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FM 3-20.

96
March 2010

Reconnaissance and Cavalry Squadron

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to U.S. government agencies and their contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official government use. This determination was made on 13 March 2009. Other requests for this document will be referred to Commandant, U.S. Army Armor Center, ATTN: ATZK-TDD-C, Building 1002, 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road, Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121-5123. After February 2011, this address will change to Commander, Maneuver Center of Excellence, ATTN: ATZB-TDT, Building 4, 6751 Constitution Loop, Fort Benning, Georgia 31905-5593. DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

Headquarters, Department of the Army

This publication is available at Army Knowledge Online (www.us.army.mil) and General Dennis J. Reimer Training and Doctrine Digital Library at (www.train.army.mil).

* FM 3-20.96
Field Manual No. 3-20.96 Headquarters Department of the Army Washington, D.C., 12 March 2010

Reconnaissance and Cavalry Squadron
Contents
Page

PREFACE............................................................................................................viii INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................ix Chapter 1 OVERVIEW ........................................................................................................ 1-1 Section I – Joint and Army Operations .......................................................... 1-2 Combat Power .................................................................................................... 1-2 Combined Arms .................................................................................................. 1-2 Operations in Complex Terrain .......................................................................... 1-3 Section II – Role of the Squadron ................................................................... 1-3 Section III – Squadron Organizations............................................................. 1-6 General Capabilities ........................................................................................... 1-6 HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ..................................................................... 1-6 IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ....................................................................... 1-8 SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron...................................................................... 1-9 ACR Cavalry Squadron .................................................................................... 1-11 BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron .................................................................... 1-12 Chapter 2 COMMAND AND CONTROL ............................................................................. 2-1 Section I – Exercise of Command and Control ............................................. 2-1 Section II – Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance Synchronization and Integration ................................................................. 2-4 ISR Synchronization ........................................................................................... 2-4 ISR Integration .................................................................................................... 2-5

DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Distribution authorized to US government agencies and their contractors only to protect technical or operational information that is for official government use. This determination was made on 13 March 2009. Other requests for this document will be referred to Commandant, U.S. Army Armor Center, ATTN: ATZK-TDD-C, Building 1002, 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road, Fort Knox, Kentucky 40121-5123. After February 2011, this address will change to Commander, Maneuver Center of Excellence, ATTN: ATZB-TDT, Building 4, 6751 Constitution Loop, Fort Benning, Georgia 31905-5593. DESTRUCTION NOTICE: Destroy by any method that will prevent disclosure of contents or reconstruction of the document.

* This publication supersedes FM 3-20.96, 20 September 2006. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.96 i

Contents

Section III - Planning Considerations ............................................................. 2-5 Reconnaissance Operations ............................................................................... 2-5 Security Operations............................................................................................. 2-9 Offensive Operations ........................................................................................ 2-11 Defensive Operations ....................................................................................... 2-14 Stability Operations ........................................................................................... 2-17 Civil Support Operations ................................................................................... 2-19 Chapter 3 RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS ................................................................. 3-1 Section I – Basics of Reconnaissance ........................................................... 3-2 Fundamentals of Reconnaissance...................................................................... 3-2 Reconnaissance Techniques .............................................................................. 3-2 Reconnaissance Methods ................................................................................... 3-3 Reconnaissance Management ........................................................................... 3-5 Reconnaissance Assets and Systems ................................................................ 3-5 Site Exploitation .................................................................................................. 3-8 Movement During Dismounted Operations ......................................................... 3-8 BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron Considerations ............................................. 3-9 Section II - Actions on Contact ...................................................................... 3-11 Forms of Contact............................................................................................... 3-11 Procedures of Actions on Contact .................................................................... 3-11 Planning Considerations ................................................................................... 3-14 Section III – Forms of Reconnaissance ........................................................ 3-15 Zone Reconnaissance ...................................................................................... 3-15 Area Reconnaissance ....................................................................................... 3-16 Route Reconnaissance ..................................................................................... 3-16 Reconnaissance in Force ................................................................................. 3-17 Section IV – Infiltration and Exfiltration ........................................................ 3-18 Infiltration........................................................................................................... 3-18 Exfiltration ......................................................................................................... 3-21 Section V – Reconnaissance Handover ....................................................... 3-22 Planning ............................................................................................................ 3-23 Preparation........................................................................................................ 3-23 Execution .......................................................................................................... 3-23 Example of Reconnaissance Handover ............................................................ 3-24 Chapter 4 SECURITY OPERATIONS ................................................................................. 4-1 Section I – Basics of Security .......................................................................... 4-1 Squadron’s Role in Security Operations ............................................................. 4-1 Fundamentals of Security ................................................................................... 4-2 Section II – Forms of Security ......................................................................... 4-2 Screen (Stationary/Moving) ................................................................................ 4-3 Guard .................................................................................................................. 4-9 Cover ................................................................................................................... 4-9 Area Security....................................................................................................... 4-9 Chapter 5 OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS ............................................................................... 5-1 Section I – Purpose of Offensive Operations................................................. 5-1

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FM 3-20.96

12 March 2010

............................................................................................. 7-15 Chapter 8 CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS ...................... 5-7 Operational Considerations ....................................... 5-8 Special-Purpose Attacks .................................. 6-7 Chapter 7 STABILITY OPERATIONS .............. 7-7 Security of Officials ................................................................................. 6-4 Types of Area Defense ................................................................................................ 6-1 Defense Continuum ............................... 5-12 Chapter 6 DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS ................................................................................................... 8-1 Civil Authority .....................................................................................................................................................................................................Movement to Contact ................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-4 Section III – Attack.......................................................... 8-3 Mission Training ........ 7-4 Section III – Tactical Tasks in Support of Stability Operations ....... 7-7 Combat Outposts............... 8-1 Army Role in Civil Support........... 7-8 Searches.Area Defense ........................................................................................... 5-11 Reorganization ............... 5-11 Consolidation ............ 6-6 Section III .................................................................................................... 6-6 Defensive Area of Operations ....................................................................................................... 8-2 Section II – Squadron Operations in Civil Support ............................................................................................................................................................................................ 7-5 Reconnaissance Support ........................................ 7-1 Stability and Defeat Mechanisms ........................................................................... 7-6 Observation Posts ................................................................................ 7-9 Roadblocks and Other Checkpoints ......................................................... 8-3 12 March 2010 FM 3-20................................................................... 7-1 Section II – Designing Stability Operations ..... 5-7 Sequence of Attack ................................. 6-1 Section I – Purpose of Defensive Operations .......................................................................................................................................96 iii . 7-3 Sequence of Actions and Phasing ........ 8-1 Section I – Purpose and Types of Civil Support Operations ....................................................................................... 7-1 Section I – Primary Stability Tasks ............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 6-7 Section V – Transitions ......................................... 6-7 Section IV ............Retrograde Operations.......................................................................................................................... 5-3 Organization ........ 5-11 Section IV – Transitions .................................................. 7-6 Patrols...... 6-5 Critical Tasks ............................................................ 8-2 Multiple and Overlapping Activities ........................................... 6-6 Execution of an Area Defense .............................................................................................. 6-3 Section II ................................................................. 7-2 Lines of Effort ....................................................Mobile Defense ..................................................................................... 6-2 Defensive Tasks .................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 5-3 Execution Considerations ................................................................................................................................... 6-2 Engagement Area Development ..................................................Contents Section II ...................... 6-4 Organization of Forces ....................................................................................................................

................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-3 Section II – Sustainment Planning ........................................... 9-15 CBRN Support Assets and Capabilities ....... 10-8 Planning Fundamentals and Procedures ........................................................................................................................... 9-18 Squadron Role .............................................................................................. 10-1 Sustainment Staff ................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................Contents Operational Environment ............................... 9-15 CBRN Defense........................................................... 9-20 Information Protection .......................................................... 9-1 Support Brigades ......................................................................................................................................... 10-2 Sustainment Units .......................... 9-1 Brigade and Regimental Assets................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................ 9-21 Army Health System Support............ 8-3 Recovery ................................................................................. 10-1 Section I – Sustainment Staff and Units ............................................... 10-8 Support for Reconnaissance Operations ................................................................................... 9-17 Section VII – Civil Affairs Support .....96 12 March 2010 ...... 9-3 Section II – Engineer Support ........................... 9-14 Section V – CBRN Support Operations ....................................... 9-10 Targeting Process ............................................................................................................................. 9-3 Squadron Support Assets ................. 10-11 iv FM 3-20... 9-5 Nonlethal Fires ........................................................................ Interagency..................................... 10-10 Support for Dismounted Operations ................................................................... 10-9 Support for Security Operations........................................... 9-19 Section VIII – Military Police Support........... Intergovernmental............................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 9-23 Chapter 10 SUSTAINMENT OPERATIONS ...................................................................................................................... 8-4 Restoration ....... 9-20 Interpreters ......................................................................................................................................................................... 9-3 Support Capabilities ..... 8-3 Section III – Key Considerations for Civil Support Operations ...................................... 9-18 Civil Affairs Units ................................................................................................ and Multinational Considerations ....................................................................................................................................................................... 9-1 Section I – Army and Joint Augmentation............................................. 9-20 Military Working Dogs ................................... 9-10 Section IV – Army Aviation Support ........... 9-16 Section VI – Air and Missile Defense Support ............................................................. 9-4 Section III – Fires.................................................... 9-21 Personnel Recovery ............ 9-19 Military Intelligence........................................................ 8-4 Chapter 9 AUGMENTING COMBAT POWER ................... 9-19 Explosive Ordnance Disposal .................................... 9-21 Composite Risk Management ............................. 9-19 Section IX – Other Support or Functions .......................................... 9-20 Tactical PSYOP Team ................................................. 8-3 Response .............................. 9-5 Lethal Fires .......................... 9-2 Joint..................

............................................................................................ 10-26 Recovery and Evacuation....................................... 10-24 Section VI ............. 10-26 Communications Security Maintenance ......................................................... 10-12 Sustainment for Attachments and Detachments ......... 10-14 Locations for Support Areas ...................................Contents Communications ............................................................................... 10-21 LOGPAC Survivability ......................................... 10-14 Types of Support Areas ......................................................................................................................................................................................... 10-27 GLOSSARY ... 10-13 Section III – Support Areas ..... 10-23 Medical Evacuation ...............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................96 v ................................................................................................................... 10-26 Medical Equipment Maintenance ..................... References-1 INDEX ............... 10-22 Section V – Evacuation of Sick and Wounded Personnel...... 10-20 LOGPAC Planning......................................................................................... 10-19 Section IV – Logistics Packages ..........................................................................Field Maintenance ...................................................................................................... Index-1 12 March 2010 FM 3-20...... 10-25 Battle Damage Assessment and Repair .................................................................................................... 10-13 Contracting ...... 10-19 Supply Routes ............................... 10-26 Retrograde of Unserviceable Components ................................................................................................................................................................................. 10-18 Security of Support Areas..................................................................................................... 10-25 Organizations and Capabilities ............................... 10-20 LOGPAC Resupply... 10-23 Casualty Evacuation ........................ 10-26 Controlled Exchange ............................................................................................................................................................... Glossary-1 REFERENCES ...

.................. 9-2 Figure 9-2.......................... Fires battalion – HBCT ................. 10-4 Figure 10-2...................................................... 1-12 Figure 1-5...... Establishing the cordon ......................................... Example phasing of a COA to support stability operations .................................................. 9-6 Figure 9-3......................................................................... 7-4 Figure 7-3... 7-11 Figure 7-6......................................................... 1-10 Figure 1-4................................. 9-7 Figure 9-6.........................Contents Figures Figure 1-1........................ 4-14 Figure 5-1.................. Reconnaissance handover (part three) ............. Organization for movement to contact ............................. BFSB reconnaissance squadron organization ................................................. 4-8 Figure 4-3............................................................................... 7-5 Figure 7-4................. 10-21 Figure 10-4...................... Fires battalion – SBCT .............. Multiple-lane infiltration .............. Reconnaissance handover (part two) ................... 5-4 Figure 7-1.. Alternate bounds by individual OPs and by subordinate units .................... 4-7 Figure 4-2......................... Maintenance flow ........ 4-11 Figure 4-4.............. 7-8 Figure 7-5.......... Convoy security organization ............................. 10-23 Figure 10-5................ 9-6 Figure 9-4................................96 12 March 2010 .............. Typical organization for search operations............................................................... 3-25 Figure 3-5............. Combat outpost . IBCT reconnaissance squadron organization ..... HBCT reconnaissance squadron organization ............................ Example augmentation of an HBCT ................. 3-24 Figure 3-4................ SBCT reconnaissance squadron organization .......................................................... Example lines of effort .............................................................................. 3-21 Figure 3-3....................................................................................................... Example of sustainment graphics ................................................ 10-26 vi FM 3-20................................ 3-21 Figure 3-2..................................................................... Example of squadron trains ................................................ 7-12 Figure 7-7.............................. ACR cavalry squadron organization ............ 1-8 Figure 1-3............ Successive bounds and continuous marching ...................................................... SBCT reconnaissance squadron conducting area security .................................................... Reconnaissance handover (part one) ...................................... 7-3 Figure 7-2...................................... Artillery battery – armored cavalry regiment.............................................. Targeting process ....................... 1-13 Figure 2-1................... 3-25 Figure 4-1.................... 9-7 Figure 9-5.......................................................................... Example of combining stability and defeat mechanisms ......... Example physical layout of a deliberate checkpoint ...... 7-16 Figure 9-1....................................................... Forward support company organization ........................... Development of guidance for reconnaissance operations ........................... Casualty reporting and evacuation procedures ....................... 10-15 Figure 10-3..................................... 1-7 Figure 1-2............................... 9-11 Figure 10-1........................... Fires battalion – IBCT ...................................... 2-6 Figure 3-1.............................................................. Single-lane infiltration ..

.............................................. 2-8 Table 2-6.. Typical composition of squadron combat trains ................................................................ 2-11 Table 3-1............................................ 4-8 Table 6-1.............. Engagement criteria and displacement criteria of security operations .. Squadron mission profiles ................................................................. Tempo of security operations ............. Targeting meeting responsibilities ........................................... Positioning considerations ............... 9-13 Table 9-3..... 2-10 Table 2-8....................................................................... 9-10 Table 9-2............ 10-25 12 March 2010 FM 3-20........... Organic unmanned aircraft systems .................................... 10-17 Table 10-5............ Engagement criteria of reconnaissance ......................................................................... 9-15 Table 10-1... Focus of security operations ...................... Targeting meeting responsibilities (continued) ...... Organic field maintenance assets .......... 7-4 Table 8-1................... Methods of screen movement ....................... Tempo of reconnaissance ......................................................................................... Contract types ............................................................................. 10-20 Table 10-6........................................................... 10-3 Table 10-2.... Focus of reconnaissance .............. Army aviation missions..... 2-9 Table 2-7........................................ 3-6 Table 4-1........... Impact of military duty status on squadron tasks in civil support operations .......................................................... 6-5 Table 7-1............................ 2-8 Table 2-5.........................................96 vii ................... Operations process activities ........................................................................................................................... 2-2 Table 2-2......................... Components of battle command ..................................Contents Tables Table 1-1.......................... Squadron sustainment personnel ... Sustainment unit counterparts ......................................... 8-2 Table 9-1...................................... 10-14 Table 10-3................ Typical composition of squadron field trains ................................... 10-16 Table 10-4....................................................................................................................... Phases of intervention ............................ 9-12 Table 9-2....................... 2-7 Table 2-4.................. Close air support nine-line request format ................................... 1-4 Table 2-1..................... 2-3 Table 2-3...................................

It applies to the Active Army. defense. Doctrine for squadron commanders. and the United States Army Reserve (USAR) unless otherwise stated. BFSB. The doctrine described in this manual is applicable across the elements of full-spectrum military operations— offense. Institutional and unit training.S. It is applicable to the following units: • • • • • • Heavy brigade combat team (HBCT) reconnaissance squadron. Maneuver Center of Excellence. The preparing agency is the U. Army Maneuver Center of Excellence (MCOE). You may send comments and recommendations by any mean. and procedures [TTP]). GA 31905-5593. and civil support.96 viii . FM 3-20. mail: Commander. Army Planning and Orders Production (2005). as long as you use or follow the format of DA Form 2028 (Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms). ATTN: ATZBTDT. and force structure. Armored cavalry regiment (ACR) cavalry squadron. provides the commander and staff of the squadron and its subordinate units with doctrine relevant to the conduct of full-spectrum operations in a joint operational environment (OE). this address will change to Commander. staffs. Operations (2008).army. Fort Benning.S. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. stability. Unit tactical standing operating procedures (TACSOP) for squadron operations. techniques. Mission Command (2003). materiel. FAX: COM (502) 624-1151/5571 or DSN 464-1151/5571. fax. Building 1002 (Suite 207) 204 1st Cavalry Regiment Road. Building 4. e-mail. and FM 6-0.S. mail. Fort Benning. GA.mil Phone: COM (502) 624-1188/2319 or DSN 464-1188/2319.S. or telephone. ACR. A framework for squadrons operating as part of these units: Brigade combat team (BCT). the Army National Guard (ARNG)/Army National Guard of the United States (ARNGUS). After February 2011. This publication provides the following: • • This publication supports the Army operations doctrine found in FM 3-0. 6751 Constitution Loop. The proponent for this publication is the U.DoctrineBranch@conus. Point of contact information is as follows: U. US Army Armor Center ATTN: ATZK-TDD-C. An authoritative reference for personnel who develop the following: Doctrine (fundamental principles and tactics. Unless otherwise stated in this publication. You may also phone for more information. Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT) reconnaissance squadron. the masculine nouns and pronouns do not refer exclusively to men. KY 40121-5123 Email: TDCD.96. Fort Knox. FM 5-0. Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC).Preface This field manual. and their subordinate commanders and leaders responsible for conducting major command and control (C2) activities during operations. Battlefield surveillance brigade (BFSB) reconnaissance squadron. Infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) reconnaissance squadron. U.

organization. The Army Universal Task List. Counterinsurgency. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. accepting prudent risk to create opportunities to achieve decisive results. expands the discussion of doctrine. The Operations Process. FM 3-0. the Army published the 15th edition of its capstone operations manual. FM 3-90. FM 3-07. IBCT. stability. and civil support. The resulting doctrine established in the updated edition of FM 3-0 describes an operational concept in which commanders employ offensive. Information Operations: Doctrine. FM 6-22. and SBCT. Techniques. retain. DOCTRINAL FOUNDATION Information that is covered in other doctrinal publications is not repeated in this manual. FM 3-24.Introduction PURPOSE FM 3-20. Leadership. FM 3-28. stability. or civil support operations simultaneously as part of an interdependent joint force to seize. FM 6-0. Civil Support Operations. defensive. FM 1-02. readers should be familiar with the key field manuals that establish the foundation for the Army’s doctrine. and exploit the initiative. Command and Control.6. Reconnaissance Squadron. was limited to doctrinal and operational considerations for the reconnaissance squadrons in the HBCT. defense. Brigade Combat Team. EXPANDED SCOPE The previous edition of FM 3-20. FM 7-15. Consequently. The doctrine described in this manual is applicable across the full spectrum of military operations—offense. Stability Operations. FM 3-20. these manuals are the following: FM 3-90.96 provides the commander and staff of the squadron and its subordinate units with doctrine relevant to Army and joint operations. published in September 2006. Tactics. appropriate references are provided to direct readers to important information and publications. Tactics.96 has been revised to reflect the doctrine and terminology changes in this current edition of FM 3-0. Training for Full Spectrum Operations.96 ix . and Procedures. FM 7-0. FM 3-0. and operations to include not only the BCT squadrons but also the cavalry squadron in the ACR and the reconnaissance squadron in the BFSB.96. FM 5-0. rather. OPERATIONS In February 2008. This edition. This edition of Operations reflects Army thinking in a complex period of persistent conflicts and opportunities. FM 3-13. In addition to FM 3-0. Operational Terms and Graphics. now titled Reconnaissance and Cavalry Squadron.

and reconnaissance (ISR) synchronization and integration. including areas in which significant additions and revisions have been made: Chapter 1. highlights the updated concepts of battle command and the operations process based on the current version of FM 3-0. joint. introduces civil support as an element of full-spectrum operations and addresses the purpose. and tactical tasks executed in support of stability operations. stability. primary tasks. Command and Control.96 12 March 2010 . or multinational assets. Chapter 6. Civil Support Operations. clarifies the concept of the commander’s reconnaissance planning guidance and includes unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) technology and considerations for the reconnaissance squadron in the BFSB. Chapter 10.Introduction SUMMARY OF CONTENTS As noted. Offensive Operations. The following is a summary of each chapter in the manual. Chapter 9. In current operations. x FM 3-20. The chapter addresses the role of the squadron and the organization of the five types of squadrons the manual covers. Chapter 7. including their capabilities and limitations. Chapter 4. support brigade. intergovernmental. this revision of FM 3-20. describes the sustainment staff and units relevant to the squadron. Defensive Operations. Chapter 3.96 draws heavily on doctrine and terminology changes in FM 3-0. adds mission capabilities for the ACR cavalry squadron and the BFSB reconnaissance squadron and includes a minor reorganization of the section on area security. Security Operations. highlights the full-spectrum capability of the squadron to conduct defensive operations. It also addresses sustainment planning and activities conducted by the squadron. and planning and execution considerations of these operations. It addresses planning considerations for the four elements of full-spectrum operations (offense. intelligence. begins with a brief discussion of joint and Army operations based on the current version of FM 3-0. design of stability operations. and civil support). Chapter 8. interagency. reconnaissance units have been employed as maneuver units with an assigned area of operations (AO) and the requirement to perform the same mission set as armor or infantry battalions. Stability Operations. surveillance. addresses the full-spectrum capability of the squadron to conduct offensive operations based on mission variables and the higher commander’s guidance. defense. Reconnaissance Operations. It addresses the primary defensive tasks executed or supported by the squadron based on mission variables and the higher commander’s guidance. highlights augmentation the squadron can receive from higher headquarters. establishes stability operations as a function equal in importance for the squadron to offensive and defensive operations. and command post (CP) distribution and functions. Sustainment Operations. It addresses the primary stability tasks. Overview. Chapter 2. Augmenting Combat Power. Chapter 5.

manned... The BFSB reconnaissance squadron’s unique reconnaissance capabilities include employing its reconnaissance troops and long-range surveillance (LRS) company in conjunction with assets of the BFSB military intelligence (MI) battalion.. and equipped to provide accurate. 1-11 BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron ... Within the complex... process............ IBCT. and relevant combat information.. 1-12 12 March 2010 FM 3-20..... 1-2 Operations in Complex Terrain ....... dynamic conditions and threat profiles of future OEs.. however.... enables the higher commander to make rapid..... and SBCT can conduct security operations and can fight for information against specific threats.......... It helps the higher commander achieve advantages over an enemy or adversary in terms of the ability to collect. 1-2 Combined Arms . 1-6 General Capabilities ...... The reconnaissance squadrons of the HBCT........ Each squadron is organized.... and the battlefield surveillance brigade (BFSB) reconnaissance squadron.. the Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT) reconnaissance squadron.... and relevant combat information in complex.. 1-3 Section III – Squadron Organizations ...... the infantry brigade combat team (IBCT) reconnaissance squadron......... the squadron is essential to successful Army and joint operations in several ways: It provides a significant dismounted or mounted reconnaissance force...... the ACR cavalry squadron has a combined-arms capability that enables it to fight for information against all types of enemy elements and to conduct offensive and defensive operations and more demanding security operations....... 1-6 HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron .... 1-9 ACR Cavalry Squadron . the armored cavalry regiment (ACR) cavalry squadron.. It maximizes security of the higher headquarters by providing timely. 1-6 IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ........ accurate... This information.. 1-2 Combat Power ... and disseminate information. 1-8 SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron .Chapter 1 Overview Reconnaissance units are an integral—and vital—part of the Army’s modular force... timely.. 1-3 Section II – Role of the Squadron .. in turn.......96 1-1 .......... This chapter provides an overview of the five key ground reconnaissance units in the Army: the heavy brigade combat team (HBCT) reconnaissance squadron....... dynamic operational environments (OE)... the reconnaissance squadron’s ability to fight for information and to conduct security operations is significantly limited...... well-informed decisions...... Along with its reconnaissance capabilities............... but lack the combined-arms capabilities required in offense and defense...... It enables the higher commander to decisively employ his maneuver battalions and joint fires and to choose times and places for engagement to his advantage.. Contents Section I – Joint and Army Operations ..

describes full-spectrum operations in which “commanders employ offensive. Joint and Army operations occur in OEs that comprise a complex framework of factors. surveillance. information.Chapter 1 SECTION I – JOINT AND ARMY OPERATIONS 1-1. Squadron commanders are free to task organize within the limits of the higher commander’s intent.96 12 March 2010 . In reconnaissance operations. which reflects the character of the dominant major operation being conducted. and neutral elements across the spectrum of conflict. sensors. artillery fires are used to engage the target to achieve the desired effect against it. commanders use intelligence developed by reconnaissance elements to identify and acquire high-payoff targets (HPT) for engagement by artillery (fires). Combined arms integrates leadership. Relevant information that shapes the OE. Cueing helps to focus limited reconnaissance assets. Reinforcing capabilities combine similar systems or capabilities within the same warfighting function to increase the function’s overall capabilities. (See FM 3-0 for additional information. The foundations for Army operations are contained in its operational concept of full-spectrum operations. The state of technology and local resources. or reconnaissance systems reinforces the capabilities of each. such as destruction or suppression. the dominant operation involved in the liberation of Kuwait. As an example. higher headquarters surveillance and reconnaissance assets may cue the squadron to reposition scouts. 1-2 FM 3-20. friendly. and all of the warfighting functions and their supporting systems. defensive. The considerations of task organization are particularly important to the IBCT reconnaissance squadron because of its mix of mounted and dismounted elements as well as its firepower. For example. and space domains. The culture of the local population.” COMBAT POWER 1-4. land. FM 3-0. Combat power is the total means of destructive. Note. The application of military force is described by the operational theme. 1-3. the intelligence warfighting function enables the fires warfighting function. In this example. The integration of one or more types of intelligence. and mobility capabilities relative to the other battalions of the IBCT. Once an HPT is acquired. and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) to make contact with threat forces early. The squadron depends on combined arms to effectively accomplish its mission. and exploit the initiative. The REFORGER training exercises (dominant operation) of the Cold War era were examples of peacetime military operations (theme) at the other end of the operational spectrum. major combat operations served as the operational theme during Operation Desert Storm. Combined arms is the synchronized and simultaneous application of the elements of combat power to achieve an effect greater than if each element of combat power were to be used separately or sequentially. accepting prudent risk to create opportunities to achieve decisive results. often for extended periods. for example. Combined arms uses the capabilities of each warfighting function and information in complementary and reinforcing capabilities. adversary. maritime. These environmental factors include— All enemy. retain. 1-6. and information capabilities that a military unit/formation can apply at a given time. The state of governance.) COMBINED ARMS 1-5. Complementary capabilities protect the weaknesses of one system or organization with the capabilities of a different warfighting function. protection. 1-2. constructive. Joint and Army forces apply military force against decisive points to influence threat centers of gravity occurring across a continuum of operations ranging from stable peace to general war. Operations. and stability or civil support operations simultaneously as part of an interdependent joint force to seize. Army forces generate combat power by converting potential into effective action. Aspects of the physical environment—the air. Full-spectrum operations require the squadron to continuously generate and apply combat power.

The BFSB reconnaissance squadron is not designed. and martial instinct—leads to SU by establishing the relationships among the factors of METT-TC as they apply to the immediate tactical problem. Route reconnaissance. Security (see Chapter 4. Jungle Operations. such as friendly forces. protection. This understanding also requires abstaining from employing them in missions and roles for which they were not created or resourced. and battle damage assessment (BDA). The squadron employs unique combinations of reconnaissance and security capabilities to successfully meet the information challenges intrinsic to the spectrum of conflict. In turn. terrain and weather. equipped. Depending on the mission variables of METT-TC (mission. Desert Operations. ideally accepting or initiating combat at times and places of his choosing and applying combat power in a manner most likely to achieve his desired effects. Regardless of organization. This preserves its parent unit’s freedom of maneuver and initiative over the enemy. the squadron’s primary missions (see Table 1-1) in support of its higher headquarters are— Reconnaissance (see Chapter 3. Urban Operations. 1-10. the potential for achieving and capitalizing upon information dominance is lost. and composition. When reconnaissance ceases. The squadron progressively builds situational awareness (SA) of the OE for the higher commander. FM 3-97. The squadron conducts reconnaissance and security operations to support the development of SU. When reconnaissance units are assigned close combat missions or become decisively engaged. The combat information provided by the squadron enables the higher commander to develop situational understanding (SU). and other factors. disposition. or intended to be employed as a close combat force. It is based on common data and information shared with subordinate or adjacent commands to an unprecedented degree. time available. threat forces. make better and quicker plans and decisions. and important gaps in information that must be clarified. The placement of dedicated reconnaissance units in the modular force takes into account their inherent direct combat vulnerabilities or capabilities and demands employment in accordance with those defined capabilities. this aids the parent unit’s development of the common operational picture (COP). 1-12. Skillful reconnaissance operations allow the commander to shape the battlefield. The squadron’s reconnaissance operations yield an extraordinarily high payoff in the areas of threat location. reconnaissance ceases. SU facilitates decision-making by helping the higher commander to identify fleeting or subtle opportunities for mission accomplishment. terrain. SECTION II – ROLE OF THE SQUADRON 1-8. 1-11.Overview OPERATIONS IN COMPLEX TERRAIN 1-7.96 1-3 . FM 90-5. For discussion on complex terrain. and civil considerations) and the higher commander’s guidance. Terrain and weather favor the side that is more familiar with— or better prepared to operate in—the physical environment. refer to— FM 3-06. Area reconnaissance. early warning. 1-9. All five types of ground squadrons are designed and equipped to be highly mobile and flexible units optimized for reconnaissance missions. judgment.6. The fundamental role of the squadron is conducting reconnaissance or security missions in support of its higher headquarters. threats to the force. the brigade combat team (BCT) reconnaissance squadrons and the ACR cavalry squadron can perform offensive or defensive operations in an economy of force role. which covers security operations): Guard. troops and support available. Understanding the effects of terrain and weather on the squadron’s operation/mission is key to its ability to execute full-spectrum operations. and visualize and direct operations. Analysis of the COP—combined with the commander’s application of his experience. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. enemy. which covers reconnaissance operations): Zone reconnaissance. The COP is tailored to the higher commander’s information requirements (IR). Mountain Operations. FM 90-3.

Local security. Screen. Squadrons of the BCTs and ACR can conduct guard operations within METT-TC factors. F F R R R F F R R R F F R R R F F R R R R R R R R F F F P P P P P P P P P X X X F F P P P P P P X X F F X F F F P X F F F P X F F F P X F F P X X R F F F F F F F F P F F F P F F F P P F P X Capability depends on the specific missions assigned.Chapter 1 Note. Squadron mission profiles TYPE OF SQUADRON ACR CAVALRY SQDN HBCT RECON SQDN SBCT RECON SQDN IBCT RECON SQDN BFSB RECON SQDN Reconnaissance Tasks Zone Reconnaissance Area Reconnaissance Route Reconnaissance Reconnaissance in Force Security Tasks Screen Guard Cover * Area Security Local Security Offensive Tasks Attack Movement to Contact Defensive Tasks Area Defense Mobile Defense Retrograde Stability Tasks Civil Security Civil Control Restore Essential Services Support to Governance Support to Economic/ Infrastructure Development Civil Support Tasks Support to Disaster/ Terrorist Attack Support to Civil Law Enforcement Other Support F – Fully Capable R – Capable when reinforced P – Capable when enemy capabilities do not jeopardize mission accomplishment (permissive METT-TC) X – Not Capable * Note. Cover is listed as one of the security missions even though the squadron is not doctrinally capable of performing this mission independently. 1-4 FM 3-20. The squadron can perform tactical tasks in support of its higher headquarters executing a cover mission (such as screening for a BCT assigned a cover mission). the squadron may require augmentation. Depending on the mission. Table 1-1.96 12 March 2010 . Area security.

The nature of the security mission. the squadron may be the lead element for its higher headquarters. Based on the mission variables. but may operate separately for a short period of time or as part of a JTF or another unit. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Note. They are assigned their own AOs and tasked to execute all elements of full-spectrum operations. the reconnaissance squadron can develop the situation by focusing on all categories of threats in a designated AO. 1-19.Overview 1-13. The higher headquarters ensures the squadron is task organized and augmented for success. During defensive operations. The cavalry squadron usually functions as part of the ACR. Augmentation could include tank and mechanized infantry units. 1-17. It also can execute target acquisition. IBCT. By leveraging information technology and air/ground reconnaissance capabilities in complex terrain. the BCT reconnaissance squadrons have been employed as “maneuver” elements. the higher headquarters typically tasks the squadron to conduct security operations to provide early warning and reaction time. He can task organize his surveillance and reconnaissance assets to optimize their complementary effects while maximizing support throughout the BCT’s AO. and SBCT are organized to conduct reconnaissance missions throughout the BCT’s area of operations (AO). and the enemy situation determine what augmentation is needed by the squadron.50 machine guns. raid. and intelligence acquisition systems. 1-16. When the squadron’s higher headquarters is conducting offensive operations. 1-15. or defend) in an economy of force role. attack helicopter units.96 1-5 . 1-14. The reconnaissance squadrons of the HBCT. caliber . the organic composition of the securing force. such as a movement to contact. At times during operations such as Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom. The reconnaissance squadron of the BFSB is a multifunctional unit. the squadron focuses on reconnaissance and security operations that enable its higher headquarters to develop a better understanding of the situation. In some situations. and protect the main battle area. the cavalry squadron is especially adept at air-ground teaming when conducting reconnaissance and security missions in its AO. the squadron is focused on enabling the higher headquarters to develop the situation out of direct fire contact. If the higher headquarters is conducting security operations. Its primary mission is to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance to answer higher headquarters priority intelligence requirements (PIR) and other IR using manned ground assets and organic small unmanned aircraft systems (SUAS). TOW missile systems. It is often reinforced by elements of all warfighting functions organic to or reinforcing the ACR. reconnaissance units. and MK19 grenade launchers). this will be especially true of the IBCT reconnaissance squadron. During major combat operations. During all types of operations. elements from maneuver units can be attached to or under the operational control (OPCON) of the squadron to provide it with additional combat power. limited target interdiction. armor-protected force. 1-20. The cavalry squadron of the ACR is a highly mobile. This allows the BCT commander to maintain battlefield mobility and agility while choosing the time and place to confront the enemy and the preferred method of engagement. Combat information developed and reported by the squadron allows the higher headquarters to direct maneuver. sensors. which possesses the greatest amount of combat power within the IBCT (such as up-armored wheeled vehicles. and BDA in support of combat assessment. Particular emphasis may be on area security tasks. The reconnaissance squadron can also integrate additional tactical unmanned aircraft systems (TUAS). In the case of stability or civil support operations. on its own terms. Since the ACR has an organic air cavalry squadron. 1-18. close air support (CAS) priority. The squadron can be tasked to execute a screen or guard based on the degree of protection required by its higher headquarters. deny enemy reconnaissance efforts. it assigns appropriate security missions to the squadron. The ACR is a selfcontained combined arms organization that typically supports a corps or a joint task force (JTF). against the enemy. The squadron uses the tools at its disposal to assist in conducting reconnaissance missions within all spectrums of conflict. engineer elements. the squadron can be assigned appropriate tactical tasks (such as attack.

Chapter 1

and counterintelligence (CI) and human intelligence (HUMINT) collection teams from the BFSB’s organic military intelligence (MI) battalion to augment its reconnaissance and surveillance capabilities.

SECTION III – SQUADRON ORGANIZATIONS
1-21. As the commander’s primary eyes and ears, the squadron serves as the first line for military assessment of information gathered through reconnaissance. As such, it is designed to efficiently direct and execute reconnaissance and security operations.

GENERAL CAPABILITIES
1-22. All five ground reconnaissance squadrons possess the following general capabilities: Fight for information within unit capabilities. Gather information about all categories of threats. Support lethal and nonlethal targeting and target acquisition for higher headquarters. Provide all-weather, continuous, accurate, and timely reconnaissance in complex terrain. Rapidly develop the situation in depth. Reduce risk and enhance survivability by providing information that allows the higher headquarters to avoid contact or to achieve overwhelming combat power if contact is necessary. Assist in shaping the OE by providing information or directing precision joint fires to disrupt the enemy commander’s decision cycle and deny him planned or future options. Conduct collaborative and parallel planning that is fully integrated with higher and adjacent units and that results in employment of reconnaissance and surveillance assets to support higher headquarters operations.

HBCT RECONNAISSANCE SQUADRON
1-23. This squadron is composed of four troops: a headquarters and headquarters troop (HHT) and three ground reconnaissance troops equipped with M3 cavalry fighting vehicles (CFV) and wheeled scout vehicles. The squadron also receives a forward support company (FSC) for sustainment; the FSC is normally under OPCON of the squadron. See Figure 1-1.

HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP
1-24. The HHT consists of the command and control (C2) nodes and logistical assets needed for the squadron to conduct and sustain operations. The headquarters troop organization includes a command group, the troop headquarters section, S-1/S-4 section, S-2 section, S-3 section, S-6 section, medical platoon, and fire support platoon.

RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS
1-25. Each of the three reconnaissance troops includes a troop headquarters, two reconnaissance platoons, and a mortar section. The two reconnaissance platoons are organized with three M3 CFVs and five wheeled scout vehicles equipped with the long-range advanced scout surveillance system (LRAS3). The mortar section consists of two 120-mm self-propelled mortars.

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Figure 1-1. HBCT reconnaissance squadron organization

CAPABILITIES
1-26. The HBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following significant capabilities: It is equipped with 120-mm self-propelled mortars. It is capable of fighting for information against heavier threats (such as mechanized or armor units).

LIMITATIONS
1-27. The HBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following limitations, which can be mitigated based on employment and/or augmentation: It requires augmentation (such as artillery and/or engineers) to effectively perform offensive and defensive operations as a combined arms element. The heavier, armored CFVs in the reconnaissance troops can limit movement or maneuver in complex terrain such as urban areas. The CFVs create significant sustainment requirements in terms of fuel and maintenance. The mix of CFVs and lighter wheeled scout vehicles in the reconnaissance troops creates a mismatch in survivability. The squadron has limited capability to conduct extensive dismounted operations.

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Chapter 1

IBCT RECONNAISSANCE SQUADRON
1-28. This squadron is composed of four troops: an HHT, two mounted reconnaissance troops equipped with wheeled scout vehicles and one dismounted reconnaissance troop. The squadron also receives an FSC for sustainment purposes, normally in an OPCON relationship. See Figure 1-2.

Figure 1-2. IBCT reconnaissance squadron organization

HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP
1-29. The HHT consists of the C2 nodes and logistical assets needed for the squadron to conduct and sustain operations. The headquarters troop organization includes a command group, the troop headquarters section, S-1/S-4 section, S-2 section, S-3 section, S-6 section, medical platoon, and fire support platoon.

MOUNTED RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS
1-30. Each of the two mounted reconnaissance troops includes a troop headquarters, three reconnaissance platoons, and a mortar section. The reconnaissance platoons are organized with six wheeled scout vehicles. The mortar section consists of two towed 120-mm mortars and a fire direction center (FDC).

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DISMOUNTED RECONNAISSANCE TROOP
1-31. The dismounted reconnaissance troop includes a troop headquarters, a sniper section, a mortar section, and two dismounted reconnaissance platoons. The reconnaissance platoons are organized into three sections with one Javelin in each platoon.

CAPABILITIES
1-32. The IBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following significant capabilities: It is equipped with 120-mm towed mortars. It can fight for information against light/motorized forces. It provides the IBCT with enhanced firepower and mobility for offensive or defensive operations through the weapon systems available in its two mounted troops (such as the caliber .50 machine gun, MK19 grenade launcher, and TOW missile).

LIMITATIONS
1-33. The IBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following limitations, which can be mitigated based on employment and/or augmentation: It lacks direct fire standoff, lethality, and survivability in open and rolling terrain and needs augmentation when an armor threat is anticipated. It requires augmentation (such as artillery and/or engineers) to effectively perform offensive and defensive operations as a combined arms element. Its mix of mounted and dismounted reconnaissance troops creates a mismatch in terms of movement and maneuver capability. It has limited sustainment assets that must frequently operate over extended distances. It has limited mounted operations capability after airborne or air assault movement; mounted scouts usually must operate dismounted.

SBCT RECONNAISSANCE SQUADRON
1-34. This squadron is composed of five troops: an HHT, three reconnaissance troops equipped with Stryker reconnaissance vehicles, and a surveillance troop. See Figure 1-3.

HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP
1-35. The HHT consists of the C2 nodes and logistical assets needed for the squadron to conduct and sustain operations. HHT organization includes a command group, the troop headquarters section, S-1/S-4 section, S-2 section, S-3 section, S-6 section, medical platoon, fire support platoon, and a combat repair team (CRT) from the brigade support battalion (BSB) for maintenance purposes.

RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS
1-36. Each of the three reconnaissance troops includes a troop headquarters, three reconnaissance platoons, and a mortar section. The three reconnaissance platoons are organized with four reconnaissance vehicles. The mortar section consists of two 120-mm self-propelled mortars and an FDC.

SURVEILLANCE TROOP
1-37. The surveillance troop provides the squadron commander with a mix of specialized capabilities built around aerial and ground sensors. The UAS platoon launches, flies, recovers, and maintains the squadron’s unmanned aerial reconnaissance aircraft. The multisensor platoon consists of ground-based radio signals intercept and direction-finding teams, such as Prophet teams. It also has a dedicated communications terminal that transmits, reports, and receives voice, data, digital, and imagery feeds from sources through national level. The ground sensor platoon provides remotely emplaced unmanned monitoring capabilities. The chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) reconnaissance platoon has three M1135

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It is equipped with 120-mm self-propelled mortars. CI Soldiers. and survivability in open and rolling terrain and needs augmentation when an armor threat is anticipated. which can be mitigated based on employment and/or augmentation: It lacks direct fire standoff. zone.Chapter 1 Stryker CBRN reconnaissance vehicles and conducts route. 1-10 FM 3-20. and area CBRN reconnaissance to determine the presence and extent of CBRN contamination. ground-based sensors. lethality.96 12 March 2010 . LIMITATIONS 1-39. and Prophet assets. CBRN reconnaissance. It can fight for information against light/motorized forces or heavier threats when augmented. Figure 1-3. SBCT reconnaissance squadron organization CAPABILITIES 1-38. The SBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following limitations. The SBCT reconnaissance squadron has the following significant capabilities: It can conduct close reconnaissance of enemy forces by maximizing the teaming of ground scouts. It requires augmentation to effectively perform offensive and defensive operations as an economy of force role. UASs.

S-3 section. HHT organization includes a command group. The tank company consists of a company headquarters. two scout platoons. three tank platoons. Each scout platoon is equipped with six M3A3 CFVs. four fire support teams (FIST). 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. a support platoon. HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP 1-41. support platoon. three cavalry troops. It can fight for information against all types of threats. CAPABILITIES 1-45. The squadron has limited capability to conduct extensive dismounted operations. ARTILLERY BATTERY 1-44. TANK COMPANY 1-43. and two combat observation lasing teams (COLT). Each artillery platoon is equipped with three self-propelled M109A6 Paladin howitzers. The FISTs are equipped with the M7 or M3A3 Bradley fire support team (BFIST) vehicle. ACR CAVALRY SQUADRON 1-40. which can be mitigated based on employment and/or augmentation: Heavier armored vehicles may limit movement or maneuver in complex terrain such as urban areas. CAVALRY TROOPS 1-42. See Figure 1-4. The ACR cavalry squadron has the following limitations. LIMITATIONS 1-46.96 1-11 . It can conduct offensive or defensive operations in an economy of force role. medical platoon. The mortar section has two M1064 mortar carriers equipped with 120-mm mortars. and armored vehicle launched bridge (AVLB) section. fires cell. Heavier armored vehicles create significant sustainment requirements in terms of fuel and maintenance. and a maintenance section. The artillery battery consists of a battery headquarters.Overview It has limited sustainment assets that must frequently operate over extended distances. two tank platoons. S-2 section. and a maintenance section. the troop headquarters section. It can deploy in a combined arms organization down to the troop level. dismounted. S-1 section. one tank company. Each of the three armored cavalry troops includes troop headquarters. The ACR cavalry squadron has the following significant capabilities: It can conduct close reconnaissance of enemy forces by maximizing the teaming of mounted. S-6 section. S-4 section. maintenance platoon. It is equipped with 120-mm self-propelled mortars. two artillery platoons. and aerial scouts. This squadron is composed of an HHT. and an artillery battery. a mortar section. Each tank platoon is equipped with four M1A2 main battle tanks. The HHT consists of the C2 nodes and logistical assets needed for the squadron to conduct and sustain operations. Each tank platoon is equipped with four M1A2 main battle tanks. It has limited capability to conduct extensive dismounted operations. It has an organic 155-mm self-propelled artillery battery. The COLTs are equipped with the M707 or M1200 (Armored Knight) fire support vehicle.

Each of the two reconnaissance troops includes a troop headquarters and two reconnaissance platoons. Each detachment is organized with five surveillance teams. LONG-RANGE SURVEILLANCE COMPANY 1-50. the troop headquarters section. and three LRS detachments. two target interdiction teams. S-2 section. See Figure 1-5. S-6 section. insertion and extraction section. HHT organization includes a command group. The LRS company includes a company headquarters. a transportation section. ACR cavalry squadron organization BFSB RECONNAISSANCE SQUADRON 1-47. S-1 section. S-3 section. Each reconnaissance platoon is organized with six wheeled scout vehicles. RECONNAISSANCE TROOPS 1-49. fire support platoon. fires cell. 1-12 FM 3-20.96 12 March 2010 . and medical platoon. S-4 section. HEADQUARTERS AND HEADQUARTERS TROOP 1-48. communications platoon. two mounted reconnaissance troops equipped with wheeled scout vehicles. The HHT consists of the C2 nodes and logistical assets needed for the squadron to conduct and sustain operations. and a long-range surveillance (LRS) company. This squadron comprises three troops and one company: an HHT.Chapter 1 Figure 1-4.

Overview Figure 1-5. It can observe unassigned areas between noncontiguous subordinate AOs within the higher headquarters AO. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. These assets include TUAS. HUMINT collection teams. Prophet signals intelligence (SIGINT) collection teams. It can provide extended-duration surveillance of named areas of interest (NAI) and target areas of interest (TAI) for periods of up to five days. It can provide technical expertise to higher headquarters for coordinating insertion and extraction of LRS teams. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron has the following significant capabilities: It can conduct close reconnaissance of enemy forces by maximizing the capabilities of mounted and LRS elements working in conjunction with assets from the BFSB’s MI battalion. BFSB reconnaissance squadron organization CAPABILITIES 1-51. and CI teams.96 1-13 .

and must rely on its higher headquarters or other sustainment assets for all sustainment. and sustainment. 1-14 FM 3-20. other than screening. and sustainment) from higher and adjacent units within the AO. and support (such as movement. fires. It has limited capability to conduct extensive dismounted operations. It has limited capability to perform security missions.Chapter 1 LIMITATIONS 1-52. Its ability to perform LRS operations requires extensive coordination. It does not have the capability to perform offensive and defensive operations as an economy of force role unless it receives significant augmentation. with the exception of its medical platoon. lethality. and survivability in open and rolling terrain and needs augmentation when an armor threat is anticipated. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron has the following limitations. It must frequently operate over extended distances. fires. complicating C2. liaison. which can be mitigated based on employment and/or augmentation: It lacks direct fire standoff.96 12 March 2010 . It lacks any organic indirect fire capability and must rely on Army or joint fires for indirect fire support. It has no organic sustainment assets. unless augmented.

................ the threat........ 2-9 Offensive Operations ........... information-age technologies such as attached sensors and UASs—along with the associated TTP—to confirm and share a COP. the threat. 2-4 ISR Integration . and subordinate leadership exercise battle command. 2-4 ISR Synchronization ........Planning Considerations .... See Tables 2-1 and 2-2.. 2-11 Defensive Operations ......... 2-19 SECTION I – EXERCISE OF COMMAND AND CONTROL 2-1.............. his staff...... examples include risk................ The discussion also covers how the squadron commander communicates his vision and how he directs the operation by developing a concept of operations and by synchronizing the warfighting functions to employ forces and fires to achieve specific effects...... and apply their own experience and judgment to describe their visualization using the commander’s intent and planning guidance........ To make sound and timely decisions......... 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.............. The high-speed sharing of a COP and other relevant information (RI) enables reconnaissance commanders to make better decisions faster than their opponents can.............. CONTENTS Section I – Exercise of Command and Control . and end state). It outlines how commanders and leaders at all levels understand the situational context..................... 2-5 Security Operations ............. This shared COP..... decisive points...Chapter 2 Command and Control This chapter presents the tenets of C2 and provides illustrations of how the squadron commander..... 2-5 Reconnaissance Operations .. 2-14 Stability Operations ... in turn...... Effective squadron commanders use integrated. 2-2...... and the populace................. enhances SA concerning the terrain...96 2-1 . 2-5 Section III . and friendly forces. Key concepts that support decision making by the squadron commander are battle command and the operations process................ Surveillance.... squadron and troop commanders and platoon leaders must be forward-looking—seeing themselves (and other friendly forces)...... 2-17 Civil Support Operations .. the terrain........ employ the elements of operational design (as outlined in FM 3-0.. tempo........ and Reconnaissance Synchronization and Integration.. visualize an operation in terms of the factors of METT-TC..... 2-1 Section II – Intelligence..........

particularly the enemy.96 12 March 2010 . Assessment entails three tasks: • Continuously assessing the enemy’s reactions and vulnerabilities. including an initial concept of operations. • Evaluating the operation against measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. • Essential elements of friendly information (EEFI) that must be protected. Assessment is the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the current situation. Visualize Describe Direct Lead Assess 2-2 FM 3-20. refining and clarifying it as circumstances require. • Assigning and adjusting missions. task organization. tasks. anticipate actions. Understanding becomes the basis of the squadron commander’s visualization. • Adjusting support priorities and allocating resources based on opportunities and threats. • Planning guidance. The squadron commander’s visualization is the mental process of developing situational understanding (SU). • Changing support arrangements. Squadron commanders express their initial visualization in terms of the following: • Initial commander’s intent. • Accepting risk to create opportunities to seize. • Positioning units to maximize combat power. and exploit the initiative. and the ability to follow through with their decisions. and progress of an operation. • Continuously monitoring the situation and progress of the operation toward the commander’s desired end state. Squadron commanders describe their visualization in doctrinal terms. • Committing reserves. retain. and envisioning the broad sequence of events by which the force will achieve that end state.Chapter 2 Table 2-1. • Positioning key leaders to ensure observation and supervision at critical times and places. and control measures based on changing conditions. or create or preserve maneuver options. Squadron commanders must possess strength of character. Squadron commanders direct operations by— • Preparing and approving plans and orders. moral courage. They must be present to observe the decisive point and/or operation. determining a desired end state. • Information required for further planning (such as commander’s critical information requirements [CCIR]). Components of battle command Component Description Understand The squadron commander uses understanding to frame the problem within the context of the situation through analysis of the operational variables.

and the desired end state. Commanders express their vision as the commander’s intent. FM 6-0. Operations. This is a clear. Operations process activities Activity Description Plan Planning is the process by which commanders (and the staff. FM 5-0. Preparation consists of activities performed by units to improve their ability to execute an operation. 2-4. See the following publications for detailed information on C2 topics: FM 2-0. The higher commander provides guidance as to what degree the squadron is involved in the higher headquarters’ reconnaissance planning. FM 3-0. members of the squadron staff could move to the main CP to assist in planning and to serve as liaison officers (LNO). The squadron staff can collaborate with higher headquarters via FM radio or through a variety of Army Battle Command Systems (ABCS). • Evaluating the operation against measures of effectiveness and measures of performance. and movement. but is not limited to. Note. At the squadron level. particularly the enemy. The squadron staff collaborates with the higher headquarters staff in developing the overall reconnaissance and security plan. intelligence. plan refinement. Assessment entails three tasks: • Continuously assessing enemy reactions and vulnerabilities. the key tasks the unit must accomplish. Prepare Execute Assess 2-3. Mission Command. Execution entails putting a plan into action by applying combat power to accomplish the mission and using situational understanding (SU) to assess progress and make execution and adjustment decisions. 2-5. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. inspections. and reconnaissance. squadron personnel can easily execute collaborative planning with the higher headquarters. If the squadron is executing an operation and its CP is located at an extended distance from the higher headquarters main CP. planning is conducted using the military decision-making process (MDMP). There are three options in this collaboration: If the squadron and higher headquarters command posts (CP) are collocated or close to each other. Assessment is the continuous monitoring and evaluation of the current situation. surveillance. The staff supports the commander’s decision-making throughout the operations process. rehearsals. Intelligence.Command and Control Table 2-2. Preparation includes. concise statement of the purpose for the operation. and progress of an operation. focusing on the expected results. The Operations Process. the commander develops and issues planning guidance to the staff and subordinate commanders. which includes intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). coordination. The most critical concept associated with the exercise of C2 is the commander’s intent.96 2-3 . if available) translate the commander’s visualization into a specific course of action (COA) for preparation and execution. Based on his intent. • Continuously monitoring the situation and progress of the operation toward the commander’s desired end state.

