RESPIRATORY SYSTEM

Achmad aminuddin

RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
 STRUCRURALLY UPPER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM the nose, pharynx, and associated structur LOWER RESPIRATORY SYSTEM the larynx, trachea, bronchi and lung  FUNCTIONALLY THE CONDUCTING ZONE the nose, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles, and terminal bronchioles,…. that filter, warm, and moisten air  THE RESPIRATORY ZONE the respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and alveoli,… the main sites of gas exchange.

C. HUMIDIFICATION OF INSPIRED AIR. .  THE FUNCTIONS OF THE NOSE AND NASAL CAVITIES – – – – – OLFACTION.NOSE  THE NASAL CAVITIES – RIGHT N. – LEFT N. RECEPTION AND ELIMINATION OF SECRETION FROM PARANASAL SINUSES AND NASOLACRIMAL DUCT. RESPIRATION. FILTRATION OF DUST.C.

 FRONTAL PROCESSES OF THE MAXILLAE. .THE BONY PART OF THE NOSE  NASAL BONES.  NASAL PART OF THE FRONTAL BONE AND ITS NASAL SPINE.  BONY PART OF THE NASAL SEPTUM.

.  TWO ALAR CARTILAGES.THE CARTILAGINOUS PART  TWO LATERAL CARTILAGES.  A SEPTAL CARTILAGE.

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 THE SEPTAL CARTILAGE.THE NASAL SEPTUM  THE PERPENDICULAR PLATE OF THE ETHMOID. .  THE VOMER.  THE NASAL CREST OF THE PALATINE.  THE NASAL CREST OF THE MAXILLARY.

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– THE PARANASAL SINUS. EXCEPT THE NASAL VESTIBULE WHICH IS LINED WITH SKIN. – THE LACRIMAL SAC AND CONJUNCTIVA.  MUCOSA LINES THE NASAL CAVITIES.  THE CHOANAE.NASAL CAVITIES  THE NARES.  COMMUNICATE WITH : – THE NASOPHARYNX. .

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 THE BOUNDARIES – THE ROOF.superior 1/3 rd. . – THE OLFACTORY AREA . – THE LATERAL WALL. – THE MEDIAL WALL.inferior 2/3 rd. – THE FLOOR.THE NASAL MUCOSA  CONSIST OF – THE RESPIRATORY AREA .

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. – ETHMOIDAL PART.THE NASAL CAVITY  ROOF – FRONTONASAL PART. – SPHENOIDAL PART. – THE HORIZONTAL PLATE OF THE PALATINE BONE.  FLOOR – THE PALATINE PROCESS OF THE MAXILLA.

THE NASAL CAVITY  THE MEDIAL WALL – THE NASAL SEPTUM.  MIDDLE.  THE LATERAL WALL – NASAL CONCHAE  SUPERIOR.  INFERIOR .

THE NASAL CAVITY      SPHENOETHMOIDAL RECESS. MIDDLE MEATUS. SUPERIOR MEATUS. COMMON NASAL MEATUS. INFERIOR MEATUS. .

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) .THE ARTERIAL SUPPLY OF THE MEDIAL AND LATERAL WALL OF THE NASAL CAVITY      ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL A. SPHENO PALATINE A. GREATER PALATINE A. SEPTAL BRANCH OF THE SUPERIOR LABIAL A. ( FROM THE FACIAL A. POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL A.

.KIESSELBACH AREA  ANTERIOR PART OF THE NASAL SEPTUM.  AN AREA RICH IN CAPILLARIES WHERE ALL FIVE ARTERIES SUPPLYING THE SEPTUM ANASTOMOSE.

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– FACIAL V.THE VENOUS DRAINAGE  RICH PLEXUS OF VEIN DEEP TO NASAL MUCOSA – SPHENOPALATINE V. . – OPHTHALMIC V.

V1 ).THE NERVE SUPPLY OF THE NASAl MUCOSA  POSTEROINFERIOR ½ TO 2/3 – THE MAXILLARY N. – POSTERIOR LATERAL BRANCHES OF THE GREATER PALATINE N. ( C. – THE NASOPALATINE N. – NASAL SEPTUM. . V2 ).N. BRANCHES OF THE NASOCILIARY N.CHIEFLY. ( C. – LATERAL WALL  THE ANTEROSUPERIOR PART – THE ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL N.N..

PARANASAL SINUSES  AIR-FILLED EXTENSION OF THE RESPIRATORY PART OF THE NASAL CAVITY IN TO THE FOLLOWING CRANIAL BONES – FRONTAL BONE. – ETHMOID BONE. – MAXILLARY BONE. – SPHENOID BONE. .

