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UNIT STRUCTURE 1. Learning Objectives 2. Introduction 3. Formation of the Committee 4. Major Proposal of the Committee as a National Scheme of Education 5. Suggestions of the Sargent Committee 1. Pre-primary Education 2. Primary or Basic Education 3. Secondary Education 4. University Education 5. Technical and Vocational Education 6. Other Suggestions 6. Evaluation of the Sargent Report 7. Implementation of the Recommendations 8. Let Us Sum Up 9. Further Readings 10. Answers to Check Your Progress 11. Possible Questions 12. References
After going through this unit, you will be able to: Expalin the reason for appointing the Sargent Committee in 1944
Illustrate the structure of Education Proposed in the Report Describe the Suggestions made by the Committee in different aspects of education. Evaluate the Recommendations, and Familiar with the Measures taken by the Government to implement the resolutions.
In the previous unit we have discussed Gandhiji’s Wardha Scheme of Basic Education, 1937. Before that, the reports of the various committees and commissions suggested significant educational reforms in regard to national development. Government of India resolutions, 1913 was followed by Sadler Commission’s Report of 1917, and the Hartog Committee Report in 1929 and then by the Wardha Scheme, 1937. Keeping in view the reforms suggested by all these reports, the British Government had begun to understand the seriousness of the situation in the area of education. Ultimately in the middle forties the Government of India realised that it could no longer be indifferent to the problem of education of the Indian people and there was the need of bringing about radical reform in all aspects of Indian education. As the British became hopeful of its victory in the Second World War, it directed its attention to do something for the Indian people in the field of education. So it advised Sir John Sargent, the Educational Advisor to the Government of India, to prepare a comprehensive scheme of education for educational reform in India. In this unit we will discuss the major points of recommendations regarding pre-primary, primary, secondary, university and other aspects of education in our country as proposed in the Sargent Report, 1944. We will also evaluate the recommendations of this report.
FORMATION OF THE COMMITTEE
It has been mentioned above that Sir John Sargent, the Educational Adviser to the Government of India was asked to prepare a comprehensive report on education. For the purpose, the government formed a Committee of Enquiry with 22 members. The report of the committee was submitted to the Central Advisory Board of Education (CABE) in 1944. The Board accepted it in ‘toto’ and recommended its enforcement. The scheme was known as ‘Sargent Scheme of Education’ as it was prepared by John Sargent. It is also known as ‘Report by the Central Advisory Board of Education’ and also as the plan for post-war educational reconstruction in India. This scheme has a historical importance as it was the first attempt to develop a National System for Education in India. The report of the Committee consisted of 12 different chapters covering from preprimary to university education. It was a full fledged educational plan for the future educational reconstruction in India. The report had diagnosed every problem critically and had given definite and clearcut solutions. It deals with almost all types of education for all classes of people in India. This was the first report that present a comprehensive picture of education in our country at that period of time. The report is undoubtedly a valuable educational document. Hence, it deserves a careful study. It must be mentioned here that this plan is not entirely a new plan. It is rather the summery of different resolutions, minutes and proceedings of the CABE since 1936.
Educational provision be made for the physically and mentally handicapped children. . The creation of department of Education in the centre and in the states. SUGGESTIONS OF THE SARGENT COMMITTEE We have already discussed the structure of the committee and a broad outline of its policy decisions regarding the different aspects of education. agricultural and art education for full time and part time students. The liquidation of adult illiteracy and the development of public library system in about 20 years. Fill in the blanks— a) The Sargent Committee constituted of ___________ members. b) The report of the committee contains ___________ chapters. High school education for six years for selected children between the years 11—17. It had made certain policy decisions. Full provision for the proper training of teachers. Now we will discuss the suggestions of the committee one by one. The creation of employment bureaus. Provision be made for social and recreational activities. e) Degree course for 3 years after completion of _________ education. The organisation of compulsory physical education. the standard of Indian education will be made equivalent to that of England. g) ___________ is to be used as a medium of instruction in all high schools. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. They may be outlined below— Pre-primary education for children between 3 to 6 years of age. girls schools are to teach domestic science. d) Pre-primary education for children ___________ years. the implications of which may have far reaching consequences. f) Educational provision be made for physically and mentally ___________children. Degree course for three years beginning after the higher secondary examination for selected students Technical.MAJOR PROPOSAL OF THE COMMITTEE AS A NATIONAL SCHEME OF EDUCATION Let us discuss the major proposal of the committee— The report had maintained that in a period of not less than 40 years. commercial. c) The Sargent report is also known as ___________. The use of mother tongue is to be used as the medium of instruction in all high schools. compulsory and free primary or basic education for all children between the ages 6—11 (junior basic) and 11—14 (senior basic). Universal.
In the urban areas where there are sufficient numbers of children. 18. Only such student should be sent to senior basic school who cannot continue their studies for high schools. official attention was given towards the pre-primary stage of education. The major suggestions of the report in this regard may be summarised below— Provision should be made for pre-primary education in the form of nursery schools for the success of National Scheme of Education. Regarding primary education the scheme contains the following suggestions— Basic schools should be divided into two categories— Junior Basic Schools and Senior Basic Schools. . 3. Children from 3—6 years of age should be admitted in these schools.000/. Certificates should be issued after the completion of the studies. there should be one teacher for every 30 students. Basic or Primary Education The report has adopted the scheme of basic education with some modifications. Teaching of English has not been given any place in junior basic schools. 40. In senior basic schools there should be one teacher for every 25 students. The principle of education through craft was advocated but it did not agree with the idea that the things manufactured by the students should meet the expenses of the education. The basic aim of these schools should be to impart social experience and education of general behaviour rather than giving formal education. But in the senior basic stage the provincial Governments were authorised to take final decision in this regard. Instead of external examination.Pre Primary Education For the first time in India.for ten lakh people. Senior basic schools should be for children of 11—14 years of age. It was estimated that the pre-primary education will require annually Rs. The nursery schools may be attached to junior basic schools in the rural areas. which gave theofficial recognition to Gandhiji’s Basic Education. In the junior basic schools. nursery schools should have separate existence. there should be internal examinations. Junior basic stage should be from 6—11 years of age and education in these schools should be compulsory for all. Pre-primary education should be free.
