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A TERM PAPER WRITTEN BY: ZAKARIYA, N. I. REG.: 00-GM/ICT/00566/PE
DEPT. OF INFORMATION AND COMPUTER TECHNOLOGY
FEDERAL UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY OWERRI (FUTO), PORTHARCOURT EXTENSION
AUGUST 2001 ©
CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION
Lets start by defining the following key words; Ø1 Ø1 Ø1 Robotics Artificial Intelligence Expert system
A robot is a programmable multifunction device designed to move material, parts, tools or specialized devices through variable programmed motions for the performance of variety of tasks. The term robot conjure up a vision of a mechanical man – that is, some, android as viewed in star wars or other science fiction movies. The industrial robot are largely unstrained and defined by what we have so far managed to do with them. In the last decade, the industrial robot (IR) has developed from concept to reality and robots are now used in factories throughout the world. In lay terms, the industrial robot would be called a mechanical arm. This definition, however, includes almost all factory devices that have a moving lever.
1. Conversely.1. Hands or end effectors. Surprisingly non-servo open loop industrial robots perform many seemingly complex tasks in today’s factories. Typically three to six per IR. are special purpose devices attached to the wrist of an IR. 1.It’s generally agreed that the three main components of robot are the mechanical manipulator. the actuation mechanism and the controller. While the last three deals with the wrist of the IR and the ability to orient the hand.1. Many robots are more restricted in their motions than the six-axis robot.3 CONTROLLER The controller is the device that stores the IR program and by communication with the actuation mechanism controls the IR motions. 1. 1. as opposed to non-servo open-loop actuation systems.2 ACTUATION MECHANISM The actuation mechanism of an IR is typically hydraulic. which is typically a gripper or tool. The first three axes determine the work envelop of the IR. More importance distinctions in capability are based on the ability to employ servomechanism. It’s important to note at this point that the “hand” of the robot.1 MECHANICAL MANIPULATOR The mechanical manipulator of an industrial robot (IR) is made up of a set of axes (either rotatary or slide). robots are sometimes mounted on extra axes such as an X-Y table or track to provide additional one or two axes. pneumatic or electric. IR controllers have undergone the most evolution as IR’s have been 3 . which use feedback control to correct mechanical position. Specifically designed for one or two application is not a part of a general purpose IR.
1 THE SOCIAL IMPACT. t1 amounts and in a lot less time. t1 workers.2 SOCIAL IMPACT OF ROBOTICS ON THE PRODUCTION LINE What is robotics on the production line? Robotics on the production line is the machines. There are both positive and negative impacts. 1. t1 Many previous employees loose their jobs as a result of being Cheaper for companies to use robotics rather than employing Cheaper to consumers because companies can produce in mass replaced by mechanics. The social impacts include. An example of this would be machines.2. Prior to these machines the jobs would have been carried out by paid workers. The evolution has been in the method of programming (human interface) and in the complexity of the programs allowed. which are used to join car parts in massive production. There are many social impact as a result of robotics on the production line. 1. which have been designed to manufacture products in factories. creating an increase in social unemployment. which would normally be carried out by paid labor workers. This means that machinery used on the production line replaces many jobs. 4 . t 1 Robotics produced products are generally higher in quality than other products.introduced to the factory floor.
we can define AI in two ways. In short form. The first definition defines the field and the second describes some of its functions.0 What is Artificial Intelligence (AI)? AI is a branch of computer science concerned with the study and creation of computer systems that exhibit some form of intelligence. This is the part of computer science that is concerned with the symbol manipulation processes that produces the intelligent action. system that can understand a natural language or perceive and comprehend a visual scene and systems that perform other types of feats that require human type of intelligence. Artificial Intelligence Research. System that can learn new concepts and tasks. system that can reason and draw useful conclusions about the world around us. arrived at by an understandable chain of symbolic analysis and reasoning steps and is one in which knowledge of the world inform and guide the reasoning.CHAPTER TWO ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 2. 1. 5 . By intelligent action is meant an act of decision that is goal oriented.