Reconnaissance (see Chapter 3). communicate orders. and employ their subordinate units and collection assets. and reconnaissance. 2-10. ISR integration. The CP is the principal facility employed by the commander to control combat operations. this function supports the conduct of full-spectrum operations through four tasks: Intelligence. Through intelligence. and reconnaissance (ISR) synchronization. It provides the physical facilities. and reconnaissance are activities that synchronize and integrate the planning and operation of sensors. the squadron XO manages. Determine gaps in the use of those assets. He may personally control operations from other locations in the AO and is normally only present at the CP to receive information or briefings. It is often divided into echelons.Chapter 2 2-6. 2-7. surveillance. Mission Command. assets. The commander exercises C2 over the force through and with the CP regardless of his location. and dissemination systems in direct support of current and future operations (FM 3-0). The result is a continuous feed of relevant information that enables the squadron commander to gain SU and make timely decisions. 2-11. This effort includes recommending tasks for assets the squadron commander controls and submitting requests for information to adjacent and higher headquarters units and organizations (FM 5-0). SURVEILLANCE. The squadron’s subordinate units obtain 2-4 FM 3-20. For a detailed discussion of CP organization and functions. surveillance. integrates the sensors and other capabilities of the squadron to accomplish this. the squadron commander and staff continuously plan. AND RECONNAISSANCE SYNCHRONIZATION AND INTEGRATION 2-8. The squadron S-2—in coordination with the squadron S-3 and other staff elements as required— synchronizes the entire collection effort based on priorities established by the commander’s intent. maintain the COP. personnel. They focus on the PIR needed to answer the squadron and higher commanders’ critical information requirements (CCIR). surveillance. Note. Intelligence.96 12 March 2010 . Army Planning and Orders Production. control and synchronize forces. Intelligence. along with the squadron S-2. and supervises the entire process. and position sustainment assets. Submit requests for information for adjacent and higher collection support. plan operations. task. Surveillance (see Chapters 3 and 4). and systems that allow the commander to see the battle. Even though the squadron S-2 and S-3 are the principal staff officers focused on ISR synchronization and integration. Commanders use ISR synchronization to accomplish the following: Analyze IR and intelligence gaps. coordinates. surveillance. exploitation. and reconnaissance are an integrated intelligence and operations function. ISR SYNCHRONIZATION 2-9. FM 6-0. A CP is a unit’s headquarters where the commander and staff perform their activities during operations. The many reconnaissance and surveillance assets available to the squadron must be synchronized to collect combat information that ultimately results in the intelligence required by the squadron and its higher headquarters. Recommend reconnaissance and surveillance assets controlled by the organization to collect information that answers the CCIR. In turn. processing. SECTION II – INTELLIGENCE. see the following: FM 5-0. The squadron S-3. Evaluate available assets internal and external to the organization.

Command and Control

information for the commander to use in answering his CCIR. The squadron S-2 takes this information, analyzes it, and gives the squadron commander refined intelligence with which to make decisions.

ISR INTEGRATION
2-12. Integration is the task of assigning and controlling a unit’s intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets (in terms of space, time, and purpose) to collect and report information as a concerted and integrated portion of operation plans and orders (FM 3-0). This task ensures assignment of the best intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance assets through a deliberate and coordinated effort of the entire staff across all warfighting functions by integrating surveillance and reconnaissance into the operation. In addition, ISR integration supports the targeting process by focusing the appropriate assets on the detection of targets. 2-13. The squadron S-3, with input from the squadron S-2, develops tasks based on specific information requirements (SIR) developed during ISR synchronization. SIR facilitate tasking by matching requirements to assets. They describe the information required and may include both the location and the time at which the information can be collected. Generally, each intelligence requirement generates a set of SIR. 2-14. ISR synchronization and integration result in an effort focused on answering the squadron commander’s PIR and the supported commanders’ CCIR through intelligence, surveillance, and reconnaissance tasks translated into orders. For a detailed discussion of ISR synchronization and integration, see FM 2-0.

SECTION III - PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS
2-15. The squadron plans operations following procedures outlined in FM 5-0 and FM 6-0. However, each type of mission brings with it specific considerations that must be accounted for. This section provides specific planning considerations addressing the following: Reconnaissance operations. Security operations. Offensive operations. Defensive operations. Stability operations. Civil support operations. Comparison of mounted and dismounted operations.

RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS
2-16. The squadron often conducts planning in an abbreviated manner to support its higher headquarters’ IR under extreme time constraints. For a directed course of action (COA), the squadron’s higher headquarters may direct how to abbreviate planning. Often it initiates reconnaissance, based on the initial warning order received from its higher headquarters, prior to movement of the higher headquarters’ main body. The squadron commander, through the exercise of battle command, provides guidance that enables the squadron to successfully perform assigned reconnaissance missions (see Chapter 3 for additional information on reconnaissance operations). FM 5-0 addresses planning in a time-constrained environment. 2-17. The squadron commander’s visualization defines the end state to be achieved by the reconnaissance effort. His visualization of the impact of the mission variables of METT-TC allows him to develop guidance for planning and execution of reconnaissance (see Figure 2-1). Through his planning guidance, the commander addresses three basic considerations unique to reconnaissance operations: Focus of reconnaissance. Tempo of reconnaissance. Engagement criteria (both lethal and nonlethal) and bypass criteria. 2-18. The squadron commander continually assesses his original reconnaissance planning guidance. As the situation changes, the commander revises his guidance for reconnaissance when necessary to meet his

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higher commander’s intent. The focus of reconnaissance could change based on an adjustment decision made by the higher commander. The squadron commander may direct a change to the overall tempo of reconnaissance to create opportunities for his higher headquarters or to limit risk to his subordinate units. He could also adjust engagement criteria based on information developed about enemy forces.

Figure 2-1. Development of guidance for reconnaissance operations

FOCUS
2-19. The squadron commander’s intent is a clear, concise statement of the purpose for the operation, the key tasks to be accomplished, and the desired end state. For a reconnaissance mission, his intent serves as the basis for establishing the focus for reconnaissance. The most critical portion is the end state, which defines the conditions (or information) the squadron must meet to accomplish the mission. 2-20. The squadron commander further focuses the reconnaissance effort by assigning a specific reconnaissance objective. FM 3-90 defines a reconnaissance objective as a terrain feature, geographic area, or an enemy force about which the commander wants to obtain additional information. Additionally, a reconnaissance objective can include infrastructure—the components of which are summarized as sewage, water, electricity, academics, trash, medical, safety, and other considerations, known by the acronym SWEAT-MSO—or the people in the area of the objective. The reconnaissance objective clarifies the intent of the reconnaissance effort by stating the most important result of the reconnaissance effort. It should support the end state defined in the commander’s intent. 2-21. The commander’s intent and the reconnaissance objective allow the squadron staff and subordinate commanders to prioritize the critical tasks that must be accomplished and the assets used to accomplish them. The squadron’s reconnaissance operations should focus on one or more of the mission variables (METT-TC) of enemy, terrain and weather, and civil considerations (see Table 2-3).

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Table 2-3. Focus of reconnaissance
Guidance Focus Mission Variables • Enemy. • Terrain and weather. • Civil considerations. Execution Information • Commander’s intent. • Reconnaissance objective. • Coordinating instructions and control measures.

Enemy/Threat
2-22. It is extremely important to quickly identify and define the threats presented by an enemy or adversary in any operational area. Reconnaissance units must be able to conduct operations facing a range of threats consisting of traditional, irregular, catastrophic, or disruptive threats or any combination of these threats. For example, during offensive operations, the squadron may conduct reconnaissance to locate an enemy’s security force area; in stability operations, it may focus on locating improvised explosive device (IED) manufacturing sites. The information developed by enemy-focused reconnaissance helps to update possible enemy COAs as part of the continuous IPB conducted by the squadron and its higher headquarters.

Terrain
2-23. Terrain analysis at brigade and higher levels is often based on a focused ground reconnaissance of the AO. Terrain-focused reconnaissance answers IR developed during IPB that a map or digital analysis simply cannot satisfy to an acceptable degree. The information developed by terrain-focused reconnaissance helps to update the continuous IPB conducted by the squadron and its higher headquarters. The squadron must “see” and then “understand” the terrain as it affects friendly forces, enemy forces, and the area’s civilian population. Reconnaissance of terrain also includes the effect of weather on the military aspects of the terrain.

Civil Considerations
2-24. Gaining an awareness of how the local society affects military operations, as well as the impact of military operations on the society, may be critical to the commander as he and his staff make decisions. Understanding how operations affect the society (and vice versa) normally begins with gaining information on the size, location, composition, and temperament of the society. The process also entails developing an understanding of the cultural and human factors that will affect friendly and threat perceptions and operations, such as religion, ethnicity, language, and political/tribal organization. It also covers infrastructure – the systems that support the inhabitants, economy, and government of a specific area. The six factors of ASCOPE (areas, structures, capabilities, organizations, people, and events) summarize the aspects of civil considerations.

TEMPO
2-25. Tempo is defined in FM 3-0 as the relative speed and rhythm of military operations over time with respect to the enemy. The tempo of reconnaissance allows the squadron commander to determine time requirements for reconnaissance in relation to the higher headquarters mission and IR. The squadron commander visualizes the tempo of reconnaissance through analysis of the mission variables (METT-TC) of mission, enemy, and time available (see Table 2-4).

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Table 2-4. Tempo of reconnaissance
Guidance Tempo Mission Variables • • • Mission. Enemy. Time available. Execution Information • • • • • • • • Planning timelines. Critical tasks. CCIR. LTIOV. Tactical risk. Movement techniques. Reconnaissance methods. Formations.

2-26. Through his intent, the squadron commander defines when key reconnaissance tasks must be accomplished in relation to end state for the reconnaissance operation. This allows subordinate commanders to exercise individual initiative in determining how to meet the commander’s intent. 2-27. The tempo for reconnaissance may be defined using terms such as “stealthy,” “forceful,” “deliberate,” or “rapid.” However, the squadron commander must ensure that he clearly defines for his subordinate how he interprets those terms. 2-28. Based on the tempo described by the commander, the staff and subordinate commanders link the tempo described by the commander to specific execution information. Examples of this information include the following: Planning timelines. Tasks to subordinate units. SIR. Latest time information is of value (LTIOV). Movement techniques (traveling, traveling overwatch, bounding overwatch). Reconnaissance methods (mounted, dismounted, aerial, sensor). Tactical risk.

ENGAGEMENT CRITERIA
2-29. Engagement criteria are defined in FM 3-90 as protocols that specify those circumstances for initiating engagement with an enemy force. They can be either restrictive or permissive. The squadron commander visualizes engagement criteria through analysis of the mission variables (METT-TC) of mission, enemy, troops and support available, and civil considerations (see Table 2-5). Table 2-5. Engagement criteria of reconnaissance
Guidance Engagement Criteria Mission Variables • Mission. • Enemy. • Troops and support available. • Civil considerations. Execution Information • Bypass criteria. • Priority of fires. • Actions on contact. • Reconnaissance handover criteria. • Fire support coordination measures (FSCM). • ROE. • Weapons control status. • Information engagement.

2-30. The squadron commander must define the size or type of enemy force he expects his subordinate units to engage or avoid. This drives planning for direct and indirect fires, as well as establishment of

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96 2-9 . Guidance for actions on contact. NAIs provide a method of focusing the squadron effort. • Protected force. Engagement/displacement criteria. Weapons control status. Table 2-6. food distribution). Execution Information • Commander’s intent. • Civil considerations. The focus allows the commander to determine specific critical tasks. Terrain (bridges. The staff and subordinate commanders refine that guidance into specific execution information. Engagement criteria should be defined using precise doctrinal terms. Bypass criteria. terrain-. Focus of security operations Guidance Focus Mission Variables • Enemy. Rules of engagement (ROE) or rules for use of force. and why they need to be accomplished to attain the end state. or what the expected results of the security operation are. the squadron commander issues specific planning guidance to clearly define the engagement criteria. Given the NAIs. Again. Merely defining engagement criteria using terms such as “aggressive” or “discreet” is not sufficient. defensible terrain). Tempo. Security operations are threat-. their priority. Reconnaissance handover criteria. • Coordinating instructions and control measures. 2-31. Examples of focus in security operations include the following mission variables (METT-TC) as outlined in Table 2-6: Enemy/threat. For example. they can emplace 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. NAIs link most likely and most dangerous threat activities to terrain where those activities may occur. • Troops and support available (protected force). routes. FOCUS 2-33. The focus of the security operation defines what the squadron is to protect and why. Fire support coordination measures (FSCM). SECURITY OPERATIONS 2-32. • Terrain and weather. Examples include the following: Engagement criteria.Command and Control bypass criteria. including the local society/population and infrastructure (political situation. Civil considerations. Priority of fires. Information engagement guidance. Troops/friendly forces (the protected force). Guidance for security operations covers three basic considerations that the squadron commander must understand to plan and execute the security mission: Focus/depth. or friendly unitoriented (see Chapter 4 for additional information on security operations). The squadron commander must also consider information engagement and how the squadron interacts and influences the local populace. It allows the squadron commander to narrow the troops’ scope of operations to get the information that is most important. the troop commanders can prioritize asset emplacement to provide the most effective observation. 2-34. 2-35. facilities.

ENGAGEMENT/DISPLACEMENT CRITERIA 2-38. Tactical risk. tempo can relate to the duration of the mission. CCIR. Tempo affects whether short-. This may include Class IV supply materials or additional engineer support. Tempo can relate to depth. 2-39. 2-10 FM 3-20. or extended-duration OPs are used. The squadron commander defines the events or triggers that will cause the squadron or subordinate elements to displace to subsequent positions. the commander may require troops only to observe threat actions. long-. enemy. Units must coordinate for improvement of dismounted OP positions. coupled with his knowledge of the threat’s most likely COA. and ROE. Tempo of security operations Guidance Tempo Mission Variables • • • Mission. as time is needed to properly deploy assets into position to achieve the required depth. direct fires. Displacement criteria specify at what point—either event. Execution Information • • • • • • • Critical tasks. TEMPO 2-36. wire communications. allows him to determine the troop’s engagement criteria. The number of OPs decreases because platoons and troops must manage a deliberate rotation schedule. Reconnaissance methods. Tempo also dictates whether units use mounted or dismounted OPs or a combination.Chapter 2 observation posts (OP) and employ ground-based sensors to observe primary mounted and dismounted threat avenues of approach. and time available (see Table 2-7). UAS rotation. The squadron commander’s understanding of the higher commander’s intent. LTIOV. such as a certain size force or specific element of the threat formation reaching a given point or graphic control measure. Enemy. 2-37. including dismounted or mounted OPs. These are established quickly at the designated time and maintained for less than 12 hours. but not engage the threat. He may also opt to engage all threat personnel or lightly armored vehicles on sight. The squadron commander visualizes the tempo of security operations through analysis of the mission variables of mission. Engagement criteria are protocols that specify those circumstances for initiating engagement with an enemy force (FM 1-02). to deceive the enemy as to the whereabouts of his screen line. For example. Considerations include the following: Short duration. Engagement can be conducted using indirect fires. Squadron commanders must understand what conditions necessitate conducting battle handover to its higher headquarters’ maneuver elements. Time available. They allow the squadron commander to mass his reconnaissance assets by maximizing the number of observers both on the ground and in the air for a short period of time. The tempo of the security operation allows the commander to establish associated time requirements that drive certain aspects of the security plan. These are established and maintained for more than 12 hours but less than 24 hours. In stability operations. Formations. Extended duration. Table 2-7. Movement techniques. and other support assets necessary to execute the mission.or time-driven—the force should begin its displacement (FM 3-90). These are established and maintained for longer than 24 hours. terrain. dedicated reserve forces. This is especially true in a security mission. he may stipulate the use of nonlethal fires. obstacles. and other support that allows the OP to operate for an extended period of time. Long duration. especially in screening missions. In addition.96 12 March 2010 . and/or nonlethal fires.

if applicable. prepares. the squadron can decisively defeat the enemy. composition. and direction of movement of dislocated civilians. Locations of possible enemy avenues of approach. Task organization and augmentation of security forces. this helps to prevent the enemy from predicting the direction of attack and orienting on the avenue of approach. The squadron commander’s IR. The squadron has the flexibility to attack through varying types of terrain. Initial location and types of OPs. Effects of weather and terrain on current and projected operations.Command and Control 2-40.and short-range area and precision fires with rapid combined arms movement. Level of protection or minimum warning time requirements. Table 2-8. and executes offensive operations. The squadron commander visualizes engagement criteria and displacement criteria through analysis of the mission variables (METT-TC) of mission. In addition. routes. Location of enemy electronic warfare (EW) units. Numbers. Location and orientation of the security area. Enemy. Civil considerations. Priority of fires. equipment. Execution Information • • • • • Bypass criteria. Criteria for ending the security mission. commonly include the following: Locations. which are shaped by the mission variables (METT-TC). enemy. Location of enemy air defense gun and missile units. including HPTs and enemy intelligence. Time allocated to establish the security force. they must consider the following: Force or area to be secured. Threat considerations. The commander assigning a security mission and the security force commander must address the considerations applicable to related types of missions. Engagement criteria and displacement criteria of security operations Guidance Engagement Criteria and Displacement Criteria Mission Variables • • • • Mission. Rules of engagement. and weaknesses of the defending enemy force. surveillance. INTELLIGENCE 2-43. The squadron creates advantages over the enemy by presenting an overwhelming number of actions from multiple directions throughout the width and depth of the AO (see Chapter 5 of this manual or FM 3-90 for additional information on offensive operations).96 2-11 . The amount of information and intelligence the squadron receives affects the manner in which the squadron plans. The results of the continuous IPB process enable the squadron staff to develop an integrated ISR plan that provides relevant information to meet the commander’s IR. By massing the effects of long. ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 2-41. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. and reconnaissance capabilities. Information engagement. such as the smallest enemy element allowed to pass without engagement or the threat element’s capability to influence main body movement/activities. OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS 2-42. strengths. Troops and support available. and civil considerations (see Table 2-8). this is an important element in successful planning and execution of offensive operations. troops and support available. Locations of gaps and assailable flanks. Location of enemy indirect-fire weapon systems and units. Weapons control status.

A formation is an ordered arrangement of forces for a specific purpose and describes the general configuration of a unit on the ground (FM 3-90). Note. It plans to achieve surprise by making unexpected maneuvers. Additionally. it may operate as an advance guard or security element to provide early warning or to find and fix the enemy. Wedge. turning movement. See FM 3-90 for detailed discussion on the box and diamond formations. joint fires. infiltration. The squadron must consider the forms of maneuver (envelopment. such as engaging the enemy from the rear or a flank. Planning for offensive operations addresses the mission variables (METT-TC) within the commander’s intent. establish bypass criteria. During major combat operations. and C2 warfare.Chapter 2 Withdrawal routes for enemy forces. including nonlethal fires. The squadron typically employs the forms of maneuver to support higher headquarters operations. Movement Considerations 2-46. and bounding overwatch). rapidly changing the tempo of ongoing offensive operations. FIRES 2-48. The squadron commander’s mission and intent determine the scheme of maneuver and how he allocates available combat power. Time the operation is to begin. This includes decisive points. Line. The box and diamond formations are also discussed in FM 3-90. and using deceptive techniques and procedures. AOs for the use of each subordinate element with associated graphic control measures. The goal is to overwhelm the enemy with one or more unexpected engagements before the enemy has time to react effectively. and develop plans for branches and sequels to maintain tempo and to exploit expected or unexpected opportunities. Vee. Fire support (FS) planning is the process of integrating Army indirect fires. The squadron plans for movement and maneuver to avoid enemy strengths and to create opportunities to increase the effects of fires. the commander must identify decisive points. traveling overwatch.96 12 March 2010 . penetration. Forms of Maneuver 2-47. COMMAND AND CONTROL 2-44. including special tasks required to accomplish the mission. the squadron mitigates risk for itself and subordinate units using a combination of appropriate formations and movement techniques (traveling. including the following: Missions and objectives for each subordinate element. Echelon (left or right). avoiding observation. For example. with the other warfighting functions into the commander’s concept of 2-12 FM 3-20. Enemy positions. and frontal attack) as it develops the scheme of maneuver for offensive operations (see FM 3-90). and capabilities. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 2-45. strengths and weaknesses. The squadron or subordinate units use five different formations depending on the mission variables: Column. the squadron may plan to engage defending enemy forces from positions that provide an advantage. The cavalry squadron of the ACR is the only squadron that is task organized to effectively execute these formations. Risk. Anticipated timetables for the enemy’s most likely COA and other probable COAs. The squadron commander and his staff translate the squadron’s mission into specific objectives for each subordinate unit.

Integrate the movement and positioning of sustainment assets with the scheme of maneuver to ensure immediate support of anticipated requirements. SUSTAINMENT 2-52. Avoid unnecessary duplication. Consider the use of all lethal and/or nonlethal attack means. 2-50. Consider the use of FSCMs.96 2-13 . Disseminate AMD warnings immediately throughout the squadron. PROTECTION 2-49. Coordinate airspace. Provide for flexibility. Integrate passive air defense measures into the execution of offensive tasks. Effective FS planning places the right elements of the FS system in the right place at the right time in accordance with the commander’s intent. Consider risks that extended distances create for security of main supply routes (MSR) and sustainment assets based on the potential for encountering undetected or bypassed enemy forces. Plan support from initiation of the mission to the final objective or limit of advance (LOA). Use the most effective FS means. The focus of protection is to preserve the force so that the squadron can apply maximum combat power against the enemy force.) The following are key considerations for sustainment planning in support of offensive operations: Continuously update the sustainment plan based on the status of units. Protect the force. Develop decontamination plans based on the commander’s priorities and vulnerability analysis and disseminate the location of planned and active decontamination sites.) The following basic principles of FS planning apply: Plan early and continuously. Use the lowest echelon capable of furnishing effective support. Effective sustainment helps the squadron commander to take advantage of windows of opportunity and launch offensive operations with minimum advance warning time. and ensure the plan is responsive and flexible. Furnish the type of support requested. Key considerations for CBRN planning include the following: Ensure subordinate elements are prepared for CBRN reconnaissance tasks. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Key protection tasks in offensive operations are air and missile defense (AMD) and CBRN operations. Key planning considerations for AMD include the following: Prioritize air defense coverage toward the decisive operation. Disseminate information on CBRN threats. immediately throughout the squadron. Establish appropriate air defense weapons control status based on anticipated enemy air threats. Provide for rapid coordination. (See Chapter 10 for additional information on sustainment operations. Ensure the continuous flow of targeting information. Integrate security for sustainment assets into the squadron plan. (See Chapter 9 for additional information. 2-51.Command and Control operations. Provide adequate support. FS planning is performed concurrently with the MDMP. The objective of sustainment in offensive operations is to allow the squadron to maintain momentum by providing support as far forward as possible without disrupting operations. once detected. and establish clear priorities of support during reorganization. Plan for reorganization on or near the objective.

The squadron creates advantages over the enemy by presenting an overwhelming number of actions from multiple directions throughout the depth. and executes defensive operations. Decisive points. The squadron commander’s mission and intent determine the scheme of maneuver and how he allocates available combat power. Planning for defensive operations addresses the mission variables. The squadron commander and his staff translate the squadron’s mission into specific objectives for each subordinate unit. Scheme of maneuver. or provide information to the higher commander regarding defense or counterattack to restore the cohesion of the defense. Enemy—Conditions that must be set to gain advantage over the attacking enemy. width. the culminating point is that point in time and space at which the squadron can no longer effectively locate the enemy’s attacking forces. Commander’s intent. engagement areas (EA). it can also cover mounted avenues of approach or open areas effectively with tanks. This requires the squadron commander and his staff to determine the positioning and priority of support assets/capabilities. or Stryker reconnaissance vehicles. and reverse slope opportunities to take full advantage of the squadron’s capabilities to mass firepower while providing protection for the infantry.and short-range area and precision fires with rapid combined arms movement. 2-14 FM 3-20. Note. choke points. The squadron has the ability to defend in restricted and severely restricted terrain when augmented with infantry. the commander and staff must look closely for key and decisive terrain. the squadron usually conducts defensive operations with troops out of range and/or in mutual support of each other. The amount of information and intelligence the squadron receives affects the manner in which it plans. Essential tasks required to accomplish the mission. AOs for the use of each subordinate element with associated graphic control measures. and height of the AO. COMMAND AND CONTROL 2-55. prepares. provide early warning.96 12 March 2010 . In defensive operations. By massing the effects of long. Risk. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 2-56. Areas of special emphasis within METT-TC include the following: Mission: Missions for each subordinate element. During the terrain analysis.Chapter 2 DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS 2-53. intervisibility lines. The results of the continuous IPB process enable the squadron staff to develop an integrated ISR plan to provide the relevant information the squadron needs to successfully plan and execute defensive operations. In noncontiguous AOs. the squadron can counterattack to decisively defeat the enemy (see Chapter 6 for additional information on defensive operations). CFVs. Terrain and weather: Key and decisive terrain and how the squadron uses it to gain advantage over the attacking enemy. INTELLIGENCE 2-54. A key consideration for defensive operations is the locations of possible enemy avenues of approach and anticipated movement rates of enemy forces.

which may include the use of precision munitions. 2-59. Once the squadron commander has assigned AOs to his maneuver units. general FS considerations for supporting forces in contact include the following: Plan defensive fires in support of patrols.) In the defense. Positioning of the Reserve 2-60. As in offensive operations. The commander determines the size and shape of the EA taking into account the relatively unobstructed intervisibility from the weapon systems in their firing positions and the maximum range of those weapons. Ensure adequate mobility support for withdrawal of security forces. Effective FS planning places the right elements of the FS system in the right place at the right time in accordance with the commander’s intent. allowing subordinate units to maximize initiative and freedom of action. he must determine any potential gaps between units. attack-by-fire (ABF) and support-by-fire (SBF) positions. convoys. the reserve must be close enough that it can rapidly enter the fight when committed. The following planning considerations apply to mobility and countermobility support: Position situational obstacles early. Focus the countermobility effort to block. Troop commanders prepare contingencies for platoons that allow them to rapidly shift or assume new missions. EAs. phase lines (PL). The commander should also plan to reposition units not in contact to mass the effects of combat power against an attacking enemy’s flank or rear. The need for flexibility in taking advantage of the mobility of mechanized forces requires graphic control measures to assist in C2 during local counterattacks and repositioning of forces. Positioning the reserve is critical to effective employment. displacement criteria. can be especially useful 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. 2-61. With the assignment of AOs. The squadron should plan to cover these gaps with patrols and OPs. the reserve. and illumination. A reserve is normally designated at regimental and squadron level. The squadron must plan local counterattacks to isolate and destroy any enemy elements that manage to penetrate through a gap in the AO. (See Chapter 9 for additional information. Specified routes.Command and Control Assignment of Areas of Operations 2-57. 2-58. the squadron commander also identifies EAs where he intends to fix or destroy the enemy force with the massed effect of all available weapons and supporting systems. and other fire control measures are required to synchronize maneuver effectively. FIRES 2-63. Ensure adequate security for obstacle emplacement systems. the squadron should use only the minimum essential graphic control measures. requiring adequate depth to ensure a degree of protection and to prevent inadvertent commitment too early in the fight. and link them to natural and other man-made obstacles. or reserve forces. However. Troops seldom have adequate combat power to do so. target reference points (TRP). Integrate triggers for the execution of situational and reserve obstacles in the decision support template. obscurants.96 2-15 . the reserve commander is assigned missions as contingencies to provide planning guidance and to ensure timely execution on commitment. subsequent and alternate battle positions (BP). Mobility and Countermobility 2-62. Considerations that guide organization and employment of the reserve are explained in FM 3-90. and the counterattack force and for repositioning of main battle area (MBA) forces. However. Such fires. The commander designates EAs to cover each enemy avenue of approach into his position (FM 3-90). Plan multiple obstacle locations to support depth and flexibility in the defense. The reserve can occupy BPs or blocking or hide positions. canalize. or turn enemy forces into positions of vulnerability where the squadron intends to isolate and defeat them.

AMD. and CBRN operations. Key protection tasks in defensive operations are survivability. Plan support from initiation of the defense to transitions to offensive operations. shift fires to continue attacking him until he is forced to break off the attack. PROTECTION 2-64. immediately throughout the squadron. 2-65. Key planning considerations for CBRN operations include— Integrate the use of obscurants to support disengagement or displacement. Ensure subordinate elements are prepared for CBRN reconnaissance tasks. 2-66. Establish appropriate air defense weapons control status based on anticipated enemy air threats. Plan targets on avenues of approach to disrupt enemy attacks by striking the enemy during his assault. 2-67. The objective of sustainment in defensive operations is to provide support throughout the depth of the defense without disrupting operations.96 12 March 2010 . Integrate defensive positions with natural cover and concealment when possible. 2-16 FM 3-20. Key planning considerations for AMD include— Weight air defense coverage toward the decisive operation. Integrate passive air defense measures into the execution of defensive tasks. (See Chapter 10 for additional information. Plan for target acquisition and control of fires on all avenues of approach. LRS units. Integrate the movement and positioning of sustainment assets with the scheme of maneuver to ensure immediate support of anticipated requirements. Use no-fire areas (NFA) to protect forward elements such as COLTs. disorganize target acquisition efforts. and ensure the plan is responsive and flexible. The focus of protection is to preserve the force so that the squadron can apply maximum combat power against the enemy force. scouts. Select planned targets on the most critical avenues of approach. Key planning considerations for survivability include— Ensure the integration of survivability priorities for critical systems and units through the development and implementation of an execution matrix and timeline. These fires strike the enemy in his assembly areas. Effective sustainment helps the squadron commander to take advantage of windows of opportunity and launch counterattacks without a loss of momentum. break up attack formations. and reduce morale. Disseminate AMD warnings immediately throughout the squadron. and special operations forces (SOF). Plan FSCMs close enough to open up as much of the AO as possible.) The following are key considerations for sustainment planning in support of defensive operations: Continuously update the sustainment plan based on status of units. Develop decontamination plans based on the commander’s priorities and vulnerability analysis and disseminate the location of planned and active decontamination sites.Chapter 2 (METT-TC dependent) in response to the ambush of friendly forces during counterinsurgency or stability operations. and allocate firing units for final protective fires (FPF). yet far enough away to avoid interference with friendly operations. Plan counterpreparation fire to disrupt enemy preparations for an attack. Subsequently. Develop alternate or supplementary positions as time allows. joint terminal attack controllers (JTAC). Disseminate warnings for CBRN threats. SUSTAINMENT 2-68. once detected.

restrictions on movements. where intelligence efforts focus on the local populace. The need for mutual understanding among all members of the command group is as great in stability operations as in other operations. Depending on METT-TC conditions. engineer elements typically remain very active. (See Chapter 7 for additional information on stability operations. this is especially true in stability operations. Even as the level of violence decreases in stability operations. boundaries.) INTELLIGENCE 2-70. Battle drills. and SU changes as the operation unfolds. During stability operations. Effective intelligence is essential to understanding. 2-72. the host-nation government. Standard command and staff doctrine applies to stability operations. Movement techniques. Plan for combat-configured loads to speed resupply and eliminate the need to request supplies.96 2-17 . Mobility operations focused on restoration of essential services are also an early issue in many stability operations road and bridge repair. and backbriefs are all useful in directing stability operations. Integrate security for sustainment assets into the squadron plan. Missions in the stability environment may call for dispersed operations. and assessment and repair of damaged aqueducts or hydrology control facilities. 2-75. Orders. Planning for stability operations draws on all elements of operational design (see FM 3-0). Leaders must also clearly communicate special control measures such as curfews. certain elements are more relevant than others. COMMAND AND CONTROL 2-71. Maintaining understanding is a dynamic ability. hazards. and prohibition of weapons. examples of maneuver that may be employed in stability operations include the following: Proper formations. planning guidance. In stability operations—in which area responsibilities. However. and control of terrain or borders are sensitive and hazards are sometimes widely scattered—the squadron needs detailed information on its AO and commonly uses detailed control measures. estimates. rehearsals. hazardous area marking or clearing. and some are essential to successful stability operations. Faster movement of information concerning maneuver also facilitates faster reaction to threats and allows forces in motion to be routed around new hazards. movements. Squadron leaders must clearly delineate routes. Relevant information fuels understanding and fosters initiative. 2-74.Command and Control Consider prestocking or caching of supplies to reduce the time and distance necessary for resupply. and the security apparatus of the state. it allows them to focus on the current and future conditions of the environment and to describe those conditions to subordinates. and other control measures and ensure that Soldiers throughout the squadron understand them. rubble clearing. STABILITY OPERATIONS 2-69. Greater understanding enables commanders and staffs to make better decisions. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 2-73. Digital systems organic to the squadron provide timely and accurate force tracking and facilitate reporting. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. squadron leaders still apply the principles of war and maneuver if it becomes necessary to engage in close combat (see FM 3-0). installations.

In a very austere AO. and movement order. Commanders and leaders throughout the squadron deliberately analyze their missions and environments to identify threats to their units. Unique threats may be present in the AO. In addition.96 12 March 2010 . However. standing operating procedure (SOP). Nonlethal fires expand the options available to commanders to achieve their objectives. Protection considerations include the following: Secure the inside perimeter if the host nation secures the outside perimeter. They then make their Soldiers aware of the dangers and create safeguards to protect them. In stability operations. Commanders attempt to accomplish a mission with minimal loss of personnel. Normally. patrol bases. (See Chapter 9 for additional information. The chief sustainment challenges of stability operations are to anticipate needs and to integrate units and sources into the stability operations. (See Chapter 10 for additional information.S. when the host nation cannot perform its roles. military forces may execute these tasks directly or to support other civilian agencies and organizations. opposing forces may seek to kill or wound U. Develop specific protection programs such as threat awareness and operations security (OPSEC). soldiers or destroy or damage property for political purposes. and supplies by integrating protection considerations into all aspects of operational planning and execution.) 2-18 FM 3-20. Resources available within the local area and region. 2-79.) PROTECTION 2-77. 2-80. Do not become predictable.Chapter 2 FIRES 2-76. Restrict access of unassigned personnel to the unit's location. although there is generally a greater emphasis on nonlethal fires. equipment. in some cases. IR for sustainment operations include the following: Resources and capabilities of host-nation forces. Commanders must always consider the aspects of protection and how they relate to the ROE. the squadron must consider its own sustainment requirements during stability operations. Forces must be organized appropriately to reflect this change in emphasis. The squadron may be operating across an extensive AO. The squadron may need to plan for the execution of combat logistics convoys to support these multiple locations. military forces combine various types of lethal and nonlethal fires to accomplish the mission. while ROE may limit the use of lethal fires. It is imperative that these activities are properly scaled to local capacity for sustainment. operation order (OPORD). Protection requires special consideration in stability operations. Status of critical supply items and repair jobs. SUSTAINMENT 2-78. Consider protection throughout the scope of operations. Constantly maintain an image of professionalism and readiness. military forces support host-nation and civilian relief agencies with these efforts. Capabilities of general support sustainment units. Include protection in each plan. Proper scaling also creates the best opportunity for the local populace to create small-scale enterprises to provide as many of these essential services as possible through the private economy. requiring it to support multiple combat outposts. or fixed sites. base the degree of security established on a continuous threat assessment. Mission tasks. aerial resupply can also be an important consideration. Overall material readiness of the squadron. Nature and condition of the infrastructure. Large-scale projects that require complicated host-nation sustainment efforts should be avoided until the necessary infrastructure is in place to support them.

locating populations at risk. ARNG units must adhere to the same laws governing active Army and Army Reserve operations. COMMAND AND CONTROL 2-84. Planning for civil support operations includes understanding the types of support required. For more information on civil support. 2-83.Command and Control CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS 2-81. If this is the case. INTELLIGENCE 2-82. Reconnaissance assets can provide imagery and full motion video products of the incident location or affected areas for federal agencies. Cooperation with other services or agencies imposes special requirements for training. Additional teams and LNOs that may be required include— Multistate support teams/LNOs. These teams/LNOs from other state agencies respond as directed through mutual support agreements. The squadron develops SA and analyzes the situation throughout the MDMP to identify likely situations that may occur during an operation. The Army National Guard (ARNG) often acts as a first military responder for civil support operations on behalf of state authorities while serving in state active-duty status or when functioning under Title 32 U. ARNG forces in state active-duty status can perform civil law enforcement missions in accordance with the laws and statutes of the state. the state governor commands the ARNG and the state defense force (if applicable). Reconnaissance must be planned to adhere to the law and still answer the CCIR. coordination. laws. Code authority.S. the squadron commander and staff leaders need training in operating these systems. Standard command and staff doctrine applies to C2 in civil support operations. Intelligence support in civil support operations is conducted strictly within the guidelines of U. In the early and concluding stages of an operation. the communications infrastructure may permit only limited use of C2 information systems (if available). Careful planning— along with detailed instructions to the units and Soldiers involved—ensures that reconnaissance operations do not violate U. Reconnaissance can also be a valuable tool for assessing damage to infrastructure. Liaison Teams 2-87. State active-duty status refers to ARNG forces and state defense force personnel under state control. In state active-duty status. the squadron’s plan for C2 must provide either for alternate means of communications or for full reliance on tactical systems. law and focuses on the specific missions directed by the Secretary of Defense.S. ARNG civil support missions are planned and executed in accordance with the needs of the state and within the guidelines of state laws and statutes.1. and the time required to conduct the support (see Chapter 8 for additional information on civil support operations). Squadrons must staff their normal liaison teams and identify the need for more teams as early as possible. Cooperation 2-85. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.96 2-19 . Reconnaissance systems that provide real time data and images can be positioned in incident CPs to provide video or imagery to the incident commander. and local law enforcement to use. and determining passable routes for first responders to provide aid. Use of nontactical or other nonstandard communications is likely in support of civil authorities in the United States. The squadron’s C2 systems yield significant advantages in planning and conducting civil support operations. Once placed in Title 10 status. Liaison teams and LNOs can be extremely useful in providing a common view of the situation for the headquarters attached to the squadron. and liaison.S. first responders. Multiservice operations in which the squadron controls troops of other services or is controlled by another service call for special attention to command relationships and limitations on the commander’s prerogatives. see FM 3-28. In such situations. Communications 2-86. the procedures for providing support. Operation of these systems depends on communications architecture provided by the higher level of command.

Contracting Options 2-94. Status of critical supply items and repair jobs. Mission tasks. or fully devoted to the civilian population. logistical requirements vary considerably among the types of civil support operations. physical assets. but resourced to a low degree. Capabilities of general support sustainment units. and liaison operations to help provide effective C2 and to assist information engagement activities. The FS system and field artillery units usually contribute in nontraditional ways. and media facilities). SUSTAINMENT 2-92. IR for sustainment operations include the following: Resources available within the local area and region. Squadrons should provide teams and/or LNOs that are fully knowledgeable on capability. private aircraft. employment techniques. PROTECTION 2-91. and sustainment requirements. including personnel (Soldiers and civilians). Challenges 2-93. 2-88. local security. MOVEMENT AND MANEUVER 2-89. Refer to the discussion earlier in this section. In some cases. medical. Sustainment for civil support operations usually requires substantial tailoring to adapt to unique mission requirements. FIRES 2-90. Basic fire planning considerations for direct and indirect fire weapons are generally not applicable during civil support operations. Protection preserves the force in civil support operations. Movement and maneuver considerations for the squadron in conducting civil support operations are similar to those for stability operations. Squadrons tasked to execute civil support operations have the responsibility to ensure effective integration of their organizational capabilities. These teams/LNOs represent private and charitable organizations (such as the Red Cross) typically associated with humanitarian assistance operations. Nature and condition of the infrastructure. Squadrons may encounter or employ contractor-provided services and supply operations during civil support. contracting can augment organic sustainment in civil support operations. The squadron can employ the equipment and organizations available in these units in OPs. Protection facilitates the squadron commander’s ability to maintain the organization’s integrity and combat power. damaged. convoy operations. Overall material readiness of the squadron. Civilian agency teams/LNOs. The chief sustainment challenges in civil support operations are to anticipate needs and to integrate units and sources into the operations.Chapter 2 Relief organization teams/LNOs. fire. and information of the Army and civilian partners. sustainment operations. Emphasis on protection increases during preparation and continues throughout execution. 2-20 FM 3-20. These teams/LNOs operate out of emergency operations centers (such as police.96 12 March 2010 . The S-4 and commander must understand the terms and limitations of contractor support. Civil support operations commonly take place in areas where local resources and infrastructure are scarce.

See FM 8-42.Command and Control Liaison with Civil Authorities 2-95.96 2-21 . Nonstandard supporting relationships and close coordination with civil authorities may dictate the use of LNOs and liaison teams. Key personnel (health care providers) should review the requirements before deployment to provide for contingencies and modifications (adding or deleting items as necessary) so that the uses.S. Combat Health Support in Stability Operations and Support Operations. Medical treatment provided in support of these operations must comply with Title 10 of the U. types. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. including the creation of additional teams to ensure effective operations. The squadron may be augmented with additional Army Health System (AHS) assets to support the squadron’s mission in civil support operations such as disaster relief and displaced personnel operations. and quantities of medical supplies conform to the mission requirements. Medical Support 2-96. Code.

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.... 3-23 Execution ........... 3-11 Procedures of Actions on Contact ................................................. 3-9 Section II ............ 3-18 Infiltration ...................... 3-22 Planning ..... 3-11 Planning Considerations ........ Reconnaissance is key to retaining initiative and freedom to maneuver.....96 3-1 ............ 3-17 Section IV – Infiltration and Exfiltration ..............................................Chapter 3 Reconnaissance Operations Each of the five types of ground reconnaissance squadrons is organized to provide its higher headquarters with a dedicated reconnaissance capability........... Timely intelligence allows the squadron’s higher commander to concentrate appropriate combat power against decisive points at the time and place of his choosing..... Reconnaissance operations enhance the higher commander’s ability to operate inside the enemy’s decision cycle and allow him to maneuver his assets so they can take advantage of opportunities to exploit enemy weaknesses................................. 3-16 Reconnaissance in Force ...Actions on Contact ...................................................... 3-5 Site Exploitation .................................................................... 3-11 Forms of Contact ................. 3-23 Preparation ....................... 3-15 Area Reconnaissance ........................ Contents Section I – Basics of Reconnaissance ........................... It helps the squadron’s higher commander and staff to determine which routes are suitable for maneuver and where the enemy is strong and weak............. They provide a means to answer IR and fill gaps in existing intelligence....... 3-18 Exfiltration ......................... 3-15 Zone Reconnaissance ............................ 3-8 Movement During Dismounted Operations ........... 3-14 Section III – Forms of Reconnaissance .... 3-21 Section V – Reconnaissance Handover ................................ 3-2 Reconnaissance Techniques ..................................................... 3-16 Route Reconnaissance ..... 3-24 12 March 2010 FM 3-20..................... 3-5 Reconnaissance Assets and Systems . 3-3 Reconnaissance Management ............. 3-23 Example of Reconnaissance Handover .................................................. 3-8 BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron Considerations .. 3-2 Fundamentals of Reconnaissance....... 3-2 Reconnaissance Methods ........................

Chapter 3 SECTION I – BASICS OF RECONNAISSANCE Reconnaissance Units in Close Combat Roles Reconnaissance and close combat are two distinct tasks. the other squadrons are organized to conduct reconnaissance that continually updates the COP and answers the CCIR. If time is short. none of the other types of squadrons are specifically designed to perform close combat missions. Each has its own particular strengths and weaknesses and is appropriate to various missions. Gain and maintain enemy contact with the smallest element possible. In selecting one technique over the other. It is important to note that there are numerous variations of both reconnaissance techniques. the higher commander loses his dedicated reconnaissance unit. Tactics): Ensure continuous reconnaissance. and commander and 3-2 FM 3-20. rather. On the contrary. situations. therefore. These two techniques are not rigidly established. raiding buildings) or performing an economy of force role. seizing terrain. prepare. the commander and staff perform an initial assessment that includes identifying what information and products are available and assessing the amount of time available. Although the ACR cavalry squadron has organic tanks and artillery. Orient on the reconnaissance objective. the commander considers— The degree of his SA related to the enemy situation. In doing so. such as to defeat or destroy enemy forces or seize and retain ground.96 12 March 2010 . RECONNAISSANCE TECHNIQUES 3-2. There are two general reconnaissance techniques commanders employ based on relevance and ability to answer SIR: reconnaissance push and reconnaissance pull. Upon receipt of a mission. 3-3. the squadron plans and performs successful reconnaissance operations according to the following seven fundamentals (see FM 3-90. Combat information will certainly result from such actions. Retain freedom of maneuver. 3-4. The proficiency and leadership ability of his subordinate commanders. When reconnaissance units are employed in a close combat role (assaulting bunkers. the commander determines where to invest the majority of his available time: on development of a detailed ISR plan to support an evolving maneuver COA (reconnaissance push) or on execution of an integrated ISR plan by reconnaissance elements focused on collecting information on enemy strengths and weaknesses that is critical to formulating the future COA (reconnaissance pull). and assess) and how information gathered from reconnaissance is used to support decision-making by the commander. The proficiency and training level of his staff. they are descriptive generalizations explaining how and when reconnaissance elements are to be employed during the operations process (plan. simply focus on describing the fundamental characteristics of each technique. The following discussions. Develop the situation. but this is more than offset by what is lost in terms of vehicles destroyed. casualties incurred. Do not keep reconnaissance assets in reserve. It is neither possible nor helpful to confine each technique to a rigid definition. and other reconnaissance missions neglected. FUNDAMENTALS OF RECONNAISSANCE 3-1. execute. Report all information rapidly and accurately. the commander quickly analyzes and decides which reconnaissance technique he will employ. Regardless of the form of reconnaissance. The depth of his SU based on available information.

Reconnaissance push emphasizes development of a detailed ISR plan prior to deployment of reconnaissance assets to focus the reconnaissance effort on an evolving maneuver COA—or on several COAs. RECONNAISSANCE PULL 3-6. and sensor. continue to update the evolving plans or COAs.96 3-3 . Success is predicated on all maneuver units fully understanding the commander’s intent—the “glue” that holds the unit together in a decentralized. It is advantageous for the commander and his staff to determine which technique works best for specific mission sets and situations. The squadron commander considers a combination of all methods to conduct effective reconnaissance. commanders and planners. the reconnaissance effort shifts to two other purposes: Answer CCIR to facilitate the commander’s decisions to adopt planned branches. RECONNAISSANCE PUSH 3-5. Upon discovering enemy strengths and weaknesses. rapidly changing situation. terrain. Reconnaissance pull knowingly emphasizes opportunity at the expense of a detailed. well-rehearsed plan and unity of effort. They make refinements throughout the operational cycle. which tend to be broader and more extensive over a longer period of time. although only a limited number of dismounted scouts can be 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. have to be executed in accordance with the commander’s intent. The squadron can employ dismounted reconnaissance to collect detailed information about a fixed site or threat from close proximity. The commander employs the reconnaissance pull technique when there is a great degree of uncertainty about the enemy situation. The simultaneous employment of all four methods provides flexibility and capitalizes on the strengths of each method. reconnaissance “pulls” the higher headquarters maneuver units along the path of least enemy resistance into positions of marked tactical advantage. but it permits collection of the most detailed information about the threat. however. Reconnaissance can be conducted using four methods—dismounted. 3-7. There.Reconnaissance Operations staff personality combinations. RECONNAISSANCE METHODS 3-9. society. Results of the reconnaissance effort. Dismounted reconnaissance is the most time-consuming means of reconnaissance for ground units. Weaknesses are often discovered in the very midst of execution. The commander uses reconnaissance push when there is a relative degree of certainty about the enemy situation. commanders and staff begin work on one or more plans or COAs with the intent of refining these evolving plans as reconnaissance yields relevant combat information. are reported continuously back to the higher headquarters and squadron. mounted. In reconnaissance pull. DISMOUNTED RECONNAISSANCE 3-10. Reconnaissance is focused on collecting information on enemy strengths and weaknesses that will be critical in formulating the future plan or COA. he deliberately refrains from committing to a specific plan or COA prior to deployment of reconnaissance elements. necessitating an ability to rapidly shift and alter schemes of maneuver to exploit opportunities. These branches are understood by leaders at all levels and are well rehearsed. as part of the MDMP. These on-the-fly modifications. As reconnaissance is deployed. As elements of the higher headquarters deploy. They can then develop detailed SOPs customized to the nuances and peculiarities of their unit. 3-8. The commander and staff develop an integrated ISR plan designed to yield information on the most tactically advantageous way to maneuver the supported organization. and infrastructure. aerial. This provides depth and redundancy throughout the AO and helps the squadron to accomplish the reconnaissance mission based on the factors of METT-TC and the higher commander’s intent. the detailed plan often encompasses several viable branches or COAs that will be triggered by decision points (DP). Identify exceptional information (such as previously undiscovered enemy strengths or weaknesses) on which the higher headquarters can capitalize with greater success outside of planned branches.

Time is available. Detailed information is required. Sensors can be used to observe areas where contact may not be expected but is possible or used for surveillance of areas that need to be observed over extended periods. adverse weather. Detailed information is not required. Enemy contact is expected or has been achieved through visual/electronic means. such as to confirm or deny threat activity in dead space. It increases the probability of detection by the threat. The squadron commander considers use of dismounted reconnaissance when— Stealth is required and/or security is the primary concern. and deception/countermeasures can degrade effectiveness of aerial reconnaissance. Mounted reconnaissance enables a more rapid tempo at the expense of stealth and security. Terrain creates “visual dead space. The squadron commander considers the use of mounted reconnaissance when— Time is limited. Stealth and security are not primary concerns. Sensors may be employed as the cue for aerial.96 12 March 2010 . enemy air defense systems. The squadron commander considers the use of aerial reconnaissance when— Time is extremely limited or information is required quickly. can serve as a link between sensors and mounted or dismounted reconnaissance and can also cue these other reconnaissance methods. The objective is at an extended range. Reconnaissance vehicles cannot move through an area because of terrain or threat. Ground reconnaissance elements are not available. fixed site. 3-4 FM 3-20. Army or joint aviation assets can provide a variety of reconnaissance platforms. thus compromising reconnaissance efforts. Refer to Chapter 9 for information on Army and joint aviation support to the squadron’s reconnaissance operations. Aerial reconnaissance. Enemy locations are known. Vehicles are not available. or the mounted method affords the same opportunity to collect information as the dismounted method.Chapter 3 employed at any given time. Distances require mounted movement.” preventing the use of optics or sensors. dismounted. Terrain is complex and weather conditions are favorable. Mounted reconnaissance must take advantage of standoff provided by surveillance systems such as LRAS3 to observe from greater distances. Threat locations either are known and extremely dangerous (high risk) to ground assets or are vague but are identified as high risk to ground assets. or terrain feature. SENSOR RECONNAISSANCE 3-13. Sensor reconnaissance allows flexibility in economizing reconnaissance assets. dismounted activities will probably be required during the operation for security reasons. The nature of the reconnaissance objective allows vehicles to approach (for example. Though a reconnaissance operation can be primarily mounted. The reconnaissance objective is a stationary threat. MOUNTED RECONNAISSANCE 3-11. Verification of a target is needed. a terrain feature or road intersection in stability operations). Complex terrain. AERIAL RECONNAISSANCE 3-12. conducted by manned or unmanned Army or joint aviation assets.

the commander maximizes use of all assets to accurately assess the enemy and the effects of the terrain on both enemy and friendly forces. 3-17. Mixing entails two or more different assets collecting against the same IR. and/or an engineer reconnaissance element. The squadron commander integrates intelligence from external assets—such as joint surveillance target attack radar system (JSTARS). Redundancy is two or more like assets collecting against the same IR. Conduct missions of an extended duration. Task organization. a signal retransmission (retrans) element. These assets also aid the squadron when it is conducting decentralized operations over extended distances in a complex environment. collecting the most critical information with the fewest assets as quickly as possible. Redundancy improves the chances that the required information will be collected. the squadron could task organize a reconnaissance troop with such assets as a COLT. geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) products and satellite imagery— into the squadron’s reconnaissance effort. Cueing is the integration of one or more types of reconnaissance or surveillance systems to provide information that directs follow-on collection of more detailed information by another system.96 3-5 . Because no single reconnaissance method can answer every IR and there are rarely enough reconnaissance assets to cover every requirement. Cue a more thorough ground or aerial reconnaissance of a given area. Redundancy. the squadron commander and staff must leverage the available C2 systems. These systems may cue other ground and air reconnaissance assets to investigate specific areas to confirm and amplify information.Reconnaissance Operations and/or mounted reconnaissance. However. taking prisoners. The squadron commander considers the use of sensor reconnaissance to— Expand the scope of coverage in a larger AO. and task organization. For example. which in turn enables SU and enhances lethality when integrated with joint fires. RECONNAISSANCE ASSETS AND SYSTEMS 3-15. Commanders and staffs need to know the capabilities and limitations of these systems. 3-16. both internal and external to the squadron. These methods allow the squadron to use limited assets most effectively. The following considerations apply in applying reconnaissance management (see FM 3-90 for additional information): Cueing. The squadron employs numerous systems in executing reconnaissance and security operations. These added capabilities provide enhanced SA. 3-18. They must also understand that these systems are susceptible to countermeasures and that they lack the ability to convey the human dimension of the AO in terms of assessing the threat’s morale. mixing. Conduct CBRN reconnaissance. During reconnaissance operations. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. RECONNAISSANCE MANAGEMENT 3-14. Mixing. This method both increases the probability of collection and tends to provide more complete information. Mixing can also help defeat deception attempts by highlighting discrepancies in information reported by different collection assets. or making crucial on-the-spot decisions or judgment calls. To increase the effectiveness and survivability of a reconnaissance asset. redundancy. the squadron commander can task organize it with additional assets from within or outside the squadron. They can also extend surveillance distance between ground reconnaissance and the threat. to accomplish the following: Collaborative and/or parallel planning to speed development and distribution of plans. the squadron commander and staff use a mix of reconnaissance management methods—cueing. The scout directly observing the target can be the squadron commander’s most valuable reconnaissance asset. They provide redundancy when assets are pushed forward to facilitate ground reconnaissance. Employing a mix of systems is always desirable if the situation and available resources permit.