.. High School Education Let us discuss the view of the Committee in respect of High school education... What is pre-primary education? ................................................................. What are the subjects recommended for girls? ........................... ................... What should be the student teacher ratio in primary school? ..... should be sent for secondary schools.............................................. .......... ....... 6........... The medium of instruction should be the mother tongue of the pupils..................................... Provision should be made for physical education and organised game for children.......................................................................... Mention the age level of pre-primary schools........... Basic schools should be started only when suitable trained teachers are available Suitable courses for girls such as..... laundry work.................. Students below the age of 11 should not be allowed to enter these schools.................................. cookery........................ Their abilities....... needle work................... 5.............................................. aptitudes and interests should be borne in mind while giving them admission............................... CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 2...................... high school education should not be considered simply as a preliminary to university education but as a stage complete in itself............. In these schools they should not be allowed to leave schools before this age............................. child care and first aid should be introduced................per month..... ................ 20/.............................................. The duration of high school education should be six years and the age group is 11—16 years............. The suggestions of the committee regarding high school education may be summarised below— Only those students.................................. .............. handicraft............................... who are well above the average ability and have exceptional aptitude for higher studies.... 3.............. 4......................................... No teacher should receive less than Rs............... A Central Agency should be established in each province for the disposal of marketable articles produced in schools......................................... Students have to study at least upto the age of 14 years.......... In the opinion of the Sargent Committee................. What are the categories of primary schools? .................. A standing committee of the Central Advisory Board of Education should be appointed to watch the new education experiments carried on in the provinces....
Fee shall be charged from the students for receiving education of this age but 50% of the pupils will be provided with free studentship. The medium of instruction in all high schools should be the mother tongue of the pupils. a large number of incapable students get entry into the universities. The aim of education should be to make the boys self dependent and able to stand on their legs. University Education We are already familiar with the suggestions given by the committee regarding pre-primary. Indian universities do not fully satisfy the requirements of a national system of education. There is no systematic attempt to adjust the output to the capacity of the employment market to absorb it. It has also been recommended to give scholarships to the poor students so that they may not be deprived of this stage of education. The Sargent Committee pointed out the defects of university education in the following way— University education has failed to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community as a whole. The high school should be of two types— Academic and Technical and curriculum should be prepared accordingly. The Committee has offered the following suggestions for the improvement of university education— The duration of degree course should be of 3 years. let us discuss what suggestion it has offered for university education. primary and high school education. In the absence of suitable selection machinery. A great deal of importance is attached to examinations. The Academic high schools will impart instruction in the Arts and pure sciences. . while the Technical high school will provide the training the applied sciences and Industrial and Commercial subjects. Art and Music should form an integral part of the curriculum in both and all girls should take a course in Domestic Science. Probably nowhere among the universities of the world is there so large a proportion of failures in examinations as in Indian universities. lThe curriculum should be diversified as far as practicable in order to provide a wide range of choices. English should be a compulsory second language.
........... What are the defects of university education? ...... ...............The present intermediate course should be abolished............................................. Adequate financial assistance must be provided for poor students.... 8................................ Lower Category of Workers : This category includes foreman......... It suggested for the full time and part time instructions in order to fulfil the requirement of all the different categories of the skilled hands....................... ................................................................... 10....... 9................ They will have their preliminary training in a Technical high school and then will pass from Technological Department of some university or from full time Technological Institute and will serve as Chief Executive............................................ The report divides the workers into four categories— Higher Category of Workers : According to the Sargent Report there was a need for higher category of workers for the industrial and vocational fields....... .... Research Workers etc. Skilled Craftsman: Skilled craftsman are very much needed for successful execution of industrial and occupational schemes................................... ................................................................................................................... The standard of university education must be raised......................... ........................ They should be given training in the Technical high school for Diploma or Certificate Course................................... Emphasis should be given on establishing a high standard in post-graduate studies and in pure applied research. charge-hand and other ordinary executive and administrative officers...... The tutorial system should be widely extended for closer personal contacts between teachers and students................................................ Students should have passed Technical high school course or Senior basic or Junior Technical or Industrial ..... Competent teachers should be appointed in the university and steps should be taken to improve the conditions of service including remuneration... For coordination in the activities of the different universities an All India Organisation like University Grants Committee of England should be set up.................................... The condition of admission must be revised so that capable students can take the advantage of the university course.. The first year of the course should be transferred to high school and the second year to the universities........................................ Mention the type of high schools and their functions...................................... Technical and Vocational Education Sargent Committee laid a good deal of stress on technical and vocational education........................................................................... What are suggestions of the committee regarding improving the standard of university education? .......................................................... What type of students should be admitted in high schools? .................. CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 7.........................................
Education of the Physically Handicapped : Provision for special education should be made for physically handicapped and mentally retarded children. it is necessary to use visual aids. Training of the teachers : There should be an army of trained teachers for the rapid progress of education and the successful execution of the plans of education. Minor treatment can be provided in school clinics. For graduate teachers Sargent Committee recommended to impart training to them by training colleges. Employment Bureaus : The scheme made the following recommendations in this regard in order to provide the students with requisite employment— (i)Under the control of the education department a number of employment bureaus should be established. Every student should be medically checked up and if any defect is found appropriate follow-up measures should be taken. (b) advise the outgoing students about openings for employment. It is very much essential for the success of the ideal democratic way of life. Semi skilled or unskilled workers : Students who have studied in Senior basic middle schools with some basic craft. In order to make adult education interesting. Free training should be provided in training colleges and schools. the report proposes to revise the scales of pay to be given to all grades of teachers. Adult Education : The role of adult education. Here the educands may engage themselves in such productive activities that may be of use to them in the future life. according to report is to make every possible member of a state an effective and efficient citizen. (ii)Universities should have their own employment bureaus. Separate classes should be organised for boys and girls between ten to sixteen years of age. In order to attract proper type of persons to the teaching profession. These persons should get facilities both for continuing their general education and for improving their skill. . mechanical aids such as pictures. B. For the training of undergraduate teachers. Physical training should be compulsory. folk dancing. (iii) These bureaus should discharge the following functions— (a) contact with educational institutions. Refresher courses should be started for all the categories of teachers. Teachers for technical and industrial education may be taken to the institutions for the purpose and other industrial courses. shall be admitted to this category of workers. radio. there should be three types of training institutions— pre-primary. The normal age range of adult education should be 10 plus to 40. cinema. music etc. particularly to the teachers at the primary stage who are paid very low salaries at present. charts. Other Suggestions The report has touched some other branches of education also. E. C. These are as follows: A. The problem of adult education in India connotes adult literacy. D. This scheme envisaged two types of education for adults— general education and technical or vocational education. Health Education : The Sargent report suggested that in order to look after the health of school Children health committee should be set up in schools. gramophone.school course. basic and high school.
