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PERGAMON

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer 31 "0888# 0036Ð0045

**Technical Note Turbulent heat transfer from a convex hemispherical surface to a round impinging jet
**

Dae Hee Lee \ Young Suk Chung\ Moo Geun Kim

School of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering\ Inje University\ 596 Oban`!Don`\ Kimhae\ Kynu`nam 510!638\ Korea Received 19 June 0886^ in _nal form 10 November 0886

Nomenclature A surface area of the gold _lm Intrex d pipe nozzle diameter D outer diameter of the hemisphere D:d hemisphere!to!nozzle diameter ratio f gold coating uniformity factor h heat transfer coe.cient I current across the gold _lm Intrex k thermal conductivity of air L:d dimensionless nozzle!to!surface distance Nu local Nusselt number ð hd:kŁ Nust stagnation point Nusselt number qc conduction heat loss qv net heat ~ux r:d dimensionless streamwise distance from the stag! nation point Re Reynolds number based on the nozzle diameter ð Ud:nŁ Ta ambient temperature Tj jet temperature Tw wall temperature of the convex surface U mean velocity of air at the nozzle exit V voltage across the gold _lm Intrex[ Greek symbols o emissivity of the liquid crystal and black paint coated surface "measured by infrared radiation thermometer] Minolta:4944# n kinematic viscosity of air s StefanÐBoltzmann constant[ 0[ Introduction As an e}ective method to enhance heat and mass trans! fer\ impinging jets have been widely used in a variety of

Corresponding author[ 9906Ð8209:87 ,08[99 Þ 0887 Elsevier Science Ltd[ All rights reserved PII] S 9 9 0 6 Ð 8 2 0 9 " 8 7 # 9 9 0 6 3 Ð 3

engineering applications such as cooling of hot steel plates\ tempering of glass\ drying of papers and textiles\ cooling of turbine blades and electronic components\ and manufacturing of TFT!LCD plate[ Numerous studies of the heat transfer and ~ow charac! teristics for the jet impingement on surfaces have been reported[ These studies have dealt with the e}ects of Reynolds number\ nozzle!to!surface distance\ nozzle geometry\ jet orientation\ multiple jets\ cross ~ow\ and impinging surface shape on the resulting ~ow and heat transfer[ Several review and summary papers on the impinging jet heat transfer have been published by Mar! tin ð0Ł\ Jambunathan et al[ ð1Ł\ and Viskanta ð2Ł[ Although many di}erent jet characteristics have been considered\ a great majority of impinging jet studies in the past were on the ~at surface[ However\ many engineering applications of jet impingement cooling on curved sur! faces may be encountered[ A few papers have studied the impinging jet heat transfer from the curved surface[ Chupp et al[ ð3Ł studied the heat transfer characteristics with an array of round jets impinging on a concave surface[ Thomann ð4Ł and Hrycak ð5Ł reported the total heat transfer on the concave surface is higher than on the ~at surface due to larger surface area especially for small nozzle!to!surface distances[ For a highly concave surface\ the optimum distance is less than for the equivalent ~at surface case[ With decreasing surface curvature and increasing nozzle!to!surface distance\ the heat transfer characteristics approach those for the ~at surface[ Gau and Chung ð6Ł investigatged the e}ects of surface cur! vature on the slot jet impingement heat transfer along semi!cylindrical concave and convex surfaces[ They observed a series of three!dimensional counterrotating vortices near the stagnation point region on the convex surface[ And they also found TaylorÐGortler vortices Ã initiated along the concave surface[ Yang et al[ ð7Ł inves! tigated jet impingement cooling on the semi!cylindrical

0037

Technical Note

concave surface with two di}erent nozzles "round edged nozzle and rectangular edged nozzle#[ In the present study\ the local Nusselt numbers are measured for an air jet issuing from a long straight pipe and impinging perpendicular on the convex hemi! spherical surface[ The experiments are made for Re 00 999Ð76 999\ L:d 1Ð09\ and D:d 09[5[ An electrically heated gold _lm Intrex "a very thin gold! coated polyester substrate sheet# is used to create a uni! form heat ~ux on the convex surface[ The temperature on the surface is measured using a thermochromic liquid crystal and a digital color image processing system[