Maintain contact with enemy forces from initial contact through BDA. and flexible use of airspace by UASs. Capabilities 3-22. while the Shadow TUAS element consists of four unmanned aircraft. They can be employed on the forward line of own troops (FLOT) or on the flanks. Table 3-2 lists the type and quantity of UASs available to each squadron. and clarity. Army Unmanned Aircraft System Operations. Organic unmanned aircraft systems HBCT RECON SQDN Raven (RQ-11B) SUAS Shadow (RQ-7) TUAS 1 x Recon Troop (3 troops in sqdn) 2 x HHT IBCT RECON SQDN 1 x Mounted Troop (2 troops in sqdn) 1 x Dismounted Trp SBCT RECON SQDN 1 x Recon Troop (3 troops in sqdn) ACR CAV SQDN 1 x Cav Troop (3 troops in sqdn) 1 x Tank Co BFSB RECON SQDN 1 x Recon Troop (2 troops in sqdn) 2 x LRS Co 3 total systems 1 x Surveillance Trp 5 total systems 3 total systems 1 total system 4 total systems 4 total systems 3-21. Other capabilities include the following: Support target acquisition efforts and lethal attacks on enemy reconnaissance and advance forces.155. and zone reconnaissance.Chapter 3 Enhanced SU for the higher commander to enable rapid development of the situation. Techniques. efficient. and FM 3-52. and other targets that contrast with their surroundings. and Procedures for Airspace Control. UASs are capable of detecting and confirming information on the ground. and activity. In addition. 3-6 FM 3-20. as well as first-round fire-for-effect engagements.96 12 March 2010 . the squadron may plan and control employment of UASs from supporting organizations. Locate and help determine enemy force composition. UASs provide a variety of capabilities to the squadron. disposition. Employed as a team. Airspace command and control (AC2) is a critical consideration for the employment of UASs. weapons systems. One Raven SUAS element consists of three unmanned aircraft. Army Airspace Command and Control in a Combat Zone. For example. Provide or enhance multispectrum sensor coverage of the AO. as are the MI companies in the HBCT and IBCT. Assist in route. precision. UAS and ground reconnaissance elements provide excellent surveillance capability. Multiservice Tactics. short-duration missions (60 to 90 minutes) operating below the coordinating altitude. This entails effective integration and synchronization of all combat multipliers available for the reconnaissance effort. (See FM 3-04. area. Sharing or distribution of information obtained from reconnaissance with optimum speed. moving vehicles. Table 3-1. the MI battalion in the BFSB is equipped with the Shadow. 3-20.) Note. such as the position of friendly forces or the presence of noncombatant civilians.1. UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS 3-19. for detailed information on UAS capabilities and employment. In addition to its organic UASs. Provide target location with enough accuracy to enable immediate target handover. UASs provide numerous capabilities to the squadron and are capable of locating and recognizing major enemy forces. See FM 3-52. The squadron employs the Raven for close-range (up to 10 kilometers). The Shadow is employed to ranges of 125 kilometers. for detailed information on techniques and procedures necessary to ensure safe.

3-25. The Prophet crew can set up the system and be fully operational for stationary direction-finding operations within five minutes. Support mission duration beyond those of manned systems. AC2 issues. stopping at detected signals. the BFSB reconnaissance squadron can use information developed by the six systems in the MI battalion of the BFSB. Other limitations include the following: Vulnerability to enemy fire. Provide digital connectivity that enables rapid product dissemination. Portability. Reduce or eliminate exposure time of ground reconnaissance elements in high-risk environments. Mobile launch capability. The system can filter selected signals. Limited frequencies for UAS control. Day and night imagery/operations. thus increasing survivability. such as Shadow and Raven. Line-of-sight requirements between aircraft and ground control stations (GCS). 3-27. are not well suited for wide-area searches. which decrease system endurance from increased battery use and can cause uncommanded altitude deviations. Overheating can cause ground control unit (GCU) failure.Reconnaissance Operations Provide information to ground reconnaissance elements. they have limited effectiveness in locating enemy forces that are well covered or concealed. FM.96 3-7 . Limited sensor field of view. UASs organic to the squadron. turbulence. In support of fluid mobile operations. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Limited detection capability in complex terrain. the system has on-the-move capabilities such as direction finding and signal intercept exploitation.or side-look camera capability in night operations. Extreme heat and cold. The following are limitations unique to the RQ-11B Raven: Absence of wind. Consider using mounted launch or launch from atop a building or terrain feature. Weather restrictions (cloud cover. 3-23. Interchangeable payloads and components. Assembly area survivability. and Morse/continuous wave. A unique capability available to the SBCT reconnaissance squadron is the Prophet SIGINT system. The surveillance troop in the SBCT reconnaissance squadron is equipped with three Prophet systems. and other factors). Additionally. The following are capabilities unique to the RQ-11B Raven: Redundancy (multiple air vehicles per system). Unique Class III/V requirements. which reduce endurance (battery life) and degrade system performance. 3-28. Fragile components. While UASs are an excellent force multiplier. and restarting after a predetermined time or when cued manually. Low noise signature. PROPHET 3-26. Winds less than 20 knots. single sideband. Limitations 3-24. Inability to provide first-hand knowledge of the situation. The Prophet system is capable of monitoring or scanning for signals. The receivers identify single-channel digital and analog signals with modulations of AM. Only front. which increases difficulty of launch.

and analyze information. 3-34. The Infantry Rifle Company. the following: Tactical vehicles. Dismounted units should always consider the use of alternative means of mobility if available. Emergency extraction rally points. the squadron must always consider site exploitation during planning for reconnaissance operations. The squadrons may require augmentation for ground movement and will require support for air movement. collect. Mobility assets may include. these assets can create a larger visual and sound signature that may not be acceptable for the mission. Nonstandard tactical vehicles. such as the enemy situation. Leaders must consider the nature of the operation while evaluating the use of these alternate assets and determine if the mission will support their use. air movement planning must cover specific requirements for air infiltration and exfiltration: Coordinate with the supporting aviation unit(s). The unit should also plan different ingress and egress routes. their use may conserve Soldiers’ energy and move them more quickly to a desired location. process. 3-8 FM 3-20. and strategic objectives (see FM 3-90. On the other hand. personnel. Motorcycles. Even if available. Dismounted reconnaissance troops most often move on foot using common dismounted infantry tactical movement formations and techniques as discussed in FM 3-21. See the detailed discussion on infiltration and exfiltration later in this chapter. All-terrain vehicles. 3-32. Depending on the mission. GROUND MOVEMENT 3-31. the platoon leader—as well as the assault or general support aviation unit—should ensure that aircrews are included in the planning and rehearsal. and FM 321. Planning for air movements is similar to that for other missions. Their use may also restrict movements to certain areas. AIR MOVEMENT 3-33.Chapter 3 SITE EXPLOITATION 3-29. Site exploitation is a series of activities to recognize. making the unit more vulnerable or susceptible to detection. The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad.96 12 March 2010 . Therefore.10. Site Exploitation). for additional information. personnel. but are not limited to.15. Lost communications extraction points. Plan and rehearse with the supporting aviation unit prior to the mission if possible.93. Plan and coordinate joint suppression of enemy air defense (J-SEAD). Site exploitation remains an implied task inherent in all reconnaissance missions because the collection and analysis of information. and materiel can enable follow-on actions. If armed escort accompanies the operation. however. covering the following: Planned insertion and extraction points. Gather as much information as possible. Horses/mules.8. the units must plan accordingly. The dismounted reconnaissance troop of the IBCT reconnaissance squadron and the LRS company of the BFSB reconnaissance squadron face movement challenges as a result of limited lift capabilities. In addition to the normal planning process. and/or materiel found during the conduct of operations to protect the force and produce an advantage within the operational variables to support tactical. Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations. operational. See FM 3-55. they must determine whether their use would enhance or degrade the operation. Ground operations involve movements by foot or other ground-assisted transportation means. in preparation for the mission. preserve. MOVEMENT DURING DISMOUNTED OPERATIONS 3-30.

Civilian situation. see FM 3-55.93. Leaders use reverse planning to schedule operational events. with emphasis on additional water safety considerations. leaders must consider the following factors: Enemy situation. and flexibility of an insertion or extraction. BFSB RECONNAISSANCE SQUADRON CONSIDERATIONS 3-38. zone. fog. then begins infiltration. Environmental factors such as winds. OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 3-39. Its primary mission is to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance operations to answer the supported headquarters’ PIR and other IR. Common dismounted missions involving waterborne operations include the use of inflatable landing craft and helocast operations. Equipment. Drop site. 3-40. This is a point where swimmers enter the water and begin infiltration. especially waterproofing. Because of the unique mission and organization of the BFSB. stealth. While planning waterborne operations. and route reconnaissance but is optimized for area reconnaissance. Dismounted units may choose—or be required—to use waterways or to cross water obstacles during the course of their mission. The squadron conducts reconnaissance and surveillance in the unassigned areas of the supported headquarters AO or in an AO assigned to the BFSB by the supported headquarters. Planned extraction points and emergency extraction rally points require communications to verify the preplanned pickup time or coordinate an emergency pickup time window. Time schedule. For more detail on these waterborne operations. Dismounted units must plan waterborne operations in the same detail as other operations. to ensure they adhere to unit SOP. thunderstorms. waves. The troops can be 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. ground reconnaissance in support of higher headquarters. area. Shipping. The reconnaissance squadron allows the BFSB to provide 24-hour manned. It is not organized to conduct a reconnaissance in force. and route) and perform surveillance in conjunction with those missions. helocasting. WATERBORNE MOVEMENT 3-36.96 3-9 . the reconnaissance squadron has its own specific considerations compared to the other types of squadrons. Planning must also include details for extraction when communications between higher headquarters and the unit are lost.) The squadron relies on stealth to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance. The reconnaissance squadron is capable of conducting zone. and lightning. (See Chapter 1 for organizational information. 3-37. Waterborne operations include using surface craft. Using the water to their advantage can improve the speed.Reconnaissance Operations 3-35. The squadron’s two mounted reconnaissance troops can conduct various reconnaissance missions (area. The team debarks from a larger vessel at a planned drop site. Launch point. or a combination of these methods. Beach landing site. waterborne movement should take place during limited visibility for maximum stealth. swimming on the surface. Whichever method is used. The mounted reconnaissance troops are capable of operating in unassigned areas of the supported headquarters AO at extended distances from the nearest source of support if required by the situation. which must allow the team to infiltrate and support movement to the inland objective. The squadron is designed to simultaneously use the LRS company and reconnaissance troops dispersed within the supported headquarters. Supervisors inspect loads and lashings. Method of loading. The lostcommunications extraction point involves infiltration teams moving to the emergency extraction point after two consecutive missed communications windows and waiting up to 24 hours for pickup (based on unit TACSOP).

3-10 FM 3-20. The squadron staff performs mission planning. it may begin execution of reconnaissance operations from another brigade’s AO. Coordinating the use of airspace in or near another brigade’s AO. The LRS company can collect information in locations or against targets that require stealth or in situations that cannot be supported by other technical or human intelligence assets. Priorities for collection. The reconnaissance squadron receives its tasks as mission orders from the BFSB. Deconfliction of fires in unassigned areas of the higher headquarters AO. Use hand-held thermal and long-range infrared cameras during limited visibility operations. Essential coordinating instructions. Establish over-the-horizon/long-range communications using high frequency (HF) and ultra-high frequency (UHF) tactical satellite assets and short-range very high frequency (VHF) FM line of sight to ground and air assets. Specific capabilities of the LRS company include the following: Provide 24-hour manned coverage of NAIs and TAIs. Planning passage through another brigade’s AO. They will typically operate mounted but can operate dismounted if required. observation for pre.or postattack assessment. and redundancy—to manage available collection and reconnaissance assets. Because the squadron frequently operates in unassigned areas of the supported headquarters AO. The staff uses various techniques—such as cueing. other key information for the squadron. Use SUASs and special camera kits to send imagery of targets in near real time. CCIR and other IR. mixing. Coordinating sustainment support for squadron elements in or near another brigade’s AO. This requires the squadron to conduct significant coordination with the other unit. In addition.Chapter 3 employed together or dispersed depending on mission requirements. and recover unattended ground sensors. Employ laser designation capability for precision guided munitions. Attachments help to maximize collection effectiveness and provide a mix of collection assets for critical reconnaissance tasks. PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 3-42. BFSB commander’s and supported commander’s intent. determines what assets can best answer the IR. 3-45. The BFSB headquarters may direct attachment of assets from the MI battalion(s) to the squadron. The squadron’s LRS company provides unique capabilities to the supported headquarters. HUMINT collection teams. In addition to the commander’s reconnaissance planning guidance. reconnaissance objective. at a minimum. and concept of operations. includes the following: Squadron task organization. 3-43. 3-41. Multifunctional teams. monitor. Squadron mission and tasks. such as the following: SIGINT assets such as Prophet.96 12 March 2010 . 3-44. and tasks its subordinate units to collect the required information. Key areas for coordination include the following: Positioning of squadron assets in or near another brigade’s AO. UAS assets. and positive identification missions. the staff considers task organizing various assets—such as a HUMINT collection team (HCT) attached to a reconnaissance troop—to further maximize the capabilities of available assets. including attachments. Emplace.

This is a party identified as neither supporting nor opposing friendly or enemy forces. These situations may entail one or more of the following eight forms of contact: Visual contact or observation.Reconnaissance Operations 3-46.ACTIONS ON CONTACT FORMS OF CONTACT 3-47. Nonhostile contact. Actions on contact are the following: Deploy and report. the squadron’s subordinate units react using actions on contact. Contact with enemy obstacles or those of unknown origin. Plan medical treatment of team members and their extraction from the operational area. Neutrals. provides detailed information on the planning and execution of LRS missions. Regardless of the nature of the operation or type of mission. Contact occurs when elements of the squadron encounter any situation that requires an active or passive response to the threat. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. including emergency resupply or use of caches. Situations involving EW tactics. This category covers contact with personnel. Evaluate and develop the situation. This series of combat actions must be thoroughly trained and rehearsed from the staff level down to platoon level so that the squadron can maintain freedom of maneuver and avoid becoming decisively engaged. the squadron seeks to make contact with the smallest element possible. Direct fire contact with an enemy force. This is a party acknowledged as potentially hostile to a friendly party and against which the use of force may be envisioned (JP 3-0). Choose a COA. Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations. Plan communications support and reporting procedures. Coordinate passage of lines. Identify fires capabilities to support the team(s). PROCEDURES OF ACTIONS ON CONTACT 3-48. Adversaries include members of the local populace who sympathize with the enemy. FM 3-55. The insertion and extraction section in the squadron HHT assists the LRS company in the planning and—in particular—the coordination of LRS missions. Recommend a COA to the higher commander. and security for the team(s). Contact with enemy or unknown aircraft. Supporters. including civilians. or elements that do not pose an immediate lethal threat to friendly forces.96 3-11 . Plan sustainment support. Key considerations for employment of LRS teams include the following: Identify assets to support ground or air infiltration/exfiltration. Situations involving CBRN conditions. SECTION II . Examples include the following: Adversaries. When contact is made. AC2. Indirect fire contact. Execute selected COA. This is a party that sympathizes with friendly forces and that or may not provide material assistance to them.93. Another important part of the squadron’s planning is the insertion/extraction of LRS teams from the LRS company.

The squadron updates this information as necessary based on incoming spot reports. The squadron commander may determine that there is not enough information to answer the IR to support the higher commander’s decisions or identify the enemy’s impact on current or future operations. strength. Information is normally reported using the SALUTE format: Size of the enemy elements (composition). Probable enemy intentions. Rather. The friendly situation (location. The higher commander uses the initial information reported by the squadron to begin to develop an understanding of the current situation. he also evaluates the situation and. The commander of the element in contact makes a quick evaluation of the situation. The squadron maintains visual contact and/or initiates direct or indirect contact. He directs actions to protect his elements and to develop the situation (such as withdraw elements. Equipment in enemy elements. the element making contact immediately deploys using appropriate tactical movement or a battle drill (such as contact and action drills). The squadron commander and staff compare the information from the reports to intelligence products and decision tools to identify indicators that confirm or deny the CCIR for both the squadron and higher headquarters. the squadron commander and staff continue to assess the situation. Unit(s) of enemy forces (if this can be determined). Examples include the following: Enemy capabilities. EVALUATE AND DEVELOP THE SITUATION 3-52. and capabilities).” The squadron and its subordinate units can survive the initial contact by making sound decisions and executing timely actions. Actions on contact are not intended to generate a rigid. the goal is to help the squadron avoid “blundering into the enemy. directs squadron-level maneuver to assist the commander in contact with further development of the situation. DEPLOY AND REPORT 3-49. The squadron’s higher headquarters monitors the ongoing operation to determine if it is progressing satisfactorily according to the current plan. begin to maneuver elements. Possible friendly COAs to achieve the specified reconnaissance objective. COAs. To answer these IR. It is essential for the squadron commander to understand the higher commander’s intent to enable the development of sound recommendations. Time enemy activity was observed. the squadron commander may decide to further develop the situation in accordance with the higher commander’s intent using one or any combination of the following to gain additional information: Direct mounted or dismounted reconnaissance. 3-54. As the squadron commander receives the initial reports from the element in contact.Chapter 3 Note. Refer to FM 3-90 for additional information on actions on contact. How to gain positional advantage over the enemy. 3-53. as necessary. 3-12 FM 3-20. Activity of the enemy elements (disposition). He quickly gathers as much relevant information as possible and sends a spot report to the squadron. and capabilities). strength. and decision-making. When initial physical or visual contact is made. lockstep response to the threat. 3-51. Location of the enemy elements. Reorient sensor assets such as UASs or other supporting aerial assets. As the element in contact and the squadron develop the situation. The commander of the element in contact sends a contact report to the squadron as soon as possible after contact occurs. The friendly situation (location.96 12 March 2010 . The squadron reports the contact to its higher headquarters using the standard contact report format. or call for fire) based on specific engagement or bypass criteria from the higher commander’s guidance. 3-50.

Based on the higher headquarters’ assessment of the situation. These recommendations include future actions for the element in contact and possible future COAs for the squadron. the commander of the element in contact develops recommendations for the squadron commander. the commander of the element in contact may be directed by the squadron commander to execute a COA. The FRAGO may also call for execution of critical ongoing functions (see FM 6-0). surveillance. unforeseen opportunity to achieve the intent of the operation or significant threats to the operation’s success resulting from friendly failures or enemy successes. and purpose across all warfighting functions. At the squadron level. space. 3-55. Adjust CCIR based on the situation. including resynchronizing the operation in terms of time.96 3-13 . Based on information reported by the squadron. the higher commander may issue a FRAGO directing execution of a branch or sequel. The squadron commander may direct the squadron to continue the mission based on the original scheme of maneuver and tasks to subordinate units. and continue reconnaissance of the AO. the squadron commander and staff develop COAs that meet the higher commander’s intent and are within the squadron’s capabilities. including branches and/or sequels. While developing the situation. he issues a FRAGO to his subordinates to implement it. the squadron’s higher headquarters evaluates the situation against the commander’s intent to determine the significance of any indicators. if possible. Direct reconnaissance in force if capable and permitted by the engagement criteria. the squadron commander may recommend adjustments to the higher headquarters concept of operations if the situation has a direct bearing on the higher commander’s CCIR. the commander of the element in contact issues the necessary orders and continues to execute the plan. while maintaining contact and continue the mission. Conduct continuous intelligence. the squadron commander directs actions to apply combat power based on his decision or a COA directed by the higher commander. Adjust graphic control measures. Evaluating these indicators is a necessary step in assessing the progress of operations and determining whether a branch or sequel is required. If the original plan is still valid and is proceeding satisfactorily. He continues to report to the squadron. If the evaluation of the situation indicates that a branch or sequel is required. 3-59. 3-57. in accordance with bypass criteria. The squadron staff completes any follow-up actions necessary to support execution. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. This may be due to a significant. reorganizing as necessary. 3-61. EXECUTE THE SELECTED COA 3-60. The squadron commander chooses an appropriate COA and informs the higher commander prior to execution. The squadron commander has several options in continuing the mission: Conduct reconnaissance handover or battle handover with an adjacent or supporting unit. If the original plan is still valid or requires only minor refinement to support the squadron commander’s intent. At squadron level. Bypass the enemy element. Critical ongoing functions include the following: Focus all assets on the decisive operation. and/or reconnaissance. 3-58. the squadron commander will not normally have to issue FRAGOs. or he may direct a branch or sequel and issue a fragmentary order (FRAGO). and continue reconnaissance to gather additional information about the enemy contact. Alternatively. Establish a screen while maintaining contact with the enemy force. Continue to develop the situation. Conduct security operations. Based on the higher commander’s intent.Reconnaissance Operations Engage with supporting indirect fires. CHOOSE AND/OR RECOMMEND A COA 3-56.

security.Chapter 3 Employ airspace control measures. engineers)? When and where does the squadron conduct reconnaissance handover or battle handover with follow-on units? Time available: Does the reconnaissance tempo (rapid. Although the planning considerations in this discussion address reconnaissance operations. infrastructure. For example. deliberate. Through this analysis. Continue liaison and coordination. the leaders can begin preparing the unit for actions on contact. the squadron needs to consider how the likelihood of contact will affect its task organization. Reallocate resources within the organization. where is the squadron or its subordinate elements most likely to make contact with enemy forces? Did the higher commander specify any bypass criteria in relation to enemy forces? What are the higher commander’s PIR? Terrain and weather: Does terrain and weather favor one method (mounted. Manage the movement and positioning of protection or sustainment assets. or defense)? What is the focus of reconnaissance (terrain. The following are possible planning considerations based on METT-TC: Note. choice of movement techniques. and formations. dismounted. society. offense. Change the concept of operations. leaders evaluate a number of factors to determine their impact on the unit’s actions on contact. Mission: What is the unit’s mission (such as reconnaissance. For example. The mission variables of METT-TC (see Chapter 1) provide a logical framework for this evaluation. During planning for reconnaissance operations. they may outline procedures for the transition to more secure movement techniques or to cue surveillance assets before contact is initiated. they have applicability to any type of operation conducted by the squadron. PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 3-62. forceful) increase the likelihood of making enemy contact? 3-14 FM 3-20. Perform terrain management. aerial. threat)? What reconnaissance technique (reconnaissance push or reconnaissance pull) is the higher commander directing? Enemy: What engagement criteria did the higher commander specify in his reconnaissance guidance? Based on IPB. sensor) over another? How will terrain factors such as obstacles or avenues of approach affect possible branches and/or sequels to the scheme of maneuver? Does available cover and concealment support the directed reconnaissance tempo? How will weather conditions affect surveillance systems (such as LRAS3 or Raven SUAS)? Troops and support available: How should the squadron task organize based on expected enemy contact? What additional assets are available to support the reconnaissance effort (such as Army aviation.96 12 March 2010 . Conduct targeting and target acquisition. Change the mission. stealthy.

clear enemy forces in the designated AO within the capability of the unit conducting reconnaissance. ZONE RECONNAISSANCE DESCRIPTION 3-64. This includes the focus. therefore. national origin. Therefore. It is appropriate when previous knowledge of the terrain is limited or when combat operations have altered the terrain.96 3-15 . There are four forms of reconnaissance—zone. A zone reconnaissance is assigned when the enemy situation is vague or when information concerning cross-country trafficability is desired. route. Society: Determine the size. language. although they are not a set checklist and are not necessarily arranged sequentially. area. Establish and maintain contact with local civilian and military leadership. for additional information. The reconnaissance may be threat-oriented. it may— based on its mission analysis and the subsequent specified and implied tasks identified—perform a combination of the forms of reconnaissance to answer the higher commander’s IR. party affiliation. as well as applicable social demographics (such as race. which is expressed in terms of threat. society. When the squadron is assigned a zone reconnaissance by its higher headquarters. Zone. and composition of the populace within the zone. or route reconnaissance mission. The reconnaissance force must accomplish certain critical tasks unless the higher commander specifically directs otherwise. its subordinate units could be assigned a zone. Additionally. A terrainfocused zone reconnaissance must include the identification of obstacles. Zone reconnaissance is a deliberate. Tactics. area. PLANNING AND EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 3-65. 3-66. or any other significant social grouping). age. the squadron commander may focus the reconnaissance effort on a specific force such as the enemy’s reserve. education. These execution considerations serve as a guide to indicate the actions associated with the zone reconnaissance. both existing and reinforcing. tribe. area. A thorough IPB and clearly defined CCIR will help identify the relevant information needed by the higher commander. religion. Based on time constraints and the commander’s intent. as well as areas of CBRN contamination.Reconnaissance Operations Does the reconnaissance tempo allow for dismounted reconnaissance when required? Civil considerations: What impact do the ROE have on execution of actions on contact by subordinate units? How will the actions of the squadron and its subordinate unit’s impact or influence the local populace? Are there any protected civilian sites such as hospitals or religious sites that potentially limit actions taken on contact with enemy or adversary elements? SECTION III – FORMS OF RECONNAISSANCE 3-63. or a combination. time-consuming process. infrastructure. Execution considerations for a zone reconnaissance. may include the following: Threat: Find and report enemy forces within the zone. even though the squadron as a whole is performing a zone reconnaissance mission. the squadron commander may direct his troops to reconnoiter for specific information only. society-oriented. The squadron commander issues reconnaissance planning guidance or receives it from higher. it must be focused. based on METT-TC. Based on engagement criteria. Tactics).) Note. and/or terrain. class. location. sex. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. terrain-oriented. clan. and reconnaissance in force (See FM 390. and route reconnaissance will normally be conducted with a multidimensional focus that includes such factors as society and infrastructure as well as the threat and terrain. infrastructure-oriented. (See FM 3-90.

Locate bypasses around urban areas. or subway). such as an objective. however. Locate and determine the extent of contaminated areas within the zone. bridge. and the aspects of SWEATMSO. Inspect and evaluate all bridges.Chapter 3 Identify allegiances of the local populace to factions. and contaminated areas. bus. it may— based on its mission analysis and the subsequent specified and implied tasks identified—perform a combination of the forms of reconnaissance to answer the higher commander’s IR. the focus is on the specific reconnaissance objective or NAI that defines the area. or other organizations. If no mission has been assigned. even though the squadron as a whole is performing an area reconnaissance mission. Planning and execution considerations for an area reconnaissance are the same as those for a zone reconnaissance. or key piece of terrain. The area to be reconnoitered may also be defined by an NAI when focusing on a relatively small area such as a building. It could be a road or an axis of advance. The “area” for an area reconnaissance may be defined by a single continuous line enclosing the area to be reconnoitered. Tactics. Route reconnaissance is conducted to determine whether the route is clear of obstacles and/or threat forces and how well or how poorly it will support the planned movement. area. Reporting: Report all pertinent information to the commander directing the zone reconnaissance. Terrain: Locate all obstacles. including CBRN. Infrastructure: Identify key municipal infrastructure that can affect military operations. overpasses. the squadron proceeds with any assigned follow-on missions. 3-67. underpasses. If the squadron encounters threat forces. Upon completion of the zone reconnaissance. The route is a prescribed course from a start point (SP) to a specific destination (release point [RP]). create and mark lanes as specified in orders. 3-16 FM 3-20. Examples include transportation (such as rail. Provide a sketch map or overlay. for additional information. communications. religious groups. obstacles. PLANNING AND EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 3-69.96 12 March 2010 . Area reconnaissance enables the squadron to conduct decentralized reconnaissance in multiple areas simultaneously. its subordinate units could be assigned a zone. Reconnoiter and determine the trafficability of all terrain within the zone. ROUTE RECONNAISSANCE DESCRIPTION 3-70. Therefore. or route reconnaissance mission. AREA RECONNAISSANCE DESCRIPTION 3-68. defiles. When the squadron is assigned an area reconnaissance by its higher headquarters. the squadron will normally establish a screen along the LOA or continue to observe the specified NAIs or reconnaissance objectives.) Note. it conducts actions on contact in accordance with ROE and previously articulated engagement criteria. (See FM 3-90. and culverts within the zone. including urban areas. Locate fords or crossing sites near all bridges within the zone.

and contaminated areas. the subordinate elements of the squadron conduct zone. If enemy contact is expected. Battalion-size units or larger organizations are usually assigned a reconnaissance in force mission. Based on time and the higher commander’s intent. During a reconnaissance in force. The integration of ground. Locate mines. and culverts. therefore. Reconnaissance platoons can reconnoiter only one route at a time. the squadron commander may direct his subordinate units to reconnoiter for specific information only. air. the number of reconnaissance platoons available directly influences the number of routes that can be covered at one time. The squadron may also conduct screening operations in support of the larger organization conducting the reconnaissance in force.96 3-17 . A reconnaissance in force is conducted when the enemy is known to be operating within an area and adequate intelligence cannot be obtained by other means. Reconnoiter routes approaching and inside urban areas. Locate bypasses around built-up areas. obstacles. he is alert to seize any opportunity to exploit tactical success. PLANNING AND EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 3-72. and clear within capabilities any enemy or adversary elements that can influence movement along the route. conducted as an offensive operation to answer clearly stated CCIR. IPB and CCIR often indicate information required by the higher commander that narrows the focus of the reconnaissance.Reconnaissance Operations 3-71. Even though the higher commander directs execution of a reconnaissance in force primarily to gather information. this includes providing a sketch map or route overlay to the headquarters initiating the route reconnaissance. The routes should be close enough together to enable the troop commander to maintain C2 and achieve security through some degree of mutual support. Reconnoiter defiles along the route. Planning and execution considerations for a route reconnaissance can include the following: Reconnoiter and determine trafficability of the route. underpasses. Within capabilities and in accordance with the commander’s intent. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. area. and barriers along the route. 3-74. a troop is normally assigned one major route. Note. FM 3-20. obstacles. The end state of a reconnaissance in force is to determine enemy weaknesses that can be exploited by the higher headquarters. route reconnaissance is often a task performed during zone or area reconnaissance. the reconnaissance squadrons in the BCTs require augmentation with maneuver or fires elements to conduct a reconnaissance in force as a stand-alone mission. A route reconnaissance may be assigned as a separate mission or as a specified task for a unit conducting a zone or area reconnaissance. If enemy contact is unlikely. Inspect and classify bridges along the route. and route reconnaissance missions.971. Reconnoiter lateral routes. report. or locate a bypass. clear the route. It is an aggressive reconnaissance. Reconnaissance and Cavalry Troop. It differs from other reconnaissance operations because it is normally conducted only to gain information about the enemy and not the terrain. Find. RECONNAISSANCE IN FORCE DESCRIPTION 3-73. a troop is normally assigned two routes. Reduce obstacles within capability. The ACR cavalry squadron is fully capable of conducting a reconnaissance in force. Inspect and classify overpasses. Depending on METTTC factors. At the squadron level. and other technical assets allows for either a faster or more detailed route reconnaissance. provides examples of a troop conducting a route reconnaissance. Update route information.

and often accomplished under reduced visibility conditions. Successful execution of infiltration and/or exfiltration often requires these elements to conduct a passage of lines or a linkup with other friendly elements. Reconnaissance elements infiltrate through an area to orient on a reconnaissance objective without having to engage the threat or fight through prepared defenses. A patrol is sent out by a larger unit to conduct a specific combat.8. The BFSB LRS company may infiltrate to conduct surveillance. See FM 3-90 for additional information on these enabling operations: Unit movement. The squadron performs the critical tasks for a reconnaissance in force within the limits of its capabilities.96 12 March 2010 . such as urban environments. If the unit determines that it cannot complete an assigned task as it conducts the reconnaissance in force. or security mission. reconnaissance. for additional information on patrols and patrolling. 3-76. adjusting positions. and employing specific weapon systems. Aerial reconnaissance can provide additional security by locating threat positions and identifying routes on which ground elements can move to avoid threat contact. PLANNING AND EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 3-75. This form of maneuver is slow. Relief in place. Note. 3-78. INFILTRATION 3-79. it must report to the higher commander. The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad.Chapter 3 Note. target acquisition. See FM 3-21. SECTION IV – INFILTRATION AND EXFILTRATION 3-77. the squadron may have to plan linkup for the multiple elements conducting decentralized execution. the squadron conducts other tactical enabling operations during execution of infiltration and exfiltration as part of reconnaissance and other types of operations. FM 3-90. stealthy. describes infiltration and exfiltration in detail. Obstacle breaching. Determine the location and disposition of enemy forces. Determine weaknesses in the enemy’s dispositions that can be exploited. Scouts may infiltrate to conduct reconnaissance patrols of enemy forces in depth. 3-18 FM 3-20. If it does not have the time or resources to complete all of these tasks. it informs the higher commander assigning the mission. Attack enemy positions—and attempt to force the enemy to react—by using local reserves or major counterattack forces. Following an infiltration. Squadron elements frequently employ infiltration and exfiltration to maximize stealth and maintain the element of surprise when conducting reconnaissance operations. He then issues further guidance on which tasks the squadron must complete or restates the priority of tasks. employing fires. reconnaissance. Enter AOs in complex terrain not previously occupied by friendly forces. A patrol’s organization is temporary and specifically matched to the immediate task. Tactics. and target interdiction of enemy forces or facilities. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron is not organized or equipped to conduct a reconnaissance in force. Planning and execution considerations for a reconnaissance in force can include the following: Penetrate the enemy’s security area and determine its size and depth. which is usually clear from the reconnaissance objective. In addition.

Clearly stated PIR and associated SIR and IR. Planned fires on known. Suppressive fires as part of suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD). including planned evasion corridors. or special equipment. modified combined obstacle overlay (MCOO). Actions required to handle captured enemy personnel and equipment. and alternate communication plans. if required (see FM 3-55. and weather data will affect team operations. Restrictive fire areas (RFA) or NFAs. Plans for the use of guides.96 3-19 . To maximize the success of the infiltration and enhance survivability. Movement routes. Plans for sustainment support. 3-81. Abort criteria for each phase of the mission. The squadron commander and staff—and the LRS company commander in the BFSB reconnaissance squadron. formations. which includes frequencies. and actions at recovery areas. suspected. light conditions. including emergency resupply and use of caches. The plan also includes actions if communications cannot be established. templated. Critical information includes how the situation. A detailed terrain analysis can be conducted within the ACR/BCT using digital intelligence and topographic systems. and enemy situation template to aid in the planning of the infiltration. Specific plans include the following: Planned fires on movement routes and on and around the objective area. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. formations. logs. Use of laser designators or beacons. Mission statement. An infiltration plan allows enough time for preparation and movement. Movement routes. and actions at danger areas and halts from the infiltration site to the objective area. emergency reporting procedures. The amount of intelligence information available during planning determines the risk involved in conducting infiltration. The timing for execution of major events in the operation. rally points. A successful infiltration is a difficult and time-consuming mission for the reconnaissance squadron to accomplish. Coordination measures with friendly forces for the passage of lines or linkup.93)—include these essential details in the plan: An overview of the enemy and friendly situation. Plans for treatment of sick or wounded team members in the operational area or evacuation from the operational area. and anticipated enemy positions Use of obscurants to mask movement. designated areas for recovery. reporting schedule. Use of illumination to aid observation. The area to be reconnoitered or kept under surveillance and possible locations from which surveillance can be conducted. Plans for evasion and escape. detailed knowledge of the terrain and up-to-date information about the threat must be available. Commander’s intent for the mission. The communication plan. which includes plans for indirect and aerial-delivered fires. technical specialists. The squadron uses the information from IPB. followed by specific information for the immediate AO. The FS plan. and actions at danger areas and halts from the objective area to the exfiltration site. Uniform and equipment for the scouts or LRS team. Fires to aid navigation.Reconnaissance Operations PLANNING AND COORDINATION 3-80.

Chapter 3 OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS Size and Task Organization of Infiltration Unit 3-82. this is not done—by individual troops/companies. the amount of available cover and concealment. or as a combination of the two. The size of the infiltrating element depends on the assigned mission. dismounted. High altitude. Foot movement. The squadron can infiltrate as a whole—although normally. low opening (HALO) (LRS teams only). Method of Insertion 3-83. 3-84. Special patrol insertion and extraction system (LRS teams only). Methods of insertion for the dismounted scouts or LRS teams are the following: High altitude. The lanes/zones must have sufficient width to allow the infiltrating elements to change their planned routes to avoid unexpected threat contact. Rubber boat. it can also assign lanes or zones to subordinate units. Ground vehicle. 3-20 FM 3-20. See Figures 3-1 and 3-2. and the acquisition capabilities of both friendly and threat forces. See FM 3-55. The squadron may use single or multiple infiltration lanes or zones. Scuba (LRS teams only). Infiltration can be executed mounted. Dismounted scouts and LRS teams can infiltrate to the objective by foot.93 for more detailed discussion on infiltration of LRS elements. high opening (HAHO) (LRS teams only). or by platoons/teams. time available. or watercraft depending on the availability of equipment and type of mission. vehicle. Fast-rope insertion and extraction system. Stay-behind.96 12 March 2010 . rotary-wing aircraft. Infiltration Lane or Zone 3-85. Air. Infiltration for dismounted scouts or LRS teams must be very carefully planned.

Reconnaissance Operations Figure 3-1. Multiple-lane infiltration EXFILTRATION 3-86. If the reconnaissance element infiltrates to conduct its mission. In other instances.96 3-21 . Single-lane infiltration Figure 3-2. units within the squadron may be deliberately employed in a 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. it may be required to exfiltrate once the mission is complete.

Chapter 3

stay-behind mode during ACR/BCT operations. Exfiltration should be planned as carefully as infiltration, particularly if contact with the threat has occurred during the mission. The commander must plan for contingency measures should the conditions force the reconnaissance unit to conduct an unplanned exfiltration. See FM 3-55.93 for more detailed discussion on exfiltration of LRS elements.

PLANNING AND COORDINATION
3-87. The planning considerations for exfiltration are the same as those for infiltration; however, exfiltration lanes are typically different from those used for infiltration. Plans for extraction by applicable means (such as air, ground, special patrol insertion and extraction system, or water) should be made before the mission, with contingencies covering such possibilities as loss of vehicles, evacuation of wounded personnel, loss of communications, or poor weather that limits extraction by air. The OPORD must address contingencies and actions the reconnaissance element will take for both planned and unplanned exfiltration.

EXTRACTION POINTS
3-88. Extraction points for dismounted elements should be far enough away from the infiltrated observation post (OP) to ensure the threat does not hear vehicle or helicopter noises. Mountains, dense foliage, and other terrain features can mask these noises. Movement routes are planned to put ridgelines, rivers, and other restrictive terrain between the unit and threat forces. Primary and alternate linkup points should never be on a single azimuth leading away from the OP of an exfiltration route. Exfiltration operations require additional time to plan for contingencies against unforeseen circumstances, such as inadvertent contact with threat forces or unexpected restricted terrain.

METHODS OF EXTRACTION
3-89. When dismounted scouts and LRS teams are employed in stay-behind mode (withdrawal or delay), exfiltration by land is the preferred method. Exfiltration by land is used when— Friendly lines are close. No other method is feasible. Areas along the route are largely uninhabited. Threat forces are widely dispersed. Threat forces are not conducting aggressive/active counterreconnaissance and security activities. Terrain degrades the threat’s ability to maneuver against the exfiltration unit. 3-90. Extraction by air or water is favored when the resources are available and their use will not compromise the mission. These methods are used when— Long distances must be covered. A specific time of return is required. Cover and concealment are lacking. The threat does not have air or naval superiority. Heavily populated hostile areas obstruct ground exfiltration.

SECTION V – RECONNAISSANCE HANDOVER
3-91. Reconnaissance handover is the process of transferring information and/or responsibility for observation or surveillance of enemy contact or an assigned NAI/TAI from one element to another. It can involve visual, electronic, or digital observation and information sources in any number of combinations. Reconnaissance handover may occur between subordinate elements of the squadron or with elements from other units. The squadron exercises overall command and control of the handover.

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PLANNING
3-92. At the squadron level, planning focuses on facilitating coordination between its subordinate elements and with its higher headquarters. Planning may take place before an operation, or it may occur during operations as part of a change of mission. When planning is conducted before an operation, the squadron S3 analyzes the developing reconnaissance plan to determine which elements may be required to conduct reconnaissance handover and where or when it may take place. The squadron S-3 also considers cueing, redundancy, and mixing of available reconnaissance assets and evaluates how these reconnaissance management methods support reconnaissance handover. Once this is determined, locations and criteria for reconnaissance handover are coordinated with the squadron’s subordinate elements and/or higher headquarters as applicable. Considerations addressed during planning include the following: Coordination of redundant surveillance to assist in maintaining enemy contact during reconnaissance handover. Coordination of location and criteria for reconnaissance handover. Coordination of communications plans between units. Coordination and exchange of FS information. Exchange of reconnaissance plans. Identification and coordination of requirements for target handover, as necessary. Coordination of graphic control measures to facilitate reconnaissance handover. Coordination of transfer and acceptance of C2 between units. Integration of nondigital units into the communications plan.

PREPARATION
3-93. Maneuver units and support brigade units should receive copies of the higher headquarters ISR plan and the squadron OPORD after they are developed and approved. Because all subordinate units have their own reconnaissance requirements within the higher headquarters AO, they must understand how their particular IR relate to those of the squadron. This exchange also helps leaders at all levels to understand how higher IR may fulfill the IR of lower units or passing units, therefore minimizing redundancy. 3-94. Coordination begins as reconnaissance handover requirements are identified. Based on the higher headquarters’ scheme of maneuver, the squadron S-3 identifies other maneuver units with which squadron elements are likely to conduct reconnaissance handover. Key areas for coordination include the following: Exchange digital and FM voice communications data. Provide updates of both friendly and enemy situations (digital, voice, and graphical). Coordinate contact or coordination points, and ensure that these points are displayed on operational overlays. Coordinate fires (direct and indirect), and ensure that the direct fire control measures and FSCMs are displayed on operational overlays. Establish and coordinate recognition signals if physical linkup is necessary.

EXECUTION
3-95. During reconnaissance handover, squadron elements transfer information and/or responsibility to other maneuver elements either by digital or voice communications or, based on the situation, through establishment of physical contact at a contact point. The squadron facilitates the exchange of information by monitoring the information exchange between elements and relaying information when necessary. 3-96. Once the required information is exchanged, squadron elements confirm that reconnaissance handover is complete, based on specified criteria, and report completion higher. When a target is being handed over, the criteria may require the accepting unit to acquire the target before handover is complete.

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Chapter 3

EXAMPLE OF RECONNAISSANCE HANDOVER
3-97. As shown in Figure 3-3, JSTARS identifies the moving target indicators (MTI) of a battalion-size enemy force moving into the reconnaissance squadron’s AO and initiates reconnaissance handover. The squadron commander issues an oral FRAGO to direct a reconnaissance troop to establish visual contact at a newly designated NAI 5. Since the movement of a battalion-size enemy force was one of the commander’s PIR, the report of the MTI cues the military intelligence company (MICO) UAS platoon to launch two aircraft to establish contact with the enemy force.

Figure 3-3. Reconnaissance handover (part one) 3-98. The reconnaissance troop and the UASs establish visual contact with the advancing enemy force and populate the FBCB2 COP with enemy icons and potential ABF positions. The reconnaissance troop in contact switches to the infantry battalion’s command net and exchanges fires information and coordination for the forward passage of lines of the attacking battalion. This coordination and the information on the updated COP cue the infantry battalion’s S-3 to begin movement of the battalion scout platoon to the designated contact point to conduct reconnaissance handover with the reconnaissance troop scouts. See Figure 3-4. 3-99. Reconnaissance handover continues with the attacking infantry battalion being “pulled” to the enemy force’s weak point (an assailable flank). As the attack occurs, the squadron continues to support through maximized information flow, continuing UAS coverage, and coordinated fires. It reports enemy retrograde operations and/or approaching reinforcements (see Figure 3-5).

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Figure 3-4. Reconnaissance handover (part two)

Figure 3-5. Reconnaissance handover (part three)

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Tactics................Chapter 4 Security Operations Security operations. Security operations cannot be divorced from reconnaissance missions.. or it may operate on its own with task organized attachments.... 4-9 Cover ...... By virtue of their smaller organization. Sustained security operations will normally require the entire squadron. relatively lighter armament. Guard and cover missions will require substantial augmentation and will..... as defined in FM 3-90..... SQUADRON’S ROLE IN SECURITY OPERATIONS 4-2. are tactical enabling operations undertaken by a commander to provide early and accurate warning of enemy operations. manned.............. 4-2 Screen (Stationary/Moving)..... and manned aviation..... in most cases....... or equipped for the full spectrum of security missions executed by the ACR and its squadrons. when reconnaissance squadrons are tasked to execute security missions.... flank............ 4-9 SECTION I – BASICS OF SECURITY 4-1........... they may execute a screen or area or local security without significant augmentation....... be executed by the BCTs themselves...... Experience has demonstrated time and again that to preserve the striking power of an organization and preclude unnecessary attrition or premature culmination....... 4-3 Guard ..................... The squadron often provides security for the higher commander along an exposed front..... and to develop the situation to allow the commander to effectively use the protected force....... to provide the force being protected with time and maneuver space within which to react to the threat............... the squadrons of the BCTs and BFSB must focus their efforts and mission sets on reconnaissance....... 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.............. 4-2 Section II – Forms of Security .. 4-1 Fundamentals of Security ..... or rear of the brigade or ACR...... A review of history confirms these roles.... 4-1 Squadron’s Role in Security Operations ......... artillery... The reconnaissance squadron performs security missions to— Provide the higher commander with information about the threat and terrain. however. each tactical echelon requires a specially trained organization capable of executing security missions to preserve freedom of action for the main body..... Security is an economy of force mission that is an essential part of all combat operations....... There will be times and circumstances..... It enables higher echelons to accomplish their missions by providing them with the time and space necessary to focus combat power on the decisive operation. Prevent the BCT/ACR (main body) from being surprised.......... In these instances.... The squadron may perform security missions as part of a larger security force...... It is essential to remember that reconnaissance squadrons in the modular BCTs and BFSB are not organized....... and lack of organic armor..............96 4-1 .. Contents Section I – Basics of Security .... 4-9 Area Security ..

Orient on the force. FUNDAMENTALS OF SECURITY 4-5. and they can perform guard operations only with significant combined arms augmentation. Operations). Current trends stress the future likelihood of fighting battles in noncontiguous. possess the capability to conduct screening missions for limited periods of time. The five fundamentals of security operations are the following: Provide early and accurate warning. however.S. This is especially true in periods of limited visibility and/or adverse weather (such as rain.96 12 March 2010 . Area security (including convoy or route security). All reconnaissance squadrons are organized and equipped to perform all of these missions except guard and cover. Despite the continual evolution of sophisticated sensors and collection assets. Obstacles. Local security. A key role for the squadron when performing a security mission is to provide the higher commander with relevant information that enables him to achieve SU (see FM 3-0. Preserve initiative and freedom of movement/maneuver. Provide reaction time and maneuver space. and culture and unwillingness to interact will result in less distance and less reaction time as locals are less likely to warn U. courtesies. Alienation of the local population through ignorance of local customs. and their Soldiers. Maintain threat contact. Perform continuous reconnaissance. Cover. Protect and preserve the combat power of the BCT/ACR for decisive employment. A commander analyzes the degree of security required by the protected force in relation to the amount of reaction time and maneuver space his unit requires to perform the security mission. Examples of relevant information in a security mission include the following: Size. or facility to be protected. area. 4-8. Security operations may be categorized in terms of the degree of security provided and the amount of combat power required.Chapter 4 Provide time and space for reaction. Units will likely operate farther apart. SU will never be perfect. forces of pending threats and threat developments. Direction and rate of movement of the enemy main body. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron cannot perform the same set of security missions as its counterparts in the HBCT. sleet. cover) at echelons of division and higher are normally assigned to BCTs. 4-4. SBCT. guard. and key terrain and the effect on enemy and friendly maneuver. Security missions (screen. SECTION II – FORMS OF SECURITY 4-6. 4-7. It does. and location of enemy reconnaissance elements. Guard. 4-3. The amount 4-2 FM 3-20. They can participate in a cover operation as part of a larger element. for additional information): Screen (stationary/moving). IBCT. their subordinate leaders. the squadron and its ground reconnaissance troops must always be prepared to conduct specific security missions. Note. extended AOs. or sandstorms). composition. Tactics. The five primary forms of security operations are the following (see FM 3-90. and ACR. Note. Accordingly. Uncertainty will always be a factor for commanders. creating significant gaps in the operational area. avenues of approach.

depth is critical for success of the screen. Locations and times for reconnaissance handover and/or battle handover with the protected force. To ensure continuous surveillance. Note that when the term “screen line” is used. SCREEN (STATIONARY/MOVING) 4-10. Zone reconnaissance (covered in Chapter 3) and guard (not suitable for an unaugmented reconnaissance squadron) are missions given to units in front of a moving force. See FM 3-21. sensor. Time needed to establish the screen. This permits the protected force commander to maximize the security effort where contact is most expected. the screen requires employment of mounted and dismounted patrols. It can also be defined by the assigned security mission (such as screen. when gaps exist between maneuver units that cannot be controlled. Depth is used to achieve the following results: Prevent the threat from easily identifying and penetrating the screen. must be executed aggressively. and attached units between the front line trace and rear boundary of the security force. specific considerations for the commander or staff include the following: Number of OPs or patrols needed to provide the required level of security to the protected force. 4-13. Time and distance needed for subordinate elements to displace to subsequent positions. however. guard. ground-based sensors. harass. reconnaissance. 4-11. a screen may be performed in all directions for a stationary protected force out to supporting range of the BCT’s organic artillery. Facilitate the destruction of enemy reconnaissance elements without compromising critical OPs. including how much time is needed to conduct the handover. A patrol is sent out by a larger unit to conduct a specific combat. aerial reconnaissance. Note. Time needed to occupy OPs. The screen. or when early warning is required in gaps that are not considered critical enough to require security in greater strength. and aerial) to ensure surveillance of dead space. or cover). Prophet systems.96 4-3 . and OPs that can be repositioned over extended distances. not the linear positioning of assets.8. are active operations of which stationary OPs and surveillance assets are only one part of the overall mission. it describes only the trace along which security is provided. A screen is performed to the flanks or rear. Distance to be traveled to the positions. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The screen is appropriate when operations have created extended flanks. or even destroy the enemy with fires. Prevent gaps from occurring when OPs displace or are destroyed. even for a stationary protected force. dismounted. Inactivity in a stationary screen yields identifiable and exploitable gaps for the threat. or security mission. but not in front of a moving force. Because it is defensive in nature. PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 4-12. Commanders consider the mission variables (METT-TC) when employing their units in a security role.Security Operations of reaction time and maneuver space may be defined in his higher commander’s intent. Depth is achieved by positioning OPs. UASs. The Infantry Rifle Platoon and Squad. A patrol’s organization is temporary and specifically matched to the immediate task. 4-14. for additional information on patrols and patrolling. Again. It allows for reconnaissance handover of threat contact from one element to another without displacing. Screen missions are defensive in nature and are largely accomplished by establishing OPs oriented on an AO augmented with patrols (mounted. the screening force must disrupt enemy reconnaissance and impede. In planning and executing a security mission. Based on the commander’s intent (engagement criteria) and unit capabilities. 4-9. Depth is critical in a screen. Impact of the range of supporting fires on positioning of OPs. The ability of different reconnaissance organizations to execute security tasks is related to their organization and the capabilities of their equipment. Screens.