.................. .............. The chief merits of this report are discussed below— This was the first comprehensive scheme embracing all aspects of education— pre-primary.... ...................................................................... The Sargent report had been the outcome of the experience of the British Government that in education.............. primary....................................... 12............... Technical............................................ Recommendations were made for the improvement of the salary scales and the service conditions of the teachers... (b) Education for physically and mentally handicapped.................... it recommended the provision of equal opportunities to all the students at various stages of education.................................................... due importance was given to the teaching profession..... CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 11................ .......... The report indicated that the implementation of the whole scheme would involve a total expenditure of Rs........................................(c) contact with employers and arrangement for trade apprentices.... (c) Employment Bureau............ high school and university education......... Administration of Education: For proper implementation of the new schemes of education at all India level a strong department of education should be set at the centre......... three hundred crores every year.......... ...................... Now we will make an attempt to evaluate the report..... vocational and professional.................................. The state should also have their department of education....................... ................ .... Name the categories of workers mentioned in the Sargent Report................................. ... Thirdly......................................................................... More cooperation and coordination needed between the centre and the states for successful implementation of a National System of Education................. F................ India was behind the other advanced countries of the world......................................................................... .......................................... all types of education had been given attention by way of providing useful suggestions for their improvement........................... ............ Secondly. EVALUATION OF THE SARGENT REPORT We have already discussed the suggestions given by the Sargent report in all aspects of education in India..................................... Write short notes on— (a) Adult Education.....
The report outlined an educational development in India which would require 40 years to be implemented. An acceptable plan of educational development in India had been spread over a much shorter range of time. This time limit did not satisfy any ardent educationist. It had been pointed out that it would be wrong to call it a national scheme of education because it was only a copy of the pattern practised in England. IMPLEMENTATION OF THE RECOMMENDATION It is necessary for us to see how the recommendations of the Sargent Committee was implemented. It was only a patch-work of the recommendations of different committees. The committee of polytechnic school and the All India Technical Education Committee were established in Delhi. This pattern could not serve as a model to India because the social. . for the first time the attention of the Government was drawn towards the education of the handicapped. colleges and universities was undemocratic. Fifthly. The proposal for selective admission in schools. According to the recommendations of the committee University Grants Committee was constituted in 1945 which later on became University Grants Commission in 1956. l It was decided that the scheme should be implemented within 16 years instead of 40 year. The Government of India accepted the recommendations of the report in principle and tried to implement some of them in the following manner— In 1945 an education department was established at the centre to increase administrative efficiency. Let us examine the shortcoming and defects of the report— The report is criticised on the ground that it was not an original report. not exceeding 15 years. According to the recommendations of the committee 40 crores of rupees were given to the provincial Governments for implementing certain aspects of the scheme in their areas. In 1946 these plans were made in some provinces. It foresaw the importance of the employment problem in the country and thought that education could be instrumental in solving it. political and economic conditions in the two countries are vastly different. Efforts were made for adult education and also for improving the economic condition of teachers. The aim of providing compulsory and free education to children between 6—11 years of age was accepted. Fourthly. The Provincial Governments were advised to make five year plans for education. the report gave importance on providing education in such a manner as to make one self depended.
....... The report had adopted the scheme to basic education with some modifications and divided the basic schools into two categories— junior and senior basic. In technical and vocational education the committee suggested for full time and part time instruction in order to fulfil the requirements of all different categories of the skilled workers..... Mention the merits and demerits of the Sargent report... craftsman for industrial occupations etc............................................................. The committee constituted of 22 members headed by John Sargent. the report suggested different measures to improve adult education............. ......... The report prepared by this committee is not entirely a new plan but the summary of resolutions............. the Committee suggested that these schools should be of two types— academic and technical....... For improving the condition..... competent teachers should be appointed and tutorial system should be extended for closer personal contact between the students and the teachers................................ Educational Advisor to the Government of India. ..... while the technical high school will provide training in industrial and commercial subjects.................. ... ............ such as................. Regarding university education the Report said that higher education had failed to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community and a large number of incapable students get entry into the universities due to lack of proper selection procedure.......... the condition of admission should be revised..... For the first time in the educational history of India the report paid attention towards pre-primary education and suggested that children from 3 to 6 years should be admitted in schools.................. A University Grants Committee should be established... Academic high schools will impart instruction in the Arts and pure science.............. minutes and proceedings of the Central Advisory Board of Education............. the report suggested that the standard of university education should be raised............ The curriculum should be diversified as far as possible and the aim of high school education should be to make the boys self-dependent and able to stand on their own legs...... research workers..... A great deal of importance had been attached to examinations and proportion of failure was very high.... We have evaluated the recommendation of the committee and discussed the merits and demerits towards the end of the unit and also how far the recommendations were implemented. foreman..CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 13.................. LET US SUM UP In the beginning of this unit we focused our attention on the formation of the Sargent Committee................. health education..................... As for high schools..... the training of teachers... Beside.................... ...... chief executive........ How far were the suggestions of the report implemented? Name a few suggestions which were implemented.. 14.................................................. For the first time the committee tried to develop a National System of Education for India....... education for physically and mentally handicapped and for establishing employment bureau etc..
