 489 (a. or in Bass voice. treatment of in division of a sentence. supertonic chord. 555-558. . use of for alto and tenor voices. 454. 482.). 115-117. 239. compass of. introduction of minor seventh of the key. 205-218. 237 in accompaniments. 498 . AUTHENTIC CADENCE. 212 . 531. (see Authentic cadence Cadence. Basses to be harmonized. or . (see Strict Ambiguous intervals in two-part counterin strict point. full cadence perfect in : ARPEGGIO. counterpoint . nature of harmonic defined. c] Dominant minor ninth. key unavailable Authentic. 483 (a. ant chord held over. b. 497 full cadence perminor chromatic fect cadence. in strict counterpoint (see Melodic Progression) . af)^ (b} II. 482 . not available counterpoint. defined. effect of. b) . tonic : Augmented 33- in free counterpoint. treatment of in harmonizing. 13. subc} b. 484 (a. Broken chords and arpeggios. b. . 500. 557. ] . 204. sixth. 482 chord on subdominant in major key. 486 (b') Dominant thirteenth. full. 555. 499. in melody. 'c}.) . I.ANALYTICAL INDEX. xv. Arpeggios and broken chords. 455. compass of. . found mostly . 544-547. in strict counter- C clef. . . 494' tonic chord 494 (a) Neapolitan (ft) . counterpoint. b] seventh. Dominant seventh. 546. 493 (a. in free counterpoint Counterpoint) only used (see Free Counterpoint. of a chord in treat- cadence. or . Broken chord. . 12-14. Chords used third species of counterpoint. at the close of a movement. 486 (c) Domin\ . 555-558. Dominant triad followed by tonic. best in the upper part. often preceded by "inverted" " interrupted" cadence. Accented auxiliary and passing notes in harmonizing melodies. subdominant. 14. 14. Accented auxiliary notes point. perfect. pages 238. 486 (a) Dominant eleventh. in 453-455 harmonising. AUGMENTED INTERVAL. 482 example 498 . in strict counterpoint. ANTICIPATIONS.

180. strict CHORDS counterpoint. 506 (a. . 505 plagal. auxiliary and False relation of the tritone. twelfth. (see free counterpoint on Counterpoint) (see Free Counter- when . 507 (a) subdominant. when 61. 33. 506 no restriction as to what chord precedes the dominant. example. 531. INVERTED CADENCE^ . 7 defined. 187. fifteenth. c. b. . unaccented beat second . 506. i. in minor key. strict Third Species). in six. 35. . third species. table of in tenth. CANTO FERMO. III. Chorals to be harmonized. 426. 9 Strict . in harmontreatment of. COUNTERPOINT. 34 . 394. 503 (a). point on point). 222. INTERRUPTED . V. 127. and eight parts. 34 in . \ harmony notes Consecutive (see in second and third species of counterpoint. 507 (b} chord on minor sixth. combined. . defined. Conjunct motion. b. in two . 6 example of. second species. followed by tonic chord. d) imperfect cadence.CADENCE. species. 6 defined. the octave. in strict counterpoint. counterpoint. strict counter.-. OTHER VARIETIES OF Chord of the FULL CADENCE. to begin with. and harmony. 401. counterpoint. 454 izing. defined. : counterpoint. . dominant minor ninth. 16. 31. between. 36 . Consecutive fifths and octaves between added sixtk followed by tonic chord. how . . . chromatic first inversion. auxiliary and passing notes in free counterpoint. defined. 507. 32-34 . 32-34 monizing the Eight-part counterpoint (see Counterpoint). . 327. CADENCE. e). note cannot be used in 33 . 544-547. free counterpoint on (see Free Counterpoint) how to harmonize (see . triple. 544-547. Cadential possibilities of melodic progressions. allowed between two moving in combined Changing notes. defined. Counterpoint and Free Counterpoint). midale cadence. at strict counterpoint (see Strict CounterStrict minor free key. in minor key on leading supertonic note and on cannot be Harmonizing. 503 (b} supertonic placed between subdominant and tonic chords. . lation following. 6 double. 531. CHORAL. DIATONIC and chromatic . . Discord sounded parts. triad in major key on leading counter counterpoint (see Strict Counterpoint. Disjunct motion. treatment of in strict DIMINISHED point. style. 453. 507 (d. counterpoint. defined. pages 235-25. 169. HALF . strict style. CHROMATIC and . 8 quadruple. point. 16. 454 in harmonizing. authentic. and with. 505 used as intermediate or . Sub mediant. diatonic. 123. defined. 515-523. of voices. seven. (see Free Counterpoint) . 14. third species. examples. not available in DOUBLE. Exceptions on VI. available in free counterpoint. 10. unisons. fifths. 223. table of in major key. 453. 181. denned. 2-5 395. and octaves Harmonic Progression).). 505. 7.part 179 . 436. CHORD ON MEDIANT treatment of in strict in major key. most often met invertible.ANA L YTJCA L INDEX. defined. Fifth species of counterpoint (see Strict passing notes mfree counterpoint. difference IV. FIFTH OF THE CHORD allowed in strict in the bass. c) . simple. 33. 450-452. 505 (a. when Combined counterpoint (see Strict Coun- Compass terpoint combined}. or 6 . . Chords used in denned. 62-64 in strict counter527 in fre: counterpoint. 507 (c) modu. 503 (c}. denned. 450-457 in strict counterpoint. . 506 CROSSING OF PARTS in strict counter- point to be avoided except in a large number of parts. at the oc'ave. 227 in five parts. to select in har> point). Eight notes to one in third species . coiinterpoint 400. . used Dominant chord. 8 strict (see Strict Counterpoint) free modern. '.