A squadron executing a stationary screen mission requires the following minimum guidance: General trace of screen and time it must be established. defeat. Conduct counterreconnaissance to destroy. When facing an echeloned enemy force. Displacement of the screen elements to subsequent positions is event-driven. 4-4 FM 3-20. Movement/maneuver to occupy the screen. Force to be screened. Rear boundary of the screening force. for additional information). Detect and report all enemy ground elements attempting to pass through the screen. as prescribed in the enemy’s order of battle based on IPB. the squadron uses the methods of reconnaissance management—cueing. Tactics. redundancy. detection by a threat force. In this way. Assigned AOs for ground troops. Tactics. mixing. for additional information): Location of the initial screen. the squadron commander quickly considers the following in planning the screen (see FM 3-90. Execution considerations for a screen include the following: Maintain continuous surveillance of all avenues of approach that affect the main body’s mission. To enhance the effectiveness and depth of the screen. and engagement/disengagement criteria). and task organization—to maintain threat contact and protect the main effort in accordance with the commander’s intent. Given the higher commander’s guidance (focus. tempo. Surveillance and acquisition assets. The approach of an identified and specified threat element. Mobility/countermobility/survivability. STATIONARY SCREEN 4-17. Positioning of C2 nodes. Possible follow-on missions. provides security and maintains contact for the squadron as it displaces.Chapter 4 4-15. See Chapter 3 for discussion on reconnaissance handover and reconnaissance management. Air and ground integration. Determine the direction of threat movement. locate and identify the lead elements that indicate the enemy’s main attack. Width of the screened sector.96 12 March 2010 . FS planning. the squadron’s subordinate elements conduct reconnaissance handover and/or battle handover to pass contact from one element to another. EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 4-16. relief by a friendly unit. or repel all threat reconnaissance elements within capabilities and in accordance with engagement criteria. Collapsing of the screen. Squadron Planning Considerations 4-18. Screens have certain execution considerations that guide planning but are not a fixed checklist or a specific execution sequence (see FM 3-90. or movement of the protected force may dictate displacement. Note. executed by well-rehearsed drills performed at all levels. The protected force commander does not usually place a time requirement on the duration of the screen unless the intent is to provide a higher level of security to the protected force or to provide a tentative time frame for subordinate unit planning. Maintain contact and report threat activities even while displacing. Impede and harass the enemy within capabilities while displacing to provide the protected force commander with additional time and maneuver space.

Plans must include the use of reconnaissance management (cueing. The higher headquarters establishes the general location of the initial screen. Reduced depth is the trade-off when screening extended frontages. Areas of Operations for Subordinate Elements 4-22. Initial Screen 4-19. As necessary. Aviation assets can also provide continuous observation of threat elements to allow reconnaissance ground troops to displace to subsequent positions. if available.Security Operations Sustainment. It is adjusted closer to the protected force only with approval. UASs and/or ground-based sensors and Prophet systems are positioned to provide the squadron with additional depth. These assets may patrol along exposed flanks or in gaps between ground OPs. 4-20. a PL is established to designate the squadron LOA. the squadron can adjust the initial screen to best meet these considerations. Key considerations in locating the screen are the following: Fields of observation/detection from behind the screen. should not be along critical high-speed avenues of approach. When forced to do so. Because the initial screen often represents the FLOT. Surveillance and Acquisition Assets 4-24. Tactical road march. augment the surveillance of NAIs. Refer to Chapter 3 for detailed information on zone reconnaissance and infiltration. UASs or attached manned aviation assets (such as OH-58D Kiowas and/or AH-64D Apaches) may conduct surveillance forward. Note. redundancy. the commander may have to assign specific terrain to UASs coupled with sensors. Requirements to observe specific NAIs or TAIs. they must also compensate for the absence of visual observation by aerial assets (such as in adverse weather) by specifying how to adjust ground OPs or positions. including responsibility for NAIs and TAIs. to the rear. With permission. the squadron develops a plan to provide early warning on the most likely 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. it is considered a restrictive control measure requiring coordination when units move beyond it to conduct aerial surveillance or ground reconnaissance. ground sensors. or on the flanks of ground elements to add depth and extend capabilities of the ground screen. If operations forward of the screen are required. Range of supporting fires. and observers). Reconnaissance troops are normally deployed abreast with troop elements established in depth. This terrain. Note. mixing. Air and Ground Integration 4-23. Reconnaissance handover between screening elements. They can simply fly higher (METT-TC dependent) to see over the terrain. Time available and the threat situation determine the method of occupation of the screen. Using its own or the higher headquarters’ organic surveillance and acquisition assets (such as UASs. selected from three primary methods: Zone reconnaissance. or generally add redundancy and depth within the sector. Infiltration. task organization) to maximize coverage and effectiveness. Control of displacement to subsequent positions. Aviation assets do not necessarily fly forward of the screen.96 4-5 . however. Movement to Occupy the Screen 4-21. The reconnaissance squadron commander designates AOs for subordinate elements.

the communications/digital linkages. Fire planning includes the integration of indirect and direct fires. EAs are planned to help focus fires in areas along likely threat avenues of approach where the fires have the greatest likelihood of achieving desired effects. These “be prepared” obstacles provide the commander with tactical flexibility. Initial and subsequent locations of the CPs must be integrated into the higher headquarters communications plan to ensure continuous digital connectivity. C2 and Sustainment 4-28. The squadron may be required either to conduct moving flank screens or to screen the rear of the BCT/ACR as it attacks. Countermobility. Generally. of using. 4-25. This is determined early in the planning process to allow the supporting battalion time to conduct planning. These obstacles are planned and possibly prepared.96 12 March 2010 . artillery positioning plans. the command relationship. depending on how the battle develops. higher assets (such as JSTARS or Guardrail) are then requested to provide earlier acquisition information to cue squadron assets. to disrupt. although emphasis may shift because the main body is moving. and Survivability 4-27. Sustainment assets must be prepared for operations extended in both time and space. The squadron plan defines the event criteria that trigger displacement. conducting periodic surveillance on areas the threat is less likely. Combined Arms Obstacle Integration. and FSCMs such as an NFA covering friendly OPs or positions. This means units may or may not execute situational obstacles. Squadron assets screening well forward or to the flanks of the BCT/ACR may require support from the closest battalion. If the squadron is screening extended frontages. provides specific considerations for planning situational obstacles. It is driven by the higher commander’s intent for the screen—whether its purpose is to report only. and emplacement of situational obstacles. but still has the possibility. Note. attack aviation. Screening the 4-6 FM 3-20. such as OP survivability. artillery tactical missions.Chapter 4 avenues of approach. and CAS. FM 90-7. Mobility. These higher-level assets can also be requested to aid the squadron when it is collapsing the screen— and therefore most vulnerable—or to assist in regaining contact with the threat if contact is lost. or to destroy/delay specific elements of the threat’s formations. Targets are planned at chokepoints on likely approaches. It is critical that the higher headquarters clearly identify what supporting artillery is available for the screening force. and position assets to provide sustainment to the reconnaissance units. but are not executed until specific criteria are met. 4-29. PLs and checkpoints are used to control this event-driven operation. In many instances. The same planning considerations discussed earlier for stationary screens apply to a moving screen as well. these assets can operate in an economy of force role. Control of Displacement to Subsequent Positions 4-30. mine dispensing systems are the most frequently used since they can rapidly and precisely emplace a minefield with set self-destruct times. coordinate with adjacent units. situational obstacles can be used both to disrupt and delay the threat (in conjunction with fires) and to protect elements of the squadron. both the squadron tactical command post (TAC CP) and main CP must be operational to support C2 over extended distances and to maintain communications and digital linkages with higher headquarters and the squadron’s subordinate elements. Most likely avenues are not necessarily the high-speed avenues. in areas where the threat must slow down. Fire Planning 4-26. In screen operations. The factors of METT-TC will influence the most likely avenues. Nonorganic. or in conjunction with emplaced obstacles. MOVING SCREEN 4-31. improvement of roads and trails for lateral movement. Engineers may be attached for specific tasks.

Tactics. UASs or sensors may be incorporated into the screen during movement of ground troops or employed to extend the areas of coverage.) Four basic methods of movement may be used by both ground and aerial reconnaissance assets (see Table 4-1): Alternate bounds by individual OPs (see Figure 4-1). Continuous marching (see Figure 4-2). for additional information.Security Operations rear of a moving force is essentially the same as a stationary screen. Figure 4-1. the squadron occupies a series of successive screens.96 4-7 . squadron sustainment assets may move with the BSB in the main body. Movement is regulated by the requirement to maintain the time and distance factors desired by the main body commander. Alternate bounds by individual OPs and by subordinate units 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Alternate bounds by subordinate units (platoons or troops) (see Figure 4-1). (See FM 3-90. 4-32. The width of the AO is not as important as the force being protected and the threat avenues of approach that might affect the main body’s movement. Successive bounds (see Figure 4-2). Depending on distance from the main body and METT-TC. As the protected force moves. The squadron screens from the front of the lead combat element of the main body to the rear of the protected elements (excluding front and rear security forces). The moving flank screen poses additional considerations.

Methods of screen movement METHOD Alternate Bounds by OPs Alternate Bounds by Units CONSIDERATIONS Protected force moves faster Contact possible Bound rear to front Protected force moves faster By platoon or troop Contact possible Bound rear to front Slow protected force By platoon or troop Contact possible Simultaneously or in succession Air screen during ground move Very fast protected force Perform as route reconnaissance Contact not likely Air screen on flank ADVANTAGES Very secure Maintain maximum surveillance Fast Good surveillance Maintain unit integrity Most secure Maintain maximum surveillance Maintain unit integrity DISADVANTAGES Slow Disrupt unit integrity May leave temporary gaps Successive Bounds Slowest method Less secure during simultaneous move May leave temporary gaps Continuous Marching Fast Maintain unit integrity Least secure 4-8 FM 3-20.Chapter 4 Figure 4-2.96 12 March 2010 . Successive bounds and continuous marching Table 4-1.

In addition. It may entail occupying and establishing a 360-degree perimeter around the area being secured or taking actions to destroy threat forces already present. A guard mission may be assigned to protect either a stationary or a moving force. A guard is appropriate when— Contact is expected. Tactics.) COVER 4-36. for additional information. for additional information).96 4-9 . equipment. 4-35. lines of communications (LOC). Tactics. unit convoys. The guard force is deployed in a smaller AO or narrower frontage than a screen to permit flexibility and concentration in applying combat power. Route and convoy security. and rear guard. The commander can have his subordinate troops employ a variety of techniques such as OPs. EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 4-39. Tactics. cause withdrawal of. Screen. 4-34. terrain features.) AREA SECURITY 4-37. or fix threat combat forces before they can engage the protected force. a covering force operates apart from the main body to develop the situation early. flank. Normally. There is an exposed flank or a threat force to the rear. and critical points. Area security operations may require the execution of a wide variety of supporting operations and tasks. Offense and defensive tasks (within capabilities). There is a requirement for greater protection than a screen can provide. a covering force is tactically selfcontained and capable of operating independently of the main body. A covering force accomplishes all the tasks of screening and guard forces. The reconnaissance squadron may task subordinate units to conduct the following in support of squadron area security operations: Area. and destroy enemy forces. towns. A guard force routinely engages enemy forces with all available means—including direct and indirect fires—to prevent the enemy from penetrating to a position where it could observe and engage the main body. it conducts operations to deceive. The squadron may be tasked to participate in a cover mission as part of a larger force. Operating as a covering force is a high-frequency mission for an ACR. MSRs. The guard force may act as a fixing force to enable maneuver of the main effort. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Area security is conducted to deny the threat the ability to influence friendly actions in a specific area or to deny the threat use of an area for its own purposes (see FM 3-90. the squadron prevents threat ground reconnaissance elements from directly observing friendly activities within the area being secured. including personnel. SQUADRON TASKS 4-38. The protected force is conducting a retrograde operation. The guard mission may entail decisive engagement of the enemy. facilities.Security Operations GUARD 4-33. (See FM 3-90. augmentation may be necessary. for additional information. The guard differs from a screen in that the guard force must contain sufficient combat power to defeat. It also prevents (within capabilities) threat ground maneuver forces from penetrating the defensive perimeters established by the commander. and/or zone reconnaissance. airfields. route. disorganize. (See FM 3-90. Security for high-value assets. There are three types of guard operations: advance. Unlike screening or guard forces. the covering force at division level and higher is built around an ACR or HBCT. It includes reconnaissance of the area specified for protection. When conducting an area security mission.

4-40. the massing of combat power would prevent exfiltration or a breakout from the secured area. 4-10 FM 3-20. Maintaining an observable presence. A unit establishes a perimeter when it must secure an area where the defense is not tied into an adjacent unit.96 12 March 2010 . HUMINT assets. 4-41.Chapter 4 BPs. ambushes. ground-based sensors. critical infrastructure. Area security is a frequent mission during stability operations. when circumstances may not permit establishment of clearly defined perimeters. 4-42. A most probable direction of attack may require the massing of combat power in that portion of the perimeter to defeat an attack and/or infiltration. When a perimeter is not feasible. Failure to conduct continuous reconnaissance may create a vulnerable seam within which the enemy can execute an infiltration or attack. and assist stability or relief operations. Again. the squadron can execute ambushes and preemptive strikes proactively and with greater precision. and combat outposts to accomplish this security mission. Early warning of threat activity is paramount in area security missions and provides the commander with time and space to react to threats. HUMINT assets. mobile gun systems (MGS). METT-TC determines required augmentation for the squadron. provide security. The unit employs integrated OPs. If the perimeter is inward-focused. and mounted and dismounted patrols. The squadron may position reaction forces or disperse its reserve among several secured perimeters. and other antiarmor weapon systems (attached or organic) are emplaced to orient on high-speed avenues of approach. Using the intelligence acquisition capability available to the squadron and the BCT/ACR. maneuver forces. Perimeters vary in shape and distribution of assets based on the results of IPB and METTTC. as in stability operations or counterinsurgency. and high-value assets. Checkpoint operations to monitor or control movement. The unit establishing the perimeter typically divides it into troop/platoon sectors with boundaries and contact points. Subordinate units may establish perimeters around base camps. and reconnaissance capabilities at extended distances from the perimeter. UASs and ground-based sensors provide overlapping surveillance. Figure 4-3 depicts an example of an SBCT reconnaissance squadron conducting area security of a small village. engineers. Attached tanks. UASs. Other missions or tasks in support of area security may include the following: Route and/or convoy security of critical LOCs. A reserve or quick reaction force (QRF) enables him to react to unforeseen contingencies. and military police (MP). Patrols to cover gaps between secured perimeters. 4-43. the reconnaissance squadron secures the area by establishing a presence and conducting reconnaissance operations throughout the area. Of particular importance is the need for such assets as aviation. while other units conduct operations to establish presence.

and railways may be mined.Security Opera S ations Figure 4-3. It also prevents the threat from in e o nterdicting traffic by emplac cing obstacles on or estroying portions of the rout te. mitigate the risk from k th hreat forces. destroy ying. im mpeding. however. Althoug they are de gh efensive in na ature. 12 Ma arch 2010 FM 3-20. very long s y ro outes may be extremely diffi e icult to secure. Threat fo orces will try to interdict s supply routes and LOCs b a variety o methods. they ar terrain-orien re nted.96 4-11 . measures can be enforced to m . br ridges and tun nnels can be d destroyed by d demolitions. R by of Roads. c containing. Unli screen mis ike ssions. waterways. SBCT reconnaiss T sance squadr conducting area security ron ROUT SECURITY TE 4-44. route se ecurity perations are conducted aggr c ressively. de 4-45. Be ecause of the nature of this mission. seizing. amb w bush sites can b located adja be acent to the rou being secur or ute red. or har rassing traffic along the route. Route sec curity operatio are a spec ons cialized kind o area security operations c of y conducted to p protect LOCs and frien ndly forces m moving along t them. The purpose of op ro oute security is to prevent a t s threat from attacking.

96 12 March 2010 . establish a screen oriented to prevent threat observation and/or direct fire weapons from influencing the route. Each combat outpost maintains a reaction force to respond to threat activity or reinforce patrols. Identify sections of the route to search suspected threat locations. or maintenance. 4-49. The squadron or troop establishes mutually supporting combat outposts and provides security between them. troops or platoons may escort engineers as they conduct route clearance. The route outside the reach of the combat outposts is not normally secured or patrolled. or howitzer sections capable of massing fires in support of both the outposts and the operations between them. they can assist in observing the route by conducting aerial surveillance. In the first technique. followed by patrols.Chapter 4 Execution Considerations 4-46. a squadron can typically establish up to six. Establish roadblocks/checkpoints along the route and lateral routes to stop and search vehicles and persons on the route and those entering the route. Other techniques to defeat threat attempts to interdict the route or ambush convoys include the following: Deceptive “mock” convoys under escort to determine threat reactions. The second technique entails protecting only critical lengths or locations along the route that have been identified during the IPB process. effectively covering large areas in a short time on a continuous basis. Registered indirect fires triggered by sensor cues. a troop can establish one or two combat outposts. 4-51. The following discussion highlights two techniques that the reconnaissance squadron can use in executing route security depending on the nature of the threat. Although UASs cannot secure the route. A squadron can provide route security by combining this technique at two locations or critical choke points with route reconnaissance along the rest of the route. Establish OPs (covert/overt) or ambushes at critical points to watch for threat activity. UASs or attached manned aviation assets may reconnoiter in advance of ground troops or assist in screening the flanks. If possible. Based on METT-TC. and repair damage caused by threat actions. In addition to reconnaissance. 4-48. Troops reconnoiter the route. A route security force operates on and to the flanks of a designated route. troop mortars. Combat outposts should include FS assets. improvement. Aggressively conduct ground and aerial patrols/surveillance to maintain route security. clear terrain at potential ambush sites. Route Security Techniques 4-47. and characteristics of the route. prior to sunrise. The combat outposts are established at critical choke points to prevent sabotage and to defend against or respond to attacks to interdict the route between outposts. Occupy key locations and terrain along or near the route. the squadron or troop conducts route reconnaissance at irregular intervals to avoid developing a pattern that the threat may exploit. purpose of the security mission. Ambushes along known or suspected dismounted approaches to the route. UASs can also assist in providing surveillance depth to the screen securing the route. 4-50. Patrols are conducted at irregular intervals between the outposts based on threat trends and recent activities. Conduct route clearance at irregular intervals to prevent emplacement of threat mines and explosive devices along the route. To accomplish the route security mission. Combat patrols use fires to harass and interdict the enemy at irregular intervals during limited visibility. The squadron may be used in an economy of force role by its higher headquarters to secure critical MSRs or other routes. the force will perform the following functions: Conduct continuous mounted and dismounted reconnaissance of the route and key locations along it to ensure the route is trafficable. Ground sensors can be used in surveillance of 4-12 FM 3-20. Patrols must be organized with sufficient combat power to destroy far ambushes and to survive initial threat contact from near ambushes. or before critical convoys to detect and destroy ambushes. they may conduct zone reconnaissance to either flank.

This reduces the manpower and sustainment demands on the squadron’s resources. CONVOY SECURITY 4-52. Organization 4-55. Reaction force. Clear the route of obstacles or positions from which the threat could influence movement along the route. The security element provides early warning and security to the convoy’s flanks and rear. harassing. the convoy security force should be a combined arms organization. flanks. It may also perform duties of the escort element. The ability of different reconnaissance organizations to execute convoy security is related to their organization and the capabilities of their equipment. It may also provide a response force to assist in repelling or destroying threat contact. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Convoy security missions are conducted when insufficient friendly forces are available to continuously secure LOCs in an AO. The squadron as a whole rarely performs convoy security. Commanders consider the mission variables when task organizing to support convoy security missions. It may also perform duties of the escort element. They may also be conducted in conjunction with route security operations as part of an area security mission.96 4-13 . typically assigning convoy security missions to its subordinate units. Tactics. The advance guard performs tasks associated with zone and route reconnaissance forward of the convoy. 4-53. A convoy security mission has certain critical tasks that guide planning and execution (see FM 3-90. the security force must accomplish the following: Reconnoiter the route the convoy will travel. or destroying the convoy. containing. The reaction force provides firepower and support to assist the other elements in developing the situation or conducting a hasty attack. To protect a convoy. Security element. Convoy security is a subset of area security. Ideally. and rear of a convoy element moving along a designated route. 4-54. a convoy security force has sufficient combat power to organize into the following elements (see Figure 4-4): Advance guard. Prevent the enemy from impeding. Provide early warning of enemy presence along the route.Security Operations key avenues of approach or areas that do not require continuous surveillance by scouts. for additional information). Escort element. It may perform duties of the security element. A convoy security force operates to the front. The escort element provides close-in protection to the convoy. or it may be integrated into the body of the convoy. seizing. Convoy security missions are offensive in nature and orient on the force being protected. with integrated air and ground assets. If possible.

and movement techniques to prepare for enemy contact. medical support. Convoy Security Techniques 4-57. actions on contact. The 4-14 FM 3-20. and varying routes and schedules (within guidance for designated routes). strict noise and light discipline during movement. Note. which include the following: OPSEC when planning and disseminating orders. emphasis is on extensive security measures.96 12 March 2010 . Identification of possible enemy ambush sites during IPB. formations. Use of passive and active EW systems to counter IEDs. Employment of overwatch mitigates the risk of being decisively engaged during movement and is a critical factor in reacting effectively to an ambush. locations for leaders.Chapter 4 Figure 4-4. Because of the inherent dangers of convoy operations. Coordination with the supported unit moving in the formation. and communications with units in AOs through which the convoy will move. including ambushes. communications. Commanders plan and execute all movements of troops and supplies as tactical operations. Convoy security organization Execution Considerations 4-56. both in enforcing preventive measures and in conducting close. including C2. Coordination for FS. Convoy security missions generate unique requirements that the commander and staff must take into account when formulating a plan. aerial support. Contingency plans. This includes understanding how support is used to assist movement. The convoy security commander and his subordinates are briefed on the latest information regarding the threat situation and the area through which the convoy will pass. and weapon systems. battle drills. continuous support of combat operations.

assignment of security force elements (reconnaissance. areas of employment. the movement formation. schedules of movement. identification panels. 4-63. and request and adjust fires. the squadron aid station. Because of the possibility of operating over extended distances from the squadron aid station. High-value assets are those whose capture or destruction by enemy forces could decisively change the course of the operation. Convoy operations may require assistance from military or local police and other government agencies to secure the route before the convoy enters the built-up area. and designated units along the route. relentless. frequencies. CONSIDERATIONS FOR SECURITY OF HIGH-VALUE ASSETS 4-64. The squadron may maintain a reserve or QRF to support convoy movement if the squadron is assigned an AO or the convoy is moving only a short distance. 4-61. If the squadron does not have an assigned AO or the convoy will move over an extended distance (beyond the range of squadron support). Communications are vital to the success of movement. 4-58. intervals between echelons and vehicles. send routine location reports. Casualty evacuation (CASEVAC) must be planned in detail along the entire movement route. and control. covering commander’s intent. escort. Convoy security operations in an urban environment or built-up area require different emphasis and techniques than those in rural areas. The squadron S-4 and unit commanders must carefully plan for sustainment in convoy security operations. and detailed plans for actions on contact. Immediate action drills (such as enemy ambush. To ensure they apply minimum essential force to minimize loss of life and destruction of property. Leaders plan FM and digital communications with convoy elements and with units occupying AOs along the route of movement to ensure availability of support assets. Whenever possible. whistles or horn signals.96 4-15 . coordination must be maintained among the convoy security force. obstacle. Security missions to protect high-value assets are an important component of area security in both major combat operations and stability operations. these communications means are effective when prearranged signals and responses are understood and rehearsed. Air defense reinforcements should be orchestrated into the movement and defense plan. Air defense of the convoy must be addressed if an air threat is possible. the squadron CP. and target numbers prior to convoy movement. A detailed precombat inspection (PCI) must be performed before the convoy starts movement to ensure that vehicles are full of fuel. the combat trains CP (CTCP) when deployed. leaders must conduct detailed planning. which can be accomplished only through coordination with the supporting units before movement begins. 4-62. preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS) have been performed. Leaders must coordinate call signs. Fuel and maintenance elements should be included in the convoy itself or pre-positioned in secure areas along the route. To ensure that immediate medical support is available. convoys should move through populated areas when these areas are least congested and therefore pose less danger to the security of the convoy. If the route falls under an existing air defense umbrella. the reserve/QRF is provided by the unit(s) through whose AOs the convoy moves. enemy forces must be convinced that ambushes will produce a fast. units should coordinate fire support along the entire route of movement. The convoy elements should review small arms air defense procedures and establish orientation sectors. When possible. The population density and characteristics of the area may require the use of nonlethal weapons and the careful application of lethal weapons. hard-hitting response. While limited. Coordination with FS cells that can provide fire along the route of movement ensure that FISTs can enter the FM voice or digital FDC net. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. and escalation of force signs. Visual and sound signals are prearranged. rate of travel. and reaction). In either case. aerial medical evacuation (MEDEVAC) is the preferred means of evacuation and must be planned and rehearsed in detail. 4-59. and react to indirect fire) must be identified and rehearsed prior to movement and executed in case of contact. These signals include colored smoke. the squadron staff should conduct the appropriate coordination with the controlling air defense headquarters. coordination.Security Operations commander formulates his plans and issues his orders. screen. 4-60. and potential maintenance problems are eliminated.

offensive. Examples of high-value assets to be secured in major combat operations include the following: Major power-generation facilities (power plants. Airports. How easily the high-value asset can be detected and targeted with indirect fire.Chapter 4 4-65. Refugee camps. dams). or defensive operations. Triggers for change of mission from security to reconnaissance. High-profile detainees. Mission and movement/positioning plan of the high-value asset. Locations that could be used by enemy personnel serving as forward observers for enemy indirect fire systems. Cities. Pipelines and relay stations. frequencies. Government facilities. location. 4-16 FM 3-20. and other centers for mass transit. Considerations the squadron must address when it tasks subordinate elements to secure high-value assets include the following: Internet protocol (IP) address. and linkup point of the high-value asset. Route to be used in reaching the high-value asset and composition and disposition of enemy forces that can influence the route.96 12 March 2010 . Other friendly or neutral forces in the area and their task and purpose. Is there an implied reserve mission? Ability of the security force to maintain communications with higher headquarters. seaports. Industrial complexes. Examples of high-value assets to be secured in stability operations include the following: Government officials and political and military leaders. The security force must consider its own survivability and maintain adequate standoff from the high-value asset. 4-66. 4-67. Duration of the mission and sustainment considerations.

........... isolation.. the squadron seeks to place the enemy at a positional 12 March 2010 FM 3-20............Movement to Contact ... the reconnaissance and cavalry squadrons are capable of conducting offensive operations based on mission variables (METT-TC) and the higher commander’s guidance........ and population centers.................. 5-7 Sequence of Attack ...... When tasked to defeat an enemy or adversary. 5-8 Special-Purpose Attacks .. (See FM 3-0 and FM 3-90.. and visualize and direct operations.... It begins with a discussion of the primary offensive tasks and then addresses how the squadron transitions to other operations....... Offensive operations are combat operations conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize terrain. the squadron seeks to accomplish this through the most appropriate defeat mechanism (i. cavalry units have historically performed offensive operations........... Operations)... Tactics... offensive missions are often conducted by the squadron in an economy of force role for its higher headquarters................ Successful offensive operations place tremendous—and continuous—pressure on defenders...... for additional information.......... disruption. dislocation... In today’s modular force... 5-3 Execution Considerations ...... retaining..... make better and quicker plans and decisions... 5-11 Consolidation . 5-11 Section IV – Transitions .. 5-7 Operational Considerations... Contents Section I – Purpose of Offensive Operations ....... Although the fundamental role of the squadron is reconnaissance.. 5-3 Organization ... With the exception of the BFSB reconnaissance squadron............. In a dynamic............. at a minimum............. and exploiting the initiative to achieve decisive results.... adaptive enemy...................... This chapter discusses the squadron’s conduct of offensive operations.. resources.. They impose the commander’s will on the enemy (FM 3-0........... Reconnaissance or security operations performed by the squadron in support of offensive operations conducted by its higher headquarters are covered in Chapter 3 and 4.. or destruction).....) 5-2........ complex OE against a capable.. 5-1 Section II ........96 5-1 .. respectively... 5-4 Section III – Attack .................... creating or revealing weaknesses that the attacker can exploit........ The higher commander must understand that assigning a mission to perform offensive operations precludes the squadron from performing its primary mission of reconnaissance.......... the retreat and/or disintegration of the threat...Chapter 5 Offensive Operations The offense is the decisive element of full-spectrum operations....... 5-11 Reorganization .. Offensive operations compel the enemy to react............ 5-12 SECTION I – PURPOSE OF OFFENSIVE OPERATIONS 5-1..... leading either to defeat of the enemy or.e...... the offense is the most direct way of seizing. which in turn is a key component in enabling the commander to develop SU... Through maneuver conducted during offensive operations..........

16 caliber . Operating over extended distances or in complex terrain such as a densely populated city may exceed the squadron’s ability to generate adequate combat power for offensive operations. takes actions designed to interdict or isolate an enemy force with the aim of destroying it. moves to attack positions behind friendly units in contact with the enemy.96 12 March 2010 . There are four primary offensive tasks—movement to contact. Routes. The mission variable of troops available is a unique consideration for the IBCT reconnaissance squadron. All leaders must recognize this portion of the operation as a fight. The squadron may have to fight through enemy obstacles. 5-5. six TOW missile systems. The squadron employs techniques that avoid the enemy’s strength when possible. there may not be an LD. the squadron’s two mounted troops can employ a total of 12 MK19 grenade launchers. 5-3. or condition) with task and purpose statements for each element in the squadron. and other combat multipliers to reach the objective.Chapter 5 disadvantage. speed. traditional or irregular) must be considered in relation to the amount of combat power the squadron can generate. 5-6. Regardless of type. Movement to line of departure (LD). and four 120-mm mortars. Considerations for the sequence of offensive operations include the following: Preparation/reconnaissance. Mounted on lightly armored wheeled vehicles. The squadron plans the approach to the objective to ensure security. and flexibility. Terrain factors must also be considered. For the BCT reconnaissance squadrons. The squadron acts to maintain contact with enemy forces and. Each phase has a start point and end point (such as a specified time. artillery strikes. 5-2 FM 3-20. mobility. During this phase. The nature of the threat presented by enemy forces (for example.50 machine guns. attack. In certain circumstances (such as a noncontiguous AO). The squadron can expect to conduct movement to contact and attack missions as part of its higher headquarters’ conduct of exploitation and pursuit. the squadron closes with and destroys the enemy in close combat. 5-4. this section provides a detailed discussion of how the squadron plans and executes these tasks. The reconnaissance squadron possesses the greatest amount of firepower. and sustainment activities. rehearsals at all levels. and begins the attack. not a movement. preparation time is used to conduct precombat checks (PCC) and PCIs. conducts a passage of lines. the squadron can conduct local exploitation to take advantage of successful attacks. and protection within the IBCT. and movement formations are selected that best support actions on the objective. and pursuit (FM 3-90 and FM 3-0). If attacking from positions not in contact. offensive operations conducted by the squadron follow a general sequence. This allows the squadron to mass the effects of combat power while defeating parts of the enemy force in detail before the enemy can escape or be reinforced. movement techniques. it seeks to achieve surprise to strike the enemy from a flank or the rear. Because the squadron can conduct of movement to contact and attack independently. event. The squadron also conducts extensive reconnaissance of the objective to support the commander’s decisions on how to employ the squadron’s combat power against the enemy. He normally does not make final decisions until reconnaissance operations determine the enemy situation to the greatest extent possible. exploitation. Of these. when directed by its higher headquarters. Approach to the objective. security elements. the squadron often stages in an assembly area. the squadron is expected to perform movement to contact and attack independently with augmentation based on mission variables. When required. the mission variables of enemy and terrain have the most significant impact on their ability to conduct a movement to contact or attack. Based on the nature of the enemy.

capabilities. The squadron normally organizes into the following elements when conducting a movement to contact (see Figure 5-1): Security force. ORGANIZATION 5-10. Tactics. The squadron normally conducts a movement to contact mission as the lead element of an ACR or BCT attack or as a counterattack element of an ACR or BCT.Offensive Operations Actions on the objective. Advance guard. Consolidation/reorganization. (See FM 3-90. Based on the mission variables. A movement to contact is characterized by rapid. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The squadron’s objective may be a specific terrain feature or enemy force. but the decisive operation is focused on the location of enemy’s weakest point. The main body contains the bulk of the squadron’s maneuver elements and keys its movement on the advance guard.) 5-8. Transition. this begins when the squadron makes initial contact with an enemy force and begins to develop the situation. It then reorganizes to prepare for follow-on operations if required. This flexibility is essential in maintaining the initiative. the squadron may conduct consolidation and reorganization. A properly executed movement to contact develops the combat situation and maintains the commander’s freedom of maneuver after making contact. If the objective is an enemy force. an objective area may be assigned for orientation. isolation. For a movement to contact. which is focused on reporting detailed information on the terrain and enemy within a given zone. The squadron secures and strengthens the objective so it can be defended against counterattack. This element allows the squadron to locate the enemy with the minimum force. Main body. disruption. and the anticipated situation.MOVEMENT TO CONTACT 5-7. aggressive action. These elements prevent the enemy from surprising the main body. This element protects the main body from surprise attack and develops the situation to protect the deployment of the main body. Unlike a zone reconnaissance. or destruction. The squadron executes follow-on missions as directed by the higher commander.96 5-3 . Actions on the objective start when the squadron begins placing fires on the objective. and weaknesses. SECTION II . a movement to contact is focused on finding the enemy. the higher commander’s intent. A movement to contact contributes to the defeat of an enemy by developing the situation and determining the enemy’s intent. Flank guard and rear guard. disposition. for additional information. The critical tasks are geared for achieving fast movement and rapid location of enemy forces. The movement to contact enables further offensive or defensive operations focused on defeating enemy forces through their dislocation. 5-9. The squadron develops plans for follow-on missions based on the higher headquarters’ plan.

(See FM 1-02. contact points. Organization for movement to contact EXECUTION CONSIDERATIONS 5-11. however. The rate of movement is controlled by using PLs. there is the risk of enemy forces outside the axis not being detected and thus being inadvertently bypassed. This is accomplished by issuing a clear commander’s intent. but the primary focus should be on the enemy force. and developing a series of DPs to execute likely maneuver options. DEVELOP THE SITUATION 5-13.Chapter 5 Figure 5-1. developing a simple concept of operations. Planning must allow for flexibility and promote subordinates’ initiative. One or more objectives can be designated to limit the extent of the movement to contact and orient the squadron.96 12 March 2010 . however. The depth of the movement to contact is controlled using an LOA or a forward boundary. Operational Terms and Graphics. In developing his concept. for additional information. and checkpoints as required. the squadron commander anticipates where he is likely to meet the enemy based on IPB and then determines how to develop the situation. An axis of advance can be used to guide movement in limited visibility. He 5-4 FM 3-20. The movement to contact may result in taking a terrain objective. this is done only to guide movement. The movement to contact usually starts from an LD at the time specified in the OPORD.) 5-12. A key goal during execution of a movement to contact is to prevent a meeting engagement with the enemy.

The commander seeks to defeat an attacking enemy force and create the opportunity for offensive action. and situational obstacles. If rapid forward movement is required and the higher commander has authorized bypass of enemy forces. the commander makes the final decision for execution of a COA based on the progress of the initial engagement of the advance guard. either to the front or to the rear. the squadron commander repositions and maneuvers forces to defeat the enemy through massed fires. and by the speed and accuracy with which FRAGOs and other instructions can be developed and passed. As the enemy attacks. Search and attack is a technique for conducting a movement to contact. or when the squadron loses the freedom to maneuver. The squadron maneuvers to the best available defensible terrain. deployment. The squadron commander quickly develops a scheme of maneuver and concept of fires for the attack and distributes orders to subordinate units. The squadron’s mission may be to destroy enemy forces. protect the force. deny the enemy certain areas. establish security. array forces. It is most often used during operations within noncontiguous AOs. This may result in the squadron becoming a fixing force to enable the higher headquarters to execute further offensive operations against the enemy force. the squadron uses massed direct and indirect fires and maneuver to attack the enemy. The squadron movement to contact generally ends with the commitment of the main body. He controls movement. The following paragraphs provide a general description of the COAs that may develop as a result of a movement to contact. the squadron may need to retain its position to allow the higher commander time to commit additional forces. Bypass 5-15. or 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. the squadron can bypass. After a successful attack. situational obstacles. He employs fires. Usually. In some cases. the squadron may continue the movement to contact or execute other missions as directed by the higher commander. and possible changes to the task organization of the squadron. The squadron conducts search and attack when the enemy is operating in small. Attack 5-17. 5-19. CAS. dispersed elements or when the task is to deny the enemy movement in an area. the advance guard (and possibly the entire squadron) moves into hasty ABF positions oriented on an EA. Subordinate units quickly deploy. 5-14. The commander directs an attack when the squadron has the element of surprise or when the enemy is disorganized and/or in a state of disruption. when the enemy’s superior strength forces the squadron to halt and prepare for a more deliberate operation.96 5-5 . Attack by Fire 5-16. An ABF is effective against a moving or infiltrating force that is not aware of the presence of the squadron. the squadron must fix or contain the enemy force until released by the higher headquarters.Offensive Operations defines the conditions in terms of enemy and friendly strengths and dispositions that are likely to trigger execution of identified maneuver options. Special emphasis is placed on flank protection and adjacent unit coordination. When most of the enemy is in the EA. If the size and mobility of the bypassed force represents a threat. The commander seeks to defeat the attacking enemy force and create the opportunity for offensive action. and counterattacks. and develop fire and obstacle plans. This option is influenced by the information available from FBCB2. SEARCH AND ATTACK 5-20. by rehearsals and battle drills. Instead of immediately engaging the enemy. Timely and accurate intelligence facilitates the squadron commander’s selection of an appropriate COA as the situation develops. The squadron commander directs a defense when the squadron has insufficient combat power to attack. Defend 5-18. The squadron commander may direct the advance guard or another security force to delay an enemy attack to provide time for establishment of a defense.

Based on the nature of the threat (such as an infantry-based enemy force). Each of these forces has a specific task and purpose. Search urban areas. The fixing force differs from an advance guard in that it is focused on isolating the enemy rather than providing security for the finishing force. The squadron may task its subordinate units to conduct the following missions: Locate enemy positions or heavily used routes. The fixing force and finish force. the fixing force may have to be emplaced before the reconnaissance force enters the AO. Once the enemy is located. The more vague the enemy situation. and infiltration routes identified during IPB are used to help focus the search and attack. timely and accurate intelligence. 5-26. The 5-6 FM 3-20. This includes the ability to clear fires rapidly. blocking escape and reinforcement routes. but typically is conducted by troopsized elements within the squadron’s AO. The finish force is the decisive operation. Supporting Fires 5-28. The fixing force incorporates indirect fires into the plan. The reconnaissance force typically consists of one or more scout platoons or reconnaissance platoons. the larger the reconnaissance force should be. and reserve forces. The squadron conducts search and attack operations by organizing into reconnaissance. Destroy enemy forces within capability. organization of forces. Considerations for conducting search and attack operations include IPB. Depending on the mobility of the enemy and the likelihood of the reconnaissance force being compromised. fix and/or block the enemy until reinforcements arrive. respectively. It also blocks routes identified by the squadron. Maintain surveillance of a larger enemy force through stealth until reinforcements arrive. Note. isolation of the enemy. 5-25. Habitually used cache sites. Like the main body. Depending on the enemy situation. the squadron commander first task organizes the finish force and uses the anticipated size of the enemy to ensure that the force has enough combat power to accomplish its assigned task. The following discussion provides more information about these considerations. the finishing force focuses on defeating the enemy based on the COA directed by the squadron commander. are similar in nature to the advance guard and main body in a movement to contact. and finish forces. the fixing force isolates it. The fixing force may be organized around a troop. The fixing force must have enough combat power to isolate the enemy once the reconnaissance force locates it. The size of the reconnaissance force depends on the degree of certainty associated with the enemy template. which requires units to track and report the locations of their subordinate elements. and decentralized C2. mobile transportation assets. SIGINT sites. rapid support throughout the AO. fix. Search and attack can be executed at any level above platoon. Isolation of the Enemy 5-27.96 12 March 2010 . Organization of Forces 5-24. the finish force may be able to perform the mission without augmentation. supporting fires. 5-21. The higher headquarters assists the squadron by ensuring the availability of adequate supporting fires. a single reconnaissance platoon may require augmentation for this role. or eliminate enemy/adversary influence within the AO. In search and attack operations. Note. 5-22. mortar firing locations. Available fires must provide flexible.Chapter 5 collect information. IED locations. 5-23. Secure military or civilian property or installations.

Offensive Operations

capability must exist to mass fires quickly in support of the main effort. Because of the uncertainty of the enemy situation, the commander avoids command or support relationships that prevent shifting assets when necessary. Supporting fires should be flexible and destructive. They should also enhance the ability of a highly mobile attack force to destroy an enemy force located and fixed by other forces.

Decentralized C2
5-29. The squadron commander provides the necessary control, but he permits decentralized actions and small-unit initiative to the greatest extent possible. This includes establishing the proper graphic control measures to control movement and the synchronization of all squadron assets and attachments to enhance combat power.

SECTION III – ATTACK
5-30. An attack is an offensive operation that destroys or defeats enemy forces, seizes and secures terrain, or both. Since attacks focus specifically on the defeat of enemy forces, they contribute directly to setting conditions for a stable and secure environment. This enables the transition to stability operations designed to pass authority to other U.S. government or host nation agencies. 5-31. The squadron must mass the effects of overwhelming combat power against a portion (or portions) of the enemy force or terrain, with a tempo and intensity the enemy cannot match. Based on his SU, the squadron commander chooses the place where he wants to attack the enemy. This is usually a location where the enemy is weak and least prepared for an attack and where the squadron has the greatest opportunity for success.

OPERATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS
5-32. Attacks may require the rapid execution of battle drills by forces immediately available, or they may follow detailed plans and orders closely. At one extreme, the squadron may conduct a hasty attack resulting from a zone reconnaissance, reconnaissance in force, or movement to contact to exploit an advantage in combat power or preempt enemy actions. At the other extreme, the squadron has detailed knowledge of the enemy, is augmented with additional combat power, and has a fully rehearsed plan as part of a deliberate attack conducted by its higher headquarters. (See FM 3-90, Tactics, for additional information.)

CRITICAL TASKS
5-33. Regardless of whether it is executing a hasty attack or deliberate attack, the squadron accomplishes the following critical tasks during the execution of an attack: Reconnoiter and determine the size, composition, orientation, disposition, and any weak points or flanks of the enemy force. Determine if the objective enemy force is supported by other units nearby. Find a covered and concealed approach into the enemy’s flanks or weak points. Designate a supporting element to conduct a shaping operation to accomplish the following before the main effort executes the decisive operation: Suppress, fix, and/or defeat all observed enemy antitank weapons with long-range direct and indirect fires. Isolate the enemy force from other mutually supporting units with direct and indirect fires, including obscuration and high explosive (HE) ammunition.

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Designate a main effort to execute the decisive operation focused on attacking the enemy force’s weaknesses using all available fires. Once the attack is completed, immediately consolidate/establish hasty defensive positions and OPs on high-speed avenues of approach into the position and prepare to execute follow-on missions (sequels).

ORGANIZATION
5-34. The squadron normally organizes as follows when conducting an attack: Security force. This element allows the squadron to locate the enemy with the minimum force. Main body. The main body contains the bulk of maneuver elements, organized to conduct decisive and shaping operations. Reserve. The reserve reinforces the element executing the decisive operation and assumes its mission as necessary.

GRAPHIC CONTROL MEASURES
5-35. When conducting an attack, the squadron is assigned an AO, within which the squadron commander normally designates the following control measures (see FM 1-02, Operational Terms and Graphics, for additional information): The LD. This is a PL that may also be the line of contact (LC). Objective. If necessary, an axis of advance or direction of attack to further control the actions of subordinate units.

SEQUENCE OF ATTACK
PLANNING AND PREPARATION
5-36. The focus of planning at the squadron level is to develop a fully synchronized plan that masses all available combat power against enemy vulnerabilities. The squadron directs its decisive operation against an objective, ideally an enemy weakness, which will cause the collapse of the enemy defense. The squadron seeks to attack the enemy’s flanks, rear, or supporting formations. By doing so, the squadron retains the initiative and reduces its own vulnerabilities. 5-37. The squadron commander seeks to identify a poorly defended avenue of approach, a small unit lacking mutual support within the enemy defense, or a weak flank that he can exploit to gain a tactical advantage. When attacking a well-prepared enemy defense, the squadron commander usually tries to isolate and then destroy small, vulnerable portions of the enemy defense. The commander and staff develop the plan using a reverse planning process from actions on the objective back to the LD or assembly area. They incorporate plans for exploiting success and opportunities that develop during execution. They emphasize synchronization of maneuver, fires, and support throughout the attack. See Chapter 2 of this manual for additional planning considerations for offensive operations. 5-38. The squadron uses available time prior to the attack to conduct extensive reconnaissance, PCCs and PCIs, and rehearsals while concealing attack preparations from the enemy. The squadron commander and staff refine the plan based on continuously updated intelligence. They use digital tools to allow subordinate units maximum time to prepare. Subordinates conduct parallel planning and start their preparation for the attack immediately after the squadron issues a WARNO/FRAGO. As more intelligence becomes available, the commander revises orders and distributes them via FM or FBCB2, giving subordinates more time to prepare. Regardless of the time available, the commander must conduct detailed planning and supervision of subordinate preparations. 5-39. The squadron commander positions reconnaissance assets to maintain observation of enemy reactions to the squadron’s maneuver on the objective. Reconnaissance focuses on areas the enemy likely will use to reposition forces, commit reserves, and counterattack. As the force-on-force engagement on the

5-8

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objective develops, reconnaissance elements report enemy reactions, repositioning, and BDA. Reconnaissance elements target and engage repositioning enemy forces, reserves, counterattacking forces, and other HPTs with indirect fires. Early identification of enemy reactions is essential for the squadron to maintain momentum and initiative during the attack.

MOVEMENT TO THE OBJECTIVE
5-40. During movement to the objective, the squadron is ready to— Bypass, breach, or cross obstacles. React to all eight forms of contact. Transition to different formations based on the terrain and enemy situation. Employ forces to screen flanks that could become exposed or threatened during the approach. Avoid terrain features that are likely enemy artillery reference points, locations for CBRN strikes, or locations for situational obstacles. Employ indirect fires to establish conditions for assault forces. Destroy or prevent the withdrawal of enemy security forces. Minimize the effects of enemy deception. 5-41. The squadron must counter enemy security forces to ensure an unimpeded and concealed approach. Before the attack, reconnaissance forces are tasked to locate enemy security forces. Once the enemy forces are located, the squadron commander has the following options: Destroy them immediately with indirect fires and CAS. This is normally the preferred option. Destroy them with indirect fires and CAS during the approach to the objective. Attack intermediate objectives prior to execution of the decisive attack by the main effort. Employ a strong advance guard to destroy or prevent the withdrawal of enemy security forces during the approach to the objective. 5-42. The squadron must maintain a steady, controlled movement. Speed and dispersion, facilitated by close coordination and communications, are the norm when massing weapons effects to destroy the enemy’s defense. If the squadron is too slow or becomes too concentrated, it is vulnerable to massed enemy fires.

ACTIONS ON THE OBJECTIVE
5-43. The squadron commander directs the maneuver of subordinate units and employs fires, situational obstacles, and obscurants to create favorable conditions for decisive maneuver against the enemy. The commander commits maneuver elements and fires to isolate a small, vulnerable portion of the enemy’s defense to enable an envelopment against a flank or a penetration at a weak point. The squadron achieves final destruction of the enemy force through the attack of assaulting forces.

FIRES
5-44. The squadron employs fires to weaken the enemy’s position and set the conditions for success prior to closure within direct-fire range of the enemy. Initially, fires focus on the destruction of key enemy forces that can most affect the concept of operations. For example, during an attack to penetrate an enemy defense, the initial focus of fires is to destroy the enemy positions at the selected point of penetration. Fires can also be used for the following purposes: Destroy enemy security forces. Neutralize enemy reserves. Emplace artillery-delivered scatterable mines to block enemy reserve routes to the objective. Deceive the enemy as to the squadron’s actual intentions. Obscure friendly movements and deployment. Isolate the objective and suppress enemy positions. Neutralize the enemy’s indirect fires (counterbattery fires).

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5-45. The coordination between fires and maneuver is critical. As squadron elements approach the enemy defense, the squadron commander shifts fires to suppress and obscure the enemy. Proper timing and adjustment of fires enable the squadron to securely close on the enemy’s positions. The commander must monitor the success of fires to determine when adequate conditions exist for commitment of the force. Reconnaissance elements provide BDA to the commander to assist him in making this decision. The commander may need to adjust the speed of the squadron’s approach to the objective based on reports from his reconnaissance elements.

FIX
5-46. To reduce uncertainty during the attack, the squadron fixes the bulk of the enemy forces into defensive positions or pursues a COA that limits the options available to the enemy. The primary goal is to isolate the unit targeted for destruction by preventing the enemy from laterally repositioning or reinforcing it. 5-47. Usually, a subordinate unit fixes the enemy force by attacking an objective that isolates a portion of the enemy’s defense. In open terrain, the most common task for shaping operations is to fix the enemy with direct and indirect fire. In more complex terrain, shaping operations may need to seize terrain or destroy key enemy forces in limited objective attacks. The use of fires and CAS is vital when attacking enemy forces and reserves in depth; it helps to prevent the enemy’s commitment against the squadron. 5-48. Before commitment against the enemy, squadron elements remain dispersed outside the enemy’s direct fire range and avoid exposing themselves to enemy observation. Elements not yet committed use this time to conduct final preparations and make adjustments to their plans. A key action during this time is the update of intelligence on enemy locations and conditions. The S-2 should have an updated intelligence summary available just prior to the squadron crossing the LD. The squadron commander can use assault positions, PLs, and other graphic control measures to control the positioning of elements not yet committed. Subordinate commanders continuously assess the situation. They provide recommendations and anticipate decisions by the squadron commander based on tactical information they receive. The commander commits subordinate forces when the desired levels of suppression, destruction, and obscuration are achieved. Paramount to successful execution are such factors as timely reporting, crosstalk, accurate assessments, and sharing of information by subordinate commanders.

