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LEO TOLSTOY .
CHESTERTON. K. FERRIS WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS TORONTO COPP CLARK COMPANY LONDON : HODDER AND STOUGHTON .BY G. ETC. H. G.
. 1 52 VASXAYA POLYAXA. . . ....LIST LK.. .. COUNTRY HO.. . .STOV AS AN OKKICKR TOLSTOY ix ins STCDKXT DAYS .. ... R. AT HIS DKSK .. ...K OK A PORTION OK TOLSTOY'S MS.. HIS COUNT TOLSTOY.. ..... . 1-t 15 COUNT TOLSTOY \ FAMOUS PAIXTIXI... ..... . ..K.. AX KAKLY PORTRAIT C'orxT AXD CorxTKss TOLSTOY Li o TOLSTOY (from a Sketch by Victor Trout) COIXT TOLSTOY AT I-'A< WORK IN SIMII. .... . . . .3 .. OK TOLSTOY . MILLAR'S ILLUSTRATIONS.. .. .... PAHK AT VASXAYA POLYANA GATEWAY-ENTRANCE TO YASN\UA I'OLYAXA IMS HICYCLK. .6 7 7 8 9 10 11 THK PIKLDS 12 WORK HIS STUDY AT VASNAYA POLYAXA . . ... OK TIM: POOR" TOLSTOY... . ..16 17 A PiioToiiKAiMi OK COUNT TOLSTOY TAKKX AT VASXAYA POLYAXA ... . . TOLSTOY AT WIKK.18 19 RUSSIAN JAILI.. . ... .. ...... TOLSTOY WIUTIXC... .. THK Tin..O OF ILLUSTRATIONS TOLSTOY........ ... . 4 5 TOLSTOY WITH "Tm: TRK.. . ......... ... . ... ..MK OK COUNT TOLSTOY. . AND DAI-CHTKRS ix . .. .. . .. . . Tin..R AND \\OMAX WARDKR . ^. Ai'i'ROACH TO THK. OXK OK H.. .. ..... TOI.
.22 .26 . . . . . . .. . . THERE GOD IN is ALSO" .30 .23 24 COUNT TOLSTOY AT REST (from a Painting by Repin) TOLSTOY IN THE GROUNDS OF YASNAYA POLYANA .. . IN . A RECENT PORTRAIT OF COUNT TOLSTOY . . . . . . MASLOVA'S RETURN TO THE WARD AFTER THE SENTENCE . . . . . .34 .. TOLSTOY'S LITERARY JUBILEE 21 Two OF THE POSTCARDS ISSUED . . .. .25 . Moscow "". 20 ONE OF THE POSTCARDS ISSUED Moscow v 1898 TO COMMEMORATE . . .27 THE DEFENDANTS . is. . . .. ONE . . . . ONE OF H. AT . .29 TOLSTOY AND HIS DAUGHTER TATYANA * .. . . . R. . . LEO TOLSTOY (from a Portrait painted in 1884). TOLSTOY'S LITERARY JUBILEE _ .31 33 COUNT TOLSTOY AND HIS FAMILY . 20 THK COVER " OF THK TRACT WHKHK LOVK IN ... 1896 (from a Photograph) .. . 1898 TO COMMEMORATE . .IV PAGE A ' TOUSTOY MEDALLION... .. . . .. . MILLAR'S ILLUSTRATIONS OF MANY BUSTS OF COUNT TOLSTOY ..35 LEO TOLSTOY. .
TOLSTOY F any one wishes to form the fullest I estimate of the real character and influence of the great man whose name is prefixed to these remarks. All this. He in the news that has recently come sect of from Canada. the sanity or insanity. on the ground that TOLSTOY AS AN OFFICER it is immoral to possess them or control them. It is like a page from some fairy farce to imagine the Doukhabor solemnly escorting a hen to the door of the yard and bidding it a benevolent farewell as it sets out on its travels. shouting a single word. a company of European men in boots and waistcoats should begin to insist on taking the horse out of the shafts of the omnibus. It is first and foremost a reminder that the world is still young. and the dog out of his kennel. of the view. because of a moral scruple or theory. there is About such an incident as this a quality altogether indepen- dent of the rightness or wrongness. homogeneous. as I 1 . There are still examples of a faith as fierce and practical as that of the Mahometans. To the languid contemporary politician and philosopher it seems doubtless like something out of a dream. splendid as they are. and lift the pig out of his pig-sty. that in this iron-bound. that a Russian all Christian anarchists has turned its animals loose. or in his ethical views. he will not find it in his novels. and clockwork age. There are still theories of life as insanely reasonable as those which were disputed under the clear blue skies of Athens. who swept across Africa and Europe. clearly and finely as they are conceived and exwill find it best expressed panded.
and that is enthusiasm that strange and splendid . which taught him that he was morally bound to walk into the House of Commons on his hands. if Mr. and he did walk on his hands. seems mere muddle-headed absurdity to the typical leader of human society in this decade. almost beyond description. under the sun. or Mr. Balfour. Wyndham. better and happier men than For there is only one happiness possible or conceivable they are. if Mr. Wyndham could accept a creed which taught that he ought to dye his hair blue. they would both "of them be.TOLSTOY IN HIS STUDENT DAYS say. Balfour could be converted to a religion said. to a man like Mr. and he did dye his hair blue. But there is nevertheless a further thing to be and that is that.
There are three men in existence who have such an attitude Tolstoy. THE COUNTRY HOME OF COUNT TOLSTOY word that has passed through so many vicissitudes. an Indian poem. and serious view of life. Mr. solid. and my friend Mr. Tolstoy. that we could supply their inevitable view on anything a silk hat. of which he is the only member. but they all have this essential resemblance. the somewhat arrogant Pope and the somewhat submissive layman.TOLSTOY 8 YASNAYA POLYANA. It is true (as I believe) that the Doukhabors have an origin quite independent of the great Russian moralist. is one of the very few men alive who have a real. besides being a magnificent novelist. in the eighteenth century the condition of a lunatic. Bernard Shaw. a Home Rule Bill. or a pound of tobacco. He is one of the two or three men in Europe. He is a Catholic church. This great act of heroic consistency which has taken place in Canada is the best example of the work of Tolstoy. who have an attitude towards things so entirely their own. which meant. but there can surely be little doubt that their emergence into importance and the growth and mental distinction of their sect. They are all diametrically : opposed to each other. . is due to his admirable summary and justification of their scheme of ethics. Hilaire Belloc. and in ancient Greece the presence of a god.