lower category of workers includes foreman. the absence of suitable selection machinery. Agra. (f) Handicapped. (g) Mother tongue. 4. 11. 5.: History of Indian Education. industrial and commercial subjects. laundry work. skilled craftsman and semi skilled or unskilled workers. The age level for pre-primary education is 3-6 years. child care and first aid. (a) 22. 1996. (b) 12. handicrafts. (e) Higher secondary. The categories are— higher category of workers for serving as executives and research workers. S. needle work. The defects of the university education as pointed out by the Sargent committee were the failure of the university education to relate their activities to the practical needs of the community. ANSWERS TO CHECK YOUR PROGRESS 1. The high school should be of two types— Academic and Technical. while technical high school will provide training in applied sciences. P. L. MaCMillan India Ltd. & Nourellah. (d) 3-6.FURTHER READINGS Naike. Categories are— junior basic and senior basic. . 9. Only those students should be given admission in high schools who are well of the age group and have exceptional aptitude for higher studies. P. The suggestions of the committee regarding improving the standard of university education are— condition of admission must be revised. According to the Sargent committee there should be one teacher for every 30 students in junior basic and one teacher for every 25 senior basic schools. Ram Prasad & Sons. 10. 2. over importance on examination and large scale failures. 3. J. 8. 7. The Sargent Committee provided attention towards the pre-primary education for the first time in India. Rawat. 6. closer personal contact between teachers and students to be established and steps should be taken to importance the service condition of the teacher and their recommendation. charge-hand and other ordinary and administrative officers. (c) Report by the central advisory board of education/plan for post war educational reconstruction. The subject recommended for girls are— cookery. The function of the Academic high school is to impart instruction in the Arts and Pure-Science. 1991.: A Student’s History of Education in India.. competent teachers should be appointed. Pre-primary education means nursery education meant for small children.
12. SECONDARY EDUCATION COMMISSION. On what ground has the report been criticised? How far were these recommendations implemented? 1952 6. 13. (c) The Sargent committee recommended the setting up of employment bureaus for students who would complete their education. Describe the proposals made by the Sargent Report on higher education. (b) The Sargent Report suggested that provision should be made for the education of the physically and mentally retarded children. salary and service conditions of teachers and including the education of the physically handicapped. 40 crores of rupees were given to the provincial governments for implementing the scheme. adult education. 1944. The Sargent report was the first comprehensive report on Indian education covering all aspects of education. India. What were the recommendations of the Sargent Scheme of Education with regard to primary and secondary education? On what has ground the scheme been criticised? Discuss the views of the Sargent Committee in regard to technical and vocational education. Ministry of Education. adult education and education for physically handicapped. 40 years time limit was too long for implementing any educational scheme and it was a copy of the pattern practised in England. In order to make adult education interesting the use of audio-visual aids was also advocated . Training should be provided in productive activities so that it may help them in their future life. viii+308+charts Appointment . 15. 1953 Pp. An Education department was established at the centre. Therefore this pattern cannot be a model for India because the social political and economic conditions in the two countries are vastly different. But the scheme was criticised on several grounds such as it was not an original report. 1952-53 Report : Madras. It recommended the provision of equal opportunities to all students and due importance was given on the teaching profession. (a) Adult education meant for those in the age group of 10-40 years and both general and vocational education were prescribed. POSSIBLE QUESTIONS Outline the main recommendations of the Sargent Committee. The state governments and universities should have employment bureaus of their own. the University Grants Committee was constituted and a committee for polytechnic school as well as the All India Technical Education committee was established in Delhi. health education.
(i) The aims. Summary of Recommendations 1. it becomes necessary to re-examine carefully and study clearly the objectives which education at each stage should keep in view. dated 23rd September.ism necessitating the development among the people of a broad." In the Commission's opinion. are : (i) The capacity for clear thinking (allied to which is the capacity for clearness in speech and writing). national and secular outlook. the Government was asked : A. To suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement with particular reference to . Among these qualities. LAKSHMANASWAMI MUDALIAR Terms of Reference Under the Terms of Reference. to examine the prevailing system of Secondary Education in the country and suggest measures for its reorganization and improvement. Moreover. and (3) The absence of educational facilities needed for developing all aspects of the human personality and the neglect of cultural pursuits and activities. To enquire into and report on the present position of Secondary Education in India in all its aspects. A. 1952. the Commission recommended that secondary education should be reoriented to the following aims and objects : (a) Development of qualities essential for creative citizenship : This includes the development in the students of secondary schools of those habits. which are to be fostered through curricular and co-curricular activities in secondary schools. 14 COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS ON INDIAN EDUCATION On the basis of this analysis. attitudes and qualities of character which are essential for creative citizenship in a democratic society. . B. (ii) Its relationship to primary. and (iv) Other allied problems. 9-5/52-B-1. Chairman : DR.The Commission was appointed by the Government of India vide Resolution No. social and economic conditions change and new problems arise. organization and content of secondary education. this statement must take into account not only the facts of the existing situation but also the direction of its development and the nature and type of the social order that we envisage for the future to which education has to be geared.Aims and Objectives of Secondary Education The Commission have said in their report : "As political. the most outstanding and educationally relevant facts in the Indian situation were : (1) The adoption of the goals of democracy and social. basic and higher education. (iii) The inter-relation of secondary schools of different types. (2) The extreme poverty of the country and urgency for promoting its economic growth. F.