ASSAULT
5-49. The squadron must be agile enough to concentrate and mass combat power through maneuver before the enemy can reorient his defense. In some instances, the destruction of a defending enemy force dictates an assault of the objective. Shaping operations shift direct and indirect fires and reposition as required to support the decisive operation. As the assaulting force commits, the squadron commander and staff ensure that current information is available on the COP to prevent fratricide and enable exploitation of unexpected opportunities. This information should include the following: Locations and types of enemy contact on the objective. Locations of squadron reconnaissance elements. Locations of obstacles and lanes, including lane markings. Recognition signals and guides. Specific routes to use for the approach. Locations and orientations of fires from friendly forces. Additions to or modifications of graphic control measures. 5-50. The previously dispersed assaulting force quickly assembles into combat formations and rapidly maneuvers to destroy the enemy forces and clear assigned objectives. The assaulting force moves along covered and concealed routes to an exposed enemy flank, a created point of penetration, or another position of advantage. Obscuration helps to conceal the movement of assaulting forces. The assault includes destruction of defending forces and clearance of trenches and fortifications. It can involve a combination of mounted and dismounted movement. The squadron commander’s main focus is maintaining momentum and security of the assaulting force. The reconnaissance effort continues to report enemy repositioning,

5-10

FM 3-20.96

12 March 2010

Pursuit. Reestablish communications (if required). Tactics. the squadron must be vigilant against enemy threats such as counterattack by an enemy reserve element. SECTION IV – TRANSITIONS 5-54. When deciding whether to consolidate and reorganize. or both) with adjacent friendly units. Refer to the discussion of consolidation and reorganization later in this chapter.96 5-11 . updates the plans during execution. with the squadron commander establishing clear conditions for their execution. This form of attack is intended to deceive the enemy and. CONSOLIDATION AND REORGANIZATION 5-51. This usually follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. or allow time for movement of adjacent units. The consolidation and reorganization plan should be as detailed as the assault plan. prepare for an enemy counterattack. Counterattack. the squadron commander must consider the balance between the opportunity to maintain tempo and initiative by quickly transitioning to the next mission against the need to maintain security against potential enemy counterattacks or to rebuild squadron combat power. with limited contact. draw attention and combat power away from the main effort. Feint. temporary penetration of enemy territory for a specific mission. for additional details). Transitions mark a change of focus between phases or between the ongoing operation and a branch or sequel. 5-55. This attack is launched from the defense to disrupt the enemy’s attack preparations. Ideally. A transition occurs when the squadron commander makes the assessment that he must change focus from one form of operation to another.Offensive Operations BDA. The squadron limits enemy repositioning and massing against assaulting forces through intense supporting fires. The squadron consolidates and reorganizes as required by the situation and mission. and enemy counteractions to the assault. Transitions may create unexpected opportunities for the squadron. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The squadron commander directs a transition when an operation accomplishes the desired end state or reaches a culminating point or when he receives a change in mission from his higher commander. The squadron must remain vigilant during transitions. SPECIAL-PURPOSE ATTACKS 5-53. Exploitation. the squadron transitions from the attack into the next mission without pausing. This form of attack involves the swift. such as enabling the higher headquarters to conduct an exploitation or pursuit. CAS. Transitions require planning and preparation well before their execution to maintain the momentum and tempo of operations. Consolidation actions include the following: Establish contact (electronic. and employment of obscurants. physical. This offensive operation is executed to catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape. Spoiling attack. This is an attack launched from the defense to defeat an attacking enemy force or to regain key terrain and ultimately regain the initiative. a rapid assault. Consolidation is the process of organizing and strengthening a newly captured position. 5-52. such as the following: Raid. and passes them to units as the attack is completed. The squadron may need to reorganize. Conversely. The squadron plans for consolidation before every mission. The squadron may also be tasked to conduct special-purpose attacks (see FM 3-90. with the aim of destroying it. avoid culmination. CONSOLIDATION 5-56.

Prepare defensive positions. Reorganize subordinate units. if required. Establish security consistent with the threat. Reposition C2. 5-12 FM 3-20. Reestablish digital connectivity. Clear obstacles or improve lanes to support friendly movement and reorganization activities. Conduct site exploitation and process any detainees. Cross-level ammunition and other supplies and conduct emergency resupply. Subordinate units must feed reports to the squadron as losses occur to allow movement of needed resupply or replacements to begin promptly. REORGANIZATION 5-57. Recover and repair damaged equipment as necessary. if required. If extensive reorganization is required. Reorganization tasks include the following: Reestablish the chain of command. communications. Conduct resupply and refueling operations.96 12 March 2010 . Plan and prepare for future operations.Chapter 5 Eliminate pockets of enemy resistance. and sustainment assets and facilities for future operations. and C2 facilities. Maintain contact with the enemy and conduct reconnaissance. the squadron conducts it following consolidation. Reorganization planning begins before the operation and continues throughout execution. Treat and evacuate casualties. key staff positions.

....... Often during a defensive operation.. 6-2 Defensive Tasks .................. and develop intelligence (FM 3-0 and FM 3-90)...... spoiling attacks. or perform security operations.. Defensive actions are also combined with......... or followed by...... such as a counteroffensive that allows Army forces to regain the initiative.......Area Defense .............................................. and reconnaissance operations.... Even when operating during the higher headquarters’ defense.. achieve economy of force....Mobile Defense . the squadron exploits opportunities to conduct offensive operations within its AO to deprive the enemy of the initiative and create the conditions that will allow the higher headquarters to assume the offensive... 6-2 Engagement Area Development .... critical assets........ surveillance.....Retrograde Operations .. Defending forces await the enemy’s attack and counter it......... waiting for the attack is not a passive activity.. 6-7 Section V – Transitions . 6-2. The squadrons can defend or delay..... For example...... execute counterattacks.... Squadron commanders conduct aggressive security operations and intelligence... Rather............... conduct retrograde operations....... retain key terrain.................... gain time... 6-3 Section II ....... and infrastructure. Defensive operations may deter potential aggressors if they believe that breaking the friendly defense would be too costly (FM 3-0)..... protect the populace. 6-6 Defensive Area of Operations ... These may be done as a shaping operation to enable offensive operations by the squadron’s higher headquarters. and security operations to weaken them before they reach the MBA....... With the exception of the BFSB reconnaissance squadron...... 6-7 Section IV ...... other elements of full-spectrum operations based on the specific mission variables (METT-TC) of the situation.......... however... 12 March 2010 FM 3-20...... the squadron may defend to deter an enemy from breeching an international boundary or to prevent escalation of tensions between two factions or countries........ 6-4 Types of Area Defense ... Defenders engage enemy forces with fires.. Such actions locate enemy forces and deny them information.. 6-1 Defense Continuum .................... Defense is about preventing the enemy from achieving success and then counterattacking to seize the initiative.. 6-7 SECTION I – PURPOSE OF DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS 6-1...... 6-5 Critical Tasks .. 6-6 Execution of an Area Defense .. The primary purpose of the defense is to deter or defeat enemy offensive operations...... the squadron may execute several of these tasks............ Successful defenses disrupt enemy actions and create opportunities to seize the initiative. the goal is to develop conditions favorable for offensive operations.. 6-6 Section III ..96 6-1 ... Contents Section I – Purpose of Defensive Operations ... the reconnaissance and cavalry squadrons are capable of conducting defensive operations under certain mission variables and within the higher commander’s guidance. 6-4 Organization of Forces ....... Defensive operations alone normally cannot achieve a decision......Chapter 6 Defensive Operations Defensive operations have several purposes: defeat or deter an enemy attack.

including the following: C2 warfare. if required. the squadron commander employs the bulk of his combat power using fire. DEFENSIVE TASKS 6-4. the unit prepares by conducting a reconnaissance of the area. The squadron must be organized to defeat enemy reconnaissance forces without requiring reinforcement. During this phase. Protection. the most common role for these squadrons will be executing security missions. As part of the higher headquarters disruption process. This phase terminates with the destruction of the enemy force. maneuver. DEFENSE CONTINUUM 6-3. Upon successful execution of the counterattack. It is usually a hasty attack characterized by rapid and immediate action. or MBA defense phases. and consolidation/reorganization. It strengthens its new positions so they can be defended. MBA defense. the squadron uses surprise to help shape the operation. Initially. C2 systems. counterattack/exploitation. During this phase. or the conclusion of unsuccessful enemy operations. the squadron takes actions—both active and passive—to counter enemy reconnaissance and surveillance efforts. Counterattack/exploitation. disruption. marking positions they are to occupy. A counterattack may occur during the counterreconnaissance. Range of direct fire weapons. for the ACR in all types of defensive operations. disruption. reconnaissance objectives. disruption of enemy movement. The cue to initiate the next phase will be contact with enemy reconnaissance elements based on the mission and the ROE. Consolidation/reorganization. mobile defense. Lethal firepower effects. The squadrons of the BCTs may perform a series of missions. and task and purpose statements for each element. Each of these contains elements of the others and usually entails both static and dynamic aspects. The three primary tasks associated with defensive operations are area defense. The squadron may conduct consolidation and reorganization based on the mission variables.96 12 March 2010 . and retrograde (FM 3-0). Each phase has a start point and end point (usually a specified time or condition) with key tasks. displacement to subsequent positions. the squadron conducts exploitation. to maintain combat effectiveness or to attain a specified level of combat capability. it can support a higher headquarters conducting a mobile defense. A simple approach for the squadron in conducting a defense is to address the phases of the defense continuum: preparation/reconnaissance infiltration. This action seeks to expand an attack to the point where enemy forces have no alternative but to surrender or flee. and developing fire control measures. Considerations for the phases of the defense continuum include the following: Preparation/reconnaissance infiltration.Chapter 6 Commanders use combined arms and joint capabilities to attack enemy vulnerabilities and seize the initiative. The squadron commander uses existing technological advantages over the enemy. and synchronization of movement and fires are critical during preparation for the defense. Information management. Squadrons serve as the primary maneuver elements. the squadron may screen 6-2 FM 3-20. or terrain-controlling units. and terrain to set the conditions for the counterattack. Counterreconnaissance. counterreconnaissance. Disruption. The squadron then reorganizes. During this phase. Rehearsal of triggers. 6-5. This includes combat actions to destroy or repel enemy reconnaissance elements and to prevent enemy reconnaissance elements from observing the main body. Mobility. MBA defense. The squadron can execute an area defense or retrograde operation.

disruption. Terrain factors must also be considered. commanders closely integrate mobile patrols. although listed sequentially. 6-8. In a mobile defense. Determine the likely enemy concept of operations. In retrograde operations. or block the attackers and gain time for other forces to pull back. Nodal defense (combination of scenarios). 6-7. may exceed the squadron’s ability to provide adequate protection for defensive operations. Note. Alternatively. The squadron cannot perform security or defensive missions without significant augmentation.) 6-6. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron is employed in unassigned areas of the higher headquarters AO or in its own AO to conduct reconnaissance and surveillance on tasked NAIs and TAIs. and mobility. The nature of the threat presented by enemy forces (such as traditional or irregular) must be considered in relation to the amount of combat power the squadron can generate. (FM 3-90 discusses these tasks in detail. 6-10. security forces. security. All three primary defensive tasks use mobile and static elements. lethality. Because of its advantages in information. The following seven steps provide a way to build an EA. Rehearse the execution of operations in the EA. Determine where to kill the enemy. The squadron may find itself conducting common defensive scenarios (refer to FM 3-90 for additional discussion). It may also serve as part of a covering force. Defend a reverse slope. alternate. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. some steps can and should be conducted concurrently: Identify all likely enemy avenues of approach. EA development is a critical planning activity during defensive operations. In an area defense. the squadron can defend in both contiguous and noncontiguous AOs. such as flat terrain with little relief or vegetation.96 6-3 . and strongpoint—and covers the need for detailed planning and rehearsal of displacement between BPs. supplementary. the squadron may screen or guard an exposed flank. as well as those within the squadron structure. some units conduct area defenses along with security operations to protect other units executing carefully controlled maneuver or movement rearward. and flexibility characterize squadron defensive operations. disrupt. surveillance. The intelligence. Static elements fix. The mission variables of enemy and terrain have the most significant impact on the squadron’s ability to conduct a defense. FM 3-90 addresses the five kinds of BPs—primary. Preparation. Defend a perimeter. including the following: Defend from a BP. Mobile elements maneuver constantly to confuse the enemy and prevent enemy exploitation. Other tasks for the ACR/BCT squadrons may include defending AOs or positions or serving as a security force or reserve as part of the ACR/BCT coordinated defense. and reconnaissance capabilities provided by the higher headquarters. turn. subsequent. static positions help control the depth and breadth of the enemy penetration and retain ground from which to launch counterattacks. ENGAGEMENT AREA DEVELOPMENT 6-11. Plan and integrate indirect fires. 6-9. Emplace weapon systems (including preparation of BPs). Plan and integrate obstacles. aid the squadron in locating and identifying the enemy’s decisive and shaping efforts. and reserves to cover gaps among defensive positions.Defensive Operations or guard forward of the BCT. Refer to Chapter 2 for discussion of the synchronization of the warfighting functions during the operations process. massing effects. Operating in terrain with little or no cover or concealment. sensors.

When the commander defends forward within an AO. The terrain limits counterattacks to a few probable employment options. and mass fires and specify when to disengage. The squadron may employ an area defense in a variety of situations. The area defense concentrates on denying an enemy access to designated terrain for a specific time. he may deploy forces forward or plan counterattacks well forward in the MBA or even beyond the MBA. Sectors of fire. he uses his security forces and forward MBA element to identify. TRPs. The squadron commander organizes his force to accomplish reconnaissance.96 12 March 2010 . strengthen his reserve. limiting the enemy’s freedom of maneuver. Additional considerations the squadron commander takes into account in planning for the area defense include the following: EA development. method. Dispersion. define.Chapter 6 6-12. and better resource the counterattack (FM 3-90). he organizes his force so that he commits most of his combat power early in the defensive effort. The considerations listed in Table 6-1 guide planning for positioning of squadron elements. Direct fire control measures provide the manner. including the following: The mission requires holding certain terrain for a specific period of time. The commander uses his reserve force to reinforce fires. There is enough time to organize the position. Displacement considerations and criteria (defense in depth). restore positions. 6-14. The terrain affords natural lines of resistance. and sustaining operations. SECTION II . and limits the enemy to a few well-defined avenues of approach. To accomplish this. Positions for subordinate troops or companies may be designated by BPs or AOs. ORGANIZATION OF FORCES 6-15. and turning it into EAs. covered later in this discussion (see FM 3-90 for additional information): Defense in depth. The focus is on retaining terrain where the bulk of the defending force positions itself in mutually supporting positions and on controlling the terrain between positions. He has the option of two types of area defense. Forward defense. and time to initiate. The defeat mechanism is drawing the enemy force into a series of EAs where it is attacked. Development of direct fire control measures is a critical activity for the emplacement of weapon systems during EA development. thereby restricting the enemy’s maneuver. This allows him to conserve his combat power. 6-18. largely by fires from mutually supporting positions. add depth. 6-4 FM 3-20. The squadron has less mobility than the enemy does. and destroyed. Engagement priorities. Trigger lines. 6-17.AREA DEFENSE 6-13. MBA. Key direct fire control measures discussed in FM 3-90 include the following: EAs. If the commander has the option of conducting a defense in depth. block penetrations. Engagement criteria. and control the depth of the enemy’s main effort while fixing any secondary attacks. or counterattack to destroy enemy forces and seize the initiative (See FM 3-90 for detailed information). security. shift. reserve. 6-16.

The defense in depth provides more space and time for FS assets to reduce the enemy’s options. The squadron fights to 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The squadron deploys the majority of its combat forces near the forward edge of the battle line (FEBA) with the reconnaissance or scout platoon establishing a relatively shallow security area. Range of weapons systems. Flanking fire. It provides the squadron commander with more time to gain information about the enemy’s intentions and likely future actions before decisively committing to a plan of his own. Table 6-1. Due to its inherent lack of depth. and retention of certain areas that are significant factors in determining how the BCT/ACR will defend. Security.g. Positioning considerations FACTOR Avenues of approach BATTLE POSITION Well defined. The intent of a forward defense is to limit the terrain over which the enemy can gain influence or control.. attrit his forces. A defense in depth is the preferred option when tactical conditions allow. Transition to limited visibility. However. and direct fire (e. FORWARD DEFENSE 6-21. indirect fires (e.g. The commander must mitigate the fratricide risk by using graphic control measures to control maneuver (e. restrictive fire line [RFL]). Ability to maneuver.96 6-5 . It also allows the squadron to execute decisive maneuver by effectively repositioning subordinate elements to conduct counterattacks or to prevent penetrations. the two types of area defense are defense in depth and forward defense. EAs). It also limits the enemy’s ability to exploit a penetration by employing additional defensive positions in depth. the higher commander often defines the general defensive scheme for the squadron.g. boundaries). It reduces the risk of an attacking enemy quickly penetrating the squadron’s defense and affords some initial protection from enemy indirect fires. security. the forward defense is the less preferred option.Defensive Operations Cover and concealment. enemy can be canalized Dominates avenues of approach Narrow Achievable Good Known/clear Attached infantry AREA OF OPERATIONS Multiple avenues prohibit concentration Dominating terrain not available Wide Cannot be achieved Degraded Unknown/unclear/vague Pure or attached armor Key Terrain Areas of operation Mutual support Observation and Fields of Fire Enemy situation Troops available TYPES OF AREA DEFENSE 6-19. DEFENSE IN DEPTH 6-20. this repositioning increases the risk of fratricide since elements can be to the front or the rear of each other. While the squadron commander usually selects the type of area defense to use... As noted. and set the conditions for destruction. The specific mission may impose constraints such as time. Dismounted infantry.

6-22. The defending force executes shaping operations to disrupt the enemy’s plan and his ability to control his forces. These actions limit the enemy’s options. the squadron’s higher headquarters can defend a significantly larger AO. CRITICAL TASKS 6-23. The squadron commander must ensure that he remains aware of the larger 6-6 FM 3-20. EXECUTION OF AN AREA DEFENSE 6-24. and intent at the same time as friendly reconnaissance assets help to determine the enemy’s chosen COA. A successful area defense allows for transition to an attack that regains the initiative. Higher headquarters directs the squadron to retain or initially control forward terrain. Disrupt the enemy. dynamic obstacles. Prevent the enemy from penetrating the troop rear boundary or designated no-penetration line. Destroy or repel all enemy reconnaissance elements forward of the squadron’s initial defensive positions (counterreconnaissance). The defending force conducts shaping operations to constrain the enemy into a specific COA. The assigned AO lacks depth due to the location of the area or facility to be protected. The goal is to prevent the enemy’s further advance through fires from prepared positions combined with employment of obstacles and mobile reserves. and extensive long-range fires. Engage the enemy from more than one direction. it continues throughout a defensive operation. Critical tasks for conducting an area defense include the following: Maintain continuous reconnaissance of high-speed routes or avenues of approach into the squadron AO (screen). While the squadron may lack depth. DEFENSIVE AREA OF OPERATIONS 6-25. Once the process of disrupting the enemy begins. See FM 3-90 and the discussion later in this chapter for additional information on transitions between forms of operations. The defending force seeks to strip enemy reconnaissance forces and hide its own dispositions. Conditions or situations in which a forward defense may be advantageous include the following: Terrain forward in the AO favors this defense. company teams and platoons must build depth into the defense at their levels.96 12 March 2010 . Conduct EA development. Strong existing obstacles. When it does so. Enabled by SA. Execution of an area defense typically occurs in these five steps (see FM 3-90 for detailed information): Gain and maintain enemy contact. Follow-through. Cover and concealment in the rear portion of the AO is limited. The squadron can expect to conduct a forward defense for protection of critical assets or other forces or for political purposes such as defending an ally’s threatened border. control his movements. air superiority. the squadron may be assigned to defend over an extended AO. This step combines the effects of shaping and sustaining operations with the decisive operations of the main body to defeat the enemy. capabilities.Chapter 6 retain these forward positions and can conduct counterattacks against enemy penetrations or destroy enemy penetrations in forward EAs. counterattack. are located forward in the AO. Fix the enemy. and disengagement. such as a river. Note. Maneuver. or fix him in a given location. Determine criteria for initiating fires.

The squadron commander halts a defensive operation only when the operation accomplishes the desired end state or reaches a culminating point or when he receives a change in mission from his higher commander. specified by the commander. and continuous freedom of maneuver. 6-32. The three forms of retrograde operations are the following: Delay. SECTION V – TRANSITIONS 6-31. This operation trades space for time and preserves friendly combat power while inflicting maximum damage on the enemy. fixing. The higher headquarters and squadrons employ massed long-range fires and other combat effects to suppress. and the commander must establish clear conditions for their execution. but not both. and reserve forces. Movement to the rear may seem like a defeat or a threat of isolation unless Soldiers have confidence in their leaders and know the purpose of the operation and their roles in it. SECTION IV . A retirement is an operation in which a force that is not in contact with the enemy moves to the rear in an organized manner.96 6-7 .RETROGRADE OPERATIONS 6-30.Defensive Operations situation around him. and executes continuous intelligence. voluntary disengagement from the enemy. the defender withholds a large portion of available forces for use as a striking force in a counterattack. long-range fires. In a mobile defense. neutralize. the squadron must remain vigilant throughout transitions. Retirement. but may also execute offensive or defensive missions in an economy of force role for its higher headquarters. A withdrawal is a planned. The higher commander must clearly differentiate ACR/BCT and squadron responsibilities.MOBILE DEFENSE 6-27. Squadrons defending in extended AOs base their operations on superior intelligence. 6-29. The defense separates attacking enemy forces from their support and disrupts the enemy’s C2. Essentially. Withdrawal. As enemy forces extend themselves in the defended area and lose momentum and organization. and reconnaissance.) 6-28. On the other 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. these operations are area defenses with exceptionally low force-to-space ratios. Mobile defenses require enough depth to let enemy forces advance into a position that exposes them to counterattack. tactical agility. it may be conducted with or without enemy pressure. the defender surprises and overwhelms them with a powerful counterattack. or enemy forces throughout the AO. Transitions may create unexpected opportunities for the squadron such as enabling their higher headquarters to conduct an exploitation or pursuit. In a defensive operation. Close combat in these operations is limited to short. The squadron and its higher headquarters are part of either the fixing force or the striking force. violent counterattacks or direct fire ambushes against damaged. has continuous FS. the squadron often transitions from one phase of the operation to another without pausing. Note. Units smaller than a corps do not normally conduct a mobile defense because of their inability to fight multiple engagements throughout the AO while simultaneously supporting striking. triggering a transition to the next phase. The squadron primarily performs reconnaissance or security missions in support of a mobile defense. Maintaining morale is essential among subordinate leaders and troops in a retrograde operation. Each phase of the operation is distinguished by criteria. vulnerable elements of the enemy’s force. 6-26. surveillance. (See FM 390. SECTION III . The squadron participates in a mobile defense only as part of its higher headquarters (such as the BCT or ACR). As noted earlier.

such as a counterattack by an enemy reserve element. the squadron spends the minimum time necessary for consolidation and reorganization before supporting the higher headquarters’ exploitation or pursuit of defeated enemy forces. 6-8 FM 3-20. See Chapter 5 for information on consolidation and reorganization.96 12 March 2010 .Chapter 6 hand. During the transition. the squadron must be vigilant to actions the enemy may take during transitions.

...... The execution of stability operations often relies on gaining the cooperation and support of the populace to accomplish missions rather than simply synchronizing and integrating forces and combat power to accomplish a military objective.......Chapter 7 Stability Operations Reconnaissance and cavalry squadrons are well suited to support stability operations because they are trained......... Support to economic and infrastructure development.. Primary stability tasks are the following: Establish civil security............................................ and FM 3-24.... The subordinate tasks performed by the squadron under the primary stability tasks directly support the broader end state of the squadron’s higher headquarters... 7-15 SECTION I – PRIMARY STABILITY TASKS 7-1................ Restore essential services.. 7-7 Combat Outposts ........ 7-4 Section III – Tactical Tasks in Support of Stability Operations ........... Stability operations consist of the five primary tasks listed below (see FM 3-07.... operational-level commanders....96 7-1 ... and activities conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of national power (such as diplomacy and economics) to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment and provide essential governmental services.. FM 3-07.... FM 3-07 provides in-depth information on designing and planning stability operations........ 7-2 Lines of Effort ......... SECTION II – DESIGNING STABILITY OPERATIONS 7-2.. Contents Section I – Primary Stability Tasks ......... Establish civil control... for detailed information)... and other national agencies operating within the AO................ 7-9 Roadblocks and Other Checkpoints .............. 7-5 Reconnaissance Support.... Support to governance... 7-8 Searches . This section focuses on three key elements of operational design critical to the squadron’s planning and execution of stability operations: 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.....1.. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. 7-6 Patrols ........ tasks.................. The scope of the squadron’s capabilities provides the higher commander with vital options to meet stability-related operational requirements in his AO..... and organized to command and control assets and acquire the information needed to solve complex problems... 7-1 Stability and Defeat Mechanisms........................... Stability operations encompass various military missions.......................... emergency infrastructure reconstruction. 7-3 Sequence of Actions and Phasing ................... 7-7 Security of Officials ........ Security Force Assistance................ equipped.. and humanitarian relief (JP 3-0)................... 7-6 Observation Posts ................... 7-1 Section II – Designing Stability Operations .................. Stability Operations..2........

The four stability mechanisms. This exploits the destroy and dislocate mechanisms to shatter the threat’s coherence. coordinating and cooperating closely with host nation civilian agencies. governance. The squadron commander translates these effects into specific tactical tasks. Dislocate. and economy. Depending on the amount of violence and degree of security in the AO. formulating the most effective method to defeat threat aims. while defeat mechanisms focus available combat power on creating a secure environment to enable civil control. and assisting aid organizations in humanitarian operations. and individuals. a combination of stability and defeat mechanisms provides the most effective means to achieve the end state. the squadron commander defines the stability or defeat mechanism used to meet his desired end state. Based on the higher headquarters’ operational approach. Defeat mechanisms primarily apply during close combat against an active threat force. It is closely related to the primary stability task. It applies nonlethal capabilities to complement and reinforce the compel and control mechanisms. routes. Physical defeat deprives threat forces of the ability to achieve those aims. Disintegrate. the squadron commander may emphasize one over the other during a given mission. reinforcing. Isolation limits the threat’s ability to conduct operations effectively by marginalizing critical capabilities or limiting the threat’s ability to influence events.Chapter 7 Stability and defeat mechanisms. sensitive sites. STABILITY MECHANISMS 7-4. and conduct. securing borders. Support refers to establishing. the squadron commander and his staff determine the most appropriate combination of stability and defeat mechanisms to accomplish the identified end state. DEFEAT MECHANISMS 7-5. Control. The four defeat mechanisms are the following (refer to FM 3-07 for full discussion): Destroy. This involves identifying the most effective way to eliminate threat capabilities. During planning. Again. or setting the conditions necessary for other instruments of national power to function effectively. population centers. They are defined in terms of the broad operational and tactical effects they produce. Support. stable peace (FM 3-0). Stability mechanisms allow the squadron to focus their combat power on setting conditions that enable restoration of services. Isolate. psychological defeat deprives them of the will to do so. and physically occupying key terrain and facilities. This mechanism involves maintaining the threat of lethal force—or its actual use—to establish control and dominance. as defined in FM 3-07. both physical or psychological. 7-2 FM 3-20. establish civil control. effect changes in behavior. Phasing. Lines of effort. are the following: Compel. Influence.96 12 March 2010 . The control mechanism involves establishing public order and safety. In stability operations. deliberate combinations of defeat mechanisms produce complementary and reinforcing effects not attainable with a single mechanism. A stability mechanism is the primary method through which friendly forces affect civilians to attain conditions that support a lasting. STABILITY AND DEFEAT MECHANISMS 7-3. Combinations of the stability mechanisms produce complementary and reinforcing effects that contribute to achieving the desired end state more effectively than a single mechanism applied in isolation. presence. or enforce stability-related arrangements (such as cessation of hostilities or peace agreements). This mechanism involves altering opinions and attitudes of the host nation populace through information engagement. This involves compelling the threat to expose forces by reacting to a specific action.

Figure 7-2 illustrates a list of possible lines of effort. This is essential in stability operations where success is gauged over the long term. the squadron can effectively address the human dimension of the problem while acting to reduce the security threat.Stability Operations COMBINING STABILITY AND DEFEAT MECHANISMS 7-6. He directs actions to synchronize and sequence related actions across multiple lines of effort. lines of effort work well to link tasks. The squadron commander may use lines of effort to describe how he envisions the squadron’s operations in creating the more intangible end state conditions inherent in stability operations. lines of effort combine the complementary. and the end state. Stability and defeat mechanisms complement planning by providing conceptual means to solve the complex problems that commanders face in stability operations. (See FM 3-07 for detailed information. short-term events typical of offensive or defensive tasks. By combining both types of mechanisms in a stability operation. 7-8. effects. positional references to an enemy or adversary are less relevant. Figure 7-1. Example of combining stability and defeat mechanisms LINES OF EFFORT 7-7. In stability operations.96 7-3 . recognizing that these relationships help him to assess progress toward achieving the end state.) 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Figure 7-1 illustrates combinations of stability and defeat mechanisms in a notional operation. conditions. Lines of effort are essential in stability operations where physical. Lines of effort are essential to helping the squadron commander visualize how his available combat power can support other military or civilian capabilities. long-term effects of stability tasks with the cyclic. A line of effort links multiple tasks and missions to focus efforts toward establishing the conditions that define the commander’s desired end state. The squadron commander may designate actions on one line of effort as the decisive operation and others as shaping operations. In these situations. These lines of effort show how individual actions relate to one other and to achieving the desired end state.

(See Figure 7-3.) 7-4 FM 3-20. these phases can help shape the squadron commander’s visualization. Phases of intervention PHASE Initial Response Transformation LIKELY FOCUS Civil security Civil control Civil control Essential services Support to governance Civil control Essential services Support to governance Infrastructure/economy development Foster Sustainability 7-10. the squadron commander visualizes a broad concept of operations for how the primary stability tasks are implemented during the duration of the mission. This enables him to identify specific phases of the operation and corresponding end states that mark transitions from one phase of the operation to another. Example lines of effort SEQUENCE OF ACTIONS AND PHASING 7-9. Combined with his SU.96 12 March 2010 . Table 7-1. Table 7-1 identifies these phases and the likely focus of stability tasks. FM 3-07 identifies distinct phases of intervention during stability operations. Based on these phases of intervention.Chapter 7 Figure 7-2.

In addition. Example phasing of a COA to support stability operations Note. Tasks or activities that may occur in support of combined operations include the following: Establish combined operations and intelligence centers with host nation security forces.1. 7-12. for additional information). patrols.96 7-5 . providing security to officials. phases often overlap or key tasks recur throughout the course of the overall operation. observation posts. A key consideration during stability operations is conducting combined operations with host nation security forces (see FM 3-07. SECTION III – TACTICAL TASKS IN SUPPORT OF STABILITY OPERATIONS 7-11. roadblocks. Although this example of phasing provides a linear sequence for the concept of operations. and checkpoints. Conduct training management and combined training with host nation security forces. Security Force Assistance.Stability Operations Figure 7-3. static security posts. All of these tasks are enabled by reconnaissance. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The tactical tasks the squadron and its subordinate units conduct during stability operations include primarily area security (see Chapter 4). searches. indigenous authorities or other highranking officials may require the protection of the squadron during movement through or within the AOs.

Protect key infrastructure or bases. The squadron will be tasked to conduct reconnaissance as part of stability operations. Regardless of the type of patrol. Use of the elements of SWEAT-MSO in analyzing infrastructure helps to focus this reconnaissance effort. 7-15. Members of the patrol must understand how specific observation requirements are linked to established PIR in the squadron’s ISR plan. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. every patrol must have a specific task and purpose. Regain contact with the threat or with adjacent friendly forces. using available transportation assets (air or ground) or on foot. Identify and cross danger areas. Reconnoiter the patrol objective. 7-19. Execute the targeting process in conjunction with host nation security forces. or on the populace. During stability operations. for additional information on patrols and patrolling. (See FM 3-24. Conduct detailed searches. on the terrain. Prevent public disorder. Often this involves reconnaissance to gather information on the status of infrastructure in the AO. with host nation security forces. These lines of effort may focus on specific aspects of the local situation such as the activities of host nation security forces. in accordance with established regulations or procedures. Refer to Chapter 3 of this manual for a detailed discussion of reconnaissance operations. reconnaissance operations conducted by the squadron support higher echelon lines of effort. which can complement concurrent offensive and defensive operations or be conducted separately. RECONNAISSANCE SUPPORT 7-13.) 7-14. A patrol must be readily identifiable as such by all parties and must conduct movement openly while employing appropriate overwatch based on the threat situation. Patrols can accomplish the following: Gather information on the threat. and restoration of essential services. 7-6 FM 3-20.) 7-18. Provide unit security. Deter and disrupt insurgent or criminal activity.Chapter 7 Share intelligence. Handle casualties and prisoners or detainees. (Refer to the discussion of primary stability tasks earlier in this chapter.2. vigilant posture to deter attacks against the patrol.96 12 March 2010 . A patrol must be prepared to do the following: Provide its own security. Engage the threat in combat to destroy him or inflict losses. Leaders must balance the need to interact with the local populace against the requirement to maintain a determined. PATROLS 7-16. based on the character of the dominant major operation being conducted. This reconnaissance is planned and executed to support accomplishment of the primary stability tasks related to national and multinational interests. 7-17. local development projects. troops or companies take all possible precautions to protect the Soldiers on patrol. To support achievement of national and multinational stability goals. Reassure or gain the trust of a local population. Although patrols are usually conducted overtly. The squadron may direct its subordinate units to conduct specific patrols throughout the AO. An essential consideration is that reconnaissance support in stability operations is conducted using the same fundamentals as reconnaissance in other situations. Navigate accurately. patrols face unique challenges.

Field fortifications. However. the squadron must be prepared to defend itself.Stability Operations Breach obstacles (combat patrol only). OP locations are recorded. OPs provide protection when long-range observation from current positions is not possible. Soldiers should be designated to perform specific security tasks for the officials. The vehicle carrying the official(s) should bear no distinguishing marks and more than one vehicle of that type should travel in the escort. and well-sited weapons must protect installations. aircraft type. 7-21. Any improvements to defensive positions of a former belligerent. 7-23. 7-25. OBSERVATION POSTS 7-20. Before starting the move. The squadron must strictly follow the ROE and limitations on the use of force. the security element commander briefs the official(s) about what will be done in the event of an attack. Overflights by unauthorized aircraft. including the time. Occupation and withdrawal of the OP should be thoroughly rehearsed. 7-26. equipment. Assault an objective (combat patrol only). The squadron can employ any number of OPs as the situation dictates. unit identification. OPs are sited to provide observation of NAIs and TAIs. and any relocation of the OP must be reported to the unit’s headquarters. Information gathered and reported by OPs can include—but is not limited to—the following: Movement of threat or adversary military forces. Support by fire (combat patrol only). The security element designated to accompany the official(s) must be capable of extracting the official’s vehicle out of the danger area as quickly as possible in the event of an attack. The strength of the security element required depends on the circumstances. and nationality. Regardless of the official’s seniority. Shootings. and other details that the OP can ascertain. (See Chapter 6 for additional information on convoy security. The security element must develop and rehearse contingency plans. Any observed violations of an armistice agreement. One section usually mans an OP and keeps a record of all activities. or threats directed against the squadron or civilians. and for defensibility in accordance with the commander’s intent. time. The squadron should maintain a reaction force that can reinforce an OP or aid a patrol in distress. Therefore. the security element commander is in command of the move. OPs should be emplaced within supporting distance of each other to enhance security through mutual support and to enable reconnaissance handover between OPs. Additional vehicles or personnel must provide support to the vehicle carrying the official(s) throughout the move. direction. for clear radio communications.96 7-7 . and actions on contact.) 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. The squadron security force should provide an armored vehicle as optional transportation for the official(s). elements in the civilian population or among other interested parties may want to disrupt the squadron’s operations and subvert ongoing stability operations. The squadron commander must be prepared to withdraw an OP when a serious threat appears. Whenever possible. barriers. 7-27. and the squadron must take precautions to protect personnel and facilities from attack. hostile acts. direction. Access is limited to authorized personnel only. location. The squadron maintains its legitimacy and acceptability to the local populace through its professional and impartial conduct. alternate routes. The squadron fights only if it cannot avoid such engagements. either military or civilian. including size. SECURITY OF OFFICIALS 7-24. The squadron may be required to ensure that host nation authorities or other high-ranking officials are able to move within the AO without interference from threat or adversary elements. OPs are an especially important element of the squadron’s effort to establish and maintain security. Each vehicle should have automatic weapons. activity. 7-22.

the size and characteristics of the threat or adversary. 7-8 FM 3-20. See FM 2-24. Protect critical points along LOCs. The size of the outpost depends on the mission. The squadron coordinates establishment of combat outposts with the host nation. The organization of a combat outpost varies with its size. tunnels.Chapter 7 COMBAT OUTPOSTS 7-28. and distance from reinforcing units. The outpost is organized for the security of both the installation and the security force. bridges. such as terminals. A combat outpost is a reinforced OP capable of conducting limited combat operations (as illustrated in Figure 7-4). For security reasons. This includes military installations as well as civilian facilities such as government offices. Dislocate or disrupt the ability of threat elements to exert influence over the local populace. or hospitals. the attitude of the civilian populace. During close combat. Combat outpost 7-29. 7-30. and road or railway junctions. combat outposts in remote areas are larger those located closer to supporting forces. combat outposts are a technique for employing security forces in restricted terrain that precludes mounted security forces from covering the area. The activities involved in establishing a defensive position apply to establishment of a combat outpost (see Chapter 6). mission.2 for additional information. In stability operations. and/or the importance of the high-value asset being secured. police stations. The squadron must establish reliable communications between remote outposts and the parent unit's base.96 12 March 2010 . Figure 7-4. combat outposts can be used to— Protect critical fixed installations. Examples of combat outpost employment range from a section guarding a bridge to a reinforced troop securing a key communications center or civilian community.

or members 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. supplies. and STP 19-31B1-SM (the skill level 1 Soldier’s manual for MPs) for detailed discussion of procedures for searching individuals. use female searchers. Even under the best conditions. 7-39.Stability Operations 7-31. 7-36. searchers must be tactful. morale suffers among Soldiers who must operate for prolonged periods in small groups away from their parent organization. 7-37. Language difficulties can interfere when U.96 7-9 . materiel. Units given a search mission are provided with interpreters as required. The squadron contacts military or civil police who work with the populace and the resource control program before the search operations begin (or periodically if search operations are a continuing activity).S. They usually involve both civil police and Soldiers. Lists of prohibited or controlled-distribution items should be widely disseminated and on hand during searches. The squadron must control access to the combat outpost by local civilians. Searches are an important aspect of civil control. In all search operations. the squadron prestocks the outpost with sustaining supplies in sufficient quantities. Refer to FM 3-19. They must conduct searches only to apprehend suspects or to secure evidence proving an offense has been committed.40. or other minor items for their seizure to be of future legal value. The squadron should develop plans for securing the search area (establishing a cordon) and for handling detained personnel. One member of the search team covers the member who makes the actual search. aid men. To counter this. Extreme caution is required during the initial handling of a person about to be searched. Search of Females 7-41. The threat can use females for all types of tasks when they think searches might be a threat. A combat outpost should never have to depend solely on the local populace for supplies. If the combat outpost is far removed from other squadron units and might be isolated by threat action. Soldiers must conduct and lawfully record the seizure of contraband. SEARCHES 7-34. Misuse of search authority can adversely affect the outcome of operations. PROCEDURES Search of Individuals 7-40. If female searchers are not available. Internment/Resettlement Operations. 7-38. PLANNING CONSIDERATIONS 7-35. but rapidly enough to prevent the threat from reacting to the threat of the search. Searches can orient on people. To avoid making a threat out of a suspect who may support the host country government. proper use of authority during searches gains the respect and support of the people. 7-32. use doctors. buildings. It screens and evacuates people living near the positions and can place informers from the local population along the routes of approach. evidence. leaders must emphasize that anyone in an area to be searched could be an insurgent or a sympathizer. Military personnel must perform searches only in areas within military jurisdiction (or where otherwise lawful). The squadron conducts search operations slowly enough to allow for an effective search. Soldiers use minimum-essential force to eliminate any active resistance encountered. or terrain. The requirement to conduct search operations or to employ search procedures is continuous in stability operations. Conversely. 7-33. Authority for search operations is carefully reviewed. The commander must consider all aspects of Soldier comfort during the organization and preparation of the combat outpost. Search teams have detailed instructions for handling controlled items. Units must consider the effect of early warning on the effectiveness of their operation. forces conduct search operations involving the local populace. intelligence material.

(TC 19-210. If male Soldiers must search females. mirrors. rehearsals. the husband is searched by the Soldiers.Chapter 7 of the local populace. and a reserve element (responsible for assisting either element. The Soldiers then move him to the individual search area and thoroughly search the vehicle. Using a separate vehicle search area can help avoid unnecessary delays. take all possible measures to prevent any inference of sexual molestation or assault. Search of Vehicles 7-42. In all cases. When intelligence identifies and locates members of the insurgent infrastructure. Use the least severe method necessary to accomplish the mission adequately. and maintaining the element of surprise are critical aspects in successful execution of cordon and search operations. discusses procedures for searching vehicles. as required). All operations must be conducted legally. Although a thorough vehicle search takes time. Before the vehicle is searched. and C2 for cordon and search operations. that creates a breach into the building to a “cordon and knock” during stability operations to obtain permission to enter the building prior to the search. emergency laws and regulations may dispense temporarily with some of these legal protections. a search element (responsible for entering and searching specific focus areas and providing local security). the unit conducting the search must take care to preserve evidence for future legal action. an operation is mounted to neutralize them. leaders must consider the effect on the population. This can range from a cordon and search. First.96 12 March 2010 . This may include operations conducted by police acting on warrants of a disinterested magistrate and based on probable cause. The following discussion covers principles. Direct fire planning. and tools. Note. the trunk. The commander should divide the area to be searched in a built-up area into zones and assign a search party to each zone. and then the husband uses the wand to search his wife. executed during combat operations. 7-44. procedures. occupants may need to be moved away from the vehicle and individually searched. Specially trained dogs can locate drugs or explosives. Soldiers maintain security while the occupant conducts these actions. and the hood. A technique used by forces in Afghanistan to keep female individual searches within the cultural norms of the country entails having husbands search their wives using a magnetic wand metal detector. Access Control Handbook. 7-10 FM 3-20. (See Figure 7-5. In the more violent stages of an insurgency.) CORDON AND SEARCH 7-43. The search of vehicles may require equipment such as detection devices. One technique is to have an occupant open all doors. A search party normally consists of a security element (responsible for isolating the objective and specific areas within the objective).) 7-45. Extreme care should be taken for security during the vehicle search.

SUASs. The security element leader may have C2 of both the inner and outer cordon elements. The outer cordon is an integral part of the security element in any cordon and search operation. effective coordination. and the inner cordon to focus on keeping individuals from escaping the objective area. Units and elements that the squadron can employ to establish the outer cordon include the following: Mounted reconnaissance platoons. Once the squadron has determined which techniques to use. Both lethal and nonlethal effects should be considered by the squadron commander. An effective cordon is critical to the success of the search effort. however. Outer Cordon 7-48. (See Figure 7-6.) Therefore. (See Figure 7-6.Stability Operations Figure 7-5.96 7-11 . Organic tank platoons. two cordons may be established: the outer cordon to focus on isolating the objective from outside interference. but also prevents reinforcements for the insurgents from entering the objective area. Each subordinate outer cordon element (traffic control point or blocking position) must have a designated leader and a clear task and purpose. 7-49. The cordon not only isolates the objective from individuals trying to escape.) 7-47. the commander should ensure that the order of march facilitates smooth. Cordons are designed to prevent the escape of individuals to be searched and to protect the forces conducting the operation. Typical organization for search operations Establishing the Cordon 7-46. Careful consideration must be given to the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. Based on factors of METT-TC. scout teams. both cordon elements must focus both inward and outward. or sniper teams may be employed to observe the search area for threat forces before the main body arrives. Sniper teams. There are two techniques for emplacement of the cordon element(s): simultaneous or sequential. synchronized execution. and meticulous integration and synchronization to achieve the desired combined arms effects. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. For security purposes. it requires detailed planning. He should identify escalation of force procedures to help prevent interference from the local populace.

Crowd control teams. 7-12 FM 3-20. Traffic control points or blocking positions. Aviation assets.) Host nation security forces (military or police). The inner cordon may be under the control of the security element of the search element. Dismounted platoons or squads. Inner Cordon 7-51. and facilitate the outer cordon task and purpose. Interpreter(s). including the progress of operations for the search elements and the outer cordon. Serve as an overwatch element or SBF force for search teams.96 12 March 2010 . The security element of the outer cordon may include— Mounted reconnaissance platoons or sections.) It is normally tasked with the following actions: Prevent exfiltration or reposition of threat forces. The outer cordon leader maintains SA in his AO.Chapter 7 Figure 7-6. Female search teams. (See the discussion of roadblocks and checkpoints later in this chapter. (See Figure 7-6. Establishing the cordon 7-50. Detainee security teams. control direct and indirect fires. This helps him to anticipate threat activity. OPs.

Another disadvantage in removing inhabitants from their dwellings is that it may generate false claims of theft and damage from the local populace. Restrict inhabitants to their home. The security element is then responsible for controlling the inhabitants. This method has the disadvantages of taking the inhabitants away from their dwellings and encouraging looting. 7-53. a personnel search team may be necessary in this central location. and detain suspects. Aerial photographs can provide needed information about the terrain. the local police may have detailed maps showing relative sizes and locations of buildings. Three basic methods are used to search a populated area: Assemble inhabitants in a central location. HUMINT collection teams. A large-scale search of a built-up area is a combined civil police and military operation. Depending on the objective of the search.Stability Operations Maintain communications with the search element. The disadvantages of this method are that it makes control and interrogation difficult and gives inhabitants time to conceal evidence in their homes. The use of limited visibility aids in the establishment and security of the cordon but makes it difficult to control. The search element may escort individuals back to their dwellings to be present during the search or may leave them in the central location. This method is used if inhabitants appear to be hostile.96 7-13 . The squadron must enforce the ROE and should develop plans to handle detained personnel. Restrict Inhabitants to Their Home 7-58. mine detection. This method prevents movement of civilians. When dealing with the head of 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. In larger towns or cities. question. aviation assets for observation or attack. Assemble Inhabitants in a Central Location 7-57. Seize supporting structures in built-up areas to overwatch target-area buildings. As with any operation. 7-55. simplifies a thorough search. It provides the most control. 7-56. the search plan must be simple and the search conducted swiftly. Such a search should be planned in detail and rehearsed while avoiding active reconnaissance of the area just before the search. denies insurgents an opportunity to conceal evidence. and discourages looting. Coordinate techniques for shifting or lifting fires as the search element enters target-area buildings. interrogations. under police supervision. mission analysis is critical. documentation (using a recorder with a camera). The search element is organized into teams. Control Heads of Households 7-59. Scouts accompany police and intelligence forces to identify. psychological operations (PSYOP). both of which could engender ill feelings. and tunnel reconnaissance. In remote areas. Use of force is kept to a minimum. civil affairs (CA). The search must impose tangible—but limited—inconvenience on the populace. host nation security forces. Scouts may also conduct searches and assist in detaining suspects. Control the heads of the households. but not be stringent enough to drive other inhabitants to collaborate with the threat because of the search. For success. allows them to stay in their dwellings. The head of each household is told to remain in front of the house while everyone else in the house is brought to a central location. and allows for detailed interrogation. controls the head of each household. tactical PSYOP teams. Conducting the Search 7-54. the squadron may establish the cordon without being detected. They may include such assets as military working dogs. and female search teams. The security element controls the group at the central location. The security element must enforce this restriction. Understand the marking system and control measures. and provides external security for the search team. detainees. but their principal roles are to reduce any resistance that may develop and to provide security. interpreters. These teams can include personnel and special equipment for handling prisoners. demolitions. 7-52. It must discourage insurgents and their sympathizers from remaining in the locale.

the protective escort must isolate and secure the inhabitants during the search. 7-64. that their attitudes and beliefs have changed: Confine the insurgents only for screening and processing. 7-14 FM 3-20. at least in part. Soldiers can use mine detectors to locate metal objects underground and underwater. and a female searcher. 7-61. and the reason for the confiscation. Relocate them if they are in danger of reprisal from the threat. The use of a camera can also assist in this procedure. a protective escort for local security. The following guidelines apply when insurgents desert or surrender voluntarily and indicate.Chapter 7 the household. it should secure the house to prevent looting. ground operations should be used in support of these patrols. if possible. The reserve element is a mobile force positioned in a nearby area. including propaganda signs and leaflets. and the head of the household sees that the search team steals nothing. This is a proven method for controlling the populace during a search. Escort parties and transportation must be arranged before the search of a house. Other Considerations 7-62. This technique has little value in areas of dense vegetation or when a significant man-portable air defense threat is present. Forced entry may be necessary if a house is vacant or if an occupant refuses to allow searchers to enter. When the element locates a threat force. The objective of a house search is to look for controlled items and to screen residents to determine if any are suspected insurgents or sympathizers. The commander must also consider the risk that aerial searches will provide advance warning to threat forces. The helicopter-mounted patrols may conduct reconnaissance of an assigned area or route in search of threat forces. If the force searches a house containing property while its occupants are away. HANDLING INSURGENTS WHO DESERT OR SURRENDER 7-66. the head of the household accompanies the search team through the house. The supervision need not be stringent and is best accomplished by host nation authorities. it may instruct the armed helicopters to engage the threat force. The reserve element can replace or reinforce either of the other two elements if the need arises. Its mission is to help the search and security elements if they meet resistance beyond their ability to handle. Soldiers should treat any threat material found. This person can be used to open doors and containers to facilitate the search. In addition to information collection. Even then. Supervise them after their release. location. and keep them separate from prisoners who exhibit no change in attitude. Before squadron elements depart. During the search. AERIAL SEARCH OPERATIONS 7-63. Any freshly excavated ground could be a hiding place. Helicopter-mounted patrols should be used only when sufficient intelligence is available to justify their use. Searching a House 7-60. or it may land and engage the threat by means of a ground assault. Underground and underwater areas should be searched thoroughly. the commander should arrange for the community to protect such houses until the occupants return. If inhabitants remain in the dwellings. The search party must strive to leave the house in the same (or better) condition than when the search began. the search team may use cameras or video recorders to establish the condition of the house before and after the search. All sensitive material or equipment found in the house should be documented before it is removed or collected. Helicopter-mounted patrols escorted by armed helicopters take full advantage of the mobility and firepower of these aircraft. the person from whom it was confiscated.96 12 March 2010 . 7-65. Looting is reduced. A search party assigned to search an occupied building should consist of at least one local police officer. time. as if it is booby-trapped until inspection proves it safe. the unit leader explains the purpose of the search using an interpreter (if available). including date.

especially if a threat has observed rehearsals or other preparations. Refer to Figure 7-7 for a detailed illustration of a deliberate checkpoint. (See Figure 7-7. Portable speed bumps. also apply to roadblocks and checkpoints. The ability to establish roadblocks and checkpoints is an important aspect of movement control and area denial. and bring it to a halt. The same principles apply for waterways as for LOCs on land. An area off the main road should be used to conduct detailed searches of suspect vehicles and people and to avoid unduly delaying innocent traffic. Roadblocks are established in locations where approaching traffic cannot observe them until it is too late to withdraw and escape.) 7-68. Whenever possible. Constructed. Individuals and vehicles may be stopped during movement to assist in individual accountability or capture of threat personnel or to control the trafficking of restricted material. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.98 for more detailed information about roadblocks and checkpoints. squadron elements should fill the reserve role when working with host nation forces. host nation police or other forces should be present to conduct the actual stop and search. Spotlights/flashlights. Roadblock or checkpoint operations conducted during stability operations must employ reasonable escalation of force procedures when dealing with the local populace. Roadblocks and checkpoints help prevent traffic in contraband and stop the movement of known or suspected insurgents. Squadron elements should establish communications with other elements at the site but should also remain in contact with their own chain of command. A small reserve using hasty field fortifications in nearby defended areas should provide immediate support to roadblock/checkpoint personnel in case of attack. the squadron can operate them. sharp curves. Spike strips. These elements must take care to maintain legitimacy by not targeting specific groups. Controlling transportation networks can be a key part of civil control during stability operations. (Refer to FM 3-20. 7-69.971 and FM 3-20. Traffic cones. The reserve may be the target of enemy attack or ambush. Either host nation or squadron elements defend the roadblocks and checkpoints from threat attack. restrict it to a single lane. 7-70. and other locations that channel traffic. which stop vehicles and pedestrians and conduct searches as required by conditions. Flares.96 7-15 . ROADBLOCKS AND OTHER CHECKPOINTS 7-67. If police strength is insufficient for the number of positions required. Provide special handling to nonindigenous members of the insurgency who were captured. Typical equipment for escalation of force kits includes the following: Speaker system. Refer to the example escalation of force procedures outlined in Figure 7-7. tunnels. nonexplosive obstacles slow traffic. Narrow defiles. Effective escalation of force procedures enable Soldiers to use necessary and proportional force to confront hostile acts or intentions and to avoid alienating the local populace.Stability Operations Ensure that any promises made to induce their defection or surrender are met. A larger reserve serving a number of posts should be capable of rapid reinforcement. bridges. They should be manned by police or paramilitary forces. Friendly forces should vary the locations of roadblocks and the routes used to access them. Weapon-mounted lasers.) 7-71. Threat forces may attack multiple locations simultaneously to test responsiveness or to aid their leaders in future planning. Concertina wire. Whenever squadron elements operate roadblocks and checkpoints. The fundamentals of searches. Warning signs (vehicle and sandwich board). The squadron should plan to acquire escalation of force kits to support roadblock or checkpoint operations. discussed previously in this chapter. Chem-lites. are the preferred sites.