like flowers opinions on every earthly subject grow certain views of certain things that they must There are in a Held. the simplification of life." He would . and a pound of tobacco. in the case of Tolstoy. therefore. this is Home it no good to break up a centralised empire into nations." believe in the utmost possible simplification of life therefore. This emergence of Tolstoy.TOLSTOY that. from the Bible to a bootjack. a Home Rule Bill. for instance. take they do not form opinions. : under their apparent gorgeousness. their there naturally. . the mere list of miscellaneous objects which I wrote down at random above. . interesting THE APPROACH TO THE PARK AT YASNAVA POLYANA The secularist denounced and the sceptic have and Christianity first . this of tobacco is a thing of evil take it away. you must break the nation up into individuals. I all am interested in this Indian poem. reduced by Tolstoy to this great fundamental Tolstoyan principle. an Indian poem. given their basis of thought." Everything in pound ." He would say " I believe in the utmost possible simplification of life for Eastern ethics. with his awful and . : therefore. When we deal with a body of opinion like this we are dealing with an incident in the history of Europe infinitely more important than the appearance of Xapoleon Buonaparte. their soil of conviction. the opinions form themselves. say : " I believe utmost possible simplification of life Rule Bill is a mere peddling compromise . Tolstoy would say: "I believe in the utmost possible simplification of life. are far " I the world.simple ethics. Take. is Among other things a very commentary on an attitude which has been taken up for the matter of half a century by all the avowed opponents of religion. therefore. and is. this silk hat in the is a black abortion. is important in more ways it than one. a silk hat. He would say simpler and more Tolstoyan than Western. can be. .
And if any one doubts this proposition that fanaticism has nothing to do with religion. and would be quite contented if they were burnt by some new chemical process. alike. He goes on. if carried out logically. How it all queer sounds now. and still there are philosophical and ethical theories which can produce fanaticism enough to fill the world. denies the validity of the Scriptures and the Churches altogether. Fanaticism has nothing at all to do with religion. and ends by maintaining that we have no right to strike a man if he is torturing a child before our eyes. forms a purely ethical theory that love should be the instrument A of reform. Religion can be swept out of the THE GATEWAY-ENTRANCE TO YASNAYA POLYANA matter altogether. moralists who would burn their opponents alive. There are grave scientific theories which. and he ends by maintaining that the sexual . modern aesthetes who would expose themselves like the Adamites There are modern scientific if they could do it in elegant attitudes.TOLSTOY foremost. but has only to do with human nature let sect of him take this case of Tolstoy and the Doukhabors. with no theology at all. which might be held by the most rigid atheist. bec a use of its . he develops a theory of the mind and the emotions. and they end in thinking it wicked to carry a leather hand- A great modern writer who erases theology bag. would result in the same fires in the There are market-place and the same nakedness in the street. and to dance naked down the street. or to ride in a cart. but with the simple doctrine men start that we ought to love our neighbour and use no force against him. encouragement of fanaticism because religious excitement 1 e d men to burn their neighbours.
The thing that has driven them mad was It is significant that. and he went mad from a logical system of theology. only one English poet ever went mad. In the main. G. with his vast fearlessness of life. the night-club and the lethal chamber. and some of the broadest thinkers in the nineteenth truth is century bethat Tolstoy. Men (Photographed in 1896) talk of the extravagances and t'rcM/ies that have been produced by mysticism they are a mere drop in the bucket. mysticism has kept men sane. has Tolstoy always been a tonic and sanative thing. This is fanaticism as it has been and as it will always be. excitability of poets. : . and that things are not what they seem. The with his his immense genius. is deficient. and from the beginning of time. is not only not moral. with and vast knowledge deficient in one faculty : colossal faith. lieve in dynamite. is He is and one faculty alone." broadest thinkers of the Middle Ages believed in faggots. The only thing that has kept the race of men from the mad extremes of the convent and the pirate-galley. Herbert Spencer's " SyntheSome of the tic Philosophy. with all that has been said about the logic. in which insanity for many years. and persecution and insane orgies will be founded on Mr. CHESTERTON. has been mysticism the belief that logic is misleading. K. not a mystic and therefore he TOLSTOY WITH HIS BICYCLE has a tendency to go mad. Destroy the last copy of the Bible. but is positively not natural. He was Cowper> and his poetry retarded his So poetry.TOLSTOY relation out of which all hu- manity has come.
you Ah how happy I should be if I could think that my prayer would influence ! ! you."THE TREK OF THE POOR" Where Tolstoy receives the peasants and listens with unwearying patience to their tales of distress LEO TOLSTOY AS WRITER HALF the ignorance or misunderstanding of this greatest living \\ v figure in literature comes of the attempt to judge him as judge the specialised Western novelist approach. " friend. great writer of our Hussiaii land. . in the he come to Paris with Turplace. he might have been similarly de-nationalised. might possibly have developed into a writer pure and simple the world might so have gained a few it would have lost ingreat romances . \\enr my " entreaty ! For ." literature to Reflect that that gift comes whence everything comes to us. AN EARLY PORTRAIT . TurgucniefF he wrote to My ** return to Tolstoy from his deathbed. wished it so. . an utterly futile method of first He is a Russian. guenieff. My friend. TOLSTOY. Had finitely in other directions.
"How Count Tolstoy Lives and Works. the second greatest of modern Russians took a narrow view of character and destiny.TOLSTOY COUNT AND COUNTESS TOLSTOY From a Portrait taken in September 1895 (Reproduced by kind permission from . Genius must work itself out on its own Tolstoy remained a Russian from tip to toe that is one of supreme values for us and he remained an indivisible personality. his ." said Matthew lines. " are not to take Anna Karenina as a work of art. Sergyeenko) once. We ' ' . A. The artist and the moralist are inseparable in his works." by P.
in his introduction to an American edition of the "Sebastopol Sketches": "I do not know how it is with others to whom these books of Tolstoy's have come. * . complain to diffuse. F. . but for my part I cannot think of them as literature in the artistic sense at all. but that each history of Tolstoy's is as clear. I cannot think of any service which imaginative literature has done . In the presence of these criticisms I can only say that I find them . be allowed being said." The distinction is W.. all effects of art. SOCial LEO TOLSTOY. the race so great as that which Tolstoy has done in his con- ception of Karenina at that crucial morn e n t when the cruelly outraged man sees that he cannot be good with dignity.TOLSTOY So. too too confused. Some people Arnold. we may to emphasise in this small space the great qualities and achieveas ments of Tolstoy artist. . satisfactorily stated.. rather than the expositions of Christian Anarchism and . Howells. 1). as brief. This leaves all tricks of fancy. not very "we are to take it us a piece of life. Henderson) phlllpplCS . something I have lived through myself. me when I praise them that they are too long. as orderly. and that the life they portray is very sad and not amusing. but the meaning is clear. as nothing of the kind. too." So much however. FROM A SKETCH BY VICTOR PROUT (Reproduced by kind permission of Mr. R. that the characters' names are hard to pronounce. immeasurably behind.