1[ Test apparatus and analysis A schematic diagram of the test apparatus is shown in Fig[ 0[ The apparatus consists of a blower\ a heat exchanger\ an ori_ce ~ow meter\ a long straight pipe with an inner diameter of d 1[76 cm\ and a convex hemispherical surface[ The development length!to!diam! eter ratio of 40 results in a fully developed ~ow at the nozzle exit[ A heat exchanger is used to maintain the jet temperature at the nozzle exit within 29[1>C of the ambient temperature[ The test model consists of a 2[4 mm thick and 29[3 cm diameter Plexiglas convex hemi! sphere to which three 37 cm long strips "one 1[4 cm strip in the middle as a main heater and two 0[4 cm wide strips on both sides as guard heaters# of the gold _lm Intrex "a gold!coated polyester substrate sheet# are glued[ An air brush is used to apply _rst the micro!encapsulated ther!

mochromic liquid crystal and then black backing paint on the Intrex surface[ A digital color image processing system is used to quantitatively determine the tem! perature corresponding to a particular color of liquid crystal[ The measurement technique in this study\ described by Lee et al[ ð8\ 09Ł\ provides a method for determining the surface isotherms using liquid crystals[ By electrically heating a very thin gold coating on the Intrex\ an essentially uniform wall heat ~ux condition is established[ The heat ~ux can be adjusted by changing the current through the Intrex\ which changes the surface temperature[ Under the constant heat ~ux condition\ an isotherm on the Intrex surface corresponds to a contour of a constant heat transfer coe.cient[ The local heat transfer coe.cient at the position of the particular color being observed is calculated from h qv :"Tw −Tj # "0#

where the net heat ~ux qv is obtained by subtracting the heat losses from the total heat ~ux through the Intrex^ i[e[ qv

3 3 fIV:A−os"T w −T a #−qc [

"1#

The ratio of the local electrical heating to the average heating\ f\ is a measure of the uniformity of the gold coating on the Intrex[ Baughn et al[ ð00Ł found the uni! formity to be as high as 87) when the test section of the Intrex is small and selected from the middle of a roll where the gold!coating is most uniform\ which has been the case for the present experiment[ Therefore\ we assume f ¼ 0 for the heat ~ux calculation\ but f is maintained in equation "1# because it contributes to the overall Nusselt

Fig[ 0[ Schematic diagram of the test apparatus for the jet impingement on the convex hemispherical surface[

Technical Note Table 0 Nusselt number uncertainty analysis xi f o qc Tw Tj A I V d Value 0[9 9[8 9 "W:m1# 24[58 ">C# 01[86 ">C# 9[05 "m1# 9[072 "A# 30[5 "V# 17[6 "mm# dxi 9[91 9[94 3[47 9[19 9[04 7[2×09−4 6[66×09−3 9[014 9[94 2[84)

0038

0

dxi 1Nu ×099 ")# Nu 1xi

1

1[51 1[9 0[15 0[04 9[75 9[55 9[45 9[28 9[10

the jet centerline velocity from the initial centerline vel! ocity is not only small\ but the turbulent intensity reaches roughly a maximum value in that region[ Correlations of Nust in terms of the Reynolds number and the nozzle!to!surface distance are plotted in Figs 2 and 3 and obtained as follows] For 1 ¾ L:d ³ 7\ Nust scatter of 9[5)[ For 7 ¾ L:d ¾ 09\ Nust scatter of 9[0)[ 0[03"Re# 9[37 "L:d#9[98 with a 0[03"Re# 9[43 "L:d#−9[44 with a

Total Nu uncertainty] dNu:Nu

number uncertainty "Table 0#[ The conduction loss\ qc\ through the back of the plate is small compared to the surface heating and is assumed to be zero[ However\ it is included in the equation because it also contributed to the overall Nusselt number uncertainty[ The uncertainty analysis has been carried out using the method by Kline and McKlintock ð01Ł[ Table 0 shows that the Nusselt number uncertainty for L:d 09 and r:d 5[0 at Re 00 999 is 2[84)[ It should be noted that this uncertainty represents the maximum uncertainty in the Nusselt number under the given experimental con! ditions[ The uncertainty in the gold coating uniformity is the largest contribution to the overall Nusselt number uncertainty[ Another important source of uncertainty is the emissivity of liquid crystal and black paint[ The present uncertainty estimates are based on 19 ] 0 odds "i[e[ 84) con_dence level of both the precision and bias errors#[