Chapter 7 Figure 7-7. Example physical layout of a deliberate checkpoint 7-16 FM 3-20.96 12 March 2010 .

the scope and level of destruction may require states to request assistance from federal authorities..... A key part of these activities is planning or preparedness for—or the application of resources for response to—the consequences of civil emergencies or attacks..............1. 8-2 Multiple and Overlapping Activities ... The Army’s roles and responsibilities for civil support operations fall under three primary tasks (see FM 3-0.............................. 8-2 Section II – Squadron Operations in Civil Support . Contents Section I – Purpose and Types of Civil Support Operations.. Civil support operations also include those activities and measures taken by the Department of Defense (DOD) to foster mutual assistance and support with civil government agencies.. Techniques.... Provide other support as required...... FM 3-28....... and Procedures for Civil Support (CS) Operations. 8-3 Mission Training............. 8-1 Army Role in Civil Support ... 8-3 Operational Environment .... Army forces focus on overcoming conditions created by natural or man-made disasters.............. 8-3 Section III – Key Considerations for Civil Support Operations .... Army forces conduct civil support operations when the size and scope of events exceed the capabilities or capacities of domestic civilian agencies............. In most cases..... 8-3 Recovery ............... terrorist attacks........ The ARNG is usually the first military force to respond on behalf of state authorities................. and FM 3-28...96 8-1 ................ however........ Multi-Service Tactics.... Army involvement in civil support operations may entail providing essential supplies............................ Support civil law enforcement.. Examples include national security emergencies and major disasters....... 8-4 SECTION I – PURPOSE AND TYPES OF CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS ARMY ROLE IN CIVIL SUPPORT 8-1...... capabilities......1 for additional information): Provide support in response to a disaster or terrorist attack..................... 8-1 Civil Authority .. including the Active Army......... 12 March 2010 FM 3-20............ Operations. accidents.. 8-4 Restoration............. and incidents in the United States and its territories.......... and services to help civil authorities in the United States and its territories deal with situations beyond their control.............................. is the Army’s current doctrinal publication addressing civil support operations.....Chapter 8 Civil Support Operations Civil support operations include tasks and missions that address the consequences of natural or man-made disasters................ 8-3 Response .. Note..

law and focuses on the specific missions directed by the Secretary of Defense. reconnaissance and surveillance equipment.S. and law enforcement. During civil support operations. Code authority.S.S. trained. and medical). Special Note Reconnaissance in civil support operations is conducted strictly within the guidelines of U.Chapter 8 CIVIL AUTHORITY 8-2. ARNG civil support missions are planned and executed in accordance with the needs of the state and within the guidelines of state laws and statutes. It can also provide C2 and sustainment to attached units that have more specialized equipment or capabilities (such as engineers. The squadron has a functional chain of command. Although the squadron is not specifically organized. In state active-duty status. or rescue support). The squadron responds to or supports such events by performing common tactical missions and tasks (such as perimeter or area security). The ARNG often acts as a first military responder for civil support operations on behalf of state authorities while serving in state active-duty status or when functioning under Title 32 U. its capabilities are well suited to particular aspects of civil support. or equipped for civil support operations.1. The U. See FM 3-0 and FM 3-28. and well-trained and well-equipped subordinate units. the state governor commands the ARNG and the state defense force (if applicable). but it may also be called upon to execute unique missions and tasks (such as riot control. Once placed in Title 10 status. ARNG forces in state active-duty status can perform civil law enforcement missions in accordance with the laws and statutes of their state. Table 8-1. the U. military always responds to and works under a civilian agency (see Table 8-1). counterdrug activities. A presidential declaration of an emergency or disaster area usually precedes a civil support operation. reliable communications. military provides civil support primarily in accordance with a DOD directive for military assistance to civil authorities. CA. ARNG units must 8-2 FM 3-20. Impact of military duty status on squadron tasks in civil support operations SECTION II – SQUADRON OPERATIONS IN CIVIL SUPPORT 8-3. This directive addresses responses to both natural and man-made disasters and includes military assistance in situations such as civil disturbances. It can operate in austere environments with sustainment support.96 12 March 2010 .S. activities in combating terrorism. transportation. firefighting.

At the same time. and the physical and cultural environments. (See FM 3-28. many of the key individual and collective skills required in civil support differ from those the squadron normally employs and therefore require additional.1. primarily during IPB. squads.96 8-3 . The squadron’s activities consist largely of directing the operations of its troops/companies and supporting units within a sector or AO in accordance with a detailed OPORD. MISSION TRAINING 8-5. Its Soldiers are usually among the first relief forces to arrive. SECTION III – KEY CONSIDERATIONS FOR CIVIL SUPPORT OPERATIONS 8-7. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. OPERATIONAL ENVIRONMENT 8-6. MULTIPLE AND OVERLAPPING ACTIVITIES 8-4. and time required to conduct the support. RESPONSE 8-8. and makes contact with federal and state agencies and relief organizations as early as possible. and restoration. The actions of platoons. the squadron enters the affected area.Civil Support Operations adhere to the same laws governing Active Army and Army Reserve operations. A variety of factors in the OE combine to make each civil support mission unique.) The squadron develops SA and analyzes the situation throughout the MDMP. procedures for providing support.1 for detailed information. support to counterdrug operations. Therefore. The squadron may make its chief contributions in this phase. staging CPs into the area. deliberate training. Forces must conduct civil support operations with consistency and impartiality to encourage cooperation from local agencies and the populace and to preserve the legitimacy of the overall effort. Army forces involved in civil support operations execute a combination of multiple overlapping activities. the terms governing the Army’s presence in the AO. Reconnaissance must be planned so that it adheres to the law and still answers the CCIR. establishing security. but they modify those tasks for the special conditions of their mission. Time permitting. the character and attitude of the populace. normally under higher headquarters control. Through planning and rehearsals. with detailed instructions to the units and Soldiers involved. With the exception of specific actions undertaken in counterterrorism operations. and initiating contact with supported activities and other parts of the relief force. While civil support operations vary greatly in every mission. reconnaissance and reports from higher headquarters help to clarify the situation. Key considerations for civil support operations include the types of support required. civil support missions tend to be decentralized and highly structured. A sound foundation in combat mission training and in basic military skills and discipline underpins the squadron’s ability to perform civil support missions. laws. In most situations. These include the mission. and noncombatant evacuation operations. They also train leaders and Soldiers for unique tasks specific to the types of operations they are assigned. the COAs become the foundation of the squadron scheme of maneuver.S. Actions during this phase of civil support include planning for the operation. recovery. As part of the response phase. deploying the squadron. the squadron can expect any COA to follow a broad pattern of response. see FM 3-28. the civilian organizations cooperating with the squadron. and a thorough understanding of the mission end state are necessary for effective civil support operations. Furthermore. to identify likely situations that may occur during an operation. high levels of discipline and training. Its C2 structure gives it the ability to communicate and coordinate. Careful planning of reconnaissance. Squadrons use most of their regularly trained movement and security tasks in civil support operations. Typical squadron requirements and takes during the response phase include the following: Search and rescue. For more information. the squadron commander and other leaders develop and refine COAs to deal with the situation. or even individual Soldiers take place under the scrutiny of many interested groups and can have a disproportionate effect on mission success. will ensure that collection operations do not violate U. the squadron’s ability to reconnoiter and gather information makes it useful in the initial efforts of authorities to establish understanding and control of the area and to oversee critical actions.

Its work includes coordination with its higher headquarters. The squadron is fully deployed in an AO or executing an assigned task. communications. the squadron transfers those responsibilities to replacement agencies and begins redeployment from the area. effective employment of resources. Typical tasks during the recovery phase include the following: Continuing and modifying information engagement activities. The transfer usually does not occur at one time. Accountability of property or transfer of property to the community. there should be steady progress in relieving the situation throughout this phase of operations. Assisting with restoration of health care delivery system. Restoring power. CBRN and hazardous industrial waste decontamination. Transition of C2 for agencies and units that remain in the area. Hazard identification. railways. supported groups. and sanitation services. 8-4 FM 3-20. Movement plans that support redeployment and continued recovery in the area. Collection of displaced persons in temporary shelters. RESTORATION 8-10. Firefighting. Supporting law enforcement agencies. With initial emergencies resolved and a working relationship between all parties in place. Resettling the populace from emergency shelters to their homes. Dissemination of emergency information. the commander should consider issues such as the following: Transfer of authority to civil agencies (ongoing activity). The squadron is normally relieved incrementally as civil agencies are able to assume control of certain tasks. Medical officers should review and assist the commander in counteracting the psychological effects of disaster relief work and exposure to human suffering on the squadron’s Soldiers throughout the operation. RECOVERY 8-9. Clearance and repair of roads. Restoration is the return of normalcy to the area.96 12 March 2010 . Staging of C2 out of the area. Contracting to provide appropriate support (when feasible). and canals. Transferring authority and responsibility to civil authorities. water. During restoration. Once the squadron operation is under way. and flood control. The squadron's task organization is likely to change periodically as the need for particular services and support changes. Repairing infrastructure. if authorized.Chapter 8 High-volume emergency medical treatment. and Soldier support all require continuing attention. As civil authorities assume full control of remaining emergency operations and normal services. and other relief forces and daily allocation of its own assets to recovery tasks. Removing debris. Support to law enforcement agencies. recovery begins. Security. Note. maintenance. Repair of power generation and distribution systems. Food and water distribution. Planning for redeployment.

........................ Interagency.............. 9-2 Joint............ 9-20 Tactical PSYOP Team ......................... 9-3 Squadron Support Assets .................... 9-18 Squadron Role ......... The higher headquarters has organic capability in the form of a brigade special troops battalion (BSTB) or separate companies to provide additional combat power.. The remainder of the chapter................ 9-4 Section III – Fires ...................................... 9-19 Section VIII – Military Police Support .. Sections II through IX... 12 March 2010 FM 3-20...... 9-3 Support Capabilities................................. 9-20 Interpreters..... 9-15 CBRN Defense ............................. 9-10 Targeting Process..... 9-19 Military Intelligence ..................................................... The BFSB has very limited capability to augment its reconnaissance squadron other than with assets from the organic MI battalions (such as HUMINT assets).... 9-10 Section IV – Army Aviation Support ................................................ 9-5 Lethal Fires ................... 9-21 Personnel Recovery ... The squadron’s higher headquarters (BCT......... 9-19 Explosive Ordnance Disposal ..... the squadron will require significant augmentation.... 9-3 Section II – Engineer Support ............................... 9-2..... 9-23 SECTION I – ARMY AND JOINT AUGMENTATION BRIGADE AND REGIMENTAL ASSETS 9-1............. and multinational elements............ 9-20 Military Working Dogs . 9-1 Support Brigades .. 9-21 Army Health System Support .... 9-20 Information Protection ....... 9-5 Nonlethal Fires ...... addresses how the squadron employs the support provided by these assets............................. If assigned its own AO.................... Section I of this chapter highlights Army assets that can augment the squadron and discusses considerations for working with joint........ 9-18 Civil Affairs Units ........................ 9-21 Composite Risk Management ................................ and Multinational Considerations ............ 9-15 CBRN Support Assets and Capabilities ........................................................ 9-16 Section VI – Air and Missile Defense Support .. or BFSB) is organized to provide or receive additional combat power for its subordinate maneuver units......... Intergovernmental..................... 9-19 Section IX – Other Support or Functions ...96 9-1 ....... Figure 9-1 shows an example of supporting combat power available through the squadron’s higher headquarters. 9-17 Section VII – Civil Affairs Support........................... 9-14 Section V – CBRN Support Operations .....................................Chapter 9 Augmenting Combat Power The squadron receives augmentation based on assessment of METT-TC factors and priorities established by the higher commander’s concept of operations...................... ACR......... Contents Section I – Army and Joint Augmentation ................. 9-1 Brigade and Regimental Assets . interagency....

Functional brigades may be attached to or under operational control (OPCON) of the Army force headquarters. The brigade headquarters includes the necessary expertise to control different capabilities. Each support brigade’s base includes organic signal and sustainment capabilities. They are designed around a base of organic elements. These functional brigades will normally be assigned or attached to theater-level commands. 9-5. Sustainment brigade. They may also be placed under OPCON of the joint force land component commander.Chapter 9 Figure 9-1. medical. 9-2 FM 3-20. These brigades are designed to support the BCT and carry out specific tasks in support of higher echelons. signal. A mix of other brigade types provides support to higher-echelon commanders. 9-6. Aviation Brigades. OTHER BRIGADES AND UNITS 9-7. Fires brigade. Maneuver enhancement brigade (MEB). The organization of the support brigades is flexible. Operations.11. FM 17-95. Cavalry Operations. Brigade Combat Team. Maneuver Enhancement Brigade Operations.96 12 March 2010 . A mix of functional brigades and units will remain in the Army force structure for the foreseeable future. The following references provide additional information regarding support available from the squadron’s higher headquarters: FM 3-90. to which a mix of additional capabilities based on the factors of METT-TC can be added. FM 3-04.31. Fire Support. These support brigades include the following: BFSB.2. and CA assets. CBRN defense. the BCT is the primary organization for the mission of fighting tactical engagements and battles. AMD. The Sustainment Brigade. Combat aviation brigade (CAB). SUPPORT BRIGADES 9-4. Under the Army’s modular concept. Examples can include MP. These references provide additional information regarding the various types of support brigades: FM 3-0. FM 3-09. Example augmentation of an HBCT 9-3.6. FM 3-90. engineer. FM 4-93.

S. The squadron must know how to synchronize its military action with interagency or intergovernmental humanitarian action to ensure the local population supports U. Engineer support for the ACR cavalry squadron is provided by the regiment’s engineer company. Engineer support for the reconnaissance squadron in the HBCT and IBCT is provided by the engineer company located in the BSTB. SECTION II – ENGINEER SUPPORT 9-11. 9-9. They are not organized. The squadron can expect to work with forces of other services to accomplish their assigned missions. Additionally. integrating military transition teams.S. SOF can provide complementary capabilities for tactical operations. and reconnaissance units. or they can develop in a cooperative manner (such as operations with local military forces in Afghanistan and/or Iraq).Augmenting Combat Power JOINT. The squadron must articulate the commander’s intent and concept of operations clearly and simply to avoid confusion that could result from differences in doctrine and terminology. countermobility. 9-10. Army and U. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron receives support from engineer units assigned to the MEB. Typical USMC units that might task organize with a squadron include tank. military efforts.96 9-3 . Combat engineers increase the combat power of the squadron by accomplishing mobility. When engineer support requirements exceed the organic capabilities of the squadron’s higher headquarters.S. These organizations—which include other agencies of the U. General (construction) engineers may also augment the ACR/BCT and provide support to the squadron. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. and partnering in unit operations help to facilitate interoperability and C2 with foreign units. The squadron commander and staff should plan to have longer planning sessions and more detailed rehearsals to develop a common understanding of the operations plan and control measures. infantry. A USMC unit may replace an Army unit in an operation and vice versa. government and nonmilitary agencies of host-nation governments—are present in almost every military operation. they may perform reconnaissance and infantry combat missions when required. The squadron must also be prepared to operate in OEs that require cooperation with organizations not under military command. Multinational operations can be formal (such as those involving units of the Republic of Korea or North Atlantic Treaty Organization [NATO]). Commands frequently task organize tactical PSYOP teams and CA teams with the squadron. AND MULTINATIONAL CONSIDERATIONS 9-8. Joint operations are the ultimate form of combined arms execution. The regiment or brigade will allocate or coordinate for assets for the squadron. Engineer assets are not organic to the squadrons. Engineer support relates to the warfighting functions of movement and maneuver and protection. Examples include the following: Fires from U. Such actions as maintaining rapport. It usually requires the squadron commander to dedicate liaison personnel. INTERGOVERNMENTAL. Air Force (USAF) systems can create the conditions for decisive action and multiply the effects of tactical maneuver. Marine Corps (USMC) forces are tactically interoperable. The SBCT has an organic engineer company to provide support to the reconnaissance squadron. equipped. They are integrated with the commander’s maneuver and fires assets to afford or enhance opportunities for the commander to successfully accomplish combined arms missions. and to conduct detailed and continuous coordination to achieve overall success. Interagency and intergovernmental cooperation is not easy. Employing the varying—and synergistic—capabilities of the joint services enables friendly forces to preserve the initiative by forcing the enemy to react to multiple forms of contact.S. INTERAGENCY. SQUADRON SUPPORT ASSETS 9-12. or trained to perform close combat operations. to share military resources. augmentation from force pool assets is required. and survivability tasks.

or detonated to tie together. There is seldom enough time or equipment for the engineers to do all the tasks desired. Maneuver units may assist engineers in emplacing tactical obstacles when speed is essential or engineer assets are limited. 9-17. individual Soldiers. Countermobility operations attack the threat’s ability to maneuver. The squadron may receive engineer support from its higher headquarters or from engineer units assigned to an MEB. emplaced. The engineer company commander or platoon leader can best manage the collective effort of the entire company/platoon and supporting equipment. 9-19. Engineers often support the squadron during reconnaissance by performing mobility tasks in support of the movement or maneuver of follow-on forces. In missions where facilitating movement of other forces is critical. vehicle crews. Survivability operations entail the development and construction of protective positions to reduce the effectiveness of threat weapon systems. they are best employed under squadron control to keep their efforts focused on the most critical requirements. 9-16. Reinforcing obstacles are specifically constructed. although they are often focused on creating vehicle fighting positions and performing other survivability tasks that require engineer assets. This is accomplished by enhancing natural restrictions to movement with planned obstacles.Chapter 9 SUPPORT CAPABILITIES MOBILITY 9-13. Squadron units provide security to engineers as they work on their tasks and are prepared to provide sustainment as well. priority can also be specified to designated portions of the obstacle plan. Movement of sustainment assets must also be considered when constructing combat roads and trails since these assets require the highest degree of mobility support. fix. Supporting engineer units are often task organized with both mobility and countermobility equipment. Reconnaissance missions on occasion may require an engineer platoon to delegate squads to troops or scout platoons. Existing obstacles are those natural or cultural restrictions to maneuver that are part of the terrain when the operation begins. SURVIVABILITY 9-18. by providing gap crossings. Tactical obstacles are placed to achieve one of the desired effects on threat maneuver (block. 9-15. maneuver units without engineer support emplace them. Engineers construct survivability positions for C2 elements and for critical equipment and supplies. more engineers may be assigned to initiate mobility tasks at the earliest possible time. The two types of reinforcing obstacles are tactical and protective. and by constructing and maintaining combat roads and trails. The most extensive survivability effort is expended in the defense. disrupt) and are generally within or at the front of an EA. The engineer unit may be placed in a supporting relationship with a specific subordinate ground troop for an operation in which this arrangement best accomplishes the mission. and units must do all they can to prepare their own survivability 9-4 FM 3-20. The squadron commander specifies priority of effort for engineer tasks. strengthen. Construction and maintenance of routes are accomplished to the extent necessary to support the momentum of the squadron. Typically. They may assist with the digging of individual and crew-served weapon positions. These actions ensure the engineer effort is focused. Engineers accomplish this by reducing the effects of existing or reinforcing obstacles. turn. When engineers are limited. Restrictions in the AO can often be rapidly turned into effective reinforcing obstacles with minimal effort.96 12 March 2010 . and extend existing obstacles. with construction of short bypasses second. Improvement of existing routes is the first priority. using them as needed to accomplish the commander’s intent. COUNTERMOBILITY 9-14. Protective obstacles normally can be placed outside planned obstacle zones and belts unless otherwise specified by higher headquarters or if the obstacles are not intended to be recovered. Mobility operations create and preserve freedom of movement for maneuver units and critical supplies. therefore. Obstacles are classified as either existing or reinforcing. Protective obstacles are placed close to friendly positions to provide unit security. In countermobility operations.

LETHAL FIRES 9-23. These are the existing or proposed.96 9-5 . simultaneous engagements in a relatively short time period. FSCMs. These are targets that. Offensive and defensive operations place a premium on employing the lethal effects of combat power against the enemy. High-value assets. rate of movement. technical support (meteorological and survey). the side better able to combine them defeats its opponent rapidly while incurring fewer losses. Examples of restrictive control measures are NFAs. Such victories create opportunities for exploitation. including the main CP. and surprise are vital considerations. and Army aviation operating in the AO. will seriously impede mission accomplishment. CTCP. The FS system. tempo. permissive or restrictive control measures established by higher headquarters. is a collective body of target acquisition and attack systems (lethal and nonlethal). C2 systems and facilities. The FSCMs must reduce the risk of engaging dispersed reconnaissance or security elements without unnecessarily restricting engagement opportunities of friendly forces. Ammunition restrictions. One of the squadron commander’s greatest challenges is effectively synchronizing and concentrating all available assets at critical times and places. These are identified. timing of advance. This includes the AO. such as Trojan elements or UAS GCSs. Each phase of the commander’s plan must be supported by the FS plan. audacity. effects). or other ammunition (including established controlled supply rates). The following list covers several areas that the commander must coordinate with the fire support officer (FSO): Scheme of maneuver.e. in coordination with the tactical air control party (TACP). This identifies which troop has priority of artillery fires. In these operations. and RFAs. the effects 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. if not fired upon. The amount of time available and the level of threat determine the amount of resources the squadron can invest in increasing survivability. With the emergence of numerous asymmetric threats and the possibility for multiple. and the personnel required to provide and manage FS. determine what CAS assets are available. Priority of fires. CAUTION Coordinating FS is a continuous and essential process for reconnaissance or cavalry units. passage of lines. which relates directly to the fires warfighting function. Priority targets. The commander and FSO. FS planning is a critical part of effective reconnaissance because the squadron will require such support as it deploys to confirm or deny the CCIR early in the higher headquarters’ decision-making process. The commander must ensure that he clearly states his intent for FS and that the FS plan is developed accordingly. Critical targets. Historically. See FM 3-90 for additional discussion. 9-22. The squadron commander designates the priority of effort for attached engineers in survivability work. concentration (i. SECTION III – FIRES 9-20. it is imperative that the squadron effectively employ FS assets.. along with how long they will be in effect. CAS. In some operations. 9-21. when they are available. and field trains command post (FTCP).Augmenting Combat Power positions. Squadron priorities should list the following as top priorities: CPs. AMD and engineer assets may also become components of the FS system. improved conventional munitions. and how they will be used (including target selection and desired effects). RFLs. These place limitations on the use of obscurants.

Squadrons assigned to the BCTs receive FS from the brigade’s organic fires battalion. and shock are enough to collapse organized resistance.96 12 March 2010 .Chapter 9 of speed. Figures 9-2 through 9-4 illustrate the typical organization of these battalions. Fires battalion – SBCT 9-6 FM 3-20. Such a collapse occurred in the offensive phase of Operation Iraqi Freedom in 2003 (see FM 3-0). surprise. FIRE SUPPORT ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES 9-24. Figure 9-2. Fires battalion – HBCT Figure 9-3.

Copperhead. The BFSB has no organic artillery units. multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) units may provide either rocket fires (out to 70 kilometers) or missile fires (out to 300 kilometers or more). extended-range DPICM. They have lethal munitions such as HE. 155-mm precision munitions are available to support the squadron when the reduction of collateral damage is critical and when HPTs are encountered. In addition to cannon artillery. Additionally. It is organized to provide responsive and accurate fire support to the elements of the squadron. However. The 155mm cannon artillery also has a suite of special munitions such as obscurants and illumination (including infrared). Fires brigades are task organized to accomplish assigned tasks.96 9-7 . 9-29. cannon artillery units have several different munitions available to support the squadron. See FM 3-09. they may be placed OPCON to a corps. Additional fire support to the squadron or its higher headquarters may come from a fires brigade. Fire support for elements of the reconnaissance squadron is coordinated by joint or Army fires assets supporting the BFSB or other units. Figure 9-5. attached. The cavalry squadrons of the ACR have an organic field artillery battery. Fire Support. 9-28. Artillery battery – armored cavalry regiment 9-26. dual purpose improved conventional munitions (DPICM). or another Service component or functional component. joint force land component commander. including close supporting fires and counterfire (see Figure 9-5).Augmenting Combat Power Figure 9-4. for more discussion on the fires brigade. or placed in the OPCON of a division. Rockets are used against 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. 9-27. Fires battalion – IBCT 9-25. and scatterable mines (SCATMINE). JTF. As part of the unit basic load. Fires brigades are normally assigned.

degrade. including large armor formations. Due to the close proximity of friendly forces. Due to capabilities of the aircraft and the enhanced SA of the aircrews.32. The MLRS cannot fire special munitions such as obscurants or illumination. Both types of capabilities represent a powerful asset. Army Tactical Missile System (ATACMS) missiles are designed to carry a variety of submunitions. The squadron may require Army attack aircraft to support combat operations. CAS missions are broken down into two types: Preplanned. Once the aircrews receive the mission from the ground commander. delay. Targets may range from a few meters to several kilometers from friendly forces. JP 3-09. ARMY AVIATION ATTACK OPERATIONS 9-30. Attack operations destroy or defeat enemy forces to seize. CAS can be preplanned or provided on request (immediate or emergency basis). Techniques. Hasty interdiction attacks are the result of sudden enemy contact or enemy attack. Interdiction attack is a hasty or deliberate attack by Army aircraft to divert. surface-to-surface missiles (SSM). Attack/reconnaissance units conduct two basic types of attack—close combat attack and interdiction attack. retain. CAS Planning Considerations 9-35. including “smart” munitions. or company-level ground unit. For additional discussion on close air support.96 12 March 2010 . detailed coordination is required. An interdiction attack is conducted at such a distance from friendly forces that detailed integration with ground forces is not required. Immediate. for additional information.3. covered later in this discussion. attack aviation. Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Operations. 9-32. artillery. and reinforcing ground forces. Close combat attack is not synonymous with CAS. It combines ground-based fires. See FM 3-04. disrupt. and joint assets to mass effects and isolate and destroy key enemy forces and capabilities. CAS mission success directly relates to thorough effective mission planning. Techniques. Multiservice Tactics. and Procedures for Close Air Support. support friendly maneuver. 9-34. mobile long-range surface missiles. Note. see the following: FM 3-09. The purpose of an interdiction attack is to deny the enemy freedom of action. and destroy key enemy forces and capabilities. The S-3 Air is responsible for working with the squadron air liaison officer (ALO) prior to and during tactical air 9-8 FM 3-20. air defense systems. terminal control from ground units or controllers is not necessary. or exploit the initiative.126. then engage the enemy force while maintaining freedom to maneuver. Immediate requests are used for air support mission requirements identified too late to be included in the current air tasking order (normally less than 72 hours). and Procedures for the Joint Application of Firepower. Joint Tactics. and are used at ranges of 25 to 300+ kilometers. capable of destroying threat elements of varying sizes. platoon. CAS is capable of destroying threat elements of varying sizes.60. Close combat attack is a hasty or deliberate attack by Army aircraft providing air-to-ground fires for friendly units engaged in close combat. See FM 3-09. or destroy enemy forces before they can affect friendly forces.Chapter 9 personnel and soft and lightly armored targets at ranges of 15 to 70 kilometers. they develop a plan. unmanned systems. Attack Reconnaissance Helicopter Operations. Deliberate interdiction attacks are focused on key objectives and fleeting high-value targets (HVT) such as enemy C2 elements. CLOSE AIR SUPPORT 9-33. including large armor formations. for additional information. The squadron may require support in the AO from joint aircraft against targets in close proximity to friendly ground forces. Close combat attacks are generally coordinated and directed by a team. Preplanned CAS missions are generally requested 72 hours in advance and do not include detailed target information because of the lead-time for the mission. 9-31.

Because artillery support is more continuous and faster to respond than CAS. This is a key consideration in using CAS. communications. Formal ACA 9-39. or other natural and man-made terrain are difficult to identify from fast-moving aircraft. aircraft survivability. Targets that are well camouflaged. What types of targets are to be engaged. Since there are no digital links with supporting aircraft. CAS missions must be integrated with artillery so that limited firing restrictions are imposed. General ordnance characteristics. C2 procedures. Suppression of enemy air defenses. cities. When operating in the squadron’s AO. for information on ACAs. Target acquisition. See FM 3-52. Airspace Coordination Area 9-38. Army Airspace Command and Control in a Combat Zone. The extensive coordination required for a formal ACA can limit its timeliness and usefulness at the squadron level. An ACA is a means of providing airspace for the relatively safe travel of aircraft and for facilitating the simultaneous attack of targets near each other by multiple FS assets. small and stationary. Target identification. Missiles or bombs are effective from any angle. The final attack heading depends on considerations of troop safety. however. and what are the desired weapon effects? Final attack heading. It is designed to be in effect for a relatively longer period of time than an informal ACA. CAS aircraft are under the positive control of one of the squadron’s TACP forward air controllers (FAC). SEAD is required based on the capabilities of the aircraft and presence of threat air defense systems in the target area. CAS/artillery integration. Safe means of friendly position identification include mirror flashes.96 9-9 . This is critical if CAS aircraft are to avoid fratricide. Other planning factors include time available for planning. the S-3 Air must consistently keep the ALO apprised of the ground tactical situation through digital and conventional means. 9-37. This classification is based on the amount of time available and the level of control desired. FACs monitor the ground tactical situation. and monitor conventional voice radio nets of the supported ground or maneuver commander to prevent fratricide in air-to-ground or ground-to-air engagements. and precise reports of direction and distance from prominent land features or target marks. Smoke and laser devices can also be used for marking purposes. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Identification of friendly forces. review the COP. The use of marking rounds can enhance target identification and help ensure first-pass success. and terrain. are more effective against the flanks and rear end of armored vehicles. CAS mission success is directly related to thorough mission planning based on the following factors and considerations: Weather. 9-36. Cannons. or masked by hills. infrared signals/beacons. Does the weather favor the use of aircraft? What is the cloud ceiling? What is the forecast for the immediate future? Weather is one of the most important considerations when visually employing weapons. including existing FSCMs such as NFAs around established OPs. This is a three-dimensional block of airspace that provides lateral and altitude separation between aircraft and other FS assets. poor weather conditions can hinder target identification and degrade weapon accuracy. ACAs are classified as either formal or informal. towns. Army artillery and combat air power are complementary. The primary cause of fratricide is misidentification of friendly troops as threat forces. It can be accomplished by providing a precise description of the target in relation to terrain features easily visible from the air. and optimum weapon effects. The formal ACA is established by the ACR/BCT or higher headquarters.Augmenting Combat Power (TACAIR) operations. The airspace coordination area (ACA) is the airspace coordinating measure used to accomplish this integration. thermal identification panels.

PSYOP. offsets. UHF. An informal ACA can be established at squadron or higher level by using one of four standard separation plans: lateral. and when to attack them. timed. or delay the performance of enemy operational forces. Line 7. Units of measurement are standard unless otherwise specified. laser. WP. 9-10 FM 3-20. It is normally in effect for very short periods of time—only long enough to get aircraft into and out of the target area. The CAS request provides the crew of CAS aircraft with the SA and information necessary to successfully engage their target(s). Line 9. Line 5. grid [including map datum. The targeting process synchronizes the effects of fires and information engagement with the effects of other warfighting functions (see FM 3-09). electronic warfare (jamming). The controller does not transmit the line numbers. detect. or lateral and altitude. Table 9-1 provides the CAS request format. Line 3. Line 6.Chapter 9 Informal ACA 9-40. The controller may request read-back of additional items as required. deliver. The terminal controller will transmit via radio (such as VHF. providing the aircrew with enough time to write down the information and set up their navigational equipment. disrupt. altitude. Table 9-1. Line 2. cardinal directions and distance in meters) Position marked by: Egress: (cardinal direction and/or CP) Remarks: Restrictions (FAH or altitude). or visual) Mark: (e. Line 4. as well as how. The targeting process is based on four functions: decide. functions. and facilities (FM 1-02). The targeting process determines what targets to attack to achieve the squadron commander’s desired effects. or FM) to the attack aircraft.. threats. TARGETING PROCESS 9-43. CAS Request 9-41. EXPLANATION IP/ BP to target: Heading: (degrees magnetic) Offset: (left/right) Distance: (in nautical miles or meters) Target elevation: (feet above/below mean sea level) Target description: (general) Target Location: (latitude/longitude. where. Lines 4 and 6 and any restrictions are mandatory read-back items (indicated by boldface type in Table 9-1).96 12 March 2010 . infrared) Code: (actual code) Laser to Target Line: (degrees) Location of Friendly Forces: (from target. See FM 3-24 and FM 3-07 for additional discussion of nonlethal fires. such as WGS-84]. and other C2 countermeasures are all nonlethal fire options. ACA (SEAD gun-target line) Time on Target (TOT) or Time to Target (TTT): Line 8. Nonlethal fires are any fires that do not directly seek the physical destruction of the intended target and are designed to impair. and assess (see Figure 9-6). Close air support nine-line request format LINE # Line 1.g. NONLETHAL FIRES 9-42.

Targeting process 9-44. The targeting life cycle is continuous. units constantly apply combat power and force multipliers. Assets available to the squadron for each time period (this includes analysis of combat power by day). however. or CP of the future for developing operational graphics. The targeting process works as well for nonlethal systems as it does for the lethal systems discussed earlier.Augmenting Combat Power Figure 9-6. TARGETING MEETINGS 9-46. and then executed the mission specified.96 9-11 . FBCB2. A 1:25. A large target synchronization matrix (TSM) worksheet or chart for each time period to focus everyone’s attention.000 map. the cycle began again. the squadron received an order from higher. maneuver control system (MCS). analyzed that order. Traditionally. Further identifies the subset of targets that must be acquired and attacked to achieve friendly success (HPTs). All staff members must be prepared to discuss their requirements. The targeting process— Identifies resources (targets) that the enemy can least afford to lose or that provide him the greatest advantage (such as HVTs). and the site for the targeting meeting must be set up with the appropriate products and information. That is the nature of full-spectrum operations. such as the following: Anticipated task organizations for the time periods discussed. Enables the squadron commander to synchronize all warfighting functions to accomplish his mission. Since there may be no clear distinctions between the end of one operation and the start of another. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Once that mission was complete. 9-45. The staff that integrates the targeting process methodology into the MDMP will be able to provide sound guidance to its subordinate units. the squadron staff (and its CP) must be structured to conduct current operations and future planning simultaneously. In the current OE.

9-48. and AO assessments. As Table 9-2 indicates. including countermortar radars. Collection emphasis. Draft intelligence. High-payoff target list (HPTL) and desired effects. is either retargeted in the coming time periods or removed altogether because it is no longer a valid HPT. Troops-to-task ratios. Adjustment guidance includes the following: Targeting objectives. Execution and adjustment decisions encompass the following: Targeting objectives. the staff reviews the TSM. Current and proposed PIR.g. surveillance. each HPT.Chapter 9 9-47. Current enemy situation template and enemy COA (event template). D+1/2/3). Impact of light and weather data. and reconnaissance (ISR) plan (D. this portion of the targeting meeting serves merely as a review for the staff. D+1/2/3). COA guidance. Adjacent units affecting operations (D. Table 9-2. depending on its importance. PIR changes. including anticipated combat power. Since the HPTLs are already agreed upon (from the pretargeting meeting). D.. 9-49. Measure of effectiveness changes. D+1/2/3 recommendations). Status of current operations. Targeting meeting responsibilities Staff Member XO S-2 Responsibility Review commander’s guidance and commander’s intent. S-3 9-12 FM 3-20. covering the last 24 hours. D+3 days). Higher headquarters-directed and implied tasks. Decisive operation. Reconnaissance focus (from the commander’s reconnaissance planning guidance). Friendly force information requirements (FFIR) and commander’s PIR (D-1 review. Enemy COA event template (D. including higher headquarters-directed NAI coverage. Collection synchronization.96 12 March 2010 . D+1/2/3). If a task was not achieved. to ensure the squadron achieved the desired effects or task. Focus on the last time-phase line (e. Decisive operation. BDA. Proposed HVT sets and link analysis. Main and supporting efforts. Status of collection assets. Task organization (assets available. HPTL. Main efforts and shaping operations.

Follow-up assessments and other requirements. coordinate. It must also synchronize the combat execution of multiple tactical missions within the squadron AO through graphical concept sketches that include the following: CASEVAC. Radar operations and counterfire predictive analysis (D. Public affairs media engagement plan. Updated measure of effectiveness matrix. Consequence management. Public affairs information strategies and media facilitation.96 9-13 . 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. D+1/2/3). the formal process must synchronize reconnaissance assets and enablers. Engineer and explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) assets available (D. Recommended talking points. Themes and messages applicable to recommended essential tasks. Enemy countermobility COA. Recommended reconstruction projects. Plan. Identify and coordinate with nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and host nation project management. Coordination and recommendations for preplanned air support requests. Proposed HPTs (D. D+1/2/3). Targeting meeting responsibilities (continued) Staff Member FSO Responsibility Recommended essential tasks for FS (and effects) and specific methodology (D. D+1/2/3). and manage civil-military operations (CMO) project management. In a given targeting cycle. Approved PSYOP plans and programs. Products and distribution plans/synchronization. Recommended changes to FSCM. Media security plan. Recovery. Provides final guidance and direction to the staff. Synchronize CMO to enhance mission effectiveness. Coordinate civil reconnaissance. Air Liaison Officer (if available) Unit Information Operations Officer CA Team Leader (if available) PSYOP Team Leader (if available) Unit Public Affairs Officer Engineer Officer (if available) XO 9-50.Augmenting Combat Power Table 9-2. With constant analysis. Vulnerabilities and flexibility (decision points). the formal targeting briefing allows the squadron commander to see himself (friendly forces) and see the potential problems in relationship to time and space. Environmental considerations assessment. D+1/2/3). D+1/2/3). Recommended decide and detect data for TSM (D. Submission of preplanned and recommended air requests for inclusion in the air tasking order (ATO) (D. D+1/2/3). Minimize interference between civil and military operations. Tactical PSYOP team tasks and purposes. Coordinate key leader engagement by constantly vetting contacts to identify elites within the AO. Submission of airspace control measures (ACM) requests. Approval and availability of products.

the more likely they are to get the needed support. Depending on the mission variables of METT-TC. fires. and destroy threat forces using fire and maneuver to concentrate and sustain combat power at critical times and places. Current operations must incorporate full SU of near-term objectives. the squadron may not have authorization for certain positions (such as a CA officer) that could be involved in targeting meetings. Table 9-3 lists the missions performed by Army aviation in support of the squadron or its higher headquarters. Note. They require immediate access to the tools maintained by the current operations cell. 9-54. It is important for the squadron to understand that planners conduct planning in that cycle. 9-56. Otherwise. Army aviation relates to the warfighting functions of movement and maneuver. PSYOP. commanders cannot make the immediate contributions required to accomplish missions and generate the synchronized effect of nested end states from squadron through the higher headquarters. The earlier planners identify any additional assets they require (such as aviation. and sustainment. more valuable. and recognition of execution friction points. Brigade-level staffs have cells to focus both on the actual targeting meeting and on maintaining continuous targeting abilities. They must also debrief units operating in sector and maintain SA on adjacent unit activities or even across the entire higher headquarters sector in assessing current actions and developing future plans aimed at the end state. and time is. accordingly. They conduct missions either as an aviation-pure force or task organized with other elements. The squadron staff must understand that the current operations cell’s “24-hour” time repeatedly restarts. intelligence.96 12 March 2010 . the squadron commander can assign responsibility for a position that is not authorized or resourced to an officer or senior NCO to ensure proper oversight of the function. Army aviation has the mission to find. Based on its table of organization and equipment (TOE). 9-53. The effects of failing to synchronize operations during planning means current operations only collect information. Some staff members must contribute to both efforts. Therefore. and CA teams). the commander’s visualization of the AO. The future operations cell receives assets based on the tasking cycle. execution and tasking cycles in which the higher headquarters and squadron operate serve as an asset management cycle covering specific 24-hour periods. fix. the squadron must focus on the continuous assessment of targeting to reduce the amount of time key staff members are required to be in targeting meetings. The squadron staff is much more austere. HUMINT. SECTION IV – ARMY AVIATION SUPPORT 9-55. Planners must be able to use current information in assessments. That is. SQUADRON STAFFING 9-52. Army aviation assets can provide timely reconnaissance and intelligence throughout the squadron AO and conduct air assault and air movement operations. 9-14 FM 3-20.Chapter 9 9-51.

and training required to establish defensive measures against the effects of an attack by CBRN weapons and/or the ability to deter the use of such weapons. FM 3-52.1. Army aviation missions Unit Type Attack Reconnaissance Battalion Missions Reconnaissance Security Attack Movement to contact Reconnaissance Security Air assault Air movement Attack Movement to contact C2 support Aerial CASEVAC Air assault Air movement Aerial CASEVAC Personnel recovery Air assault Air movement C2 support Aerial MEDEVAC Aerial CASEVAC Air traffic services Personnel recovery Aviation maintenance Forward arming and refueling point (FARP) operations Air Cavalry Squadron Assault Helicopter Battalion General Support Aviation Battalion 9-57. FM 3-52. FM 3-04. Techniques. These measures are continuous in nature and integrated throughout all combat operations. and Procedures for Airspace Control.96 9-15 .111. CBRN support operations relate to the warfighting function of protection. CBRN defense covers the methods.113. Utility and Cargo Helicopter Operations.Augmenting Combat Power Table 9-3.126. Attack Reconnaissance Helicopter Operations. Aviation Brigades. FM 3-04. SECTION V – CBRN SUPPORT OPERATIONS CBRN DEFENSE 9-58. FM 3-04. Three principles guide CBRN defense: Contamination avoidance. Army Aviation Operations. The main goals of CBRN defensive operations are to reduce casualties and damage to equipment and to minimize disruption of the mission. See the following for additional information: FM 1-100. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Army Airspace Command and Control in a Combat Zone. procedures. Multiservice Tactics. plans.

Note. The reconnaissance platoon has 20 Soldiers 9-16 FM 3-20. and gain and maintain CBRN SA. In the ACR. and digital CBRN warning and reporting. The platoon has the primary responsibility of establishing a CRBN cell that can track all CBRN-related activities in the AO. three in the SBCT). The squadron relies on its higher headquarters for CBRN support. To operate effectively. is equipped with three CBRN reconnaissance vehicles and is composed of 12 Soldiers. the CBRN company provides CBRN support. ACR Assets 9-64. They decrease the frequency of decontamination operations. SBCT Assets 9-63. 9-59. CBRN RECONNAISSANCE HBCT Assets 9-61. with the exception of the reconnaissance squadron in the SBCT. the CBRN reconnaissance platoon is in the headquarters and headquarters company (HHC) of the BSTB. provide battle tracking during operations. IBCT Assets 9-62. The higher headquarters and squadron CBRN personnel use decision support tools embedded in the joint warning and reporting network to plan CBRN defense. Generally. this requires the CBRN assets to stay together and to be employed as a platoon. hazardous materials (HAZMAT) mitigation. A key factor in all three types of the CBRN platoon is the limited number of vehicles (two each in the HBCT and IBCT. zone. CBRN reconnaissance platoon. The ACR’s CBRN company is organized into a company headquarters. The SBCT’s CBRN reconnaissance platoon. thereby decreasing the operational tempo. and area CBRN reconnaissance to determine the presence and extent of CBRN contamination. CBRN personnel assist the commander in the orchestration of CBRN defense through the integration of the principles of contamination avoidance. Units employ CBRN protection to avoid contamination by conducting vulnerability analysis. CBRN protection also helps the squadron and ACR/BCT to maintain freedom of maneuver through improved SA. and smoke/decontamination platoon. cooperative CBRN detection. CBRN site assessment. In the SBCT. Decontamination. IPB. CBRN assets also require a security element to provide local protection while conducting CBRN operations. organic to the reconnaissance squadron’s surveillance troop. and area CBRN reconnaissance to determine the presence and extent of CBRN contamination. the CBRN reconnaissance assets organic to the HHC of the BSTB are equipped with two M93A1 Fox vehicles manned by eight Soldiers. CBRN protection measures provide several benefits. zone. It conducts dismounted CBRN reconnaissance. the CBRN platoon should be used in a manner that allows mutual support between vehicles and takes full advantage of the capabilities of the vehicles’ CBRN systems. In the HBCT. the CBRN platoon is part of the reconnaissance squadron’s surveillance troop. maintenance section. This platoon is capable of conducting route. and decontamination. including reconnaissance. This CBRN reconnaissance platoon can conduct route. and support to CBRN consequence management.Chapter 9 Protection. protection.96 12 March 2010 . In the HBCT and IBCT. the CBRN reconnaissance platoon in the BSTB HHC comprises two high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicles (HMMWV) and eight Soldiers. In the IBCT. CBRN SUPPORT ASSETS AND CAPABILITIES 9-60. They reduce the likelihood of operational degradation and increased sustainment burden that result when a unit must be in mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP).

AMD elements may be delegated to troop commanders if the mission variables dictate. Occasionally. although it cannot do both simultaneously. refer to the following: FM 3-11. both passive and active. It requires detailed planning and extensive manpower and equipment resources. In the event of attack. Tactics.96 9-17 . 9-69. Thorough decontamination normally occurs after contamination with a persistent agent or prolonged exposure to other agents. FM 17-95. The squadron may be relieved by other units to conduct thorough decontamination. the decontamination unit may be placed under OPCON of the squadron. zone. During squadron missions. air defense counters the threat by destroying aircraft or disrupting the attack. AMD support relates to the protection warfighting function. and Procedures for NBC Protection. FM 3-11. theater missiles in flight. Units also use active measures. and Procedures for CBRN Decontamination. This is usually provided on an area support basis by ADA units assigned to an MEB or an ADA brigade. mobility. Techniques. The smoke/decontamination platoon consists of six M58 large-area obscuration platforms. This method permits the fastest. Cavalry Operations. or UAS. with manning of 47 Soldiers. including fires from crew-served weapons and the 25-mm chain gun in Bradley-equipped units. the normal method of employing supporting AMD is under the centralized control of the AMD leader at squadron level. If the decontamination proceeds by troop and the squadron remains committed in a mission. Decontamination is conducted as far forward as possible to limit the spread of contamination. 9-70. FM 3-11. subordinate units may be too widely dispersed to rely on air defense artillery (ADA) systems.4. Techniques. The AMD leader is integrated into the FSC as a special staff officer. the affected troop or the entire squadron moves to the established site and conducts thorough decontamination under higher headquarters control. Tactics. and integration. For additional discussion on CBRN operations. two fuel heavy expanded mobility tactical trucks (HEMTT). 9-71. which should be covered by the unit’s SOP. FM 3-11. or the entire squadron may move to the decontamination site. The cavalry squadron of the ACR can also receive decontamination support from the smoke/decontamination platoon of the organic CBRN company. More often.3. the commander and staff must consider this dispersion to identify gaps in the ADA umbrella to protect the units. SECTION VI – AIR AND MISSILE DEFENSE SUPPORT 9-68. the squadron must rely on higher echelons for AMD. DECONTAMINATION SUPPORT 9-65. The CBRN reconnaissance platoon is capable of conducting route. Tactics.Augmenting Combat Power and fields six M93A1 Fox vehicles and one HMMWV. 9-67. mix. US Army Air Defense Operations. During planning. see the following: FM 44-100. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Tactics. Techniques. AMD employment is governed by four basic principles: mass. Units must rely heavily on passive air defense measures. With consideration for these principles. For additional information. When thorough decontamination is required. most effective use of decontamination assets. AMD encompasses all measures. and Procedures for NBC Defense. the squadron receives support from a CBRN company decontamination platoon. and area CBRN reconnaissance to determine the presence and extent of CBRN contamination. The smoke/decontamination platoon is capable of providing large-area obscuration or CBRN decontamination support to the regiment. employed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of a threat attack or surveillance by aircraft. It is conducted in a location that affords security as well as cover and concealment from enemy forces. which is typically assigned to an MEB. Other than passive or active air defense measures. and Procedures for CBRN Contamination Avoidance. Air defense measures reduce the possibility of attack by making the squadron a less detectable and lucrative target. Decontamination may proceed by troop. The ACR cavalry squadron may receive air defense assets from the organic ADA battery regiment. Techniques. three HMMWVs.5. 9-66.

Chapter 9 9-72. and threat. Based on the commander’s guidance. and host-nation government agencies operating within its AO. The responsibilities of the CA officer or NCO can include the following: Advise the commander on the effects of the civilian populace on operations. The squadron is not authorized an S-9 to serve as CA officer. The squadron commander or the S-3 provides the AMD leader with the commander’s intent. In supporting the execution of CA activities. These highrisk elements can include the following: Trains. SQUADRON ROLE 9-75. The S-2 and AMD representative determine air avenues of approach and air attack threats during IPB. scheme of maneuver. during. Defense in depth. Nation assistance. Priority is normally given to elements of the squadron at greatest risk of attack because of criticality.S. Sustainment elements. Support to civil administration. The squadron should establish liaison and coordination with U. Assist a CA unit in the operation of a civil-military operations (CMO) center. Mutual support. The squadron’s higher headquarters can assign CA elements to the squadron to assist in carrying out CA plans. the AMD leader formulates the AMD plan. 9-73. The goal is to facilitate military operations and to consolidate and achieve U. Overlapping fires. Squadron assembly areas. 9-18 FM 3-20. the squadron commander may assign this responsibility to an officer or senior NCO to assist him with relations between the civilian populace and military units during operations. the squadron is usually employed to advise and assist host-nation military forces. Early engagement. Weighted coverage against the most likely avenue of approach. During stability or civil support operations. Foreign humanitarian assistance. CA core tasks include the following (see FM 3-05. Civil Affairs Operations): Populace and resource control. They may also occur. recoupment. in the absence of other military operations. CPs. such as logistics packages (LOGPAC). These activities may occur before. or after other military actions. 9-76. He coordinates the plan with the FSO and troop commanders. The AMD leader recommends initial allocation of AMD assets and the AMD scheme of maneuver based on this guidance. vulnerability. SECTION VII – CIVIL AFFAIRS SUPPORT 9-74. and priorities of protection.96 12 March 2010 . Observation and fields of fire. Assist the S-3 in integrating attached CA units into the squadron. CA support relates to the C2 warfighting function. objectives. CA activities performed or supported by CA personnel and organizations enhance the relationship between military forces and civil authorities in areas where military forces are present (FM 1-02). Assist in development of plans to deconflict civilian activities in relation to military operations. The squadron may enter into direct civic action programs.S. Civil information management. Weapons are positioned considering the following guidelines: Balanced fires. if directed.40.

Intelligence. and Procedures. 9-79. MPs. IEW assets support the commander by accomplishing seven major functions (see FM 34-54. for additional discussion on MP operations. In addition. analysis. CIVIL AFFAIRS UNITS 9-77. in support of the squadron. CA units provide the commander with the means to shape his OE with regard to core CA tasks (listed earlier in this discussion) and to synchronize these tasks with military operations. act as an interface between civil authorities and military forces. SECTION IX – OTHER SUPPORT OR FUNCTIONS MILITARY INTELLIGENCE 9-80. IPB. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW) assets produce both combat information and intelligence. BDA. for additional discussion on the role of MI. MP units perform five primary operational functions: Maneuver and mobility operations. Techniques. for more details). They can develop populace and resource control measures. Civil Affairs Tactics. See FM 3-19. Technical Intelligence): Indications and warning. They possess cultural and linguistic knowledge of the countries in each region. OPSEC. With guidance from the commander on desired effects. Intelligence is the product resulting from the collection. CA units perform important liaison functions between the military force and local civil authorities. integration. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron receives IEW support from the MI battalion. Combat information is unevaluated data provided directly to the tactical commander because of its highly perishable nature or the criticality of the situation.1. evaluation. CA elements can assess the needs of civil authorities.401. Police intelligence operations. Situation development. The squadron receives MP support from MP units assigned or attached to an MEB. and coordinate with international support agencies. and NGOs. foreign nation. The reconnaissance squadrons of the BCTs rely on IEW support from the MICO in the BSTB. although this capability is generally limited to Active Army elements. The MICO in the ACR provides IEW support to squadron operations.Augmenting Combat Power Plan community relations programs to gain and maintain public understanding and support of military operations. Information protection. and interpretation of all available information concerning a threat force. (See FM 3-05.96 9-19 . convoy security. and serve as a liaison to the civil populace. and fixed-site security missions). CA personnel are regionally oriented. or AO. Coordinate with the FSO on culturally sensitive sites and protected targets. Internment and resettlement operations. Area security (including route and convoy security). CA personnel have a wide variety of resources at their disposal to influence the AO. international organizations. route security. See FM 2-0. Military Police Operations. Law and order operations. SECTION VIII – MILITARY POLICE SUPPORT 9-78. 9-81. Target development and support to targeting. can be used in an economy of force role (such as patrols.