in 1828. Morbid introspectiveness and the spirit of revolt inevitably colour what is best in nineteenth-century Russia. Born at Yasnaya Polyana <" Clear Field").10 TOLSTOY COUNT TOLSTOY AT WORK IN THE FIELDS in under which those achievements have been somewhat hidden recent years. Tolstoy's youth . and early orphaned. Tula.
and Youth 185*2 and 1857 tells the story of this period. without taking his degree. . Precocious. " Childhood. from by P. at fifteen.TOLSTOY 11 u^&*-^&&*? " (Reproduced by kind permission of Messrs." synchronised with the period of reaction that brought the Empire to the humiliating disasters of the Crimean War. Nisbet & Co. and left the University of Kazan in disgust at the stupid conventions of the time and place. How Count Tolstoy Lives and Works. though the figure of Irtenieff is probably a projection rather than a-portrait of himself. Sergyeenko) FACSIMILE OF A PORTION OF TOLSTOY'S MS. than to others. It This book is a most uncompromising exercise in self-analysis. to whom he is always less fair. impatient of discipline and formal learning. not a little conceited. always brooding. there is no plot. awkward and bashful. A. which appeared in three sections between Boyhood.. is of great length. and few outer events are recorded. " . abnormally sensitive and observant. he was a sceptic. not to say merciful. No hope was left in the thin layer of society lying between the two mill-stones of the Court and the serfs none in the little sphere of art where Byronic romanticism was ready to expire. The boy saw from the first the rottenness of the patriarchal aristocracy in which his lot seemed to be cast.
from Nature to his " own The largest result of this ex- perience was "The Cossacks (1852).mildly benevolent efforts among his serfs at Vasnaya Polyana (the disappointments of which he related a few " A Landlord's years later in Morning. and occasionally with tender pathos. On this favourite stage of classic Russian romance." as Mr. dating from tlie The Wood . and in 1851 he was drafted to the Caucasus as an artillery officer. Tolstoy felt his Byron among his imagination stirred as the isles of Greece. HIS WIFE. such as the account of the storm. "Meeting an Old Acquaintance" (1856). Dole's transis lation entitled).Cutting Expedition" (1855). and the tropical sun.12 generally morbid. but is varied by some passages of great descriptive power. as Thoreau at Walden. A Rus- sian Proprietor his elder brother Nicholas persuaded him to join the army. and met the rugged adventurous highlanders. AND DAUGHTERS " year. of Tolstoy's artistic genius and of his ethical gospel. and "A . After five years of ." intended to have been part of a full novel to be called " "). same COUNT TOLSTOY. by a direct call heart. where for the first time he saw the towering mountains. as in the story of the soldier's death. and early revulsion against city life confirmed as Wordsworth amid the Lakes. such as the narrative of the The realism is In this earliest work will be found the seeds both mother's death." (or " The Invaders. as well as by grimly vivid pages. Turguenieff described this fine prose epic of the contact of civilised and savage man as "the best novel written " The Raid " in our language.
Upon the outbreak of the Crimean War the Count was called to Sebastopol.14 TOLSTOY TOLSTOY WRITING AT HIS DESK (1862) are also drawn from recollections and show the same descriptive and romantic power. dark months of bloodshed was the thrilling series of impressions " Sebastopol reprinted from one of the leading Russian reviews as Sketches" (1856). and later on created in Western countries an impression like that of the canvases of Prisoner in the Caucasus " Verestchagin. there was expunged from his mind all the cheap romanticism which depends upon the glorification of the savage side of human nature. From that day onward Tolstoy knew and told the hateful truth about war and the thoughtless pseudo-patriotism From that day which hurries nations into fratricidal slaughter. These wonderful pictures of the routine of the battlefield established his position in Russia as a writer. of this sojourn. and took part The immediate product of these in the defence of the citadel. where he had command of a battery. .
Ltd. it that saved Leo brother Nicholas. and in parts " beautiful in piece of work. " anticipating essentials The Kreutzer Sonata that was to scandalise the world thirty years afterward. Family responsibilities. Russia declared in horror." both of which remind us of including the " Count's susceptibility to music ." reproduced by kind permission of Messrs. It was of these years that he France. Polikushka. I should think. the supervision of the estate. Millar's illustrations in the " Where Love is. one of the oddest chapters chequered friendship in literary history. Walter Scott. For the third time the hand of death had snatched away one of the nearest to him his After all. **Mv Confession" that he could not think of them without and pain of heart. and Italy.TOLSTOY For a <>!' 15 brief time Tolstoy became a figure in the old and new < His \ TV capitals by right of talent as well as birth. disgust. a most .. magisterial One is of H." the story of a marriage that failed. charged against himself in his Salvationist crisis of twenty years later must not be taken literally but that there was some ground for it we may guess from the scenic and incidental realism of the " Recollections of a Billiard Marker" (18o<>). The catalogue of crime which lie . the publishers . " Albert " and " Lucerne. can only be mentioned here. consistent. daughter of the army surgeon in Tula the most fortunate thing that has happened to him in his whole life. English edition of R. was family happiness Tolstoy. . Several other powerful short novels date from about this time. and of many a later page. with TuTguenieff. In 1857 he travelled in (lermany. forceful." a tale of peasant life and " Family Happiness. there God also. those novel and daring experiments in peasant education which are recorded in several volumes of the highest interest. 18(>2. clear. in he married Miss Behrs. Two years later.
by which its author became known in the West. The two first volumes are sublime. in it. and attainment. Of this work. volumes display their degree his in superlative Tolstoy's indifference to plot and absorption in individual character . as well as a certain amount of anarchist theorising. they are rather a series of scenes threaded upon the fortunes of COUNT TOLSTOY than but they contain passages of several families ." The artist's hand was now strengthening for his highest In 1876 appeared " Anna Karenina. not and least. with preced- ing and succeeding episodes in Russian These four society. his : ! last novel. as he intended at the time (but Art is not so easily jilted). last. War and Peace" (1864-9) is a huge panorama of the Napoleonic campaign of 1812. but the what a psychologist There are some quite Shakespearean things third drags frightfully.16 TOLSTOY work. but pro- the longed labours " "War and Peace" up the ." his greatest. Flaubert (how the name carries us What a painter and backward !) wrote " It is of the first order. which. upon and fill Anna Karenina " next " fifteen years. is . The fine qualities of this book. a set novel penetrating psychology and vivid description. though long.