allowed. when by perfect fifth . terpoint. 464. (see '53 chords against one note of the subject allowable. modulation. 451 combinations frequently admit of two harmonies availexplanations. 451 point defined. 10 independent in each part. when diminished fifth. the basis of composition. 474 475 ///. 450. . 30 discords with bass forbidden. in strict counterpoint (see Strict figure.XA L YTICAL INDEX. 564. exercise parts. composition. 468 two suspensions. Fourth species of counterpoint (see Strict bining different melodies. . . . and eight parts. 30 consecutive unisons. 476. defined. 474 strict style. with bass. excepting passing notes and suspensions. 454. v. consecutive Harmonic Progression). by Four - part Strict Counterpoint). gression). 460. varieties of imitation. treatment of. 567 by (a) Cadence). discords. and unisons. cadences species. . 570 (b) by addition of a new melody example by Beethoven. 577 by Wagner. /. 578. 450-457 451. melodic interest portance of. by Handel. forbidden. exercise worked in . 471 combined fifth species. IMITATIVE COUNTERPOINT^ . 572 (c). 474 . exer. Full Cadence (see Cadence). 468. forbidden. 30 . 461 . 470 . good root progres. Cherubini. treatment of. diminished fifth fifth between bass . . . anticipations. followed able in. species. 454 consecutive octaves between tonic and . use of. 465 second species. tipper part forbidden. fifths. Florid counterpoint. 470. allowed. by com. Harmonic nature of the cadences note to Chap. between 27 . 451. treatment of. how 452 . IN ACTUAL COMPOSITION . when allowed. . ON A CANTO FERMO. i6r. 457.. fourth. denned. allowed. 468. 468 defined. by contrary 25 motion. 466. to be avoided. seven. 574 by Mozart. 449. 29 hidden extreme parts. Fifth Species). First species counterpoint (see Free and cise worked in four parts. treatment of. middle counterpoint. forbidden. various (see on a choral examples by the great masters : by Bach. Five species of counterpoint denned. to introduce discords. not used. 452 . allowed in strict counterpoint in seven and eight parts only.). . 476 no. 222 . 565. when allowed. 461-463 first species. 472 sions. . 29 . (see . moving part may be transferred from one part to another. 467 third species. ). between bass and an upper part. octaves. exercises worked. val in melody. 455 augmented inter-. 30 between . 568 . or pattern. in free style. 30 diminished middle farts. and octaves. modern counter. XV. 473. bass and in strict coun- dominant. consecutive fifths. . 472 . 454 auxiliary and passing notes. 450 difference between free and strict . 290 (j^also Strict Counterpoint. . 30 diminished fifth between middle parts. treatment of. parts. . . in five Strict Counterpoint). . 472. 436 hidden (see Harmonic Prosecutive . 456 458 . Five-part counterpoint (see Strict Counterpoint). 566 (see . how to write. . augmented fourth between an upper part. Counterpoint). and an harmonic importance of. II. Four-part writing. FIFTHS and octaves consecutive between harmony notes in second and third Fifths. FREE COUNTERPOINT of. augmented fourth betiveen . 571 by Haydn. 469 fourth in. 25 . Four notes to one in third and fourth species (see Strict Counterpoint). fifths. counterpoint. example by Bach. con- by contrary motion in strict counterpoint of six. 453 chromatic auxiliary and passing notes. . 575. . Harmonic combinations frequently admit of two explanations. treatment Half Cadence (see Cadence. 576 by Handel. . 454 . forbidden. . Counterpoint) counterpoint . HARMONIC PROGRESSION. FORMS of cadence. 457 species almost invariably used in . . 466. when. im. Meyerbeer. . worked showing mistakes 458 fifth . extreme discords.

28 similar motion. ending on leading note. between extreme when allowed. 66 harmony should be changed on accented beat. 47 . 520. . CHORALS. 99 102 . (a) MELODY HARMONIZED melody -why. transposition of subject. . the same f minor key sion. position harmonizing the. when the quires care. 546. in the treble. treatment of. octaves. 527 variety in the importance varieties of (see Cadences). ' " : . major key in the bass. 73-75 mony. 554-558 consecutive fifths and octaves. V. . in four-part writing. denned. 534 in treble. ' . counterpoint. . 106. 526 . . Phrase ending on submediant. Auxiliary and passing . Accented . . 551 (b) ike same melody . . 28 . in the . faulty . . Cadence. Phrase ending on tonic. 450-457 in strict counterpoint. 512-514 to be harmonized Arpeggios and broken chords. 525 sometimes. harmonized . 62-64 fuu cadence in the middle of a phrase to be avoided. 553 (d} the same melody placed in the tenor and harmonized. 113-118. 56 modulation. 544-547 mostly to be avoided as middle cadence. worked choral 542 . 55. 65. exercise in alto. Melody har . 552 (c) the same melody placed in the alto and harmonized. . . VII. monized . 525 to subdominant key. .254 ANA L YTICA L INDEX a melody to be treated as auxiliary notes. the reason. treat- PIANOFORTE MUSIC. 96 . . 526 Cadential possibilities of harmonic proi. 522. . 28 part. 518 mediant. 49-53 the same note is repeated . Hidden implied. in the melody by augmented fourth of the key. . . 98 . 545. harmony mony. how to select. 530 unit of measurement. or the harmony be changed. faulty . 25 . . 545. 32-34. 548 . . 525 . 532 . in the melody.between. 95. HARMONIES. . 550 sequence. measurement. between middle parts. Bach. 527. 525. or canto ality must be to harmonize. point. differently. . 544-547 changing notes. how subject. difference 544 auxiliary and passing notes. when advisable. 557- HARMONIZING Cadences IN THE STRICT STYLE 55. Phrase ending on super516. 552 modulations introduced. in treble. 72 68-71 correct har- /. when allowed. in bass. IT. 545. Moduindicated. 66 how to commence. 536-540. 101. when allowed. . 544 notes of small value. . how indicated in the of. to determine the . melody . 48 tonclearly defined. in 104-105 in auxiliary notes. in the tenor. 25. IV. 525 by by minor augmented fifth. . . 61 how to finish. FLORID MELODIES. 512 position first. . in three-part writing. available v^free counterpoint. 57-59 repetition of a note available. between an extreme and a middle hidden when allowed. accompanying lengths. Harmony. 550 modulation. . 82- in tenor. Cadences. 553///. (b} in the ing* 53 2 ~535 un it 533. 535 . 523. which notes in Progression). when allowed. notes. of. chord progressions. 543 harmoniz- 94 . 28 and middle parts. of. 554 passingnotes introduced into accompaniment. 528 . full. chord should change its position. alto. danger of incorrect melodic progres- melody 103 . example by choral harmonized. and octaves (see Harmonic how treated. . . 533. Cadences. 56 chords. 517 Phrase ending on ill. and passing . 521 VI. 2-5. between extreme parts. 76-78 melody in the alto. best keys for. 556 melodic with an accompaniment. 26 . fifths . . 519. HARMONIZING IN THE FREE STYLE : har552 monizing the sequence. gressions : II. 96 harmony of strong accent should not be anticipated on previous weak accent. correct harharmony -why. 546 no unit of measurement. Phrase ending on subdominant. 550 weak harmony. 555 treatment of. . in two-part counter- . chords of various Harmony and . Phrase of. lation. . (a) between middle parts. selection of chords. 528-530 treatment 527 of second inversions. reseventh. . . ment older chorals. Phrase ending on dominant. 546 tenor. 531. . 65 fermo (S). Rules for harmonizing. tonic. . .

