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This project work is dedicated to YAHWEH Almighty, my parents Mr. and Mrs. Anthony Ibiene, my elder brother Dr A. A. Ibiene and to all my fans.
iv 5 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I acknowledge God’s faithfulness’ toward me, for it is by His grace that I have been able to accomplish this goal. My special thanks goes to my Dr. Mrs. J .U.Njoku not just as my supervisor but for the motherly role she played. My sincere appreciate goes to all academic and nonacademic staffs of this exceptional department psychology guidance and counseling particularly Dr. Eriega .E.G and Dr Agbakwuru.C. for motivating me unknowing in pursuing my academics. I will not forget to express my deep gratitude to Mr. Ikechukwu Ogwezi for his immeasurable support especially for taking time to edit this project work. My special recognition goes to someone very special to me Miss Eruchi Uche Ekwuke for her encouragement. My appreciation also goes to all my in Omuoko and in school Mr. Ikechukwu Emmanuel, Mr Alfred Uche Ogbua Miss
Otonye Amos-A, Mr Nnamdi Obilor and Mr Ezikwa, Tenas Gods’swill of mathematics statistics for his full support . Also acknowledged Rita and Endurance.
This acknowledgement will be complete without mentioning pastor Friday George, Mrs. Gloria A. Ibiene, Mrs. Jedidiah
.A.Ibiene and my siblings miss Linah, Mr. Samuel, Pastor God’s Elect and Miss Alali for been with in my time of trials.
Social phobia is a disabling anxiety disorder characterized by an excessive fear of negative evaluation in social situations. The purpose of this study is to investigate the influence of SAD on students “university undergraduates”. In their academic performance, social adjustment and academic adjustment By means of likert scale questionnaire named Influence of Social Anxiety Disorder on University Undergraduates (ISADUU). The instrument was divided into two (2) sections to elicit response the sample. Simple percentage and chi square were used to provide solution to the research questions and hypotheses. However the result shows that Social anxiety disorder had significant influence in both academic and social life of university undergraduates. Thus the following recommendation were drawn: government, Non-governmental organizations, parents, and all well-meaning individuals should accept the reality that social anxiety disorder is real and should join hands together to fight the social life killer. Government through the ministry of education should as a matter of urgency introduces compulsory guidance services in all levels of the nation’s institutions of learning from primary to tertiary levels. Also charity begins at home therefore parents should discuss the dangers of SAD with their children and discourage it as early as possible.
TABLE OF CONTENT Title Page Certification - Approval page Dedication -
-i - ii -iii - iv - vi - vii
Acknowledgement Abstract -
Table of content CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.7
Background of the Study Statement of the Problem Purpose of the Study -
-1 -12 -14 -15 -16 -16 -17
Significance of the Study Scope of the Study -
Research Questions Hypothesis -
CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Theoretical Framework - 18 - 19 - 22
2.1.1 Psychodynamic Model 2.1.2 Social learning theory -
2.1.3 Rational-Emotive-Behavior Therapy (REBT) 2.2 Conceptual Framework -
- 24 - 26 - 26 - 37 - 40 - 41
2.2.1 Concept of Social Anxiety Disorder -
2.2.2 Concepts of Social & Academic Adjustments 184.108.40.206 The nature of social adjustment -
220.127.116.11 Basic Processes in Social Adjustment 18.104.22.168 Well-Designed Information to Male And Female Students about sad 2.2.3 Sad and Male Students -
- 47 - 73 - 76 - 77 - 86 - 89
2.2.4 Sad and Female Students-
2.2.5 Sad and Academic Performance 2.2.5 Sad and academic adjustment 2.2.6 Sad and Social Adjustment CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 3.1 3.2 3.3
Research Design Area of Study -
- 97 - 98 - 98 - 99 -100 -101
Population of Study -
3.4 Sampling Techniques: Sampling Technique Instruments for Data Collection Validity of Instrument -
3.7 101 3.8 3.9
Reliability of the Instrument
Administrations and Scoring of Instrument Data Analysis Techniques -
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS 4.1 Presentation of Frequency Distribution -104 -104 -105
4.1.1 Analysis of age of Respondents4.1.2 Analysis of sex Respondents 4.1.3 Frequency Analysis of Marital Status of Respondents 4.1.4 Research Question1: 4.1.5 Research Question 2: 22.214.171.124 Hypothesis 1: -
-106 -107 -108 -110 -111 -112 -113 -115 -116
4.1.6 Research Question 3: 126.96.36.199 Hypothesis 2: -
4.1.7 Research Question 4: 4.1.9 Hypothesis 3: 4.2 -
Summary of Result -
CHAPTER FIVE DISCUSSION 5.1 Research Question 1: -119
5.2 123 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8
Research Question 2:
Research Question 3: Research Question 4:
-128 -131 -134 -136 -137 -138 -139
Implication of the Result Recommendations Conclusion Suggestions -
1.1 Background of the study The etiologies of social anxiety disorder (SAD) also known as social phobia is best described as a series of events leading to the diagnosis we know today. Although it is very clear that SAD has not been a recognized diagnosis for very long, the idea of social anxiety dates back to the early part of the 20th century (Weiner & Freehiem 2004). However in 1994, the term ‘social phobia’ was replaced by social anxiety disorder (SAD) in the diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, (4th edition1994). This new term is used to refer to how broad and generalized fears are in the disorder. In this new edition, the disorder is defined as a “Marked
and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situation in which embarrassment may occur” (Russell, Amy, & Erin 2004). Meanwhile as social beings we live in a society, we form opinions about others and others have opinions about us. Everybody wants acceptance and recognition from and within the society. We try to behave according to the norms of the society so that we can adjust but the reverse is the case for someone who suffers from (SAD). For instance People with social anxiety, fear common situations such as participating in small groups, eating or writing in public places, asking questions for the sake of clarifications during lectures, building relationships in school, working whilst being observed, talking to people in authority, going to social events, such as parties, meeting or talking to strangers,
being the centre of attention, entering a room when other people are present, talking or giving a presentation to a group, dating someone of the opposite sex, and maintaining eye contact with strangers (Safren , Heimberg, Horner, Juster, Schneier, and
Liebowitz 1999). Furthermore, Rapee and Heimberg (1997) advocated that the perception of an evaluative audience leads the individual with SAD to focus on a mental picture of how he or she appears to that audience. This mental picture, which is likely to be negatively unclear, is compared to an estimate of what the person believes may be expected of him or her by that audience. As this
discrepancy increases in a negative direction, the perceived probability of negative evaluation from the audience is increased. The person becomes very watchful for negative external cues (e.g.,
signs of dullness or lack of concern from the audience) and internal cues (e.g., unpleasant physiological feelings), and these cues further inform the person’s mental representation as seen by the audience. Moreover in the institution of higher education (University) one thing is paramount, and that is University Adjustment. Hence Adjustment is defined as ‘a process of fitting individual or collective patterns of activity to other such patterns carried out with some awareness of purposefulness’ (Macquarie 1991). Adjustment is used to refer to students making changes in their attitudes, behaviour and social norms in order to fit into the new academic environment. But for the reason of explaining these challenges, the word
‘adjustment’ has been defined as a psychological process of adapting to cope with, managing their problems, challenges, tasks
and requirements of every day life (Halonen & Santrok, cited in Malek, Noor, & Farid ; 2011). Baker and Syrik cited in Malek, Jdaitawi, Noor-Azniza, Ishak & Farid, Mustafa (2011) have divided and identified the diverse types of adjustments into academic, social, personal-emotional adjustment, and institution attachment/goal commitment. In the same way adjustment has been defined by Arkoff; as cited in Malek, Jdaitawi, Noor-Azniza, Ishak & Farid, Mustafa (2011) as a person’s interaction with his or her environment. Arkoff, in Malek, Jdaitawi, Noor-Azniza, Ishak & Farid, Mustafa (2011) further defined college or university adjustment in terms of college achievement which covered students’ academic achievement and personal growth. In his approach, the adjusted student is the one who obtains adequate grades, passes in his or her courses, and
eventually graduates. Conversely, the maladjusted student is the one who demonstrates unsatisfactory grades, marginal level of performance in course work, or failing, and shows tendency in dropping out of university or college before graduation. Besides academic achievement, university adjustment also involves the idea of personal growth. An adjusted student is the one who will show good personal growth in terms of non-academic potential with reference to accomplishments outside the classroom such as in art and music, creativity, leadership and other social performance in the society. But achieving this University Adjustment has become a fullsize headlong for university undergraduates due to the prevalence rate of SAD which have led to poor social and academic performance; Students with SAD have difficulty speaking in front of
a group of people, and fail or drop out of high school/university due to social anxiety disorder (Van, Mancini, Farvolden 2003).Thus early diagnosis and intervention will increase their level of enjoyment of school and their high school/university graduation rates, which consequence will help them to become productive individuals in the society. As a move to ascertain the prevalence rate of SAD in the higher institutions of Education (University) Tillfors, & Furmark. (2007:86), pointed that the prevalence of social phobia among the Swedish university students was comparable with previously reported for the general population. The two clusters were distinguished consisting of students scoring either low (discrete subgroup) or high (generalized subgroup) on all cluster variables. Social Phobia was associated with use of dysfunctional avoidant
strategies in academic situations and in anticipation of public speaking. The disorder was less common among students following a pedagogic university program. “Social phobia was highly prevalent among Swedish university students, most cases pertaining to a mild or discrete form of the disorder. The commonness and severity of social phobia in students did not deviate significantly from the general population suggesting that socially anxious individuals do apply for higher education. However, since avoidance and low academic attainment are commonly reported features, future studies should investigate whether sufferers of social phobia underachieve or abolish their studies prematurely” Tillfors et al., (2007:86) Meanwhile Academic Adjustment is the way of becoming accustomed to the role of being a student and to different aspect of
the school setting. Failure to adjust can lead to psychological health issues and school refusal or school dropout,
(psychology.wikia.com 2012). According to Tinto (1996), seven major causes of students’ withdrawal from college were academic difficulties, adjustment difficulties, uncertain, narrow, or new goals, weak and external commitments, financial inadequacies, incongruence between the students and the institution, and isolation cited in (Maria , Habibah, Rahil , & Jegak. 2009). Previous studies on students’ retention and adjustment have reported that the transition to university can be a traumatic experience for numerous new undergraduate students (Cantor, Norem, Niedenthl, Langston, & Bower, 1987; Perry, Hladkyj, Pekrun, & Pelletier, 2001) they are often confronted with a diversity
of new personal and interpersonal challenges. These challenges include the ability to make new relationships (especially if the students attended university outside of their neighborhood), to modify existing relationship with parents and family members, and to develop learning habits for new academic environment (Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan, & Majeski, 2004). Coming back home here in Nigeria according to the results of a study from Nigeria that included 500 university students, the lifetime prevalence social phobia was 9.4% and the previous year cross-sectional survey of student at the university of Ibadan (Nigeria) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) revealed a prevalence of social phobia at 8.5% the participants were most anxious when speaking in front of an
audience (100%) or a small group (94.9%) Bella and Omigbodun (2008:21). Surprisingly, social anxiety disorder is also one of the 3rd most common mental illnesses affecting between 2% and 13% of university undergraduates at some point in their lives, (American Psychiatric Association 1994) Thus if all the authorities cited, based on their various studies/research, acknowledge that SAD has impact on students academic performance then, it is imperative that the study (influence of social anxiety disorder on the academic and social adjustment of university undergraduates) be carried out. There is also the need to find out the extent to which social anxiety disorder influences the academic and social adjustments of university undergraduates.