Artificial intelligent is a set of advanced computer software applicable to classes of non-deterministic problems such as natural language understanding. Dictionaries define intelligence as the ability to acquire. reasoning. we can give general definitions of them. image understanding. making inferences and making decisions •4 Evaluating and choosing among alternatives.2. And of course. deductive reasoning and planning. knowledge. thought. knowledge acquisition and representation. Of course. intelligence is more than this. cognition. drawing conclusions. While we lack precise scientific definitions for many of these terms. Fundamental issues in artificial intelligence that must be resolved •1 Representing the knowledge needed to act intelligently •2 Acquiring knowledge and explaining it effectively •3 Reasoning. understand and supply knowledge or the ability to exercise thought and reasons. heuristic search. it embodies all of the knowledge and feats both conscious and unconscious which we have acquired through study and 6 . learning and a number of computer related terms. including their operational meanings. one of the objectives of this text is impact social meaning to all the terms related to AI. expert systems. An understanding of AI requires an understanding of related terms such as intelligence.
Can we ever expect to build systems. which set Homo sapiens apart from other forms of living things. We have systems. memorize and recall facts. which can learn from examples. We have systems. We have systems. to name a few. which can see well enough to recognize objects from photographs. Intelligence is the integrated sum of these facts. in planning complex strategies for the military and for business. in finding optimal system configurations. video cameras and other sensors. thought. which can understand large parts of natural language. drive a car. for intelligence is knowledge. Clearly. We have systems. We now have systems. in diagnosing medical diseases and other complex systems. And as we shall see. highly refined sight and sound perception.experience. from being told from past related experiences and through reasoning. which can reason with incomplete and uncertain facts. imagination. which can solve complex problems in mathematics. which exhibit these characteristics? The answer to this is yes! Systems have already been developed to perform many types of intelligent tasks and expectations are high for near term development of even more impressive systems. read. write. with these developments. It’s those capabilities. autonomous systems which posses some of the basic abilities of a three-year old child. in scheduling many diverse tasks. express and feel emotions and much more. to learn new sounds and 7 . In spite of these impressive achievements. the ability to converse. which gives us the ability to remember a face not seen for thirty or more years or to build and send rockets to the moon. we still have not been able to produce coordinated. These include the ability to recognize and remember numerous diverse objects in a scene. much has been accomplished since the advent of the digital computer.
AI is not the study and creation of conventional computer systems. And they are not easy ones. in performing some tasks differently. Even though one can agree that all programs exhibit some degree of intelligence. there are some overlap between these fields and AI. speech recognition and synthesis and a variety of AI tools. Indeed. understanding natural language.associate them with objects and concepts and to adapt readily to many diverse new situations. a better understanding of AI is gained by looking at the component areas of study that make up the whole. To gain a better understanding of AI. knowledge representation. To be sure. search and matching. storage and recall. AI is not the study of the mind or of the body or of languages as customarily fond in fields of psychology. dealing with uncertainty in reasoning and decision making. All seek a better understanding of the human intelligence and sensing processes. inference techniques. pattern recognition and machine vision methods. they actually exceed human abilities. an AI program will go beyond this in demonstrating a high level of intelligence to a degree that equals or exceeds the intelligence required of a human in performing some task. it is also useful to know what AI is not for proper understanding of AI. These includes such topics as robotics. physiology. The programs are not necessarily meant to imitate human senses and thought processes. They will require important breakthrough before we can expect to equal the performance of our three-year old. The important point is that the systems all be capable of performing intelligent tasks effectively and efficiently. learning models. Finally. commonsense reasoning. But in AI. the goal is to develop working computer systems that are truly capable of performing tasks that require high levels of intelligence. memory organization. 8 . and cognitive science or linguistic. These are the challenges now facing researchers in AI.