and (b) The Higher Secondary stage of four years. Pre-professional course : In the professional college a pre. Admission to professional colleges : Admission to professional colleges should be open to those who have completed the Higher Secondary course. (c) Development of personality : This implies cultivation of the students' literary. . they may be given in the degree colleges where facilities exist. on completion of the Secondary stage. till professional colleges are able to provide for such courses. artistic and cultural interests for a fuller development of their personalities. First degree course : As a consequence of the preceding recommendations.professional course of one year should be provided for the students. Pre-university course for those who pass out of the high school : For those who pass out of High School there should be provision for a pre-university course of one year. the existing High Schools and the Higher Secondary Schools should function on the lines laid down. 2. cooperation. education should commence after a four or five-year period of Primary or Junior Basic Education and should include : (a) Middle or Senior Basic or Junior Secondary stage of three years. Proposed Pattern of School Education Under the new organized structure. craft. one year of the present Intermediate being included in it. during which period the scheme of students' studies should be planned with due regard to the needs of the degree or the professional course to be taken by the students. preferably in the professional colleges themselves. This means the provision of subjects like art. social sensitiveness and tolerance. (d) The training for leadership : The training of persons who. (iv) A respect for the dignity and worth of ever individual. would be able to assume the responsibilities of leadership at the intermediate level. the first degree course in the University should be of three years' duration. but. music. (iii) A receptivity to new ideas. (v) The ability to live harmoniously with one's fellowmen through the cultivation of discipline. as a transitory measure. Transition stage : During the transitional stage. dancing and hobbies in the secondary school curricula. or have taken up the one year's pre-university course. (b) The promotion of vocational efficiency : This involves not only the creation of a new attitude to work and an appreciation of the dignity of manual labour but also the development of the students' technical skill and efficiency through greater emphasis on craft and productive work and the diversification of courses at the secondary stage.(ii) The scientific attitude of mind. Replacement of intermediate stage : The present Intermediate stage should be replaced by the Higher Secondary stage which should be of four years' duration. training in methods of study at college and the study of English so long as it continues to be the medium of instruction at the university. and special emphasis should be placed on the quickening of intellectual interests. and (vi) A sense of true patriotism.
School Hours and Admissions Latitude in School Hours to Suit Community Activities Considerable latitude should be given to schools to arrange their school hours in such a way as not to interfere with the activities of the community and the general and occupational conditions prevailing in the locality. one of which being the mother tongue or the regional language.supporting. one of the days being a half-day when the teachers and students might meet informally and work together on various extracurricular and social projects. State or Central assistance should be given to them on a gradually diminishing scale. there should be close cooperation between the Centre and the States. the school should work generally for six days in the week. Holidays and vacations : School holidays need not be identical with public holidays as declared by the Government. more particularly in certain rural areas. School day-school week : As a rule. 3. 5. and normally during the year there should be a summer vacation of two months and two breaks of 10 to 15 days at suitable periods during the year. Language at the high and higher secondary stage At the High and Higher Secondary stage. Centre's responsibility for reorganization of secondary education : The Centre should assume a certain amount of direct responsibility for the contemplated reorganization of Secondary Education and give financial aid for it. subject to the provision that for linguistic minorities special facilities should be made available on the lines suggested by the Central Advisory Board of Education.Methods of Teaching .curricular activities. English and Hindi should be introduced at the end of the Junior Basic stage. Additional residential schools : A number of residential schools should be established. Such schools should gradually become self. Medium of instruction should be the mother-tongue or the regional language : The mother-tongue or the regional language should generally be the medium of instruction throughout the Secondary School stage. Cooperation between Centre and States : In matters connected with reorganization and improvement of COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 15 Secondary Education. subject to the principle that no two languages should be introduced in the same year. the working hours per week should be at least 35 periods of about 45 minutes each. every child should be taught at least two languages. Residential day schools : Residential Day Schools should be established in suitable centres to provide greater opportunities for teacher-pupil contact and for developing recreational and extra.Place of public schools : Public schools should continue to exist for the present and the pattern of education given in them should be brought into reasonable conformity with the general pattern of national education. to provide proper opportunities for the education of children and particularly to meet the needs of children whose education suffers at present owing to the exigencies of service of their parents. 4. the total number of working day in a school should not be less than two hundred. but during the transitional period of the next five years. at least two languages should be studied. Language and Medium of Instruction Languages at the middle school stage : During the Middle School stage.
Inculcation of values. Activity and project methods : The emphasis in teaching should shift from verbalism and memorization to learning through purposeful. Emphasis on clear thinking and expression : In the teaching of all. therefore.Chancellor of the region. a member of the Public Service Commission of the region concerned. form part of the programme in every school subject. Instruction to suit different student abilities : A well thought. Moral and Religious Instruction Religious instruction : Religious instruction may be given in schools only on a voluntary basis and outside the regular school hours. two distinguished educationists and the Director of Education. They should. a Vice. and more on training students in the techniques of study and methods of acquiring knowledge through personal effort and initiative. in particular. Sale proceeds for award of scholarship : A fund should be maintained from the amount realized from the sale of publications which may be utilized for awarding scholarships and providing books and certain other amenities for school children . Training pupils in techniques of study : Teaching methods should aim less at imparting the maximum quantum of knowledge possible. concrete and realistic situations and. Expression Work of different kinds must. Group projects and activities : Students should be given an adequate opportunity to work in groups and to carry out group projects and activities so as to develop in them the qualities necessary for group life and cooperative work. endeavour to create in the students a genuine attachment to work and a desire to do it as efficiently. The Committee should function as an independent body. for this purpose.out attempt should be made to adopt methods of instruction to the needs of individual students as much as possible so that dull. 6. subjects special stress should be placed on clear thinking and clear expression both in speech and writing. preferably a Judge of the High Court. average and bright students may all have a chance to progress at their own pace. such instruction being confined to the children of the particular faith concerned and given with the consent of the parents and the managements. a headmaster or headmistress in the State. honestly and thoroughly as possible. the principles of Activity Method and Project Method should be assimilated in school practice. Teaching methods should provide opportunities for students to learn actively and to apply practically the knowledge that they have acquired in the classroom. but also at inculcating desirable values and proper attitudes and habits of work in the students. a high-power Textbook Committee should be constituted which should consist of a high dignitary of the 16 COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS ON INDIAN EDUCATION judiciary of the State. 7. Textbooks High-power textbook committee for quality text-books : With a view to improving the quality of textbooks prescribed. attitudes and work habits: The methods of teaching in schools should aim not merely at the imparting of knowledge in an efficient manner.