According to (Bella & Omibodun 2008:6), “The prevalence of social phobia among Nigerian university students are similar to what has been found among young people in other parts of the world but are much higher than rates found in the Nigerian general population. A high rate of co-morbidity with depression has been found, increasing the disability associated with this disorder. There is an urgent need for mental health advocacy through university based and other youth oriented mental health programmes to provide awareness on social phobia and depression, and make provision for appropriate supportive facilities.” 1.2 Statement of the Problem During my first year in school (university) I was always afraid of answering questions, in class even when I knew the answers, it got to a point; I hated to associate with my course mates especially the females. I couldn't eat lunch with my course mates even when I
was very hungry. I worried about being stared at or judged, and worried that I would make a fool of myself. My heart would pound, and I would start to sweat when I thought about eating in public. The feelings got worse as the time of the events like weddings, birthday parties, child dedication etc. Sometimes I couldn't sleep or eat for days before these events. But I was able to overcome it because of the course I studied “psychology guidance and counseling”. Feeling shy and a little reserved is the nature of some people. In some situations, even the most confident people feel nervous. Social anxiety disorder is characterized by intense fear in social situations, causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of one’s life. Although it starts at a young age between 10 to 20 years, its symptoms are generally mistaken for some other common problems.
Because of the high prevalence of social anxiety disorder that has led to poor academic performance in our schools, the researcher has deemed it necessary to carry-out research on this topic 1.3 Purpose of the Study This is to investigate into the influence of social anxiety disorder (SAD). Specifically the study tends to: 1. To find out the extent to which male and female student exhibit SAD in schools. 2. To find out the extent to which SAD influences the academic performance of male and female undergraduates. 3. To find out the degree of SAD influence on social adjustment of male and female undergraduates.
To investigate the extent to which SAD influences academic adjustment of male and female undergraduates.
1.4 Significance of the Study Social anxiety disorder has caused a lot of problems to the socialization of individuals, which if not looked into will lead so many people into shying away from responsibilities. This means that this research work will be of great importance to the counselors, the class room teachers and to other researchers who may see it as reference material. The study will also provide valid and useful information to male and female undergraduates and the society at large about the social life killer (SAD) and how to seek for help and treatment and it will also showcase the relevance of guidance counseling as a profession in finding solutions to students or sufferers of SAD.
1.6 Scope of the Study This study has been restricted to two universities in Rivers state. Namely university of Port Harcourt (UNIPORT) and formerly college of education now Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (IAUE) The study investigates the influences of social anxiety disorder on the academic and social adjustment of university undergraduates. 1.5 Research Questions 1. To what extent does the male and female student exhibit SAD in school? 2. To what extent does the SAD influence the academic performance of male and female undergraduates? 3. To what extent does the SAD influence social adjustment of male and female undergraduates?
adjustment of male and female undergraduates? 1.7 Hypothesis 1. There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the academic performance of male and female students. 2. There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the social adjustment of male and female students. 3. There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the academic adjustment of male and female undergraduates.
This chapter will bring to focus related literatures which deal with the influence of social anxiety disorder. The related literatures that will be overviewed in this study will cover the concept of social anxiety disorder, information to male and female students about SAD; its influence on academic and social adjustment of males and females; and also the symptoms associated with it. 2.1 Theoretical Framework If the only tool you have is a hammer, you tend to see every problem as a nail ‘Abraham Maslow’. Thus theories are created by man to guide the practice and understanding of a particular body of knowledge (Njoku, 2010:10)
A theory is only useful to the extent that it provides comprehensive framework within which known facts can be incorporated; allow us to predict the future with some precision, and stimulate the discovery of new knowledge. Consequently, several theories will be reviewed for the purpose of this study. It is therefore pertinent to examine some of the most popular theories in order to assess their universal applicability or otherwise. This theoretical focus shall include: Psychodynamic Model,
Rational-Emotive-Behavior Theory and Social Learning Theory 2.1.1 Psychodynamic Model
The words ‘psychodynamic’ and ‘psychoanalytic’ are very confusing. Remember that Freud’s theories included psychoanalytic theory, whereas the term ‘psychodynamic’ refers to both his
theories and those of his followers. Freud’s psychoanalysis is both a theory and a therapy (Saul, 2007:2). Psychoanalytic theory was propounded by Sigmund Freud, and he his rightly considered the single most important theorist in the filed of personality. Sigmund Freud’s ideas have had a profound impact not only on psychology but on the twentieth century art, literature and philosophy. Some of his concepts such as “Freudian slip” are known by people who have never opened a psychology text (Njoku, 2010:25) Sigmund Freud theories are clinically derived - i.e. based on what his patients told him during therapy. The psychodynamic therapist would usually be treating the patient for depression or anxiety related disorders (Saul, 2007:2).
Freud argued that phobias help to contain threatening
impulses and to keep them out of awareness by motivating a person to stay away from the feared situation (Nevid, Rathus, & Greene, 1991). In his theory, unconscious motives are at work, and phobias lead to the avoidance of situations in which impulsive behavior could occur. With regards to the study, this theory makes us to understand that socially phobic individuals avoid social situations because of unconscious drives that protect them from having to overcome any impulsivity produced by the situation. This type of avoidance is an unconscious, but protective, avoidance. An example of repressed, unconscious impulsivity would be the desire to derogate others in social situations. Freud believed that we repress socially
unacceptable ideas; therefore, a person with social phobia may have unconscious motives keeping them away from social situations so
that this socially unacceptable, impulsive behavior can be avoided. Because of the difficulty in directly observing unconscious motives, there is little empirical support for this etiological model. 2.1.2 Social Learning Theory
Albert Bandura the major proponent of this theory was born December 4, 1925, in a small town of roughly four hundred people, as the youngest child, and only son, in a family of eight. Bandura is of Ukrainian and Polish descent. According to Albert Bandura People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes and outcomes of those behaviors. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, one forms an idea of how new behaviors are performed, and on later occasions this coded information serves as
a guide for action”. Social learning theory explains human behavior in terms of continuous reciprocal interaction between cognitive, behavioral, and environmental influences. However Social cognitive theory may explain why some people develop phobias, (Jennings, Taylor & Francis, 1994). Many phobias stem from early childhood, when our parents were our greatest influences and role models. It is not uncommon for a parent’s dislike for spiders or rats to become a full-blown phobia in her child. Watching someone else, whether a parent, friend, or even stranger, go through a negative experience such as falling down the stairs can also lead to a phobia. Furthermore (Hales & Yudofsky, 2003) states that “if you did not experience a traumatic event yourself, did you observe someone else in a traumatic social situation? For those already vulnerable to
the disorder, this may have the same impact as experiencing the situation firsthand”. Thus in relation to the study, this theory gives us an insight as to how through observation, one can acquire SAD without knowing. For instance, if in a family, one or both parents have this disorder, it is very probable that some of their children will suffer from the same disorder. 2.1.3 Rational-Emotive-Behavior Therapy (REBT)
Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT) was developed in the 1950’s by psychologist Albert Ellis. REBT stressed teaching of the ABC’s, where ‘A’ is an activating event, ‘B’, is an individuals belief system, and ‘C’ is the highly charged emotional consequence. (Ellis, 2008, p.187)
One of the main pillars of REBT is that irrational and dysfunctional ways and patterns of thinking, feeling and behaving contribute to the nervousness/anxiety disorders people experience. REBT generally believes that when people turn flexible preferences, desires and wishes into grandiose, absolutistic and fatalistic dictates, this tends to contribute to disturbance and upsetness. (Albert, 2003) In the case of social anxiety, negative core beliefs are long-held negative beliefs you have about your inadequacy in social are activated when you are in a situation Your core beliefs cause you to such as negative
situations. These beliefs
that you perceive as threatening.
experience the cognitive symptoms of SAD,
thoughts, a tendency to only see your shortcomings, and an
obsession with monitoring your own symptoms of anxiety. (Hales & Yudofsky, 2003) Furthermore Ellis believed that irrational beliefs are the root of emotional disturbances because we become unable to experience negative life occurrences in a psychologically healthy way. Instead, we develop unhealthy feelings, such as depression, anxiety and decreased self-esteem. By uncovering faulty thought patterns, they can be restructured. We become free from blaming ourselves and others for imperfections, and we can discard the demands of our irrational thoughts (Corey, 2009). 2.2 Conceptual Framework 2.2.1 Concept of Social Anxiety Disorder Because social anxiety can often seem unwieldy or even overwhelming to understand as a single concept, it is often helpful
to view it in terms of three seperate components that are interrelated and can strengthen one another, leading to a cycle of anxiety The terms Shyness, social anxiety, social phobia are often used interchangeably, although their meanings are often quite different and can lead to confusion and misunderstanding. The following definitions are provided to clarify how each term is used in this study to being a major hindrance in everyday life. Social Anxiety Disorder or Social Phobia are mental health diagnosis used to describe a level of social anxiety that is so distressing, excessive, and/or pervasive that it is significantly interfering with an individual's quality of life. The feared or avoided situations in Social Phobia can be very narrow and specific, or may extend to the majority of one's interactions with others.