Independent melodic interest of each part. cadential possibili. ivhen allowed. by contrary motion. How chords should follow each other in Free Style) 237. 36. 16 . 436 Progression). 22 leap by an augmented interval. with one internote. fifths. Harmonic score. ii. 12. 1-ap of a major seventh forbidden. note in strict counterpoint. 525. of sions in fourth. advisable. when used 219 when used as as Implied second inversions in strict counterpoint. Oblique motion forbidden in first species Leap of an augmented. . 165-171 species. comin (d) . 426 in six. 19 diminished seventh. hidden (see Harmonic counterpoint. diminished. ex- MINOR SEVENTH OF SCALE in minor key. 10. in five- PASSING AND AUXILIARY NOTES :(<?) Jn strict ties of. 186. Keys to modulate to. 477. . Melodic progressions. 451. 255 to be harmonized. cadence defined. 476 . . Octave to a unison. MODULATION. 24 in middle voices. counterpoint. Inverted cadence (see Cadence. treatment strict counterpoint. 20 . pages strict counterpoint (see table of Root Progressions. . cies. 525 . 33). 525. harmonizing in the strict style. in for. 31 in counterpoint. 376 part counterpoint. counterpoint in two parts. seven. in second and third species of 169 . unisons. by contrary motion in five-part counterpoint. VI. in counterpoint diminished diminished fourth. 5759 in the free style. 132. 114-118. various kinds of. 426. MELODIC PROGRESSION Approaching and quitting large leaps in a melody. conjunct. cented note. 236. in minor key. strict in MEDIANT of in counterpoint. fonr-part counterpoint. 238. cannot be used. . Octaves. pages 32. two-part in 178 . 324. 186. species.). 515-523of. 525. . 221 Implied harmony in two-part writing. . . and consecutive by a consonant fifth. 113-118. 476. 220. . 205-220. 125.). Middle. . MELODIES. progression of an. 426. 23 in bass. . 124. . 180. . in five-part OCTAVES AND FIFTHS. 399-401 . 35. consecutive. Modern counterpoint. 525 by augmented fourth. counterpoint. defined. when used as a ample. in strict sfy/e . 222 . and eight-part counterpoint. Intermediate or middle cadence. . ORNAMENTAL RESOLUTION fifth species. 280. when allowed. with one intermediate of a ninth. 21 mediate note.>w to avoid. h . in the third species. a changing note. . harmonizing (see in Harmonizing in the Strict Style) in free style (see Harmonizing in the second species. a passing note.). 113. IV. 43 6 (see . 18 : OcTAVES. chord in major key. 224. Imitative counterpoint (see Free Counterpoint. 24 parts. similar. Open be used exercises. disjunct.consecutive. 33. choice of. 525 to when subdominant needs care. OVERLAPPING OF PARTS. interval. 237 bined counterpoint. 480. of a minor . 525 by minor seventh. how to save. treatment of . 552. of a seventh. Outline chords in two-part counterpoint. IMITATION. 47. 480. by a . Interrupted cadence (see Cadence. 219. 20 . best keys . between harmony notes in second spe- Major sixth how used strict and seventh of minor key. 281 suspenin .ANALYTICAL INDEX. 16 . 525 by augmented fifth. importance of in counterpoint. 181. 223. 19. 24. in third in . 17 . 297-300. . seventh. to an unaccented 23 note reoeated in extreme . 525 sometimes indicated in the melody. or large interval in a melody (see Melodic Progression). note. 25. MOTION. or intermediate. harmony . 219. to Progression). 21 leaping to an ac. . 19 19 diminished third forbidden. 126.

