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BY SHAGUFTA PERWEEN
Department of Computer Science & Engineering
Al-Falah School of Engineering and Technology
Dhauj, Faridabad, Haryana. Phone No.0129-3218859, 2206223 www.afset.
This is to certify that the project entitled “SEMINAR TITLE” has been carried out by NAME OF THE STUDENT under my guidance in partial fulfillment of the degree of Bachelor of Engineering in Computer Engineering / Information Technology of Al-Falah School of Engineering & Technology during the academic year 2004-2005. To the best of my knowledge and belief this work has not been submitted elsewhere for the award of any other degree. Guide Mr. Name Examiner Head of the Department Mr. Name
9. What is Optical Computer? Fiber Optics. An Optical Switch. A Pipelined Processor. 3. 6.References. 4. 1. 7. Optical Mouse. Storage Elements.PAGE INDEX Topic Page No. 5.CPU Design. Gates. An Electronic Switch. 8. Introduction. 2. 11. Power Point Slides . 10. Conclusion Bibliography Appendix – A.
Way back in the 1990. Visible-light and IR beams. unlike electric currents. a computer might someday be developed that can perform operations 10 or more times faster than a conventional electronic computer. An electric current flows at only about 10 percent of the speed of light. Thus.Chapter 1 Introduction 1. This limits the rate at which data can be exchanged over long distances. to perform digital computations. an optical computer. Several (or many) laser beams can be shone so their paths intersect. By applying some of the advantages of visible and/or IR networks at the device and component scale. pass through each other without interacting. . rather than electric current. and is one of the factors that led to the evolution of optical fiber. even when they are confined essentially to two dimensions. and this makes three-dimensional wiring necessary. but there is no interference among the beams.1 What is Optical Computer? We describe Optical Computer that utilizes photons as information-carriers instead of electrons. Electric currents must be guided around each other. A. An important step in building this computer has been the construction of an optical alternative for the electronic transistor. Huang and his colleagues at Bell Laboratories have actually built a computer. might also be smaller. An optical computer (also called a Photonic Computer) is a device that uses visible light or infrared (IR) beams. besides being much faster than an electronic one.
Three-dimensional. With this information and 3-D rendering software. Think of a cube where any point on an outer side is expressed with an x. a third z coordinate is needed. Optical technology is employed in CD-ROM drives and their relatives. y coordinate and the third. and its color. In 3D space. Since a pixel (picture element) defines a point in two dimensional space with its x and y coordinates. each of the coordinates is defined in terms of its position. color. Optical technology has made its most significant inroads in digital communications. where fiber optic data transmission has become commonplace. The ultimate goal is the so-called photonic network. laser printers. and density. However. its density. It consists of various part as:• A switch • • An Electronic Switch Photons Carrying Information . even though the impulses carrying the data are visible light or IR. a two-dimensional view from various angles of an image can be obtained and viewed at your computer. z coordinate defines a location into the cube from that side. A voxel is a unit of graphic information that defines a point in threedimensional space. full-motion video can be transmitted along a bundle of fibers by breaking the image into voxels (see voxel). Some optical devices can be controlled by electronic currents. all rely to some extent on conventional electronic circuits and components. which uses visible and IR energy exclusively between each source and destination. and most photocopiers and scanners. none of these devices are fully optical.
NASA scientists are looking into super fast optical computers. optical fibers can transmit several pieces of data as waves of different colors of light which can travel down a fiber simultaneously. Beyond the copper. Though the technology may not .• • • An Optical Switch Optical Bi-stability The Elements of a Binary Digital Computer • • Gates Storage Elements • Assembling the Elements • • The function/interconnection module A pipelined processor Fiber Optics: Unlike a copper cable. which would replace electrons zooming through metal with light waves refracting through manmade. which sends electricity one pulse at a time. electricity and silicon that make up the bulk of today's computers. organic molecules.
scientists said. "Optically. the power of optical computers will make today's machines look as slow as abacuses. which sends electricity one pulse at a time. That's much faster. whereas with this you can do parallel processing. Optics — the science of light — is already used in computing." said Don Frazier. optical fibers can transmit several pieces of data as waves of different colors of light which can travel down a fiber simultaneously." said Hossin Abduldayem. Ala. "When you send information electronically it has to be done sequentially.become reality for another 15 years. most often in the fiber-optic glass cables that currently transmit data down Internet lines much more quickly than traditional copper wires. we can solve a problem in one hour which would take an electronic computer 11 years to solve. Unlike a copper cable. chief scientist for physical . a senior research scientist at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville.