However, the concept of social fear dates back as early as 400 BC. During this era, Hippocrates described the exceedingly shy person as someone who “love darkness as life” and thinks every man observes him’’. In the early 1900s and in the early part of the 20th century, psychiatrist used terms such as social phobia and social neurosis to refer to extremely shy patient’s (Furmark, 2000). According to (Furmark, 2000) British psychiatrist Isaac Mark proposed that social phobia be considered a different category separate from other simple phobias. However after various editions and publication of the
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM) by the American Psychiatric Association, in 1994 the same (DSM)
published the term social anxiety disorder (SAD) in its publication
(DSM -IV) social anxiety disorder replaces social phobia however both terms are inter changeably used (Furmark, 2000). In this new edition the disorder is defined as a marked and persistent fear of one or more social or performance situation in which embarrassment may occur (Russell et. al 2004) According to David Bonita-carter, social anxiety disorder also known as social phobia is a condition in which someone experience high level of anxiety about being criticized by or judged in a negative way by others. he David Bonita –Carter further stated that in some surveys as many as 10% of people have been found to suffer from the disorder , although it was not commonly recognized as a form of anxiety disorder until the 1980s. In the same way (Sanderson, DiNardo, Rapee and Barlow 1990) described Social phobia as a potentially devastating disorder
disturbing approximately two percent of the general population at any particular point in time. It stops people from interacting and forming relationships by evoking terror and/or avoidance at the prospect of human contact. It exacts a heavy toll on the professional and private lives of people who all too often find themselves under-educated, under-employed and lonely. Compared with other anxiety sufferers in their mid-thirties, more people were found (about half) with social phobias that were never married. Social phobia can be generally defined as a severe, irrational fear and avoidance of social interactions and/or situations that involve performance before others, evaluation by others, and possible negative consequences such as embarrassment (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
According to Andrews G, Crino R, Hunt C, Lampe L, Page A. (1994), Social phobia is a fear of being scrutinized, evaluated, or being the center of attention. However, the real underlying fear is of being evaluated negatively. People with social phobia commonly fear that others will find fault with them or think that they are incompetent or strange. They may worry that this will occur during social interaction with one or more other people, when they are doing something under observation or even in situations where there is just the chance that they may attract attention. Sometimes, this may involve just being with others. Andrews et, al (1994) further affirmed that The person with social phobia believes that being judged negatively may result from being seen to be anxious (for example, blushing, sweating, trembling, or shaking), from saying or doing something
embarrassing, appearing awkward or making a mistake. Some also believe that there is some aspect of their appearance or behavior that may attract criticism. According to them, the feared situations include public speaking (including tutorials and presentations), parties, writing or signing one's name under scrutiny, standing in a line, using the phone with others around, eating or drinking in public, using public toilets, and public transportation. Some individuals fear that embarrassing physical functions will occur inappropriately, for example, losing control of bowel or bladder, passing flatus, vomiting, stomach noises. The main fears in social phobia may relate more to performance situations or more to social interaction. There may be great anxiety about looking anxious or even having a panic attack
in these situations. The individual may believe that this anxiety will be obvious and will lead others to evaluate them negatively. When social interaction is the main fear, the individual often worries about having nothing to say, being boring, saying something inappropriate or being judged as inadequate in some way. In any case, social situations are either endured with intense anxiety and discomfort (during which, panic attacks may occur) or are avoided. Anxiety and avoidance may be linked to only one situation, (circumscribed social phobia) but commonly occur in many situations (generalized social phobia) Andrews et, al (1994). However it’s very essential to note that Social anxiety disorder (SAD or SAND) according to (DSM-IV 300.23), also recognized as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme fear in social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life. The diagnosis of
social anxiety disorder can be of a specific disorder (when only some particular situations are feared) or a generalized disorder. Generalized social anxiety disorder typically involves a persistent, intense, chronic fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed or humiliated by one's own actions. These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. While the fear of social interaction may be recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable, overcoming it can be quite difficult. Physical symptoms often accompanying social anxiety disorder include excessive blushing, sweating (hyperhidrosis), trembling,
palpitations, nausea, and stammering often accompanied with rapid speech. Panic attacks may also occur under intense fear and discomfort. An early diagnosis may help minimize the symptoms and the development of additional problems, such as depression. Some sufferers may use alcohol or other drugs to reduce fears and
inhibitions at social events. It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse. Although Social phobia (SP) was recognized as a clinical significant mental disorder by the American Psychiatric Association in 1980 it was not added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders until 1987 (DSM-III-R; APA, 1987). At present there is a relative consensus regarding the existence of at least two different subtypes of social phobia: Generalized Social Phobia (GSP) and Specific or circumscribed Social phobia (SSP) Liebowitz, Ninan, Scheier & Blanco (2005) as cited by Jose, Jose & Jose (2007) Presently there are two major forms of social phobias. The first type is ‘general social phobia’. When suffering from this, you tend to
worry when you have to be the centre of attraction amongst other people. You feel nervous about other people looking at you and watching your activities. You feel frightened when introduced to other people and even worry about eating and drinking in public. It may be difficult for you to visit restaurants and other public places. The second category is ‘specific social phobia’. This affects those classes of people who need to be the centre of attention as part of their daily routine and have to speak or perform amongst a larger audience. Actors, musicians, sales persons, union leaders and teachers are prospective victims. People suffering from this phobia are often
at ease when mingling with other people but feel nervous and ‘dried up’ when they need to talk or perform. These two types of social phobias affect 1 to 2% men and 2 to 3% women globally. It casts a significant impact on the victims’ social lives. They and their families often miss out many social events. These two phobias prevent the victims to visit their children’s’ school, go for shopping and even visit a dentist. Many professionals even forego promotions at workplace though being quite capable. (www.phobia-fear-release.com) 2.2.2 Concepts of Social & Academic Adjustments
As social beings we live in a society, we form opinions about others and others have opinions about us. Everybody wants acceptance and recognition from and within society. We try to behave according to the norms of the society so that we can adjust
with others. But it is not an easy task as the personality of each individual is a unique organization. This organization has to make special efforts to adjust with others unique organizations, which we call society. Actually adjustment is a wider term used in various areas of life. For example, if an individual is well adjusted in his family environment, his family adjustment will be good. This is so because psychologists use the term adjustment in varying
conditions of social and interpersonal relations in the society. Thus we see that adjustment means reaction to the demands and pressures of the social environment imposed upon the individual. Whenever two types of demands come into conflict with each other and resultant in an adjustment being made, a complicated process for the individual, then some special problems of adjustment arise.
Thus Social adjustment can be defined as a psychological process. It frequently involves coping with new standards and values. In the technical language of psychology, getting along with the members of the society as best as one can is called adjustment (www.egyankosh.ac.in). Social adjustment is the adaptation of the person’s social environment. Adjustment may take place by adapting the self to the environment or by changing the environment. (Campbell,
Psychiatric Dictionary, 1996) Social adjustment can also be described as types of
associations which involve the accommodation of the individual to circumstances in the person’s social environment for the
satisfaction of his needs or motives (www.mondofacto.com)
The Nature of Social Adjustment
Impartial perception is needed for social adjustment. The processes of behaviour e.g. learning, maturation, sensation,
perception and motivation are significant in our life because they contribute to the process of adjustment. The way we interact with people depends to a great extent upon how we perceive them and how we interpret their behaviour. The perceptions about people; what we think, what they are like - influence the way we respond to them. If you perceive that a student is hostile, you are unlikely to interact or adjust with him/her. Your behaviour in a group is certainly different from the behaviour when in alone. Group affects an individual's behaviour. The mere presence of others affects our performance. How do we come to know about other people? Our social perceptions of others are primarily based on the information we get
(inferences) we make about the causes for their behaviour. It is of course, important to have accurate knowledge of others before deciding on the kind of possible interactions with them. Our perceptions of others' personalities and feelings guide us in deciding the way we respond to them and what kind of relationships we have with them. Knowledge about others influences our adjustment with them, according to (www.egyankosh.ac.in) 188.8.131.52 Basic Processes in Social Adjustment
We shall first discuss 'impression' as a cognitive process. Impression formation is the process by which information about others is converted into more or less enduring cognition or thoughts about them. When we first meet someone, we usually have access to information how the person looks and where he/she works and
what he/she says. These categories and their perceived interrelationship form the basic cognitive framework by which we understand others and try to adjust with them.
Stress and Adaptation: the effort to live and be satisfied is called adaptation: Environmental factors which make it hard for an individual to live are called stress. At the most elementary level of life, stress is experienced as irrational or discomfort at slightly more advanced level, stress is explained as the anticipation of harm. In human beings certain kinds of stresses produce anxiety. Anxiety sometimes produces
defensive responses which are mental efforts to reduce stresses. Defenses are generally regarded as poor methods of adjustment. Actually adjustment means reduction of tension or satisfaction of motives.
contains two critical elements- (a) someone's intervention, and (b) inducing change in other person. The FP (Focal Person) is one who is influenced by the source of intervention is termed as the agent. The following table classifies agents, types of intervention and related concepts. Thus Academic Adjustment is the process of becoming
accustomed to the role of being a student and to various aspects of the school environment. Failure to adjust can lead to mental health issues and school refusal or school dropout,
(psychology.wikia.com). According to Tinto (1996), seven major causes of students’ withdrawal from college were academic difficulties, adjustment difficulties, uncertain, narrow, or new goals, weak and external
commitments, financial inadequacies, incongruence between the students and the institution, and isolation. As cited by Maria et; al (2009)
As cited in Maria et al (2009) previous studies on students’ retention and adjustment have reported that the transition to university can be a traumatic experience for numerous new undergraduate students (Cantor, Norem, Niedenthl, Langston, & Bower, 1987; Perry, Hladkyj, Pekrun, & Pelletier, 2001) they are often confronted with a diversity of new personal and interpersonal challenges. These challenges include the ability to make new relationships (especially if the students attended university outside of their neighborhood), to modify existing relationship with parents and family members, and to develop learning habits for new academic environment (Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan, & Majeski,
2004). The inability to meet these demands and challenges appears to be the foremost reason for undergraduate students withdrawing from university (Gerdes & Mllinckrodt, 1994).
Moreover Smith and Renk (2007), the combination of many nervous tension of university life, such as planning for the future, struggling with exams and assignments, coping with demands and challenging lecturers/professors, deciding on a core, and transitioning into financial and emotional independence, can be an overwhelming experience for many students. Consequently, almost all new students go through an adjustment phase upon admission to a university with each student varied in his or her own pace of development (Blimling & Miltenberger, cited in Dyson & Renk, 2006). Past researches also proved that adjustment difficulties are found to be the most common problems among first year students who are going through an active adjustment phase in universities.