It will affect the lives of most individuals in civilized countries by the end of the century. make decisions and exhibit other human traits. the Japanese are determined. learn and refine their knowledge.How much success has been realized in AI to date? What are the next big challenges? The answer to these questions forms a large part of the material covered in this text. If they succeed and many experts feel they will. namely. to produce systems that can converse in a natural language. The importance of AI becomes apparent to many of the worlds leading countries during the later 1970’s. And countries leading in the development of AI by then will emerge as the dominant economic powers of the world. their success as a leading economic power is assured. They will realize many of their goals. It is a cooperative effort between government and private companies having an interest in the manufacture of computer products. this plan was officially announced in October 1981. 9 . They launched a very ambitious program in AI research and development known as the Fifth Generation. The Japanese were the first to demonstrate their commitment. understand speech and visual scene. It calls for implementation of a ten-year old plan to develop intelligent supercomputers. robotics and related fields.1 THE IMPORTANCE OF AI AI may be one of the most important developments of the century. leaders in those countries who recognize the potential for AI were willing to seek approval for long term commitment for the needed to find intensive research programs in AI. With a combined budget of about one billion dollars. 2.
has made no formal plan. there was the formation of a consortium of private companies in 1983 to develop advanced technologies that apply AI techniques (like VLSI). the Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) has increased its funding for research in AI. although well aware of the possible consequences. Texas. Italy.Following the Japanese. The European common market countries have jointly initiated a separate cooperative plan named ESPIRIT program. Development of an autonomous Land vehicle (ALV) (a derivative military vehicle). 1. the Soviet Union. other leading countries of the world have announced plans for some of AI program. including development support in three significant programs. The French have their own plan. The United States. The consortium is known as the Microelectronic and Computer technology Cooperation (MCC) and is headquartered in Austin. Other countries including Canada. 3. The strategic computing program (an AI based military Supercomputer project). steps have been taken by some organization to push forward in AI research. The British initiated a plan called the Alvey project with a reputable budget. 2. Austria and even Irish Republic and Singapore have made some commitments in funded research and development. However. Developments of pilots’ associate (an expert system. First. Their goals are not as ambitious as the Japanese but are set to help British keep abreast and remain in the race. Second. 10 . which provides assistance to fighter pilots).
there is no precise dividing line. A number of smaller companies also have reputable research programs. Things that were once thought of as AI are now quite ordinary. Scientists have dreamed for over a century about building “Smart” androids. AT&T. Texas Instrument. As computers have gotten more and more powerful.2 RELATIONSHIP WITH ROBOTICS Artificial Intelligence tends itself to robotics. DEC. if it is to be able to accomplish anything 11 . A simple electronic calculator doesn’t have AI. Hewlett Packard. have their own research programs. it seems reasonable that it should do so with some degree of “Smart”. But a machine that can learn from its mistakes or that can show reasoning power does have AI. AI refers to computers that mimic aspects of human thought. robots that look and act like people. but they aren’t very smart If a machine has the ability to move around under its own power. Androids already exist. There is a tongue-in-cheek axiom about AI: Something is AI only as long as it’s new and strange. the future of a country is closely tied to the commitment it is willing to make in funding research programs in AI. Between these extremes. 2.In addition. to lift things. One thing is clear. most of the larger high-tech companies such as IBM. people have set higher standards for AI. And things that seem fantastic now will someday be just humdrum. and move things. As earlier explained.
that works on a level some where between intuition and brute-force logic. but did most of his work in United States. He was born in Russia in 1920. Otherwise it would be just a bumbling idiot box. or electronic brains without moving parts. the work (and the risk) must be undertaken by people. Programs in AI have sometimes found remarkable proofs in mathematics. Robots without any intelligence. If you have taken high-school geometry. ISAAC ASIMOV invented the “three laws of Robotics” in 1942. and it might be dangerous. like a driver less car with a brick on the pedal. It might contemplate fantastic exploits. shortly after the communist revolution. you’ve probably been exposed to theorem proving. 12 . If a computer is to manipulate anything with it’s “brain power”. He wrote more than 400 books in his lifetime. and to carry objects. is the proving of mathematical theorems. it will need to be able to move around to grasp. but if it can’t act on its thoughts.worthwhile. And computer programming is a type of reasoning similar to theorem proving. Elementary logic courses deal with it too. have various uses and abilities. But when robots are given AI. to lift. ASIMOV’S THREE LAWS OF ROBOTICS One of the worlds most well known Science fiction writers. 2. whose strength and maneuverability (and courage) are limited.3 PROVING THEOREM One measure of computer intelligence. their power multipliers.