George nised that I need not attempt to describe them. have been so fully recogMr." which.17 A FAMOUS PAINTING OF TOLSTOY dramatically unified and vitally coherent." " Diana. Meredith has described Anna as "the most perfectly depicted female character in all fiction. from the author of 2 .
wherein main subject of the illicit love a minor subject in the fortunes the reader will discover many of Tolstoy's own experiences.18 TOLSTOY PHOTOGRAPH OF ! COUNT TOLSTOY TAKEN AT YASNAYA POLYANA (Reproduced "Anna Karenina from " by kind permission of I Messrs Walter Scott Ltd. Parallel with the of of Anna and Vronsky there is Levin and Kitty. but praised and no author's extraordinarily fine perception truthfulness. Matthew Arnold complained that the book contained too many characters and a burdensome multiplicity less of actions.) is praise indeed. and frankly revelled in Anna's extraordinary its .
"Patriotism and Christianity" (189G) (1880-2). opened the door ol the cell (From an illustration by Pasternak in the " English Edition of Resurrection. Everything else was a Of that spiritual crisis nothing need be said here except that only intensified. F. R.TOLSTOY 1!) RUSSIAN JAILER AND " The jailer. I saw only one thing Death. ' " "My myself." it . vitally change. delightful nature. Henderson) " When I had generous.. "my despair do nothing but think of the horrible condition in which I found large. proin 1884. of which may the most important are " The Gospels Translated.. "Life" (1887). is to be Done?" (1884-5). kind permission o! Mr." reproduced by. lie. and Harmonised" duced abroad Believe" ["My Religion"]. His subsequent ethical and religious development be traced in a long series of books and pamphlets. rattling the iron WOMAN WARDER " padlock." " ended my work Anna Karenina. "Work" (1888).' said Tolstoy in Confes" sion reached such a height that I could (1870-82). Compared. rich. "The Kingdom of God is Within You" (1893). as it seemed to do. principles and instincts which had possessed Tolstoy from the beginning. I "What "What . fresh. "Non-Action" (1894). and did not really.
short but luminous on " Guy de Maupassant essay " and the Art of Fiction is a A THE COVER OF THE TRACT "WHERE LOVE " IS. in the foreign and the clandestine presses at least. he launched a jehad against all modern ideas of Art which rely upon a conception of beauty and all ideas of beauty into which utilitarian pleasure enters as a leading constituent. and " "The (1900). In "What is Art?" not content with the bare (1898). Tchertkoff.20 TOLSTOY a scathing attack upon militarism in general and the Franco-Russian Alliance in particular " tian Teaching Chris" The (1898)." has gradually risen to the Tolstoy position of the one man who can failure of the movement miscalled continue with impunity a public crusade. the " Brotherhood Publishing Co. Slavery of our Times Various letters on the successive famines and on the religious per- secutions in Russia deserve separate mention. deserve praise for their efforts to popularise these and other works of the Count in thoroughly good translations. against all Imperial authority Mr. argument that it is merely a means of social union. they remind us that since the A TOLSTOY MEDALLION revolutionary " Nihilism. Mr. Aylmer Maude.." and the "Free Age Press" and social maladjustments. THERE GOD IS ALSO .
"The Death of Ivan Ilyitch" (1884) and "Resurrection" (1899) are in some ways the most powerful of all his works. then the inexorable development of individual characters. the little critics scoff. It is 21 more to our this volcanic if purpose to note that in and fecund fundamentally simple personality the artist has dogged the steps of the evangelist to the last. To submit a work like Resurrection to the summary treatment which the ordinary novel receives and merits is absurd. the challenging idea upon which they are founded. the characters. "Master and (1895) is Man" one of the most exquisite short stories ever written. The much" condemned "Dominion of Darkness and " Kreutzer Sonata" (1889) will be more fairly judged (1886) when the average Englishman has learned the supreme merit of that uncompromising truthfulness which gives nobility to every line "the " grand Russian ever wrote. ONE OF THE POSTCARDS ISSUED IN MOSCOW IN 1898 TO COMMEMORATE TOLSTOY'S LITERARY JUBILEE but first in not in their organisation into a conventionally limited plot. the episodes are all too real and vital for their precious British self-complacency. It is a large picture of the fall and rise of man done by the swift and restless hand of a master who stands in a category apart. The idea. with an eye that sees externals and essentials with like accuracy and rapidity. The grandmotherly AiKcnasum . Because the dramatic quality of these living pictures lies.TOI-STOV more satisfactory contribution to the subject. and ever and anon in the grip of particular episodes.
" which reminds me that I lecturer before heard a a well- known literary society in TWO OF THE POSTCARDS ISSUED AT MOSCOW IN 1898 TO COMMEMORATE TOLSTOY'S LITERARY JUBILEE London describe him lately as a "scavenger." and can now only be pieced together to make "the ornament of a museum. knows that Tolstoy is one of the world-spirits whose advance out of the .22 TOLSTOY permits some person to describe this figure as Promethean "a precious vase that has been broken. complete edition of Tolstoy enormous work! knows better." and that a city bookseller assured me the other day that there was something almost amounting to a boycott The publisher who is preparing a against his fiction in the shops.
With an recesses of character. by I". His sen ice to literature is precisely the same as his service to Like Human and Hums. he throws morals. he joins a terrihle truthfulness. so he calls the artist hack to extraordinary penetration into the hidden and that ahsolute elemental forces ever at work beneath the surface-show of nature and humanity. COUNT TOLSTOY AT KKST. As he and the calls to the land the- common the politician and the social reformer hack people. down in a world of decadent conventions the tfau^e of the demotin- cratic ideal. Tolstoy and Works.ivc-.TOLSTOY 28 ohscurity <>t'a hcniulitcd laud into UK. " (Reproduced by kind permisMon from How A. Dickens and Whitman. From a Painting by Rcpin. l.largest contemporary rimilat ion is hut a tort-taste of an influence' that will soon IK. " .co-extensive with commonwealth of thinking men and women.
is hut more especially of the inner life. Of artifice designed vulgar entertainment he knows nothing in the world of true art. and we think only with love and reverence of this modern patriarch. Theories. but a grimly satiric note has sometimes crept into his writing. tions. prefers breadth to depth of knowHe ledge must seek elsewhere. He the has rarely strayed channel of his own beyond and the reader who experience. and discussions are forgotten. H. in his work. has little humour. There no staginess. of those sensational types of personality which glorify the name mentality. His style is always natural. no senti- sfense. Ibsen. prescripprincely figure. which is the wine-press of the soul of man. heroes in our Western He has no of his Northern contemporary. . he stands. for as Archdeacon Farrar will remember. He a realist. so lonely amid the daily enlarging congregation of the hearts he has awakened to a sense of the mysthe terror. FERRIS. none. direct.24 TOLSTOY simplicity is of manner which we generally associate with genius. G. the the joy. a . not merely of the outer. tery. splendour of TOLSTOY IN THE GROUNDS OF YASNAYA POLYANA human destinies. even. irresistible as a physical process.