(Aspinwall & Taylor, 1992; Baker, 2003; Baker & Siryk, 1986; Cantor et al., 1987; Halamandaris & Power, 1999; Martin Jr. et al., 1999; Perry et al., 2001; Ruhani, 1998; Sennett, Finchilescu, Gibson, & Strauss., 2003; Strauss & Volkwein, 2004). As a matter of reality, the first six weeks of the first semester in an institution of learning such as college, poly techniques and universities is considered to be a critical period in determining retention (Molnar, 1993). Based on the research conducted in a local public university in Malaysia, the adjustment difficulties faced by first year students were found to be academic problems, health problems, financial crisis as well as social and personal problems (Ahmad, Noran Fauziah, Azemi, Mohd. Zailani, 2002). It was also found that the primary problem faced by majority of the students was financial problem such as receiving funds late from the provider or the received amount of fund was not enough to cater for the expenses
during the course of the study. This was followed by academic problems such as unable to register courses; students also faced health problems where they have difficulty in taking care of their health. Therefore, adjustment difficulties among students ought to be given serious attention as a serious adjustment problem could lead to students’ failure to complete their studies and withdraw. 184.108.40.206 Well-Designed Information to Male and Female
Students about SAD Social phobia is a potentially debilitating disorder affecting approximately two percent of the general population at any particular point in time. It stops people from interacting and forming relationships by evoking terror and, or avoidance at the prospect of human contact. It exacts a heavy toll on the professional and private lives of people who all too often find
Compared with other anxiety sufferers in their mid-thirties, Sanderson, Dinardo, Rapee and Barlow (1990) found more people (about half) with social phobia who were ever married. Thus the provision of suitable and positive information about SAD will not be educational without knowing its epidemiology and its etiology, thus it is necessary to review its’ Epidemiology. Several researchers have explored social anxiety disorder across gender, culture, race, and age (Lepine & Lellouch, 1995; Lipsitz, & Schneier, 2000), which has helped psychologists understand the complex nature and nurture of the disorder. This section reviews several studies that have explored the prevalence rates of social anxiety disorder and its’ etiology
Prevalence Rates Prevalence rates for social anxiety are generally thought to be historically inaccurate due to the lack of sensitivity in the measures used and the infrequency of socially anxious individuals seeking treatment. The latter issue is highly influenced by the nature of the disorder itself, as an individual who fears social interaction and scrutiny from others is less likely to bring his or her issue to friends, family members, or health care providers. This issue is supported by early epidemiology studies that estimated a lifetime prevalence rate between 1% and 4% (e.g. Schneier et al., 1992), whereas more recent studies have found prevalence rates to be at least double (Lipschitz & Schneier, 2000). For example, using more current and sensitive assessment measures, as well as an extensive sample from the National Comorbidity Survey, Magee et al., (1996) found that the lifetime prevalence of social anxiety was 13.3%.
Similarly high rates from the same researchers were found in Canada (7.1%), Germany (8.7%), and Switzerland (16%). Likewise, using a survey with empirically sound measures, Furmark et al., (1999) discovered a prevalence rate of 15.6% in 2000 randomly selected Swedish adults. In a more recent study using the National Comorbidity Survey-Replication (NCS-R), Kessler, Chiu, Demler, and Walters (2005) found a 12-month prevalence rate of 6.8% for social anxiety and a lifetime prevalence rate of at least double. The following 12-month prevalence rates have been found for other psychiatric conditions: Schizophrenia (1.1%), Panic Disorder (2.7%); Generalized Anxiety Disorder (3.1%) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (4.1%); and Major Depressive Disorder (6.7%)
(NIMH,2006). Out of these disorders, the NCS-R study places Social Anxiety as one of the most prevalent, followed only behind alcohol abuse (6.9%; Grant et al., 2004). Although some may argue a
greater prevalence of one disorder over another, what is clear is that it is a very common disorder that requires a good deal of research and clinical attention. Etiology Although studies looking at the origin of social anxiety are still in their infancy, evidence for both genetic and environmental influences have been found. Research thus far has investigated several related areas, primarily: genetics (Kendler et al., 1992), Logically, Social Phobia is probably caused by the same factor that is responsible for any strong human emotional experience: our genetic makeup, biological factors, and the culmination of learning experiences throughout our lives (Antony & Swinson, 2008). It is virtually impossible to single out one factor that "causes" social anxiety; rather, it is more likely to be a combination of contributing
causes that come together in the right place, at the right time. Below we discuss three factors that are believed to play a role: Our genes, our brains, and our life experiences. Bodily Appearance Since we know, social anxiety is an emotional disorder; the reason for the problem may differ from person to person. It may be due to some physical deficiency (being short, being too fat, other such things or Stuttering), or it may rise because of some bad past experiences or some other personal or social reason may be there for the problem to arise. A person may develop the fear of social situations if he/she is short in height, or dark complexion, fat. In such a situation, the person feels that everybody is looking at him/her and making fun of their physique. To avoid such a situation to arise, they stop going to
social gatherings or keeping themselves away from people, so that people don’t notice them and laugh at them, Tarja Anchor (www.TarjaAnchor.com) Genetic Factors A two-to three-fold increased risk of having social phobia has typically been observed among first-degree relatives of social phobics in clinical samples (Bruch & Heimberg, 1994; Fyer, Mannuzza, Chapman, Liebowitz, & Klein, 1993; Fyer, Mannuzza, Chapman, Martin, & Klein, 1995; Mannuzza et al., 1995; Reich & Yates, 1988; Stemberger, Turner, Beidel, & Calhoun, 1995). Stein et al. (1998) as acknowledged in Tomas Furmark (2000) noted that it is the relative risk for the generalized subtype that is uniquely higher (approximately 10-fold in their study) among relatives of probands with generalized social phobia. Moreover, a positive family
history of excessive social anxiety has been observed in social phobics in the general population (Lieb et al., 2000; Tillfors, Furmark, Ekselius, & Fredrikson, in press) and community studies also suggest that the rate of social phobia is raised among mothers of shy children (Cooper & Eke, 1999) as cited in Tomas Furmark (2000) Because social phobia and other anxiety disorders tend to cluster in families, a genetic cause might be suspected. However, in the etiologic perspective family studies cannot properly distinguish genetic from environmental influences. To separate the genetic contributions, Kendler, Neale, Kessler, Heath, and Eaves (1992) studied the concordance for social phobia in monozygotic and dizygotic twin-pairs, and observed a
significantly higher concordance rate in the former group. The heritability index was estimated at approximately 30% suggesting that genetic factors explained one-third and nonshared
environmental factors two-thirds of the variability in familial transmission of social phobia (Kendler et al., 1992). Genetic influences have also been noted on social fears defined in a broader sense (Torgersen, 1983; Phillips, Fulker, & Rose, 1987) and on other variables of relevance to social phobia such as behavioral inhibition (Kagan, Reznick, & Snidman, 1988; see below) as cited by Tomas Furmark (2000), neuroticism, and introversion (Henderson, 1982) . Taken together these data suggest that genetic factors play at least a moderate role in the etiology of social phobia. Temperamental Factors Temperament refers to natural biases towards certain moods and emotional reaction styles (Mussen, Conger, Kagan, & Huston, 1990) as quoted in Tomas Furmark (2000) Jerome Kagan and coworkers have depicted two temperamental styles of children
characterized by withdrawal and increased autonomic arousal in situations of uncertainty, in contrast to uninhibited children who tend to react with spontaneity and approach in these situations (C.f. Kagan et al., 1988) as reference by Tomas Furmark (2000) about 10-15% of American (Caucasian) children belongs to each category. Longitudinal studies suggest that children with a stable pattern of behavioral inhibition have an increased risk for developing phobic disorders, particularly social phobia. An
increased risk of social phobia has also been observed in the parents of inhibited children (Rosenbaum et al., 1991). Thus, it is possible that behavioral inhibition is a childhood precursor to social phobia in adults. However, it is unclear whether behavioral inhibition is a risk factor for later social phobia specifically or an
anxiety proneness in general (Rosenbaum et al., 1991) as cited by Tomas Furmark (2000) Family Factor If parents themselves are socially anxious their children might acquire social fears and avoidance through processes of modeling (Bandura, 1977). Öst (1985) reported that 15.6% of a studied sample of social phobics attributed the acquisition of their phobia to modeling factors. Also, families that are high in anxiety probably socialize less with other people, thereby restricting the child’s exposure to social situations as quote by Tomas Furmark (2000). Under such circumstances, an anxious child has fewer
opportunities to develop social skills and to learn that social situations are harmless (Hudson & Rapee, 2000) as reference by Tomas Furmark (2000).Moreover; patients with social phobia tend
to describe their parents as overprotective (Bruch & Heimberg, 1994; Rapee & Melville, 1997). A controlling or overprotecting parenting style may be associated with fearful and socially withdrawn behavior in children, although this might be true not only for social phobics but for anxious individuals in general (Hudson & Rapee, 2000) as quote by Tomas Furmark (2000). Birth Order Sibling position might have an impact on social phobia because some studies have reported increased rates of social anxiety or shyness among firstborn or only children relative to those born later (Hudson & Rapee, 2000). Social anxiety may occur because of an increased pressure placed on firstborn children to succeed or because these children lack the benefits of having older siblings as social role models. However, other investigators have
reported that first born children show less trait anxiety than later-born siblings (Gates, Lineberger, Crockett, & Hubbard, 1988) and that increasing adult fearfulness correlates with increasing birth order in the sibship (Croake, Myers, & Singh, 1987). Thus, to date, reports on birth-order are inconclusive. Peer-Rejection and Social Isolation Childhood experiences of peer-rejection and subsequent social isolation are not uncommon among individuals with social phobia. Rapee and Melville (1997) noted that social phobics retrospectively reported having fewer friends during middle childhood. Hudson and Rapee (2000) review evidence supporting that “love shy” men often retrospectively report peer-rejection experiences such as bullying, being picked last for sport teams, or never having close friends to play with. It is possible that negative life experiences early in life sensitize the individual, e.g. so that aversive stimuli of milder
intensity may become capable of exciting fear circuits in the brain. Thus, the likelihood increases that the person will react with anxiety when exposed to psychosocial stressors in the future. In this case, social fears are acquired by non-associative learning. Also, peer-rejection or neglect could lead to social isolation, which in turn might hamper the development of social skills. Lack of social skills, in turn, probably further augment social isolation (Hudson & Rapee, 2000). Conditioning and Ethological Factors Classical conditioning models suggest that social phobia may emerge from aversive social experiences through processes of associative learning (Mineka & Zinbarg, 1995) as quoted in Tomas Furmark (2000). Making a mistake or an unfavorable impression in social situations, e.g. when talking in class (becoming the conditioned stimuli), might result in the individual being ridiculed,
unconditioned stimuli). Thereby a social situation acquires the potential to elicit fear or anxiety reactions (a conditioned response) in the future. There is evidence that social phobics frequently attribute the onset of their phobia to such conditioning experiences. For instance, Öst (1985) as quoted in Tomas Furmark (2000) noted that conditioning was a likely etiologic pathway in 56.3% of the social phobia patient sample whereas Stemberger et al. (1995) in Tomas Furmark (2000) reported that 44% of their patient sample had a history of traumatic conditioning. Hofmann and colleagues observed, however, that although traumatic speaking events in the past were common among speech phobics, only 15% reported such events at the same time as their phobia started and none of them reported traumatic speaking events before their phobia onset (Hofmann, Ehlers, & Roth, 1995) as cited in Tomas Furmark (2000)
This could mean that conditionings to contexts are more important than conditioning to specific fear cues. In the brain, cue conditioning is thought to be served by the amygdala whereas contextual fear conditioning requires longer times to be
consolidated and is dependent on the hippocampus (Kim, Rison, & Fanselow, 1993) as mentioned in Tomas Furmark (2000). It is
therefore possible that social phobics attain fear reactions with more simplicity and/or show a higher resistance to extinction of learned fear compared with non-phobics. A related issue is the concept of preparedness (Seligman, 1971). According to the preparedness theory, humans have an evolutionarily formed predisposition to easily learn fear reactions to objects or situations that were threatening to our early ancestors. In a series of studies on fear conditioning, Arne Öhman and colleagues (Öhman, 1986) have demonstrated that angry faces belong to the
class of evolutionary fear-relevant stimuli, capable of bring out conditioned fear reactions even when presented below the entrance of conscious awareness. In the context of dominance hierarchies, which have been evolutionarily important in the regulation of social life in animals and humans, the angry face might mean an increased risk of dominance conflict and potentially harmful assault. Social phobia in turn might be related to fearful and obedient behavior typically seen in defeated animals taking a lower position in the hierarchy. Blushing and other symptoms of embarrassment may constitute evolutionarily shaped appeasement displays that reduce the likelihood that a dominant conspecific will attack (Stein & Bouwer, 1997) as referred to in Tomas Furmark (2000).