MILITARY WORKING DOGS 9-86. See FM 2-0 for additional information about the following intelligence disciplines: HUMINT. Collection and jamming assets are positioned to detect enemy activity as far forward as possible and to employ electronic countermeasures against enemy communications nets as early as possible. communications between the local population and unit personnel can improve intelligence gathering and win acceptance of the unit within the AO. Once an IED or UXO is located and reported. Requests for EOD support are processed through operational channels to the higher S-3 maneuver support cell. Interpreters. Through the use of interpreters. Interpreters are often used during the conduct of a search. Reduce collateral damage by giving instructions to noncombatants in the combat zone. including personnel and material. Tactical PSYOP has these purposes: Influence potential adversaries in the civil populace not to interfere with friendly force efforts. Induce cooperation or reduce active opposition. The team can use these skills to help answer the CCIR. such as during the destruction of an enemy force in an EA. In many cases. MI assets conduct surveillance and collection and jamming activities in support of squadron operations. MP units use dogs to find personnel. augmentation must be requested from higher headquarters. infantry units may employ them as an enabler to alert handlers to various types of objects of interest. TACTICAL PSYOP TEAM 9-87.S. the commander should request the services of an interpreter who is either from the AO or familiar with the AO. including operations at roadblocks/checkpoints. which forwards requests to the supporting EOD headquarters. EOD teams may be attached to the squadron. The squadron S-2 must be knowledgeable in the employment of the HCTs. Military working dogs are trained for a variety of purposes. C2. or linguists. and ammunition. limited production of printed products. INTERPRETERS 9-88. especially locating a wide array of items (including people). 9-20 FM 3-20. If working dogs are available. Units such as engineers use working dogs for mine and explosives detection. The HCT includes MI personnel who specialize in the acquisition of information from personnel through elicitation and debriefing as well other means. The jamming effort is usually directed against enemy reconnaissance. can be a valuable asset during reconnaissance operations that require close proximity to indigenous personnel. weapons. If there is a constant presence of IED/UXO hazards. PSYOP teams seek to influence targets directly through face-to-face contact. Early in the planning process. Tactical PSYOP teams can support the squadron by coordinating public broadcasts or distribution of information to influence the populace on or near the objective. The squadron may be operating near individuals who have had no previous contact with U. or fire control nets. At the tactical level. 9-84. The squadron generally requires explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) support for destruction of ammunition and to ensure that IEDs and unexploded ordnance (UXO) are rendered safe. while C2 nets may be jammed at critical points of the operation. Measurement and signatures intelligence (MASINT).Chapter 9 9-82. Enemy reconnaissance can be jammed early in the operation. The commander will normally designate priorities for the collection and jamming effort. the EOD headquarters determines what EOD assets may respond. the squadron may receive augmentation in the form of HCTs. EXPLOSIVE ORDNANCE DISPOSAL 9-85. contraband.96 12 March 2010 . HUMINT is especially important during civil support operations. and use of loudspeakers or other delivery means. EOD capabilities are not organic to the squadron. SIGINT. 9-83. personnel and are unsure of how to deal with them.

access control lists. conserve. or restore the mental and physical well-being of personnel in the Army and. and others the opportunity to exploit friendly information and information systems for their own purposes. External and internal perimeter protection prevents unknown users or data from entering a network. Externally supported. External means include COMSEC procedures. adversaries.1. HSS includes all support and services performed. and security guards. Information protection is accomplished with a full range of security means. It denies enemies. accurate. Personnel recovery responsibilities are based on public law. Electronic protection. in other services. agencies. Internal perimeter protection consists of firewalls and router filters. The key aspects of information protection are the following: Information assurance. recover. or captured personnel. Computer network defense. The ability of the Army to meet its personnel recovery responsibilities hinges on leaders at every level preparing for the recovery of isolated. 9-93. and relevant friendly information. which involves these AMEDD functions: Organic and area medical support. and arranged by the Army Medical Department (AMEDD) to promote. The Army uses four principal methods when planning and executing military recoveries: Immediate. 9-90. Information Operations: Doctrine.1 for detailed information on personnel recovery. as well as the moral obligation to make every effort to recover missing personnel. and Army policy. identify. JP 3-50.Augmenting Combat Power INFORMATION PROTECTION 9-89. Tactics. See FM 3-13. Unassisted. or items critical to national security. Personnel recovery must be integrated into ongoing planning. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. PERSONNEL RECOVERY 9-91. Communication security (COMSEC). Deliberate. Personnel Recovery. preparation. ARMY HEALTH SYSTEM SUPPORT 9-94. This includes casualty care. improve. See FM 3-50. Army Personnel Recovery. as directed. encompasses active or passive measures that protect and defend friendly information and information systems to ensure timely. AHS support includes both health system support (HSS) and force health protection (FHP). HEALTH SERVICE SUPPORT 9-95. router filtering. and organizations. Physical isolation or barriers are placed between protected and unprotected networks. DOD directives and instructions. human remains. sensitive equipment. for additional discussion about information protection. provided. Recovery operations are conducted to search for. locate. missing. The HSS mission is a part of the sustainment warfighting function. 9-92. Techniques and Procedures. detained. and return isolated personnel. and execution activities.96 9-21 . FHP falls under the protection warfighting function. Information protection. one of the five Army information tasks. Commanders must consider a broad range of possible options for successful execution. See the following for additional information: FM 3-50.

Drinking and washing from approved water sources. especially around vehicles. and maintenance of uniforms and protective equipment. and shower points. sleep plans. see the following: 9-22 FM 3-20. or conserve the mental and physical well-being— and fighting fitness—of Soldiers. Leaders reduce the health threat by emphasizing preventive medicine (PVNTMED). use. stress. and access to medical care. Clinical laboratory services. weapons. Force Health Protection in a Global Environment. Safety is inherent in following proper equipment and weapons operating procedures. Operational stress is caused by many factors. latrines. and other measures to maintain unit health. Leaders continuously enforce proper equipment operating procedures and SOP items covering safety. the natural environment. Medical surveillance of field water supplies. Safety measures in the field. See FM 4-02. Some of the most potent stressors are interpersonal in nature and can result from conflict in the unit or at home. leaders should contact the supporting medical company through the medical support section. sanitation. Preventive Medicine 9-98. and other equipment. Behavioral health/neuropsychiatric treatment (treatment aspects). and operations in a combat environment. Treatment of CBRN patients. weapons. For behavioral health and combat and operational stress control (COSC) support. safety procedures. Small-unit leaders must be especially concerned about preventive health measures and stress control. They take a leading role by establishing and maintaining standards for the following: Proper field sanitation. Sleep plans. Platoon and squad leaders are active participants in the areas of hygiene. improve. 9-99. Combat and Operational Stress Control 9-101. Sound leadership works to keep these operational stressors within tolerable limits and prepares troops mentally and physically to endure them. For information on control of combat stressors and for details about specific leader and individual actions to control stress. Safety is a continuous requirement to prevent accidents that could injure Soldiers. Proper cleaning of eating utensils. The best way to do this is for commanders and leaders to emphasize preventive measures. Platoon and squad leaders ensure the health and fitness of their Soldiers through preventive medical measures. 9-97.Chapter 9 Hospitalization. a vital responsibility of all leaders. FHP includes all measures to promote. MEDEVAC. Medical sustainment functions (including blood management). and fatigue. Sample collection for potential toxic industrial material (TIM). Dental care (treatment aspects). and counseling and in the treatment of stress and combat and operational stress reactions (COSR). The unit TACSOP should establish physical hygiene standards. Rules of hygiene and field sanitation should be established in unit SOP and observed daily to prevent the spread of debilitating disease. for additional discussion. 9-100. Wear. The combat environment is full of risks associated with vehicles. Supporting medical units assist unit commanders by providing these services: Sanitary inspections of food service.96 12 March 2010 . safety standards. FORCE HEALTH PROTECTION 9-96. including potential and actual enemy actions.

Risk management also influences task organization. Two main categories of risk are accident-based and tactical (enemy). Sleep Deprivation 9-103. FM 6-22. and capable. At the squadron. fires. and lines of operation. During risk assessment. Leaders should be familiar with signs of sleep loss and fatigue. in some Soldiers. and tailoring SOPs to meet the situation based on the risk assessment. Do not be risk averse. shifting priorities of effort and support. for additional information. All BCTs have a mental health section consisting of a behavioral science officer and a mental health specialist. The BCT chaplain assists with behavioral health and COSC services by helping unit commanders identify Soldiers who are stressed. See FM 5-19. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. such training. such as end state. COMPOSITE RISK MANAGEMENT 9-104. During execution. developing overlays and graphics. or even absent. enforcing SOPs. their absence does not guarantee that a particular Soldier is well rested. and the concepts of operations. These PVNTMED measures are essential in enhancing Soldier survivability across full-spectrum operations. COSC focuses on the FHP aspects of treatment and prevention. Combat and Operational Stress Control. They convey risk considerations as guidance. use of barriers.5. The use of temporary stimulants should be closely monitored by the command and balanced against the dehydrating effects caused by those stimulants. guards. however. commanders from squadron down to platoon identify.Augmenting Combat Power FM 4-02. Risk management provides leaders with a systematic process for identifying. assess. 9-102. integrates risk management into all aspects of the operations process. complete the mission. elimination of hazards. 9-105. Units that make continual health hazard assessments a priority can minimize disease and injury. including the rapid reversal of COSR. and sustainment. Tactical risks can be mitigated by implementing drills (such as actions on contact). Risk can be managed when commanders motivate subordinates to follow the guiding principles of risk management: Integrate risk management into all phases of missions and operations. Apply the process continuously.96 9-23 . and weigh risks. or warning signs. Leaders should remember. Accept no unnecessary risk. risk guidance affects COA development and the application of some elements of operational design. assessment of risk assists squadron commanders in making informed decisions on changing task organization. that these signs could be subtle. Make risk decisions at the appropriate level. conducting rehearsals. designation of objectives. During planning. The squadron commander. Composite Risk Management. through his staff.51. control measures. Identify and control the risk. Although the presence of some indicators suggests possible sleep loss and fatigue. and strictly enforced standards. alert. and controlling risk arising from operational factors. The effects of sleep deprivation can be catastrophic to unit missions and personnel. Effective risk management results in mission accomplishment at least cost. leaders identify ways to mitigate both types of risk. Leaders can mitigate accidents by developing controls. It entails making informed decisions that balance risk with mission benefits. and shaping future operations. Combat and Operational Stress Control Manual for Leaders and Soldiers. assessing.

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.... extend operational reach......Chapter 10 Sustainment Operations As the Army has transformed its operational organizations.. 10-19 Supply Routes .......... 10-9 Support for Security Operations................... 10-26 Controlled Exchange ....... 10-24 Section VI ..... 10-10 Support for Dismounted Operations ........ sustainment organizations at higher echelons must replenish tactical unit combat loads.... 10-22 Section V – Evacuation of Sick and Wounded Personnel .................. 10-25 Battle Damage Assessment and Repair ..................................................................... and AHS support necessary to maintain operations until mission accomplishment......... in most cases........ 10-26 Medical Equipment Maintenance .. 10-11 Communications ............................... 10-12 Sustainment for Attachments and Detachments . 10-27 SECTION I – SUSTAINMENT STAFF AND UNITS 10-1................................ The sustainment warfighting function comprises the related tasks and systems that provide support and services to ensure freedom of action............. describes the sustainment warfighting function.................................... 10-25 Organizations and Capabilities ............ 10-26 Retrograde of Unserviceable Components............Field Maintenance ...... decentralized missions.... 10-14 Types of Support Areas ....... 10-20 LOGPAC Planning ................ Contents Section I – Sustainment Staff and Units .. in many situations.......... 10-13 Section III – Support Areas ........................... it has also transformed its sustainment structure to allow for quicker deployability and a reduction of the sustainment footprint required by Army forces... FM 4-0. 10-23 Medical Evacuation .... 10-3 Section II – Sustainment Planning ..... 10-19 Section IV – Logistics Packages ........ 12 March 2010 FM 3-20............. 10-8 Planning Fundamentals and Procedures ....... Sustainment. 10-18 Security of Support Areas . 10-20 LOGPAC Resupply ...... the squadron and its higher headquarters are organized with the self-sustainment capability for up to 72 hours of combat............ 10-26 Recovery and Evacuation . Beyond 72 hours....... 10-23 Casualty Evacuation ..... Still........... 10-1 Sustainment Staff ....... and prolong endurance........................ Sustainment determines the depth and duration of Army operations........................... and SU that enable more effective support to the force................ the sustainment structure will be challenged to support the squadron’s wide-ranging and.........................................96 10-1 ............................... Sustainment is the provision of the logistics........ 10-2........ personnel services. It is essential to retaining and exploiting the initiative....................................................... 10-13 Contracting ........... 10-26 Communications Security Maintenance . 10-8 Support for Reconnaissance Operations ......... This reduction in structure is a result of advances in sustainment capabilities........ Generally.................. 10-2 Sustainment Units.......... 10-21 LOGPAC Survivability ..................... 10-14 Locations for Support Areas .............. C2........

it could be the requiring activity (requestor of contract support) for some supplies and services. The S-4 coordinates with sustainment unit counterparts to ensure that subordinate elements and attachments to the squadron receive maintenance. morale as affected by religion. SQUADRON S-1 SECTION 10-4. transportation. Note. the squadron will be a supported unit (receiver of contracted support). 10-2 FM 3-20. and coordinating the delivery of human resources (HR) support. He participates in the squadron MDMP to ensure timely planning. supply. Unit ministry team (UMT). the moral and ethical conduct of the command. The squadron S-4 section is responsible for sustainment planning. SQUADRON SURGEON 10-6. SQUADRON UNIT MINISTRY TEAM 10-5. Note. Table 10-1 identifies the sustainment unit counterparts for each squadron S-4 section. the following staff sections or special staff officers have responsibility for the synchronization and coordination of sustainment for the squadron: S-1 section (human resources support). HR support roles and responsibilities are outlined in FM 1-0. The squadron S-1 section is responsible for planning. and the impact of indigenous religions on operations. An integral part of today’s sustainment capabilities is provided through contracted support. The physician’s assistant in the medical treatment platoon fulfills the special staff officer role of a surgeon. As a member of the commander’s personal staff. Because the SBCT and ACR are not organized with FSCs. but based upon METT-TC. SQUADRON S-4 SECTION 10-7. The chaplain assistant provides religious support and staff skills to assist the chaplain. or information to squadron personnel. The squadron UMT consists of the chaplain and an enlisted chaplain assistant. The BFSB reconnaissance squadron does not have a squadron surgeon. coordinating.Chapter 10 SUSTAINMENT STAFF 10-3. All other HR support is coordinated with the brigade S-1 section. services.96 12 March 2010 . Within each type of squadron. integration. The squadron surgeon keeps the commander informed on the health of the command. S-4 section (logistics). The squadron’s sustainment staff must be familiar with the local command’s operational contract support policies and procedures. In most cases. and executing religious support operations within the command. The surgeon is a special staff officer who is responsible for AHS support operations in the squadron. S-6 section (signal). The chaplain is responsible for planning. he has direct access to the commander and advises him on matters of religion. Surgeon. providing. Human Resources Support. and field services support. and synchronization of AHS support within the maneuver plan. the S-4 coordinates with the support operations officer and the support operations section of the respective support battalion/squadron.

12 March 2010 FM 3-20. For additional information. Regimental support squadron in the ACR. SUSTAINMENT UNITS 10-9. and computers system. FM 17-95. He also requests and coordinates augmentation with the higher echelon when requirements exceed capabilities. BSB Staff 10-12. Brigade support company (BSC) in the BFSB. communications. medical platoons remain organic to the squadron. As noted in Table 10-1. Because of their criticality and proximity to combat operations. control. The BSB provides organic sustainment for the BCT. equipped. BRIGADE COMBAT TEAM – BRIGADE SUPPORT BATTALION 10-11. The S-4 and S-6 must coordinate to ensure there are no gaps in the maintenance system for COMSEC. providing the technical supervision for the BSB’s external sustainment mission. Sustainment unit counterparts SQUADRON S-4 SECTION HBCT Recon Squadron S-4 IBCT Recon Squadron S-4 SBCT Recon Squadron S-4 ACR Cavalry Squadron S-4 BFSB Recon Squadron S-4 SUSTAINMENT UNIT COUNTERPART Forward Support Company (FSC) Forward Support Company (FSC) Brigade Support Battalion (BSB) Support Operations Section Regimental Support Squadron Support Operations Section Brigade Support Company (BSC) SQUADRON S-6 SECTION 10-8. The BSB support operations officer manages sustainment operations for the BSB commander. Cavalry Operations. The S-6 section is responsible for maintenance of selected components of the squadron’s command. the BSBs of the HBCT and IBCT have an FSC organized to provide habitual support to the squadron. the squadron coordinates and synchronizes sustainment support beyond organic capabilities with the following units: BSB in the BCTs. and organized to provide dedicated sustainment support for the organization. control. It consists of functional and multifunctional companies assigned to provide support to the BCT. 10-10. The BSB of the SBCT task organizes elements to provide support to the reconnaissance squadron. The FSC commander receives technical oversight from the BSB commander. and other specialized command. The BSB commander is the BCT commander’s primary advisor for sustainment. and computer equipment. He is the key interface between the BSB and its supported units. communications.96 10-3 . The FSC provides each squadron commander with dedicated sustainment assets organized specifically to meet his unit’s requirements. FSCs are generally under OPCON of the squadron. The higher headquarters of each type of squadron has an organic sustainment unit that is manned.6. In contrast. The support operations officer plans and monitors support operations and makes necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met.Sustainment Operations Table 10-1. see the following references: FM 3-90. computers. Brigade Combat Team. The BSB of the HBCT and IBCT also has a sustainment automation management officer who assists with maintenance of related Standard Army Management Information Systems throughout the BCT.

Distribution company. Brigade support medical company. The BSB has distinct FSCs to support the reconnaissance squadron. The FSC commander is responsible for executing the sustainment plan in accordance with the supported squadron commander’s guidance. It has three functional platoons: Transportation platoon. Field maintenance company/forward maintenance company in the HBCT/IBCT or CRT in the SBCT. the fires battalion.96 12 March 2010 . Figure 10-1. Maintenance and recovery. 10-4 FM 3-20. The FSC has a distribution platoon and a maintenance platoon that support the following: Food and water (Class I). Forward support company organization Distribution Company 10-15. Supply platoon (includes Class V and Class IX). The distribution company provides all classes of supply (excluding Class VIII) for BCT units. In addition to its HHC. Fuel (Class III). Ammunition (Class V). Repair parts (Class IX).Chapter 10 BSB Organization 10-13. and each maneuver battalion. Forward Support Company 10-14. the BSB has the following functional companies: Four FSCs (HBCT/IBCT only). Fuel and water platoon.

Operational (emergency) dental care. Laboratory services. Armament. and trauma injuries. 10-17. excluding medical and automation support. The brigade support medical company performs the following functions: Medical treatment of disease and nonbattle injuries (DNBI). The field maintenance company/forward maintenance company (HBCT/IBCT) has a recovery section and the capability to repair the following systems and equipment: Automotive. MEDEVAC by ground ambulance. Power generation. Class VIII resupply. It generally supports the BSTB and BSB. The regimental support squadron provides organic sustainment for the ACR. The regimental support squadron task organizes elements to provide support to the cavalry squadron. The regimental support squadron support operations officer manages sustainment operations for the regimental support squadron commander. Communications. Medical equipment maintenance and repair. support for the squadron and maneuver battalions comes from the FSCs in the HBCT/IBCT and the CRT in the SBCT. He is the key interface between the regimental support squadron and its supported units. PVNTMED. Medical Company 10-19. Role II+ surgical resuscitative services when augmented by a forward surgical team (FST). Patient holding. Radiological services. Armament. Missile. The regimental support squadron commander is the ACR commander’s primary advisor for sustainment. It is responsible for the evacuation of patients from unit (Role I) medical treatment facilities (MTF) or squadron aid stations back to the brigade support medical company (Role II) MTF. The field maintenance company or forward maintenance company provides common maintenance support for the BCT. It consists of functional and multifunctional troops assigned to provide support to the ACR. Treatment teams from the brigade support medical company provide augmentation and reinforcement support to Role I MTFs/squadron aid stations and Role I medical care to units without an organic medical section.Sustainment Operations Field Maintenance Company/Forward Maintenance Company 10-16. providing technical supervision for the support of the squadron’s external sustainment mission. The brigade support medical company provides Role I and II medical care to all units assigned to the BCT and to units operating in the BCT’s AO. COSC. Role II and higher (Role II+) medical care is provided predominantly from within the brigade support area (BSA). The support operations officer plans and monitors support operations and makes 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. ARMORED CAVALRY REGIMENT – REGIMENTAL SUPPORT SQUADRON 10-20.96 10-5 . The CRT (SBCT) has the capability to repair the following systems and equipment: Automotive. Regimental Support Squadron Staff 10-21. 10-18. Power generation.

The maintenance troop provides common maintenance support for the ACR. It has three functional platoons: Supply platoon (including Class V and water). 10-26. Supply and Transportation Troop 10-23. Maintenance troop. Communications. special companies (chemical. Missile. engineer. Regimental Support Squadron Organization 10-22. Operational (emergency) dental care. Armament. Aviation maintenance troop. and trauma injuries.Chapter 10 necessary adjustments to ensure support requirements are met. It generally supports the ACR HHT.96 12 March 2010 . The medical troop performs the following functions: Medical treatment of DNBI. and ADA) and the regimental support squadron. Transportation platoon. excluding medical and automation support. He also requests and coordinates augmentation with the higher headquarters when requirements exceed capabilities. Medical equipment maintenance and repair. Role II and Role II+ medical care is provided predominantly from within the regimental support area. It is responsible for the evacuation of patients from unit (Role I) MTFs/squadron aid stations back to the medical troop (Role II) MTF. The maintenance troop provides each cavalry squadron with a maintenance support team (MST). Maintenance Troop 10-24. MEDEVAC by ground ambulance. MI. The maintenance troop has the capability to repair the following systems and equipment: Automotive. The supply and transportation troop provides all classes of supply (excluding Class VIII) for ACR units. Power generation. PVNTMED. Medical Troop 10-27. Petroleum platoon. Medical troop. The MSTs supporting the cavalry squadrons have the capability to repair the following systems and equipment: Automotive. Patient holding. Power generation. COSC. 10-6 FM 3-20. Treatment teams from the medical troop provide augmentation and reinforcement support to Role I MTFs/squadron aid stations and Role I medical care to units without an organic medical section. the regimental support squadron has the following functional troops: Supply and transportation troop. 10-25. Class VIII resupply. In addition to its HHT. Armament. The medical troop provides Role I and II medical care to all units assigned to the ACR and to units operating in the ACR’s AO.

distribution. Class V. BSC Organization 10-31.96 10-7 . It provides support teams for maintenance. support staff/C2. Wheeled vehicle maintenance. are either supported by the BSC or receive support from the other brigade. The BSC is organized to sustain all organic BFSB elements. Due to its limited assets. Small arms repair. the BSC has the following elements: Field feeding section. It can establish a mission support site for remote or long-duration missions. and provide a central location for linkup with sustainment brigade assets. and field feeding to individual battalions (primarily the reconnaissance squadron) as necessary. Distribution platoon. 10-30. The support package then ties in with the gaining brigade’s supporting sustainment unit. Attachment of battalion-size units or multiple smaller attachments to the BFSB may require it to request augmentation (such as additional sustainment support. the BSC provides a support package tailored for the unit. The aviation maintenance troop provides field-level maintenance support to the regimental aviation squadron maintenance troop and their assigned aircraft and equipment. The aviation maintenance troop is responsible for performing field-level maintenance. BFSB assets operating in another brigade’s AO. The BSC provides the following functions and capabilities: Distribution-based sustainment to the BFSB. Food service support for organic and attached elements. including intermediate-level maintenance. When BFSB elements are task organized to another brigade. BATTLEFIELD SURVEILLANCE BRIGADE – BRIGADE SUPPORT COMPANY 10-29. Recovery assets. BFSB assets operating in the supported headquarters’ unassigned areas receive a support team from the BSC.Sustainment Operations Radiological services. Laboratory services. Maintenance quality assurance and quality control. Power generation equipment repair. the BFSB uses a combination of organic sustainment provided by the BSC and other brigades (for BFSB assets operating in their AOs) and area support provided through sustainment brigade elements. Unique Considerations for the BSC 10-33. Maintenance platoon. Chemical and quartermaster equipment repair. Transportation for loads configured by the sustainment brigade for Class III bulk. but still under OPCON of the BFSB. Role II+ surgical resuscitative services when augmented by an FST. Aviation Maintenance Troop 10-28. and water. This support team may be positioned with another brigade’s supporting sustainment unit to reduce distances required to support the unit. enhance protection. Communications equipment repair. or LNOs) to support the attachments. In addition to the company headquarters. Units attached or 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. BSC Capabilities 10-32.

After determining these support requirements. and the appropriate counterparts from supporting sustainment units. In some situations. including war-gaming. Representatives from these elements form a sustainment planning cell at the CTCP to ensure sustainment plans are fully integrated into all operational planning. 10-37. The lead planner for sustainment in the squadron is usually the S-4 assisted by the S-1. PLANNING FUNDAMENTALS AND PROCEDURES 10-36. Sustainment planning is fully integrated into all operational planning. by type and unit. The Sustainment Brigade. with planning conducted to determine specific requirements and to prepare for contingencies. Squadron orders should address only specific support matters for the operation. Priority of support. sustainment planners and operators must understand the mission statement. routine sustainment operations usually are planned and coordinated by the sustainment unit supporting the squadron (such as the FSC. with the concept of sustainment support synchronized with other areas of the concept of operations. Quantities of support required. squadron surgeon (for AHS support). or brigade support medical company). sustainment planners must determine the following: Type of support required. which should include the following: Squadron commander’s priorities.2. CASEVAC points. The SOP should be the basis for squadron sustainment operations. if necessary. BSC. as part of the ongoing process of refining the squadron sustainment estimate. commander’s intent. In addition. Logistics release points (LRP). It is characterized by longer distances. For a detailed discussion on BFSB sustainment. The S-1 may have a representative at or near the aid station to monitor casualty operations. The sustainment environment in which the squadron operates is very different from that of other maneuver units.Chapter 10 under OPCON to the BFSB come with a support package tailored to their needs. Sustainment overlay. key sustainment planners (such as the S-4 and S-1) must actively participate in the planning process. see FMI 4-93. 10-39. staff planners must be careful not to use maneuver battalion or BCT planning factors when computing sustainment requirements for the squadron. Any deviations from SOP sustainment planning should be covered early in the squadron’s planning process. sustainment planners assess the following information: Sustainment resources available (organic and supporting). To predict support requirements. and concept of operations. The S-4 is responsible for producing paragraph 4 (Service Support) of the OPORD. Although the sustainment planners at the CTCP control and coordinate sustainment for specific squadron operations. Priority of support. Because of this. Class III/Class V resupply during the mission. 10-35. To provide effective support. Planning is continuous and concurrent with ongoing support execution. the squadron must be fully supported by the area common user network and be able to send data traffic by radio. by type and unit. Also. 10-8 FM 3-20. 10-38. Movement criteria/triggers. and fluid situations. frequently decentralized execution. sustainment planning begins before receipt of the mission. SECTION II – SUSTAINMENT PLANNING 10-34. more dispersion. Maintenance collection points.96 12 March 2010 . The goal is to ensure support during all phases of an operation. Supply routes.

Supplemented by their actual operational experience. and treatment. SUPPORT FOR RECONNAISSANCE OPERATIONS 10-42. communications become strained. How to maintain communications between maneuver and support command centers. Shortfalls and impact on the operation.Sustainment Operations Status of the sustainment resources (location. maintenance. and requirements may also shift while the operation is under way. 10-41. sustainment planners and operators take advantage of these additional resources: Running estimates. a running estimate is used to support decision-making by the squadron commander. Planning considerations and techniques in support of reconnaissance include the following: Echelon squadron trains. Ensure basic loads remain replenished. To facilitate rapid planning. and maintenance) in the combat trains. The availability of adequate supplies and transportation to sustain the operation becomes more critical as the operation progresses since MSRs lengthen. Maintaining the momentum of the operation is the overriding consideration in supporting reconnaissance. Certain general considerations guide planning and preparation for reconnaissance support. or medical aid stations. 10-40. and transportation. and the battle command sustainment support system. With this information. Combat trains remain mobile. medical communications for combat casualty care. and books. During execution. unit maintenance collection points (UMCP). Procedures and organizations specified in the SOP. Recover damaged vehicles only to the squadron MSR for quicker identification by unit or field maintenance personnel. the emphasis on any particular consideration varies with the given mission variables. 10-43. When assets must be on hand. Availability of AHS support. Consider the use of blivets for fuel and water and caching for other classes of supply. External support needed. and requirements for repair and replacement of systems increase. if required. Host nation support available. Sustainment planning is more informal at squadron level and is normally formulated in terms of the following considerations: The current and projected unit status of maintenance. priorities. the information needed to address many of these considerations should be readily available through FBCB2. Several planning tools are available. detailed process of analysis that supports sustainment planning and is used when time is available. Time that sustainment resources will be available to the squadron and troops. supply. Updated status reports when a warning order is issued. Plan for increased consumption of POL. Established planning factors and data tailored for their unit. How to provide security to sustainment assets as they move to the supported unit’s location. Position a portion of each essential sustainment asset (such as ammunition. How resources will be available. medical. CBRN decontamination capabilities and contamination considerations. status charts. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Quantities and types of sustainment assets needed to support the operation. Displacement of sustainment assets. The sustainment estimate is the formal. How to prioritize the supportability of each COA. planners develop the support plans for the operation.96 10-9 . oils. and lubricants [POL]. and personnel status). How sustainment support assets will be transported to where they are needed. including MEDEVAC. How sustainment requirements can be met. petroleum. Class VIII resupply. Emphasis.

including the following: Requirements to handle casualties and medical sustainment (Class VIII supplies and equipment). and subsequent trains locations for the entire operation. especially when operating over rough terrain. bath. Plan and coordinate detainee operations.96 12 March 2010 . and barrier material in centrally located forward positions and on subsequent positions in depth. SUPPORT FOR SECURITY OPERATIONS 10-44. Resupply during limited visibility to reduce the chance of enemy interference. Suspend most field service functions such as clothing exchange. Use of nonmedical vehicles to support CASEVAC. If a CBRN threat exists. Augmentation of medical treatment elements. Continue routine resupply until the using unit requests otherwise. Consider the additional transportation requirements for movement of Class IV and prepositioned stockpiles. Impact of weather on aerial resupply or aerial MEDEVAC. Requirements for aerial MEDEVAC across extended distance. 10-10 FM 3-20. plan for alternate routes. Vehicles must be well marked to prevent misidentification and engagement by friendly units. Plan displacement of these assets so uninterrupted support continues. Test natural water sources before using. POL must first be tested for contamination. LRPs. Request unit distribution at forward locations. Select supply routes. Request additional sustainment assets from the higher headquarters to support attachments or extended operations. Use of patient collection points and ambulance exchange points (AXP). if possible. Keep maintenance assets and other support teams well forward. certain planning considerations similar to those for reconnaissance apply. Anticipate greater numbers of enemy prisoners of war (EPW). Use maintenance assets well forward. involving substantial maneuver. Request additional sustainment assets for attachments from the higher headquarters. As they become more dynamic. and aid stations for evacuation of contaminated casualties and equipment. Use captured threat supplies and equipment. As with reconnaissance. Prepare to conduct immediate resupply on short notice well forward during lulls in the operation or as required. Use push packages of critical supplies on a scheduled basis. Plan for increased use of medical assets. emphasis on any particular consideration varies with the mission assigned and shifts during mission execution. Security operations can be dynamic in nature. POL. Plan use of airlift and airdrop for resupply. Plan for increased vehicular maintenance. and plan alternate routes and means. and laundry. collection points. Upload sustainment requirements for the operation in advance.Chapter 10 Use push packages of preplanned and preconfigured essential sustainment items. Planning considerations include the following: Plan for increased use of Class IV and Class V. if available). Plan for longer transportation and turnaround times as the length of the MSR increases. Echelon sustainment assets in depth. particularly support vehicles and POL. Pre-position limited amounts of ammunition. Plan for trains and convoy security (including direct/indirect fire planning and escorts. The most important consideration for security operations is best use of available preparation time and front-loading of the sustainment effort.

The techniques and procedures used to sustain mounted operations can be used to support dismounted operations. The squadron also plans for the removal of supplies when they are no longer needed or provides destruction criteria to subordinate elements to prevent the enemy from capturing them. Plan alternate means of evacuation for casualties. Select MSRs that do not interfere with movement of units or a reserve force while also planning for alternate routes and means. These measures include digging in pre-stock positions and selecting covered and concealed positions. The squadron must ensure that subordinate units take steps to ensure survivability of the pre-positioned supplies. the squadron must consider unique techniques or different modes of delivery to sustain dismounted elements operating at extended distances from the squadron. Note. for additional information. and location for pre-positioned supplies with the supported element. The squadron S-4 coordinates with the BFSB S-4 for additional outside support for parachute rigging and on aircraft for insertion and extraction operations. if available). AERIAL RESUPPLY 10-48. This section briefly addresses the following techniques: Pre-positioned supplies. Plan destruction of supplies and equipment (except medical) that cannot be evacuated. however. Air Force and Army aviation assets can be a vital lifeline for reconnaissance units.93. At times. The squadron staff coordinates the time. Aerial resupply. however. Plan engineer mobility operations to maintain MSRs. All leaders must know the exact locations of pre-positioned sites and verify them during reconnaissance or rehearsals.96 10-11 . The squadron S-4 is the link between the LRS company and the BFSB S-4. See FM 3-55. Emphasize recovery and evacuation of equipment over forward repair to preclude loss to the threat. they require significant 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. BSC. increase the mobility of forward support assets to maintain pace with the unit. 10-47. and the theater support command for coordinating sustainment support. Foraging and scavenging. especially when they are operating forward of friendly lines for extended periods. Pre-positioning must be carefully planned and executed. Aerial resupply operations reduce the risks associated with conducting ground resupply under such conditions. Use available vehicles to tow disabled vehicles. It is most often required when dismounted elements are conducting longduration missions. Plan displacement of support assets and supplies early to keep routes open. Sustainment of the BFSB reconnaissance squadron’s LRS company poses significant challenges. Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations.Sustainment Operations As missions become more dynamic in execution. including use of nonmedical vehicles to support CASEVAC. Limit forward flow of supplies except for those essential for the operation. Both the IBCT reconnaissance squadron and the BFSB reconnaissance squadron can conduct extensive dismounted operations. Nonessential sustainment assets should move as early as possible. SUPPORT FOR DISMOUNTED OPERATIONS 10-45. Pre-positioning enhances the survivability and security of dismounted elements since they do not have to use routine resupply measures that may disclose their positions. PRE-POSITIONED SUPPLIES 10-46. Plan for trains and convoy security (including direct/indirect fire planning and escorts. method of delivery. Pre-positioning of supplies entails the placement and concealment of supplies at predetermined locations to support operations.

10-54. FBCB2 is the battle command information system for units operating at the tactical level.Chapter 10 planning and entail consideration of a different set of risks. Careful choice of resupply routes and landing zones (LZ) based on thorough IPB will minimize this risk. Troop first sergeants and XOs use the net to submit reports and requests for support. 10-53. The CTCP coordinates with the higher headquarters sustainment unit for replenishment of combat trains supplies. Unless conducting the resupply in an area under friendly control and away from direct enemy observation (reverse slope of a defensive position with reconnaissance well forward). The decision to forage or scavenge must be carefully weighed by the commander. The CTCP fills requests from what is available from the combat trains and then sends the request for unfilled items via FM or FBCB2 to the field trains. such as when helicopters are not available or weather conditions do not permit it. All sustainment leaders and sites operate on the A/L net to respond to requests and to coordinate sustainment execution. The CTCP generally monitors three other FM voice radio nets: Squadron command net. Blue Force tracking uses satellite communications. The squadron A/L radio net is used for squadron sustainment operations. aerial resupply sometimes will not be feasible. Sustainment planners and operators also use digital communications and computers for the sustainment effort. The CTCP is the net control station for the squadron administrative and logistics (A/L) net. the signature produced by aerial delivery (such as rotor wash. foraging and scavenging can be used as a method of sustainment. and shelter—from within the AO. In emergency situations. Foraging is the gathering of supplies and equipment necessary to sustain basic needs—such as for food. Sustainment unit operations net (BSB. The CTCP also has the capability to pass digital information using FBCB2. 10-49. and a thorough risk assessment should be made before implementing it.41. COMMUNICATIONS 10-52. enhancing the precision and speed with which the information can be passed. Aerial assets are useful in resupplying dismounted reconnaissance elements in restricted terrain. For terrestrial communications. 10-55. BSC). Sustainment functionality on FBCB2 gives the commander a clear picture of the current sustainment situation at his echelon of command and at subordinate levels for operational planning and execution. The FBCB2 and the A/L net are also used to control movement of support assets during LOGPAC displacement and movement until the LOGPACs are turned over to first sergeants at LRPs. 10-50. The delivered supplies are immediately transported away from the DZ or LZ. Higher headquarters A/L net. dust. regimental support squadron. FBCB2 also provides sustainment planners and operators with a better view of the sustainment situation throughout the AO as well as enhanced capability to provide synchronized support to supported units. or noise) can compromise unit positions. FBCB2 uses the enhanced position location and reporting system (EPLRS) and one of two communications systems: terrestrial or Blue Force tracking. In addition. must have a working knowledge of aerial delivery planning considerations (see FM 4-20. especially in the BFSB and IBCT reconnaissance squadrons. On the other hand. In using aerial resupply.96 12 March 2010 . locate the drop zone (DZ) or LZ away from the main unit in an area that can be defended for a short time. 10-12 FM 3-20. The squadron staff. Troop first sergeants have the ability to send FBCB2 reports to the CTCP. Aerial Delivery Distribution in the Theater of Operations). FORAGING AND SCAVENGING 10-51. Scavenging entails the gathering of supplies or equipment (friendly or enemy) from within the AO to help the user accomplish his military mission. water. the squadron must consider the enemy's ability to locate squadron elements by observing the aircraft. It is found on all vehicles at troop and squadron level and on key platforms at the higher headquarters. the singlechannel ground and airborne radio system–system improvement program (SINCGARS SIP) transmits data over a tactical internet.

they should arrive fully uploaded and ready to provide support to the unit. The squadron may detach a subordinate element to other units or organizations for certain missions.96 10-13 . and weapon systems. When and where linkup will occur. the Army is turning more frequently to contracting support to provide required goods and services. and medical. Generally. DETACHMENTS 10-58. and who is responsible for linkup. 10-59. This also applies to troops operating a considerable distance from the squadron’s sustainment assets but technically still attached to the squadron.. V. Sustainment assets may be attached to the squadron. This augmentation is established by SOP and should be coordinated in advance. these assets form the combat trains and LOGPAC for the attached unit. When attachment is effective and for how long. can be supported by the squadron with little to no adjustment. When the squadron receives attachments. the necessary sustainment augmentation is also attached. Current status and/or strength. platoons or sections). personnel (by specialty). these may be used in the manner that best supports the overall mission. The S-4 should send the following information to the receiving unit’s S-4: Number and type of vehicles. and recovery support and supply support for Classes III. Contingency contracting provides operational commanders with a flexible and responsive means to support deployed forces and their mission. 10-57. unless unique to squadron systems. 10-61.e. Class I support is coordinated on a case-by-case basis. Contracting support is most frequently coordinated by the squadron’s higher headquarters. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. CONTRACTING 10-60. Planning considerations include the following: Number and type of vehicles. The same considerations that apply to receiving attachments should be used. personnel (by specialty). and IX. sustainment planners should receive or obtain some basic information from the sending unit’s S-4 to anticipate support requirements. It normally consists of medical. When attached. maintenance. In today’s era of persistent conflict. When attachment is effective and for how long.Sustainment Operations SUSTAINMENT FOR ATTACHMENTS AND DETACHMENTS ATTACHMENTS 10-56. Reports should reflect the addition or subtraction of units if the attachment/detachment is effective for more than 24 hours. Troop-size detachments should deploy with the appropriate level of support including maintenance. When receiving attachments. Small unit attachments (i. based on how long the troop is detached. Current status and/or strength. In most operations. plans and coordinates the contracted field support capabilities through the theater support command and higher headquarters G-4 office. along with the Army component command’s principle assistant responsible for contracting. What support assets accompany the attachment. When and where linkup will occur. This is particularly true when the attached unit is task organized within the squadron. This allows the cycle to remain relatively constant as task organizations change. and weapon systems. an Army field support brigade. What support assets accompany the attachment. and who is responsible for linkup. coordination measures for the linkup (such as near/far recognition signals). Class III and V resupply. Contracting support is an integral part of the overall process of obtaining support across the entire spectrum. The squadron’s higher headquarters usually receives this contracted support on an area basis and does not have direct control over the contingency contracting officers or other contracting organizations responsible for managing the support. coordination measures for the linkup (such as near/far recognition signals).

) Table 10-2. assisted by the S-1. TYPES OF CONTRACTS 10-63. to meet the immediate needs of operational commanders. the squadron and its higher headquarters may receive contracting support through three different types of contracts. Contract types LEVEL OF CONTRACT Theater Support Contracts SUPPORT PROVIDED Provide support to deployed operational forces under prearranged contracts or contracts awarded from the AO. Prearranged contracts awarded by service acquisition program management (PM) offices that provide technical and/or maintenance support of military weapon and support systems. Squadrons use the trains concept to array their subordinate sustainment elements. the higher headquarters maintains day-to-day control of the systems support contractors via the designated contractor officer’s representative. The composition and location of squadron trains varies depending on the number of units attached to or augmenting the squadron. and minor construction. Program funds provide the commander with a means to conduct multiple stability tasks that have traditionally been performed by other U. Squadron trains can be employed in two basic configurations: as unit trains in 10-14 FM 3-20. The Commander’s Emergency Response Program is a unique form of contracting that provides a critical capability in the squadron commander’s toolbox for conducting stability operations. services. SECTION III – SUPPORT AREAS TYPES OF SUPPORT AREAS 10-64. some staff elements. and other elements locate to support a unit. or indigenous professional civilian personnel or agencies. The primary support areas for the squadron are the following: Squadron trains. BSA or regimental support area.96 12 March 2010 . foreign. Squadron trains usually are under the control of the S-4. In general. which are described in Table 10-2.S. SQUADRON TRAINS 10-65.S. Trains are a grouping of unit personnel. (See FM 100-10-2. They may be prearranged contracts or contracts awarded during the contingency itself to support the mission. usually from the local vendor base. part of the Army field support brigade. Provide goods.. vehicles. and equipment organized to provide sustainment. Contracting Support on the Battlefield. System Support Contracts External Support Contracts Note. Contract management is accomplished in accordance with the terms of the contracts through contracting management channels. Army Materiel Command’s brigade logistics support team.Chapter 10 10-62. A support area is a designated area in which sustainment elements. Since most contractor supervisors and systems support contracting officers are not physically located in the squadron’s higher headquarters AO. The U. assists the higher headquarters in managing systems support contractors in such areas as accountability and deployment preparation. They are the basic tactical sustainment organization. Provide support to deployed operational forces that is separate and distinct from either theater support or support provided by system contractors.

squadron combat trains. during reconstitution. Considerations include the following: Unit trains at the squadron level are appropriate when the squadron is consolidated. combat trains and field trains. Figure 10-2. The squadron commander may designate either the CTCP or FTCP as an alternate squadron headquarters. Combat Trains Organization 10-67. which illustrates employment of trains in the BFSB). provide sustainment support. The squadron combat trains typically consist of a maintenance element and the squadron aid station. The UMCP should be positioned where recovery vehicles have access and limited maintenance can be performed. Two types of squadron trains. Echeloned trains can be organized into troop/company trains. Examples of squadron trains employment (BFSB) 10-66. Table 10-3 lists the typical combat trains composition for each type of squadron.96 10-15 .Sustainment Operations one location or as echeloned trains (see Figure 10-2. and during major movements. The mission variables must be considered when locating combat trains in a squadron support area. and squadron field trains. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.

Provide sustainment representation to the main CP for planning and integration. The CTCP serves the following functions: Track the current battle.e. Control sustainment of the current operation. LOGPAC operations. staging. Sustainment is achieved through anticipation. Reception. Table 10-4 lists the typical field trains composition for each type of squadron. onward movement. Elements of the squadron combat trains (see Table 10-3) typically collocate with the CTCP. regimental support squadron. however. but occur only when needed. Typical composition of squadron combat trains SQUADRON HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron TRAINS ELEMENTS S-1/S-4 personnel FSC maintenance platoon elements Squadron aid station S-1/S-4 personnel FSC maintenance platoon elements Squadron aid station S-1/S-4 personnel Field maintenance company/forward maintenance company CRT Squadron aid station S-1/S-4 personnel Squadron maintenance platoon elements Squadron aid station S-1/S-4 personnel Squadron aid station BSC field maintenance team IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ACR Cavalry Squadron BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron 10-68. Combat Trains Command Post 10-69. Monitor MSRs and control sustainment traffic. The squadron may have no need or requirement for combat trains or a CTCP during some types of operations. The field trains can provide direct coordination between the squadron and its supporting sustainment unit (such as the BSB. Coordinate the evacuation of casualties. Most of the time. Field trains personnel facilitate the coordination and movement of support from the supporting sustainment unit to the squadron AO by ensuring that LOGPACs are organized and configured according to the unit’s requests and that the LOGPACs make it forward to the LRP and back to the BSA/regimental support area. Situations that may dictate the need for a CTCP include the following: Fast-moving. the CTCP usually consists of organic or attached sustainment elements (i. and detainees. 10-70.Chapter 10 Table 10-3. Field Trains Organization 10-71. squadron S-1. Field trains include those assets not located with the combat trains. the S-4 is the officer in charge (OIC) of the CTCP. and coordination for requirements well in advance of the need for supply. Establishment of a forward logistics element (FLE) by the supporting sustainment unit. The CTCP plans and coordinates sustainment for tactical operations and may serve as an alternate for the main CP. equipment. and integration (RSOI) operations. remain the primary means for the delivery. support platoon). or BSC).96 12 March 2010 . The S4 works closely with his supporting sustainment unit counterpart to coordinate sustainment for the squadron. FSC. fluid operations. Forecast and coordinate future requirements. planning. and squadron S-4.. When established. flatracks. 10-16 FM 3-20.