Using light moving through and refracted by thin films of man-made organic molecules rather than electrons streaming through metal." As electronic chips get denser and denser. and the tiny switches that let computers make decisions get smaller and smaller. Most shorter-term research is focused on advances in electronics which are promising vastly improved computers with a mix of optical and electronic components . Frazier said. they would move and process data much faster. optical computers will be able to do parallel computations where electronic machines have sets of lines that move electrons one at a time.chemistry at MSFC. "There's no limitation on how many beams or packets of information you can send at once. That's where optical computers come in. Frazier said. eventually they're going to reach a physical limit where circuits can't get any smaller. Just like the difference between fiber-optic cables and copper wire.
Computers will be opto-electronic computers. but optics is very good at transmitting information. Optical networking technologies that can move data at 160 gigabits per second. he said.000 times faster than today's average Ethernet connection. And even beyond that are "quantum computers. Abduldayem said. All-optical technologies may still come to pass further in the future. You'll probably see those on your desk between 2030 and 2050. That's 16."Electronics has gotten very good at doing computing. and optical switches will mix in with electronic processors to move information quickly without generating the heat that comes off copper wires." which use the properties of quantum mechanics to process data at incredibly high speeds. he said. . Optical connections within electronic computer systems will speed data between the parts of a computer.
Optical mouse: An optical mouse is an advanced computer pointing device that uses a light-emitting diode (LED). an optical mouse does not need cleaning. because it has no moving parts. the image changes. rather than by interpreting the motion of a rolling sphere. If the device is used with the proper surface. an optical sensor. sensing is more precise than is possible with any pointing device using the old electromec A pipelined Processor: . This all-electronic feature also eliminates mechanical fatigue and failure. An example of a poor optical-mousing surface is unfrosted glass. If the mouse is moved. The optical mouse takes microscopic snapshots of the working surface at a rate of more than 1. Movement is detected by sensing changes in reflected light. In practice. and digital signal processing (DSP) in place of the traditional mouse ball and electromechanical transducer.000 images per second.
switching is done by the transistor. This means that it can acts either as an . so the other modules can simply be disabled. The transistor consists of three layers: the emitter. programmable to do every wanted computation. only one of the modules is needed. data can flow through the pipeline. The clocksignal can control the customizing inputs of the various function/interconnection modules. An Electronic Switch: In electronics. The base is the middle layer and is made of semiconducting material. by using low-level customizing inputs. collector and base. If there are latches (storage elements that preserve the signal during one clockcycle) between the modules. also controlled by the clock-signal. The principle is well known. Synchronization is done using a clock-signal (In a solution to the problem of clock distribution is given). Each cycle. but to be able to make a comparison with its optical counterpart we recapitulate the essentials briefly.The function/interconnection modules are cascadable to form a pipelined processor.
this limit is reached with approximately a nanosecond But there might be other media to transport the information in a computer. Optical bistability is applied in order to get such a device. the base acts as an insulator again. There is a limit to the speed by which electrons can traverse the base. If a small current flows from base to collector.insulator between emitter and collector. However. and in modern VLSI design. because if the base acts as a conductor and we let some (large) current flow from emitter to collector. If there is no current from base to collector. some electrons traverse the base. thus attaining a higher speed. This changes the base from an insulator to a conductor. we can stop this current by stopping the (small) current from base to collector. or as a conductor. . Now we have an electronic switch. this switch is subject to some limitations. Storage Elements:In a binary computer there is a need for storage elements able to represent two stable states.
Putting a ``0'' in the device can be done by just stopping the beam for a short while. it will remain high-level. for instance. The reason that so much power can be crammed into so little space is that laser beams do not cause short circuits when they cross paths. Nevertheless. it will remain low-level. If the high-level intensity represents a ``1'' and the lowlevel a ``0''. If it was of low-level intensity. . If the transmitted beam was of high-level intensity. a commercial optical computer is a long way off. such that the added intensity is just enough to get a high-level transmitted intensity .If we look at figure we see that sending a laser beam with an intensity within the domain of the hysteresis loop through a nonlinear material results in two stable states. thereby making it possible to process multiple streams of data at the same time. putting a ``1'' in the device can be done by just by adding some other beam for a short while. a single optical chip will be able to handle the telephone calls of all the five billion inhabitants of the earth talking simultaneously. This means that in the field of telecommunications.