Andrea Ashbaugh & Martin M. Antony (2002) suggested that there are various psychological factors accountable for the disorder and identified the following and how they elicit social phobia in humans. Learning and Personal Experiences A person’s personal experiences are thought to influence the enhancement of social anxiety disorder. For example, a history of negative experiences in social situations (e.g., being tease at school or verbally assaulted by a lecturer during lectures) may cause someone to subsequently fear or avoid social situations (like class activities) if being around people becomes associated or linked with the negative experience. In addition, someone who is exposed to others with extreme social anxiety (e.g., growing up with parents who have social anxiety disorder) may learn to fear the same
situations just through observation. The messages children receive from parents, teachers, friends, and the media (e.g., it’s important to always make a good impression) might also influence the development of social anxiety disorder in some persons. Of course negative social experiences alone are not enough to cause social anxiety disorder, and only a small percentage of people who have such experiences go on to develop the problem.
Cognitive Factor In cognitive models of social anxiety disorder, social phobics experience dread over how they will be presented to others. They may be overly self-conscious, pay high self-attention after the activity, or have high performance standards for themselves. According to the social psychology theory of self-presentation, a sufferer attempts to create a well-mannered impression on others
but believes he or she is unable to do so. Many times, prior to the potentially anxiety-provoking social situation, sufferers may deliberately go over what could go wrong and how to deal with each unexpected case. After the event, they may have the perception they performed unsatisfactorily. Consequently, they will review anything that may have possibly been abnormal or embarrassing. These thoughts do not just terminate soon after the encounter, but may extend for weeks or longer, (www.socialanxietyassist.com) Those with social phobia tend to interpret neutral or ambiguous conversations with a negative outlook and many studies suggest that socially anxious individuals remember more negative memories than those less distressed. Furmark, Thomas (2000)
The Symptoms Associated with (SAD) among Male and Female. According to Arlin Cuncic (2010) Social phobia indicator
consist of cognitive, physical, and behavioral complexity. Victims of social anxiety may wonder whether their symptoms are severe enough for them to be diagnosed with social anxiety disorder (SAD). However the symptoms and their trigger situations are as follows: Situational Triggers Sufferers of SAD are frightened of being embarrassed or humiliated in presence of others. Sufferers may perhaps be anxious of one or many different types of social situations. According to Arlin (2010), there are a few situations that activate anxiety in victims of SAD and they include:
• • • • • • • • • • • • • • •
Giving a Speech Entering Classroom when others are sited Asking Questions during Lectures Making a Presentation in classroom/Lecturer hall Having a Conversation Going on a Date Going to a Party Eating In Front Of Others Writing in front of others Job Interviews Work Meetings Business Lunches Business Conferences Telephone Calls Athletic Competitions
Musical Performances, Regardless of which specific situations that trigger social
anxiety disorder, the symptoms that victims experience will fall into one of three broad categories: cognitive symptoms (what the sufferer think), physical symptoms (what the sufferer feel), and behavioral symptoms (what the sufferer do). Cognitive Symptoms The cognitive symptoms of SAD are the dysfunctional thought patterns that accompany the disorder. People with SAD are weighed down with negative thoughts and self-doubt when it comes to social situations. If these negative thought patterns are allowed to continue without treatment, they may wear down the person’s self-
esteem over time. Below are some common issues that sufferer may experience.
Negative Bias: the person may tend to discount positive social encounters and blow up the social abilities of others.
Negative Thoughts: Negative thoughts are automatic negative evaluations about once self in a social situation. Imagine starting a new job or the first day of a new class. The instructor or manager asks everyone to introduce themselves to the group. Someone with social phobia may start to have thoughts such as:
“Everyone else looks so much more relaxed.” “What if I say something dumb?” “What if everyone notices my voice shaking?”
The person’s thought begins to speedily curve out of control to the point that the person don't hear anything anyone else has said. When it comes to the person’s turn, the person say as little as possible and hope that no one noticed his/her anxiety. Negative thoughts often occur so automatically that sufferers are not even aware of them.
Negative Beliefs: people with SAD have strongly held beliefs about their inadequacy/failure in social situations Arlin (2010)
Physical Symptoms The physical symptoms of SAD are real and extremely stressful. Some of the most common symptoms are: Blushing, sweating, shaking, muscle tension, trembling voice, shortness of breath, dry mouth, a racing heart , disorientation and
in some sufferers, the symptoms may become so severe that they escalate into a panic attack Arlin (2010) Behavioral Symptoms According to Arlin (2010) People with SAD tend to make choices based on fear and avoidance rather than preferences, desires or ambitions. If you are a sufferer of SAD, this problem may be familiar. You may have dropped a class to avoid doing a presentation or turned down a job promotion because it meant increased social and performance demands. People with generalized SAD are particularly at risk of having poor quality of life. They may have few or no friends, no romantic relationships, and drop out of school or quit their jobs, and may use alcohol to tolerate anxiety.
Underneath are some common behavioral symptoms:
Avoidance: Those things that you do or don't do to reduce anxiety about being in social situations.
Safety Behaviors: Actions that you take to control or limit your experience of social situations.
Escape: Leaving or escaping from a feared situation.
SAD and Male Students
Men are not strangers to anxiety, nevertheless. At some point, one in five men develops social anxiety disorder, Nauert, Rick (2006). Symptoms may vary between genders. In social phobia, for example, men are more likely to avoid calling a person they don't know well, while women express a greater fear of authority figures
and being observed. Sometimes, anxiety may cause impotence in men. Many men are shy around women. When a guy gets really shy around women, he learns to fear (hate) them. Men like this still have active sex drives, and they often end up looking at pornography as a substitute for normal sexual relations with women, which they are unable to solicit. The more they look at pornography, the less able they are to relate to real women. After a while, even seeing a real woman on the street makes him feel like compulsively clutching his genitals. Prostitutes say that their customers are overwhelmingly men with social anxiety they fear women and have to pay for sex. Criminologists say that rapists are overwhelmingly men with social anxiety. They fear women and are trying to perform "cognitive
behavioral therapy" on themselves by raping them in order to get over their fear of them, (www.socialphobiaworld.com). Studies have shown that adjustment among first year undergraduates has a strong impact on their academic achievement (Martin Jr. et al., 1999; Sennett et al., 2003; Wintre & Bowers, 2007; Zuria, Noriah, & Syafrimen, 2004). Studies also have indicated that gender is a significant predictor of students’ adjustment in university (Martin Jr. et al., 1999) and male students are found to be better adjusted compared to the female students (Enochs & Roland, 2006; Ruhani, 1998; Wintre & Yaffe, 2000).