" (a) External examination-introduction of objective type tests : The number of external examinations should be reduced and the element of subjectivity in the essaytype tests should be minimized by introducing objective tests and also by changing the type of questions. the results of the school tests in subjects not included in the public examination as well as the gist of the school records. Discouraging frequent changes in textbooks : Frequent changes in textbooks and books prescribed for study should be discouraged. Pupils assess education in terms of success in examinations. definite textbooks be prescribed for each class to ensure proper gradation. Language textbook should be prescribed : In the case of languages. printing and format of the book. (b) School records for assessment of all-round progress : In order to find out the pupil's all-round progress and to determine his future. 8. illustration. foster a dull uniformity rather than originality. . encourage the average pupil to concentrate too rigidly upon too narrow a field and thus help him to develop wrong values in education. (c) In the final assessment of the pupils due credit should be given to the internal tests and the school records of the pupils. the Education Commission said : "The examinations today dictate the curriculum instead of following it.Criteria for textbooks : The Textbook Committee should lay down clear criteria for the type of paper. recognizing the importance of the external examination to the individual pupils. (f) The Certificate awarded should contain. (e) One public examination-final comprehensive certificate : There should be only one public examination at the completion of the Secondary School course. are constrained to relate their teaching to an examination which can test only a narrow field of the pupil's interests and capacities and so inevitably neglect the qualities which are more important though less tangible. Libraries of blocks of illustrations : The Central and State Governments should maintain libraries of good illustrations which could be loaned to Textbook Committee and publishers in order to improve the standard of book illustration. however. Teachers. besides the results of the public examination in different subjects. Examinations and Evaluation Reviewing the defects of examinations at the Secondary stage. (d) Symbolic marking to replace numerical marking The system of symbolic rather than numerical marking should be adopted for evaluating and trading the work of the pupils in external examinations and in maintaining the school records. a proper system of school records should be maintained for every pupil indicating the work done by him from time to time and his attainments in the different spheres. A range of books should be recommended : Single textbooks should not be prescribed for every subject of study. hamper the proper treatment of subjects and sound methods of teaching. prevent any experimentation. Textbooks should not offend or indoctrinate : No book prescribed as a textbook or as a book for general study should contain any passage or statement which might offend the religious or social susceptibilities of any section of the community or might indoctrinate the minds of the young students with particular political or religious ideologies. but a reasonable number of books which satisfy the standards laid down be recommended leaving the choice to the schools concerned.
9. assign lands to schools for playgrounds. etc. 11. research should be carried on to improve functional efficiency and to adjust them to Indian conditions.(g) The system of compartmental examinations should be introduced at the final public examination.tax : Contributions for the development of secondary education should be exempted from the operation of the Income-tax Act. in designing buildings for schools. Surplus endowment funds for education : Surplus funds from the religious and charitable endowments should be diverted to educational purposes. care should be taken to see that an area of not less than 10 sq. An Expert Committee should be appointed to lay down carefully the amount and the kind of equipment required for various types of diversified courses and workshops. wherever possible. 10. Exemption from customs duty for equipment and books : The educational institutions which have to obtain necessary scientific apparatus. Educational Finance Contributions to secondary education to be exempted from income. Experimentation in Schools Schools to be encouraged to experiment on new methods : In order to popularize progressive teaching methods and facilitate their introduction. workshop appliances and books for school library should be exempted from customs duty. ft. the optimum number in the whole school should be 500 while the maximum should not exceed 750. . COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 17 Optimum strength of class and school : The optimum number of boys to be admitted to any class should be 30 and the maximum should not in any case exceed 40. (h) Board of secondary education to be set up There should be a Board of Secondary Education consisting of not more than 25 members with the Director of Education as its chairman to deal with all matters of education at the Secondary stage and to lay down general policies. so that they may try out new methods freely without being fettered by too many departmental restrictions.. "Experimental" and "Demonstration" schools should be established and given special encouragement where they exist. furniture and equipment : In the type design of schools as well as the furniture. Buildings and Equipment School buildings-space per pupil : Normally. Amount bequeathed for educational purposes to be exempted from duty : The amount bequeathed to public institutions for general educational purposes in the will of a deceased person should not be subject to any duty by the Centre and the whole of it should be appropriated to the educational purpose. is provided per student in the classroom. Research required on school buildings. Land for educational purposes : The State Governments and the Centre should. buildings or agricultural farms and other necessary purposes without any charge. A sub-committee of the Board should deal with the conduct of examinations.
13. 18 COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS ON INDIAN EDUCATION The Centre should take up the responsibility of opening in different regions centres of training for Guidance Officers and Career Masters to which each State may send a member of teachers or other suitable persons for training. Guidance officers and career masters training : The Services of trained Guidance Officers and Career Masters should be made available gradually and in an increasing measure to all educational institutions. Rates of fees : The scales of fees fixed by the Management of a school should be subject to approval by the Department of Education. special facilities for the study of Home Science should be made available in all girls' schools and co-educational or mixed schools. 12. while during the period of training all the student-teachers should be given suitable stipends by the State. the teachers who are already in service should be given the same salary which they were getting. Guidance and Counselling Importance of educational guidance : Educational guidance should receive much greater attention on the part of the educational authorities. Fees and Freeships Free studentship : The States or the Centre should provide for certain free studentships in them (public schools) to be given on the basis of merit to select students. A Committee should be appointed when necessary by the Department of Education to go into the question of levying a uniform scale of tuition and other fees and all accounts of the school should be subject to audit by the Department. nature and significance of various occupations and industries. Separate schools for girls : Effort should be made by State Governments to open separate schools for girls wherever there is demand for them. 14. 15. Health and Physical Education .Educational institutions should be exempted. films should be prepared to show the nature of the work in various industries and this should be supplemented by actual visits. Girls' Education Facilities for home science in girls' schools : While no distinction need be made between education imparted to boys and girls. Facilities to be provided in co-educational schools Definite conditions should be laid down in regard to coeducational or mixed schools to satisfy the special needs of girl students and women members of the teaching staff. No fees to be levied-stipends to student-teachers : No fees should be charged in training colleges. Films on occupations and industries : In order to broaden the pupil's understanding of the scope. from property tax : All educational institutions and the grounds attached thereto should be exempted from the levy of property taxes.
