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03/14/2013

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In ﬁgure 5.13a the temperature difference over the stack is plotted versus the frequency.
The stack is located at 69 mm from the closed end of the resonator. In ﬁgure 5.13b the
driveratioandvelocityareshown. Duringthismeasurementtheloudspeakervoltageis
constant. The resonance frequencies of the resonator are at 55 Hz and at 165 Hz, which
can be clearly seen from the peaks in the pressure and the velocity. The temperature
difference also shows a peak at these frequencies, as the acoustic power input to the

94

Temperature proﬁle in a stack

0

5

10

0

20

40

60

80

100

120

pL [kPa]

T

[oC]

SS model
TD model
measurement
(∆T)
c

(a) f=55 Hz

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

0

20

40

60

80

100

pL [kPa]

T

[oC]

SS model

TD model
measurement

(∆T)c

(b) f=158 Hz

Figure 5.11: The temperature difference as function of the pressure amplitude |pL| at the left
side of the stack. The measurement is performed at 55 Hz and at 158 Hz. The temperature
difference is determined from a measurement as well as from both models.

0

5

10

15

0

0.2

0.4

W

in

[W

/cm

2]

|pL| [kPa]

0

5

10

150

5

10

|uL

|[m

/s]

(a) f=55 Hz

0

1

2

3

0

0.05

0.1

W

in

[W

/cm

2]

|pL| [kPa]

0

1

2

30

2

4

|uL

|[m

/s]

(b) f=158 Hz

Figure 5.12: The energy ﬂow ˙E0 that is applied to the stack and the velocity amplitude |uL|
as functions of the pressure amplitude |pL| at the left side of the stack. The measurement is
performed at 55 Hz and at 158 Hz.

stack is higher and the stack has not reached the critical temperature yet. The TD model
is in very good agreement with the measurements. The SS model overestimates the
temperature difference, as it does not include heat losses. The shape of the temperature
plots is determined heavily by the pressure and velocity dependence of the frequency.
In ﬁgure 5.14a the temperature difference over the stack is plotted versus the fre-

5.6 Discussion and conclusion

95

50

100

150

0

50

100

150

f [Hz]

T

[oC]

SS model
TD model
measurement
(∆T)c

(a)

50

100

150

0

0.05

0.1

D

R

f [Hz]

50

100

150

0

0.02

0.04

|uL

|/c0

DR
|uL|/c0

(b)

Figure 5.13: a) The temperature difference TR−TL in steady state as function of the frequency,
determined by the SS model, by the TD model and from measurements. The calculated critical
temperature difference (∆T)

c is also plotted. b) The drive ratio Dr = |pL|/p0 and the Mach
number|uL|/c0 at the left side of the stack as function of the frequency. The stack is located at
69 mm from the end of the resonator.

quency. In ﬁgure 5.14b the normalized pressure and velocity are shown. The stack is
located at 469 mm from the closed end of the resonator. During this measurement the
loudspeaker voltage is constant. The resonance frequencies of the resonator is at 43 Hz.
This resonance frequency is lower than in the previous measurement, because in this
case the tube is 40 cm longer. The temperature difference shows a peak at the resonance
frequency, but this peak is ﬂatter than in the previous measurement. The reason for
this is that the temperature is close to the critical temperature and therefore can not go
higher. The critical temperature difference is much lower this time, because the stack is
much farther away from the resonator end. The temperature difference goes towards
zero at a frequency of 120 Hz, as a knot in the pressure amplitude reaches the stack.
At one part of the stack the temperature gradient is positive and at the other part it
is negative. The critical temperature gradient does not go to zero because the critical
temperature gradient is always positive, by deﬁnition. At even higher frequencies the
temperature difference becomes negative.
The TD model is in very good agreement with the measurements, except at the res-
onance frequency, where it approaches the SS model.

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