Ltd.. and lo the whole framework of the Age gives in your hands. x SymbollSlIlg modem WOTlCL . tllC Spiritual 1 Ct UnrCSt Of tllC -.TOLSTOY'S PLACE IN EUROPEAN LITERATURE 1 1 1" justness of the word great applied to a nation's writers is perhaps best tested by simply taking each writer in tuni his K from out Age. solidly unaffected by their absence but touch one or two central figures. ages to whose inner life in consequence we have no key Tolstoy's significance as the great writer of modern Russia can scarcely One of H. and the Age remains before our eyes. and you realise that the \Vorld's insight into. and seeing how remains unaffected. full of confused tendencies and general contradiction till the few great men have arisen. In fact. the publishers be augmented in Uussian eyes by " exceeding significance to Europe his as . reproduced by kind permission of Messrs.. chaotic. every Age seems dwarfed. How many dumb ! are there in which no great writer has appeared.. We may our conception of his Age take away hundreds of clever writers. R. and symbolised in themselves what their nation's growth or ages strife signifies. ! us by the special interpretation offered by two or three great minds. and understanding of that Age's life has been supplied far . Waher Scott. scores of distinguished creators. Millar's illustrations in the " " What Men Live English edition of By (written in 1881).it SO HieVltahlv .
26 TOLSTOY ONE OF THE MOST STRIKING OF THE MANY BUSTS OF COUNT TOLSTOY must the main stream of each age's tendency and the main move- ment of the world's thought be discovered for us by the great writers. that Russia can no more keep Tolstoy's significance to herself than could Germany keep Goethe's to herself. True it is that Tolstoy. modern . whenever they appear. as great novelist. has been absorbed in mirroring the peculiar world of half-feudal.
>fn .l-y\ A RECEN'T PORTRAIT OF COUNT TOLSTOY \Rck Mat iM. Zs.
more mysteriously living in its vast his passionate religious and flow than is the world of any writer of the century. thoughts. Scott. of incessant shock. or any latter day creator we can name. He of all the analysts of the civilised man's emotions. The modernness of Tolstoy's attitude. With a marked moral bias. has constructed a truer whole. of Science. is that he is inspired largely by the modern scientific in his searching analysis of modern life. to realising what the life of the modern man is. Byron. so Tolstoy to-day stands for the triumph of the European soul against civilisation's routine and dogma. " Resurrection " more truly representative of our of any other of his great conspirit " and of Between the days of " Wilhelm Meister is is modern world the what an extraordinary volume of the rushing tide A century of that liberation of of modern life has swept by " has passed since Goethe modern Europe from the old routine " the of the modern spirit." A century stood forth for awakening '* ! of emancipation. and moral code of the whole community of Russia are reproduced by flux his art. Apparently at war with Science and Progress." those great worlds where the physical environment. however. and dogma (as Matthew Arnold affirms). and even as Goethe a hundred years ago typified the triumph of the new intelligence of Europe over the shackles of its old institutions. Dickens.28 TOLSTOY Russia. and Progress all over the face of Europe. change. Tolstoy. *' War " and Peace and " Anna Karenina. Balzac. but the spirit of analysis " 5> with which the creator of " Anna Karenina and " War and Peace has confronted the Age's outlook than temporaries. in his pictures of life. a world strange to Western Europe. to the worlds of Goethe. his extraordinary fascination for the mind of Europe lies in the fact that he of all great contemporary writers has come nearest to demonstrating. of unbelief. Maupassant. and actions has least idealised. as some mighty cunning phantasmagoria of changing life. a human world less bounded by the artist's individual limitations. and least distorted the complex daily life of the European world. Thackeray. driven onward in his search for truth by spirit temperament. as we shall prepeculiar sently show. mental outlook. least beautified. . routine. are superior in the sense of containing a whole nation's life. emotional aspiration. Victor Hugo.
raises deeper problems. but Tolstoy's analysis of life throws more light on the main currents of thought in our Age. R. It is by Tolstoy's passionate seeking of the life of the soul that the . and explores more untouched territories of the mind than does any corresponding analysis by his European contemporaries. Henderson) And not only so." reproduced by kind permission of Mr.TOLSTOY THE DEFENDANTS " The third prisoner was Ma-slova " (From an illustration by Pasternak in the English Edition or " Resurrection. F.
hopes and fears as it evolves in more and more complex forms of our terribly complex civilisation. . to examine all modern formulas and appearances. that his work is charged with the essence of nearly all that modernity thinks and feels.for the sake of the progress of the guilty.that go beyond and transcend their present life. and it is because his hunger for spiritual truth has led him to probe contemporary life. moulds. the cry of the modern conscience against the blinded fate of its own progress. To the eye of science everything is possible in human life. believes and suffers. the Tolstoy is '. The soul of humanity is. always the appeal of men from the life that environs. the appeal of the modern world.30 TOLSTOY great Russian writer towers above the men of our day. and burdens them. sacrifice of the innocent . to instincts . to penetrate into the secret thought and emotion of men of all grades in our complex society. however.
thoughts. irresponsibly from century to century by our modern world the soul's protest he has fused with this science of into taking against the earthly fate of man which leads the generations the ceaseless roads of evil which every age unwinds.32 TOLSTOY the crushing and deforming of the weak so that the strong may serf classes at the dictates triumph over them. dangers and pleasures. of vanity. and show of indifference in the face of death. is a psychological document on modern war of extraordinary value. complex effects of ' ' up. He lifts altruism. All this the nineteenth century has seen accom- and not seen alone in Russia. from a former article let us say that " Sebastopol gives us war under all aspects war as a squalid. It is Tolstoy's distinction to have combined in his life-work more than any other great artist two main conflicting points of view. Tolstoy gets the ' Sebastopol by keenly analysing the effect of the sights and sounds. disease. on their courage. the veil of appearances conventionally drawn by society over the actualities of the glorious trade of killing men. I felt so and so. for it simply * realities. and he does this chiefly by analysing keenly the insensitiveness and indifference of the average mind. war by other European writers to among artists To quote a ' has realised war. passage. He has fused by his art the science that defines the way Humanity is forced forward blindly and the mere pressure of events. which says of the worst of war's and did so and so but as to -what those other thousands may have felt in their agony. hard work. the evolution of new of a ruling class. and as a nearer approximaWe have only got to comtion to a realisation of what life is. with any other document on pare Tolstoy's "Sebastopol" (1856) plished. patriotism. that I did riot enter into at all. : * . though an exceedingly short and exceedingly simple narrative.' therefore. daily affair of mud and glory. in fact. perceive that Tolstoy alone his fellows have idealised it. honourable.' Sebastopol. of war 011 the brains of a variety of typical men. and emotions. and by placing a special valuation of his own on these men's actions. stupidity. Let us cite Tolstoy's treatment of War as an instance of how this great artist symbolises the Age for us and so marks the advance in self-consciousness of the modern mind. and inhuman agony.