page 32. /. crossing of parts.ANALYTICAL INDEX. in counterpoint. position. defined. 132 . for- 186 auxiliary . 125. 6. 29. how Quadruple counterpoint defined. harmonizing a. exercise to commence with tonic chord in root . a. . accompaniments. contrary motion Plagal. origin of the word note to crossing of parts forbidden. 557. root. . 512-514. of diafree counterpoint treatment in tonic and chromatic. Seven-part counterpoint (see Strict Counterpoint). 183-185. in strict counterpoint. to avoid. . 179 exercise to commence with tonic chord in root . 112. 187. table of progressions. from an octave to a unison. when allowed. considered the bass of the harmony. implied har- mony. 554-558 . progressions. root paniments. harmonizing of. . .). imroot n . when allowed. Plagal cadence (see Cadence. Consecutive fifths tween accented notes. consecutive thirds or sixths forbidden why. intervals . to find. 148 . 134-146 (b) Exercises worked (a) in (b) in minor key. third. similar motion. 182. 14. . 114 . Soprano voice. 112 . in melody notes. . SECOND SPECIES. pages 32. root. PROGRESSION from a second to a unison. though a note of harmony. limit in the employoutline chords. second. Second inversions forbidden in strict perfect and imperfect concords only to be used. treat- SELECTING CHORDS point. when allowed. Six notes to one in third species counterpoint (see Strict Counterpoint). 25. (see 117. when allowed. and other melodies. Second 445- to a unison. page 199). allowed on un- bass . may never be sounded in the bass when the root Hidden fifths is in an upper part. (a) FIRST 115- PIANOFORTE Music. position. leaping to the fifth of the 181 chord. 511 . 38 fourth. progression from in strict accented and unaccented beats. 6 harmonies available in. 171 free counterpoint. Root. 127-129 false relation. (simple]. 527. 511. 40. and octaves be- tive harmony notes. in strict counter. between unaccented notes when between two consecuallowed. 45 table of. 120-124. 113 minor seventh of the minor key. augmented bidden. IN TWO PARTS. . Perfect cadence (see Cadence). 125 no discords allowed. 544-547 (<*) . 44. 453. 481. 8. Fifth of any chord. 554-558. 32 . fallings. POSITION of the cadences. 113-118 . cadence. tween subdominant and leading note. 445 . 450-452 harmonizing. defined. 552. 34 portance of the study of. 112 . 127 tritone in minor key found between subdominant and leading note. ment of. accented beat only. . Six-part counterpoint (see Strict Counterpoint). falling a r 41-43 . 126 octave and unison. . 147-160. 169. root. 180. cadence. 454 (c) * accomharmonizing. 174 . SPECIES. Second species of counterpoint (see Strict ment of. and octaves between harmony notes. Counterpoint). root. counterpoint. in harmonizing chorals 31 . fourth with the bass forbidden. more than three when used. . Simple counterpoint. falling a rising a third. 124 . . Counterpoint SIMILAR motion in three-part counterpoint. 127 and submediant and supertonic. when allowed. hidden fifths and octaves best 113 avoided \ntwo-part counterpoint. 39. defined. 130 tritone in major key found be. root. 123 false relation of the tri. . to commence. no . oblique motion forbidden. . in strict counterpoint. Sequence. 37-46 . lowest part to be Rhythm defined. 109. 426 harmonic (see Harmonic Progression) melodic (see Melodic Progression) of roots (see Root Progressions). 163 when allowed counterpoint. major key. compass STRICT COUNTERPOINT of. intervals. 169. n. . ambiguous best. rising aseco d. 123 . ROOT PROGRESSIONS OF CHORDS: rising a fourth. 510. 119 127 . . 175 . 25 in four-part . . 33. 549. . how tone.

227 . 238 : changing notes. ornamental resolution of suspension. cadence. when available in the bass. to save. used as a harmony note in more than three consecubass. Four notes . passing notes. minor (a) key. . . minor key. 249-252 some262 times impossible. inversions. One chord sixths allowable. against each note of the two chords possible. 244 in compound Exercises worked. . syncopated. 290. 315. . in minor key. treatment of. 169. 258. augmented fourth available Q . in minor key. in minor key. FIRST SPECIES. second species. in //. In triple time: Exercise worked . 219-221. suspensions. 234. 309 defined. of course. in major key. only allowed at beginning and . 241. . duple time. 266 . in worked in major key. 287. 178. 279. consecutive crossing of parts. treatment of. Six notes to one : cadence. 164. 188 . 204 . FOURTH SPECIES : Two notes to one tive fifths cadence. more than or sixths position of. accented. 246 . . species. Exercises worked two consecutive bars only. 245. three consecutive thirds to one anticipations. where notes. 253. be avoided. proceeding from a second to a unison. tive thirds and . Exercises end of an exercise. exercise to commence should with tonic chord in root every note except the passing note. . 204 best position for a leap in the counterpoint. 205-218. . Passing and auxiliary notes. leading note. 201. 168 rising a second to fall a third. broken. 212 arpeggio of a chord. in major key. 230. I.ANALYTICAL INDEX. and octaves. counterpoint overlapping of parts. 227. syncopation need never be Exercises worked in in minor key. 223. exercise to commence with tonic chord fifth of the in root position. 229 . 307 ornamental resolutions of suspensions. iv. 219. 268-272 n. . major sixth and consecutive thirds more than three and sixths allowed. 221 . 264. changing notes in major key. 162. SPECIES I. treatment of. 240 . Employment of first . 292 third species. 194-1^8. son. (e) FIFTH 280. key. be the harmony note. 312-314 II. 255-257. in. 258 how to begin. fined. 308 best. 227. (d) Exercises worked. treatment of. major key. S best. 181 . (f) THIRD SPECIES : . 221 fifths . Syncopation. when from a unison to a forbidden. sometimes . When the first of the two notes is a . 318. 225 minor key. 265 consecu- and octaves. in minor key. the second must.used. 201 where to change the harmony. the same figure may be used species why. how to begin. . how 240 237 for . 283 . . 231-233 IN THREE PARTS. . monotonous 187. 224. minor seventh cannot be used as a harmony note in second 186 . when it may minor seventh of be doubled. key. 254 . 273-277. 188 two chords in unison a bar. Three notes to one : chord. leaping counter- treatment of. 189- position. . 229 . . 244. how to begin. First note of the counter. 259. Repetition of a figure -weak. 228 cadence. 297-300 treatment of quavers. . 296 exercise to commence with tonic chord in root position. . one chord in each bar 295 . 169 minor seventh in . 316. Four notes to one: 286. 281 . . 240. Passing and auxiliary notes. 240. Exercises worked.80. 203 the second. 284. one cadence. . practicable. 266 last be 261 . Exercises worked in major 264 . 247. Eight notes to one I. 170. 172 allowed on unaccented beat. how . defined. . 222 when allowed. how to begin. 292-294 fourth species. . 247. should not be used. 310. 317. in simple time. 178 Implied harmony. 1. 301Exercises worked in major key. when allowed. point to be a concord. 308. in major key. when allowed. 245. Three notes . 288. 242. cadence. 285 in. in minor Passing note. broken. In quadruple time : avoidance of monotony in the counterpoint. 311 cadence. . 305. 237 point not good. to minor key. and fourth notes. third. to to save. 179. . of. 207-218 changing notes . 235. treatment 165-171 passing notes. desuspensions available. implied second 257 n. 263. . 246. Exercises worked in major key. : 165 when impossible. . harmony 193 . 227 Unisecond. 239. in minor key.