2[ Results and discussion The stagnating point Nusselt number "Nust# vs[ the dimensionless nozzle!to!surface distance "L:d# is plotted in Fig[ 1 for various jet Reynolds numbers[ It can be seen from Fig[ 1 that for L:d ³ 3\ there is essentially no variation of Nust with L:d[ For L:d − 3\ Nust gradually increases with L:d and reaches a maximum at L:d 5 for Re 00 999 and 12 999\ and at L:d 7 for Re − 49 999\ respectively[ A downstream shift of the maximum Nust position from L:d 5 to L:d 7 is attributed to an increase of the potential core length with increasing Reynolds number[ This agrees well with the results of Lee et al[ ð8Ł\ Yan ð02Ł\ and Kataoka et al[ ð03Ł for a round jet impinging upon the ~at surface for 09 999 ¾ Re ¾ 49 999[ Lee et al[ ð8Ł and Kataoka et al[ ð03Ł showed that the physical mechanism for the maximum Nust to occur at L:d 5Ð7 is that a change in

It should be noted that for 1 ¾ L:d ³ 7\ Nust varies according to NustÃRe9[37\ which approximately agrees with the Re9[4 laminar boundary layer ~ow result[ For the longer distances\ the Reynolds number dependence is stronger "NustÃRe9[43 for 7 ¾ L:d ¾ 09#[ This may be due to an increase of turbulence in the approaching jet as a result of the stronger exchange of momentum with the ambient air[ Gau and Chung ð6Ł also show that NustÃRe9[4 for 1 ¾ Z:b ³ 7 and NustÃRe9[43 for 7 ¾ Z:b ¾ 05 "where Z:b is the dimensionless nozzle!to! surface distance#[ It is also observed that Nust is nearly independent of L:d for 1 ¾ L:d ³ 7\ but varies according to NustÃ"L:d#−9[44 for 7 ¾ L:d ¾ 09\ which is consistent with the ~uid mechanics results by Lee et al[ ð04Ł[ Figures 4 and 5 show comparisons of Nust and the streamwise local Nusselt number distributions between the convex and ~at surfaces for L:d 3\ respectively[ The values of Nust for the convex surface are approximately 5Ð01) higher than those for the ~at surface for the Reynolds numbers tested[ According to our ~ow vis! ualization test by smoke wire\ higher values of Nust for the convex surface case is attributed to a series of three! dimensional counterrotating vortices initiated near the wall at the stagnation point region\ which cause an increase of momentum transport in the ~ow and sub! sequent enhancement of the heat transfer rate[ It is also observed from Fig[ 5 that these vortices persist even in the wall jet region and the Nusselt number values in that region for the convex surface are higher than those for the ~at surface[ Gau and Chung ð6Ł also report a similar behaviour in their research that investigated the e}ect of a surface curvature on slot air jet impingement heat transfer along convex surfaces[ The streamwise Nusselt number distributions divided by Ren are presented in Figs 6Ð8 for three nozzle!to! surface distances of L:d 1\ 5\ and 7\ _ve jet Reynolds numbers ranging from 00 999 to 76 999[ These results show that there is a two!region feature concerning the Reynolds number dependence[ For L:d 1\ the Nusselt number distributions in the region corresponding to r:d ³ 0[4 are well correlated with a Reynolds number power of n 9[34\ indicating that the ~ow in the stag! nation point region is laminar[ On the other hand\ the Nusselt number distributions in the wall jet region cor! responding to r:d − 1[9 are also well correlated with a

0049

Technical Note

Fig[ 1[ E}ect of the nozzle!to!surface distance on the stagnation point Nusselt number for di}erent jet Reynolds numbers[

Reynolds number power of n 9[54\ suggesting that the wall jet ~ow has a turbulent boundary layer[ For longer nozzle!to!surface distances of L:d 5 and 7\ the Reynolds number dependence for r:d − 1[9 shows n 9[56 for both cases[ But\ for r:d ³ 0[4\ there appears to be a stronger Reynolds number dependence "n 9[37 for L:d 5 and 9[42 for L:d 7# than for the shorter nozzle!to!surface distance of L:d 1[ This is due to the fact that for L:d × 3\ the impinging surface is positioned outside of the potential core of the jet and a subsequent increase of the entrainment of the surrounding air to the jet ~ow has a}ected the heat transfer rate at the stag! nation point region[ Similar results were reported by Yan ð02Ł and Hollworth and Gero ð05Ł in their studies with the ~at surface[ Yan ð02Ł reported n 9[4 in the stagnation region for L:d 1 and 3\ and n 9[45 for L:d 5 and n 9[47 for L:d 09^ in the wall jet region n 9[6 for all L:d[ Hollworth and Gero ð05Ł studied the heat transfer for the jet issuing from a square!edged ori_ce for Reynolds numbers from 4999 to 59 999[ Their results show n 9[54\ 9[65\ 9[68\ and 9[7 at r:d 9\ 2\ 5\ and 8\ respectively for one nozzle!to!plate distance\ L:d 4[