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V1 ).N. .  INNERVATED BY BRANCHES OF THE SUPRAORBITAL N. ( C.FRONTAL SINUS  POSTERIOR TO THE SUPERCILIARY ARCHES AND THE ROOT OF THE NOSE  EACH SINUS DRAINS – FRONTO NASAL DUCT – INFUNDIBULUM – SEMILUNAR HIATUS OF THE MIDDLE MEATUS.

ETHMOIDAL SINUS
 LOCATED IN THE LATERAL MASS OF THE ETHMOID BETWEEN THE NASAL CAVITY AND ORBIT.  THE ANTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CELLS DRAINS DIRECTLY OR INDIRECTLY – IN FUNDIBULUM – MIDDLE MEATUS.  THE MIDDLE ETHMOIDAL CELLS OPEN DIRECTLY IN TO THE MIDDLE MEATUS.  THE POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CELLS OPEN DIRECTLY IN TO THE SUPERIOR MEATUS.  INNERVATED BY ANTERIOR AND POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL BRANCHES OF THE NASOCILIARY N. ( C.N. V1).

SPHENOIDAL SINUS
 OCCUPY THE BODY OF THE SPHENOID, MAY EXTEND IN THE WING.  ONLY THIN PLATES OF BONE SEPARA YE THE SINUSES FROM SEVERAL IMPORTANT STRUCTURE; THE OPTIC N AND OPTIC CHIASM, THE PITUITARY GLAND, INTERNAL CAROTED A. AND CAVERNOUS SINUSES.  SEVERAL POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL CELLS INVADE THE SPHENOID, GIVING RISE TO MUL TIPLE SPHENOIDAL SINUSES THAT OPEN SEPARATELY IN TO THE SPHENOIDAL RECESS.  THE POSTERIOR ETHMOIDAL A. AND N. SUPPLY SPHENOID SINUS.

THE MAXILLARY SINUSES
 THE APEX OF THE SINUS EXTENDS TOWARD AND OFTEN IN TO THE ZYGOMATIC BONE.  THE BASE OF THE SINUS FORM THE INFERIOR PART OF THE LATERAL WALL OF THE NASAL CAVITY.  THE ROOF IS FORMED BY THE FLOOR OF THE ORBIT.  THE FLOOR IS FORMED BY THE ALVEOLAR PART OF THE MAXILLA.  EACH SINUS DRAIN BY AN OPENING – THE MAXILLARY OSTIUM – IN TO MIDDLE MEATUS

THE MAXILLARY SINUS  ARTERIAL SUPPLY – MAINLY FROM SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR BRANCHES OF THE MAXILLARY A.N. BRANCHES OF THE MAXILLARY N. . – THE GREATER PALATINE A – FLOOR. MIDDLE AND POSTERIOR SUPERIOR ALVEOLAR N. ( C. V2 )..  INNERVATION – THE ANTERIOR.

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PHARYNX  THE PART OF THE ALIMENTARY CANAL POSTERIOR TO THE NASAL AND ORAL CAVITY.6 POSTERIORLY.C. – OROPHARYNX. .  DIVIDED IN TO – NASOPHARYNX. – LARYNGOPHARYNX.  EXTENDS FROM THE BASE OF THE CRANIUM TO THE INFERIOR BORDER OF THE CRICOID CARTILAGE ANTERIORLY AND THE INFERIOR BORDER OF V.

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NASOPHARYNX  HAS A RESPIRATORY FUNCTION.  THE PHARYNGEAL TONSIL ( ADENOID )  ORIFICE OF THE PHARYNGOTYMPANIC TUBE.  TUBAL TONSIL. .  LIES SUPERIOR TO THE SOFT PALATE AND IS THE POSTERIOR EXTENSION OF THE NASALCAVITY.

– LATERAL  PALATOGLOSSAL ARCH.  PALATOPHARYNGEAL ARCH.  BASE OF THE TONGUE.OROPHARYNX  DIGESTIVE FUNCTION  BOUNDARIES – ANTERIOR  SOFT PALATE. .  EXTENDS FROM THE LEVEL OF THE SOFT PALATE TO THE SUPERIOR BORDER OF THE EPIGLOTTIS.

 THE BED IS FORMED BY THE SUPERIOR CONSTRICTOR OF THE PHARYNX AND THE PHARYNGOBASILAR FASCIA. BETWEEN THE PALATOGLOSSAL AND PALATOPHARYNGEAL ARCHES. .  LIES IN THE TONSILAR BED.THE PALATINE TONSILS  COLLECTION OF LYMPHOID TISSUE ON EACH SIDE OF THE OROPHARYNX.