SAD and Female Students
Gender does appear to play a role for certain types of anxiety disorders and phobias, as found out in a new report from Harvard Medical School. Female are twice as likely to suffer from panic disorder or social phobia compared with men, and they are three times as likely to have agoraphobia (fear of being in public places). They also face a slightly higher risk for specific phobia (fear of a particular object or situation). About 10% –14% of women will have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their lives, compared with 5% – 6% of men. And 6.6% in women will have generalized anxiety disorder, but just 3.6% of men will. Differences in sex hormones may be a factor. Scientists know that estrogen interacts with serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in regulating moods, sleep, and appetite but they’re just beginning to
tease out the relationship. Girls and women are also more likely than males to be victims of physical or mental abuse, a known risk factor for PTSD. Nauert, Rick (2006). Thus Female students are found to demonstrate more adjustment problems such as establishing social relationships in campus compared to the male’s students (Cook, 1995). They are less involved in campus activities and have less opportunity to be appointed as leaders in clubs and societies in campus (McWhiter, 1997) as refer to in Maria et; al (2009) 2.2.5 SAD and Academic Performance
In spite of the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college
students. Thus prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. (Baptista, Loureiro, Lima, Zuardi, Magalhães, Kapczinski, Filho, Freitas-Ferrari, Crippa 2012) In the same way Sharma and Sud (1990) found that female student’s experience higher levels of test anxiety than do males irrespective of their cultural background. The study involved students from four Asian cultures. They further argue that the major fundamental factor involved in the gender-related differences in test anxiety among students may be a greater role expectation conflict among females than among male students. An anxiety disorder typically has a period of commencement in childhood, adolescence, and even adults resulting in significant
Epidemiological evidence suggests that persons with psychiatric disorders and perhaps especially social phobia are at increased risk for early withdrawal from school [Am. J. Psychiatry 157 (2000) as cited in J Anxiety Disorder. (2003) Students suffering from social anxiety disorder are more likely to drop out of school as well as perform poorly in their academic work than their counterparts who are normal. This is often attributed to the fact that such students never ask questions in class or in the individual discussion groups and they also do not seek out for clarifications on areas they find difficult. Lack of confidence to ask questions in class as well as fear of being humiliated by others who may have understood the concepts often
leading to intense sweating and any courage which had been gathered is lost (Bandelow, 2004). These Students also fail significantly in class presentations especially when the teacher’s/lecturers award marks for students who are confident during the presentation. Although the Students may be in possession of relevant material/information required for the presentation, their conduct which includes sweating, blushing, stammering and incoherence of their speech may interfere with the content. Many students often choose for no grades by pretend sickness on that day rather than suffer from the humiliation and embarrassment of failing in front of the others. The same case applies during normal classes when the students suffering form social anxiety disorder fail to seek clarifications in class in areas which are quite difficult to comprehend such that they prefer failing
in the exam to being embarrassed after asking a question in class(Bandelow, 2004). Students who have great potential of becoming leaders in future as well as those with special talents are inhibited from exploiting their full potential especially if they are suffering from social anxiety disorder. The fear of standing in front of the otter students in addition to making speeches is enough to make such students concentrate so much on how they are going to prevent any form of embarrassment from befalling them hence leaving no time to carry out their academic work (Bandelow, 2004). Similarly, such students may lack the motivation and encouragement needed to identify and explore their talent. Such a situation arises when an individual realizes that other students are only interested in their hobbies so as to provide a platform for
criticizing them. Similar notions reduce the enthusiasm which is often associated with such interest and the demoralizing impact of humiliation reduces the confidence which was initially present (Wells, 1998). The fear of being the best student and having to stand in front of the other students when being recognized may appears as something very intriguing to most people but not to those suffering from social anxiety disorder. This reduces the instances of being judged by others which calls for discussions and opening up to people who may present embarrassing situations (Bandelow, 2004). In order to further determine the impact of anxiety disorders on school functioning and/or premature withdrawal from school, 201 patients meeting DSM-IV criteria for a primary anxiety disorder completed a school leaving questionnaire as well as self-report
measures of anxiety, depression, and social adjustment. About 49% (n = 98) reported leaving school prematurely and 24% of those indicated that anxiety was the primary reason for this decision. Patients who had left school prematurely were significantly more likely to have a lifetime diagnosis of generalized social phobia, a past history of alcohol abuse/dependence and a greater number of lifetime diagnoses than those who completed their desired level of education J Anxiety Disorder (2003). A study carried out by Tinto (1996) revealed that 40% of all students in America who started out in a four year college failed to earn a degree; and nearly 57% of all dropouts left before the start of their second year, as cited by Maria, Habibah, Rahil & Jegak (2009) A different study conducted by Wintre and Bowers (2007) on the persistence to graduate amongst 944 undergraduate students in a Canadian university reported that within six years, 57.9% of
the students had graduated, 9% remained enrolled, and 33.1% were neither enrolled nor graduated. Research conducted showed that this failure was caused by adjustment difficulties as cite by Maria et; al (2009). Students who are suffering from the social anxiety disorder are more likely to shy away from requesting for food from the school cafeteria in the presence of their friends such that they often give way to other to place orders for lunch before they make their requests. This makes them eat their meals after everyone else has had their share and it leaves little time for preparing for the next lesson. Similarly, the situation presented here leaves no time for the body of the student to adapt to the new development of being fed such that the process of digestion is delayed and it often stars during the course of the lesson. Due to the intense energy being
consumed during digestion, fatigue in the brain is experienced and the learner could fail to perceive ideas which the teacher could be presenting in the lesson (Bandelow, 2004). Students suffering from social anxiety disorders often fail to engage in co curricular activities in school which are also part of their academic life. Sports and clubs are important aspects of different schools as they help the learners to unwind during recess as well as providing an avenue for interactions among students who are in different classes. These activities help the students to prepare for subsequent classes as well as in reducing tension and fatigue associated with studying such that the student will be well prepared to learn more. Therefore, when that particular student does not get the chance to unwind, they lack the refreshed mind which possessed by the student who engaged in a round of
basketball during leisure time and their performance will thus be greatly different (Wells, 1998). The transition from home to university can be traumatic; McInnis (1998) argues that it is during the first year that outlooks, values and patterns of behaviour are determined with respect to higher education. Pascarella and Terenzini (1991) found that college environments which are perceived by students as supportive are associated with high levels of adjustment and achievement as cited in Russell and Shaw (2006: P, 10) 2.2.5 SAD and Academic Adjustment
Attending college or university is supposed to be a very appealing experience that could give satisfaction to students.
However, there are many students who are unable to complete their studies. Besides academic achievement, university adjustment also involves the idea of personal growth. An adjusted student is the one who will show good personal growth in terms of non-academic potential with reference to accomplishments outside of the
classroom such as in art and music, creativity, debates, relating well with peers/ course mates, performing well in social activities and leadership. However it’s very essential to note that Social anxiety disorder (SAD or SAND) according to (DSM-IV 300.23), also recognized as social phobia, is an anxiety disorder characterized by extreme fear in social situations causing considerable distress and impaired ability to function in at least some parts of daily life. The diagnosis of social anxiety disorder can be of a specific disorder
generalized disorder. Generalized social anxiety disorder typically involves a persistent, intense, chronic fear of being judged by others and of being embarrassed or humiliated by one's own actions. These fears can be triggered by perceived or actual scrutiny from others. While the fear of social interaction may be recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable, overcoming it can be quite difficult. Physical symptoms often accompanying social anxiety disorder include excessive blushing, sweating (hyperhidrosis), trembling, palpitations, nausea, and stammering often
accompanied with rapid speech. Panic attacks may also occur under intense fear and discomfort. An early diagnosis may help minimize the symptoms and the development of additional problems, such as depression. Some
sufferers may use alcohol or other drugs to reduce fears and inhibitions at social events. It is common for sufferers of social phobia to self-medicate in this fashion, especially if they are undiagnosed, untreated, or both; this can lead to alcoholism, eating disorders or other kinds of substance abuse (psychology.wikia.com).
SAD and Social Adjustment
Individuals suffering from social anxiety disorder often tend to be reserved and most of them remain single for the rest of their lives. They tend to fear social gatherings such as parties, discussion groups as well as recreational sites. The fear of going blank as well as uncontrolled sweating and stammering makes them abstain from
any place which may expose them to such embarrassing conditions (Wells and Papageorgious, 1998). This reduces their chances of meeting new people as well as establishing acquaintances such that these people hardly have friends. They tend to develop poor workplace relations as well as reluctance to get involved in discussion groups back in school. The same case applies for indulging and cooperation with their counterparts in collective problem solving which makes the whole process enjoyable and easier for both (Bandelow, 2004). Friends and acquaintances are few and most of them are people who have grown up with the individual such that they are able to understand their problem. Making new friends becomes an uphill task while moving to new areas, a new school or changing the workplace becomes even problematic. Fear of failing to be accepted
in the new environment makes the problem worse as such an individual will be portrayed as one with a big ego while in real sense it is a psychological problem. This gets worse especially where the
organizational culture of the new place is biased such that everyone appears so busy and the new comer is left alone to discover for themselves their new environment. Therefore, it takes longer to make new friends as well as adapting to any new environment and the individual may end up feeling lonely in addition to being more anxious (Wells, 1998). Young men suffering from social anxiety disorder may take longer to approach and establish relationships with the young ladies due to fear of rejection. The humiliation and embarrassment associated with rejection makes the process even difficult for them as they will be paranoid that the entire cliché or class will be
scrutinizing their moves. Consequently, the procedure may involve a lot of sweating, blushing such that at some point words end up being mixed up and the wrong message is relayed to the other party thus, increasing the embarrassment (Shaw, 2005). In most cases when a young man who has the social anxiety disorder is turned down by a particular girl, they may end up with increased fear of being rejected by subsequent girls hence they are more likely to remain single. Sometimes the fear may adversely affect the self-esteem of the person such that they fail to seek for ways of coping with their condition and they end up being rather desperate. They then end up avoiding social places where the chances of meeting the same people are high thus limiting their social life (Shaw, 2005).
During discussions with their friends, people with the social anxiety disorder can choose to be overly quite especially when there are strangers amongst them. This reduces the opportunities presented to them for widening up their circle of friends. Psychologists usually argue that by sharing problems that are affecting the day to day activities, individuals are able to reduce cases of undergoing through stressful circumstances in life. Therefore, individuals who are reluctant to share their feelings with others due to fear of being seen as a failure or as a being bad leads to episodes of depression as well as stressful situations which impair decision making processes among individuals suffering form social anxiety disorder (Shaw, 2005). In addiction Andrea A. & Martin M. A. (2002) also affirmed that avoidance of social situations prevents people with social
anxiety disorder from learning that social and performance situations are not as “dangerous” as they think. Thus, certain anxious behaviors (e.g., avoiding eye contact, standing far away from others, speaking quietly) may lead some people with social anxiety disorder to actually be judged more negatively by others, thereby maintain the anxious beliefs.
Summary of Reviewed Literature A considerable number of literatures by various authors and practitioners in the medical and psychological fields have been reviewed as regards their studies, reports and understanding of the concept of social anxiety disorder or social phobia and its influence on the day-to-day activities of human.
In this view, the literatures cited has equally shown theoretical frameworks and empirical data’s in these areas, equally the influence of social anxiety disorder on the behaviors of individuals and students (university undergraduates) has been proved from the works of foremost researchers in the existing literature. Thus the symptoms of social anxiety disorder also form part of this research review such that could assists readers to be abreast with jam-packed knowledge to educate male and female
undergraduates and steer their pattern of behaviour in social situations appropriately. Finally wide-ranging of review has been made on the causes of social anxiety disorder (SAD) in order to enable university undergraduates and other readers to be vigilant behaviorally and in
ways of thinking while going about their day by day activities especially in social situation. It is therefore hoped that this study will be one of such work carried out to contribute to knowledge in this field of study in particularly.
CHAPTER THREE RESEARCH METHOLOGY This chapter deals with the various methods of research and techniques adopted in conducting this research. 3.1 Research Design The research design utilized for this study is descriptive survey which is designed to find out the influence of social anxiety disorder on the academic and social adjustment of university graduates. Descriptive survey was chosen for this study because it will assist the researcher to collect data from a large sample drawn from a given population, and also describe certain features of the sample which are of interest to the researcher (Jackson, 2009)
Area of Study
The research will be conducted in two universities in Rivers state which include university of Port Harcourt (one of the foremost universities in Nigeria) and the Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (Iaue), also in Port Harcourt. 3.3 Population of Study The population of the study consists of both new and old undergraduates in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (Iaue), and undergraduates from university of Port Harcourt which were drawn from various departments in both universities. During the time of this research, the population of regular undergraduates in the University of Port Harcourt is 35,000, while the population of undergraduates in Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (Iaue) is 15,000. This population was gotten by the application of marginal
estimate method. The marginal estimate method of data collection implies that an exact and specific figure cannot be acquired as the population is too large and the data changes constantly.Therefore, figures are acquired by studying data
behaviour overtime (past data in relation to present data). (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/University_of_Port_Harcourt) 3.4 Sampling Techniques: Sampling Technique The selection of sample size, which consists of 320 university undergraduates160 from each university, was drawn from two Universities viz: university of Port Harcourt (Uniport) and Ignatius Ajuru University of Education (Iaue) all in Rivers State using simple random sampling technique that was achieved through balloting.