along with the fundamental rules that all robots ought to obey. now called ASIMOV’S three laws of Robotics. But that person might be trained to oversee the operation of a set of assembly robots. Assembly robots have taken the place of human workers in some jobs. are as follows: * • • A robot must not injure. except when to do so would contradict the first law or the second law. But in fact.In one of his early science-fiction stories. A person who puts screws in a car door all day long. such as cars. they are still considered good standards for robots nowadays. Although these rules were first coined in the 1940s.4 ASSEMBLY ROBOTS An assembly robot is any robot that assembles products. For example. doing repetitive work at high speed and for along period of time. to program the robots computer. to maintain the robots. to check the quality of goods produced. might be displaced by a robot. Some people are concerned that robots take jobs from human beings. Some assembly robots work alone. A robot must obey all orders from humans. or allow the injury of any human being. Isaac ASIMOV first mentioned the word ROBOTICS. or even to 13 . robots create new kind of jobs that are much more interesting than the old ones. 2. most are used in automated integrated manufacturing systems (AIMS). The rules. home appliances and electronic equipment. except orders that would contradict the first law. A robot must protect itself.
If you need to get a certain pair of pliers. therefore. assembly robots need to have all the parts exactly in place. or time during which the device is out of commission for repairs. who is less likely to suffer from the boredom fatigue. Its implicity allows it to work at high speed. It resembles the Japanese folding screen that lets it move horizontally to within 0. The type of joint arrangement depends on the task that the robot must perform.sell the goods themselves. There are some jobs. or unless it was marked in some way. They receive precise instructions. Several different joint arrangements are used. and there is almost no tolerance for error. on the other hand. It is also rather cheap. better paid worker. A robot wouldn’t be able to find the pliers unless it was exactly in the right place. Many assembly robots take the form of robot arm. Human operators. One type of assembly robot developed in Japan is called the SCARA. The end result is a happier. can work with a much larger margin for error. that assembly robot cannot do very well. The complexity of motion in an assembly robot is expressed in terms of the number of degrees of freedom.05 millimeter. as far as assembly robots go. To do their jobs right.5 AUTOMATED GUIDED VEHICLE (AGV) 14 . so that the efficiency will be greatest while minimizing the possibility of “hang-ups” 2. Joint arrangements are named according to the type of coordinate system they follow. and also minimizes the downtime. you can recognize it by its shape and size. One of the biggest challenges for humans is the programming for assembly robots.
In the future. In the event of computer failure. This will practically eliminate accidents. an AGV might run on a track. Each car would have it’s own individual computer. letting components do it instead. An AGV can also serve as “a mechanical janitor” or “mechanical gopher”. In an automated factory. there has been some talk about making automobiles into AGVs that follow wires embedded in the road pavement. On a larger scale.6 ELIZA One of the most controversial developments in AI involved a program called ELIZA. 2. like a miniature train engine. all traffic would stop.An AGV is a type of robot cart that runs without a driver. the AGVs might serve as “low-priority” nurses in hospitals. bringing food and nonessential items to patients. AGVs are used to bring components to the assembly lines. and the traffic in a whole city would be overseen by one or more central computers. The cart has an electric engine and is guided by a magnetic field. This program was put together in the 1960s by JOSEPH WIZENBAUM of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). so the assembly robots can find them. The parts must be put in just the right places. produced by a wire on or just beneath the floor. 15 . But people might not accept the idea. This would take the driver’s job away. performing routine chores around the home or office. Alternatively.