LARYNGOPHARYNX  POSTERIOR TO THE LARYNGEAL INLET AND THE VESTIBULE AND VENTRICLE OF THE LARYNX.  POSTERIORLY IS RELATED TO THE BO DIES OF C4 THROUGH C6 VERTEBRAE.  EXTENDS FROM THE SUPERIOR BORDE OF THE EPIGLOTTIS TO THE ESOPHAGU AT THE LEVEL OF THE INFERIOR BORD DER OF THE CRICOID CARTILAGE.  COMMUNICATES WITH THE LARYNX THROUGH THE LARYNGEAL INLET .

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THE NERVE SUPPLY TO THE PHARYNX  PHARYNGEAL PLEXUS OF NERVE – MOST OF SENSORY AND MOTOR  PHARYNGEAL BRCH OF THE C.  GLOSSOPHARYNGEAL ( C.  SYMPATHETIC BRCH FROM THE SUPERIOR CERVICAL GANGLION.) .SNSR.MOTOR.N.N. . X .

PHARYNGEAL LYMPHOID RING     PALATINE TONSIL. PHARYNGEAL TONSIL. TUBAL TONSIL. . LINGUAL TONSIL.

– TRACHEA.RESPIRATORY LAYER OF THE CERVICAL VISCERA  I. – PROVIDING A PATENT AIR WAY AND A MEANS OF SEALING IT OFF TEMPORARILY. – PRODUCING VOICE.  MAIN FUNCTION – ROUTING AIR AND FOOD INTO THE RESPIRATORY TRACT AND ESOPHAGUS.E – LARYNX. .

ESPECIALLY DURING SWALLOWING .  CONTAINING THE VOCAL FOLD.  COMPOSED OF 9 CARTILAGE.  GUARD THE AIR PASSAGES.LARYNX  LIES IN THE ANTERIOR PART OF THE NECK AT THE LEVEL OF THE BODIES OF C3 THROUGH C6 VERTEBRAE.

THE LARYNGEAL SKELETON  THREE CARTILAGE ARE SINGLE – THYROID CARTILAGE.  THREE CARTILAGE ARE PAIRED – ARYTENOID CARTILAGE. . – EPIGLOTTIC CARTILAGE. – CRICOID CARTILAGE. – CORNICULATE CARTILAGE. – CUNEIFORM CARTILAGE.

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– LARYNGEAL VENTRICLE  RECESSES EXTENDING LATERALLY FROM THE NIDDLE PART OF THE LARYNGEAL CAVITY BETWEEN FESTIBULAR AND VC FOLD – INFRA GLOTTIC CAVITY  FROM THE FOCAL FOLDS TO THE INFERIOR BORDER TO THE CRICOID CARTILAGE. – MIDDLE PART OF THE LARYNGEAL CAVITY  THE CENTRAL CAVITY BETWEEN THE VESTIBULAR AND AND VOCAL FOLDS.  DIVIDE INTO 3 PART – LARYNGEAL VESTIBULE  BETWEEN THE LARTNGEAL INLET AND THE VESTIBULAR FOLD.THE LARYNGEAL CAVITY  EXTEND FROM THE LARYNGEAL INLET TO THE LEVEL OF THE INFERIOR BORDER OF THE CRICOID CARTILAGE. .

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THE VOCAL FOLD  EACH VOCAL FOLD INCLUDES – A VOCAL LIGAMENT – A VOCAL MUSCLES  THE SOURCE OF SOUND THAT COME FROM THE LARYNX  AS THE MAIN SPHINCTER OF THE RESPIRATORY TRACT .

 THE INTRINSIC LARYNGEAL MUSCLES – MOVE THE LARYNGEAL PARTS. – MAKING THE ALTERATIONS IN THE LENGTH AND TENSION OF THE VOCAL FOLD ANDS AND IN THE SIZE AND SHAPE OF THE RIMA GLOTTIDIS .MUSCLES OF THE LARYNX  THE EXTRINSIC LARYNGEAL MUSCLES – MOVE THE LARYNX AS A WHOLE. – ELEVATOR  SUPRAHYOID M. – DEPRESSOR  INFRAHYOID M.  STYLOPHARYNGEUS M.

N. – THE SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL A. – THE SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL V.  LYMPHATICS DRAINAGE – SUPERIOR TO THE VOCAL FOLD  ACCOMPANY THE SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL A. .  LARYNGEAL VEINS – THE INFERIOR LARYNGEAL V.N. AND THEN TO INFERIOR DEEP CERVICAL L.VESSELS OF LARYNX  ARTERIAL SUPPLY – THE INFERIOR LARYNGEAL A.N. – INFERIOR TO THE VOCAL FOLD  DRAIN INTO THE PRE TRACHEAL OR PARATRACHEAL L. SRAINS INTO THE SUPERIOR DEEP CERVICAL L.