Instruments for Data Collection SAMPLE SIZE 160 160 320
UNIVERSITIES University of Port Harcourt Ignatius Ajuru University of Education Total
The instrument used in collecting data for this study was a likert scale questionnaire named “Influence of Social Anxiety Disorder on University Undergraduates” (ISADUU) developed by the researcher. The Questionnaire comprises of two (2) sections A and B. Section A contains personal data of respondents, while section B contains the items to be treated. Respondents will be asked to tick items that represent their interest on the likert scale questionnaire
that ranges from Strongly Agree (SA), Agree (A), Disagree (D) Strongly Disagree (SD). 3.6 Validity of Instrument
The validity of the instrument was ascertained by giving the instrument to three experts familiar with the study to evaluate. Their comments and assessment showed that the items were measuring what it was designed to measure; for this reason the instrument was judged to possess validity.
Reliability of the Instrument The reliability of the instrument was determined using test-
retest method. The instrument was administered on a sample of fifteen male fifteen females that will not be used for the study. After the first administration, within three weeks interval, the test was re-
administered and the Pearson’s product moment correlation coefficient yielded 0.88 indicating high correlation and thus the instrument was found to possess reliability. 3.8 Administration and Scoring of Instrument The instrument was administered with the aid of two final year students and a lecturer that help in the process of explaining the aim of the study to the undergraduates, an completed instruments were collected. All items will be assigned 4 for strongly agreed (SA), 3 for Agreed (A), 2 for Disagree (D) and 1 for strongly disagree (SD). 3.9 Data Analysis Techniques The data collected with the instrument was analyzed using relevant tables, frequencies, percentages while the hypotheses were analyzed and tested with chi-square
CHAPTER FOUR DATA PRESENTATION AND RESULTS This chapter deals with presentation and analysis of data as well as the result interpretations of the study. The data and result of each research questions were presented first on different tables and the results and data for each hypothesis were presented on different tables under the research questions from which they were derived from. The summary of results is presented at the end of this chapter.
PRESENTATION OF FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION Table 4.1.1: Analysis of Age of Respondents FREQUENCY PERCENTAGE (%) 136 94 72 18 320 42.5 29.4 22.5 5.6 100
AGE RANGE (YEAR) Under 20 20 - 25 25 30
Over 30 Total
Variable 4 which has 18 respondents with percentage of (5.6%) fell within the age range of over 30 years had the least number of respondents, the next were variable 3 and 2 both had 72, and 94 respondents with percentage representation of (22.5%) and (29.4%) respectively. Whereas variable 1 which has 136 respondents with
percentage value 42.5% fell within the age range of under 20 years and had the highest respondents. This implies that majority of the respondents were unmarried youth with enough vigor to sustain them in most of their endeavors. Table 4.1.2: SEX Male Female ANALYSIS OF SEX RESPONDENTS FREQUENCY 140 180 PERCENTAGE % 43.7 56.3
The table above shows the sex of the respondents. The least is variable 1 with 140 respondents represented by percentage of 43.7% which represents the male while 180 represented with percentage of 56.3% represent the female. These shows that female were in the majority of the students sampled
Table 4.1.3: FREQUENCY ANALYSIS OF MARITAL STATUS OF RESPONDENTS
Marital status Single Married Divorced Widow Total
Frequency 282 38
Percentage (%) 88.1 11.9 0.00 0.00
Table 4.1.3 shows that variable 3 and 4 had no respondents indicating percentage of 0.00% for each, but variable 2 had 38 respondents with 11.9% and are engaged with family
responsibilities, whereas variable 1 has the highest respondents of
282 with percentage of 88.1% and they belong to the set of active, enthusiastic beings in our society. Table 4.1.4: Research Question 1:
To what extent does the Male and Female Student Exhibit SAD in School?
Disagreed Score 77 (73.1) 53 (56.9) 130
Total 180 140 320
Female 103 (106.9) Male Total 87 (83.1) 190
The data presented in the above table shows that 77 female and 53 male respondents disagreed that they exhibit SAD in school, this table in addition shows that 103 female respondents
agreed that they exhibits SAD in school which is the largest . Therefore the result indicates that there is high level exhibition of SAD by female university undergraduates, and as well as their male counterpart. The x2 value 0f tcal is 0.80.
Table 4.1.5: Research Question 2 To what extent does the SAD Influence the Academic Performance of Male and Female Undergraduates? Sex Agreed Score Disagreed Score 58 (56.3) 42 (43.7) 100 Total 180 140 320 1 0.19 3.94 Df Tcal Tcrit
Female 122 (123.7) Male Total 98 (96.3) 220
The above table with x2 of 0.19 shows that 122 females agreed that SAD influence their academic grade, whereas 56 females disagreed that SAD doesn’t influence their academic grade. However 99 male agreed that SAD influenced their academic grade as undergraduates, 41 males totally disagreed. In the overall the highest was 122 females, which implies that SAD strongly influenced the academic grades of female
undergraduates more that their male folks.
Hypothesis 1 There is no significant influence
of (SAD) on the academic performance of male and female students. Chi square analysis of academic performance of male and female students. Sex Female Male Total Agreed Score 166 (150.75) 102 (117.25) 268
Total 180 140 320
14 (29.25) 38(22.75) 52
From the above table it was observe that tcal of 21.55 greater than 3.94 of tcrit we therefore reject the null hypothesis which state that there is no significant influence of SAD on the academic
performance of male and female university students because most
students that have had has SAD have the fear of being the best student and naïve to stand in front of the other students when being recognized, which often appears as something very intriguing to most people but not to those suffering from SAD
Table 4.1.6: Research Question 3 To what extent does the SAD Influence Social Adjustment of Male and Female Undergraduates?
Disagreed Score 46 (54) 50 (42) 96
Female Male Total
134 (126) 90 (98) 224
180 140 320 1
The data analyzed in the table above showed that
is 3.87, 134 females agreed that SAD had influence on their public adjustment; meanwhile 46 females disagreed. But on the other hand 90 male agreed that SAD influenced their public adjustment, on the contrary 50 male disagreed. Therefore the result showed that the highest group that displayed public adjustment due to SAD influence was female respondents of 134. Table 220.127.116.11: Hypothesis 2 There is no significant influence of
(SAD) on the social adjustment of male and female students.
Chi square analysis of social adjustment of male and female students. Set SA SD 5 (25.9) Total 180 1 45.07 3.94 Df Tcal Tcrit
Female 175 (154.1) Male Total 99 (119.9) 274
41 (20.1) 140 46 320
The value for x2 tcrit is 3.94 at 5% level of significance /45.07/ greater than /3.94) we therefore reject the null hypothesis which state that there is no significant influence of SAD on social adjustment of male and female university student. Table 4.1.8: Research Question 4
To what extent does the SAD Influence Academic Adjustment of Male and Female Undergraduates?
Sex Female Male Total
Agreed Score 115 (109.1) 79 (84.9) 194
Disagreed Score 65 (70.9) 61 (55.1) 126
Total 180 140 320
The above data presentation shows that the x2 Value of tcal is 1.85, 115 female undergraduates agreed that SAD had influence on their school life, whereas 65 female undergraduates disagreed with their fellow female undergraduates. On the other hand, 79 male undergraduates agreed that SAD does influenced their school life, whereas 61 male respondents disagreed with the majority of their fellow male students. From the above statistical analysis it was observed that 115 female represented the group with the largest respondents who agreed that SAD had influence on the school life of undergraduate female students more.
Table 4.1.9: (SAD) on
Hypothesis 3 There is no significant influence of the academic adjustment of male and female
undergraduates. Chi square analysis of academic adjustment of male and female undergraduates. SEX Agreed Score Female 170 (145.1) Male Total 88 (112.9) 258 Disagreed Score 10 (34.9) 52 (27.1) 62 180 140 320 1 50.41 3.94 Total Df
From the above table the tcal of 50.41 greater than tcrit of 3.94 this implies that the null hypothesis which states that. There is no significant influence of SAD on the academic adjustment of male
and female under graduate is hereby rejected because as a student you either become accustomed to the role of being a student and to the various aspects of the school environment property or otherwise you become a misfit and automatically flushed out of the academic system. Which is in line with Tinto (1996) major cause of student’s withdrawal from collage where academic difficulties academics adjustment, financial inadequacies etc. 4.2 Summary of Result
Findings based on the Research Questions were as follows:
Research Question 1: The result generated from this research question shows that (59.4%) of female university undergraduates represented the
highest respondents, which therefore declared that there is high level exhibition of social anxiety disorder by university
undergraduates. Research Question 2: The findings from this research questions shows that 122 (38.1%) female university undergraduates having a greater
percentage, acknowledged that social anxiety disorder influenced their academic performance. Research Question 3: The result from this investigation shows that (70.0%) of university undergraduates mostly females agreed that there is high influence of social anxiety disorder on the social adjustment of university undergraduates.
Research Question 4: According to the findings gathered for this research question it shows that (60.6%) of university undergraduates, were females on other hand their male counterpart has the lower percentage indicating that there is substantial influence of social anxiety disorder on their academic adjustment of university
CHAPTER FIVE Discussion, Conclusion, Implications and Recommendation This chapter deals with interpretation and discussion of results, recommendation based on results obtained; summary and suggestions for further studies. 5.1 Research Question 1: To what extent does the Male and Female Student exhibit SAD in School? According to the data presented 77 female and 53 male respondents disagreed that they exhibit SAD in school, the findings in addition shows that 103 female respondents agreed that they exhibits SAD in school which is the largest . Therefore the result indicates that there is high level exhibition of SAD by female university
undergraduates, and as well as their male counterpart. The value 0f tcal is 0.80.