16. by opening new colleges. should be carried out in all schools. Records of physical activities : Full records of physical activities of students must be maintained. . and the school children should thus be trained to appreciate the dignity of manual labour. School libraries vis-a-vis public libraries : Where there are no separate public libraries. A thorough medical examination of all pupils. every Secondary School should have such a library. and necessary follow-up treatment where necessary.School medical services-Follow-up treatment : A properly organized School Medical Service should be built up in all States. Physical education teachers to teach physiology and hygiene : Teachers of physical education should be associated with the teaching of subjects like physiology and hygiene and given the same status as other teachers with similar qualifications. Teachers should participate in physical activities : All teachers below the age of 40 should actively participate in many of the physical activities of students and thus make them a lively part of the school programme. Teachers to be trained in first aid and health principles : Some of the teachers should be trained in first aid and general principles of health so that they may cooperate intelligently with the medical staff. School and sanitation of community : The school should assist where possible. as far as possible.equipped school library is absolutely essential for the efficient working of every educational institution and for encouraging literacy and cultural interests in students. Nutritional standards in residential schools : Proper nutritional standards should be maintained in hostels and residential schools. Physical activities-Adapted to individual capacity Physical activities should be made to suit the individual and his capacity for physical endurance. the school libraries should. Physical education to be comprehensive : The training in physical education. who have love for books and an understanding of students' interests. Training in library work : Trained librarians. class libraries and subject libraries should also be utilized for this purpose. make their facilities available to the local public and all public libraries should have a special section for children and adolescents. should be comprehensive enough to include all aspects of health education. necessary steps should be taken to produce textbooks as well as books of general reading which are distinctly superior in quality to the books at present available. Training of physical education teachers : The existing facilities for training of teachers of physical education should be expanded by increasing the seats in the existing colleges. where necessary. School Libraries and Reading Habits Importance of school libraries : As the proper use of a well. in the maintenance of sanitation of the area. and by reorganizing some of the institutions as All India Training Centres to which aid may be given both by the Centre and the State. should be provided in all Secondary Schools and all teachers should be given some training in the basic principles of library work. in the training colleges as well as through refresher courses. Production of general reading books : In order to improve general standards of work in schools.
18. those who teach technical subjects should be graduates in the subjects concerned with the . Minimum conditions to be fulfilled : Managements should obtain prior approval of the Director of Education before opening schools and the approval should not be given unless the minimum conditions prescribed have been scrupulously fulfilled..officio member. Requirements of staff. Sections in each class : The number of sections in each class should be limited and before any increase in the number of sections is made. with the Headmaster as an ex. Qualification of teachers : Teachers working in High Schools should be graduates with a degree in education. should be definitely laid down.. Every management should be required to draw up definite rules of service wherein the conditions pertaining to salary. The management should satisfy the Department that COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 19 adequate accommodation and equipment. The normal period of probation for a trained teacher should be one year. Selection and appointment : A reasonable uniform procedure should be devised for the selection and appointment of teachers for all types of schools. accommodation and equipment for recognition : The managements should satisfy the Department that qualified staff is available and will be appointed in accordance with the rules laid down by the Department of Affiliation. every management should be required to provide an endowment and the income accruing from this should be shown in the receipts of the year. Opening of new schools-Rules to prevent unhealthy competition : In the interest of the general efficiency of schools. have been provided for the efficient running of the school. etc.17. Selection committee for private schools : In all privately managed institutions and in schools maintained by local boards there should be a small Selection Committee entrusted with the responsibility of recruiting the staff. the prior approval of the Department should be obtained. School Management and Recognition Recognition of schools : Recognition to schools should be given only on clearly defined conditions which will ensure their proper running and the maintenance of proper standards. leave. Managing boards of schools-Rules of service : The managing boards of all schools should be registered and should consist of a limited number of persons with the Headmaster as an ex-officio member. Teachers Guide material for teachers : Suitable literature for the guidance and inspiration of teachers should be produced by the Education Departments of all States and either the office of the Director of Education or one of the training colleges should be adequately equipped for the purpose. etc. rules should be framed preventing undue competition amongst neighbouring schools. No member of managing board should directly or indirectly interfere with the internal administration of the school. Endowment of schools : For proper running of a school.
Travel concessions and leave facilities. dismissal. They should be given free medical attention and treatment in hospitals and dispensaries. teachers in Higher Secondary Schools should possess higher qualifications. Opportunities should be provided on a generous scale for teachers to visit different institutions within the country and in special cases to go abroad on study leave for higher studies. Qualifications-Type of work. Free education to teachers' children : The children of teachers should be given free education throughout the school stage. Triple benefit scheme for teachers : In order to relieve teachers from anxieties about their own and their dependants' future which will affect the efficiency of their work. seminars. Uniform leave rules : Opportunities to visit institutions in India and abroad : The leave rules should. Private tuitions : Teachers' social and professional status : The practice of private tuitions by teachers should be abolished. Arbitration Boards to look into teachers' appeals Arbitration Boards or Committees should be established to look into the appeals and grievances of teachers and to consider matters relating to suspension. grades of pay : The teachers possessing the same qualifications and performing the same type of work should be treated on a par in the matter of grades of salary. etc. Cooperative housing scheme for teachers : Through a system of cooperative house-building societies. Persons in high public position should give special recognition to the teachers' social status and the dignity of their profession. pension-cum-provident-fund-cum-insurance. etc. as far as possible. somewhat similar to those prescribed in some universities for teachers of the Intermediate Colleges. irrespective of the type of institution in which they are working. the emoluments of the post should be made sufficiently attractive. for whom the period of training should . should be given travel concessions and leave facilities. should de introduced in all States. Recruitment of headmasters : In order to attract persons of the right type to the responsible position of the headmaster. Teacher training-Two types : There should be only two types of institutions for teacher training : (i) For those who have taken the School Leaving Certificate. Age of retirement : The age of retirement in the case of a physically fit and competent teacher may be extended to 60 with the approval of the Director of Education. be uniform for all educational institutions.necessary training for teaching it. teachers should be provided with quarters so as to enable them to live near the school and devote more time to the manysided activities of the school.. Special committee to review the scales. medical facilities : Teachers wishing to go to health resorts or holiday camps or to attend educational conferences. the system of Triple Benefit Scheme. of pay : A special committee should be set up to review the scales of pay of teachers of all grades and recommend such scales of pay that will meet in a fair and just manner the varying cost of living.