as computers still cannot. and you sat down to the computer to talk with ELIZA.The purpose of ELIZA was to simulate a psychoanalyst (a doctor who helps people workout their problems by talking with them). Suppose you were the “patient”. The ELIZA program was infact. Nevertheless. with ELIZA asking questions. sometimes called “DOCTOR”. and the “patient” giving answers or asking other questions. Weizenbaum was disturbed by the reactions and the controversy ELIZA caused. The conversation would then proceed. The “patient” would sit at a computer terminal and “converse” with the “doctor” by typing sentences on a keyboard. The computer might then respond with: WHY ARE YOU UPSET? To which you might reply: I DON’T KNOW. You would see. THAT’S WHY I’M HERE. some from it’s own memory and some stored from things the “patient” said earlier. ELIZA often behaves so much like a real psychiatrist that some people actually suggested that it was just as good as human doctor. The “doctor” would just make phrases. The program was not really very “smart” especially by standards of the 1990s. The program may never really commit itself by saying that’s wrong or don’t ever do that again. on the screen: SPEAK UP! You might then type: I’M UPSET. have any feeling or concern of human beings. 16 . The ELIZA program could not then.
user (or even knowledge about themselves) to do things like interpreting speech or visual images. 17 . hearing etc. They are primarily concerned with making decisions as opposed to seeing. Knowledge-based systems are computer programs which use knowledge of a subject.0 WHAT IS EXPERT SYSTEM? Expert Systems are a class of knowledge-based system. not autonomous robots or process controllers. advising on decisions. task. and they typically interactive computer systems.CHAPTER THREE EXPERT SYSTEMS 3. controlling a robot or a factory. Current expert systems are usually used as specialist “consultants” for non-specialist users. or solving problems.
both of which have been found by psychologists to be good ways of modeling human knowledge. In medicine for example. it is not implicit in some abstract model or in the structure of the computer program. or semantic networks. Although they are important. the explanation feature and the attempt to mimic human thought are not invariable in expert system.During the interaction with an expert system. an emphasis on qualitative reasoning to arrive at a decision. the system may suggest possible diagnoses. Expert system has risen to prominence recently and rapidly. Expert Systems are programs that help to make decisions. There is. plans of investigation. In consequence there is confusion about what is and what is not an expert system. and then formulates suggestions or recommendations. the user supplies information about a problem. 18 . It is often said that expert systems “mimics” the thought processes of human expert (at least to a first approximation). This idea of “explicitness” is central to all knowledge –based systems. A characteristic of an expert system is that it should be able to provide explanations of its decision-making methods. for example. Often knowledge is represented with conditionaction rules. the expert system asks pertinent questions. in preference to quantitative techniques. One feature that in my view must be presented for a system to be called an expert system is that the knowledge it uses is explicit. treatments etc.
so they can do jobs that would numb people’s mind with monotony. robots can be used in dangerous jobs. Nations that employ robots might prosper.1 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION ECONOMIC EFFECTS OF ROBOTICS Robots allow production of more goods at a lower cost than is possible without them. as often as human workers don’t gets sick.3. Many scientists and writers think that the future success of industrialized economies will depend on robotization. Robots can’t get bored. nations that do not use robots will never become major economic powers. saving human lives ( and lowering medical bills). If robot won’t breakdown. 19 .
“ I was replaced by a machine”. These schools would retain people who have been put out of work by robots. promises an expanding market of well-paid interesting work. One solution would be to set up schools. This problem can be solved. having been displaced by a robot. Sometimes such workers feel insulted as well as injured.All these great things are meaningless to the person who is out of work. Ironically. AI. As economies become less industrial and more information-based. so they could find jobs that would make better use of their human talents. however. robots and computers might be the key to making training affordable to more people. paid for with some of the profits resulting from robotization. This would in turn help the economy still more and the people would be happier too. because robots help the economy more than they hurt it. 20 . as well as robotics.