386. 377 in bass forbidden. when Exercises worked . 432 in minor V. in key. 441 in fourth species. IN FOUR PARTS. 428. exercise to com327 . 426 . worked in major key. 439 . 365-367 in minor key. Exercises worked (four between upper parts allowed. SECOND SPECIES Exercises worked in 339-341. 387. PARTS. overlapping of parts. FOURTH minor key. of the chord frequently omitted. FOURTH in THIRD SPECIES. allowed. . in each interest How of octaves. cadences. 320 . octaves and Consecuby contrary mo- S&fe 38 S i ** minor key. in top part. in major key. 356. in minor key. 389. 437. 429 (c) in major worked key. 389 in minor key. . in major key. repetition the best way . 333. 436 interval of a seventh. thirds . in major key. progression of. key. 324. VII. 426 the addiunison to octave. 379. 388 388. 325 combinations of 334 various. 356 in minor : . mence with tonicchord in root position. treatment of. octaves by contrary motion allowed. . crossing of parts allowed. 430. in minor key. worked in major key. when allowed. in of a note. species. the melody. 378 middle part. allowed. species. cadences. Exercise worked ( three in notes to one) in major key. in major key key. (b) SECOND SPECIES cadences. tional voice. 364. 391. to commence exercises. tive tion. 436 repetition of a note. 332 . in worked in minor key. major (6) Exercises 329 324 . Exercises SPECIES. cadences. between dences. . IN SIX PARTS. in minor . fifths in . Three notes to one Exercises cadences. 324 fourth not considered a disson. in major key. (d) FOURTH . 426 . Exercises worked . 343-345. crossing of parts. Exercise worked first third species. 329. 392. seventh. in major key. fifths . 358-360 (e) minor 361-363. 426. and three part diminished fifth counterpoint. Exercise worked in major key. voices. . allowed. 322 complete chords . Four notes Exercises . desirable. false relation of the tritone. species. worked (e) FIFTH SPECIES. reposition of the parts. 436 to work. . 390 notes to one) . 392 in minor key. in the melody allowed. key. worked key.ANALYTICAL INDEX. . Exercises worked . 321 available between . 429. . (a) FIRST SPECIES. Exercise worked in major key. 349. when allowable. allowed. in minor key. THIRD . . Exercises . 325 difference between two defined. . FIFTH in minor key. hidden and 326. allowable. octave to unison. 43(5 . 436 . 368notes to one rarely three 370 employed. cadences. by contrary SPECIES parts crossing of octaves by 376 contrary motion between tonic and dominant. I. 432. major key. (c) minor 346-348. IN FIVE PARTS. progression of. caupper parts. 436 crossing of 436. IN SEVEN Consecu- ///. . 427 . 426 leading note. SPECIES. Examples worked 438 . (a) PIRST tive octaves and fifths . IN EIGHT PARTS. 428 . allowed. 357. 436. Consecutive octaves and by contrary motion key. 33S-33 8 (b) 1 '* minor key. three consecutive 426 hidden fifths and octaves allowed. FIFTH SPECIES. worked in Exercises SPECIES. interval of a parts. 323 petition of a note in a middle part. chord in a different position. upper parts. Consecutive ance between upper parts. 381 . 325 331 fifth . importance. ping of parts. motion. (d) worked Exercises SPECIES. 371. 350-352 in minor key. 353-355. 431 to 349. 430 Exercises worked 342. major key. (e) . (d) 390. . THIRD SPECIES. melodic paramount 324 328 . SECOND SPECIES. major (e) key. in first . . with one intermediate note. with one intermediate note. 431. . . consecutive fourths . SPECIES. 325 fifths . 384 overlapforbidden. . 378. 391. one: cadences. 426 crossing of parts best avoided. in 436. unison. allowable. IV. 442. allowed. ir. more than and sixths. 443. Repetition of a note. . Exercises in major key. in second species. 376 repetition of a. VI. root of chord sometimes omitted.