There appears to be some discrepancies in the exponent between these results[ This may be attributed to di}er! ences in the experimental conditions such as nozzle geometry\ turbulence intensity level\ shape of the impinging surface\ jet temperature and etc[ Figures 6Ð8 show that the local Nusselt number decreases from its maximum value at the stagnation point as the thermal boundary layer thickness grows with r:d[ However\ for L:d 1\ the local Nusselt number dis! tributions exhibit increasing values at r:d 3 0[1Ð0[4 and attain secondary maxima at r:d 3 1[1[ An occurrence of the secondary maxima in the Nusselt number is attributed to the fact that because the impinging surface is within the potential core region\ the potential core of the jet ~ow impinges upon the surface so that initially the laminar boundary layer develops from the stagnation point and a transition process takes place until the ~ow becomes turbulent at r:d 3 1[1\ resulting in a sudden increase in the heat transfer rate[ Secondary maxima have also been reported in the ~at surface study by Yan ð02Ł and in the convex surface study by Gau and Chung ð6Ł at r:d 3 1 for L:d 1 and 12 999 ¾ Re ¾ 69 999\ and r:b 3 6 for Z:b 3 and Re 00 999\ respectively[

Technical Note

0040

Fig[ 2[ Correlation of the stagnation point Nusselt number on the convex surface for 1 ¾ L:d ³ 7[

Fig[ 3[ Correlation of the stagnation point Nusselt number on the convex surface for 7 ¾ L:d ¾ 09[

0041

Technical Note

Fig[ 4[ Comparison of the stagnating point Nusselt number between the convex and the ~at surfaces for L:d

3[

Fig[ 5[ Comparison of the Nusselt number distributions between the convex and ~at surfaces for L:d

3[

Technical Note

0042

Fig[ 6[ Dependence of the streamwise Nusselt number upon Reynolds number for L:d

1[

0043

Technical Note

Fig[ 7[ Dependence of the streamwise Nusselt number upon Reynolds number for L:d

5[

Technical Note

0044

Fig[ 8[ Dependence of the streamwise Nusselt number upon Reynolds number for L:d

7[

0045

Technical Note

When the impinging surface is positioned outside of the potential core region "i[e[ L:d × 3#\ a turbulence level in the jet ~ow approaching the surface is becoming high due to an increased entrainment of surrounding air to the jet ~ow[ Therefore\ a higher Nusselt number at the stagnation point and a monotonic decrease of the local Nusselt number in the downstream region can be expected as shown in Figs 7 and 8[ 3[ Conclusions The experimental study has been carried out to inves! tigate the e}ects of the Reynolds number and the nozzle! to!surface distance on the heat transfer from a hemi! spherically convex surface to a round impinging jet[ For L:d − 5 and all Reynolds numbers\ the local Nusselt number decreases monotonically from its maximum value at the stagnation point[ However\ for L:d 1\ the local Nusselt number distributions exhibit increasing values in the region 0[1 ¾ r:d ¾ 0[4 and attain secondary maxima at r:d 1[1[ The formation of the secondary maxima is attributed to an increase in the turbulence level resulting from the transition from a laminar to a turbulent boundary layer[ The maximum Nusselt number at the stagnating point occurs at L:d 3 5 for Re 00 999 and 12 999\ and L:d 3 7 for Re − 49 999\ which implies a longer potential core length for higher Reynolds number[ The stagnation point Nusselt number "Nust# is well correlated with Re and L:d[ For larger L:d\ Nust dependence on Re is stron! ger due to an increase of turbulence in the approaching jet as a result of the stronger exchange of momentum with the surrounding air[ The Nusselt number values for the convex surface are higher than those for the ~at surface[ This may be at! tributed to a series of three!dimensional counterrotating vortices initiated on the convex wall[ These vortices can increase momentum transport in the ~ow and enhance the heat transfer rate[ Plots of Nu:Ren versus r:d show that there is a two!region feature concerning the Reynolds number dependence "n 9[34Ð9[42 in the stag! nation region and n 9[54Ð9[56 in the wall jet region#[ This change of the Reynolds number power occurs due to the transition from a laminar boundary layer in the stagnation region to a turbulent boundary layer in the wall jet region[ Acknowledgement This work was supported by a grant No[ KOSEF 840! 0996!996!0 from the Korea Science and Engineering Foundation[