FROM A PORTRAIT PAINTED IN 1884 .LEO TOLSTOY.
and expressing at length the confused sensations of countless men. demonstrating what war is. And more we feel that in Sebastopol we have at last the sceptical modern spirit. who. who have heretofore never found a genius who can make humanity realise what it knows We cannot help. men of letters. not deceived : ' ' by the world's presentation of its own life. SEX'I ENCE " " She could bear it no longer her face quivered and she burst into sobs (From an illustration by Pasternak in the English Edition of "Resurrection" reproduced by kind permission of Mr. health and disease of multitudes of men a surgeon who.34 TOLSTOY MAM. OVA'S RETfUN TO THK WARD AFTER THE . humanity's shelves from generation to generation. . penetrates into the essential joy and suffering. F. romantic and grave historians alike have been busily piling up on poets. as imlife-like all those theatrical glorifications of war which and hopelessly limited. Henderson) relegates to the lumber-room. R. recognising this man Tolstoy as the most advanced product of our civilisation. half-consciously and consciously evades. absorbed in actual life. therefore. and likening him to a great surgeon. face to face with the strangest of Nature's laws in the .
. and incentives at least the struck. pu/. All the movements. and convent inns of the human mind. all the agitations of the world of to-day in contrast with the immense materialistic civilisation that science has hastily built up for us in three or four generations./. in nineteenth-century therefore. because. fatuities. 189 (Front a Photograph) the Both of these tury. writers focus for us in life a marvellously complete manner the respective methods of analysing which the rationalism of the seventeenth and eighteenth by centuries. no Voltaire's fixed is and certain than place in eighteenth cenLKO TOLSTOY. at the formidable army said." Tolstoy's place literature is. and now in alarm. less in our view. appein life.led by tin- illusions. and the science and humanitarianism of the nineteenth have moulded for us the modern world. resolutely sets himself to lay hare the foots of all its passions. as ga/ing.TOLSTOY constitution <>!' 85 human all society. tites. all the xjurif of modern life is condensed in the pages of Tolstoy's writings. all the speculation. century all the problems.for that so human reason may advance in farther along the path of self-knowledge Advancing towards a general sociological study of man. we have now he typifies the soul of the nuxlern man undaunted.
The reaKstii of the great Russian's novels is. And just as science's Tolstoy's realism in art is symbolical of our absorption in the world modern study of natural law. EDWAKD GAKNETT. to show members. Tolstoy thus stands for the modern soul's alarm in contact tc/t/i work after its first destruction of the past ages' formalism. science. resulting in immense gain to the spiritual life. and society's mechanical influence on the minds of its To make man more conscious of his acts.36 TOLSTOY of the newly-tabulated cause and effect of humanity's progress. but also as the soul of the modern world seeking to replace in its love of humanity the life of those old finally religions which science will stand in Tolstoy In this sense destroying day by day. more in line with the modern tendency and outlook than is the general tendency of other schools of Continental literature. so Tolstoy's work has been throughout inspired by a passionate love of humanity. and by his ceaseless struggle against conventional religion. in the looked on. and not cry out society this has been the great in admiration at what it pretends to feel Ever seeking novelist's aim in his delineation of Russia's life. and dogma is directed more and more to the examination and amelioration of human life. as the conscience of the European literature is modern world. a study ultimately without loss of spirituality. superstition. not merely as the conscience of the Russian world revolting against the too heavy burden which the Russian people have now to bear in Holy Russia's onward march towards the building-up of her great Asiatic Empire. at the appalling cheapness and waste of human life in Nature's hands. one truth to arrive at men's thoughts and sensations under the the daily pressure of life never flinching from his exploration of the dark world of man's animalism and incessant self-deception. . its real motives and what it is feeling. dogmatic science. nay. And Tolstoy must be of fact. therefore.
" ( lo-e to it. and it would be hard to imagine a simpler and le pretentious of hi. Hi.iy. only her brown eye. all kinds of impulse that he had no time to think ahout convictionand besides. be roOOeaded in paying liis rr<Mlitnr. a pa ion fur plea-lire. . 1H-H. and lives in the hoii-e nominally as a guest." "He was a man of tin. entcrpri-ini.after the death of his mother. could have caught a glimpse of her -mile.army holding tin. he seemto have had during these two or three years a thoroughly unhappy and Having left the I niversity in 1H'.i-n. nor are vines or other creein-rs trained U|MHI the flat wall.ari-e before If during the ino-t me.life.enlarged in pro|>ortion to the need. From them the road runs through the park. without unprofitable experience.t l'u|\. of whom he wrote try to recall to mind my mother as she was then. thu. l.in full. with our Knt:li-h emphasis on ffovernment./a. At the entrance to the park are two towers. a Southern Plantation in the days of slavery.taken pri-oner by the French anil afterward. The house itself is a plain white rectangular two-storied building of stuccoed brick. (September !tli new -tyle).BIOGRAPHICAL NoTK Count Tolstoy Nikolaevitch Tol-toy wa.burden of many family debt-. (Jlimpses of a pond are caught through the deii-e foliage and of a square smoothly rolled sjiace u-ed a.father. It was at one time Tolstoy's intention to dispossess himself entirely ot hiInstead of this. shiftlessness. there is a low iM>rch. After the deatli of his father in HM~ the family was taken charge of by an aunt.'.mcrired in a level avenue of birch trees.i mi Aufc'ii-t 2Hth Hi. which covers an area of <ome L'. which were erected by Tolstoy's maternal grandfather.trunk is " Leo Tolstoy. -even " \Vheii I year. but wa. too nice to enjoy the rou^h revels of the students." by G.ieg of Krfurt.a tcnni ground. he had heen so happy all his life that he did not feel it m-ctntMiry to dn so.an old elm tree.Imrn at N.lift. and replied alike from aristocrats. unimpressed by the provincial ari-tocracy. ari-tocratic manners. the game being one in which Count Tolstoy jwirticipates with great It will be noticed that in the photograph on page . I trying moments of my life should not have known what grief is.