X ).NERVES OF THE LARYNX  THE SUPERIOR LARYNGEAL N.  THE EXTERNAL LARYNGEAL N.  THE POSTERIOR BRANCH. . – THE CONTINUATION OF THE RECURRENT LARYNGEAL N ( A BRANCH OF C. – ARISES FROM THE INFERIOR VAGAL GANGLION  THE INTERNAL LARYNGEAL N.  THE INFERIOR LARYNGEAL N.  THE ANTERIOR BRANCH.N.

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THE POSTER IOR GAP IS SPANNED BY THE INVOLUNTARY TRACHEALIS MUSCLE.TRACHEA  A FIBROCARTILAGINOUS TUBE. IS SUPPORTED BY INCOMPLETE CARTILA GINOUS TRACHEAL RING.  EXTENDS FROM THE LEVEL OF THE V.C 6 THROUGH THE STERNAL ANGLE ( THE T4-T5 IV DISC ) .

TRACHEOSTOMY  TRANSVERSE INCISSION OF THE SKIN  THE INFRAHYOID MUSCLES ARE RETRACTED LATERALLY  THE ISTHMUS OF THE THYROID GLAND IS EITHER DEVIDED OR RETRACTED SUPERIORLY  AN OPENING IS MADE BETWEEN THE FIRST AND SECOND TRACHEAL RING OR THE SECOND THROUGH 4TH RING  A TRACHEOSTOMY TUBE IS THEN INSERTED INTO THE TRACHEA AND SECURED .

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THE TRACHEA AND BRONCHI  THE TRACHEA BIFURCATES AT THE LEVEL OF THE TRANSVERSE THORACIC PLANE INTO – RIGH MAIN ( PRIMARY ) BRONCHUS  THREE LOBAR ( SECONDARY ) BRONCHI – SEGMENTAL ( TERTIARY ) BRONCHI  BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMEN. – LEFT MAIN ( PRIMARY ) BRONCHUS  TWO LOBAR ( SECONDARY ) BRONCHI – SEGMENTAL ( TERTIARY ) BRONCHI  BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMEN. .

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TRACHEOBRONCHIAL TREE .

SEVERAL CHANGES IN THE BRONCHIAL TREE  THE MUCOUS MEMBRANE .PSEUDOSTRATIFIED CILIATED COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM .MOSTLY CILIATED SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM WTH NO GOBLET CELLS .CILIATED SIMPLE COLUMNAR EPITHELIUM WITH SOME GOBLET CELLS . .tertiary bronchus .secondary bronchus .primary bronchus .smaller bronchioles.large bronchioles .termial bronchioles .MOSTLY NON CILIATED SIMPLE CUBOIDAL EPITHELIUM .

THE AMOUNT OF SMOOTH MUSCLE INCREASES.DISAPPEAR .SEVERAL CHANGES IN THE BRONCHIAL TREE  PLATES OF CARTILAGE GRADUALLY REPLACE .primary bronchus .INCOMPLETE RING OF CARTILAGE .distal bronchioles  THE AMOUNT OF CARTILAGE DECREASES. SMOOTH MUSCLE ENCIRCLES THE LUMEN IN SPIRAL BANDS .

BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMEN .

.  SEPARATED FROM ADJACENT SEGMEN TS BY CONNECTIVE TISSUE SEPTA.  THE LARGEST SUBDIVISION OF THE LUNG.BRONCHOPULMONARY SEGMEN  PYRAMIDAL-SHAPE SEGMEN OF THE LUNG.  NAMED ACCORDING TO THE SEGMENTAL BRONCHI SUPPLYING THEM.  DRAINED BY INTERSEGMENTAL PARTS OF THE PULMONARY VEINS  SURGICALLY RESECTABLE.  USUALLY 10 IN THE RIGHT LUNG . 8 – 10 IN THE LEFT LUNG.  SUPPLIED INDEPENDENTLY BY A SEGM ENTAL BRONCHUS AND A TERTIARY BRANCH OF THE PULMONARY ARTERY.

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secrete alveolar fluid ….TYPE II ALVEOLAR CELLS .ELASTIC BASEMENT MEMBRANE .containing microvilli .the main sites of gas exchange . Surfactans .between type I cells .ALVEOLI  THE WALLOF ALVEOLI .keep the surface between cells and the air moist * ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGE ( DUST CELLS ) .TYPE I ALVEOLAR CELLS .simple squmous epithelial .TWO TYPES OF ALVEOLAR EPITHELIAL CELLS .

type I alveolar cells.often fused to the epithelial basement membrane  THE CAPILLARY ENDOTHELIUM .type II alveolar cells.underlying the alveolar wall.THE RESPIRATORY MEMBRANE  THE ALVEOLAR WALL .  A CAPILLARY BASEMENT MEMBRANE . . .alveolar macrophages  AN EPITHELIAL BASEMENT MEMBRANE .

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