References

ð0Ł H[ Martin\ Heat and mass transfer between impinging gas jets and solid surfaces\ Advances in Heat Transfer\ Aca! demic Press\ New York\ 02 "0866# 0Ð59[ ð1Ł K[ Jambunathan\ E[ Lai\ M[A[ Moss\ B[L[ Button\ A review of heat transfer data for single circular jet impinge! ment\ Int[ J[ of Heat and Fluid Flow 02 "1# "0881# 095Ð 004[ ð2Ł R[ Viskanta\ Heat transfer to impinging isothermal gas and ~ame jets\ Exp[ Thermal and Fluid Sci[ 5 "0882# 000Ð023[ ð3Ł R[E[ Chupp\ H[E[ Helms\ P[W[ McFadden\ T[R[ Brown\ Evaluation of internal heat transfer coe.cients for impinge! ment cooled turbine airfoils\ J[ of Aircraft 5 "0858# 192Ð 197[ ð4Ł H[ Thomann\ E}ect of streamwise wall curvature on heat transfer in a turbulent boundary layer\ J[ Fluid Mech[ 22 "0857# 172Ð81[ ð5Ł P[ Hrycak\ Heat transfer and ~ow characteristics of jets impinging on a concave hemispherical plate\ Proc[ of Int[ Heat Transfer Conf[ 2 "0871# 246Ð251[ ð6Ł C[ Gau\ C[M[ Chung\ Surface curvature e}ect on slot!sir jet impingement cooling ~ow and heat transfer process\ ASME J[ of Heat Transfer 002 "0880# 747Ð753[ ð7Ł G[Y[ Yang\ M[S[ Choi\ J[S[ Lee\ An experimental study of jet impinging cooling on the semi!circular concave surface[ Trans[ KSME J[ 08 "0884# 0972Ð0983[ ð8Ł D[H[ Lee\ R[ Greif\ S[J[ Lee\ J[H[ Lee\ Heat transfer from a ~at plate to a fully developed axisymmetric impinging jet\ ASME J[ of Heat Transfer 006 "0884# 661Ð665[ ð09Ł D[H[ Lee\ S[J[ Lee\ J[H[ Lee\ Heat transfer measurements using liquid crystal with an elliptic jet impinging upon the ~at surface\ Int[ J[ of Heat Mass Transfer 26 "0883# 856Ð 865[ ð00Ł J[W[ Baughn\ P[T[ Ireland\ T[V[ Jones\ N[ Saniei N\ A comparison of the transient and heated!coating methods for the measurements of the local heat transfer coe.cients on a pin _n\ ASME J[ of Heat Transfer 000 "0878# 766Ð 770[ ð01Ł S[J[ Kline\ F[A[ McKlintock\ Describing uncertainties in single sample experiments\ Mech[ Engng 64 "0842# 2Ð7[ ð02Ł X[ Yan\ A preheated!wall transient method using liquid crystals for the measurement of heat transfer on external surfaces and in ducts\ Ph[D[ Dissertation\ University of California\ Davis\ 0882[ ð03Ł K[ Kataoka\ Optimal nozzle!to!plate spacing for con! vective heat transfer in non!isothermal\ variable density impinging jets\ Drying Tech[ 2 "0874# 124Ð143[ ð04Ł D[H[ Lee\ Y[S[ Chung\ D[S[ Kim\ Turbulent ~ow and heat transfer measurements on a curved surface with a fully developed round impinging jet\ Int[ J[ of Heat and Fluid Flow 07 "0886# 059Ð058[ ð05Ł B[R[ Hollworth\ L[R[ Gero\ Entrainment e}ects on impingement heat transfer] Part II*local heat transfer measurements\ ASME J[ of Heat Transfer 096 "0874# 809Ð 804[

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