If the squadron is operating at extended ranges from the BSA/regimental support area.Sustainment Operations Table 10-4. when established. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. If the squadron is operating within supporting distance. Field Trains Command Post 10-74. This facilitates support. the field trains fall under the OPCON of the supporting sustainment unit commander for movement. The squadron field trains must be positioned near the exit points of the BSA/regimental support area in case it needs to move forward quickly to better support the squadron. The FTCP usually consists of the squadron S-1 and S-4 and HHT personnel. the squadron field trains may collocate with the supporting sustainment unit in the BSA/regimental support area. eases communications requirements. is the primary direct coordination element between the squadron and the BSA/regimental support area. and reduces the need for additional coordination with the higher headquarters for terrain. simplifies security requirements. The location is determined by the level and capabilities of the enemy and the distances between the forward elements of the squadron and the BSA/regimental support area. Periods when sustainment elements of the squadron are no longer 100 percent mobile. Typical composition of squadron field trains SQUADRON HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron TRAINS ELEMENTS HHT headquarters S-1/S-4 personnel FSC headquarters and other FSC elements. CBRN NCO. and organic or supporting sustainment elements. operate independently between the BSA/regimental support area and the combat trains. the squadron field trains are positioned between the supporting sustainment unit and the squadron to better facilitate support. supply sergeant. Supply sergeants from subordinate units HHT headquarters S-1/S-4 personnel FSC headquarters and other FSC elements Supply sergeants from subordinate units HHT headquarters S-1/S-4 personnel Field maintenance company/forward maintenance company CRT elements Supply sergeants from subordinate units HHT headquarters S-1/S-4 personnel Support platoon elements Elements from the maintenance platoon Supply sergeants from subordinate units HHT headquarters S-1/S-4 personnel Supply sergeants from subordinate elements IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ACR Cavalry Squadron BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron 10-72. the HHT commander is the OIC of the FTCP. Field trains may collocate with the BSA/regimental support area. terrain management. security. and synchronization of sustainment activities. including the HHT commander. When collocating with the supporting sustainment unit. Generally. Situations that may dictate the need for a FTCP include the following: Periods of supply or resupply of major end items. 10-73. The positioning needs of the squadron must be clearly communicated to and coordinated with the supporting sustainment unit. or collocate with the combat trains or with the nearest trains of other battalions.96 10-17 . XO. first sergeant. The squadron FTCP. subordinate unit supply sergeants.

controlled by the support operations officer. a FLE may be organized to push critical supplies and services to a designated unit or location such as the squadron combat trains or field trains (if forward of the BSA/regimental support area). The FTCP serves the following functions: Track the current battle. ideally. Position along or good access to the MSR. Protection (BSA defense). LOCATIONS FOR SUPPORT AREAS 10-79. as applicable). Squadron and/or battalion field trains. Good road or trail networks. under the control of the S-2. Usually the BSA/regimental support area is located near an MSR and. BRIGADE/REGIMENTAL SUPPORT AREA 10-76. The trains changes locations for the following reasons: 10-18 FM 3-20. Good routes in and out of the area (preferably separate routes for entry and exit). is out of the range of the enemy’s medium artillery. Coordinate the return to duty of Soldiers and repaired equipment. The BSA/regimental support area is the sustainment hub of the squadron’s higher headquarters. regimental support squadron. Intelligence. Position away from likely enemy avenues of approach. or BSC. Typically the commander of the supporting sustainment unit (such as BSB. All support areas have many similarities. Elements from BSTB units or separate companies. Access to lateral routes. Forward Logistics Element 10-78. 10-80. or BSC) organizes his CP for C2 of three primary functions in support of the BSA/regimental support area: Sustainment operations.96 12 March 2010 . Other sustainment units from higher headquarters. regimental support squadron.Chapter 10 10-75. firm ground to support vehicle traffic and sustainment operations. The FTCP works closely with the supporting sustainment unit staff to coordinate sustainment for the squadron. under the control of the S-3. FTCP personnel facilitate the movement of support from the supporting sustainment unit to the squadron AO by ensuring that LOGPACs are organized and configured according to the unit’s requests and that the LOGPACs make it forward to the LRP and back to the BSA/regimental support area. The trains should not be considered a permanent or stationary support area. Room for dispersion. Level. Based on the tactical situation and sustainment requirements. Provide sustainment representation to the main CP for planning and integration. It typically consists of the following: BSB (less FSCs or CRTs. Plan for sustainment of future operations. Forecast and coordinate future requirements. Suitable helicopter landing site (with the landing site clearly marked). The trains must be mobile to support the squadron when it is moving and should change locations frequently depending on available time and terrain. Alternate CP for the higher headquarters (if formed). including the following: Cover and concealment (natural terrain or man-made structures). Organization 10-77.

obstructions. They approach this requirement from the perspective of executing a security mission with the protected force being their own element or unit. such as in wet and muddy conditions. can maintain the routes. In the event of CBRN contamination. The security of the trains at each echelon is the responsibility of the individual in charge of the trains. Alternate supply routes are planned in the event that an MSR is interdicted by the enemy or becomes too congested. and defense plan are usually included in the SOP. steep slopes. Security of supply routes in a noncontiguous environment may require the squadron to provide security for sustainment elements. if available. The following activities help to ensure trains security: Select sites that use available cover. and engineer units. concealment. all-weather trafficability. SECURITY OF SUPPORT AREAS 10-81. and type of roadway surface. To prevent security from becoming lax or complacent due to familiarity or inactivity. They normally occupy areas that have been secured by maneuver elements. Establish rest plans. Chapter 4 of this manual addresses route and convoy security. Identify sectors of fires. Identify an alarm or warning system that would enable rapid execution of the defense plan without further guidance. Chapter 4 of this manual provides additional information and guidance on the execution of security missions. The best defense is to avoid detection. Prepare a fire plan and make sector sketches. MSRs are routes designated within an AO along which the bulk of sustainment traffic flows in support of operations. warning system. MPs may assist with regulating traffic. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. Alternate supply routes should meet the same criteria as the MSR. 10-84. Route considerations include the following: Location and planned scheme of maneuver for subordinate units. using these procedures: Establish OPs and conduct patrols. When an area becomes unusable through heavy use. Integrate available combat vehicles within the trains (such as vehicles awaiting maintenance or personnel) into the plan and adjust the plan when vehicles depart. Route characteristics. Location and planned movements of other units moving through the squadron’s AO. the alarm. and camouflage. An MSR is selected based on the mission variables. width. Establish a perimeter defense as in an assembly area. SUPPLY ROUTES 10-83. Plan mutually supporting positions to dominate likely avenues of approach. sharp curves. 10-82. Two-way. either the primary or alternate MSR may be designated as the “dirty MSR” to handle contaminated traffic.Sustainment Operations To avoid detection because of heavy use or traffic in the area. including indirect fires. All sustainment elements must organize and prepare to defend themselves against ground or air attacks. machine guns. Enforce strict movement and positioning discipline as well as noise and light discipline to prevent detection.96 10-19 . Classification of bridges and culverts. Emplace TRPs to control fires. such as route classification. with terrain and enemy being key considerations. Conduct rehearsals. Designate a reaction force. and antitank weapons) for self-defense. Position weapons (small arms.

the LRP. or built-up areas. built-up areas. 10-88. Requirements for repair. such as at choke points. mines. Known or potential civilian/refugee movements that must be controlled or monitored. Number and locations of crossover routes from the MSR to alternate supply routes. fording sites. Enemy threats. and CBRN strikes. at a minimum. or reservoir). at crossroads. attacks. and choke points. upgrade. The use of checkpoints or LRPs controls the movement of assets.Chapter 10 Requirements for traffic control. such as air attack. A useful method for sustainment planners is to identify where sustainment assets should best be used throughout the squadron AO and to place LRPs depicting those points on the overlay. Triggered by events. mission variables and security factors may require placement of the LRP in a less conspicuous location. or obstacles. or in close proximity to water (such as a lake. and bridges. confusing intersections. congested areas. however. which is the point along the supply route where the troop first sergeant or unit guide takes control of a troop LOGPAC. Known or likely locations of enemy penetrations. pond. Functions that will occur at the checkpoint or LRP are activated or turned off based on the three movement methods and are incorporated into the OPORD or SOP. fords. The S-4 leads the squadron’s sustainment planning. Movement of sustainment assets and sustainment functions is primarily based on three methods: On order. A LOGPAC is a grouping of multiple classes of supplies and supply vehicles under the control of a single convoy commander. Figure 10-3 illustrates sustainment graphics used in LOGPAC operations. LRP sites must be defended. Table 10-5. SECTION IV – LOGISTICS PACKAGES 10-85. CBRN strikes. Triggered by distance between sustainment assets and the supported elements. Squadron sustainment personnel SQUADRON HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ACR Cavalry Squadron BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron SUSTAINMENT PERSONNEL FSC commander/first sergeant FSC commander/first sergeant HHT commander/first sergeant Support platoon leader/PSG BSC commander/first sergeant 10-87. or maintenance of the route. Vulnerabilities that must be protected. In all cases. Table 10-5 identifies the leaders responsible for execution of the sustainment plan. LOGPAC PLANNING 10-86. Likely areas for the LRP are near MSRs. 10-20 FM 3-20. This tactical grouping of sustainment elements is tailored based on the mission variables but adheres to some fundamental tenets that are suitable for inclusion in SOPs. conventional and unconventional tactics. including bridges. These leaders are responsible for ensuring that the LOGPAC reaches. In some situations. ambushes.96 12 March 2010 .

they resupply from squadron LOGPACs.96 10-21 . A habitual LOGPAC organization facilitates operations and allows direct coordination by the supply sergeant as necessary. Attached units may have a separate LOGPAC if the parent unit provides sustainment assets. ORGANIZATION 10-90. including immediate resupply vehicles. The S-4 ensures no organic or attached unit is left unsupported. Combat trains. Sustainment operators remain prepared to organize unscheduled 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. If not. The S-4 coordinates to ensure that LOGPACs contain requested or required supplies necessary to accomplish the mission. 10-91. Additionally. The S-4 monitors the service support provided by parent units to attached or OPCON units.Sustainment Operations Figure 10-3. Subordinate unit supply sergeants control the LOGPAC for their units. Example of sustainment graphics LOGPAC RESUPPLY 10-89. LOGPACs are normally organized every 24 to 72 hours for routine resupply depending on the organization. the S-4 determines which LRP best supports the mission and notifies all units. LOGPACs are normally organized for the following units or elements: Each subordinate unit and attachments as necessary. Prior coordination by the S-4 is necessary to ensure the designated LOGPAC is augmented with additional assets to handle the increased requirements. Main CP (this includes the command group and TAC CP).

to the holding area. Ammunition trucks. with their personal effects. Soldiers killed in action (KIA) are brought. Individuals rotate through a feeding area.Chapter 10 LOGPACs to provide immediate or supplementary resupply. and fill or exchange water cans. 10-22 FM 3-20. These vehicles contain a mix of Class V for the unit’s weapons. 10-92. Ambush. Combat vehicles remain in their positions or back out a short distance to allow trucks carrying Class III and Class V supplies to reach them. LOGPAC SURVIVABILITY 10-95. IEDs. Snipers.96 12 March 2010 . pick up mail and sundries. This LOGPAC may be for a specific unit or for replenishing the stocks held in the combat trains. Room for dispersion. Bulk fuel and packaged POL products (Class III) are on these vehicles. Unit elements move to the designated site for resupply. incoming mail. This vehicle brings replacement Soldiers. A road or trail network that supports the LOGPAC vehicles and tactical vehicles. where the first sergeant takes charge of them. but the first sergeant makes the final positioning determination. Key areas to address during planning and preparation include actions on contact in reaction to the following: Indirect fire. Reduction of thermal signatures. Service station resupply is used during most tactical operations when units are moving or temporarily halted. A good site should provide the following features: Cover and concealment. Decentralized execution and the requirement of support elements to operate over extended distances require LOGPACs to organize and defend themselves against ground or air attack. and the unit water trailer. The tailgate method is usually used in static positions such as assembly areas. Service Station Resupply/Supply Point Distribution 10-94. The squadron SOP normally establishes a standard LOGPAC load of munitions. The main CPs and the combat trains are normally resupplied by this method. LOGPACs are executed as if they were a combat operation. LOGPACs normally consist of the following: The subordinate unit’s supply truck controlled by the supply sergeant. Class I rations and the unit water trailer. Class IX parts or other maintenance items requested by supporting field maintenance elements (such as an MST or CRT). The subordinate unit XO selects general LOGPAC sites based on the overall situation. RESUPPLY TECHNIQUES Tailgate Resupply/Unit Distribution 10-93. The S-4 uses reports by unit first sergeants or other users to adjust the standard loads. Any EPWs are centralized and guarded. POL trucks. Additional trucks as necessary to carry other supplies (such as Class II) requested by the troop. Proximity to platoons or elements being resupplied. Demolitions and mines are also included.

brigade S-3. Evacuation of sick and wounded Soldiers is conducted by MEDEVAC or CASEVAC. brigade XO. The medical evacuation plan is a crucial part of the medical operation plan (OPLAN) or OPORD. the brigade aviation element (if available). squadron S-1. The MEDEVAC plan identifies AXPs and casualty collection points (CCP). Figure 10-4 shows procedures for reporting and evacuating wounded Soldiers. Refer to FM 4-02.2. which are posted on 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.96 10-23 . brigade S-1. and medical platoon leaders. Medical Evacuation. Figure 10-4. Medical evacuation is the use of medical personnel on medical transportation to move individuals and provide them with medical care during movement from the point of injury to an MTF. Casualty reporting and evacuation procedures MEDICAL EVACUATION 10-97. The medical planning process should include (at a minimum) the medical company commander and XO. squadron S-3. squadron surgeon. The brigade surgeon section is responsible for developing the BCT MEDEVAC plan. The squadron medical platoon and the brigade support medical company are responsible for execution of the brigade MEDEVAC plan (including the use of both ground and air assets). forward support medical evacuation team leader.Sustainment Operations SECTION V – EVACUATION OF SICK AND WOUNDED PERSONNEL 10-96. the BSB support operations section medical plans and operations officer. for a detailed description of these evacuation methods.

medical planners must anticipate the potential for high casualty rates. Ambulance teams from the supporting medical company evacuate patients from the squadron aid station back to the Role II MTF located in the BSA. Nonmedical vehicles are identified and positioned forward for mass CASEVAC. Usually. (Nonmedical aircraft. Plans and exercises should also include the use of air evacuation (when available) to transport litter-urgent patients. Medical planners should ensure that CASEVAC is addressed as a separate operation in the OPLAN/OPORD because of the required prior planning. the reconnaissance squadron must consider designating vehicles to support CASEVAC. the 10-24 FM 3-20. 10-100. CASUALTY EVACUATION 10-101. long evacuation distances.) WARNING Casualties transported aboard nonmedical vehicles may not receive proper en-route medical care or may not be transported to an MTF that can properly address the patient’s medical condition. When possible. nonmedical vehicles and aircraft transporting casualties should be augmented with a combat medic or combat lifesaver. The BFSB coordinates area medical support from brigades to which BFSB assets are attached or for squadron units operating in other brigade AOs. Additional ambulance support is also coordinated with the supporting sustainment unit support operations section and the supporting medical company. 10-99. During planning. Note. the brigade aviation element positions a forward support MEDEVAC team in support of a brigade-size element. synchronization. coordination. The squadron medical platoon is responsible for MEDEVAC of casualties from the point of injury to the squadron aid station. and rehearsals. Patients are evacuated no further to the rear than their condition requires and returned to duty as soon as possible. and adverse weather. Planners must retain the flexibility to shift nonstandard evacuation assets to support mass casualties or CASEVAC. CASEVAC is the movement of casualties aboard nonmedical vehicles or aircraft. In developing the MEDEVAC plan. however. Pre-positioning of ambulance teams with the aid station reduces ambulance turnaround times. 10-102. as required. units should use CASEVAC only in extreme emergencies to move Soldiers with less severe injuries when MEDEVAC assets are overwhelmed. If the casualty’s medical condition deteriorates during transport or the casualty is not transported to the appropriate MTF. may lack sufficient space to permit a caregiver to accompany the casualty. This team provides area support to all units in the supported area. Recovery responsibility does not end until casualties are transferred at the AXP or are transported to the area medical support unit in the BSA/regimental support area. They must also identify and coordinate AXPs for all squadron operations. longterm disability or death may result. The BFSB has limited medical capability—four evacuation squads and two treatment teams.Chapter 10 support graphics in FBCB2. Since CASEVAC operations can reduce combat power and degrade the efficiency of the AHS. The preferred method of MEDEVAC is by air ambulance.96 12 March 2010 . The BFSB also relies heavily on aerial MEDEVAC support from aviation medical units because of the locations where BFSB units operate and the extended distances involved. but use of this method depends on mission variables. The brigade aviation element and surgeon coordinate the use and positioning of the forward support MEDEVAC team. 10-98. As casualties occur. This includes the locations of AXPs for all phases of each operation and triggers for displacement to their next locations.

) 10-105. organization/unit. Supporting sustainment units have maintenance platoons that repair automotive. 10-106. The squadron XO manages maintenance with the assistance of personnel from supporting maintenance elements. The Standard Army maintenance system-enhanced is used to order repair parts and to manage combat spares. They also have a service and recovery section that can perform battle damage assessment and repair (BDAR). The Army has transitioned to two levels of maintenance: field and sustainment. and direct support maintenance levels. Field maintenance returns repaired equipment to the Soldier.FIELD MAINTENANCE 10-103. specialized MI or signal equipment usually requires maintenance by Department of the Army civilians or contractors. (See Figure 10-5. The supporting sustainment unit commander establishes UMCPs in coordination with the squadron S-4. controlled exchange should occur. electronic. The UMCP must not become a mass collection point of vehicles. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. It includes some “off-system” maintenance critical to mission readiness. Coordination should begin for evacuation of vehicles that are not mission capable (NMC) to the BSA or regimental support area. If a vehicle cannot be rendered mission capable within a reasonable amount of time (determined by unit SOP and METT-TC factors). It covers tasks previously assigned to operator/crew. Organic field maintenance assets SQUADRON HBCT Reconnaissance Squadron IBCT Reconnaissance Squadron SBCT Reconnaissance Squadron ACR Cavalry Squadron ORGANIC ASSETS BSB FSC maintenance platoon BSB field maintenance company BSB FSC maintenance platoon BSB field maintenance company BSB field maintenance company/forward maintenance company CRT BSB forward maintenance company Troop maintenance section Squadron maintenance platoon Regimental support squadron maintenance troop BSC maintenance platoon BFSB Reconnaissance Squadron ORGANIZATIONS AND CAPABILITIES 10-104. and missile equipment. SECTION VI . These maintenance platoons focus on line-replaceable unit replacement using combat spares from the prescribed load list and shop stock. Casualties should be evacuated to the nearest aid station—not necessarily the squadron aid station—for treatment. ground support. Maintenance of low-density. This allows the UMCP to maintain mobility so it can support the squadron at extended ranges or during missions such as reconnaissance. Table 10-6. Field maintenance consists mainly of on-system preventive maintenance and replacement of defective parts. armament. Table 10-6 identifies the field maintenance assets organic to or supporting the various types of squadrons.Sustainment Operations S-4 directs assets to assist with CASEVAC.96 10-25 . The squadron S-4 must develop specific management procedures for this maintenance.

Controlled exchange is the removal of serviceable parts from an item of NMC equipment to install on another piece of equipment that can be rendered mission capable more quickly or easily. The use of FBCB2 enables recovery vehicles to identify the exact location of the inoperable piece of equipment. and diagnostic equipment.Chapter 10 Figure 10-5. RECOVERY AND EVACUATION 10-108.96 12 March 2010 . Maintenance flow BATTLE DAMAGE ASSESSMENT AND REPAIR 10-107. Equipment that cannot be repaired at the BSA/regimental support area usually is evacuated to a sustainment brigade. if appropriate. BDAR is the first step in returning disabled equipment to the battle. classifying the type of repairs required. COMSEC equipment is evacuated through normal maintenance channels to the higher headquarters sustainment unit or a network support company. MEDICAL EQUIPMENT MAINTENANCE 10-111. recovery support can be coordinated with the BSA/regimental support area to prevent excessive repair delays. COMMUNICATIONS SECURITY MAINTENANCE 10-110. Maintenance that cannot be accomplished at this level is referred to the closest medical 10-26 FM 3-20. measurement. When the decision is made to repair the equipment at the BSA/regimental support area. BDAR is the act of inspecting battle damage to determine its extent. and determining the maintenance activity best suited to accomplish the repair. Medical equipment is maintained within equipment specifications at all times. CONTROLLED EXCHANGE 10-109. either recovery or evacuation is used. If recovery assets are overextended. Maintenance of medical equipment is very specialized and requires special skills and test. The higher headquarters SOP may give the squadron commander the authority to direct controlled exchanges. Supporting maintenance elements are responsible for recovering their own and their supported unit’s damaged equipment.

Each time mechanics at the squadron level order recoverable parts. The unserviceable parts are then retrograded to the sustainment brigade for repair by a component repair company. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.1. Combat Health Logistics. it usually does not need to be replaced by a new item. for more information regarding medical equipment maintenance and other medical sustainment support. Although mechanics at the squadron level cannot repair these unserviceable items. A reparable is an item that can be cost-effectively repaired. the serviceable parts are placed back into the supply system.Sustainment Operations sustainment company or combat support hospital element for sustainment support. When a reparable such as a diesel engine or turbine fuel control malfunctions.96 10-27 . it can be replaced by a repaired or rebuilt component. the component repair companies in the sustainment brigade need them to create serviceable repair parts. RETROGRADE OF UNSERVICEABLE COMPONENTS 10-112. See FM 4-02. Once repaired. they must return the unserviceable parts to the Class IX section of the distribution company. 10-113.

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Glossary The glossary lists acronyms and terms with Army. capabilities. Where Army and joint definitions are different. people. (Army) follows the term. The proponent manual for other terms is listed in parentheses after the definition.96 is the proponent manual (the authority) are marked with an asterisk (*). or joint definitions. ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 1SG A/L A/N A/O AA ABCS ABF AC2 ACA ACM ACR ADA AHS ALO AM amb AMD AMEDD AO APOD ARNG ASCOPE ASLT PSN ATACMS ATK PSN AVLB AXP BCT BDA BDAR bde first sergeant administrative and logistics net as needed as occurs avenue of approach (graphics only) Army Battle Command System attack by fire airspace command and control airspace coordination area airspace control measure armored cavalry regiment air defense artillery Army Health System air liaison officer amplitude modulation (radio communications) ambulance air and missile defense Army Medical Department area of operations aerial port of debarkation Army National Guard areas. Terms for which FM 3-20. multi-Service. and other selected terms.96 Glossary-1 . organizations. structures. and events (factors in analysis of infrastructure) assault position Army Tactical Missile System attack position armored vehicle launched bridge ambulance exchange point brigade combat team battle damage assessment battle damage assessment and repair brigade 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.

cavalry chemical.Glossary BFIST BFSB bn BP BSA BSB BSC BSTB C2 CA CAB CAS CASEVAC cav CBRN cbt CCIR CCP cdr CFV CI cl CLS CMO co COA COIN COLT COMSEC COP COSC COSR CP CRT CS CTCP DA div DNBI DOD DP Bradley fire support team (vehicle) battlefield surveillance brigade battalion battle position brigade support area brigade support battalion brigade support company brigade special troops battalion command and control civil affairs combat aviation brigade close air support casualty evacuation.96 12 March 2010 . biological. and nuclear combat commander’s critical information requirements casualty collection point commander cavalry fighting vehicle counterintelligence class (supply) combat lifesaver civil-military operations company course of action counterinsurgency combat observation and lasing team communications security common operational picture combat and operational stress control combat and operational stress reactions command post combat repair team combat support combat trains command post Department of the Army division disease and nonbattle injury Department of Defense decision point Glossary-2 FM 3-20. radiological.

96 Glossary-3 . low opening hazardous materials heavy brigade combat team HUMINT collection team high explosive 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. high opening high altitude.Glossary DPICM dsmtd DZ EA EEFI EOD EOF EPLRS EPW evac EW FAC FAH FARP FBCB2 FDC FEBA FFIR FHP FIST FLE FLOT FM FPF FRAGO FS FSC FSCM FSO FST FTCP GCS GCU Gen GEOINT HAHO HALO HAZMAT HBCT HCT HE dual purpose improved conventional munitions dismounted drop zone engagement area essential elements of friendly information explosive ordnance disposal escalation of force enhanced position location and reporting system enemy prisoner of war evacuation electronic warfare forward air controller final attack heading forward arming and refueling point Force XXI battle command—brigade and below fire direction center forward edge of the battle area friendly forces information requirements force health protection fire support team forward logistics element forward line of own troops field manual. frequency modulation (radio communications) final protective fire fragmentary order fire support forward support company fire support coordination measure fire support officer forward surgical team field trains command post ground control station ground control unit general geospatial intelligence high altitude.

and reconnaissance Joint Publication joint suppression of enemy air defenses Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System joint terminal attack controller joint task force killed in action kilometers per hour line of contact lightweight countermortar radar line of departure liaison officer limit of advance line of communications logistics package logistics status (report) long-range advanced scout surveillance system logistics release point long-range surveillance latest time information is of value landing zone Glossary-4 FM 3-20. surveillance.96 12 March 2010 .Glossary HEMTT HESCO HF HHC HHT HMMWV HPT HPTL HQ HR HSS HUMINT HVT IBCT IED IEW INTSUM IP IPB IR ISR JP J-SEAD JSTARS JTAC JTF KIA kph LC LCMR LD LNO LOA LOC LOGPAC LOGSTAT LRAS3 LRP LRS LTIOV LZ heavy expanded mobile tactical truck Hercules Engineering Solutions Consortium (barriers) high frequency headquarters and headquarters company headquarters and headquarters troop high-mobility multipurpose wheeled vehicle high-payoff target high-payoff target list headquarters human resources health service support human intelligence high-value target infantry brigade combat team improvised explosive device intelligence and electronic warfare intelligence summary internet protocol intelligence preparation of the battlefield information requirement intelligence.

and civil considerations (factors in mission analysis.Glossary m maint MASINT MBA MCOO MCS MDMP MEB MEDEVAC METT-TC meters maintenance measurement and signatures intelligence main battle area modified combined obstacle overlay maneuver control system military decision-making process maneuver enhancement brigade medical evacuation mission. troops and support available. also called mission variables) military intelligence military intelligence company multiple launch rocket system millimeters military police miles per hour main supply route maintenance support team medical treatment facility moving target indicator named area of interest North Atlantic Treaty Organization nuclear. time available.96 Glossary-5 . terrain and weather. biological. enemy. and chemical (publication titles only) noncommissioned officer noncommissioned officer in charge no-fire area nongovernmental organization not mission capable operational environment officer in charge observation post operational control operation plan operation order operations security precombat check precombat inspection priority intelligence requirement phase line MI MICO MLRS mm MP mph MSR MST MTF MTI NAI NATO NBC NCO NCOIC NFA NGO NMC OE OIC OP OPCON OPLAN OPORD OPSEC PCC PCI PIR PL 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.

oils.Glossary PM PMCS POL PSYOP PVNTMED PZ QRF recon retrains RFA RFL RI RIP rly ROE RP RSOI rte S-1 S-2 S-3 S-3 Air S-4 S-6 S-9 SA SBCT SBF SCATMINE SEAD sec SIGINT SINCGARS SIP SIR SOF SOP SP spt sqdn SSM program management preventive maintenance checks and services petroleum. onward movement. staging. seconds signals intelligence single-channel ground and airborne radio system–system improvement program specific information requirement special operations forces standing operating procedure start point support squadron surface-to-surface missile Glossary-6 FM 3-20. and lubricants psychological operations preventive medicine pickup zone quick reaction force reconnaissance retransmission restrictive fire area restrictive fire line relevant information relief in place rally (graphics only) rules of engagement release point reception.96 12 March 2010 . and integration route personnel staff officer intelligence staff officer operations staff officer air operations staff officer logistics staff officer signal staff officer civil affairs staff officer situational awareness Stryker brigade combat team support by fire scatterable mine suppression of enemy air defenses section.

and procedures time to target tactical unmanned aircraft system unmanned aircraft system ultra high frequency unit maintenance collection point unit ministry team United States Air Force United States Marine Corps unexploded ordnance very high frequency warning order wounded in action white phosphorous executive officer 12 March 2010 FM 3-20.96 Glossary-7 . trash. water. optically tracked. safety.Glossary SU SUAS surv SWEAT-MSO TAC CP TACAIR TACP TACSOP TAI TIM TOE TOT TOW TRP trp TSM TTP TTT TUAS UAS UHF UMCP UMT USAF USMC UXO VHF WARNO WIA WP XO situational understanding small unmanned aircraft system surveillance sewage. electricity. medical. wire guided (missile) target reference point troop target synchronization matrix tactics. techniques. academics. and other operations tactical command post tactical air tactical air control party tactical standard operating procedures target(ed) area of interest toxic industrial material table of organization and equipment time on target tube launched.

S. (FM 3-90) movement to contact An offensive operation conducted to develops the situation and establish or regain contact. It also creates favorable conditions for subsequent tactical actions. (FM 3-0) pursuit An offensive operation designed to catch or cut off a hostile force attempting to escape. (FM 3-90) mobile defense A type of defensive operation that concentrates on the destruction or defeat of the enemy through a decisive attack by a striking force. Units conducting a guard mission cannot operate independently because they rely on fires and enabler assets of the main body. (FM 1-02) area security A form of security operation conducted to protect friendly forces. (FM 3-90) infiltration A form of maneuver in which contact with the threat is avoided. installations. It entails movement through or into an area occupied by a threat or a friendly force by small groups or individuals at extended or irregular intervals. with the aim of destroying it. (FM 3-90) area reconnaissance A form of reconnaissance operation that is a directed effort to obtain detailed information concerning the terrain or enemy activity within a prescribed area. or both. (JP 1-02) cover A form of security operation whose primary task is to protect the main body by fighting to gain time while also observing and reporting information and preventing enemy ground observation of and direct fire against the main body. (JP 1-02) Glossary-8 FM 3-20.96 12 March 2010 . or clandestine means. (FM 3-90) local security Low-level security operations conducted near a unit to prevent surprise by the enemy. civil authorities for domestic emergencies and for designated law enforcement and other activities. (FM 3-90) attack An offensive operation that destroys or defeats enemy forces. (FM 3-90) exfiltration A tactical mission task where a commander removes soldiers or units from areas under enemy control by stealth. (FM 3-0) civil support (joint) The term used to describe Department of Defense (DOD) support to U.Glossary TERMS area defense A type of defensive operation that concentrates on denying enemy forces access to designated terrain for a specific time rather than destroying the enemy outright. and actions within a specified area. deception. surprise. routes. (FM 3-90) exploitation A type of offensive operation that rapidly follows a successful attack and is designed to disorganize the enemy in depth. (FM 3-90) guard A form of security operation whose primary task is to protect the main body by fighting to gain time while also observing and reporting information and preventing enemy ground observation of and direct fire against the main body. seizes and secures terrain.

where the enemy is strong and weak. obstacles. and reaction capability or to obtain other information. and where gaps exist. or geographical characteristics and the indigenous population of a particular area. and strategic objectives. It is normally used once the commander is committed to a scheme of maneuver or COA. This technique focuses the reconnaissance effort on gaining information that assists the commander in refining the common operational picture (COP). (FM 3-90) screen A form of security operation that provides early warning to the protected force. or cross-country mobility corridor. retrograde A type of defensive operation that involves organized movement away from the enemy. (FM 3-90) site exploitation A series of activities to recognize. photographic. (FM 3-90) route reconnaissance A form of reconnaissance that focuses along a specific line of communications (LOC). (FM 3-90. such as a road. (FM 3-90) 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. (FM 3-90) reconnaissance pull * Technique in which reconnaissance forces are typically deployed prior to development of a detailed plan or course of action (COA) to determine which routes are suitable for maneuver. surface. operational. and analyze information. or other means. finalizing the plan or course of action (COA). terrain. and enemy forces within a zone defined by boundaries. (FM 1-02) zone reconnaissance A form of reconnaissance that involves a directed effort to obtain detailed information on all routes. or subsurface areas by visual. and/or materiel found during the conduct of operations. railway. electronic. disposition. hydrographical. process.Glossary reconnaissance A mission undertaken to obtain. and supporting shaping and decisive operations. auditory. by visual observation or other detection methods. This technique thus facilitates the commander’s initiative and agility in development of the plan/COA and “pulls” the main body toward and along the path of least enemy resistance. with the purpose of protecting the force and producing an advantage within the operational variables to support tactical.96 Glossary-9 . personnel. (FM 3-90) search and attack A technique for conducting a movement to contact that shares many of the characteristics of an area security mission. reconnaissance push * Technique in which reconnaissance forces are typically deployed—or “pushed”—after development of a detailed plan.15) surveillance The systematic observation of airspace. information about the activities and resources of an enemy or potential enemy or to secure data concerning the meteorological. (FM 1-02) reconnaissance in force A deliberate combat operation designed to discover or test enemy strengths. collect. preserve.

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Urban Operations. 25 January 2007. 1 October 2002. FM 3-05. FM 3-06. 7 May 2007. 30 August 2004. FM 3-05. JP 3-52. FM 2-91. Personnel Recovery. 13 February 2006. and Procedures. JP 3-0. 21 February 2007.4. 20 March 2008.126. 28 February 2002. JP 3-09. US Army Air and Missile Defense Operations. 14 September 2007. FM 3-0. Army Unmanned Aircraft System Operations.155. Stability Operations. 13 November 2006. FM 1-0. FM 3-06. Operations. 18 April 2003. 17 September 2006. JP 3-09. FM 3-04. FM 3-06.1. 25 November 2009.31. Joint Doctrine for Airspace Control in the Combat Zone. 21 September 2004. 21 February 1997. JP 3-13. FM 3-04.1. Joint Security Operations in Theater. 29 July 2009. JP 3-50. 5 July 2007. FM 3-09. 29 September 2006. Army Special Operations Forces Aviation Operations.203.113. FM 3-01. 7 December 2007. Joint Operations. 27 February 2008. Techniques. Techniques. Department of Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. ARMY PUBLICATIONS FM 1. FM 3-04. 6 October 2008. FM 1-02. FM 3-07. JOINT PUBLICATIONS JP 1-02. Tactics. 7 December 2007. FM 1-100. Fundamentals of Flight.20. Multiservice Tactics. The Army.11 Combined Arms Operations in Urban Terrain. Joint Fire Support. FM 3-04. Techniques. Intelligence. 1 May 2009. Aviation Brigades. Civil Affairs Tactics. 14 June 2005. 12 April 2001. Religious Support. Electronic Warfare. 30 October 2007. Information Operations.40. FM 1-05. JP 3-28. 17 May 2004. and Procedures for Cordon and Search Operations.References SOURCES USED These are the sources quoted or paraphrased in this publication. Civil Affairs Operations. Close Air Support.96 References-1 . 26 October 2006.111. 16 February 2007. Operational Terms and Graphics. FM 3-04. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. FM 3-05. 1 August 2006. Utility and Cargo Helicopter Operations. 8 July 2009. JP 3-13. and Procedures for Fire Support for the Combined Arms Commander. Security Force Operations. Attack Reconnaissance Helicopter Operations.60. 25 April 2006. Intelligence Support to Urban Operations.401. 5 January 2007. Army Aviation Operations. JP 3-10. Civil Support. FM 2-0. FM 3-07.03. Human Resources Support.

4.1. 10 August 2005. FM 3-19. FM 4-02. Mountain Operations. 1 August 2002. 23 June 2009. 20 December 2007. FM 4-0.2.6. FM 3-21. FM 3-52. FM 4-02. 7 April 2008.6.5. 18 April 2005. The Infantry Rifle Company.60.References FM 3-09. Techniques. Techniques. The Infantry Platoon and Squad. 8 January 2001. The Combined Arms Battalion.119. Civil Disturbance Operations. FM 3-34. and Chemical Defense Operations. FM 3-90. FM 3-19. Information Operations: Doctrine. FM 3-13. and Chemical (NBC) Protection. 28 September 2001. and Procedures for Airspace Control. Mechanized Infantry Platoon and Squad (Bradley).971. and Procedures for the Joint Application of Firepower. Techniques. Tactics. FM 3-90. 25 April 2007.71. FM 3-28. 2 April 2009. FM 3-34.5. Sustainment. Biological. 4 August 2006. FM 3-90.15.1. FM 3-55. FM 3-50. Multiservice Tactics. FM 4-02. FM 3-21.3. 22 May 2009. FM 3-09. 31 August 2000. Army Airspace Command and Control in a Combat Zone. Techniques. References-2 FM 3-20. 10 April 2007. Biological. Biological. 2 February 2006. Techniques. Techniques. FM 3-52.30. FM 3-19. Army Personnel Recovery.21. and Procedures for Chemical. 28 November 2000. FM 3-90. 4 August 2009. Multiservice Tactics. Tactics.2.32. Multiservice Tactics. FM 3-11. 28 March 2007. Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) Operations. FM 3-11. 12 August 2008. Radiological.1. and Procedures for Civil Support Operations.15. (JFIRE) Multiservice Tactics. and Procedures for Chemical. Reconnaissance and Cavalry Troop. FM 3-24. Tactics in Counterinsurgency. FM 3-19. 6 July 2006. Combined Arms Improvised Explosive Device Defeat Operations. FM 3-90. Techniques. Combined Arms Breaching Operations.1. and Nuclear Contamination Avoidance. The Stryker Brigade Combat Team Infantry Battalion.10. Combat Health Logistics. FM 3-97. 13 February 2003. Multiservice Tactics.8. Military Police Operations. Multiservice Tactics. Counterinsurgency. 4 April 2006. FM 3-21. Techniques. Physical Security. FM 3-52. Techniques. 27 July 2006. and Procedures for the Theater Air Ground System. Biological. Multiservice Tactics.40. 30 April 2009. and Nuclear Decontamination. 10 March 2003. FM 3-21. and Procedures.22. FM 3-24. Engineer Operations.93. FM 3-20. 21 April 2009. 8 May 2007.1. Engineer Operations–Brigade Combat Team and Below. FM 3-11. Internment/Resettlement Operations. Medical Evacuation. and Procedures for Nuclear. 4 September 2007. and Procedures for Nuclear.96 12 March 2010 . Combat and Operational Stress Control. 11 February 2009. Multiservice Tactics. Force Health Protection in a Global Environment. Radiological. 8 April 2003. 28 November 2003.51. 3 December 2007. FM 3-11. 2 June 2003. 15 December 2006. 22 March 2001. FM 3-34.2. 4 July 2001. 20 August 2002. Sensitive Site Operations. 21 September 2007. The Brigade Combat Team.2. FM 4-02. Long-Range Surveillance Unit Operations.

FM 27-10. TC 2-22. DA Form 2028. 4 February 2009. Technical Intelligence. 16 August 1982.41. Contracting Support on the Battlefield. 18 March 2009. FM 9-207. Military Police. Aerial Delivery Distribution in the Theater of Operations.4. The Law of Land Warfare. 16 March 1987. Cavalry Operations. STP 19-31B1-SM. 24 December 1996. FM 90-3. Combat and Operational Stress Control Manual for Leaders and Soldiers. The Sustainment Brigade. 11 August 2003. 29 August 2003. 4 October 2004. 20 March 1998. 24 August 1993. TC 19-210. FM 8-42.5. 18 July 1956.apd. 19 November 2009. FM 90-5. Skill Level 1. DA forms are available on the APD website (www. 29 September 1994. Operation and Maintenance of Ordnance Materiel in Cold Weather.mil).96 References-3 . Recommended Changes to Publications and Blank Forms. Desert Operations. FM 6-22. Soldier’s Manual. 20 January 2005. Combat Health Support in Stability Operations and Support Operations. Jungle Operations. FM 100-10-2.References FM 4-20. Air Assault Operations. Combined Arms Obstacle Integration. Access Control Handbook. FM 5-0. 5 December 2007. Army Planning and Orders Production. FM 17-95.2. FM 90-7. FM 6-0. 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. DOCUMENTS NEEDED These documents must be available to the intended users of this publication. 4 August 1999. Mission Command: Command and Control of Army Forces. 27 October 1997. FM 90-4.army. FMI 4-93. MOS 31B.

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see actions on contact. 8-1. 9-5. 1-5. 10-10 cavalry squadron (armored cavalry squadron [ACR]). 1-11 civil support operations. 3-11. 9-3. 4-9 procedures. 510 concept of operations. ix. 10-2 reconnaissance squadron. 1-10. 3-3 brigade combat team (BCT). 2-3 combat trains command post (CTCP). 2-20. 1-11 assembly area. 2-3 commander’s critical information requirements (CCIR). 10-24 reconnaissance squadron capabilities. 9-7. 46. 3-3. 9-5. ix. 3-3. 21. 1-13. 3-7. 1-9. 1-14 combat trains command post (CP). 10-5 brigade support battalion (BSB) see also sustainment. 1-3. 2-9. 1-7. 95. 3-15. 1-3. 3-5 components of battle command. 10-5 area reconnaissance. see also security operations. i. 2-1. 916 assets in Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT). 5-9. 4-10 C casualty evacuation (CASEVAC). 1-12. 3-14. 3-16. 111 cavalry troop. 1-13 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. 4-2. 9-9 planning. 3-11 contractors. 10-2. 3-4. 2-15. 1-3. 4-13. 114 brigade support medical company. 6-1. 5-7 battlefield surveillance brigade (BFSB). 99 communications security (COMSEC). 10-18 commander. 2-2 intelligence. 4-15. 8-2. 3-16 in area security. ix. 3-12. 4-1. 1-5. 3-22. 3-11 planning. 9-9. 3-14. 1-14 branches. 414. 4-2. 4-5 reconnaissance squadron limitations. 9-18. 4-2. 916 assets in infantry brigade combat team (IBCT).Index A actions on contact. 9-3. 1-1. see also force health protection (FHP) and sustainment. 6-1. 4-9 armored cavalry regiment (ACR) cavalry squadron. 9-17 air-ground integration. 3-14. see also command and control (C2). 9-20. biological. 4-5. 9-3 squadron organizations. 10-11. 3-11 air and missile defense (AMD). 9-5. 9-4. 5-2. 5-8. 316. 3-11. 2-21. 1-6 brigade special troops battalion (BSTB). 2-4. 9-18 close air support (CAS). 4-15 combat trains command post (CTCP). 8-3. 2-3. 5-10. 10-25 control measures. 4-9. 3-8. 2-2. 9-2 engineer support. 3-2. 3-13. 2-19. 2-17. 2-1 battle damage assessment (BDA). 3-16. 1-5. 1-5. 916 contaminated areas. 3-9. 8-2. 3-17 definition. 3-18. 1-11. 3-17 critical tasks. 9-18 collaboration with higher headquarters. see also security operations. 3-10. 3-5. 1-11 cavalry squadron capabilities. 4-13 in area security. 9-3. 10-7. 4-9 area security. surveillance. 10-8 contact. and reconnaissance (ISR) synchonrization and integration. 10-16 field trains command post (FTCP). 4-6. 2-4 command post (CP). 3-7. 6-5. 9-1. 3-16. 214. 9-1. 10-22 aviation support. 3-3 common operational picture (COP). radiological. 9-15 mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP). 3-16 defense. 4-5 area of operations (AO). 3-24. 9-19 convoy security. 3-6 battle drills. 10-19. and nuclear (CBRN). 4-15. 3-15. 6-3. 9-8 B battle command. 9-9 integration with artillery. 1-11 cavalry squadron limitations. 2-2. 83. ix. 3-15 assets in heavy brigade combat team (HBCT). 4-15. 1-3. 3-8. 1-5. 10-1 C2 systems. see also maintenance and sustainment. 3-23. 1-9. 9-5. x. 3-8. 9-1. 10-8 command and control (C2). 3-10. 3-23. 1-6. 9-16 reconnaissance. 57. 4-9 tasks. 2-1. 9-14. 2-4. 9-22 combat repair team (CRT). 3-14 procedures. 2-12. 10-12. 7-13. 5-2. 1-11 chemical. 5-1. 3-2. 9-1. 6-2. 9-3. 27. 9-5 commander’s intent. 10-22 forms of contact. 7-7. 5-4.96 Index-1 . 3-18. 9-18. 10-3 complex terrain. 5-1. 1-2. 1-14. 4-13 critical tasks. 4-6. 9-8 airspace coordination area (ACA). 1-1.

4-10. 9-5 D defensive operations. 3-23. 3-9. 6-2 methods. 2-11. 4-7. 216. terrain and weather. O observation post (OP). 1-5. see force health protection (FHP) and sustainment. 23. 5-5. 1-14 combat and operational stress control (COSC). 9-20. 1-10. 9-4. 2-3 local security. 1-8. see also security operations. 3-3. 5-8. see also sustainment. 96. 7-6. 4-1. 5-1. 3-11. viii. 3-20 task organization. 95 exfiltration. 3-20 infrastructure. 1-14. 3-13. 3-8. 1-13. 1-9. 3-14. 313. 6-7. and reconnaissance (ISR). 3-8. 1-3. 4-3. 1-11. 2-18. 4-5. 1-6 reconnaissance squadron capabilities. 2-2. 8-1. x. 3-24 mission(s). 4-14 cover. 7-3. 9-3. 10-3 reconnaissance squadron. 2-7. 10-10. 1-9. 2-6. time available. 9-20 intelligence preparation of the battlefield (IPB). 6-5. 8-4 F fire planning. 5-9. 3-18. 4-10. 5-4. 316. see also sustainment. 917. 2-9. 3-22 L liaison officer. 2-6. 3-18. 3-22. 4-2. 9-3. 2-10. 7-6. enemy. 1-3. 5-4. 4-3. 3-8. 5-8. see also supply/resupply operations. 9-22 force. 4-5. ix. 2-7. 61. 9-9 air and missile defense (AMD). 3-2.Index organization. 19. 3-16 engineer. 3-16. 2-20. 9-9. 4-12. 9-7. 1-3. 6-1. 6-4. 10-11 fire support. 7-4. 3-20. 7-2. 3-22. 2-13. 1-7. 1-14. 9-5 fires brigade. 7-2. 4-12 Index-2 FM 3-20. 2-14. 7-13 M main battle area. 6-8. 1-3. 4-6 maintenance. 3-22. 6-8. 2-14. 3-3. subsistence items (Class I supply). 5-6. 3-23. 4-9 H heavy brigade combat team (HBCT). 3-5. see also security operations. 3-15. 6-4. 4-14. 320. 1-8 reconnaissance squadron capabilities. 3-19. 2-17. 4-14. 7-12. 220. 4-10. 3-15. 3-6. 1020 engagement criteria. 2-8. 7-12 air or water extraction. 3-17. 3-22 land extraction. see also security operations. 5-3. 5-11. 3-13. 2-5. 6-2. 1-2. 2-10. 2-9. 3-20 operational considerations. 5-10. ix. 2-9 J joint suppression of enemy air defenses (J-SEAD). 3-18 enemy. 6-6. 1-8. 211. 2-13. 71. 3-8 E electronic warfare (EW).96 12 March 2010 . 4-15 medical evacuation (MEDEVAC). 9-15 displacement criteria. 3-2. 9-6. 7-6. 1-5 main command post (CP). 1-7 human intelligence (HUMINT). 2-12. 9-22 fragmentary order (FRAGO). 10-25 food. x. 4-6 I improvised explosive device (IED). 3-11 enabling operations. 7-6. 10-18. 3-24 fratricide. troops and support available. 7-3. 5-2. 3-18. 9-18 long-range surveillance (LRS) company. water. 3-19. 1-11. 2-4. 1-6. 3-19. 4-12 mission-oriented protective posture (MOPP). 7-11. 1-1. 1-11. 6-3. 213. 6-5. 3-4. 1-10. 319. 5-12. 2-16. 1-9. 7-11. 4-15 medical support. 1-8. 7-14. 4-1. 923 preventive medicine. 2-9. 1-5 engineer support/operations. 3-1. surveillance. 2-8. 2-16. 4-6. 2-6. 3-24. 10-11. 3-14. 3-11. 1-9 infiltration. 2-7. 1-1. 1-1. 7-8. and civil considerations (METTTC). 4-9 5-9. 3-3. 1-4. 3-23. 2-9. 3-12. 1-5 intelligence and electronic warfare (IEW). 9-16 mobility. 314. 5-11. 6-1 intelligence. 9-5 engineer support. 9-20 infantry. 7-10. 4-2 logistics package (LOGPAC) operations. countermobility. 5-7. 6-5. 1-10. 19. 2-7. 215. 4-13 procedures. 3-8. 4-3. 8-3 military intelligence company (MICO). 1-5. 7-9. 211. 1-14. survivability. 1-14. 2-10. 9-9 full-spectrum operations. 1-5 infantry brigade combat team (IBCT). 1-12 G guard. 7-15. 3-21. 37. 7-10. 51. 5-3. 5-7. 1-6. 6-2. 3-22 methods. 10-10. 6-3. 2-3. 4-10. see also supply/resupply operations. 314. 8-3 intelligence. 1-9 reconnaissance squadron limitations. 9-6. 1-2. 3-12. 1-5 force health protection (FHP). 4-2. 1-12. 3-20. 9-5. 1012. 7-13. 4-10. 7-10. 4-1. 7-7. 4-15 military decision-making process (MDMP). 3-15. 1-7 reconnaissance squadron limitations. 3-11. 10-17. 1-5 mission. 3-16. 7-10. 10-19. 1-6. 3-22. 3-17. 9-7 focus. 10-3 reconnaissance squadron. 2-1. 2-15.

3-11. 7-13 security operations. 2-8 zone reconnaissance. 1-10. 1-3. 9-18 S-4/S-4 section (logistics officer/section). 4-4. 2-12. 1-3. 3-2 tempo. 1-7. 4-2 cavalry troop (ACR).96 Index-3 . 4-7 fire planning. 3-2. 52. 3-17 techniques. 1-9. 3-18 critical tasks. 4-1. 3-11. 4-1. 41. 1-9 reconnaissance troop. 1-11 dismounted troop (IBCT). 2-4. 6-1. 4-3 displacement. 4-6 critical tasks. 4-6 movement. 4-15 priority intelligence requirements (PIR). 3-2. 114 screen. 2-7. 1-3 role in security operations. 7-8. 4-4 surveillance and acquisition assets. 4-2. 1-5 engineer support. 3-17. 9-3. 4-13 P passage of lines. 4-4 depth. 6-2. 3-22 reconnaissance pull. 3-16. 5-5. 3-22 example. 108 reconnaissance focus. 1020 engineer support. 3-22. 1-12 capabilities and limitations. 211. 19 relevant information (RI). 5-2. 4-10. 1-3. 3-14. 114. 1-8. 2-10 duration (short. 61. 411. 2-3. 3-24 execution. 5-9. 4-3. 4-15. 9-18 S-3/S-3 section (operations officer/section). 4-7 planning. 1-3. 3-7. 3-2 infantry brigade combat team (IBCT). countermobility. 7-6. 5-8. 2-9. 4-13 in route security. 2-1 Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT). 3-23 planning. 4-9 in convoy security. 5-8. 1-3. 4-15 R reconnaissance handover. 4-9 in convoy security. 9-5 personnel. 3-18. 1-4. 2-13. 5-5. 2-3 planning. 1-9. 4-7 sectors. 3-24. 5-1. 316. 3-16. 10-8 operational environment (OE). 1-8. 311. 3-15. 9-3 Q quick reaction force (QRF). 1-5. 5-5. 3-10. 4-11 in area security. 3-16. 1-5. 114 S-2/S-2 section (intelligence officer/section). 1-6. 2-18 orders. 4-10 methods. 33 reconnaissance push. 1-6 operations security (OPSEC). 2-11. see also security operations. 1-8. 6-6. extended). 2-5. long. survivability. 9-4. 313. 3-14. 315. 1-3 role. 2-1 squadron staff. 5-7. 5-3. 4-6 sustainment. 4-3. 4-12 rules of engagement (ROE). 3-1. 2-15. 2-2. 2-15. 3-13. 2-5. 2-5. 3-2. 5-2. 3-20. 4-9. 3-3. 4-5 reconnaissance pull. 9-3 heavy brigade combat team (HBCT). 3-2 in route security. 7-7 S S-1/S-1 section (personnel officer/section). 4-2. 3-8. 4-13 initial screen. x. 3-2. 9-4 existing and reinforcing. 5-4. 5-12. 7-12. 6-4. 7-7. 6-1 operation order (OPORD). 3-16 aviation support. 2-10 obstacles. 3-17. 1-1. 10-10 area security. 1-8. 4-5 command and control (C2). 2-5. 3-10. 5-8. 4-6. 314. see also security operations. 2-6 reconnaissance guidance. 4-9 convoy security. 2-10. 4-12 organization. 3-15. 3-24. 4-12 security force tasks. 2-6. 4-5 stationary screen. 1-7. 1-3. 2-5 reconnaissance handover. 1-5. 19. 2-15. 6-7. 2-5. 9-14 fundamentals. 1-9. 3-14. 3-19 psychological operations (PSYOP). 10-3. 3-18. 3-10. 2-1 reports and reporting. 1-9. 1-8 missions. 4-6 security force. 5-1. 217. 5-10. 10-12 battlefield surveillance brigade (BFSB) reconnaissance squadron. 3-17 definition. 3-23 reconnaissance operations. 1-6. 3-19. 1-8. 5-1. 16. 3-17 route security. 415 route reconnaissance. 2-10 mounted. 3-23. 3-4. viii. 3-9. 4-1. 4-5 mobility. 5-2. 4-15 S-6/S-6 section (signal officer/section). 6-3. 1-9. 3-9. 2-7. 2-3 preventive maintenance checks and services (PMCS). 218. 4-2 squadron commander. 5-5. 4-3 air-ground integration. 1-12. 9-4 offensive operations. 7-6 area reconnaissance. 1-8. 210. 3-3 route reconnaissance. 3-24. 9-20. 4-12 12 March 2010 FM 3-20. 1-6 in combat roles. 4-6 in area security. 10-11. 6-3. 4-10. 2-14. ix. 3-2. 3-2. 12. 3-8. 4-8 moving screen.Index dismounted. 9-16. 1-1. 5-9. 1-8. 3-14 reconnaissance squadron. 6-4. 114. 4-4. 1-9. 3-24 reconnaissance push. 10-4. 4-5. 4-1. 3-8. 114. 3-17 in area security. 4-1. 3-5. 7-15.

10-4. 4-2. 1-5. 10-12. 9-3.96 12 March 2010 . 10-10. 10-19. 4-5. 2-10. 9-9 Z zone reconnaissance. 3-15 definition. 10-9. 1-14. 4-9 engagement criteria. 3-11. 315. 4-1. 4-6 tactical road march. 9-9 surveillance troop. 9-17 T tactical command post (TAC CP). 2-10. see also supply/resupply operations. 2-10. 4-12. 3-5. 2-20. 4-11 screen. x. see also supply/resupply operations. 2-6. 2-13. 4-2 fundamentals. 4-7. 2-7. 3-3 Stryker brigade combat team (SBCT). 3-16 stability operations. 3-24. 9-19 close air support (CAS). 10-27 terrain. 96. 3-24. 2-9. 2-5. 3-14. 7-3. radiological. 4-4 security planning. 3-15. 9-2. 4-2 planning. 7-4. 10-18. ix. 9-10 targeting squadron staff. 2-18. 5-6. 10-1 society. and civil considerations (METT-TC). 9-22 weather. terrain and weather. 2-17. 10-1. 10-26. 9-18 U unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). 1-11. 3-2. 2-18. 5-11 in reconnaissance operations. 7-2. 13. 10-13. troops and support available. 5-11. 4-3 route security. 3-4. 4-3 situational awareness (SA). 4-9 Index-4 FM 3-20. 10-17. 4-5 targeting. 7-15. 7-15 staff. 4-1. 9-16 surveillance. 9-4. 4-5. 3-15 in area security. 2-7. 1-9. 4-10. 3-7. 9-11 targeting process. 4-6. 9-9 targeting meetings. see also mission. 1-9. terrain and weather. 1-4. x. 914 task. 8-2. time available. 1-5 tempo. 10-8 force health protection (FHP). 7-7. 2-7. 1-4. 4-9 local security. 9-14. 5-7 critical tasks. 3-16 time. 4-5. 5-7. 10-3. 4-4. 4-3. 2-9. 2-10 forms of security. 1-10 suppression of enemy air defenses (SEAD). 4-10. 2-12. 1-3. 4-1. 10-20. 1-6. 2-8. biological. see also chemical. 2-3 standing operating procedure (SOP). 3-3. and civil considerations (METT-TC). 4-5. 71. 2-9 W warfighting functions. troops and support available. 1-9 reconnaissance squadron capabilities. 10-5. 2-1. 1-5 toxic industrial materiel (TIM). 1-7. 2-1 water (Class I supply). 10-25. x. 10-16. 3-14. 2-17. see also mission. 4-1. 9-11. 2-5. 7-8. 1-11. 4-3. 3-4.Index cover. 37. 21. and nuclear (CBRN). 5-7. time available. 1-10. 2-14. 3-4. 4-7. 3-16. 9-22 trains. 5-2. 3-14. 10-11. 7-6. see also reconnaissance operations. 4-12 sustainment. 4-1. 3-15 in security operations. 9-10. 10-15. 10-7. 1-10 reconnaissance squadron limitations. 2-16. 5-1. 315. 3-23. 10-21. 9-16 in offensive operations. 2-4. 3-6. 4-2. 5-7. enemy. 102 reconnaissance squadron. 10-8. 2-7. enemy. 4-5. 2-21. 10-2. 7-5. 3-8. 3-5. 4-2 guard. 9-22 reconnaissance operations. 3-17. 5-3. 1-1. 9-10 situational understanding (SU). 1-11.

MORROW Administrative Assistant to the Secretary of the Army 1005005 DISTRIBUTION: Active Army. CASEY. JR. .96. Army Reserve: To be distributed in accordance with the initial distribution number (IDN) 115891 requirements for FM 3-20. General. United States Army Chief of Staff Official: JOYCE E.S.96 12 March 2010 By order of the Secretary of the Army: GEORGE W. and U.FM 3-20. Army National Guard.

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