species. to an ///. . . in in major key. 123. THREE Syncopation fourth Strict Counterpoint. one part in third species. Table of root progressions. 8. 400. Triple coun'erpoint. 413. in second and fifth between subdominant . 42r. . 33. 13. in minor key. 398 passing and auxiliary notes in two or more parts. two one part in third in fourth. COMBINED. part in second species. rule for treatment of mov. with one note between. 397 two varieties of. worked fifth second. third. third. allowed. UNISON. 420 all . a. to in strct counterpoint.ANALYTICAL INDEX. allowed. 9. part counterpoint (see Strict Coun- terpoint). 61. Counterpoint). 327 . pages 32. 397 the lowest moving part to be considered the bass of the har- Tenor Tenor staff. in fifth species. . worked two in one found subdominant and leading note. 444. all and species. allowed. in the melody. and submediant and superfonic of minor key. when allowed. in . 403 in minor key. IN FIVE PARTS. treatment of in free counter(see STRICT COUNTERPOINT. or species) . . 447. Third species of counterpoint (see Strict mony. octave. 266. IN PARTS. 127. Exercise worked in first spe- Canto Fermo. ing parts. 417 . 47. species. 308. 410. cies. defined. Tonality. one part in second. 408 in second and . IN FOUR PARTS. . species. 409 . 436. (see fifth 440 . 445 . PARTS. 407 (e) various combinaExercises worked in second tions. 527. 436 repetition of a note. . major key. 123. and fourth species. necessity for clear. way to work. consecutive (see Harmonic Progression). 127 between Two species (see Strict Counterpoint). 404 . 404. . 399 . Exercises worked SEVEN. and fourth species. 14. Two notes to one in second and fourth leading note of major key. SUSPENSIONS in strict counterpoint Strict Counterpoint. and fifth species. /. Exercise worked in . Exercise worked in major key. AND EIGHT in in chorals. 34. 426 Unisons. 403 (b] two parts in third species. 407 cise worked minor key. . TRITONE. six Varieties of cadence (see Cadence). 127. 446 . fourth and Subject. all in fifth species. two in fifth. 14. Exercises third. 416 . Unit of measurement in harmonizing 434- Jf-\ IN SIX. fifth. 456. 405 Exer(d) two parts in fifth species. defined. . the best 437. 49-53. 405 in minor key. interval of a seventh. parts. all in fifth species. Three-part counterpoint (see Strict Coun terpoint). compass of. species (see Strict Counterpoint). progression of. and third species. all in fifth species. voice. in third and 411 in third and fifth species. compass of. similar motion of two parts 31 . Exercise worked in major key. in '-strict and fifth species). fourth species. fourth II. exception. Exercises various com- binations. 436. 259 parts. the only 182. . use of the C clef. point. 229. and fifth in fifth species. Three notes to one in third and fourth . 331 . (c) two parts in fourth species. seven Voices. 48. 395 (a) two parts in second species. 412. found false relation of. Table of chords available coun- between two upper parts. one part in second. Tonic chord in root position to commence all exercises in strict counterpoint. in first. 433 in fifth species. in eight parts. 394 discord sounded between two moving fourth parts. terpoint. Transposition of the subject. 418 . 419. 401 .

" 490 0?) Sonata. 2. " Papillons. (a). 507 (a). Prelude 21." 498 " Gott fahret auf mit Jauchzen. Herr reifet Jesu Christ." 494 " Dettingen Te Deum. 566. Op. 505 () . WAGNER. No. No. "Fidelia. Mass in F. 505 (c) . Cecilian Mass. ((f) . 503 (6). 27. und getauft wird." 483 (a)." Op. 503 ." 507 . (<:). Calvary. Lohengrin. Op. 578. 40. Sonata (a) . " "Die Meistersinger. 15. "Sehet. Jesu Christ. Op. Symphony in A. . Sonata in B flat. " Gelobet seist du." SPOHR. 486 486 486 (a) (b} . 4. 495 (3) . i. (d) . "Gott Franz den Kaiser. " Allein zu dir." 490 (a) . " LiederBEETHOVEN. ." 492 dora. The Seasons. Sonata. Op. . 500. 575 Wohltempirirtes Clavier. Op. . 502 " Jiiger Wohlgemuth Op. " Op. MEYERBEER. 506 ." Op. 577." 492 (c). CHERUBINI. 557 (a). lieber Gott." 506 () light. Op." 499 . Op. 3 495 (b). 484 (). " fiel . E flat. 8. No." 570. No. 9 1 483 () . 3." 574 siah. No. MOZART. No." Op. GOUNOD. 484 (a) Sonata. CHOPIN. 484 " (c).MUSICAL ILLUSTRATIONS. 557 (&)'. 564 Organ Fugue in C minor. . "Toccata. 41. 21. 98." 493 (a) " " oil ich fliehen hin? 507 (rf) Muss Passion. "Les Huguenots. Foundling 489 Anthem. " 558 . 503 (c). kreis." 495 Wo . 6." (c) . Kinderscenen. 7. SCHUBERT. Humoreske." 492 () ." 506 (a)." Op. 489 (ar). " Mes. Sonata 490 ' ' in A minor. 538 "Johannes in B minor. No. "St. HANDEL." 485 erhalte . 506 " (c). Novellette. 8. " Es (c) . Paul. 31. "The Nightingale. . (a) ." 494 " Nimm was dein ist. 7. Third Mass. . 20. "Theois "The Lord my euch ein schrecklich Ende. 505 (a) Op. () " Schau'." 507 (a). No. "Alexander's Feast. No. SCHUMANN." 492 " Es "Samson. Sonata. BACH Cantatas. 491. Polonaise. 76. 571." (e)." 539. ein Reif. Preludes. (b*). 568 Messiah. 31. 572 in ." Op. 493 (b}. No. Quartett. MENDELSSOHN. 59. "Wer da glaubet. "489 (a). 2. "Creation. wir gehen hinauf. 42." . 483 (4 HAYDN. . 2." 536. . " (c) ." 507 (c) . Elijah. i. "Don Juan." Op.