\ert" . ing a tennis racket in his hand. a member of the nli| Russian nobility. Tol-toy lia. where lm|M-rvioiis to the ambitions of scholarship and research.rank of Lieutenant-Colonel.'I. after tin* t." ^raduatiiiff he returned to the old country home. j)rofessors. Count S'icliohi ToUtny.la-t century. The estate. .de-cribcd hi. wa. partly arable and partly wooded. " The Tree of the " see Poor 1 page 7 37 .'U he i.character in "Childhood anil Youth. place than the home in which Tolstoy has -|>ent the greater |>art It boasts neither pia/. lies a hundred miles due south of Mo-row." His father died before ToUtoy reached the aire often year-. however. In 1H-M " TnUtoy entered the University of Kazan. Perii-. and students by an unsocial and what. the whole of the land to his wife and children. medieval in -tyle.made oxer property and live as a peasant. II.' a reputation for Unfailing penevenuice. ^ asnaya I'olvana dex-enileil to Tolstoy from his mother.or -often their rectangular outlines. Having a inncd tin." Tolstoy's early years were paed in the country on the old-fa-biom-d Russian estate." hi. noa'rchitectural ornament.to relieve The house was their striking whitenes. "and. which resembled somewhat in patriarchal hahit-. -tand. we should call an unregulated di-po-:tion. and three years later by relatives ot his mother who lived at Ka/an. In IHI. he ha. and In-come. amiable.VMI acre-. he wa.of any kind.in. not completed all at once. like all his contemporaries.holdenjoyment.cainim.nor towers indeed.wa.wrote.-< full nf Belf-pOM6Med. and supcr-tition. . democratic familiarity. always the same look of love and kindne in them. ho had in him >omcthing chivalrou-. : 1 Tolstoy In his Student days see page 2 ' Y asnaya Polyana seepage 3 Tho Gateway to Yasnaya Polyana seepage 5 The Approach to the Park see page 4 . the Countess Alexandra O-ten-Saken. rising as it approaches the house. devoid of windows.:.retired from tin.of the On one side. called " The Tree of the Poor. near which family..
and suffered much disappointment at the hands of the peasants. his bride being sixteen years younger. Levin absolutely lost all idea of time. which she constantly brings near to the At her very first words one feels her objects at which she is looking. however. and it was at this time that he commenced writing "Childhood and Youth" (which. with vivacious. The result was that Tolstoy left Yasnaya Polyana for St. and all his back was wet as though he had been His work now seemed to him full plunged in water. work Count Tolstoy at in the fields always audible. daughter of a military doctor. Tolstoy as an Officer see page i Count Tolstoy and his wife see page 8 September 1862 Tolstoy married Sophia Andreevna Behrs. having attained the rank of divisional commander." "In May These were published the following year and 185-5. fearless eyes. or how the hours and moments were flying. wideshouldered thin-waisted man. having passed various examinations at the Moscow University. however. Probably his own experiences of the physical labour of mowing are depicted as those of Levin in "Anna Karenina." and "In August 18. Discontented with the idle life he was leading and out of harmony with his gay surroundings." at once made his literary reputation. however. even a gloomy expression of face. he decided to jot down his recollections of the homeland he loved so well. Tolstoy was described as " a tall. who refused to allow him to pull down their dilapidated hovels even that he might erect new and convenient ones at his own cost. still he felt very well." "The work went on and on. but only felt that at this time his work was good. Here lie listens with unwearying patience to many stories of distress and difficulty. with a serious. With this choice of a career. she was an exceedingly cultured girl. In her manner there is not even a shadow of truckstraightforward nature." as having " An open. "Sevastopol in December 18. was not published in its complete form until six years later) and " The Cossacks. and was present at Sevastopol in 18-55. and did not knofr whether it was early or late. . and gives in return. resolved to prosecute his studies with the intention of taking a degree in law." Countess Tolstoy at the age of forty-eight is described by Sergyeenko in " How Count Tolstoy Lives and Works. At the end of the campaign he left the army and visited Western Europe." Living at Yasnaya Polyana winter and summer. with but rare intervening visits to Moscow. Petersburg in the autumn of 1847. was softened by a gleam of kindliness whenever he smiled. Miss Behrs was not only beautiful. her own individual note is ling to suit the tone of any one whomsoever In . he was dissatisfied. " : . and returned again to his estate in 1848. His experiences during the war are pictured in his three sketches. According to her brother. the manner of their courtship was practically identical with that of Levin and Kitty in "Anna Karenina. but such material assistance as may lie at his command. enlisting at the age of 23 as cadet in a regiment of artillery in which his elder brother Nicholas was captain. For a few years he lived the ordinary life of the Russian nobleman.38 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE a bench on which the peasants sit to await the coming of Count Tolstoy." About the time of his marriage. of pleasure. expressive countenance. It was during the period following upon his University career that Tolstoy threw all his energies into the task of raising both the economical and moral standard of peasant life. the He was at this time thirty-four years of age. in order to study various school systems." Subsequently Tolstoy was appointed to a post on Prince GortchakofFs staff in Turkey. with a moustache^ but without a beard. and dropped from his nose.5.5. which. It was a state of unconsciousness he did not know what he was doing. Tolstoy interested himself in all the practical details of farming. Though the sweat stood on his face. or how much he was doing. not only sympathy and advice.54. and upon his return to Yasnaya Polyana he established several schools of his Own.