To make an OR gate we only have to make sure that the high-level intensities of the incident beams are equal to the switching-intensity of the transphasor. As the reflected beam is the inverse of the . the transmitted beam has a high-level intensity. Because there is no need for optical bistability. Again the working of the optical OR gate is very analogous to the working of the electronic one. because we can combine these to perform one of the other fourteen.Gates: The logic performed by a conventional computer is done with sixteen 14oolean functions. Otherwise. OR and NOT) are sufficient. If one or both incident beams have high-level intensities. both incident beams must have a low-level intensity. but two of them (AND. We now show that it is very easy to transform a transphasor in either an AND or an OR gate. The optical NOT gate is constructed by taking the reflected beam as the output. a transphasor without hysteresis is needed (as we already stated. we can tune it in such a way that the domain of the hysteresis loop is zero).
An Optical Switch: In 1896 the French physicists Charles Fabry and Alfred Perot invented their interferometer. some percentage of the light is reflected. an increase of incident intensity produces low output while decreasing the incident beam provides high output. Optical Computer Chip : Researchers at the University of Toronto have developed a hybrid plastic that can produce light at wavelengths used for fiber-optic communication. paving the way for an optical computer chip. and some goes through. . only 1 percent of the light goes through both mirrors (the transmitted beam) and some of the light stays between the mirrors (in what is called the cavity) for a while. placed parallel to each other.transmitted beam. If a beam of light strikes the first mirror. The same happens at the other mirror. This might be the basis for an optical transistor. It simply consists of two partially reflecting mirrors. But if we take two mirrors that let only 10 percent of the light go through.
When electrons cross the conductive polymer. To stabilize the surfaces of the quantum dot nanocrystals. These crystals were combined with a semiconducting polymer material to create a thin. The findings hold promise for directly linking high-speed computers with networks that transmit information using light — the largest capacity carrier of information available.The material was developed by a joint team of engineers and chemists. Nanocrystals of lead sulphide using a cost-effective technique that allowed them to work at room pressure and at temperatures of less than 150 degrees Celsius. Traditionally. It is a plastic embedded with quantum dots that convert electrons into photons. they encounter what are essentially "canyons." with a quantum dot located at the bottom. creating the crystals used in generating light for fiber-optic communications means working in a vacuum at temperatures approaching 600 to 800 degrees Celsius. the team placed a special layer of molecules around the nanocrystals. Electrons must fall over the edge of the . smooth film of the hybrid polymer.
it brings the reader up to date on how and why optics is likely to be used in next generation computers and at the same time explains the unique advantage optics enjoys over conventional electronics and why this trend will continue. the optical chip is in view.3 microns to 1. spanned the full range of colors used to communicate information using light. ensuring a flow of electrons into the light-producing "canyons. light modulators. The team tailored the stabilizing molecules The colors of light the researchers generated. and . ranging from 1. light guides and detectors. By providing new research and ideas." Hybrid plastic can convert electric current into light." Optics is entering all phases of computer technology.6 microns in wavelength. optical devices for optical computing. so they would hold special electrical properties."canyon" and reach the bottom before producing light. with promising efficiency and with a defined path towards further improvement. optical interconnections. optical associative memories. Covered are basic optical concepts such as mathematical derivations. With this light source combined with fast electronic transistors.
the software crisis. Regular PC computers are constantly improving. Every year they seem to become faster and hold more memory. But research teams are running into specific limits to the speed and storage capacities for the standard architecture.optical logic. highly parallel computation. . One possible solution to these is the optical computer. A laser would be split so it could read and write information. communication industry investments in fiber optics. progress in new semiconductors. The information in an optical computer would be stored in volume holograms. and advances in optical devices. including neural networks. placing a page of data in one of the beams and crossing it with the other to create an interference pattern in the recording medium. By varying the angles of the lasers many different holograms can be recorded or accessed from the same material. Also suggested are a number of research activities that are reinforcing the trend toward optics in computing. the decreasing cost of laser diodes. The image could then be read by an array of photo-detectors. This is called angle multiplexing.