Bound. No. APPLIED FORMS: nrilE ORCHESTRA: -L a Sequel to "Musical Form. with Analytical Index.THEORETICAL WORKS EBENEZER PROUT.. FREE. net. . 9183^. net." Augener's Edition. net. AUGENER & CO 199. Augener's Edition. ADDITIONAL EXERCISES JL~\ for POINT: STRICT AND TO 25. Bound. Augener's Edition. Augener's Edition. of the Instruments. net. s$. (COUNTERPOINT: STRICT AND V_^ Seventh with Analytical Index. FREE. London. Augener's Edition. No. Bound. KEY THEORY AND ITS /"I- TO THE EXERCISES PRACTICE. net. MUSICAL \. "The Technique Bound." Second Edition. Vol. : Sixth Edition. Coll. uet. No. IN "HARMONY: " Fourth Edition. Demy 8vo. 6d. 55. 9182^. Edition. THE ORCHESTRA: Second Edition. TTARMONY: A JL ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE. Vol. Third Edition. with Analytical Index. No. 9182^. ss. No. 9188. . Bound." Bound. 9185. Third Edition. 9182. 9190. 9187. Bound. No. FUGAL ANALYSIS: FORM. Augener's Edition. a Companion to "Fugue. Land. 2S. Augener's Edition. E. No. Regent Street. 55. ss. " COUNTERCANON. Mus. Dublin and Edinburgh and Professor of Music in the University of Dublin.G." Augener's Edition. 9183. 9186. No.. " Orchestral Com- bination. 9184. No. with Analytical Index. 9189. ntt. HARMONY 6d..A. net. with Analytical Index. 6d.. Bound. 55. Augener's Edition." Being a Collection of Fugues put into Score and Analyzed. Trin. Thirteenth Edition. ss. 55. net." Bound. IN AUGENER'S EDITION. 55. No. Bound. Augener's Edition. Fourth Edition. net. Bound. Bound. Edition. II. W. ADDITIONAL EXERCISES TO ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE. net.D." with Melodies and Unfigured Basses Harmonizing. Augener's Edition. 55. No. is KEY "HARMONY: TO THE ADDITIONAL EXERCISES TO ITS THEORY AND PRACTICE. I. and I 22. Fourth Edition. Newgate Street. DOUBLE Third FUGUE. . Bound. No. COUNTERPOINT AND net. Hon. Second Edition. No. with Analytical Index. net. Augener's Edition. 9182^. B." Augener's Edition. Fourth Edition.

E. . CEOWN 8vo. and 22. the consideration of the two staves together as one. 4 ' Contents. Questions. Intervals Augmented and Diminished. and .- Signature of Minor Scales. probably the clearest expositions of the subject I . ixcellent .. Time Signatures. it all May you have with the and sure to be helpful alike to teachers and " success and thanks you deserve ! pupils. Peterson's little boolo*is well planned and clearly written. 10. and which indeed suggested the idea of such a scheme to me. useful. 13. 9. 14. EXTRACT FROM AUTHOR'S PREFACE 11 1 had in my mind the wants and necessities of certain classes and pupils who neither desire nor nted to study the Mezzo-Soprano and the Baritone Clefs. Syncopation. -A Few of the Signs and Terms most frequently used in Music. : is. Legato and Staccato. the explanation of grace notes is recommend your little book whenever I have a chance. -The Chromatic Scale. 25. 6. . How to tell the Key of a Piece of Music the Pedal. 9191. the key of seven sharps.Notes. or the various Italian and shorthand signs which make many an Element book a terror.-Phrasing. 199. viz. No. Flat Scales (Scales which require Flats). net. Complete Table of Scales with their proper Signatures. I decidedly approve of the time names . -Names of Notes in their proper positions on the Stave. "For young students and beginners who wish to make solid progress in the theory of music not anything better could be found. Augeners Edition. 11. etc.-Pitch. March." Musical News. Intervals. . "Mr." Musical Opinion. I shall certainly : EXTRACT FROM LETTER OF PROFESSOR NIECKS "Your book is excellent. " very Your chapter on Intervals is good . 4. Newgate Street. 8.C. Regent II Street. conveyed with authority and perspicuous arrangement. 21. Inversion of Intervals. " I t5 57 pages are full of excellent advice. Major Scales. "I read the clearest Appendix: Notation. Forte and Piano. To the PupiL I think it one of have yet met with." Musical Standard. 1896.SIXTH EDITION. 1856. March 7. Sharp Scales (Scales which require Sharps). LESSON 15.. 18. EXTRACT FROM LETTER OF PROFESSOR PROUT: carefully through your book and like it very much. the Me: tronome.. Jan. -Melodic Minor Scale. 17. 2. Simple and Compound Time. 20. and Dots.. 1896. Bound. 22. ELEMENTS OF MUSIC BY FRANKLIN PETERSON. distinctly > . not as two apparently identical sets of five lines with different names and the early introduction of the numbering of Intervals. Minor Scales. 16. though its aim makes it of necessity only a preliminary to some thorough and scientific text-book. 23. the complete table of Time Signatures (half of which they will never see). 7. -Notes Part H. 3. LONDON: AUGENER & CO. 12.. And I believe that time spent on a simple scheme such as I have endeavoured to embody in practice will not be thrown away. LESSON 1. " There are two features in particular which I hope may win some measure of success for the endeavour of my little book. W.. 5. " I have rigorously confined myself to what is likely to be of practical value to a young student during the first two years of music lessons." . 19. Dots. Time and Rhythm. and Rests.