accident- ami exacting. Tolstoy has always dre--ed extremely simply. on \\hich bams u-ed to baiuf and which were used later for ffymn. a OOmpUeated ami aril linn. Tolstoy at work in his study at Yasnaya Polyana see page 13 Yet during thi. liirhtinj: his own tire and carrying water. housework. U remodelling. His over-dress was composed of a caftan and half-sboulta.<<< Tolstoy : Tolstoy in the grounds of Yasnaya Polyana sec ptige 24 Count Tolstoy and his family see page 31 After his morning labours. canvas-like material.wife or one of his daughters. as may be judged from the fact that there was in the whole district only one old woman who could make it accordIn this blouse Tolstoy sit for his portrait to Kramsky and ing to his orders. cutlm-ia-tic .it wen*.he altered ami improved it.novel condition. and write. He then ha.-UI immediately after his marriage. eatiny only the simj>lest foiMl and avoiding all stimulant-. or of playing for hours at lawn tennis. such as a -cythe.replace speedily covered witli erasures and Interpolation*. made evidently not for show but to stand liad weather. more than ten times. In.out. Krnest Howard Crosby has triven an interesting description of Count " He i.of labour. the painters.ilutu. by Karenina. ami extended over a in-riud of eight yearHi. Attaching great importance to manual hiltour. a vaulted ceiling.al-o :iu Noil. Count and Countess Tolstoy have had fifteen children of whom only seven survived.hu-y period In. His study at Yasnaya Polyana is a small room with an unrarpeted floor. of riding scores of versN on bis bicycle. a saw. and. as the best time for work. C.if cheap plain paper in a larjre involved band. Toys and play\\ itb the fiist child fluthings were rigorously hani-hed from the nursery. beiiu.port-man a diver-ion u hich orroMioned :in<l. The system of their upbringing has been fully dealt with by M. with a leather In'lt . he tirst makes a charcoal -ketch. and collected a large number of studies. and contains various implement.a clean ropy of tin.dressed like a Tolstoy'. Tolstoy with bis bicycle see page 6 A portrait of . and sonu* cbaptfr. He usually writes on quarto -hci-t. etc.set himself to L'rapplc with tin. a strict vctretarian. ami tin. At one time he learned bootmakingj and it is wonderful what an amount of physical exertion he was able to undergo at the a>re of seventy in the way of heavy labour in the field.BIOGRAPHICAL Tol-to\ \\a. pea-ant in a grey-white hlou-e of thin. >f eyebrows with the kindliest of expressions. according to the state of the weather. trial was made to di-pen-e altogether with a nurse. which ill summer he exchanged for a canvas one of a very original cut. literary Facsimile of a portion of Tolstoy's MS. and when at home hicostume consisted of a irrey flannel blouse.Tol-toy \\ rite others. Tlie study is very cool ami quiet. hi. but his toilet differs from a |icasaiit's in being scrupulously clean. a. lie takes a share in the. and yet his figure is so strong and massive that the tout rmtrmMr is His little blue eyes peer out from under his hiihy striking and fine-looking. The work is then copied a^iin. \\'holt> MMitenre.t. Indeed. coarse. and sometimes rovers as many a. Tol-toy may he likened to the old painti-rI laving settled upon a plan of work.applied hiriiM-lf with characteri-tic energy ami shrcwdnc-s." which was not completed until \H~C>. A. and on the ceiling are heavy black iron ring's. The Hon. often ridinjr on hor-eback or on his bicycle. eccentric in their cut. and thick stone walls. Hut later it was thought ' . made of the simplest materials. Tolstoy generally iroe. The composition 1 I . He loiifr ajfo ceased to -moke.were manifold him two >eriou.ir and I'eare " wa* followed " Anna a. Hepiii.rapidly without thinking of particulars. The MS.appearance.ta-k to \vliirli In. in addition to fulfilling tin. Hehrs in his Recollections of Count Leo Tolstoy.uife ropieil out the manuscript of this work mi le than -e\en time" \\'.of a JiMice of tlic Peace. intcre.twenty He regards the interval lietweeii nine o'cbx-k and tbree paires iii one day. files. His features are irregular and plain. In his method of working. work.by mi mean.of landiiumii-. like the blouse.is ajfain -ubjected to careful It is still in the nature of a charcoal sketch. pincers. He i.work made by hi. Formerly it was a store-room.nc^b-rled lii of his novel " War ami IM-C.-sstic exercises.
which take up the greater part of their time. Leo Tolstoy. R. The illustrations reproduced from pages 19. the last twenty years Tolstoy has written the following books " During " Criticism of Dogmatic Theology. accordingly. manuscript. consisting of an almost incredible number of letters received in all languages from every part of the globe. English edition of " Where Loye is there God is also. Concerning these pictures there is an interesting note. Tatyana Lvovna. and the children were put under the care of nurses. "Resurrection. from their third to their ninth year. Millar to " What Men see Live By"page 25 and to "Where Love is there God is also see " This is probably the most striking of all the portraits of Count Tolstoy. and brings her brisk energy. Her three eldest sons live apart." ." his last novel. and all put in authority over them were strictly forbidden to have resort under any pretext to violent or severe punishments." " What see page 20 is the best constructed of his books. exercised a strict and unremittent surveillance over both the children and those who had the care of them..40 BIOGRAPHICAL NOTE well to yield to the requirements of their social position and to the habits of contemporary life. She is indefatigable." viz. In 1884 representing him when at the height of his popularity and power. and latterly What is Religion and what is Its Essence." Tolstoy's own opinion Believe." and a third showing the cover of this tract. she conducts his vast correspondence. Harmonized and Translated. his wife. I page 15 Cover of " Where Love is there God is also " "The Gospel in Brief. Count Tolstoy. Pasternak whether he was acquainted with the person who had served him as a model. Millar from the English edition of written in 1881 another by the same artist from the. and governesses. begun about 1894. each Her daughters have their own occupied with his own business matters. and 94 are from the remarkable drawings by Pasternak. " Doukhabors. Tolstoy went so far as to enquire of M. and from which we reproduce two " three illustrations What Men Live By." which has never My Confession. At this the artist showed extreme surprise he had not even been aware that the character was copied from an original." " The Four A Gospels. " The Christian " What is Art ?" which in Teaching. Tolstoy's eldest daughter. R. and issued in rough pamphlet form at the price of a few farthings. thriftiness. : been translated. and." "What to Do. tallied characters. which was written in 1885. But when it came to the sketch of Prince Nekhludov. and then laid aside in favour of what seemed more important work to be completely rewritten and published in 1899 for the benefit of the Pasternak's illustrations to " Resurrection " see pages 19." "On Life " (also called "The Kreutzer Sonata. 29. interests and duties. All the complicated and troublesome management of the housekeeping and direction of household affairs is under her charge. a girl of exceptional talent. and activity to bear in every direction." "Life"). from a portrait painted in 1884 see page 33 Illustrations by H. in In addition to copying much of her father's particular works very hard. ." published " "" on Resurrection February 1902. attentive and hospitable. The parents. however. Invariably Tolstoy showed his approval of the clever realisation of his ideas. he was at work on the Popular Tales and Sketches which sold by millions or throughout Russia. the children were placed under the charge of young English governesses engaged directly from' London. in the preface of the French edition of the novel from which it may be gathered that the drawings in 29 and 34 very closely with Tolstoy's own conception of the appearance of his It was the artist's usual custom to submit each design on its completion to the eminent novelist for his opinion. Tolstoy believed that these principles were nowhere so generally accepted as in England. one by H." "The Kingdom of God is Within You. and daughters see page 12 Tolstoy and his eldest daughter Tatyana see page 30 Countess Tolstoy is an excellent housewife. The greatest possible liberty was allowed to the children. and this she does without help. bonnes.
AUG26 888 UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO LIBRARY .