Work is currently being made on both fronts of this problem. the materials used to store holograms doe not stand up to repeated use.000 hours to . Complex programs that take 100 to 1. In order to be able to record a holographic image the medium needs to be light sensitive. allowing photonic devices to process multiple streams of data simultaneously. 10 billion bits per square centimeter. Also.With holographic memory can process pages of data at very high rates. And the optical components permit a much higher data rate for any one of these streams than electrical conductors. Unfortunately. Unfortunately this means that with repeated exposure to lasers the image will decay. medical images. low powered lasers that will do less damage are being worked on. New kinds of recording material like polymers and crystals are being developed. Multiple frequencies (or different colors) of light can travel through optical components without interference..billions of bits per second. This kind of data storage is particularly well suited for digital images such as movies. maps…. The surface data density exceeds 100 bits per square micron.
electrons travel between transistor switches on metal wires or traces to gather. The speed of computers becomes a pressing problem as electronic circuits reach their maximum limit in network communications. process and store information. The growth of the Internet demands faster speeds and larger bandwidths than electronic circuits can provide . Right now scientists are focusing on developing hybrids by combining electronics with photonics. The optical computers of the future will instead use photons traveling on optical fibers or thin films to perform these functions. .process on modern electronic computers could eventually take an hour or less on photonic computers. But entirely optical computer systems are still far into the future. when researchers realized that photons could respond to electrons through certain media such as lithium niobate (LiNbO3). In most modern computers. Electro-optic hybrids were first made possible around 1978.
microprogram.e. RISC. Just right for doing things very quickly in microminiaturized computer chips.000 inches.080.or 11.960. CISC. superscalar. virtual memory. emulators. That's 982.000 feet per second -.784.CPU design: To a large extent. and stack. 1965 to 1985) way to design control logic is to write a microprogram CPU design was originally an ad-hoc process. one nanosecond. instruction pipelining. or central processing unit. The modern (i. Light travels at 186. In a billionth of a second. . Key design innovations include cache. the design of a CPU. is the design of its control unit. Just getting a CPU to work was a substantial governmental and technical event. not considering resistance in air or of an optical fiber strand or thin film. virtual machine.000 miles per second. photons of light travel just a bit less than a foot.
Organics can perform functions such as switching. Frazier. Inorganics such as silicon used with organic materials let us use both photons and electrons in current hybrid systems." What we are accomplishing in the lab today will result in development of super-fast. which will eventually lead to all-optical computer systems. "Entirely optical computers are still some time in the future. Newer advances have produced a variety of thin films and optical fibers that make optical interconnections and devices practical. "but electro-optical hybrids have been possible since 1978. which are more light sensitive than inorganics.NASA scientists are working to solve the need for computer speed using light itself to accelerate calculations and increase data bandwidth." says Dr. signal processing and frequency doubling using less power than inorganics. when it was learned that photons can respond to electrons through media such as lithium niobate. superlightweight and lower cost optical computing and optical . super-miniaturized. We are focusing on thin films made of organic molecules.
a member of Frazier's optical technologies research group. abbreviated "Tb". Dr. . expanding at almost 15% per month.communication devices and systems. Hossin Abdeldayem. The rapid growth of the Internet. This "parallelism" when associated with fast switching speeds would result in staggering computational power. or 1 trillion bits) are needed to accommodate the growth rate of the Internet and the increasing demand for bandwidth-intensive data streams. For example. Electronic switching limits network speeds to about 50 Gigabits per second (1 Gigabyte (Gb) is 109. The speed of computers has now become a pressing problem as electronic circuits reach their miniaturization limit. a calculation that might take a conventional electronic computer more than eleven years to complete could be performed by an optical computer in a single hour. Optical data processing can perform several operations simultaneously (in parallel) much faster and easier than electronics." Frazier explained. is 1012. states that Terabit speeds (1 Terabit. or 1 billion bits). demands faster speeds and larger bandwidths than electronic circuits can provide.
ncsconline.thinkdigit.google.com www.com www.org .References: www.howstuffworks.com www.lowrycomputer.com www.
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