Triads in the Diatonic Scale. BY FRANKLIN PETERSON. 33. Ill Street. 24. Concord and Discord. in any key. Modulation in Melody. The Common Chord.-Chords in the Major Scale with the usual Progressions. 1. Metronome. 9192. Preface. Compound Time. W. unconventional. Discords (continued). etc. The Neapolitan Sixth and Pathetic Cadence. xx. and 22. diminished sevenths.. Triads. -Pedal Notes.' learners. 19. Chords. that they should be readily recognised and easily retained in the memory. 11. 14. Italian and other Terms in ordinary use. 4. 23. Editor. 9. EXTRACT FROM AUTHOR'S PREFACE.. -Time." EXTRACT FROM A LETTER FROM PROFESSOR NIECKS: Introduction to the Study of Theory 'is a clearly and interestingly written book. Summary Notes. Other Printed Signs and Terms. 2. Dominant and Tonic. 10. Bound. I may be allowed a few words of explanation. Inversions of Chords. Classical Music. E. cadences. from the most familiar sources.THIRD EDITION. The Plagal or Subdominant Cadence. Newgate Street. 26. augmented sixths. however young.-Rhythm. dominant sevenths." Contents. A Sequel to the "Elements of Music" and intended to prepare the Student for Professor Proufs series of Theoretical Works. Augener's Edition. even although he is no further in his harmony exercises than filling in an alto between most interesting. CHAPTER Part I. How to find the Key to which any particular Chord belongs. "The useful. 30. 27. 6.-Tonality. The Diminished Seventh. The chapters which refer to chords were written on the assumption that it is possible and desirable that a pupil should be able to recognise common chords. Alterations on the Common Chord. Extension of the Cadence. 8. which will be read with pleasure by teachers and studied with advantage by The musical illustrations are truly and delightfully illustrative. No.-Metres of Whole Notes and Half 20. Use of the Pedal. Notes and Sixteenth Notes. 6d. Triple Time. Part III. and most stimulating ' given soprano and bass. when possible. lines along which the ' Introduction' moves are those I have found most As they are somewhat to pupils. Metre. of Chapters i. 22. Chords common to several Keys. 21. 28. " A considerable proportion of the book is devoted to the subject of Tonality. 16. Duple Time. Other Cadeuces. Publisher. 3. 25. I have read it very carefully. Degrees of the Scale. Dominant Sevenths. AN INTRODUCTION STUDY OF THEORY.. is. The Authentic or Dominant Cadence.' which you have done me the honour of dedicating to me. net. 6. 7. 12. New W. Common Time. "The examples have been chosen. . Discords. 5.' which ought to be so clear in the mind of every student. CHAPTER 18. Regent And ROBERT COCKS & CO. 199. EXTRACT FROM A LETTER FROM PROFESSOR PROUT: "Best thanks for the copy of your 'Introduction to the Study of Theory. Introduction. Part II. Sonata. Crown 8vo. 15. 29. The Chord of theAugmented Sixth. Diatonic and Chromatic Embellishments of simple Scale and Chord Passages. 31 32.. Burlington Street. E C. ' "Your London : AUGENER & CO. Metres of Eighth 17. and consider it admirable in its clearness and simplicity. Chromatic Chords. 13.

.. beginning with the simplest facts regarding notation. V. Minor Scales. Crown 8vo. The C Intervals. VIII. Time. thorouglily serviceable manual" ' ' ' .Rests. has prepared a new handbook entitled A Catechism of Music. -Intervals. Without professing to be in any way exhaustive. October 25th." Glasgow Herald. Altogether the Catechism' may be welcomed as a The Scots tnan. 2s. The Staffer Clefs. October 22nd. CONTENTS. VI. scales. and who knows how to put things simply. teacher will know in the case of each pupil what to omit and notes for needs are distinguished by being printed in small type. Bound. VII. XI.ul to those going forward as candidates for the various musical examinations.. Inversion of Intervals. XVIII. and accurately. transposition. it contains sufficient to equip anyone with a good working knowledge of the essentials of musical knowledge. Musical Ornaments or Graces. Syncopation Irregularities in Time and Rhythm.). chief difficulty in compiling a Catechism of this kind is the necessity of as far as possible meeting all demands. My will "Mr. or rather an incorporation of many ideal students. Diffetence in Pitch Difference in Strength and Quality. In formulating the questions and answers. The An experienced while elementary information must not be forgotten. tempo. Intervals in the Diatonic Scales. XII. X. Consonant and Dissonant Intervals. Major Scales. ' AUGENER & CO. <_ in ordinary AUTHOR'S PREFACE. by the teacher. XVI. The writer follows the natural order in musical instruction.' The method pursued is that of question and answer. Pitch. lucidly. Modulation. This method has allowed of fuller explanation where necessary. XIV. The Chromatic Scale Enharmonic Intervals. and 22. whose previous contributions to the educational literature of music are familiar to students and teachers. CATECHISM OF MUSIC. and as such it may be commended to the attention both of teachers and of taught. Oxon. Glossary of Italian and other Terms use.. XVI I. 1900.opaedia or Dictionary the wants of more advanced students have to be considered. Peterson has not forgotten ihe needs of students preparing for examinations. Regent Street. etc. XIX. Ao.SECOND EDITION. IX. XI 1 1. Tempo. written by a teacher who has learned by experience the needs and difficulties of students. Notes. It be especially use. XV. " Mr. Many of special these notes are inserted in the interests of those desiring to prepare for some of the examinations which exercise such an influence on musical study in this country. BY FRANKLIN PETERSON (Mus Bac. Phrasing Musical Articulation. IV. 10103. Newgate Street London. As in an Encyc. IV . Chapter I. ornamentation and phrasing. &c and working on to modulation. Franklin Peterson. Abbreviations. It is essentially a practical book. Augeners Edition. Signs. II. Some Catechisms tions asked seek to put into the mouth of pupils answers to ques- aim has been to give such answers as a teacher might give to questions which an ideal student. net. XX. 1900. and also of occasional notes suggested by question or answer. Peterson's Catechism is as good as any other and a great deal better than many. 199. III. might ask. Stave. Appendix. Mr.

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MI P75 Prout. Ebenezer Counterpoint: and free strict .

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