The outcome points out that there is high level exhibition of social anxiety disorder by female university undergraduates. This attributes to the reality that tertiary educational system in Nigeria no longer puts into consideration social skills that will encourage undergraduate especially the female folks to face future challenges of tomorrow. Andrews et, al (1994) further stated that people with social phobia thinks that being judged negatively may result from being seen to be anxious (for example, blushing, sweating, trembling, or shaking), from saying or doing something embarrassing, appearing awkward or making a mistake. Some also believe that there is some aspect of their appearance or behavior that may attract criticism.
According to them, the feared situations comprise public speaking (including tutorials and presentations), parties, writing or signing one's name under scrutiny, standing in a line, using the phone with others around, eating or drinking in public, using public toilets, and public transportation. Some individuals fear that embarrassing physical functions will occur inappropriately, for example, losing control of bowel or bladder, passing flatus, vomiting, stomach noises. Research has shown that adjustment among first year undergraduates has a strong impact on their academic achievement (Martin Jr. et al., 1999; Sennett et al., 2003; Wintre & Bowers, 2007; Zuria, Noriah, & Syafrimen, 2004). Studies also have indicated that gender is a significant predictor of students’ adjustment in university (Martin Jr. et al., 1999) and male students
are found to be better adjusted compared to the female students (Enochs & Roland, 2006; Ruhani, 1998; Wintre & Yaffe, 2000). According to Nauert, Rick (2006) feminine are twice as liable to suffer from panic disorder or social phobia compared with men, and they are three times as likely to have agoraphobia (fear of being in public places). They also face a slightly higher risk for specific phobia (fear of a particular object or situation). About 10% –14% of women will have post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in their lives, compared with 5% – 6% of men. And 6.6% in women will have generalized anxiety disorder, but just 3.6% of men will. Differences in sex hormones may be a factor. Scientists know that estrogen interacts with serotonin a neurotransmitter involved in regulating moods, sleep, and appetite but they’re just beginning to tease out the relationship. Girls and women are also more likely
than males to be victims of physical or mental abuse, a known risk factor for PTSD. In conformity Bella and Omigbodun (2008:21) a study conducted in Nigeria that included 500 university students, the lifetime prevalence of social phobia was 9.4% and the previous year cross-sectional survey of student at the university of Ibadan (Nigeria) using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) revealed a prevalence of social phobia at 8.5% the participants were most anxious when speaking in front of an audience (100%) or a small group (94.9%).
5.2 Research Question 2 To what extent does the SAD Influence the Academic Performance of Male and Female Undergraduates?
Hypothesis 1: There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the academic performance of male and female students.
The findings according to the statistical analysis shows that 122 (38.1%) female university undergraduates representing greater percentage, of respondents acknowledged that social anxiety disorder influenced their academic performance. This mean there is significant influence of (SAD) on the academic performance of male and female university undergraduates. In spite of the fact that public speaking is a common academic activity and that social phobia has been associated with lower educational achievement and impaired academic performance, little research has examined the prevalence of social phobia in college students. Thus prevalence of social phobia among the university students was 11.6%. Women with social phobia had significantly
lower grades than those without the disorder. Fear of public speaking was the most common social fear. (Baptista, Loureiro, Lima, Zuardi, Magalhães, Kapczinski, Filho, Freitas-Ferrari, Crippa 2012) For that reason (Bedfellow, 2004) students with social anxiety will tend to stay away from school activities such as sports, choir, and band where their “performance” can be criticized. These same students are often seen by others as loners, snobby, or just uninterested in anyone or anything. In addition when it comes to classroom participation there is little or none on part of the student with social anxiety. In groups, the person with social phobia may not voice his or her opinion about something even if she or he wants to; assignments that require the student to do public speaking will probably not be done
by the student. In high school academics, social anxiety suffers who don’t participate in class or ask for help might be overlooked by educators that think the student is uninterested with academics which will further make them overlooked (Bandelow, 2004) The result here signifies that there is significant influence of social anxiety disorder on the academic performance of male and female university undergraduates. Now it’s very apparent that most undergraduates that performs below expectation or graduates with lower grades and drop-out of institution of higher education are not totally dull in learning but are suffering from a disorder which no body seems to acknowledge. This is so because according to (Bandelow, 2004) students suffering from social anxiety disorder are more likely to drop out of school as well as perform poorly in their academic work than their
counterparts who are normal. This is often attributed to the fact that such students never ask questions in class or in the individual discussion groups and they also do not seek out for clarifications on areas they find difficult. Lack of confidence to ask questions in class as well as fear of being humiliated by others who may have understood the concepts often leading to intense sweating and any courage which had been gathered is lost. Students with social anxiety disorder also fail drastically in group presentations especially when the teacher’s/lecturers is giving marks to students who are confident during the presentation. Although the Students may be in possession of relevant
material/information required for the presentation, their conduct which includes sweating, blushing, stammering and incoherence of their speech may interfere with the content. Many students often
choose for no grades by pretend sickness on that day rather than suffer from the humiliation and embarrassment of failing in front of the others (Bandelow, 2004). 5.3 Research Question 3 To what extent does the SAD Influence Social Adjustment of Male and Female Undergraduates? Hypothesis 2: There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the social adjustment of male and female students. According to the data analyzed x2 Value is 3.87, 134 females agreed that SAD had influence on their public adjustment; meanwhile 46 females disagreed. But on the other hand 90 male agreed that SAD influenced their public adjustment, on the contrary 50 male disagreed. Therefore the result showed that the
highest group that displayed public adjustment due to SAD influence were female respondents of 134. Therefore the second hypothesis which states that there is no significant influence of SAD on the social adjustment of male and female is rejected because there is significant influence of SAD on the social adjustment of male and female undergraduates. The findings show that social anxiety disorder influences the social adjustment of university undergraduates. This tells us that most Nigerians see tertiary institution as a certificate or awards making ventures, thus attend universities to acquire certificates and ignore other fundamental areas of human development such as socialization. In-line with this study (Wells and Papageorgious, 1998) those suffering from social anxiety disorder regularly tend to be reserved and most of them remain single for the rest of their lives. They tend
to fear social gatherings such as parties, discussion groups as well as recreational sites. The fear of going blank as well as uncontrolled sweating and stammering makes them abstain from any place which may expose them to such embarrassing conditions. This reduces their chances of meeting new people as well as establishing acquaintances such that these people hardly have friends. They tend to develop poor workplace relations as well as reluctance to get involved in discussion groups back in school. The same case applies for indulging and cooperation with their counterparts in collective problem solving which makes the whole process enjoyable and easier for both (Bandelow, 2004). In the same way Female undergraduate are found to show evidence of more adjustment problems such as establishing social relationships in campus compared to the male’s students (Cook, 1995). They are less involved in campus activities and have less
opportunity to be appointed as leaders in clubs and societies in campus (McWhiter, 1997) as refer to in Maria et; al (2009) 5.4 Research Question 4: To what extent does the SAD Influence Academic Adjustment of Male and Female Undergraduates? Hypothesis 3: There is no significant influence of (SAD) on the
academic adjustment of male and female undergraduates. The statistical finding shows that the x2 Value of tcal is 1.85, 115 female undergraduates agreed that SAD had influence on their school life, whereas 65 female undergraduates disagreed with their fellow female undergraduates. On the other hand, 79 male undergraduates agreed that SAD does influenced their school life, whereas 61 male respondents disagreed with the majority of their
fellow male students. From the above statistical analysis it was observed that 115 female represented the group with the largest respondents who agreed that SAD had influence on the school life of undergraduate female students more. Percentage illustrating this study shows that there high academic adjustment predicament in Nigeria tertiary institutions by undergraduates as a result of debilitating socio-economic and educational system we have. For that reason (Krishnan, 1977) adjustment is a major concern in all developmental stages; Good adjustments makes individuals proud and self-satisfied, motivate them for future success, encourage them to be independent thinking persons and build their confidence and in turn improve the mental health. The
environment created in the school as well as home either accelerates or retard the development of any pupil. Also adjustment among first year undergraduates has a tough impact on their academic achievement this is so those of them that find it difficult to adjustment will perform below expectation in their academic (Martin Jr. et al., 1999; Sennett et al., 2003; Wintre & Bowers, 2007; Zuria, Noriah, & Syafrimen, 2004). According to Tinto (1996), seven major causes of students’ withdrawal from college were academic difficulties, adjustment difficulties, uncertain, narrow, or new goals, weak and external commitments, financial inadequacies, incongruence between the students and the institution, and isolation therefore find it difficult to adjust academically. As cited by Maria et; al (2009).
5.5 Implication of the Result The dilemma of SAD has been in existence for long but little or no preventive step has been taking by government, Non-
governmental organizations, parents and other relevant agencies to tackle such psychiatric disorders leaving sufferers to live without adequate knowledge and information. This implies that the labour market will be overflowing with half-baked graduates that cannot differentiate their left, from their right, people that will not be productive, graduates that cannot stand the test of time. It also means that there will be increased school drop-out, drug abuse, cultism and other anti-social behaviours in the society.
5.6 Recommendations From the findings highlighted in the study, the following recommendations have been made: 1. Policy makers in the nation’s educational sector and
administrators of tertiary institutions should pay attention to psychiatric disorders so as to elevate our educational system and institutions, by introducing academic / school
adjustments auxiliary aids, or services in the nation’s institutions of learning. 2. The federal government and ministry of education should as a matter of urgency introduces compulsory guidance services in all levels of the nation’s institutions of learning from primary to tertiary levels.(especially female students) 3. Government at all should fund professional organizations such as Counseling Association of Nigeria (CASSON), Students
Counseling Association of Nigeria (SCASSON) to carry out proper orientation programmes in our institutions of learning.
5.7 CONCLUSION The issue of social anxiety disorder is a reality and cannot be battled by the sufferers along, therefore is a societal problem which should be fought by everybody. As can be seen from the study it can be traced to various factors of human life which we cannot do without. So the utmost involvement of the government, Ngo’s, school administrators and the society at large to save these future leaders of tomorrow (university undergraduates) from the social life killer “social anxiety disorder” will make us have a better tomorrow.
Base on the limitation of the study, the researcher suggests that other researchers who might be interested in this area of study should: 1. Investigate the occurrence rate of SAD in male and female students. 2. Investigate the occurrence rate of SAD in primary and secondary schools. 3. 4. Investigate the comorbidities associated with SAD Investigate the influence of SAD on fresh/year one students in tertiary institutions particularly the females.
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APPENDIX Department of Educational Psychology, Guidance and Counseling, University of Port Harcourt Port Harcourt. Dear Sir/Madam I am a fourth year student of the above named department and university carrying out research on influence of social anxiety disorder on the academic and social adjustment of university undergraduates. Every, information is to be used purely for this research I therefore importune for your collaboration and promise to keep all information’s classified.
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