The optimum number of boys to be admitted to any class should be 30 and the maximum should not exceed 40 in any case. The open spaces available in cities must be conserved to be utilized as playgrounds by groups of schools and the State and Central Governments should prevent. through legislation. arrange refresher courses. be of one academic year. is provided per student in the classrooms. Recruitment of teachers : The teaching staff should not be limited to any particular caste or community but should. Training colleges and in-service responsibilities : The training colleges should. while the secondary grade training institutions should be under the control of a separate board appointed for the purpose. short intensive courses in special subjects. 4. 3. be so located that they are free from the noise and congestion of the city and necessary transport facilities should be made available for students. as far as possible. 19. etc. Secondary schools should be established in rural areas in central places with sufficient population which are easily accessible to the surrounding villages.20 COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS ON INDIAN EDUCATION be two years. as far as possible. practical training in workshops and professional conferences. Normally. encroachment on them for industrial or commercial purposes or by housing societies. care should be taken to see that an area of not less than 10 sq. ft. quarters should be provided for teachers in rural areas as well as in urban areas to attract suitable persons to the profession and to facilitate development of a corporate community life in the schools. Quarters for teachers : So far as possible. 2. but extended as a long-term programme to two academic years. Recommendations of the Secondary Education Commission on School Buildings and Equipment 1. be recruited on a wide basis. Schools in urban areas should. The optimum number in the whole school should be 500. for the present. 7.. in designing buildings for schools. Teachers' training board for maintaining standard of teacher training : There should be a Teachers' Training Board for supervising and laying down the conditions necessary for the proper training of under-graduates and for suggesting. for the consideration of the universities. while the maximum should not exceed 750. . 5. as a normal part of their work. improvements that may be needed in the training of graduates. and (ii) For graduates for whom the training may. research should be carried on to improve functional efficiency and to adjust them to Indian conditions. In the type design of schools as well as the furniture. The teacher-trainees should receive training in one or more of the various extra-curricular activities. The schools constructed in future should provide facilities for the introduction of diversified courses. 6. Graduate teacher-training institutions should be recognized by and affiliated to the universities which should grant the degrees.
Art. Cooperative stores should be established in all schools where books.. to be chosen as an Inspector. quarters should be provided for teachers in rural areas as well as urban areas to attract suitable persons to the profession and to facilitate development of a corporate community life in the schools. and (iii) Qualified staff of Training Colleges.8. In the initial stages. Supervision and Inspection of Schools Existing defects : The present system of inspection of schools was subjected to criticism by several witnesses. So far as possible. experience and other relevant qualifications are not duly emphasized. we suggest that 50% of such posts may be reserved for recruitment on this basis. and that Headmasters should likewise have a chance to serve as Inspecting Officers for short periods. (ii) Experienced Headmasters of High Schools. We recommend further that suitable persons from any of these categories may be appointed as Inspectors for a period of three to five years after which they may revert to their original posts. if not of resentment. We are of the view that a person. Music. behaved in such a critical and unsympathetic way that his visit was looked upon with some degree of apprehension. It was also stated that the number of schools entrusted to the care of an Inspector was too large and the range too wide for him to be able to acquaint himself with their work and appreciate their problems. We also recommend that for special subjects like Physical Education. or should have been a Headmaster of a High School for a minimum period of three years. This will enable them to appreciate the position of the Inspectors and to approach the problem of the schools with greater appreciation of the realities from their own experience. . Expert Committees should be appointed to lay down carefully the amount and the kind of equipment required for various types of diversified courses and workshops. that the time spent by the Inspector at any particular place was insufficient. In our view the true role of an Inspector-for whom we would prefer the term Educational Adviser-is to study the problems of each school. There was not enough time devoted to the academic side. In addition to direct recruitment the Inspectors should also be drawn from : (i) Teachers of 10 years' experience. to take a comprehensive view of all its functions and to help the teachers to carry out his advice and recommendations. should possess high academic qualifications (an Honours or Master's degree) and should have had teaching experience in schools for at least 10 years. 20. 10. It was pointed out that inspections were perfunctory. It is necessary that professors of Training Colleges should be conversant with the work done in the schools. stationery and other materials required by students are made available to them at cost price. It occasionally happened that the Inspector instead of being "the friend. there should be attached to the Director's Office certain experts in these subjects who COMMITTEES AND COMMISSIONS APPOINTED BY THE GOVERNMENT OF INDIA 21 will inspect the different schools periodically and help in improving the standards of teaching. 9. nor was he in a position to advice and guide the teaching staff in improving the work of the school. Domestic Science. and contacts between the inspectors and teachers were casual. etc. that the greater part of this time was taken up with routine work like checking accounts and looking into the administrative aspects of the school. Selection of Inspectorate : At present the Inspectorate is made up in diverse ways by different States. philosopher and guide" of the school. Once a person has been chosen for the Inspectorate he often continues in that line till the age of retirement. In some cases Inspectors are recruited directly to inspectional posts and while certain academic qualifications are prescribed.
the multiplicity of the subjects taught in the school by specially qualified staff now makes it very difficult for any single officer. the inspectors will be in a far better position to help in the improvement of the schools. What is suggested is nothing new-colleges affiliated to Universities are visited by commissions of experts who inspect their working. this duty will require a considerable amount of his time if he is to discharge these functions properly and efficiently. recommend that the aca. . accounts. We. etc. discuss their problems and report to the University. Through these full and frank discussions. We recommend that three persons may be chosen from senior teachers or headmasters to visit schools in the company of the Inspector and to spend two or three days with the staff. With the increase in the number and type of schools. For this purpose lie must have the assistance of a competent staff. The administrative duties relate to the annual inspection of records. the curriculum. however qualified. discussing with them all aspects of school life-the library and laboratory facilities. The time needed for the purpose has necessarily restricted the scope of his activities on the academic side.Duties of Inspectors : The duties of an Inspector are divisible into administrative and academic. Moreover. to inspect them thoroughly and to advise on all their problems. therefore. the use of the holidays and all other problems connected with school activities. office routine. the organization of extracurricular activities.demic work of the school should be thoroughly inspected by a panel of experts with the Inspector as Chairman and this should be done once in three years.
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